WorldWideScience

Sample records for early word learning

  1. Foreign language learning, hyperlexia, and early word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R L; Artzer, M

    2000-01-01

    Children with hyperlexia read words spontaneously before the age of five, have impaired comprehension on both listening and reading tasks, and have word recognition skill above expectations based on cognitive and linguistic abilities. One student with hyperlexia and another student with higher word recognition than comprehension skills who started to read words at a very early age were followed over several years from the primary grades through high school when both were completing a second-year Spanish course. The purpose of the present study was to examine the foreign language (FL) word recognition, spelling, reading comprehension, writing, speaking, and listening skills of the two students and another high school student without hyperlexia. Results showed that the student without hyperlexia achieved higher scores than the hyperlexic student and the student with above average word recognition skills on most FL proficiency measures. The student with hyperlexia and the student with above average word recognition skills achieved higher scores on the Spanish proficiency tasks that required the exclusive use of phonological (pronunciation) and phonological/orthographic (word recognition, spelling) skills than on Spanish proficiency tasks that required the use of listening comprehension and speaking and writing skills. The findings provide support for the notion that word recognition and spelling in a FL may be modular processes and exist independently of general cognitive and linguistic skills. Results also suggest that students may have stronger FL learning skills in one language component than in other components of language, and that there may be a weak relationship between FL word recognition and oral proficiency in the FL. PMID:20563785

  2. The Role of Association in Early Word-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Gary F.; Fernandes, Keith J.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    Word-learning likely involves a multiplicity of components, some domain-general, others domain-specific. Against the background of recent studies that suggest that word-learning is domain-specific, we investigated the associative component of word-learning. Seven- and 14-month-old infants viewed a pair of events in which a monkey or a truck moved back and forth, accompanied by a sung syllable or a tone, matched for pitch. Following habituation, infants were presented with displays in which the visual-auditory pairings were preserved or switched, and looked longer at the “switch” events when exposure time was sufficient to learn the intermodal association. At 7?months, performance on speech and tones conditions was statistically identical; at 14?months, infants had begun to favor speech. Thus, the associative component of word-learning does not appear (in contrast to rule-learning, Marcus et al., 2007) to initially privilege speech. PMID:22934086

  3. The role of association in early word-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ScottPJohnson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Word-learning likely involves a multiplicity of components, some domain-general, others domain-specific. Against the background of recent studies that suggest that word-learning is domain-specific, we investigated the associative component of word-learning. Seven- and 14-month-old infants viewed a pair of events in which a monkey or a truck moved back and forth, accompanied by a sung syllable or a tone, matched for pitch. Following habituation, infants were presented with displays in which the visual-auditory pairings were preserved or switched, and looked longer at the “switch” events when exposure time was sufficient to learn the intermodal association. At 7 months, performance on speech and tones conditions was statistically identical; at 14 months, infants had begun to favor speech. Thus, the associative component of word-learning does not appear (in contrast to rule-learning, Marcus et al., 2007 to initially privilege speech.

  4. Word Learning in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Effects of Early Auditory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Derek M.; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this…

  5. Vocalic and consonantal processing biases in early word-learning: Cross-language differences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØjen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Previous research showed that French-learning 16- or 20-month-olds could learn pairs of words that differed by a single consonantal but not vocalic feature. Danish has a richer vowel inventory than French, allowing for 31 phonological vowel contrasts, including vowel length and presence/absence of stod (laryngealization). The purpose of Experiment 1 was to test whether Danish-learning 20-month-olds, in spite of the importance of vowels in Danish phonology, showed a lack of sensitivity to one-feature vocalic differences in lexical learning similar to that of French-learning infants. The experiment made use of the same word-learning task as that used for French 16-month-olds. As opposed to the French-learning infants, the Danish-learning infants successfully learned the vowel pairs indicating sensitivity to small vocalic differences in word-learning. Experiment 2 tested the use of vowels in word-learning in French-learning 20-month-olds using the same task. They failed again. On the other hand, ongoing tests indicate that Danish-learning 20-month-olds, as opposed to French-learning 16- or 20-month-olds, fail to use one-feature consonantal differences in word-learning. These results may suggest that infants develop processing biases in word-learning depending on the sound-structure of their language.

  6. The bilingual advantage in novel word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica

    2009-08-01

    The present study examined whether bilingualism facilitates acquisition of novel words in adults with different language histories. Word-learning performance was tested in monolingual English speakers, early English-Spanish bilinguals, and early English-Mandarin bilinguals. Novel words were phonologically unfamiliar to all participants, and they were acquired in association with their English translations. At testing, both bilingual groups outperformed the monolingual group. These findings indicate that bilingualism facilitates word-learning performance in adults, and they suggest a general bilingual advantage for novel word learning. PMID:19648456

  7. Estimates of Infants’ Vocabulary Composition and the Role of Adult-instructions for Early Word-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Klintfors, Eeva; Lacerda, Francisco; Sundberg, Ulla

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics of the growth of language in Swedish 7-15 months-old infants. More scpecifically, to estimate vocabulary composition (the 1st part of the study), information on 24 infants’ comprehension and production of speech was collected, and to investigate the role of adult-instructions for early word-learning ( the 2nd part of the study) video recordings of infant-adult interaction-dyads were produced. The vocabulary-data were collected based on p...

  8. Caregivers' Gestures Direct Infant Attention during Early Word Learning: The Importance of Dynamic Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Nancy de Villiers; Zukow-Goldring, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How do young infants discover word meanings? We have theorized that caregivers educate infants' attention (cf. Gibson, J.J., 1966) by synchronizing the saying of a word with a dynamic gesture displaying the object/referent (Zukow-Goldring, 1997). Detecting an amodal invariant across gesture and speech brackets the word and object within the…

  9. An Image Is Worth a Thousand Words: Why Nouns Tend to Dominate Verbs in Early Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Colleen; Song, Lulu; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Lannon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Nouns are generally easier to learn than verbs (e.g. Bornstein, 2005; Bornstein et al., 2004; Gentner, 1982; Maguire, Hirsh-Pasek & Golinkoff, 2006). Yet, verbs appear in children's earliest vocabularies, creating a seeming paradox. This paper examines one hypothesis about the difference between noun and verb acquisition. Perhaps the advantage…

  10. A familiar font drives early emotional effects in word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Lars; Krause, Beatrix; Fritsch, Nathalie; Briesemeister, Benny B

    2014-10-01

    The emotional connotation of a word is known to shift the process of word recognition. Using the electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) approach it has been documented that early attentional processing of high-arousing negative words is shifted at a stage of processing where a presented word cannot have been fully identified. Contextual learning has been discussed to contribute to these effects. The present study shows that a manipulation of the familiarity with a word's shape interferes with these earliest emotional ERP effects. Presenting high-arousing negative and neutral words in a familiar or an unfamiliar font results in very early emotion differences only in case of familiar shapes, whereas later processing stages reveal similar emotional effects in both font conditions. Because these early emotion-related differences predict later behavioral differences, it is suggested that contextual learning of emotional valence comprises more visual features than previously expected to guide early visual-sensory processing. PMID:25226214

  11. Learning Words with Common Rimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    An extensive research review by M. Adams (1990) led her to the conclusion that providing instruction and reinforcement in learning common rimes is highly beneficial in fostering growth in learning to read. While substantial amounts of reading, either independent or with partners, is critical in learning words with common rimes, focused study is…

  12. Children value informativity over logic in word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramscar, Michael; Dye, Melody; Klein, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    The question of how children learn the meanings of words has long puzzled philosophers and psychologists. As Quine famously pointed out, simply hearing a word in context reveals next to nothing about its meaning. How then do children learn to understand and use words correctly? Here, we show how learning theory can offer an elegant solution to this seemingly intractable puzzle in language acquisition. From it, we derived formal predictions about word learning in situations of Quinean ambiguity, and subsequently tested our predictions on toddlers, undergraduates, and developmental psychologists. The toddlers' performance was consistent both with our predictions and with the workings of implicit mechanisms that can facilitate the learning of meaningful lexical systems. Adults adopted a markedly different and likely suboptimal strategy. These results suggest one explanation for why early word learning can appear baffling: Adult intuitions may be a poor source of insight into how children learn. PMID:23610135

  13. Gender Differences in Child Word Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2013-01-01

    In prior work with adults, women were found to outperform men on a paired-associates word-learning task, but only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words. The goal of the present work was to examine whether similar gender differences in word learning would be observed in children. In addition to manipulating phonological familiarity, referent familiarity was also manipulated. Children between the ages of 5 and 7 learned phonologically-familiar or phonologically-unfamiliar novel word...

  14. Rehearsal Effects in Adult Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the effects of phonological familiarity and rehearsal method (vocal vs. subvocal) on novel word learning. In Experiment 1, English-speaking adults learned phonologically familiar novel words that followed English phonological structure. Participants learned half the words via vocal rehearsal (saying the…

  15. Learning the language of time: Children's acquisition of duration words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Katharine A; Barner, David

    2015-05-01

    Children use time words like minute and hour early in development, but take years to acquire their precise meanings. Here we investigate whether children assign meaning to these early usages, and if so, how. To do this, we test their interpretation of seven time words: second, minute, hour, day, week, month, and year. We find that preschoolers infer the orderings of time words (e.g., hour>minute), but have little to no knowledge of the absolute durations they encode. Knowledge of absolute duration is learned much later in development - many years after children first start using time words in speech - and in many children does not emerge until they have acquired formal definitions for the words. We conclude that associating words with the perception of duration does not come naturally to children, and that early intuitive meanings of time words are instead rooted in relative orderings, which children may infer from their use in speech. PMID:25867093

  16. La Comprensión Referencial Temprana: Aprendiendo Palabras a Través de Imágenes con Distinto Nivel de Iconicismo / Early Referential Comprehension: Learning Words Through Pictures With Different Levels of Iconicity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Florencia, Mareovich; Olga, Peralta.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de la comprensión referencial de imágenes transita un largo camino durante los primeros años de vida. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo explorar el impacto del iconicismo en la comprensión referencial de imágenes impresas y el aprendizaje de palabras. En 2 estudios se enseñó a una [...] muestra por conveniencia de 34 niños de 30 meses de edad de jardines infantiles de Rosario, Argentina, una palabra nueva aplicada a un objeto desconocido, mediante un libro de imágenes. Se comparó la ejecución infantil en 2 condiciones, fotografías y bocetos, variando el nivel de iconicismo o grado en que la imagen se asemeja al referente. La Prueba Exacta de Fisher reveló que aprendiendo con bocetos la palabra quedaba fuertemente asociada a la imagen, obstaculizando ver el objeto a través de ella, lo que no se observó en los niños que aprendieron la palabra mediante fotografías. Los resultados muestran que la similitud perceptual incide en la comprensión referencial, siendo las imágenes icónicas representaciones más transparentes a edades tempranas. Estos resultados pueden tener implicancias en el diseño de libros educativos para niños pequeños. Abstract in english The referential understanding of pictures undergoes a long development process during the first years of life. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of iconicity on the referential comprehension of printed images and on the learning of words. In 2 studies, 30-month-old children from [...] preschools in Rosario, Argentina, were taught a new word applied to an unknown object using a picture book. The performance of the children was compared in 2 conditions: photographs and sketches, with varying levels of iconicity-the degree to which the image resembles the referent. Fisher´s Exact Test revealed that, when learning with sketches, the word remained strongly associated with the printed picture, thus hampering access to its referent, the object. This was not the case when children learned the new word with photographs. The results show that perceptual similarity impacts on referential comprehension, with iconic pictures being more transparent representations at early ages. These findings may have implications for the design of educational books for young children.

  17. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Early Learning AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department...State agencies responsible for early learning and development, families (including...assistance providers, researchers of early learning, stakeholders who work with early...

  18. Word Processing for Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerer, Jeffrey; Lerner, Janet W.

    1989-01-01

    Instructional strategies for teaching learning-disabled students to use word processing for writing are considered. The features of three word processing programs useful for these students are compared for usefulness in a variety of curriculum applications. (Author/DB)

  19. word2vec Parameter Learning Explained

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The word2vec model and application by Mikolov et al. have attracted a great amount of attention in recent two years. The vector representations of words learned by word2vec models have been proven to be able to carry semantic meanings and are useful in various NLP tasks. As an increasing number of researchers would like to experiment with word2vec, I notice that there lacks a material that comprehensively explains the parameter learning process of word2vec in details, thus p...

  20. Ambiguous Words Are Harder to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of ambiguity in adult second-language learning. In this study, native English speakers learned Dutch-English translation pairs that either mapped in a one-to-one fashion (unambiguous items) in that a Dutch word uniquely corresponded to one English word, or mapped in a one-to-many fashion (ambiguous items),…

  1. Noise Hampers Children's Expressive Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Kristine Grohne; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of noise and speech style on word learning in typically developing school-age children. Method: Thirty-one participants ages 9;0 (years;months) to 10;11 attempted to learn 2 sets of 8 novel words and their referents. They heard all of the words 13 times each within meaningful narrative discourse. Signal-to-noise…

  2. Rapid cortical plasticity underlying novel word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrov, Yury; Nikulin, Vadim V; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2010-12-15

    Humans are unique in developing large lexicons as their communication tool. To achieve this, they are able to learn new words rapidly. However, neural bases of this rapid learning, which may be an expression of a more general cognitive mechanism, are not yet understood. To address this, we exposed our subjects to familiar words and novel spoken stimuli in a short passive perceptual learning session and compared automatic brain responses to these items throughout the learning exposure. Initially, we found enhanced activity for known words, indexing the ignition of their underlying memory traces. However, just after 14 min of learning exposure, the novel items exhibited a significant increase in response magnitude matching in size with that to real words. This activation increase, as we would like to propose, reflects rapid mapping of new word forms onto neural representations. Similar to familiar words, the neural activity subserving rapid learning of new word forms was generated in the left-perisylvian language cortex, especially anterior superior-temporal areas. This first report of a neural correlate of rapid learning suggests that our brain may effectively form new neuronal circuits online as it gets exposed to novel patterns in the sensory input. Understanding such fast learning is key to the neurobiological explanation of the human language faculty and learning mechanisms in general. PMID:21159957

  3. Gender Differences in Child Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2013-10-01

    In prior work with adults, women were found to outperform men on a paired-associates word-learning task, but only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words. The goal of the present work was to examine whether similar gender differences in word learning would be observed in children. In addition to manipulating phonological familiarity, referent familiarity was also manipulated. Children between the ages of 5 and 7 learned phonologically-familiar or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words in association with pictures of familiar referents (animals) or unfamiliar referents (aliens). Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition measure administered immediately after the learning phase. Analyses of retention data revealed stronger phonological and referent familiarity effects in girls than in boys. Moreover, girls outperformed boys only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words and when learning novel words in association with familiar referents. These findings are interpreted to suggest that females are more likely than males to recruit native-language phonological and semantic knowledge during novel word learning. PMID:24039377

  4. Context and Repetition in Word Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JessicaSHorst

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Young children learn words from a variety of situations, including shared storybook reading. A recent study by Horst et al., (2011 demonstrates that children learned more new words during shared storybook reading if they were read the same stories repeatedly than if they were read different stories that had the same number of target words. The current paper reviews this study and further examines the effect of contextual repetition on children’s word learning in both shared storybook reading and other situations, including fast mapping by mutual exclusivity. The studies reviewed here suggest that the same cognitive mechanisms support word learning in a variety of situations. Both practical considerations for experimental design and directions for future research are discussed.

  5. Context and repetition in word learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jessica S.

    2013-01-01

    Young children learn words from a variety of situations, including shared storybook reading. A recent study by Horst et al. (2011a) demonstrates that children learned more new words during shared storybook reading if they were read the same stories repeatedly than if they were read different stories that had the same number of target words. The current paper reviews this study and further examines the effect of contextual repetition on children's word learning in both shared storybook reading and other situations, including fast mapping by mutual exclusivity. The studies reviewed here suggest that the same cognitive mechanisms support word learning in a variety of situations. Both practical considerations for experimental design and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23580347

  6. Phonotactic constraints on infant word learning

    OpenAIRE

    Graf Estes, Katharine; Edwards, Jan; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2011-01-01

    How do infants use their knowledge of native language sound patterns when learning words? There is ample evidence of infants' precocious acquisition of native language sound structure during the first years of life, but much less evidence concerning how they apply this knowledge to the task of associating sounds with meanings in word learning. To address this question, 18-month-olds were presented with two phonotactically legal object labels (containing sound sequences that occur frequently i...

  7. Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-01-01

    In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar no...

  8. The Role of Emotion in Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    The way in which emotion interacts with cognition has been of great interest to researchers for hundreds of years. Emotion has been shown to play an important role in attention, learning and memory. However, the way in which emotion influences the basic process of word learning in infancy has largely been ignored. In the current paper, the…

  9. Gender differences in adult word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-05-01

    In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. PMID:21392726

  10. Early Word Recognition and Later Language Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Junge; Anne Cutler

    2014-01-01

    Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by...

  11. A comparison of homonym and novel word learning: The role of phonotactic probability and word frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Storkel, Holly L.; Maekawa, Junko

    2005-01-01

    This study compares homonym learning to novel word learning by three- to four-year-old children to determine whether homonyms are learned more rapidly or more slowly than novel words. In addition, the role of form characteristics in homonym learning is examined by manipulating phonotactic probability and word frequency. Thirty-two children were exposed to homonyms and novel words in a story with visual support and learning was measured in two tasks: referent identification; picture naming. Re...

  12. EPS Prize Lecture. Learning to read words.

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, K.

    2008-01-01

    The ease with which we process the written word belies its complexities and makes it easy to forget that it is a highly skilled behaviour and one that takes time to master. In this paper, I argue that our ability to read words has its roots in our capacity for language. Good progress has been made towards understanding how children discover the systematic relationship between speech sounds and the letters used to represents those sounds, very early in reading development. However, we understa...

  13. Unconventional Word Segmentation in Brazilian Children's Early Text Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Jane; Dockrell, Julie E.

    2007-01-01

    An important element of learning to read and write at school is the ability to define word boundaries. Defining word boundaries in text writing is not a straightforward task even for children who have mastered graphophonemic correspondences. In children's writing, unconventional word segmentation has been observed across a range of languages and…

  14. Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ellis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter and longer (7-letter nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords throughout the experiment. They also showed a larger length effect, indicating less effective decoding skills. Learning was demonstrated by faster reading of the nonwords across repeated presentations and by a reduction in the difference in reading speeds between shorter and longer nonwords. The dyslexics required more presentations of the nonwords before the length effect became non-significant, only showing convergence in reaction times between shorter and longer items in the second testing session where controls achieved convergence part-way through the first session. Participants also completed a psychological test battery assessing reading and spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, working memory, nonverbal ability and motor speed. The dyslexics performed at a similar level to the controls on nonverbal ability but significantly less well on all the other measures. Regression analyses found that decoding ability, measured as the speed of reading aloud nonwords when they were presented for the first time, was predicted by a composite of word reading and spelling scores (‘literacy’. Word learning was assessed in terms of the improvement in naming speeds over 10 blocks of training. Learning was predicted by vocabulary and working memory scores, but not by literacy, phonological awareness, nonverbal ability or motor speed. The results show that young dyslexic adults have problems both in pronouncing novel words and in learning new written words.

  15. Variables and Values in Children’s Early Word-Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninio Anat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A model of syntactic development proposes that children’s very first word-combinations are already generated via productive rules that express in syntactic form the relation between a predicate word and its semantic argument. An alternative hypothesis is that they learn frozen chunks. In Study 1 we analyzed a large sample of young children’s early two-word sentences comprising of verbs with direct objects. A majority of objects were generated by pronouns but a third of children’s sentences used bare common nouns as objects. We checked parents’ twoword long sentences of verbs with objects and found almost no bare common nouns. Children cannot have copied sentences with bare noun objects from parents’ two-word long sentences as frozen chunks. In Study 2 we raised the possibility that children’s early sentences with bare nouns are rote-learned ‘telegraphic speech’, acquired as unanalyzed frozen chunks from longer input sentences due to perceptual problem to hear the unstressed determiners. To test this explanation, we tested the children’s speech corpus for evidence that they avoid determiners in their word-combinations. The results showed that they do not; in fact they generate very many determiner-common noun combinations as two-word utterances. The findings suggest that children produce their early word-combinations of the core-grammar type by a productive rule that maps the predicate-argument relations of verbs and their semantic arguments to headdependent syntax, and not as frozen word-combinations. Children mostly learn to use indexical expressions such as pronouns to express the variable semantic arguments of verbs as context dependent; they also employ bare common nouns to express specific values of the arguments. The earliest word-combinations demonstrate that children understand that syntax is built on the predicate-argument relations of words and use this insight to produce their early sentences.

  16. Neural competition as a developmental process: Early hemispheric specialization for word processing delays specialization for face processing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Su; Lee, Kang; Zhao, Jing; YANG, Zhi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of learning to read on early neural development for word processing and its collateral effects on neural development in non-word domains. Here, we examined the effect of early exposure to reading on neural responses to both word and face processing in preschool children with the use of the Event Related Potential (ERP) methodology. We specifically linked children’s reading experience (indexed by their sight vocabulary) to two major neural markers: the amplit...

  17. EPS Prize Lecture. Learning to read words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate

    2008-08-01

    The ease with which we process the written word belies its complexities and makes it easy to forget that it is a highly skilled behaviour and one that takes time to master. In this paper, I argue that our ability to read words has its roots in our capacity for language. Good progress has been made towards understanding how children discover the systematic relationship between speech sounds and the letters used to represents those sounds, very early in reading development. However, we understand much less about how beginning readers become skilled readers. To understand this, I argue that it is important to view the visual word recognition system within the context of a broader language system, one that incorporates a rich network of semantic and episodic knowledge. PMID:18609391

  18. Goodnight book: sleep consolidation improves word learning via storybooks

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie E. Williams; Horst, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading the same storybooks repeatedly helps preschool children learn words. In addition, sleeping shortly after learning also facilitates memory consolidation and aids learning in older children and adults. The current study explored how sleep promotes word learning in preschool children using a shared storybook reading task. Children were either read the same story repeatedly or different stories and either napped after the stories or remained awake. Children's word retention were tested 2....

  19. Goodnight Book: Sleep Consolidation Improves Word Learning via Storybooks

    OpenAIRE

    JessicaSHorst

    2014-01-01

    Reading the same storybooks repeatedly helps preschool children learn words. In addition, sleeping shortly after learning also facilitates memory consolidation and aids learning in older children and adults. The current study explored how sleep promotes word learning in preschool children using a shared storybook reading task. Children were either read the same story repeatedly or different stories and either napped after the stories or remained awake. Children’s word retention were tested ...

  20. Preschoolers' Incidental Learning of Novel Words during Storybook Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Angela N.; McDade, Hiram L.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the ability of 44 preschool children to acquire novel words embedded in storybook contexts. Previous investigations of word learning have typically consisted of novel words for which synonyms exist. It is argued that the acquisition of unfamiliar words that refer to existing concepts that already have labels is not…

  1. Goodnight Book: Sleep Consolidation Improves Word Learning via Storybooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JessicaSHorst

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading the same storybooks repeatedly helps preschool children learn words. In addition, sleeping shortly after learning also facilitates memory consolidation and aids learning in older children and adults. The current study explored how sleep promotes word learning in preschool children using a shared storybook reading task. Children were either read the same story repeatedly or different stories and either napped after the stories or remained awake. Children’s word retention were tested 2.5 hours later, 24 hours later and 7 days later. Results demonstrate strong, persistent effects for both repeated readings and sleep consolidation on young children’s word learning. A key finding is that children who read different stories before napping learned words as well as children who had the advantage of hearing the same story. In contrast, children who read different stories and remained awake never caught up to their peers on later word learning tests. Implications for educational practices are discussed.

  2. Goodnight book: sleep consolidation improves word learning via storybooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sophie E; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-01-01

    Reading the same storybooks repeatedly helps preschool children learn words. In addition, sleeping shortly after learning also facilitates memory consolidation and aids learning in older children and adults. The current study explored how sleep promotes word learning in preschool children using a shared storybook reading task. Children were either read the same story repeatedly or different stories and either napped after the stories or remained awake. Children's word retention were tested 2.5 h later, 24 h later, and 7 days later. Results demonstrate strong, persistent effects for both repeated readings and sleep consolidation on young children's word learning. A key finding is that children who read different stories before napping learned words as well as children who had the advantage of hearing the same story. In contrast, children who read different stories and remained awake never caught up to their peers on later word learning tests. Implications for educational practices are discussed. PMID:24624111

  3. Word Problem Structure and Its Effect on the Transfer of Learning to Solve Algebra Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Liang

    2010-01-01

    A problem in learning to solve mathematics word problems students have been facing is to transfer the learned problem-solving knowledge from one story context to another story context. Some studies have provided evidence showing that structure facilitates transfer of learning to solve word problems. However, it is still under development for what…

  4. Distributional Cues and the Onset Bias in Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babineau, Mireille; Shi, Rushen

    2014-01-01

    In previous infant studies on statistics-based word segmentation, the unit of statistical computation was always aligned with the syllabic edge, which had a consonant onset. The current study addressed whether the learning system imposes a constraint that favors word forms beginning with a consonant onset over those beginning with an onsetless…

  5. Concreteness effects in bilingual and monolingual word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Rechtzigel, Katrina

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bilingualism can facilitate novel-word learning. However, the mechanisms behind this bilingual advantage remain unknown. Here, we examined whether bilinguals may be more sensitive to semantic information associated with the novel words. To that end, we manipulated the concreteness of the referent in the word-learning paradigm, since concrete words have been shown to activate the semantic system more robustly than abstract words do. The results revealed that the bilingual advantage was stronger for novel words learned in association with concrete rather than abstract referents. These findings suggest that bilingual advantages for word learning may be rooted, at least in part, in bilinguals' greater sensitivity to semantic information during learning. PMID:22638985

  6. Illinois Early Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of early childhood education cannot be underestimated, and there are numerous educational policy initiatives that demonstrate a nuanced understanding of this situation. The state of Illinois has recently developed this website to provide "a source of evidence-based, reliable information on early care and education for parents, caregivers, and teachers of young children". While intended primarily for residents of Illinois, much of the material can be used by people from around the country. The site itself is funded by the Illinois Board of Education, and works closely with the Clearinghouse on Early Education and Parenting (CEEP) at the University of Illinois. One of the first stops for new visitors should be the tip sheet section, as it offers a number of nice tip sheets on various topics. Some of the topics covered include social and emotional development, parenting and family life, social science, and fine arts. Additionally, many of the tip sheets are also available in Spanish and Polish.

  7. Wordlikeness and Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The more a novel word conforms to the phonotactics of the language, the more wordlike it is and the easier it is to learn. It is unknown to what extent children with hearing loss (CHL) take advantage of phonotactic cues to support word learning. Aims: This study investigated whether CHL had similar sensitivities to wordlikeness during…

  8. Lexical Configuration and Lexical Engagement: When Adults Learn New Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Laura; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2007-01-01

    People know thousands of words in their native language, and each of these words must be learned at some time in the person's lifetime. A large number of these words will be learned when the person is an adult, reflecting the fact that the mental lexicon is continuously changing. We explore how new words get added to the mental lexicon, and provide empirical support for a theoretical distinction between what we call lexical configuration and lexical engagement. Lexical configuration is the set of factual knowledge associated with a word (e.g., the word's sound, spelling, meaning, or syntactic role). Almost all previous research on word learning has focused on this aspect. However it is also critical to understand the process by which a word becomes capable of lexical engagement – the ways in which a lexical entry dynamically interacts with other lexical entries, and with sublexical representations. For example, lexical entries compete with each other during word recognition (inhibition within the lexical level), and they also support the activation of their constituents (top-down lexical-phonemic facilitation, and lexically-based perceptual learning). We systematically vary the learning conditions for new words, and use separate measures of lexical configuration and engagement. Several surprising dissociations in behavior demonstrate the importance of the theoretical distinction between configuration and engagement. PMID:17367775

  9. Quick Incidental Learning (QUIL) of words by school-age children with and without SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, J B; Rice, M L; Swank, L K

    1995-04-01

    This study examined Quick Incidental Learning (QUIL) of novel vocabulary by two groups of school-age children, those who were developing language normally and those who demonstrated a specific language impairment (SLI). The experimental items consisted of 20 words that referred to one of four semantic classes: object, attribute, action, and affective state. Videotaped stories were used to introduce the novel words, and word learning was measured by a picture-pointing task. For the normally developing children, the results documented a robust ability to learn words in the early school years. Comprehension gains were observed for all four word types, with the greatest gain made on the object labels. The children with SLI also demonstrated some word-learning ability, but their gain was significantly less than that of their normally developing peers. Although the general pattern of word effects was similar across the two groups, the children with SLI demonstrated a particularly low gain on words from the action class. PMID:7596109

  10. Attention and Word Learning in Autistic, Language Delayed and Typically Developing Children

    OpenAIRE

    ElenaTenenbaum; StephenJ.Sheinkopf; BeauW.Abar

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measure...

  11. Attention and word learning in autistic, language delayed and typically developing children

    OpenAIRE

    Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Amso, Dima; Abar, Beau; Stephen J. Sheinkopf

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measure...

  12. Learning Words through Computer-Adaptive Tool : A Framework for Word Picture Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to provide a framework for integrating computer-adaptive tool in Word Picture Game (WPG), a program designed for studying Chinese words at elementary level. The paper aims at such areas as technology, theories and practice. All of the areas are being discussed within the category of L2 lexical learning in computer-adaptive learning environment. The reason to adopt computer-adaptive tool in WPG is based on the following premises: 1. Lexical learning is incremental in nature. 2. Learning can be measured precisely with tests (objectivist epistemology). In the course of WPG construction, I stress the design of a test theory, namely, a learning algorithm. The learning algorithm is designed under such principles that users experience both 'elaborative rehearsal’ (aspects in receptive and productive learning) and 'expanding rehearsal, (memory-based learning and repetitive act). These design principles are coupled with cognitive approaches for design and analysis of learning and instruction in lexical learning.

  13. Drawings and Dialogue: Word Solving in Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Belinda S.

    2012-01-01

    Envisioning oneself as a competent reader is an important first step to reading well. This article describes an intervention that employs drawings coupled with teacher-student dialogue, which sets the stage for strategy learning as a key to word-solving. A process for the interventionist, Title I or any teacher working with students who find…

  14. Influence of syllable structure on l2 auditory word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a closed-syllable structure and consonant clusters. Two groups of college students (Japanese group, N = 22; and native speakers of English, N = 21) learned paired English pseudowords and pictures. The pseudoword types differed in terms of the syllable structure and consonant clusters (congruent vs. incongruent) and the position of consonant clusters (coda vs. onset). Recall accuracy was higher for the pseudowords in the congruent type and the pseudowords with the coda-consonant clusters. The syllable structure effect was obtained from both participant groups, disconfirming the hypothesized cross-linguistic influence on L2 auditory word learning. PMID:24493208

  15. Word 2010 eLearning Kit For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Use this step-by-step learning package to master Word 2010 Word 2010 is one of the core applications of Microsoft Office and if you're eager to get started using all it has to offer, this value-packed eLearning Kit is essential to your learning process. This complete Word 2010 course includes a full-color printed book and a Dummies interactive eLearning course on CD. You'll discover the basics of the Word interface, how to navigate it, how to get comfortable with the terminology, and how to use its many features. Detailed instructions walk you through real-world exercises and help to make lear

  16. Visual word learning in skilled readers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Rosa Kit Wan; Ellis, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments are reported analysing the processes by which adult readers of English learn new written words. Visual word learning was simulated by presenting short (four-letter) and longer (seven-letter) nonwords repeatedly and observing the reduction in naming latencies and the convergence in reaction times (RTs) to shorter and longer items that are the hallmarks of visual word learning. Experiment 1 presented nonwords in ten consecutive blocks. Naming latencies reduced over the first four or five presentations. The effect of length on naming RTs was large in block 1 but non-significant after four or five presentations. Experiment 2 demonstrated some reduction in RTs to untrained nonwords following practice on a trained set, but the reduction was less than for the trained items and RTs to shorter and longer nonwords did not converge. Experiment 3 included a retest after seven days which showed some slowing of RTs compared with the end of the first session but also considerable retention of learning. We conclude that four to six exposures to novel words (nonwords) are sufficient to establish durable lexical representations that permit parallel processing of newly-learned words. The results are discussed in terms of theoretical models of reading and word learning. PMID:25019273

  17. Sensitivity to Rime Unit Frequency and Children's Early Word-Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Emily; Farrington-Flint, Lee; Underwood, Jean; Stiller, James

    2012-01-01

    The current work examines children's sensitivity to rime unit spelling-sound correspondences within the context of early word reading as a way of assessing word-specific influences on early word-reading strategies. Sixty 6-7-year-olds participated in an experimental reading task that comprised word items that shared either frequent or infrequent…

  18. Word Learning and Attention Allocation Based on Word Class and Category Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Attention allocation in word learning may vary developmentally based on the novelty of the object. It has been suggested that children differentially learn verbs based on the novelty of the agent, but adults do not because they automatically infer the object's category and thus treat it like a familiar object. The current research examined…

  19. Yearning for Words, Learning With Words: Poetic Ruminations

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Leggo

    2011-01-01

    As a poet I am always seeking ecological interconnections amidst body, brain, language, knowing, mind, consciousness, education, imagination, heart, cognition, and spirit. In language play I hope to find my way to a purposeful pedagogy that acknowledges and honours how learning is always a holistic adventure in process and flux, an adventure of human becoming filled with wonder and mystery beyond the counting, but always abundantly available for courting with wild delight and desire.

  20. Incorporating linguistic knowledge for learning distributed word representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2015-01-01

    Combined with neural language models, distributed word representations achieve significant advantages in computational linguistics and text mining. Most existing models estimate distributed word vectors from large-scale data in an unsupervised fashion, which, however, do not take rich linguistic knowledge into consideration. Linguistic knowledge can be represented as either link-based knowledge or preference-based knowledge, and we propose knowledge regularized word representation models (KRWR) to incorporate these prior knowledge for learning distributed word representations. Experiment results demonstrate that our estimated word representation achieves better performance in task of semantic relatedness ranking. This indicates that our methods can efficiently encode both prior knowledge from knowledge bases and statistical knowledge from large-scale text corpora into a unified word representation model, which will benefit many tasks in text mining. PMID:25874581

  1. Incorporating Linguistic Knowledge for Learning Distributed Word Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2015-01-01

    Combined with neural language models, distributed word representations achieve significant advantages in computational linguistics and text mining. Most existing models estimate distributed word vectors from large-scale data in an unsupervised fashion, which, however, do not take rich linguistic knowledge into consideration. Linguistic knowledge can be represented as either link-based knowledge or preference-based knowledge, and we propose knowledge regularized word representation models (KRWR) to incorporate these prior knowledge for learning distributed word representations. Experiment results demonstrate that our estimated word representation achieves better performance in task of semantic relatedness ranking. This indicates that our methods can efficiently encode both prior knowledge from knowledge bases and statistical knowledge from large-scale text corpora into a unified word representation model, which will benefit many tasks in text mining. PMID:25874581

  2. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words-which was the model's learning objective-is largely based on letter-level information. PMID:24065939

  3. Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2008 Early recognition of developmental disabilities such as autism is key for parents and providers. CDC realized ... act. More Information Learn the Signs. Act Early Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) Child Development Downloads Read the ...

  4. Word learning emerges from the interaction of online referent selection and slow associative learning

    OpenAIRE

    McMurray, Bob; Horst, Jessica S.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2012-01-01

    Classic approaches to word learning emphasize the problem of referential ambiguity: in any naming situation the referent of a novel word must be selected from many possible objects, properties, actions, etc. To solve this problem, researchers have posited numerous constraints, and inference strategies, but assume that determining the referent of a novel word is isomorphic to learning. We present an alternative model in which referent selection is an online process that is independent of long-...

  5. Learning Approaches toward Title Word Selection on Indic Script

    OpenAIRE

    P.Vijayapal Reddy; A. Govardhan

    2011-01-01

    Title is a compact representation of a document which distill the important information from the document. In this paper we studied the selection words as title words by using different learning approachesnamely nearest neighbor approach (NN), Naive Bayes approach with limited-vocabulary (NBL), Naive Bayes approach with full vocabulary (NBF) and by using a term weighing approach (tf-idf). We compare theperformance of these approaches by using F1 metric. We compare the F1 metric results both o...

  6. A Learning-Based Approach for Biomedical Word Sense Disambiguation

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mubaid, Hisham; Gungu, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    In the biomedical domain, word sense ambiguity is a widely spread problem with bioinformatics research effort devoted to it being not commensurate and allowing for more development. This paper presents and evaluates a learning-based approach for sense disambiguation within the biomedical domain. The main limitation with supervised methods is the need for a corpus of manually disambiguated instances of the ambiguous words. However, the advances in automatic text annotation and tagging techniqu...

  7. Implicit language learning: Adults’ ability to segment words in Norwegian*

    OpenAIRE

    KITTLESON, MEGAN M.; Aguilar, Jessica M.; TOKERUD, GRY LINE; PLANTE, ELENA; ASBJØRNSEN, ARVE E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous language learning research reveals that the statistical properties of the input offer sufficient information to allow listeners to segment words from fluent speech in an artificial language. The current pair of studies uses a natural language to test the ecological validity of these findings and to determine whether a listener’s language background influences this process. In Study 1, the “guessibility” of potential test words from the Norwegian language was presented to 22 lis...

  8. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria GraziaDi Bono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters from their eye-centred (i.e., retinal locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Conversely, there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words – which was the model’s learning objective – is largely based on letter-level information.

  9. Learning Approaches toward Title Word Selection on Indic Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Vijayapal Reddy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Title is a compact representation of a document which distill the important information from the document. In this paper we studied the selection words as title words by using different learning approachesnamely nearest neighbor approach (NN, Naive Bayes approach with limited-vocabulary (NBL, Naive Bayes approach with full vocabulary (NBF and by using a term weighing approach (tf-idf. We compare theperformance of these approaches by using F1 metric. We compare the F1 metric results both on English Script and Indic Script ' Telugu'. We concluded the influence of linguistic complexity in the process of Title word selection.

  10. Unregistered Biological Words Recognition by Q-Learning with Transfer Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Zhu; Quan Liu; Hui Wang; Xiaoke Zhou; Yuchen Fu

    2014-01-01

    Unregistered biological words recognition is the process of identification of terms that is out of vocabulary. Although many approaches have been developed, the performance approaches are not satisfactory. As the identification process can be viewed as a Markov process, we put forward a Q-learning with transfer learning algorithm to detect unregistered biological words from texts. With the Q-learning, the recognizer can attain the optimal solution of identification during the interaction with...

  11. The Semiotics of Learning New Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöth, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    In several of his papers, Charles S. Peirce illustrates processes of interpreting and understanding signs by examples from second language vocabulary teaching and learning. The insights conveyed by means of these little pedagogical scenarios are not meant as contributions to the psychology of second language learning, but they aim at elucidating…

  12. Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious: how the brain learns words never heard before.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulesu, E; Vallar, G; Berlingeri, M; Signorini, M; Vitali, P; Burani, C; Perani, D; Fazio, F

    2009-05-01

    Vocabulary acquisition is such a major aspect of language learning in children, but also in adults when learning a foreign language, that a dedicated vocabulary learning device may exist within the language organ. To identify the relevant brain systems, we performed regional cerebral blood flow measurements in normal subjects while they were learning a list of neologisms or a list of word-nonword pairs. Structures implicated in phonological short-term memory (Broca's area, left temporo-parietal junction) were steadily activated during nonwords learning, while the left temporal lobe neocortical and paralimbic structures (parahippocampal region), associated with long-term memory, contributed to learning in a time-dependent manner, with maximal activation at the beginning of the process. The neural system specifically activated when learning new vocabulary was strongly lateralized to the left hemisphere. This evidence refines current models of memory function and supports theories which emphasise the importance of phonological competence in hemispheric dominance for language. PMID:19171195

  13. Implicit Language Learning: Adults' Ability to Segment Words in Norwegian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Megan M.; Aguilar, Jessica M.; Tokerud, Gry Line; Plante, Elena; Asbjornsen, Arve E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous language learning research reveals that the statistical properties of the input offer sufficient information to allow listeners to segment words from fluent speech in an artificial language. The current pair of studies uses a natural language to test the ecological validity of these findings and to determine whether a listener's language…

  14. Learning to Recognize Words and Letters on a CAI Terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Donald Ross; And Others

    An IBM 1050 AV computer system, including a typewriter keyboard, tape recorder, and slides, was used to teach 4-year-olds word and letter recognition. Three studies explored sex differences in relation to differences in socioeconomic status and learning materials. In experiment 1, 16 disadvantaged children explored the keyboard individually for 6…

  15. Word Learning Processes in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether 3 aspects of the word learning process--fast mapping, retention, and extension--are problematic for children with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: The authors compared responses of 24 children with CIs, 24 age-matched hearing children, and 23 vocabulary-matched hearing children to a novel object noun training episode.…

  16. Japanese Language Students' Perceptions on "Kanji" Learning and Their Relationship to Novel "Kanji" Word Learning Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiko; Sato, Kumi; Shimizu, Hideko

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between how learners of Japanese as a second language perceive the learning of "kanji" (i.e., the logographic characters shared with Chinese) and their ability to learn novel "kanji" words using morphological and contextual information. Eighty college students learning Japanese as a foreign language completed a…

  17. Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in a campaign to help parents measure their children's progress by monitoring how they play, learn, speak ... the Signs. Act Early Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) Child Development Downloads Read the script High resolution (.wmv)[ ...

  18. Early Word Segmentation in Infants Acquiring Parisian French: Task-Dependent and Dialect-Specific Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzi, Thierry; Mersad, Karima; Sundara, Megha; Iakimova, Galina; Polka, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Six experiments explored Parisian French-learning infants' ability to segment bisyllabic words from fluent speech. The first goal was to assess whether bisyllabic word segmentation emerges later in infants acquiring European French compared to other languages. The second goal was to determine whether infants learning different dialects of the…

  19. Prosodic Structure in Early Word Segmentation: ERP Evidence from Dutch Ten-Month-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Valesca; Hagoort, Peter; Cutler, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing word boundaries in continuous speech requires detailed knowledge of the native language. In the first year of life, infants acquire considerable word segmentation abilities. Infants at this early stage in word segmentation rely to a large extent on the metrical pattern of their native language, at least in stress-based languages. In…

  20. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  1. Vowel bias in Danish word-learning: Processing biases are language-specific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØjen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored whether the phonological bias to the advantage of consonants found in French-learning infants and children when learning new words (Havy & Nazzi, 2009; Nazzi, 2005) is language-general, as proposed by Nespor, Peña, & Mehler (2003), or varies across languages, perhaps as a function of the phonological or lexical properties of the language in acquisition. To do so, we used the object manipulation task set up by Havy & Nazzi (2009), teaching Danish-learning 20-month-olds pairs of phonetically similar words that contrasted either on one of their consonants or one of their vowels, by either one or two phonological features. Danish was chosen because it has more vowels than consonants, and is characterized by extensive consonant lenition. Both phenomena could disfavor a consonant bias. Evidence of word-learning was found only for vocalic information, irrespective of whether one or two phonological features were changed. The implication of these findings is that the phonological biases found in early lexical processing are not language-general but develop during language acquisition, depending on the phonological or lexical properties of the native language.

  2. Adding words to the brain's visual dictionary: novel word learning selectively sharpens orthographic representations in the VWFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, Laurie S; Kim, Judy; Rule, Josh; Jiang, Xiong; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2015-03-25

    The nature of orthographic representations in the human brain is still subject of much debate. Recent reports have claimed that the visual word form area (VWFA) in left occipitotemporal cortex contains an orthographic lexicon based on neuronal representations highly selective for individual written real words (RWs). This theory predicts that learning novel words should selectively increase neural specificity for these words in the VWFA. We trained subjects to recognize novel pseudowords (PWs) and used fMRI rapid adaptation to compare neural selectivity with RWs, untrained PWs (UTPWs), and trained PWs (TPWs). Before training, PWs elicited broadly tuned responses, whereas responses to RWs indicated tight tuning. After training, TPW responses resembled those of RWs, whereas UTPWs continued to show broad tuning. This change in selectivity was specific to the VWFA. Therefore, word learning appears to selectively increase neuronal specificity for the new words in the VWFA, thereby adding these words to the brain's visual dictionary. PMID:25810526

  3. The Significance of the Poetic in Early Childhood Education: Stanley Cavell and Lucy Sprague Mitchell on Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This paper begins with a discussion of Stanley Cavell's philosophy of language learning. Young people learn more than the meaning of words when acquiring language: they learn about (the quality of) our form of life. If we--as early childhood educators--see language teaching as something like handing some inert thing to a child, then we unduly…

  4. A learning-based approach for biomedical word sense disambiguation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mubaid, Hisham; Gungu, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    In the biomedical domain, word sense ambiguity is a widely spread problem with bioinformatics research effort devoted to it being not commensurate and allowing for more development. This paper presents and evaluates a learning-based approach for sense disambiguation within the biomedical domain. The main limitation with supervised methods is the need for a corpus of manually disambiguated instances of the ambiguous words. However, the advances in automatic text annotation and tagging techniques with the help of the plethora of knowledge sources like ontologies and text literature in the biomedical domain will help lessen this limitation. The proposed method utilizes the interaction model (mutual information) between the context words and the senses of the target word to induce reliable learning models for sense disambiguation. The method has been evaluated with the benchmark dataset NLM-WSD with various settings and in biomedical entity species disambiguation. The evaluation results showed that the approach is very competitive and outperforms recently reported results of other published techniques. PMID:22666174

  5. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Maria GraziaDi Bono; MarcoZorzi

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representa...

  6. Pigeons acquire multiple categories in parallel via associative learning: a parallel to human word learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A; Brooks, Daniel I; McMurray, Bob

    2015-03-01

    Might there be parallels between category learning in animals and word learning in children? To examine this possibility, we devised a new associative learning technique for teaching pigeons to sort 128 photographs of objects into 16 human language categories. We found that pigeons learned all 16 categories in parallel, they perceived the perceptual coherence of the different object categories, and they generalized their categorization behavior to novel photographs from the training categories. More detailed analyses of the factors that predict trial-by-trial learning implicated a number of factors that may shape learning. First, we found considerable trial-by-trial dependency of pigeons' categorization responses, consistent with several recent studies that invoke this dependency to claim that humans acquire words via symbolic or inferential mechanisms; this finding suggests that such dependencies may also arise in associative systems. Second, our trial-by-trial analyses divulged seemingly irrelevant aspects of the categorization task, like the spatial location of the report responses, which influenced learning. Third, those trial-by-trial analyses also supported the possibility that learning may be determined both by strengthening correct stimulus-response associations and by weakening incorrect stimulus-response associations. The parallel between all these findings and important aspects of human word learning suggests that associative learning mechanisms may play a much stronger part in complex human behavior than is commonly believed. PMID:25497520

  7. Sound-Symbolism: A Piece in the Puzzle of Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parault, Susan J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2006-01-01

    Sound-symbolism is the idea that the relationship between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather that there are subsets of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. The present research investigates sound-symbolism as a possible route to the learning of an…

  8. Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a) as a sequence of…

  9. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning. PMID:25814973

  10. Language bootstrapping: learning word meanings from perception-action association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Giampiero; Montesano, Luis; Bernardino, Alexandre; Santos-Victor, José

    2012-06-01

    We address the problem of bootstrapping language acquisition for an artificial system similarly to what is observed in experiments with human infants. Our method works by associating meanings to words in manipulation tasks, as a robot interacts with objects and listens to verbal descriptions of the interactions. The model is based on an affordance network, i.e., a mapping between robot actions, robot perceptions, and the perceived effects of these actions upon objects. We extend the affordance model to incorporate spoken words, which allows us to ground the verbal symbols to the execution of actions and the perception of the environment. The model takes verbal descriptions of a task as the input and uses temporal co-occurrence to create links between speech utterances and the involved objects, actions, and effects. We show that the robot is able form useful word-to-meaning associations, even without considering grammatical structure in the learning process and in the presence of recognition errors. These word-to-meaning associations are embedded in the robot's own understanding of its actions. Thus, they can be directly used to instruct the robot to perform tasks and also allow to incorporate context in the speech recognition task. We believe that the encouraging results with our approach may afford robots with a capacity to acquire language descriptors in their operation's environment as well as to shed some light as to how this challenging process develops with human infants. PMID:22106152

  11. Early gesture selectively predicts later language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively predicted lexical versus syntactic skills at 42 months, even with early child speech controlled. Specifically, number of different meanings conveyed i...

  12. Assessing early numeracy: Significance, trends, nomenclature, context, key topics, learning framework and assessment tasks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robert J., Wright.

    Full Text Available This article describes a comprehensive and novel approach to assessment in early numeracy. Topics include the significance of early numeracy, developing a nomenclature for early numeracy, and describing the context for the development of this approach to assessment. The largely unrealised importance [...] of numerals and numeral sequences in early numeracy, the significance of counting and its distinction from saying a number word sequence, the important topics of structuring numbers in the range 1 to 20 and conceptual place value, the Learning Framework in Number and its use in profiling children's early numeracy knowledge, and important assessment tasks are explored.

  13. A "bat" is easier to learn than a "tab": effects of relative phonotactic frequency on infant word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Poltrock, Silvana; Nazzi, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that during the first year of life infants start learning the prosodic, phonetic and phonotactic properties of their native language. In parallel, infants start associating sound sequences with semantic representations. However, the question of how these two processes interact remains largely unknown. The current study explores whether (and when) the relative phonotactic probability of a sound sequence in the native language has an impact on infants' word learning. We exploit the fact that Labial-Coronal (LC) words are more frequent than Coronal-Labial (CL) words in French, and that French-learning infants prefer LC over CL sequences at 10 months of age, to explore the possibility that LC structures might be learned more easily and thus at an earlier age than CL structures. Eye movements of French-learning 14- and 16-month-olds were recorded while they watched animated cartoons in a word learning task. The experiment involved four trials testing LC sequences and four trials testing CL sequences. Our data reveal that 16-month-olds were able to learn the LC and CL words, while14-month-olds were only able to learn the LC words, which are the words with the more frequent phonotactic pattern. The present results provide evidence that infants' knowledge of their native language phonotactic patterns influences their word learning: Words with a frequent phonotactic structure could be acquired at an earlier age than those with a lower probability. Developmental changes are discussed and integrated with previous findings. PMID:23527227

  14. Learning Word Meanings from Teachers’ Repeated Story Read-Aloud in EFL Primary Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-Chun Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental design to determine the effects of teachers’ story read-aloud on EFL elementary school students’ word learning outcomes. It specifically examined whether the word learning was enhanced by teachers’ repeated story read-aloud and word-meaning explanations and further determined whether the learning outcomes were related to children’s English proficiency. Two native English-speaking teachers read a story to their fourth-grade classes four times. The results s...

  15. Bilingualism and Inhibitory Control Influence Statistical Learning of Novel Word Forms

    OpenAIRE

    JamesBartolotti

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influence of bilingual experience and inhibitory control on the ability to learn a novel language. Using a statistical learning paradigm, participants learned words in two novel languages that were based on the International Morse Code. First, participants listened to a continuous stream of words in a Morse code language to test their ability to segment words from continuous speech. Since Morse code does not overlap in form with natural languages, interference from known langu...

  16. A Comparison between Supervised Learning Algorithms for Word Sense Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Escudero, G; Rigau, G; Escudero, Gerard; Marquez, Lluis; Rigau, German

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a set of comparative experiments, including cross-corpus evaluation, between five alternative algorithms for supervised Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD), namely Naive Bayes, Exemplar-based learning, SNoW, Decision Lists, and Boosting. Two main conclusions can be drawn: 1) The LazyBoosting algorithm outperforms the other four state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of accuracy and ability to tune to new domains; 2) The domain dependence of WSD systems seems very strong and suggests that some kind of adaptation or tuning is required for cross-corpus application.

  17. MOLT: A Mobile Learning Tool That Makes Learning New Technical English Language Words Enjoyable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan - Ibrahim

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase use of wireless technologies in education all over the world. In fact, wireless technologies such as laptop computers, palmtop computers, and mobile phones are revolutionizing education and transforming the traditional classroom based learning and teaching into anytime and anywhere education. This paper investigates the use of wireless technologies in education with particular reference to the potential of learning new technical English Language words using SMS text messaging. The system, developed by the authors, called Mobile Learning Tool (MOLT, has been tested with 45 first-year undergraduate students. Students’ opinions have been collected after the experiment. Our results show that students enjoyed and be happy used mobile phones to learn new technical English word. We believe that if we add the improvements or modifications students wish to see in the MOLT system, then using the MOLT system as an educational tool will contribute to motivation and success of students.

  18. Early Gesture "Selectively" Predicts Later Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively…

  19. Recognition Memory for Braille or Spoken Words: An fMRI study in Early Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J.; Agato, Alvin

    2011-01-01

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5 yrs. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied (“old”) compared to novel (“new”) words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified “new” words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken “new?...

  20. MOLT: A Mobile Learning Tool That Makes Learning New Technical English Language Words Enjoyable

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan - Ibrahim; Nadire Cavus

    2008-01-01

    There is an increase use of wireless technologies in education all over the world. In fact, wireless technologies such as laptop computers, palmtop computers, and mobile phones are revolutionizing education and transforming the traditional classroom based learning and teaching into anytime and anywhere education. This paper investigates the use of wireless technologies in education with particular reference to the potential of learning new technical English Language words using SMS text messa...

  1. Acquiring concepts and features of novel words by two types of learning: direct mapping and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the semantic representation of novel words learnt in two conditions: directly mapping a novel word to a concept (Direct mapping: DM) and inferring the concept from provided features (Inferred learning: IF). A condition where no definite concept could be inferred (No basic-level meaning: NM) served as a baseline. The semantic representation of the novel word was assessed via a semantic-relatedness judgment task. In this task, the learned novel word served as a prime, while the corresponding concept, an unlearned feature of the concept, and an unrelated word served as targets. ERP responses to the targets, primed by the novel words in the three learning conditions, were compared. For the corresponding concept, smaller N400s were elicited in the DM and IF conditions than in the NM condition, indicating that the concept could be obtained in both learning conditions. However, for the unlearned feature, the targets in the IF condition produced an N400 effect while in the DM condition elicited an LPC effect relative to the NM learning condition. No ERP difference was observed among the three learning conditions for the unrelated words. The results indicate that conditions of learning affect the semantic representation of novel word, and that the unlearned feature was only activated by the novel word in the IF learning condition. PMID:24480035

  2. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  3. Extracting phonological patterns for L2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-10-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning. PMID:24043509

  4. Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin

    2012-02-15

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection. PMID:22251836

  5. Bilingualism Reduces Native-Language Interference during Novel-Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to examine the effects of bilingualism on adults' ability to resolve cross-linguistic inconsistencies in orthography-to-phonology mappings during novel-word learning. English monolinguals and English-Spanish bilinguals learned artificially constructed novel words that overlapped with English orthographically but…

  6. The Relationship between Phonological Memory, Phonological Sensitivity, and Incidental Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Hewitt, Lynne E.; Brackenbury, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive abilities needed to succeed at incidental word learning, specifically by examining the role of phonological memory and phonological sensitivity in novel word learning by 4-year-olds who were typically developing. Forty 4-year-olds were administered a test of nonword repetition (to investigate phonological…

  7. Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…

  8. Cognitive Mechanisms of Word Learning in Bilingual and Monolingual Adults: The Role of Phonological Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may facilitate lexical learning in adults. The goals of this research were (i) to examine whether bilingual influences on word learning diverge for phonologically-familiar and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words, and (ii) to examine whether increased phonological memory capacity can account for…

  9. Successful Learning of Academic Word List via MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Alemi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones as new addition to information and communication technologies have created new ways to help learners in the process of foreign language learning. Given the importance of academic vocabularies for university students, this study tried to investigate the effectiveness of SMS on Iranian university students’ vocabulary learning and retention. To this end forty five university freshman students with upper intermediate proficiency level were chosen to take part in this study. During 16 weeks of experiment, the participants of the experimental group (N = 28 were taught 320 head words from the Academic Word List (Coxhead, 2000 via SMS. During the same period of time the participants of the control group (N=17 were taught the same words by using dictionary. At the end, both groups were given a vocabulary test from Academic Word List, to see the effect of SMS on their vocabulary learning and the scores of each group were compared employing an independent t-test. The result of the t-test showed both groups had improved in the post- test. Although there was not any significant difference between the groups in the post- test, the result of the delayed post- test showed that SMS had more significant effect on vocabulary retention compared to using dictionary, and the experimental group outperformed the control group. The result of this study can have pedagogical implication for language teachers, in that they can use SMS as a useful way to help their students to retain vocabularies in their long term memory.

  10. Crossing boundaries: more evidence for phonological constraints on early multi-word utterances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthei, E H

    1989-02-01

    A number of researchers have argued that phonological constraints may influence the emergence and form of combinatorial speech in children. Donahue (1986) presented evidence that one child's consonant harmony constraint operated across word boundaries. This paper presents further evidence for the operation of word-level phonological constraints in multi-word utterances. Selection and avoidance patterns as well as her modifications of adult forms indicate the presence of a syllable sequencing constraint in this child's grammar: an initial syllable must begin with a consonant whose sonority value is not less than that of the following syllable. The same constraint governs the form of her early word combinations. The existence of evidence for the operation of word-level constraints in word combinations, it is pointed out, has consequences for how we interpret two-lexicon models of phonological development. PMID:2925814

  11. The interactive nature of second-language word learning in non-instructed environments

    OpenAIRE

    Köhne, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Gaining the command of a second language is a difficult task for an adult. Understanding and learning novel words is challenging, particularly in non-instructed situations: Words are often parts of complex linguistic contexts and potential referents are embedded in rich visual scenes. To overcome this challenge learners can potentially exploit the richness of their multi-modal environment through a range of different word-learning mechanisms and based on automatic sentence-processing mechanis...

  12. Clues cue the smooze: rhyme, pausing, and prediction help children learn new words from storybooks

    OpenAIRE

    KirstenRead

    2014-01-01

    Rhyme, which is ubiquitous in the language experiences of young children, may be especially facilitative to vocabulary learning because of how it can support active predictions about upcoming words. In two experiments, we tested whether rhyme, when used to help children anticipate new words would make those words easier to learn. Two- to 4-year-old children heard rhyming stanzas naming novel monsters under three conditions: A non-rhyme condition in which novel monster names appeared as unrhym...

  13. Learning from Children: Learning from Caroline Pratt (1867-1954). Early Progressives in Early Years Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    This review of Caroline Pratt's life and work in early years education includes an account of how a six-year-old boy taught a woman in her thirties what she needed to know in order to open a school--in 1914--that continues to this day, a school that was, in the founder's own words, fitted to the child and not the other way around. It…

  14. Bilingualism and inhibitory control influence statistical learning of novel word forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JamesBartolotti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of bilingual experience and inhibitory control on the ability to learn a novel language. Using a statistical learning paradigm, participants learned words in two novel languages that were based on the International Morse Code. First, participants listened to a continuous stream of words in a Morse code language to test their ability to segment words from continuous speech. Since Morse code does not overlap in form with natural languages, interference from known languages was low. Next, participants listened to another Morse code language composed of new words that conflicted with the first Morse code language. Interference in this second language was high due to conflict between languages and due to the presence of two colliding cues (compressed pauses between words and statistical regularities that competed to define word boundaries. Results suggest that bilingual experience can improve word learning when interference from other languages is low, while inhibitory control ability can improve word learning when interference from other languages is high. We conclude that the ability to extract novel words from continuous speech is a skill that is affected both by linguistic factors, such as bilingual experience, and by cognitive abilities, such as inhibitory control.

  15. Multiple brain networks underpinning word learning from fluent speech revealed by independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barroso, Diana; Ripollés, Pablo; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Mohammadi, Bahram; Münte, Thomas F; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2015-04-15

    Although neuroimaging studies using standard subtraction-based analysis from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have suggested that frontal and temporal regions are involved in word learning from fluent speech, the possible contribution of different brain networks during this type of learning is still largely unknown. Indeed, univariate fMRI analyses cannot identify the full extent of distributed networks that are engaged by a complex task such as word learning. Here we used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to characterize the different brain networks subserving word learning from an artificial language speech stream. Results were replicated in a second cohort of participants with a different linguistic background. Four spatially independent networks were associated with the task in both cohorts: (i) a dorsal Auditory-Premotor network; (ii) a dorsal Sensory-Motor network; (iii) a dorsal Fronto-Parietal network; and (iv) a ventral Fronto-Temporal network. The level of engagement of these networks varied through the learning period with only the dorsal Auditory-Premotor network being engaged across all blocks. In addition, the connectivity strength of this network in the second block of the learning phase correlated with the individual variability in word learning performance. These findings suggest that: (i) word learning relies on segregated connectivity patterns involving dorsal and ventral networks; and (ii) specifically, the dorsal auditory-premotor network connectivity strength is directly correlated with word learning performance. PMID:25620492

  16. When Actions Speak Too Much Louder than Words: Hand Gestures Disrupt Word Learning when Phonetic Demands Are High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Spencer D.; Lee, Angela L.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that hand gestures help people understand and learn language. Here, we provide an exception to this general rule--when phonetic demands are high, gesture actually hurts. Native English-speaking adults were instructed on the meaning of novel Japanese word pairs that were for non-native speakers phonetically hard (/ite/ vs.…

  17. Use of key words as an adjunctive learning tool improves learning during a perioperative medicine rotation for anesthesiology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, J E; Ryckman, J V

    2000-05-01

    Designing a successful block rotation for anesthesiology residents requires not only an appropriate curriculum but also a set of teaching tools, which promote learning. Traditional clinical rotations in Anesthesiology residencies emphasize clinical teaching, supported by interaction with staff. Since Perioperative Medicine is a nontraditional subject for anesthesia residents, we introduced a syllabus and didactic curriculum to support clinical teaching. We hypothesized that the use of key words would enhance learning. Alternating groups of residents were assigned to receive key words, while control residents were expected to learn without key words. The key words were delivered in writing on the first day of the rotation and the syllabus was highlighted to identify the key words in the text. Pretests and posttests were administered to residents participating in the perioperative rotation. Learning was assessed by calculating the change in test scores. There was significantly more learning in the group given the key words. We conclude that key word designation improved learning in a rotation designed to teach perioperative medicine. PMID:10869930

  18. Supporting Preschoolers' Vocabulary Learning: Using a Decision-Making Model to Select Appropriate Words and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2012-01-01

    Young children learn new vocabulary with great agility and speed, but their learning is dependent on the range of words they are exposed to. Teachers can naturally facilitate children's vocabulary learning using a variety of strategies, including making conversation and posing thoughtful questions. But there is also an important role for direct…

  19. Influences of Infant-Directed Speech on Early Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Nestor, Sarah; Parikh, Chandni; Yull, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    When addressing infants, many adults adopt a particular type of speech, known as infant-directed speech (IDS). IDS is characterized by exaggerated intonation, as well as reduced speech rate, shorter utterance duration, and grammatical simplification. It is commonly asserted that IDS serves in part to facilitate language learning. Although…

  20. Is Deep Learning Really Necessary for Word Embeddings?

    OpenAIRE

    Lebret, Rémi; Legrand, Joël; Collobert, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Word embeddings resulting from neural language models have been shown to be successful for a large variety of NLP tasks. However, such architecture might be difficult to train and time-consuming. Instead, we propose to drastically sim- plify the word embeddings computation through a Hellinger PCA of the word co-occurence matrix. We compare those new word embeddings with some well- known embeddings on NER and movie review tasks and show that we can reach similar or even better performance. Alt...

  1. Dynamic versus Static Dictionary with and without Printed Focal Words in e-Book Reading as Facilitator for Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Ben-Shabt, Anat; Shneor, Dafna; Bokovza, Limor

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a dictionary embedded in an e-book with static or dynamic visuals with and without printed focal words affects word learning. A pretest-posttest design was used to measure gains of expressive words' meaning and their spelling. The participants included 250 Hebrew-speaking second graders from…

  2. Visits to Cultural Learning Places in the Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiappa, Michael; Kluczniok, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Studies show the important role of the home learning environment in early childhood for later school success. This article focuses on a particular aspect of the home learning environment: visits to cultural learning places (e.g. museums) as a component of the quality of the home learning environment. Therefore the educational concept of…

  3. Learning with sublexical information from emerging reading vocabularies in exceptionally early and normal reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G Brian; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Wilson, Kathryn J; McKay, Michael F; Margrain, Valerie G

    2015-03-01

    Predictions from theories of the processes of word reading acquisition have rarely been tested against evidence from exceptionally early readers. The theories of Ehri, Share, and Byrne, and an alternative, Knowledge Sources theory, were so tested. The former three theories postulate that full development of context-free letter sounds and awareness of phonemes are required for normal acquisition, while the claim of the alternative is that with or without such, children can use sublexical information from their emerging reading vocabularies to acquire word reading. Results from two independent samples of children aged 3-5, and 5 years, with mean word reading levels of 7 and 9 years respectively, showed underdevelopment of their context-free letter sounds and phoneme awareness, relative to their word reading levels and normal comparison samples. Despite such underdevelopment, these exceptional readers engaged in a form of phonological recoding that enabled pseudoword reading, at the level of older-age normal controls matched on word reading level. Moreover, in the 5-year-old sample further experiments showed that, relative to normal controls, they had a bias toward use of sublexical information from their reading vocabularies for phonological recoding of heterophonic pseudowords with irregular consistent spelling, and were superior in accessing word meanings independently of phonology, although only if the readers were without exposure to explicit phonics. The three theories were less satisfactory than the alternative theory in accounting for the learning of the exceptionally early readers. PMID:25498743

  4. Semantic categories and contexts of written words affect the early ERP component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Masahiro; Homae, Fumitaka; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2013-04-17

    We investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of event-related potentials to examine how semantic categories affect early stages of written word processing in the brain. We used a semantic priming paradigm in which the categories of prime and target words were the same (animate or inanimate). Event-related potentials were recorded while native Japanese participants made semantic-relatedness judgments of word pairs. Semantic category effects were observed approximately 150 ms after the target item was presented. Inanimate words elicited greater positive deflection than animate words, but no significant difference was observed for prime item processing. Source modeling estimated that the observed effects were induced by neural mechanisms occurring in the anterior temporal region, the posterior portion of the inferior temporal region, and the inferior parietal regions in both the hemispheres. Our results suggest that semantic category effects in the early stages of word processing are evoked by multiple cortical regions related to top-down processing of the preceding semantic information. PMID:23426108

  5. Lexical Quality in the Brain: ERP evidence for robust word learning from context

    OpenAIRE

    Gwen A. Frishkoff; Perfetti, Charles A.; Collins-Thompson, K

    2010-01-01

    We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) before and after word learning, using training contexts that differed in their level of contextual support for meaning acquisition. Novel words appeared either in contexts that were semantically constraining, providing strong cues to meaning, or in contexts that were weakly constraining, that is, uninformative. After each sentence, participants were shown the word in isolation and were asked to generate a close synonym. Immediately after training, w...

  6. Effect of Sensory Modality for Presentation and Word Imagery on Paired-Associate Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineau, William; Lohr, Jeffrey M.

    1981-01-01

    Recall performance on a paired-associate learning task was investigated as a function of word imagery modality (visual or auditory), presentation mode (visual or auditory), and sex. Analysis showed greater recall of visual imagery words, and the results are consistent with Paivio's (1971) conceptual-peg hypothesis. (Author)

  7. Manipulating Word Properties: Targeting Vocabulary Learning for Children with and without Speech Sound Inaccuracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Kimberly D.; Carroll, Jeri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the relations between speech sound accuracy, vocabulary, and phonological awareness, and (2) to examine the effect of word properties of neighborhood density and phonotactic probability on word learning within a storybook context, for children with and without speech sound inaccuracies. Fifty…

  8. Using Number Lines to Solve Math Word Problems: A Strategy for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Nicola; Krawec, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities (LD) consistently struggle with word problem solving in mathematics classes. This difficulty has made curricular, state, and national tests particularly stressful, as word problem solving has become a predominant feature of such student performance assessments. Research suggests that students with LD perform…

  9. Effects of linguistic and musical experience on Cantonese tone word learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Angela Kanita

    2010-01-01

    Adult non-native perception is subject to influence from a variety of factors, including linguistic experience as well as other cognitive functions such as musical experience. The present research examines how these two factors influence non-native tone perception and word learning. Native Thai and English listeners, subdivided into musician and non-musician groups, engaged in a perceptual training program. They learned words distinguished by five Cantonese tones during training, also complet...

  10. Word learning by children with phonological delays: Differentiating effects of phonotactic probability and neighborhood density

    OpenAIRE

    Storkel, Holly L.; Hoover, Jill R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the ability of 20 preschool children with functional phonological delays and 34 age- and vocabulary-matched typical children to learn words differing in phonotactic probability (i.e., the likelihood of occurrence of a sound sequence) and neighborhood density (i.e., the number of words that differ from a target by one phoneme). Children were exposed to nonwords paired with novel objects in a story and learning was measured by a picture naming task. Results showed that both ...

  11. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  12. Modeling Cross-Situational Word-Referent Learning: Prior Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Both adults and young children possess powerful statistical computation capabilities--they can infer the referent of a word from highly ambiguous contexts involving many words and many referents by aggregating cross-situational statistical information across contexts. This ability has been explained by models of hypothesis testing and by models of…

  13. Helping Students Identify Base Words in Indonesian--Linking Learning Objects in an ICLL Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Ingrid; Davison, Janine

    2008-01-01

    For students of Indonesian, learning to identify base words is very important, but can often be quite tricky. This article describes how one of the authors used interactive digital content from The Le@rning Federation (TLF) together with an extensive range of offline activities within an intercultural language learning (ICLL) framework. It helps…

  14. The Influence of Two Cognitive-Linguistic Variables on Incidental Word Learning in 5-Year-Olds

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Alyson D.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The relation between incidental word learning and two cognitive-linguistic variables—phonological memory and phonological awareness—is not fully understood. Thirty-five typically developing, 5-year-old, preschool children participated in a study examining the association between phonological memory, phonological awareness, and incidental word learning. Children were exposed to target words in a read-aloud story that accompanied a wordless picture book. Target word comprehension was assessed b...

  15. Word-of-Mouth Communication and Social Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Fudenberg, Drew; Ellison, Glenn

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies the way that word-of-mouth communication aggregates the information of individual agents. We find that the structure of the communication process determines whether all agents end up making identical choices, with less communication making this conformity more likely. Despite the players' naive decision rules and the stochastic decision environment, word-of-mouth communication may lead all players to adopt the action that is on average superior. These socially efficient out...

  16. Early effects of neighborhood density and phonotactic probability of spoken words on event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Cynthia R

    2013-12-01

    All current models of spoken word recognition propose that sound-based representations of spoken words compete with, or inhibit, one another during recognition. In addition, certain models propose that higher probability sublexical units facilitate recognition under certain circumstances. Two experiments were conducted examining ERPs to spoken words and nonwords simultaneously varying in phonotactic probability and neighborhood density. Results showed that the amplitude of the P2 potential was greater for high probability-density words and nonwords, suggesting an early inhibitory effect of neighborhood density. In order to closely examine the role of phonotactic probability, effects of initial phoneme frequency were also examined. The latency of the P2 potential was shorter for words with high initial-consonant probability, suggesting a facilitative effect of phonotactic probability. The current results are consistent with findings from previous studies using reaction time and eye-tracking paradigms and provide new insights into the time-course of lexical and sublexical activation and competition. PMID:24129200

  17. DESIGNING A MICROCONTROLLER BASED SMART MULTI LANGUAGE LEARNING WORD MASTER

    OpenAIRE

    Md.Sharif Ullah,; A.H.M. Zadidul Karim,; Munzur-ul-Mamun,; Md.Istiaq Mahbub

    2011-01-01

    The inconvenience encountered by the native learners in learning Bengali is there is no digital Bengali learning system except computer which is costly and not easy to use for all. In this paper we show a low power microcontroller based Multilanguage learning system to overcome the inconvenience mentioned above. This paper depicts the design procedure and the development of its hardware and software.

  18. Early decomposition in visual word recognition: Dissociating morphology, form, and meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Marslen-wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

    2008-01-01

    The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic relatedness were presented at three SOAs (36, 48, and 72 ms). No effects of orthographic relatedness were found at any SOA. Semantic relatedness did not ...

  19. DESIGNING A MICROCONTROLLER BASED SMART MULTI LANGUAGE LEARNING WORD MASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Sharif Ullah,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The inconvenience encountered by the native learners in learning Bengali is there is no digital Bengali learning system except computer which is costly and not easy to use for all. In this paper we show a low power microcontroller based Multilanguage learning system to overcome the inconvenience mentioned above. This paper depicts the design procedure and the development of its hardware and software.

  20. What Can We Learn from the Word Writing CAFE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Karen; Vandenberg, Amy; White, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Building on the work of an earlier article ["The Word Writing CAFE: Assessing Student Writing for Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency," Dorothy J. Leal, "Reading Teacher," 59 (4) Dec 2005 (EJ738016)], these authors investigated the use of a simple assessment tool with a different audience to yield similar useful results. (Contains 3 figures and 4…

  1. Testing the Limits of Statistical Learning for Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that infants can rapidly extract syllable distribution information from an artificial language and use this knowledge to infer likely word boundaries in speech. However, artificial languages are extremely simplified with respect to natural language. In this study, we ask whether infants' ability to track transitional…

  2. Using electronic storybooks to support word learning in children with severe language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Daisy J H; van Dijken, Marianne J; Bus, Adriana G

    2014-01-01

    Novel word learning is reported to be problematic for children with severe language impairments (SLI). In this study, we tested electronic storybooks as a tool to support vocabulary acquisition in SLI children. In Experiment 1, 29 kindergarten SLI children heard four e-books each four times: (a) two stories were presented as video books with motion pictures, music, and sounds, and (b) two stories included only static illustrations without music or sounds. Two other stories served as the control condition. Both static and video books were effective in increasing knowledge of unknown words, but static books were most effective. Experiment 2 was designed to examine which elements in video books interfere with word learning: video images or music or sounds. A total of 23 kindergarten SLI children heard 8 storybooks each four times: (a) two static stories without music or sounds, (b) two static stories with music or sounds, (c) two video stories without music or sounds, and (d) two video books with music or sounds. Video images and static illustrations were equally effective, but the presence of music or sounds moderated word learning. In children with severe SLI, background music interfered with learning. Problems with speech perception in noisy conditions may be an underlying factor of SLI and should be considered in selecting teaching aids and learning environments. PMID:23213051

  3. Testing the Limits of Statistical Learning for Word Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that infants can rapidly extract syllable distribution information from an artificial language and use this knowledge to infer likely word boundaries in speech. However, artificial languages are extremely simplified with respect to natural language. In this study, we ask whether infants’ ability to track transitional probabilities between syllables in an artificial language can scale up to the challenge of natural language. We do so by testing both 5.5- and 8-...

  4. In their own words: Student stories of seeking learning support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Brown

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Open and Distance Learning (ODL providers report that their students are prone to lower rates of retention and completion than campus-based students. Against this background, there is growing interest around distance-specific learning support. The current research investigated the experiences of students during their first semester as distance learners at Massey University in New Zealand. The overarching methodology was Design-Based Research, within which phenomenological data gathering methods were used to study the experiences of twenty participants from their own point of view. Using video cameras, over twentytwo hours of self-reflections were gathered between July and November 2011 using a technique adapted from previous studies. A grounded theory approach was applied to the process of thematic data analysis. Results revealed how participants varied in their engagement with learning supports, including orientation events, outreach activity, cultural services, learning consultants, library services, fellow students, lecturers, residential courses, and other people. The discussion reflects on clusters of participants who utilised learning supports effectively, moderately and barely. The paper concludes by summarizing how the current research has had an impact on the design of learning support services at one of the world’s leading providers of distance education.

  5. Pre-Existing Background Knowledge Influences Socioeconomic Differences in Preschoolers' Word Learning and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaefer, Tanya; Neuman, Susan B.; Pinkham, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to explore the influence of knowledge on socioeconomic discrepancies in word learning and comprehension. After establishing socioeconomic differences in background knowledge (Study 1), the authors presented children with a storybook that incorporates this knowledge (Study 2). Results indicated that middle-income…

  6. Tracking Speakers' False Beliefs: Is Theory of Mind Available Earlier for Word Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Goddard, Kate; Seclier, Catherine; Grant, Sally C.; Reid, Caitlin J. B.; Boyden, Laura E.; Williams, Rhiannon

    2011-01-01

    Happe and Loth (2002) describe word learning as a "privileged domain" in the development of a theory of mind. We test this claim in a series of experiments based on the Sally-Anne paradigm. Three- and 4-year-old children's ability to represent others' false beliefs was investigated in tasks that required the child either to predict the actions of…

  7. Clues cue the smooze: rhyme, pausing and prediction help children learn new words from storybooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KirstenRead

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhyme, which is ubiquitous in the language experiences of young children, may be especially facilitative to vocabulary learning because of how it can support active predictions about upcoming words. In two experiments, we tested whether rhyme, when used to help children anticipate new words would make those words easier to learn. Two- to 4-year-old children heard rhyming stanzas naming novel monsters under three conditions: A non-rhyme condition in which novel monster names appeared as unrhymed elements within a rhymed stanza, a non-predictive rhyme condition in which the novel names were the rhymed element in the first line of a stanza, and a predictive rhyme condition in which the monster name came as the rhymed element in the last line of the stanza after a description of the features that distinguished him. In tests of retention and identification children showed greatest novel name learning in the predictive rhyme condition in both between-subjects (Experiment 1 and within-subjects (Experiment 2 comparisons. Additionally, when parents acted as the storybook readers in Experiment 2, many of them distinctly paused before target words in the predictive rhyme condition and for their children a stronger predictive rhyme advantage surfaced. Thus rhyme is not only facilitative for learning, but when the novel vocabulary is specifically in a position where it is predictable from the rhymes, it is most accessible.

  8. Clues cue the smooze: rhyme, pausing, and prediction help children learn new words from storybooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Rhyme, which is ubiquitous in the language experiences of young children, may be especially facilitative to vocabulary learning because of how it can support active predictions about upcoming words. In two experiments, we tested whether rhyme, when used to help children anticipate new words would make those words easier to learn. Two- to 4-year-old children heard rhyming stanzas naming novel monsters under three conditions: A non-rhyme condition in which novel monster names appeared as unrhymed elements within a rhymed stanza, a non-predictive rhyme condition in which the novel names were the rhymed element in the first line of a stanza, and a predictive rhyme condition in which the monster name came as the rhymed element in the last line of the stanza after a description of the features that distinguished him. In tests of retention and identification children showed greatest novel name learning in the predictive rhyme condition in both between-subjects (Experiment 1) and within-subjects (Experiment 2) comparisons. Additionally, when parents acted as the storybook readers in Experiment 2, many of them distinctly paused before target words in the predictive rhyme condition and for their children a stronger predictive rhyme advantage surfaced. Thus rhyme is not only facilitative for learning, but when the novel vocabulary is specifically in a position where it is predictable from the rhymes, it is most accessible. PMID:24600431

  9. Event-Related EEG Oscillations to Semantically Unrelated Words in Normal and Learning Disabled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…

  10. The role of reward in word learning and its implications for language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripollés, Pablo; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Hielscher, Ulrike; Mestres-Missé, Anna; Tempelmann, Claus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Noesselt, Toemme

    2014-11-01

    The exact neural processes behind humans' drive to acquire a new language--first as infants and later as second-language learners--are yet to be established. Recent theoretical models have proposed that during human evolution, emerging language-learning mechanisms might have been glued to phylogenetically older subcortical reward systems, reinforcing human motivation to learn a new language. Supporting this hypothesis, our results showed that adult participants exhibited robust fMRI activation in the ventral striatum (VS)--a core region of reward processing--when successfully learning the meaning of new words. This activation was similar to the VS recruitment elicited using an independent reward task. Moreover, the VS showed enhanced functional and structural connectivity with neocortical language areas during successful word learning. Together, our results provide evidence for the neural substrate of reward and motivation during word learning. We suggest that this strong functional and anatomical coupling between neocortical language regions and the subcortical reward system provided a crucial advantage in humans that eventually enabled our lineage to successfully acquire linguistic skills. PMID:25447993

  11. Input and Word Learning: Caregivers' Sensitivity to Lexical Category Distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey D.; Burns, Tracey C.; Pawluski, Jodi L.

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-four caregivers and their 2- to 4-year-old children took part in a storybook reading task in which caregivers taught children novel labels for familiar objects. Findings indicate parental speech could provide a rich source of information to children in learning how different lexical categories are expressed in their native language.…

  12. Effects of classroom bilingualism on task-shifting, verbal memory, and word learning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2014-07-01

    We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of 2 years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word learning. The two groups of children did not differ on measures of non-linguistic task-shifting and verbal short-term memory. However, the classroom-exposure bilingual group outperformed the monolingual group on the measure of verbal working memory and a measure of word learning. Together, these findings indicate that while exposure to a second language in a classroom setting may not be sufficient to engender changes in cognitive control, it can facilitate verbal memory and verbal learning. PMID:24576079

  13. Very early processing of emotional words revealed in temporoparietal junctions of both hemispheres by EEG and TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochas, Vincent; Rihs, Tonia A; Rosenberg, Nadia; Landis, Theodor; Michel, Christoph M

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the contribution of both hemispheres in a lateralised lexical decision paradigm with emotional and neutral words in healthy volunteers. In a first experiment, high-density EEG analysis using source imaging methods revealed early specific participation of the temporoparietal junctions (TPJ) in both hemispheres for the detection of words. Then, in an event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment with the same task, the disruption of left or right TPJ compared with a control stimulation over the vertex showed a slowing that is more pronounced when words are emotional and presented in the left visual field (LVF). This indicates that interference with both left and right TPJ results in impaired processing of words that were presented to the LVF. In addition, these results point to a specific cooperative contribution of the right hemisphere in the processing of words with emotional content compared with neutral words at very early stages. Results from the two experiments can be integrated in a brain-based spatiotemporal model of the early detection of written words. PMID:24496490

  14. Word Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Irene W.

    2004-01-01

    Research demonstrates that students learn to read words in contextual guessing, letter-sound decoding, analogy, and insight. The reading subtest results had demonstrated that the students in the word detectives group read significantly more words correctly than the students in the benchmark word identification program.

  15. Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacton, Sébastien; Foulin, Jean Noël; Casalis, Séverine; Treiman, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi "sendoff"), oit (e.g., exploit "exploit"), ois (e.g., siamois, "siamese"), or oie (e.g., joie "joy"). The morphologically complex word exploiter "to exploit", with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument) but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word's final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s). 30 min after having read the stories, children's orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie). Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois) had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem. PMID:24109464

  16. Word sense disambiguation via high order of learning in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Thiago C; 10.1209/0295-5075/98/58001

    2013-01-01

    Complex networks have been employed to model many real systems and as a modeling tool in a myriad of applications. In this paper, we use the framework of complex networks to the problem of supervised classification in the word disambiguation task, which consists in deriving a function from the supervised (or labeled) training data of ambiguous words. Traditional supervised data classification takes into account only topological or physical features of the input data. On the other hand, the human (animal) brain performs both low- and high-level orders of learning and it has facility to identify patterns according to the semantic meaning of the input data. In this paper, we apply a hybrid technique which encompasses both types of learning in the field of word sense disambiguation and show that the high-level order of learning can really improve the accuracy rate of the model. This evidence serves to demonstrate that the internal structures formed by the words do present patterns that, generally, cannot be corre...

  17. Learning to read words in a new language shapes the neural organization of the prior languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2014-12-01

    Learning a new language entails interactions with one?s prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with an fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects? second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects? proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. PMID:25447375

  18. Category specificity in early perception: face and word N170 responses differ in both lateralization and habituation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BrunoRossion

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced N170 ERP responses to both faces and visual words raises questions about category specific processing mechanisms during early perception and their neural basis. Topographic differences across word and face N170s might suggest a form of category specific processing in early perception - the word N170 is consistently left lateralized, while less consistent evidence suggests a right lateralization for the face N170. Additionally, the face N170 shows a reduction in amplitude across consecutive unique faces, a form of habituation that might differ across studies thereby helping to explain inconsistencies in lateralization. This effect remains unexplored for visual words. The current study directly contrasts N170 responses to words and faces within the same subjects, examining both category-level habituation and lateralization effects. ERP responses to a series of different faces and words were collected under two contexts: blocks that alternated faces and words versus pure blocks designed to induce category level habituation. Global and occipito-temporal measures of N170 amplitude demonstrated an interaction between category (word, faces and block context (alternating, pure. N170 amplitude demonstrated class level habituation for faces but not words. Furthermore, the pure block context diminished the right lateralization of the face N170, potentially pointing to class level habituation as a factor that might drive inconsistencies of right lateralization across different paradigms. No analogous effect for the word N170 was found, suggesting category specificity for this process. Taken together, these topographic and habituation effects suggest distinct forms of perceptual processing drive the face N170 and the visual word form N170.

  19. The Effect of the Keyword Method and Word-list Method Instruction on ESP Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Piribabadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effect of the keyword method and word-list method instruction on ESP vocabulary learning across proficiency levels. Two groups of students at Islamic Azad University of South Tehran branch were selected with the total population of 120 Industrial engineering intermediate students with an average age of 21. The students of each class were divided into two different homogeneous groups, the upper-intermediate level and the lower- intermediate level, based on their scores on the Oxford Placement Test. Each class was instructed through a specified method of vocabulary learning, i.e. the keyword method and word-list method, for an equal time of four weeks. Following both treatments, a multiple-choice test was administered to each class as the post-test to find out the ESP students' vocabulary knowledge. The results of the study indicated that the upper-intermediate learners who received the keyword method instruction outperformed the upper-intermediate learners who received the word-list method. In addition, the lower-intermediate level students in the keyword method group had better performance than those in the word-list method. Moreover, regardless of the proficiency level of the students, all of the students in the keyword method group obtained higher scores than those in the word-list method group. The results of the study revealed that the keyword method instruction has superiority over the word-lists method in learning ESP vocabulary regarding the proficiency level of the students.

  20. Learning Distributed Word Representations for Natural Logic Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Samuel R.; Potts, Christopher; Manning, Christopher D

    2014-01-01

    Natural logic offers a powerful relational conception of meaning that is a natural counterpart to distributed semantic representations, which have proven valuable in a wide range of sophisticated language tasks. However, it remains an open question whether it is possible to train distributed representations to support the rich, diverse logical reasoning captured by natural logic. We address this question using two neural network-based models for learning embeddings: plain ne...

  1. Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-22

    CDC recognized the impact of developmental disabilities and invested in a campaign to help parents measure their children's progress by monitoring how they play, learn, speak, and act. .  Created: 9/22/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Division of Human Development and Disability, Child Development Studies Team.   Date Released: 9/23/2008.

  2. Computer Based Learning Modules for Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, David; Bork, Alfred

    1981-01-01

    Describes a project designed to assist 12- to 14-year-old students in developing abstract reasoning skills in math and science via interactive computer programs. Examples of learning modules designed to be run on microcomputers are included. Seven references are listed. (MER)

  3. The Development of Political Activists: A Model of Early Learning

    OpenAIRE

    King, Gary; Merelman, Richard

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of panel data reveals the unique importance of early learning to the development of political activism among Americans. A combination of two learning models-- the frequently used crystallization model and the rarely analyzed sensitization model-- is advanced as most appropriate for understanding political socialization and the development of political activism. The findings contribute to research on elite behavior and on the process of political socialization.

  4. 76 FR 53563 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ...Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top--Early Learning...Overview Information Race to the Top--Early Learning...2011, workshop; and any other technical assistance events are on the Race to the Top-Early Learning...Meta-analysis of the effects of early education...

  5. The influence of part-word phonotactic probability/neighborhood density on word learning by preschool children varying in expressive vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Storkel, Holly L.; Hoover, Jill R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the influence of part-word phonotactic probability/neighborhood density on word learning by preschool children with normal vocabularies that varied in size. Ninety-eight children (age 2;11 – 6;0) were taught consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonwords orthogonally varying in the probability/density of the CV (i.e., body) and VC (i.e., rhyme). Learning was measured via picture naming. Children with the lowest expressive vocabulary scores showed no effect of...

  6. Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SebastienPacton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi ‘sendoff’, oit (e.g., exploit ‘exploit’, ois (e.g., siamois, ‘siamese’, or oie (e.g., joie ‘joy’. The morphologically complex word exploiter ‘to exploit’, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word’s final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s. Thirty minutes after having read the stories, children’s orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie. Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

  7. Simple Semi-supervised Learning for Chinese Word Segmentation and Pos Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies of unlabeled data selection are important for semi-supervised learning of natural language processing tasks. To increase the accuracy and diversity of new labeled data, plenty of methods have been proposed, such as ensemble-based self-training, co-training and tri-training methods. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective semi-supervised algorithm for Chinese word segmentation and part-of-speech tagging problem which selects new labeled data agreed by two different approaches: character-based and word-based models. Theoretical and experimental analysis verifies that sentences with same annotation on both models are more accurate than those generated by single models and are suitable for semi-supervised learning as additional data. Experimental results on Chinese Treebank 5.0 demonstrate that our semi-supervised approach is comparable with the best reported semi-supervised approach which employs complex feature engineering.

  8. Building a responsive teacher: how temporal contingency of gaze interaction influences word learning with virtual tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanju; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Animated pedagogical agents are lifelike virtual characters designed to augment learning. A review of developmental psychology literature led to the hypothesis that the temporal contingency of such agents would promote human learning. We developed a Pedagogical Agent with Gaze Interaction (PAGI), an experimental animated pedagogical agent that engages in gaze interaction with students. In this study, university students learned words of a foreign language, with temporally contingent PAGI (live group) or recorded version of PAGI (recorded group), which played pre-recorded sequences from live sessions. The result revealed that students in the live group scored considerably better than those in the recorded group. The finding indicates that incorporating temporal contingency of gaze interaction from a pedagogical agent has positive effect on learning.

  9. Learning with Nature and Learning from Others: Nature as Setting and Resource for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences--in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners--are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A…

  10. When Service Learning Meets the Project Approach: Incorporating Service Learning in an Early Childhood Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Eul Jung; Hertzog, Nancy B.; Gaffney, Janet S.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2012-01-01

    The researchers described in this case study how Service Learning was incorporated within the context of an early childhood program where the teachers used the Project Approach. The Service Learning project was embedded in an investigation about water and was designed to help tsunami victims in Asia. Participants included two teachers and 12…

  11. Agency in Early Childhood Learning and Development in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsamenang, A. Bame

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on agency, as a natural disposition in children to be active and participative. Africa's parenting attitudes and education in African family traditions encourage and foster children's responsible agency in family life, cultural and economic activities, and their own developmental learning from an early, especially within the…

  12. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

  13. The Effect of the Davis Learning Strategies on First Grade Word Recognition and Subsequent Special Education Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Sharon; Davis, Ronald; Kellogg, Ethel; Hern, Carol; McLaughlin, T. F.; Curry, Gerry

    2001-01-01

    Determines the beneficial effects of integrating various Davis Learning Strategies, primarily Davis Symbol Mastery, on sight word skills. Indicates that children scored significantly higher than the control group for the mastery of 100 basic sight words for the first grade students. Gives suggestions for further assessment of the Davis method. (SG)

  14. The Influence of Two Cognitive-Linguistic Variables on Incidental Word Learning in 5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Alyson D.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The relation between incidental word learning and two cognitive-linguistic variables--phonological memory and phonological awareness--is not fully understood. Thirty-five typically developing, 5-year-old, preschool children participated in a study examining the association between phonological memory, phonological awareness, and incidental word…

  15. The influence of reading unit size on the development of Stroop interference in early word decoding

    OpenAIRE

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Morris, Robin D.; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Strauss, Gregory P.; Sieczko, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to determine the automatic use of large or small word reading units in young readers in the absence of word decoding strategies. Picture-word Stroop interference was examined from four types of conflicting labels: (a) words containing both highly predictable grapheme–phoneme correspondence (GPC) units and highly consistent rime units (henceforth, Hi-GPC + Hi-Rime); (b) words with highly predictable GPC units and less consistent rime units (Hi-GPC + Lo-Rime...

  16. Word of mouth in social learning: The effects of word of mouth advice in the smartphone market

    OpenAIRE

    Head, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this thesis is to examine word of mouth advice and its relationship with product sales and market shares in the context of the smartphone market. The thesis aims to determine the key properties of valuable word of mouth advice from a consumer's perspective and seeks to identify the effects of sources and transmission methods on the valuation of word of mouth advice. Furthermore, the thesis aims to clarify the market wide effects of positive word ...

  17. Narrative assessment: making mathematics learning visible in early childhood settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories—the preferred form of narrative assessment—currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.

  18. Thai Learners’ English Pronunciation Competence: Lesson Learned from Word Stress Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapol Khamkhien

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available English has been a lingua franca in various domains of communication such as international business, academic conferences, diplomacy, science and technology. As a result, the demands for English skills in all aspects are crucial in response to the importance of English and the impact of globalization. Despite the constant efforts in developing English education in Thailand, a number of studies have shown that the achievement of Thai learners was unsatisfactory. Given the role of English as an international language which is used in almost domain of communication, amongst several factors hindering the success of English language learning, English pronunciation of the Thai learners should be focused. This study has two principle objectives: 1 to examine Thai learners’ knowledge with regard to word stress assignment; and 2 to determine possible factors affecting the Thai learners’ pronunciation competence. To achieve these objectives, 90 Thai learners of English participated in this study. The test consisting of two parts: personal information profile, and 40 selected words systematically taken from two textbooks, was employed to identify these participants’ pronunciation competence. The results showed that most of the participants’ English pronunciation was somewhat limited.  Gender was identified to be the most significant factor contributing to the participants’ test scores, while faculty and years of studying English were not. In light of the results suggested by the three variables, pedagogical suggestions were offered to help improve teaching and learning English pronunciation in general, and in focusing on the importance of teaching word stress in particular.

  19. Get the story straight: contextual repetition promotes word learning from storybooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KellyL Parsons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Although reading storybooks to preschool children is a common activity believed to improve language skills, how children learn new vocabulary from being to has been largely neglected in the shared storybook reading literature. The current study systematically explores the effects of repeatedly reading the same storybooks on both young children's fast and slow mapping ability. Specially created storybooks were read to 3-year-old children three times during the course of one week. Each of the nine storybooks contained two novel word-object pairs. At each session, children either heard three different stories with the same two novel name-object pairs or the same story three times. All children heard each novel name the same number of times. A four-alternative forced-choice task with pictures of the objects was used to test both immediate recall and retention. Children who heard the same stories repeatedly were very accurate on both the immediate recall and retention tasks. In contrast, children who heard different stories were only accurate on immediate recall during the last two sessions and failed to learn any of the new words. Overall, then, we found a dramatic increase in children’s ability to both recall and retain novel word-object associations encountered during shared storybook reading when they heard the same stories multiple times in succession. Results are discussed in terms of contextual cueing effects observed in other cognitive domains.

  20. GeoSegmenter: A statistically learned Chinese word segmenter for the geoscience domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lan; Du, Youfu; Chen, Gongyang

    2015-03-01

    Unlike English, the Chinese language has no space between words. Segmenting texts into words, known as the Chinese word segmentation (CWS) problem, thus becomes a fundamental issue for processing Chinese documents and the first step in many text mining applications, including information retrieval, machine translation and knowledge acquisition. However, for the geoscience subject domain, the CWS problem remains unsolved. Although a generic segmenter can be applied to process geoscience documents, they lack the domain specific knowledge and consequently their segmentation accuracy drops dramatically. This motivated us to develop a segmenter specifically for the geoscience subject domain: the GeoSegmenter. We first proposed a generic two-step framework for domain specific CWS. Following this framework, we built GeoSegmenter using conditional random fields, a principled statistical framework for sequence learning. Specifically, GeoSegmenter first identifies general terms by using a generic baseline segmenter. Then it recognises geoscience terms by learning and applying a model that can transform the initial segmentation into the goal segmentation. Empirical experimental results on geoscience documents and benchmark datasets showed that GeoSegmenter could effectively recognise both geoscience terms and general terms.

  1. Patterns of Performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test in Children with Learning, Attentional, and Psychiatric Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Zarabeth L.; Golden, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the performance of children with learning, psychiatric, and attentional disabilities on the Stroop Color and Word Test. Results indicated clear differences between groups, with the learning disabled (LD) and the psychiatric/attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) groups generating unique profiles. Children with LD showed…

  2. The effect of a word processor as an accommodation for students with learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Lewandowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of writing format (handwritten (HW versus word processor (WP were examined in a sample of college students with and without learning disabilities (LD. All students wrote two essays, one in each format, scored for quality and length. Groups did not differ in age, gender, ethnicity, mathematical calculation, writing fluency, essay length or essay quality. The "interaction hypothesis" was not supported, in that the use of a word processor as a writing accommodation did not provide a differential boost to students with LD. Both groups produced longer essays in the WP versus HW condition. The best predictor of essay quality was essay length regardless of writing format. Most students in each group preferred the WP format. Interestingly, a smaller percentage of students in the LD group (72% than NLD group (91% used the available time for writing.

  3. Effects of Classroom Bilingualism on Task Shifting, Verbal Memory, and Word Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of two years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word-learning. The two groups of children did not differ on measures of non-linguistic task-shifting and verbal short-term memory. However, the classroom-exposure bilingual group outperformed the monolingual group on the measure of verbal working memory and a measure of word-learning. Together, these findings indicate that while exposure to a second language in a classroom setting may not be sufficient to engender changes in cognitive control, it can facilitate verbal memory and verbal learning. PMID:24576079

  4. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Enever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

  5. An Image Classification Algorithm Based on Bag of Visual Words and Multi-kernel Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong-wei LOU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose an image classification algorithm based on Bag of Visual Words model and multi-kernel learning. First of all, we extract the D-SIFT (Dense Scale-invariant Feature Transform features from images in the training set. And then construct visual vocabulary via K-means clustering. The local features of original images are mapped to vectors of fixed length through visual vocabulary and spatial pyramid model. At last, the final classification results are given by generalized multiple kernel proposed by this paper. The experiments are performed on Caltech-101 image dataset and the results show the accuracy and effectiveness of the algorithm

  6. Effects of Classroom Bilingualism on Task Shifting, Verbal Memory, and Word Learning in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of two years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word-learning. The two groups of children ...

  7. Multiple aspects of self-regulation uniquely predict mathematics but not letter-word knowledge in the early elementary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Greenberg, Mark; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2015-04-01

    The relation of self-regulation measured prior to school entry to developing math and reading ability in prekindergarten through the second grade was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children and families in predominantly rural and low-income communities in 2 regions of high poverty in the United States. Direct assessments of executive function, effortful control, and stress response physiology (indexed by resting levels of cortisol and alpha amylase obtained from saliva) were measured at child age 48 months and parents and teachers reported on children's effortful control using temperament rating scales at child age approximately 60 months. Math and reading ability, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson III applied problems and letter-word subtests, respectively, were measured at prekindergarten through the second grade. Effects for self-regulation measures were seen primarily for initial level and to some extent growth in both mathematics and reading, even when controlling for family demographic characteristics that represent relevant selection factors into higher levels of both self-regulation and academic achievement. These effects persisted for mathematics but not for reading with the inclusion of child cognitive abilities, vocabulary, and speed of processing measured in prekindergarten, concurrent with the first time point for the academic measures. Results are interpreted as indicating a role for self-regulation in learning ability generally, likely through support for attention and reasoning abilities that are most specific to the assessment of mathematics in this analysis. Implications for instruction and for assessment and the best ways to support the development of early math and reading ability for children at risk for school failure are discussed. PMID:25688999

  8. "In Our Own Words": Creating Videos as Teaching and Learning Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norda Majekodunmi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Online videos, particularly those on YouTube, have proliferated on the internet; watching them has become part of our everyday activity. While libraries have often harnessed the power of videos to create their own promotional and informational videos, few have created their own teaching and learning tools beyond screencasting videos. In the summer of 2010, the authors, two librarians at York University, decided to work on a video project which culminated in a series of instructional videos entitled “Learning: In Our Own Words.” The purpose of the video project was twofold: to trace the “real” experience of incoming students and their development of academic literacies skills (research, writing and learning throughout their first year, and to create videos that librarians and other instructors could use as instructional tools to engage students in critical thinking and discussion. This paper outlines the authors’ experience filming the videos, creating a teaching guide, and screening the videos in the classroom. Lessons learned during this initiative are discussed in the hope that more libraries will develop videos as teaching and learning tools.

  9. Young Word Learners' Interpretations of Words and Symbolic Gestures within the Context of Ambiguous Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation…

  10. Neurocognitive mechanisms of learning to read: print tuning in beginning readers related to word-reading fluency and semantics but not phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K; Jost, Lea B; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role for reading and dyslexia. A 128-channel EEG was recorded while 68 (Swiss-)German monolingual first grade children (mean age: 7.6) performed a one-back task with different types of letter and false-font strings. Print tuning was indexed by the N1 difference in the ERPs between German words and false-font strings, while the N1 lexicality effect was indexed by the difference between German words and pseudowords. In addition, we measured reading fluency, rapid automatized naming, phonological awareness, auditory memory span, and vocabulary. After one year of formal reading instruction N1 print tuning was clearly present at the group level, and could be detected at the individual level in almost 90% of the children. The N1 lexicality effect, however, could not be reliably found. On the cognitive level, next to word-reading fluency, vocabulary was also associated with N1 print tuning, but not measures reflecting phonological processing. These results demonstrate the presence of print tuning in the first year of reading acquisition and its development at the individual level. Moreover, individual differences in print tuning are not only related to word-reading fluency, but also to semantic knowledge, indicating that at early stages of learning to read the top-down modulation of print tuning is semantic rather than phonological in nature. PMID:24863157

  11. Successful Learning of Academic Word List via MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Minoo Alemi; Mohammad Reza Anani Sarab; Zahra Lari

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones as new addition to information and communication technologies have created new ways to help learners in the process of foreign language learning. Given the importance of academic vocabularies for university students, this study tried to investigate the effectiveness of SMS on Iranian university students’ vocabulary learning and retention. To this end forty five university freshman students with upper intermediate proficiency level were chosen to take part in this study. During...

  12. The Effect of Exposure to the Visual Medium on Learning Pronunciation and Word Stress of L2 Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Fotovatnia; Mahboubeh Omidi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of exposure to the visual medium on learning pronunciation and word stress. Thirty junior high school students participated in this study. They were divided into an experimental and a control group each included 15 students. The participants were given a pretest in order to make sure that they were homogeneous with regard to their pronunciation and word stress. Both groups received instruction on key to phonetic symbols available in the back of their textbooks a...

  13. Shakespeare and the Words of Early Modern Physic: Between Academic and Popular Medicine. A Lexicographical Approach to the Plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Mullini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at showing how Shakespeare relied on the medical vocabulary shared by his coeval society, which had, for centuries, been witnessing the continuous process of vernacularization of ancient and medieval scientific texts. After outlining the state of early modern medicine, the author presents and discusses the results of her search for relevant medical terms in nine plays by Shakespeare. In order to do this, a wide range of medical treatises has been analysed (either directly or through specific corpora such as Medieval English Medical Texts, MEMT 2005, and Early Modern English Medical Texts, EMEMT 2010, so as to verify the ancestry or the novelty of Shakespearean medical words. In addition to this, the author has also built a corpus of word types derived from seventeenth-century quack doctors’ handbills, with the purpose of creating a word list of medical terms connected to popular rather than university medicine, comparable with the list drawn out of the Shakespearean plays. The results most stressed in the article concern Shakespeare’s use of medical terminology already well known to his contemporary society (thus confuting the Oxfordian thesis about the impossibility for William Shakespeare the actor to master so many medical words and the playwright’s skill in transforming – rather than inventing – old popular terms. The article is accompanied by five tables that collect the results of the various lexicographical searches.

  14. Dynamic assessment of word learning skills of pre-school children with primary language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Bernard; Law, James

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic assessment has been shown to have considerable theoretical and clinical significance in the assessment of socially disadvantaged and culturally and linguistically diverse children. In this study it is used to enhance assessment of pre-school children with primary language impairment. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a dynamic assessment (DA) has the potential to enhance the predictive capacity of a static measure of receptive vocabulary in pre-school children. Forty pre-school children were assessed using the static British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS), a DA of word learning potential and an assessment of non-verbal cognitive ability. Thirty-seven children were followed up 6 months later and re-assessed using the BPVS. Although the predictive capacity of the static measure was found to be substantial, the DA increased this significantly especially for children with static scores below the 25th centile. The DA of children's word learning has the potential to add value to the static assessment of the child with low language skills, to predict subsequent receptive vocabulary skills and to increase the chance of correctly identifying children in need of ongoing support. PMID:24160256

  15. Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Walsh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of the interactional triangle—the children, the adults, and their physical environment—is assessed by means of an observation schedule called the Quality Learning Instrument (QLI. The paper illustrates the design and validation of the instrument with data from a project involving observations of classroom practice in Northern Ireland primary schools and Danish kindergartens. It describes how judgments made using the instrument can be triangulated or “calibrated” against the judgments of experts not connected with the data collection. The article concludes with the argument that the instrument may be successfully used to provide a basis for external quality assessments or as a means for early years teachers to reflect on the environment for learning that they generate in their own classrooms.

  16. Early flavor learning and its impact on later feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gary K; Mennella, Julie A

    2009-03-01

    In this review, we first outline the role and mechanisms of the chemical senses (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) in the perception of the flavor of a food or beverage. We then describe research findings, much of them from our laboratories, on the ontogeny of flavor perception and the interacting roles of innate responses and learning in the establishment of flavor preference of infants and children. Broadly, taste (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami, or savory) preferences have a strong innate component. Sweet, umami, and salty substances are innately preferred, whereas bitter and many sour substances are innately rejected. Nevertheless, these innate tendencies can be modified by pre- and postnatal experiences. Volatile components of flavor, detected by the olfactory system, are strongly influenced by early exposure and learning beginning in utero and continuing during early milk (breast milk or formula) feedings. These experiences set the stage for later food choices and are important in establishing life-long food habits. As many of the diseases plaguing developed and developing societies involve excess consumption of some foods, an understanding of factors that determine choice and ingestion, particularly an understanding of the early factors, is important in designing strategies to enhance the health of the infant, child, and adult. PMID:19214055

  17. Focus on Meaning : Mapping the semantic and conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) word in Chinese vocabulary learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun; Wang Jingjing, Jenny

    Abstract This study examines the effect of mapping between the semantic and conceptual representation of target words ?????, and ?on Chinese (L2) vocabulary learning at a university class. Students (N=25) were the 2nd-year Chinese –major students at one university in Denmark. They were given tests recognizing new vocabulary (two-, three and four-character words) in a series of simple meaning recognition tests administered by the authors over three weeks. The test sets consist of vocabulary with target words that were given semantic and conceptual explanation by the authors in the previous week’s lessons. Students use a multiple choice to indicate whether a given item had a correct meaning in a given vocabulary. Data from controllers (N=3) who are native Chinese language teachers are also collected and analyzed. The findings indicate that the mapping between semantic and conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words can have a measurable effect on students’ efficacy of (Nation 2011) vocabulary learning inthe classroom. The findings also reveal that conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words reinforce the students’ reliance on L 1 by building a link between L 1semantic representations and L 2 semantics. Finally, the pedagogical implications for teaching Chinese (L2) are discussed as well. Key words: Chinese word, semantic representation, conceptual representation, vocabulary teaching

  18. The Predictive Power of Phonemic Awareness and Naming Speed for Early Dutch Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Wim G. M.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of phonemic awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. Both the speed and accuracy of word recognition at the end of Grade 2 were predicted by naming speed from both kindergarten and Grade 1, after control for autoregressive relations, kindergarten…

  19. Disentangling the Influence of Salience and Familiarity on Infant Word Learning: Methodological Advances

    OpenAIRE

    HeatherBortfeld

    2013-01-01

    The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants' environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While ...

  20. KidSmart© in Early Childhood Learning Practices : Playful Learning Potentials?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva; Borum, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study exploring the outcomes from young children’s play with digital technology in formal and semi-formal learning practices. The study is part of a bigger project being conducted by IBM KidSmart Early Learning Program, Denmark, the Danish Agency of Culture, 13 kindergartens in Varde municipality, Denmark, Varde Library, Denmark, and Aalborg University, Denmark. The project is concerned with preparing young children to enter the digital world and to bridge the digital divide. In doing so, there is a specific interest in how digital technology can foster integration, language and concept development through an inquiry-based mode of play, learning, and interaction. This study applies a human-centred design approach to learning and play in order to investigate affordances and constraints that emerge from younger children’s engagement with digital technology, particularly focusing on the aspects of agency and playfulness.

  1. Does Early Algebraic Reasoning Differ as a Function of Students' Difficulty with Calculations versus Word Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2014-08-01

    According to national mathematics standards, algebra instruction should begin at kindergarten and continue through elementary school. Most often, teachers address algebra in the elementary grades with problems related to solving equations or understanding functions. With 789 2(nd)- grade students, we administered (a) measures of calculations and word problems in the fall and (b) an assessment of pre-algebraic reasoning, with items that assessed solving equations and functions, in the spring. Based on the calculation and word-problem measures, we placed 148 students into 1 of 4 difficulty status categories: typically performing, calculation difficulty, word-problem difficulty, or difficulty with calculations and word problems. Analyses of variance were conducted on the 148 students; path analytic mediation analyses were conducted on the larger sample of 789 students. Across analyses, results corroborated the finding that word-problem difficulty is more strongly associated with difficulty with pre-algebraic reasoning. As an indicator of later algebra difficulty, word-problem difficulty may be a more useful predictor than calculation difficulty, and students with word-problem difficulty may require a different level of algebraic reasoning intervention than students with calculation difficulty. PMID:25309044

  2. Reading with Meaning: The Contributions of Meaning-Related Variables at the Word and Subword Levels to Early Chinese Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tong, Xiuli; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Fong, Cathy Y.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations of three levels of meaning acquisition, i.e., whole word (vocabulary), morpheme (morphological awareness), and semantic radical (orthography-semantic awareness) to early Chinese reading comprehension among 164 Hong Kong Chinese primary school students, ages 7 and 8 years old, across 1 year. With time 1 word…

  3. Bilingual and monolingual children attend to different cues when learning new words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElianaColunga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The way in which children learn language can vary depending on their language environment. Previous work suggests that bilingual children may be more sensitive to pragmatic cues from a speaker when learning new words than monolingual children are. On the other hand, monolingual children may rely more heavily on object properties than bilingual children do. In this study we manipulate these two sources of information within the same paradigm, using eye gaze as a pragmatic cue and similarity along different dimensions as an object cue. In the crucial condition, object and pragmatic cues were inconsistent with each other. Our results showed that in this ambiguous condition monolingual children attend more to object property cues whereas bilingual children attend more to pragmatic cues. Control conditions showed that monolingual children were sensitive to eye gaze and bilingual children were sensitive to similarity by shape; it was only when the cues were inconsistent that children’s preference for one or the other cue was apparent. Our results suggest that children learn to weigh different cues depending on their relative informativeness in their environment

  4. 78 FR 53991 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...effective behavior management strategies that...and other early learning and development...promote children's learning and development...developmental theory, or data or information...financial incentives, management opportunities...developmental theory, or data or...

  5. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of the Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighborhood Density on Word Learning by Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Jill R.; Storkel, Holly L.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of phonotactic probability and neighborhood density on word learning by 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Nonwords orthogonally varying in probability and density were taught with learning and retention measured via picture naming. Experiment 1 used a within-story probability/across-story density exposure context. Experiment 2 used an across-story probability/within-story density exposure context. Results showed that probability and density interacted to cr...

  6. Effect of Speaker Gaze on Word Learning in Fragile X Syndrome: A Comparison with Nonsyndromic Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, David P.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Thurman, Angela J.; Kover, Sara T.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined use of a speaker's direction of gaze during word learning by boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), boys with nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typically developing (TD) boys. Method: A fast-mapping task with follow-in and discrepant labeling conditions was administered. We expected that the use of speaker…

  7. Linking Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: A Computational Model of the Learning of New Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Gobet, Fernand; Pine, Julian M.

    2007-01-01

    The nonword repetition (NWR) test has been shown to be a good predictor of children's vocabulary size. NWR performance has been explained using phonological working memory, which is seen as a critical component in the learning of new words. However, no detailed specification of the link between phonological working memory and long-term memory…

  8. Getting the Bugs out with PESTS: A Mnemonic Approach to Spelling Sight Words for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sue; DaDeppo, Lisa M. W.; De La Paz, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Difficulties with spelling can impact students' reading acquisition and writing, having a critical impact on overall literacy development. Students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle with spelling. We describe a case study with three elementary-aged students with LD using a mnemonic approach to spelling sight words. Our approach,…

  9. Implicit and Explicit Mechanisms of Word Learning in a Narrative Context: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of word meanings are learned simply by extracting them from context rather than by rote memorization or explicit instruction. Although this skill is remarkable, little is known about the brain mechanisms involved. In the present study, ERPs were recorded as participants read stories in which pseudowords were presented multiple…

  10. Video Interactions for Teaching and Learning (VITAL): Analyzing Videos Online to Learn to Teach Early Childhood Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Sun; Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Preston, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The most pressing need in early childhood mathematics education in the United States is to improve early childhood teacher preparation. A Web-based video system, "Video Interactions for Teaching and Learning (VITAL)", is a novel and effective approach for teacher preparation integrated into early childhood mathematics education courses. With…

  11. The Surprising Power of Statistical Learning: When Fragment Knowledge Leads to False Memories of Unheard Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Mehler, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Word-segmentation, that is, the extraction of words from fluent speech, is one of the first problems language learners have to master. It is generally believed that statistical processes, in particular those tracking "transitional probabilities" (TPs), are important to word-segmentation. However, there is evidence that word forms are stored in…

  12. Looking and touching: what extant approaches reveal about the structure of early word knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Kristi; Mitsven, Samantha; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2014-11-28

    The goal of the current study is to assess the temporal dynamics of vision and action to evaluate the underlying word representations that guide infants' responses. Sixteen-month-old infants participated in a two-alternative forced-choice word-picture matching task. We conducted a moment-by-moment analysis of looking and reaching behaviors as they occurred in tandem to assess the speed with which a prompted word was processed (visual reaction time) as a function of the type of haptic response: Target, Distractor, or No Touch. Visual reaction times (visual RTs) were significantly slower during No Touches compared to Distractor and Target Touches, which were statistically indistinguishable. The finding that visual RTs were significantly faster during Distractor Touches compared to No Touches suggests that incorrect and absent haptic responses appear to index distinct knowledge states: incorrect responses are associated with partial knowledge whereas absent responses appear to reflect a true failure to map lexical items to their target referents. Further, we found that those children who were faster at processing words were also those children who exhibited better haptic performance. This research provides a methodological clarification on knowledge measured by the visual and haptic modalities and new evidence for a continuum of word knowledge in the second year of life. PMID:25444711

  13. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of the Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighborhood Density on Word Learning by Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Jill R; Storkel, Holly L; Hogan, Tiffany P

    2010-07-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of phonotactic probability and neighborhood density on word learning by 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Nonwords orthogonally varying in probability and density were taught with learning and retention measured via picture naming. Experiment 1 used a within-story probability/across-story density exposure context. Experiment 2 used an across-story probability/within-story density exposure context. Results showed that probability and density interacted to create optimal learning conditions. Specifically, rare/sparse sound sequences appeared to facilitate triggering of word learning. In contrast, the optimal convergence for lexical configuration and engagement was dependent on exposure context. In particular, common sound sequences and dense neighborhoods were optimal when density was manipulated across stories, whereas rare sound sequences and sparse neighborhoods were optimal when density was manipulated within a story. Taken together, children's phonological and lexical representations were hypothesized to be interdependent on one another resulting in a convergence of form characteristics for optimal word learning. PMID:20563243

  14. Get the story straight: contextual repetition promotes word learning from storybooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jessica S; Parsons, Kelly L; Bryan, Natasha M

    2011-01-01

    Although shared storybook reading is a common activity believed to improve the language skills of preschool children, how children learn new vocabulary from such experiences has been largely neglected in the literature. The current study systematically explores the effects of repeatedly reading the same storybooks on both young children's fast and slow mapping abilities. Specially created storybooks were read to 3-year-old children three times during the course of 1 week. Each of the nine storybooks contained two novel name-object pairs. At each session, children either heard three different stories with the same two novel name-object pairs or the same story three times. Importantly, all children heard each novel name the same number of times. Both immediate recall and retention were tested with a four-alternative forced-choice task with pictures of the novel objects. Children who heard the same stories repeatedly were very accurate on both the immediate recall and retention tasks. In contrast, children who heard different stories were only accurate on immediate recall during the last two sessions and failed to learn any of the new words. Overall, then, we found a dramatic increase in children's ability to both recall and retain novel name-object associations encountered during shared storybook reading when they heard the same stories multiple times in succession. Results are discussed in terms of contextual cueing effects observed in other cognitive domains. PMID:21713179

  15. The Nature of Professional Learning Communities in New Zealand Early Childhood Education: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrington, Sue; Thornton, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Professional learning communities are receiving increasing attention within the schooling sector but empirical research into their development and use within early childhood education contexts is rare. This paper reports initial findings of an exploratory study into the development of professional learning communities in New Zealand's early…

  16. The early context effect reflects activity in the temporo-prefrontal semantic system: evidence from electrical neuroimaging of abstract and concrete word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Miranka; Horn, Helge; Koenig, Thomas; Razafimandimby, Annick; Stein, Maria; Mueller, Thomas; Federspiel, Andrea; Meier, Beat; Dierks, Thomas; Strik, Werner

    2008-08-01

    Spatial and temporal characteristics of lexico-semantic retrieval are frequently examined with semantic context (i.e., priming) paradigms. These paradigms measure context (i.e., priming) effects in word processing evoked by semantically related context. Besides the well-known attention-dependent N400 context effect (>250 ms), recent studies demonstrate early automatic context effects in the P1-N1 time period (measured in visually displayed words that followed semantically related single-word context. Spatial and temporal aspects of the effect were analyzed by applying topographic and source analyses on the word-triggered Event Related Potentials. The early context effect was enhanced in abstract compared to concrete words as indicated by a difference in the occurrence of P1-N1 transition map and a corresponding topographic dissimilarity (116-140 ms). This concreteness-dependent modulation demonstrates the sensitivity of the early context effect to structural differences in verbal semantics. Furthermore, the topographic difference was explained by enhanced activation in the left inferior prefrontal cortex for related compared to unrelated words in addition to temporo-parietal generators recruited in both conditions. The result suggests automatic feedforward processing of context-related information in temporo-prefrontal brain regions critical to semantic analysis. Taken together our findings show that the early context effect reflects activation processes in verbal semantic memory. PMID:18511302

  17. Functional Connectivity between Brain Regions Involved in Learning Words of a New Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroude, Kim; Norris, David G.; Shumskaya, Elena; Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have identified several brain regions that appear to be involved in the acquisition of novel word forms. Standard word-by-word presentation is often used although exposure to a new language normally occurs in a natural, real world situation. In the current experiment we investigated naturalistic language exposure and applied a…

  18. Analysis of Phonemes, Graphemes, Onset-Rimes, and Words with Braille-Learning Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Six primary school-aged braille students were taught to name 4 to 10 braille letters as phonemes and another 4 to 10 braille letters as graphemes (Study 1). They were then taught to name 10 braille words as onset-rimes and another 10 braille words as whole words (Study 2). Instruction in phonemes and onset rimes resulted in fewer trials and a…

  19. The Right Thing at the Right Time: Why Ostensive Naming Facilitates Word Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JessicaSHorst

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines how focusing children’s attention during referent selection improves their ability to retain novel names. Previous research suggests that young children can only retain novel names presented via referent selection if ostensive naming is provided and that ostensive naming works by increasing children’s attention to the target and decreasing their attention to the competitor objects (Horst & Samuelson, 2008. This explanation of the function of ostensive naming was tested by presenting 24-month-old children with a referent selection task where their attention was drawn to the target either by illuminating the target, covering the competitors or both. A control group was given a pragmatic cue (pointing. Children only demonstrated retention if the target object was illuminated, suggesting that drawing children’s attention to the target object and away from the present competitors is critical for word learning via referent selection to occur. In contrast, children given pragmatic-cue support did not perform better than chance. Children performed best when both cues (illumination and covering were used.

  20. Early morphological processing is morphosemantic and not simply morpho-orthographic: A violation of form-then-meaning accounts of word recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; O’Connor, Patrick A.; del Prado Martín, Fermín Moscoso

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that a word’s orthographic form must be processed before its meaning becomes available. Some interpret the (null) finding of equal facilitation after semantically transparent and opaque morphologically related primes in early stages of morphological processing as consistent with this view. Recent literature suggests that morphological facilitation tends to be greater after transparent than after opaque primes, however. To determine whether the degree of semantic tr...

  1. Machine learning and word sense disambiguation in the biomedical domain: design and evaluation issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongfang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD is critical in the biomedical domain for improving the precision of natural language processing (NLP, text mining, and information retrieval systems because ambiguous words negatively impact accurate access to literature containing biomolecular entities, such as genes, proteins, cells, diseases, and other important entities. Automated techniques have been developed that address the WSD problem for a number of text processing situations, but the problem is still a challenging one. Supervised WSD machine learning (ML methods have been applied in the biomedical domain and have shown promising results, but the results typically incorporate a number of confounding factors, and it is problematic to truly understand the effectiveness and generalizability of the methods because these factors interact with each other and affect the final results. Thus, there is a need to explicitly address the factors and to systematically quantify their effects on performance. Results Experiments were designed to measure the effect of "sample size" (i.e. size of the datasets, "sense distribution" (i.e. the distribution of the different meanings of the ambiguous word and "degree of difficulty" (i.e. the measure of the distances between the meanings of the senses of an ambiguous word on the performance of WSD classifiers. Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers were applied to an automatically generated data set containing four ambiguous biomedical abbreviations: BPD, BSA, PCA, and RSV, which were chosen because of varying degrees of differences in their respective senses. Results showed that: 1 increasing the sample size generally reduced the error rate, but this was limited mainly to well-separated senses (i.e. cases where the distances between the senses were large; in difficult cases an unusually large increase in sample size was needed to increase performance slightly, which was impractical, 2 the sense distribution did not have an effect on performance when the senses were separable, 3 when there was a majority sense of over 90%, the WSD classifier was not better than use of the simple majority sense, 4 error rates were proportional to the similarity of senses, and 5 there was no statistical difference between results when using a 5-fold or 10-fold cross-validation method. Other issues that impact performance are also enumerated. Conclusion Several different independent aspects affect performance when using ML techniques for WSD. We found that combining them into one single result obscures understanding of the underlying methods. Although we studied only four abbreviations, we utilized a well-established statistical method that guarantees the results are likely to be generalizable for abbreviations with similar characteristics. The results of our experiments show that in order to understand the performance of these ML methods it is critical that papers report on the baseline performance, the distribution and sample size of the senses in the datasets, and the standard deviation or confidence intervals. In addition, papers should also characterize the difficulty of the WSD task, the WSD situations addressed and not addressed, as well as the ML methods and features used. This should lead to an improved understanding of the generalizablility and the limitations of the methodology.

  2. Age-Related Benefits of Digital Noise Reduction for Short-Term Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of word learning for children with hearing loss (HL) in quiet and in noise compared to normal-hearing (NH) peers. The effects of digital noise reduction (DNR) were examined for children with HL. Method: Forty-one children with NH and 26 children with HL were grouped by age (8-9 years and 11-12 years). The children…

  3. The Effects of Using Flashcards with Reading Racetrack to Teach Letter Sounds, Sight Words, and Math Facts to Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbey, Rachel; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark; Everson, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of reading racetrack and flashcards when teaching phonics, sight words, and addition facts. The participants for the sight word and phonics portion of this study were two seven-year-old boys in the second grade. Both participants were diagnosed with a learning disability. The third participant…

  4. It’s More Than Content: Expanding the Conception of Early Learning Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Brown

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of standards-based reform in early childhood education to demonstrate how a particular set of early childhood stakeholders—by laterally incorporating a range of developmental domains within their standards—provided a "rhizoanalytic" response to the Bush administration's call for early learning standards in language, early literacy, and mathematics. By incorporating the work of the National Research Council with Wisconsin's Model Early Learning Standards, the author considers how early childhood stakeholders can construct future political responses that horizontally and vertically align the field of early childhood education. Such a rhizomatic response provides the opportunity to propose politically viable policies that respect the heterogeneity that exists within the field of early childhood education.

  5. Early testimonial learning: monitoring speech acts and speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Elizabeth; Suarez, Sarah; Koenig, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Testimony provides children with a rich source of knowledge about the world and the people in it. However, testimony is not guaranteed to be veridical, and speakers vary greatly in both knowledge and intent. In this chapter, we argue that children encounter two primary types of conflicts when learning from speakers: conflicts of knowledge and conflicts of interest. We review recent research on children's selective trust in testimony and propose two distinct mechanisms supporting early epistemic vigilance in response to the conflicts associated with speakers. The first section of the chapter focuses on the mechanism of coherence checking, which occurs during the process of message comprehension and facilitates children's comparison of information communicated through testimony to their prior knowledge, alerting them to inaccurate, inconsistent, irrational, and implausible messages. The second section focuses on source-monitoring processes. When children lack relevant prior knowledge with which to evaluate testimonial messages, they monitor speakers themselves for evidence of competence and morality, attending to cues such as confidence, consensus, access to information, prosocial and antisocial behavior, and group membership. PMID:25735944

  6. Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, Linda J.; Cort, Katherine A.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document early challenges and lessons learned in the solid-state lighting (SSL) market development as part of the DOE’s SSL Program efforts to continually evaluate market progress in this area. This report summarizes early actions taken by DOE and others to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps and identifies issues, challenges, and new lessons that have been learned in the early stages of the SSL market introduction. This study identifies and characterizes12 key lessons that have been distilled from DOE SSL program results.

  7. Disentangling the Influence of Salience and Familiarity on Infant Word Learning: Methodological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HeatherBortfeld

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants’ environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While the result is an accrual of data bridging the gap between brain and behavior, much work remains to make the link between behavioral evidence of infants' emerging sensitivities and neurophysiological evidence of changes in how their brains process information. Here we review the background behavioral data on how salience and familiarity in the auditory signal shape initial language learning. We follow this with a summary of more recent evidence of changes in infants’ brain activity in response to specific aspects of speech. Our goal is to examine language learning through the lens of brain/environment interactions, ultimately focusing on changes in cortical processing of speech across the first year of life. We will ground our examination of recent brain data in the two auditory features initially outlined: salience and familiarity. Our own and others' findings on the influence of these two features reveal that they are key parameters in infants’ emerging recognition of structure in the speech signal. Importantly, the evidence we review makes the critical link between behavioral and brain data. We discuss the importance of future work that makes this bridge as a means of moving the study of language development solidly into the domain of brain science.

  8. Disentangling the influence of salience and familiarity on infant word learning: methodological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeld, Heather; Shaw, Katie; Depowski, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants' environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While the result is an accrual of data bridging the gap between brain and behavior, much work remains to make the link between behavioral evidence of infants' emerging sensitivities and neurophysiological evidence of changes in how their brains process information. Here we review the background behavioral data on how salience and familiarity in the auditory signal shape initial language learning. We follow this with a summary of more recent evidence of changes in infants' brain activity in response to specific aspects of speech. Our goal is to examine language learning through the lens of brain/environment interactions, ultimately focusing on changes in cortical processing of speech across the first year of life. We will ground our examination of recent brain data in the two auditory features initially outlined: salience and familiarity. Our own and others' findings on the influence of these two features reveal that they are key parameters in infants' emerging recognition of structure in the speech signal. Importantly, the evidence we review makes the critical link between behavioral and brain data. We discuss the importance of future work that makes this bridge as a means of moving the study of language development solidly into the domain of brain science. PMID:23616775

  9. Usage-based vs. Rule-based Learning: The Acquisition of Word Order in Wh-Questions in English and Norwegian

    OpenAIRE

    Westergaard, Marit

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to language acquisition in relation to children’s acquisition of word order in wh-questions in English and Norwegian. While generative models assert that children set major word order parameters and thus acquire a rule of subject-auxiliary inversion or generalized verb second (V2) at an early stage, some constructivist work argues that English-speaking children are simply reproducing frequent wh-word + auxiliary combinations in the input. The paper ...

  10. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word derivations from other languages;…

  11. WordSpy: identifying transcription factor binding motifs by building a dictionary and learning a grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guandong; Yu, Taotao; Zhang, Weixiong

    2005-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding sites or motifs (TFBMs) are functional cis-regulatory DNA sequences that play an essential role in gene transcriptional regulation. Although many experimental and computational methods have been developed, finding TFBMs remains a challenging problem. We propose and develop a novel dictionary based motif finding algorithm, which we call WordSpy. One significant feature of WordSpy is the combination of a word counting method and a statistical model which consis...

  12. Functional connectivity between brain regions involved in learning words of a new language

    OpenAIRE

    Veroude, Kim; Norris, David G; Shumskaya, Elena; Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have identified several brain regions that appear to be involved in the acquisition of novel word forms. Standard word-by-word presentation is often used although exposure to a new language normally occurs in a natural, real world situation. In the current experiment we investigated naturalistic language exposure and applied a model-free analysis for hemodynamic-response data. Functional connectivity, temporal correlations between hemodynamic activity of different areas, was ...

  13. Learning Better Word Embedding by Asymmetric Low-Rank Projection of Knowledge Graph

    OpenAIRE

    TIAN, FEI; Gao, Bin; Chen, Enhong; Liu, Tie-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Word embedding, which refers to low-dimensional dense vector representations of natural words, has demonstrated its power in many natural language processing tasks. However, it may suffer from the inaccurate and incomplete information contained in the free text corpus as training data. To tackle this challenge, there have been quite a few works that leverage knowledge graphs as an additional information source to improve the quality of word embedding. Although these works ha...

  14. Early results of experiments with responsive open learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    N. D.

    2011-01-01

    Responsive open learning environments (ROLEs) are the next generation of personal learning environments (PLEs). While PLEs rely on the simple aggregation of existing content and services mainly using Web 2.0 technologies, ROLEs are transforming lifelong learning by introducing a new infrastructure on a global scale while dealing with existing learning management systems, institutions, and technologies. The requirements engineering process in highly populated test-beds is as important as the t...

  15. Earthquake Word Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Harshbarger

    2009-10-27

    Finding the words in these word searches will help you learn about earthquakes. The words in the puzzles may be hidden horizontally, vertically, diagonally, forward, or backward. To circle a discovered word, mouse-click on one end of the word and mouse-drag to the other end of the word. Once a word is found, it will be taken off the list. There are nine word searches that you can play: famous seismologists, general earthquake terms, magnitude, Mercalli Intensity Scale, plate names, plate tectonics, Richter Magnitude Scale, seismic waves, and tsunamis.

  16. Do not forget: Full memory in memory-based learning of word pronunciation

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, A. Den; Daelemans, W.

    1998-01-01

    Memory-based learning, keeping full memory of learning material, appears a viable approach to learning NLP tasks, and is often superior in generalisation accuracy to eager learning approaches that abstract from learning material. Here we investigate three partial memory-based learning approaches which remove from memory specific task instance types estimated to be exceptional. The three approaches each implement one heuristic function for estimating exceptionality of instanc...

  17. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  18. Taming the Prophets : Astrology, Orthodoxy and the Word of God in Early Modern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellgren, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse a displacement of the limits between allowable and illicit knowledge in the orthodox, Lutheran discourse of early modern Sweden. Focusing on the debate over astrology, exemplified in the works of Laurentius Paulinus Gothus (1565-1646) and Sigfridus Aronus Forsius (d. 1624), the thesis aims to challenge the view of how the Reformation, regarded as a preliminary stage to the Enlightenment and modern rationalism, contributed to the so-called ‘disenchant...

  19. Learning to Parse Liaison-Initial Words: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the processing of resyllabified words by native English speakers at three proficiency levels in French and by native French speakers. In particular, it examines non-native listeners' development of a parsing procedure for recognizing vowel-initial words in the context of liaison, a process that creates a misalignment of the…

  20. Vocabulary plus Technology: An After-Reading Approach to Develop Deep Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    Students who can use a term conversantly in academic environments know how to use it precisely in their writing and in their interactions with others; they can be said to deeply know, not just the word term in alphabetic or spoken forms, but the connections to ideas the term embodies. When students are intrigued by words and ideas, they want to…

  1. Unfamiliar Orthographic Information and Second Language Word Learning: A Novel Lexicon Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Catherine E.; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Recent research indicates that knowledge of words' spellings can influence knowledge of the phonological forms of second language (L2) words when the first and second languages use the same orthographic symbols. It is yet unknown whether learners can make similar use of unfamiliar orthographic symbols. In this study we investigate whether native…

  2. Incremental Learning of Difficult Words in Story Contexts: The Role of Spelling and Pronouncing New Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    In this exploratory study the researchers examined examine the value of exposure to the spelling and pronunciation of word forms when introducing the meanings of new and difficult vocabulary words. Researchers randomly assigned kindergarten English learners to one of two types of storybook reading delivered by tutors. Students received individual…

  3. Maximizing Student Mathematical Learning in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 8-page monograph (pdf), based on current research in early mathematics education, discusses the importance of early mathematics and addresses how educators can build on the mathematical knowledge and experience that children bring to early primary classrooms. It emphasizes the importance of understanding the development and characteristics of the early mathematics learner, and of having a solid understanding of mathematics for teaching. The article offers tips for creating a mathematics-rich environment and includes an extensive list of references.

  4. Employing Reading Racetracks and DI Flashcards with and without Cover, Copy, and Compare and Rewards to Teach of Sight Words to Three Students with Learning Disabilities in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Leah; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark; Waco, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the effect of pairing reading racetracks and flashcards for the teaching of sight words. The first participant was diagnosed with a specific learning disability in reading and writing and was also diagnosed with ADHD. The second participant was diagnosed with a specific learning disability in reading,…

  5. Early stenosis of stentless aortic valve prosthesis: a word of caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kindi, Adil H; Le Huu, Alice; Shum-Tim, Dominique

    2012-09-01

    Early stenosis of stentless bioprosthetic valves is rarely reported. In this report, we discuss a 75-year-old woman who presented with signs of congestive heart failure 5 months after a stentless aortic valve replacement, complicated by postoperative heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Intraoperative findings were highly unusual, consisting of a fibrous band in the subvalvular apparatus linking the interventricular septum to the free wall of the left ventricle, resulting in significant left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The possible causes of the fibrous band are discussed. PMID:22595469

  6. Signature Pedagogy in Early Years Education: A Role for COTS Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Robertson, Derek; Hudson, Alison; Shimi, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In this article we look at the links between early years pedagogy and the use of digital game-based learning. Early years education is a distinctive phase of the education system in many countries, generally covering the age range from 3-6 or 7 years. In the United Kingdom, it tends to bridge preschool and the first two years in primary school.…

  7. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main lines of…

  8. Our Inquiry, Our Practice: Undertaking, Supporting, and Learning from Early Childhood Teacher Research(ers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gail, Ed.; Henderson, Barbara, Ed.; Meier, Daniel R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Through "teacher research", teachers engage in the systematic study of their own practice to answer questions they have about teaching and learning, and their own effectiveness. This book explores what teacher research in the early childhood setting looks like, why it is important to the field of early childhood education, and how teacher…

  9. Mental Health Problems in Early Childhood Can Impair Learning and Behavior for Life. Working Paper #6

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Significant mental health problems can and do occur in young children. In some cases, these problems can have serious consequences for early learning, social competence, and lifelong health. Furthermore, the foundations of many mental health problems that endure through adulthood are established early in life through the interaction of genetic…

  10. Discrimination of Segmental and Suprasegmental Phones by Japanese Students Learning English from an Early Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ichiro

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the perceptual discrimination of segmental and suprasegmental phones by Japanese learners of English. Results reveal that early learners showed better discrimination performance than normal learners and confirmed the usefulness of learning English at an early age. (16 references) (Author/CK)

  11. Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

  12. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  13. Children's Referential Understanding of Novel Words and Parent Labeling Behaviors: Similarities across Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Hanady Bani; Gonzalez-Barrero, Ana Maria; Nadig, Aparna S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined two facets of the use of social cues for early word learning in parent-child dyads, where children had an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or were typically developing. In Experiment 1, we investigated word learning and generalization by children with ASD (age range: 3;01-6;02) and typically developing children (age range:…

  14. Learning from the early adopters: developing the digital practitioner

    OpenAIRE

    Liz Bennett

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how Sharpe and Beetham's Digital Literacies Framework which was derived to model students’ digital literacies, can be applied to lecturers’ digital literacy practices. Data from a small-scale phenomenological study of higher education lecturers who used Web 2.0 in their teaching and learning practices are used to examine if this pyramid model represents their motivations for adopting technology-enhanced learning in their pedagogic practices. The paper argues that whils...

  15. The teaching and learning of multimeaning words within a metacognitively based curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Katherine Jane; Wang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    The study explored the effects of an 8-week intervention in which a teacher/researcher used direct instruction to show the multiple meanings of 7 words to 4 deaf students ages 11-13 years in a school for the deaf. Applying conclusions from emerging research that links knowledge and strategy with metacognitive skills, the teacher/researcher used specific metacognitive strategies to facilitate both the acquisition of the concept of multimeaning words and the ability to distinguish one meaning from another while reading, and thus improved the students' reading comprehension. The study participants were able to increase their vocabulary of multimeaning words as well as their reading comprehension in general, and, overall, experienced an improvement in their observable understanding and confidence when approaching the task of reading. PMID:20925282

  16. Learning words : Children disregard some pragmatic information that conflicts with mutual exclusivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning process about what the speaker intended? In two studies, we distinguish between these possibilities. Preschoolers watched as a speaker pointed toward (Study 1) or looked at (Study 2) a familiar object while requesting the referent for a new word (e.g. 'Can you give me the blicket?'). In both studies, despite the speaker's unambiguous behavioral cue indicating an intent to refer to a familiar object, children inferred that the novel label referred to an unfamiliar object. These results suggest that children expect words to be mutually exclusive even when a speaker provides some kinds of pragmatic evidence to the contrary. © 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions. PMID:26090806

  18. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil’s Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children’s LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions. PMID:26090806

  19. WordImage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Charles

    2000-01-01

    A survey involving 14 students with learning disabilities in Northern Ireland primary schools found that WordImage, an approach that uses word-cards with sentences on one side and color picture-cards on the reverse, was effective in teaching word recognition. Some children were found to be more receptive to pictorial cueing than others. (Contains…

  20. Word families 3

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This series of three books covers over 50 word families and 450 words. By presenting these words in rhyming groups, this series not only helps learners to acquire a rich vocabulary, but also helps them to learn and remember their spelling with ease.

  1. Specificity of auditory-guided visual perceptual learning suggests crossmodal plasticity in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Anton L; Watanabe, Takeo

    2009-09-01

    Sounds modulate visual perception. Blind humans show altered brain activity in early visual cortex. However, it is still unclear whether crossmodal activity in visual cortex results from unspecific top-down feedback, a lack of visual input, or genuinely reflects crossmodal interactions at early sensory levels. We examined how sounds affect visual perceptual learning in sighted adults. Visual motion discrimination was tested prior to and following eight sessions in which observers were exposed to irrelevant moving dots while detecting sounds. After training, visual discrimination improved more strongly for motion directions that were paired with a relevant sound during training than for other directions. Crossmodal learning was limited to visual field locations that overlapped with the sound source and was little affected by attention. The specificity and automatic nature of these learning effects suggest that sounds automatically guide visual plasticity at a relatively early level of processing. PMID:19306091

  2. Learning from the early adopters: developing the digital practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Bennett

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how Sharpe and Beetham's Digital Literacies Framework which was derived to model students’ digital literacies, can be applied to lecturers’ digital literacy practices. Data from a small-scale phenomenological study of higher education lecturers who used Web 2.0 in their teaching and learning practices are used to examine if this pyramid model represents their motivations for adopting technology-enhanced learning in their pedagogic practices. The paper argues that whilst Sharpe and Beetham's model has utility in many regards, these lecturers were mainly motivated by the desire to achieve their pedagogic goals rather than by a desire to become a digital practitioner.

  3. Literacy in the Early Years: Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Early Childhood Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Carole

    1999-01-01

    Describes and analyzes some of the literacy events and practices taking place in selected multilingual early childhood classrooms in Cape Town, South Africa. Discusses the views and understanding teachers hold about reading and writing in early childhood, and the methods used for teaching children from different language and sociocultural…

  4. Spelling Performance and Semantic Understanding of Compound Words by Greek Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsesmeli, Styliani N.; Koutselaki, Despoina

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the spelling performance and the semantic understanding of compound words by 103 Greek primary school children (first through sixth grade). The experimental group comprised of 25 children with spelling difficulties and compared with a control group of 78 children of typical development. Children were asked to spell…

  5. What Can Graph Theory Tell Us about Word Learning and Lexical Retrieval?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Graph theory and the new science of networks provide a mathematically rigorous approach to examine the development and organization of complex systems. These tools were applied to the mental lexicon to examine the organization of words in the lexicon and to explore how that structure might influence the acquisition and retrieval of…

  6. The Willy Wagtail Tale: Knowledge Management and E-Learning Enriching Multiliteracies in the Early Years

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Hesterman

    2009-01-01

    While our multimedia world, with rapid advances in technologies, now challenges educators to consider new pedagogies that expand cultural and linguistic diversity, the potential for information and communication technologies (ICT) to support literacy learning in the early years remains a seriously under-researched area. There is an urgency to address a range of questions raised by teacher practitioners such as what new literacies will look like in their programs, how ICT can be used to learn ...

  7. The Role of Embodied Manual Action in Second Language Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morett, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has provided evidence that mental imagery and embodied action can facilitate lexical learning in a novel language. However, it is unclear "how" these factors interact--as well as "why" they play a role--in lexical learning. Through a set of four experiments, this research demonstrated that neither mental…

  8. Specificity of auditory-guided visual perceptual learning suggests crossmodal plasticity in early visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Anton L.; Watanabe, Takeo

    2009-01-01

    Sounds modulate visual perception. Blind humans show altered brain activity in early visual cortex. However, it is still unclear whether crossmodal activity in visual cortex results from unspecific top-down feedback, a lack of visual input, or genuinely reflects crossmodal interactions at early sensory levels. We examined how sounds affect visual perceptual learning in sighted adults. Visual motion discrimination was tested prior to and following eight sessions in which observers were exposed...

  9. Community-based early learning in Solomon Islands: cultural and contextual dilemmas influencing program sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Lindsay Julia; Evangelou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The Solomon Islands (SI), a small developing nation in the South Pacific, demonstrates an emergent community-based kindergarten model with the potential to promote context and culture relevant early learning and development. SI early childhood education (ECE) particularly rose in prominence with a 2008 national policy enactment requiring all children to attend three years of kindergarten as prerequisite for primary school entry. However, these ECE programs remain severely challenged by falter...

  10. Developing Multi-Agency Partnerships for Early Learning: Seven Keys to Success

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott-johns, Susan E.; Ron Wideman; Black, Glenda L.; Maria Cantalini-Williams; Jenny Guibert

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing emphasis on early years education in Ontario provided a rich context for this research project, commissioned by The Learning Partnership (TLP), to evaluate a new provincial project called FACES (Family and Community Engagement Strategy). This initiative seeks to extend and enhance community-based, multi-agency partnerships that support young children and their families in successful transitions to school. Interview data from individuals and focus groups suggest re-thinking early c...

  11. The Role of Single Talker Acoustic Variation in Early Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Marcus E.; Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the addition of multiple talkers during habituation improves 14-month-olds' performance in the switch task (Rost & McMurray, 2009). While the authors suggest that this boost in performance is due to the increase in acoustic variability (Rost & McMurray, 2010), it is also possible that there is…

  12. Interaction, Language Learning and Social Inclusion in Early Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    While first language social networks offer immigrants practical and emotional support in the early period of their settlement in a new country, the development of social networks through English is crucial at this time not only for the acquisition of the linguistic and social capital vital to their long-term advancement, but also for the…

  13. Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StephanieMoriceau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

  14. Word 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  15. Is assessment for learning possible in early school years?

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Leonor; Pinto, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, most countries consider assessment for learning a challenge towards a more inclusive school. Their adherence to the idea may be consensual but the practices don’t seem to express this desire yet. Many teachers have been wondering whether there is an appropriate minimum age for students to reflect upon their actions, along with their teacher, so to overcome difficulties. This article reports a study that seeks to understand assessment practices, developed for five and eigh...

  16. Spike Timing Dependent Competitive Learning in Recurrent Self Organizing Pulsed Neural Networks Case Study: Phoneme and Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Behi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity seems to be a capital aspect of the dynamics of neural networks. It is about the physiological modifications of the synapse, which have like consequence a variation of the value of the synaptic weight. The information encoding is based on the precise timing of single spike events that is based on the relative timing of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes, local synapse competitions within a single neuron and global competition via lateral connections. In order to classify temporal sequences, we present in this paper how to use a local hebbian learning, spike-timing dependent plasticity for unsupervised competitive learning, preserving self-organizing maps of spiking neurons. In fact we present three variants of self-organizing maps (SOM with spike-timing dependent Hebbian learning rule, the Leaky Integrators Neurons (LIN, the Spiking_SOM and the recurrent Spiking_SOM (RSSOM models. The case study of the proposed SOM variants is phoneme classification and word recognition in continuous speech and speaker independent.

  17. The Relationship between Children's Concept of Word in Text and Phoneme Awareness in Learning to Read: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Darrell

    1993-01-01

    Provides convergent evidence of a developmental sequence in kindergartners' emerging knowledge of word: beginning consonant knowledge facilitates a child's concept of word in text, which in turn facilitates phoneme segmentation, which in turn facilitates word recognition. (SR)

  18. False recognition of incidentally learned pictures and words in primary progressive aphasia?

    OpenAIRE

    Rogalski, Emily; Blum, Diana; Rademaker, Alfred; Weintraub, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Recognition memory was tested in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a language based dementia with relative preservation of memory for at least the first 2 years. The goal of the study was two-fold: (1) to compare true and false recognition rates for words versus pictures in patients with PPA and cognitively intact controls and (2) to determine if the semantic relatedness of distracters-to-targets influences recognition memory performance. Overall, performance of PPA patients wa...

  19. Bringing back the body into the mind: gestures enhance word learning in foreign language

    OpenAIRE

    Macedonia, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Foreign language education in the twenty-first century still teaches vocabulary mainly through reading and listening activities. This is due to the link between teaching practice and traditional philosophy of language, where language is considered to be an abstract phenomenon of the mind. However, a number of studies have shown that accompanying words or phrases of a foreign language with gestures leads to better memory results. In this paper, I review behavioral research on the positive effe...

  20. Early adverse care, stress neurobiology, and prevention science: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A

    2013-06-01

    There is growing evidence that some of the difficulties observed among children who have experienced early adverse care (e.g., children internationally adopted from institutional care and maltreated children in foster care) involve experience-induced alterations in stress-responsive neurobiological systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Thus, incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research could aid in identifying the children most in need of preventive intervention services, elucidating the mechanisms of change in effective interventions, and providing insight into the differential responses of children to effective interventions. However, integrating stress neurobiology and prevention research is challenging. In this paper, the results of studies examining HPA system activity in children who have experienced early adverse care are reviewed, the implications of these results for prevention research are discussed, and critical steps for successfully incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research are identified. PMID:23420476

  1. Behavioural economics and policymaking: Learning from the early adopters

    OpenAIRE

    Lunn, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically examines initial applications of Behavioural Economics (BE) to policymaking. It focuses primarily but not exclusively on what can be learnt from the early adopters of policies inspired by BE, notably America and Britain. BE is defined by its inductive scientific approach to economics, which results in empirical demonstrations that are persuasive to policymakers facing practical problems. The analysis identifies three routes via which BE has influenced policy: (1) the the...

  2. Early Adverse Care, Stress Neurobiology, and Prevention Science: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that some of the difficulties observed among children who have experienced early adverse care (e.g., children internationally adopted from institutional care and maltreated children in foster care) involve experience-induced alterations in stress-responsive neurobiological systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Thus, incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research could aid in identifying the children most in need of pre...

  3. Educational E-Books: A Support for Vocabulary and Early Math for Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Adina; Baruch, Dorit

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical learning difficulties can originate at an early age. However, research on young children's math development, especially those who are at risk, is in its early stages. The current study is the first to examine the effects of an activity with an educational e-book on emergent math with 52 preschoolers at risk for learning disability…

  4. Venturing into Co-Operative Learning in the Early Years of Schooling: A Classroom Teacher's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Rebecca

    An early childhood classroom teacher integrated academic goals with the acquisition of social skills by using a specific teaching strategy of co-operative learning. The teacher of 5- to 7-year-olds experienced a classroom environment which lacked respect, fairness, and tolerance in the following dynamics: (1) boys toward girls; (2) older children…

  5. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  6. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  7. Foods and Families Learning Package: An Educational Supplement to Early Childhood News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Mills, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    This resource guide for the early childhood professional contains creative art activities, active learning experiences, interactive bulletin boards, teacher-made materials, simple cooking projects, inviting fingerplays, songs, and music. The activities are planned to stimulate children's curiosity and senses. Through experiencing these activities,…

  8. "From Bricks to Clicks": Hybrid Commercial Spaces in the Landscape of Early Literacy and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In their quest for resources to support children's early literacy learning and development, parents encounter and traverse different spaces in which discourses and artifacts are produced and circulated. This paper uses conceptual tools from the field of geosemiotics to examine some commercial spaces designed for parents and children that…

  9. California's Early Learning & Development System: A Review of Funding Streams and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kate; Perez, Giannina S.

    2010-01-01

    California's public early learning and development programs and related services are funded through a range of federal, state and local sources. The purpose and scope of these funding streams vary broadly: some sources are dedicated primarily to serving children, birth to age five, and their families, while others can also be utilized for…

  10. Introducing Online Training in an Early Childhood Professional Development System: Lessons Learned in One State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone-MacDonald, Angi; Douglass, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Online educational opportunities provide improved access to high quality professional development for the early education and care workforce. Online and technology mediated learning can create sustainable education and development opportunities for states when face-to-face training is financially prohibitive. This study examined one state's…

  11. Social Class, Habitus, and Language Learning: The Case of Korean Early Study-Abroad Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean…

  12. French Nursery Schools and German Kindergartens: Effects of Individual and Contextual Variables on Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazouti, Youssef; Viriot-Goeldel, Caroline; Matter, Cornelie; Geiger-Jaillet, Anemone; Carol, Rita; Deviterne, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The present article investigates the effects of individual and contextual variables on children's early learning in French nursery schools and German kindergartens. Our study of 552 children at preschools in France (299 children from French nursery schools) and Germany (253 children from German kindergartens) measured skills that facilitate the…

  13. Early Verb Learning in 20-Month-Old Japanese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Ariyama, Junko; Kobayashi, Tessei; Katerelos, Marina; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children's representations of morphosyntactic information are abstract enough to guide early verb learning. Using an infant-controlled habituation paradigm with a switch design, Japanese-speaking children aged 1 ; 8 were habituated to two different events in which an object was engaging in an action. Each…

  14. Investigating Analytic Tools for e-Book Design in Early Literacy Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskos, Kathleen; Brueck, Jeremy; Widman, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Toward the goal of better e-book design to support early literacy learning, this study investigates analytic tools for examining design qualities of e-books for young children. Three research-based analytic tools related to e-book design were applied to a mixed genre collection of 50 e-books from popular online sites. Tool performance varied…

  15. Effects of Learning about Historical Gender Discrimination on Early Adolescents' Occupational Judgments and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Green, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the consequences of learning about gender discrimination, early adolescents (n = 121, aged 10-14) were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard biographical lessons about historical figures (standard condition) or (b) nearly identical lessons that included information about gender discrimination (discrimination condition).…

  16. Early prefrontal brain responses to the Hedonic quality of emotional words--a simultaneous EEG and MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Kati; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rehbein, Maimu A; Eden, Annuschka S; Laeger, Inga; Junghöfer, Markus; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The hedonic meaning of words affects word recognition, as shown by behavioral, functional imaging, and event-related potential (ERP) studies. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics and cognitive functions behind are elusive, partly due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Here, we account for these difficulties by computing combined electro-magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) source localization techniques. Participants covertly read emotionally high-arousing positive and negative nouns, while EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Combined EEG/MEG current-density reconstructions for the P1 (80-120 ms), P2 (150-190 ms) and EPN component (200-300 ms) were computed using realistic individual head models, with a cortical constraint. Relative to negative words, the P1 to positive words predominantly involved language-related structures (left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions), and posterior structures related to directed attention (occipital and parietal regions). Effects shifted to the right hemisphere in the P2 component. By contrast, negative words received more activation in the P1 time-range only, recruiting prefrontal regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Effects in the EPN were not statistically significant. These findings show that different neuronal networks are active when positive versus negative words are processed. We account for these effects in terms of an "emotional tagging" of word forms during language acquisition. These tags then give rise to different processing strategies, including enhanced lexical processing of positive words and a very fast language-independent alert response to negative words. The valence-specific recruitment of different networks might underlie fast adaptive responses to both approach- and withdrawal-related stimuli, be they acquired or biological. PMID:23940642

  17. The Willy Wagtail Tale: Knowledge Management and E-Learning Enriching Multiliteracies in the Early Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hesterman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While our multimedia world, with rapid advances in technologies, now challenges educators to consider new pedagogies that expand cultural and linguistic diversity, the potential for information and communication technologies (ICT to support literacy learning in the early years remains a seriously under-researched area. There is an urgency to address a range of questions raised by teacher practitioners such as what new literacies will look like in their programs, how ICT can be used to learn in new ways, and which pedagogies of multiliteracies are relevant for early childhood education. This paper explores these questions in relation to knowledge management initiatives and e-learning opportunities. The Willy Wagtail Tale presents a case study of how knowledge management and e-learning is socially constructed to enrich multiliteracies experiences in the early years. The study occurred in a small Western Australian school committed to the Reggio Emilia teaching approach. Implications for educational research are that multiliteracies experiences occur inadvertently through children’s play, are integral to The Hundred Languages of Children, and are dramatically enriched through social constructivist knowledge management and child-centered e-learning.

  18. "I like It Instead of Maths": How Pupils with Moderate Learning Difficulties in Scottish Primary Special Schools Intuitively Solved Mathematical Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardini, Lio

    2010-01-01

    This study by Lio Moscardini of the University of Strathclyde shows how a group of 24 children in three Scottish primary schools for pupils with moderate learning difficulties responded to word problems following their teachers' introduction to the principles of Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI). CGI is a professional development programme in…

  19. Fundamentals of the Design and the Operation of an Intelligent Tutoring System for the Learning of the Arithmetical and Algebraic Way of Solving Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, David; Arevalillo-Herraez, Miguel; Puig, Luis; Gonzalez-Calero, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Designers of interactive learning environments with a focus on word problem solving usually have to compromise between the amount of resolution paths that a user is allowed to follow and the quality of the feedback provided. We have built an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that is able to both track the user's actions and provide adequate…

  20. [Naming speed and phonological awareness in early reading learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Villagrán, Manuel; Navarro Guzmán, José I; Menacho Jiménez, Inmaculada; Alcale Cuevas, Concepción; Marchena Consejero, Esperanza; Ramiro Olivier, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    The ability to read is a basic acquisition that conditions children's social integration and it is an important factor in school success. It is considered a complex activity in which different levels of cognitive processes are involved. The relationship between phonological awareness, naming speed and learning to read has been widely studied. Research on this topic has previously been carried out with different training procedures, or with children with reading and writing learning disabilities, or children with phonological awareness problems. The innovative aspect of this research is that it presents a longitudinal study of the influence of phonological awareness and naming speed on reading with no training procedure. 85 kindergarten children were assessed with Rapid Automatized Naming Test, The Phonological Knowledge Test (PECO) and the Reading Test (PROLEC-R) at two development points: at 5,6 and at 6.5 years old. A correlational comparison and a hierarchical regression analysis were calculated in order to determine the explicit variance for phonological awareness and naming speed in reading. Results showed that phonological awareness and naming speed differentially explain variance in reading. The discrepancies found are a consequence of the different measurement techniques for phonological awareness and naming speed used by the diverse authors. PMID:20667272

  1. Acquiring skill at medical image inspection: learning localized in early visual processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Paul T.; Davies, Ian R. L.; Roling, Penny; Watt, Simon J.

    1997-04-01

    Acquisition of the skill of medical image inspection could be due to changes in visual search processes, 'low-level' sensory learning, and higher level 'conceptual learning.' Here, we report two studies that investigate the extent to which learning in medical image inspection involves low- level learning. Early in the visual processing pathway cells are selective for direction of luminance contrast. We exploit this in the present studies by using transfer across direction of contrast as a 'marker' to indicate the level of processing at which learning occurs. In both studies twelve observers trained for four days at detecting features in x- ray images (experiment one equals discs in the Nijmegen phantom, experiment two equals micro-calcification clusters in digitized mammograms). Half the observers examined negative luminance contrast versions of the images and the remainder examined positive contrast versions. On the fifth day, observers swapped to inspect their respective opposite contrast images. In both experiments leaning occurred across sessions. In experiment one, learning did not transfer across direction of luminance contrast, while in experiment two there was only partial transfer. These findings are consistent with the contention that some of the leaning was localized early in the visual processing pathway. The implications of these results for current medical image inspection training schedules are discussed.

  2. Early Prefrontal Brain Responses to the Hedonic Quality of Emotional Words – A Simultaneous EEG and MEG Study

    OpenAIRE

    Keuper, K.; Zwitserlood, P.; Rehbein, M. A. R.; Eden, A. S.; Laeger, I. B.; Jungho?fer, M.; Zwanzger, P. M.; Dobel, C.

    2013-01-01

    The hedonic meaning of words affects word recognition, as shown by behavioral, functional imaging, and event-related potential (ERP) studies. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics and cognitive functions behind are elusive, partly due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Here, we account for these difficulties by computing combined electro-magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) source localization techniques. Participants covertly read emotionally high-arousing positive and negative n...

  3. Desarrollo psíquico temprano y aprendizaje / Early psychological development and learning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, González-Serrano; Xabier, Tapia; Manuel, Hernanz; Francisco, Vaccari.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de las consultas relacionadas con dificultades de atención, hiperactividad y trastornos de comportamiento constatado en los niños al inicio de la enseñanza primaria (escolaridad propiamente dicha) lleva a los autores a reflexionar sobre la influencia de los acelerados cambios en las socie [...] dades desarrolladas en el desarrollo psíquico y la organización de la personalidad. Se hace énfasis sobre los procesos de latencia (sublimación, control de la motricidad y del paso al acto) como posibilitadores de los aprendizajes escolares y su puesta en marcha en los niños de hoy. Abstract in english The ultimate increased volume of outpatient first consultations related to attention impairment, hyperactivity and conduct disorders in children starting Lower School led the authors to ponder about the influence that high speed changes in developed societies have upon psychological development and [...] personality organization. Emphasis is made on latency processes (sublimation, motor control and acting out) as learning promoters in the school environment of here and now kids.

  4. Problem-based learning spanning real and virtual words: a case study in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Good

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing use of immersive virtual environments for educational purposes. However, much of this activity is not yet documented in the public domain, or is descriptive rather than analytical. This paper presents a case study in which university students were tasked with building an interactive learning experience using Second Life as a platform. Both problem-based learning and constructionism acted as framing pedagogies for the task, with students working in teams to design and build a learning experience which could potentially meet the needs of a real client in innovative ways which might not be possible in real life. A process account of the experience is provided, which examines how the pedagogies and contexts (real and virtual influence and enhance each other. The use of a virtual environment, combined with problem-based learning and constructionism, subtly changed the nature of the instructor–student relationship, allowed students to explore ‘problematic problems' in a motivating and relevant manner, provided students with greater ownership over their work, and allowed problems to be set which were flexible, but at the same time allowed for ease of assessment.

  5. A Review of School Readiness Practices in the States: Early Learning Guidelines and Assessments. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 1, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Sarah; Burkhauser, Mary; Halle, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Research on the importance of the early childhood years has compelled states to support children's school readiness. This brief provides an overview of states' Early Learning Guidelines (ELGs) and school readiness assessments and outlines the following considerations: (1) School Readiness is more than Academics; (2) Align standards in appropriate…

  6. The Role of Motive Objects in Early Childhood Teacher Development Concerning Children's Digital Play and Play-Based Learning in Early Childhood Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Edwards, Susan; Mantilla, Ana; Grieshaber, Sue; Wood, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies are increasingly accepted as a viable aspect of early childhood curriculum. However, teacher uptake of digital technologies in early childhood education and their use with young children in play-based approaches to learning have not been strong. Traditional approaches to the problem of teacher uptake of digital technologies in…

  7. Early lipoedema diagnosis and the RCGP e-learning course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Amy; Fetzer, Sharie

    2015-04-01

    Frequently misdiagnosed as obesity, lipoedema is chronic condition involving an abnormal build-up of fat cells in the legs, thighs and buttocks that cannot be shifted by exercise or dieting. Estimated to affect up to 11% of the female population, the condition is widely unknown by health professionals. This means women typically wait for many years before diagnosis. This allows the condition to progress unchecked, resulting in unnecessary deterioration and the development of associated comorbidities, as well as significant pain and mental anguish. A free, 30-minute Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) e-learning course created in partnership with Lipoedema UK aims to rectify this situation by educating nurses, GPs and other health professionals on how to diagnose and manage lipoedema in primary care. This article aims to describe the condition of lipoedema, how to recognise/diagnose it, current treatment options and the findings of a 240-patient survey carried out by Lipoedema UK in 2013 that included documenting the difficulties for patients in obtaining a diagnosis as well as the mental and physical effects of the condition. PMID:25950394

  8. SIGNIFICANCE OF EARLY-AGE LEARNING OF MATHEMATICAL SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Reši?

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that only hereditary, i.e. genetic factors are not sufficient for development of a child’s brain; on the contrary, a child needs external stimuli expressed through touch, speech, images, which lead to the conclusion that immediate and extended surroundings shape the brain, meaning that the external stimuli, stronger or weaker, mutually connect the brain cells and neurons. Questions regarding the development of mathematical manner of thinking are mostly based on the natural process of learning, however, this paper deals with deeper set of problems, which are not only difficult to resolve but possibly there is no resolution. Namely, a question is posed what is the appropriate age when a child is ready and able to solve certain mathematical problems or notice mathematical principles, that is, whether they are actually exist clearly defined age boundaries based on which a conclusion could be made about the time and individual is ready to solve mathematical problems of a concrete difficulty level or to notice mathematical laws.

  9. Learning Phonologically Specific New Words Fosters Rhyme Awareness in Dutch Preliterate Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Goch, Merel M.; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    How do children use phonological knowledge about spoken language in acquiring literacy? Phonological precursors of literacy include phonological awareness, speech decoding skill, and lexical specificity (i.e., the richness of phonological representations in the mental lexicon). An intervention study investigated whether early literacy skills can…

  10. Learning from mistakes: early twentieth-century surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Sally; Hirst, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    Archibald Watson was an Australian anatomist and surgeon who kept operating theater diaries. He made detailed notes on the work of surgeons that he observed in Britain and North America, as well as in Australia. Watson's diaries provide significant evidence that early twentieth-century surgeons did not just apply scientific knowledge produced somewhere else. They generated new surgical knowledge themselves and worked within a culture that valued innovation. Some of the surgeons observed by Watson practiced in academic centers and regularly engaged in laboratory research, but most did not. Nevertheless, it is clear that whether in Australia, Britain, or North America, the active search for improved techniques was a routine feature of the practice of full-time surgeons. In the process, they often made mistakes--or rather, they often did things with which at least some of their colleagues did not agree. Much of surgical practice was contestable. Doing things the "right" way and finding better ways to do things were overlapping categories; but it is often difficult or impossible to draw any distinction at all between doing things the "wrong" way and failed attempts at finding a better way to perform an operation. This article examines some aspects of the relationship between scientific ideas, clinical experience, contestable errors, and the generation of new knowledge through surgical practice. PMID:18669573

  11. Early-onset gastric cancer: Learning lessons from the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya N Milne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available There is by no means a clear-cut pattern of mutations contributing to gastric cancers, and gastric cancer research can be hampered by the diversity of factors that can induce gastric cancer, such as Helicobacter pylori infection, diet, ageing and other environmental factors. Tumours are unquestionably riddled with genetic changes yet we are faced with an unsolvable puzzle with respect to a temporal relationship. It is postulated that inherited genetic factors may be more important in early-onset gastric cancer (EOGC than in gastric cancers found in older patients as they have less exposure to environmental carcinogens. EOGC, therefore, could provide a key to unravelling the genetic changes in gastric carcinogenesis. Gastric cancers occurring in young patients provide an ideal background on which to try and uncover the initiating stages of gastric carcinogenesis. This review summarizes the literature regarding EOGC and also presents evidence that these cancers have a unique molecular-genetic phenotype, distinct from conventional gastric cancer.

  12. Get the Story Straight: Contextual Repetition Promotes Word Learning from Storybooks

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, Jessica S.; Parsons, Kelly L.; Bryan, Natasha M.

    2011-01-01

    Although shared storybook reading is a common activity believed to improve the language skills of preschool children, how children learn new vocabulary from such experiences has been largely neglected in the literature. The current study systematically explores the effects of repeatedly reading the same storybooks on both young children's fast and slow mapping abilities. Specially created storybooks were read to 3-year-old children three times during the course of 1 week. Each of the nine sto...

  13. Get the story straight: contextual repetition promotes word learning from storybooks

    OpenAIRE

    KellyL Parsons

    2011-01-01

    Although reading storybooks to preschool children is a common activity believed to improve language skills, how children learn new vocabulary from being to has been largely neglected in the shared storybook reading literature. The current study systematically explores the effects of repeatedly reading the same storybooks on both young children's fast and slow mapping ability. Specially created storybooks were read to 3-year-old children three times during the course of one week. Each of the n...

  14. Discovering Words in Fluent Speech: The Contribution of Two Kinds of Statistical Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ErikDThiessen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To efficiently segment fluent speech, infants must discover the predominant phonological form of words in the native language. In English, for example, content words typically begin with a stressed syllable. To discover this regularity, infants need to identify a set of words. We propose that statistical learning plays two roles in this process. First, it provides a cue that allows infants to segment words from fluent speech, even without language-specific phonological knowledge. Second, once infants have identified a set of lexical forms, they can learn from the distribution of acoustic features across those word forms. The current experiments demonstrate both processes are available to 5-month-old infants. This is an earlier age than prior demonstration of sensitivity to statistical structure in speech, and consistent with theoretical accounts that claim statistical learning plays a role in helping infants to adapt to the structure of their native language from very early in life.

  15. Developing learning environments which support early algebraic reasoning: a case from a New Zealand primary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jodie

    2014-12-01

    Current reforms in mathematics education advocate the development of mathematical learning communities in which students have opportunities to engage in mathematical discourse and classroom practices which underlie algebraic reasoning. This article specifically addresses the pedagogical actions teachers take which structure student engagement in dialogical discourse and activity which facilitates early algebraic reasoning. Using videotaped recordings of classroom observations, the teacher and researcher collaboratively examined the classroom practices and modified the participatory practices to develop a learning environment which supported early algebraic reasoning. Facilitating change in the classroom environment was a lengthy process which required consistent and ongoing attention initially to the social norms and then to the socio-mathematical norms. Specific pedagogical actions such as the use of specifically designed tasks, materials and representations and a constant press for justification and generalisation were required to support students to link their numerical understandings to algebraic reasoning.

  16. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  17. The Utility of Vygotskian Behavioral Criteria in the Early Childhood Classroom: Learning from Non-compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Reynolds-Keefer

    2011-01-01

    Non-compliant behavior in young children is consistently an area of concern for the teachers and caregivers ofyoung children. These behaviors can disrupt learning, teaching and positive social interactions, increase referralsfor special services, discourage the teacher, and reduce positive interactions with family. Behaviors such asdefiance and non-compliance also present early childhood educators with difficult situations in their classrooms,are often considered indicators of hyperactivity, ...

  18. Enduring Neurobehavioral Effects of Early Life Trauma Mediated Through Learning and Corticosterone Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Moriceau, Stephanie; Raineki, Charlis; Holman, Jennifer D.; Holman, Jason G.; Regina M Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5?mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN)13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occ...

  19. Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression

    OpenAIRE

    StephanieMoriceau; CharlisRaineki; ReginaMSullivan

    2009-01-01

    Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN)13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occur...

  20. An Unsupervised Learning Method for Early Event Detection in Smart Grid with Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xing; Qiu, Robert Caiming; Ai, Qian; Xu, Xinyi

    2015-01-01

    Early Event Detection (EED) is becoming increasingly complicated in smart grids, due to the exploration of data with features of volume, velocity, variety, and veracity (i.e. 4Vs data). This paper develops a data-driven unsupervised learning method based on random matrix theory (RMT) to handle this challenge problem. Compared to model-based methods, datadriven ones conduct data analysis requiring no knowledge of the system model/topology based on assumptions or simplificatio...

  1. Oxytocin in learning and addiction: From early discoveries to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyai, Zoltán; Kovács, Gábor L

    2014-04-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) has a plethora of effects on brain function. This review provides a historical overview of the development of research on OXT and drug addiction. By focusing on research that has emerged from our laboratories, we describe how early discoveries of the influence of OXT on learning and memory processes and the emerging conceptualization of addiction as 'pathological learning' have contributed to the demonstration that OXT effectively attenuates long-term neuroadaptation related to opiate and psychostimulant addiction. Through integrating earlier evidence with recent discoveries of the social/affiliative role of OXT, we propose that OXT may interfere with reward and addiction by influencing neurobiological processes involved in stress, learning and memory and social/affiliative behavior. PMID:24280016

  2. Critical behavior in a cross-situational lexicon learning scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, P. F. C.; Fontanari, J. F.

    2012-09-01

    The associationist account for early word learning is based on the co-occurrence between referents and words. Here we introduce a noisy cross-situational learning scenario in which the referent of the uttered word is eliminated from the context with probability ?, thus modeling the noise produced by out-of-context words. We examine the performance of a simple associative learning algorithm and find a critical value of the noise parameter ?c above which learning is impossible. We use finite-size scaling to show that the sharpness of the transition persists across a region of order ?-1/2 about ?c, where ? is the number of learning trials, as well as to obtain the learning error (scaling function) in the critical region. In addition, we show that the distribution of durations of periods when the learning error is zero is a power law with exponent -3/2 at the critical point.

  3. Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills.

    OpenAIRE

    LynneG.Duncan; PascaleColé

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and...

  4. Editorial: E-learning and Knowledge Management in the Early Years: Where Are We and Where Should We Go

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li; Jennifer Masters

    2009-01-01

    E-learning and knowledge management are increasingly accepted as established practices in the field of early childhood education. Living in the age of Web 2.0, young children can learn through experience, application, and conversation in community, physically or virtually, with peers, parents, teachers, and other adults, beyond the classroom and across the media. These concepts are of growing interest in communities of practice and knowledge networks. Although most early childhood educators r...

  5. Open Experimentation on Phenomena of Chemical Reactions via the Learning Company Approach in Early Secondary Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Katharina; Witteck, Torsten; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Presented is a case study on the implementation of open and inquiry-type experimentation in early German secondary chemistry education. The teaching strategy discussed follows the learning company approach. Originally adopted from vocational education, the learning company method is used to redirect lab-oriented classroom practice towards a more…

  6. The impact of early bilingualism on controlling a language learned late: an ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clara D.; Strijkers, Kristof; Santesteban, Mikel; Escera, Carles; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Costa, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This study asks whether early bilingual speakers who have already developed a language control mechanism to handle two languages control a dominant and a late acquired language in the same way as late bilingual speakers. We therefore, compared event-related potentials in a language switching task in two groups of participants switching between a dominant (L1) and a weak late acquired language (L3). Early bilingual late learners of an L3 showed a different ERP pattern (larger N2 mean amplitude) as late bilingual late learners of an L3. Even though the relative strength of languages was similar in both groups (a dominant and a weak late acquired language), they controlled their language output in a different manner. Moreover, the N2 was similar in two groups of early bilinguals tested in languages of different strength. We conclude that early bilingual learners of an L3 do not control languages in the same way as late bilingual L3 learners –who have not achieved native-like proficiency in their L2– do. This difference might explain some of the advantages early bilinguals have when learning new languages. PMID:24204355

  7. Toward a Model for Early Childhood Environmental Education: Foregrounding, Developing, and Connecting Knowledge through Play-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education represents a growing area of interest in early childhood education, especially since the inclusion of environmental principles and practices in the Australian Early Years Learning Framework. Traditionally, these two fields of education have been characterized by diverse pedagogical emphases. This article considers how…

  8. Use of the mutual exclusivity assumption by young word learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markman, Ellen M.; Wasow, Judith L.

    2003-01-01

    A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual exclusivity in such indirect word learning has been questioned because: (1) it comes mostly from 2 and 3-year-olds and (2) the findings might be accounted for, not by children avoiding second labels, but by the novel object which creates a lexical gap children are motivated to fill. Three studies addressed these concerns by having only a familiar object visible. Fifteen to seventeen and 18-20-month-olds were selected to straddle the vocabulary spurt. In Study 1, babies saw a familiar object and an opaque bucket as a location to search. Study 2 handed babies the familiar object to play with. Study 3 eliminated an obvious location to search. On the whole, babies at both ages resisted second labels for objects and, with some qualifications, tended to search for a better referent for the novel label. Thus mutual exclusivity is in place before the onset of the naming explosion. The findings demonstrate that lexical constraints enable babies to learn words even under non-optimal conditions-when speakers are not clear and referents are not visible. The results are discussed in relation to an alternative social-pragmatic account. © 2003 Elsevier (USA). All rights reserved.

  9. Critical behavior in a cross-situational lexicon learning scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Tilles, P F C; 10.1209/0295-5075/99/60001

    2012-01-01

    The associationist account for early word-learning is based on the co-occurrence between objects and words. Here we examine the performance of a simple associative learning algorithm for acquiring the referents of words in a cross-situational scenario affected by noise produced by out-of-context words. We find a critical value of the noise parameter $\\gamma_c$ above which learning is impossible. We use finite-size scaling to show that the sharpness of the transition persists across a region of order $\\tau^{-1/2}$ about $\\gamma_c$, where $\\tau$ is the number of learning trials, as well as to obtain the learning error (scaling function) in the critical region. In addition, we show that the distribution of durations of periods when the learning error is zero is a power law with exponent -3/2 at the critical point.

  10. The Right Word Making Sense of the Words that Confuse

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    'Affect' or 'effect'? 'Right', 'write' or 'rite'? English can certainly be a confusing language, whether you're a native speaker or learning it as a second language. 'The Right Word' is the essential reference to help people master its subtleties and avoid making mistakes. Divided into three sections, it first examines homophones - those tricky words that sound the same but are spelled differently - then looks at words that often confuse before providing a list of commonly misspelled words.

  11. The Importance of Teaching and Learning Nature of Science in the Early Childhood Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buck, Gayle A.; Donnelly, Lisa A.; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri; Weiland, Ingrid S.

    2011-10-01

    Though research has shown that students do not have adequate understandings of nature of science (NOS) by the time they exit high school, there is also evidence that they have not received NOS instruction that would enable them to develop such understandings. How early is "too early" to teach and learn NOS? Are students, particularly young students, not capable of learning NOS due to developmental unreadiness? Or would young children be capable of learning about NOS through appropriate instruction? Young children (Kindergarten through third grade) were interviewed and taught about NOS in a variety of contexts (informal, suburban, and urban) using similar teaching strategies that have been found effective at teaching about NOS with older students. These teaching strategies included explicit decontextualized and contextualized NOS instruction, through the use of children's literature, debriefings of science lessons, embedded written NOS assessments, and guided inquiries. In each context the researchers interviewed students prior to and after instruction, videotaped science instruction and maintained researcher logs and field notes, collected lesson plans, and copies of student work. The researchers found that in each setting young children did improve their understandings of NOS. Across contexts there were similar understandings of NOS aspects prior to instruction, as well as after instruction. There were also several differences evident across contexts, and across grade levels. However, it is clear that students as young as kindergarten are developmentally capable of conceptualizing NOS when it is taught to them. The authors make recommendations for teaching NOS to young children, and for future studies that explore learning progressions of NOS aspects as students proceed through school.

  12. Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunyoung

    Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students' interactions in narrative-centered learning environments. Experimental results suggest that induced models can make accurate early predictions of student goals and affect states, and they are sufficiently efficient to meet the real-time performance requirements of interactive learning environments.

  13. How my now six-year-old daughter learned how to write her name, recognize numbers, read some words and draw: A narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Carlo Ricci

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I want to share how my now six-year-old daughter learned how to write her name, recognize numbers, read some words and draw. By doing so I hope to offer an alternative to a schooling-centered curriculum that would have us believe that the only way to learn these things is to have an expert train young people to do these things. Methodologically, this paper is a narrative. I also consider this paper to be a political piece of writing. For me writing politically in this paper means, in part, engaging the reader in a dialogue about, on the one hand, trusting and respecting young people’s right to learn what they want, when they want, how they want and, on the other hand, imposing an externally directed curriculum on them. I am arguing in favour of the former.

  14. Totally Weird and Wonderful Words

    CERN Document Server

    McKean, Erin

    2006-01-01

    Do you know what a snollygoster is? Would you eat something called a muktuk? Do you know anyone who engages in onolatry? Impress your friends and pepper your dinner party conversations with such nuggets as gobemouche, mumpsimus, and cachinnate. You can learn about all of these bizarre and beautiful words and many more in Totally Weird and Wonderful Words. Both witty and entertaining, this new paperback brings together two best-selling compendiums to all words unique and strange, Weird and Wonderful Words and More Weird and Wonderful Words. Offering a potpourri of colorful and fascinating words

  15. Hand-assisted partial nephrectomy with early arterial clamp removal: Impact of the learning curve : Impact of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn H; Norus, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to present the results of hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy according to the margin, ischaemia and complications system; to assess the role of the learning curve; and to compare this approach with other approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 60 consecutive patients were obtained from a prospectively maintained database. The patients were divided into three cohorts (1, 2 and 3), with 20 patients each, according to their surgery dates. RESULTS: The overall margin, ischaemia and complications rate was 90%. The warm ischaemia time was 9.5 min in cohort 1, decreasing to 5 min in cohort 3 (p < 0.0001). The Padua score (p = 0.0287) and tumour size (p = 0.0003) were significantly increased in cohort 3, but loss of kidney function decreased significantly to 3.5% in this cohort. Loss of kidney function of less than 5% was reported for eight (40%), nine (45%) and 14 (70%) patients in cohorts 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.0185). CONCLUSIONS: Hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with early removal of arterial clamps is safe and easy to learn. An expert laparoscopic surgeon can perform hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for complex tumours with a relatively high success rate according to the margin, ischaemia and complications system. Warm ischaemia time could be obtained within 5 min after 40 procedures.

  16. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at 8 Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    School-age language outcomes for children in a longitudinal, randomized controlled study of foster care were examined. Even though children had different placement status at 8 years, children originally placed in Romanian foster care had higher sentence repetition accuracy and longer sentences at 8 years than children who originally lived in severely depriving institutional care. A larger number of foster children also showed written word identification ability. Children placed in foster care by 25 months had significant advantages in nonword repetition and word identification than children placed later. Children placed by 15 months performed equivalently to typical community peers on these measures. Children’s expressive language at 42 months was correlated with their 8-year sentence repetition, nonword repetition, and word identification. The results speak to the continuing adverse effects of early poor institutional care on later language development and to the key importance of age of placement in a more optimal environment. PMID:22584071

  17. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    1 SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC is a cooperative agreement between Oregon State University and the U.S. Environmental ... the position of the U.S. EPA. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product ...

  18. Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

  19. Intervention Research for Helping Elementary School Students with Math Learning Difficulties Understand and Solve Word Problems: 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Casey; Xin, Yan Ping

    2013-01-01

    The authors completed a narrative review of studies of mathematics interventions from 1996 to 2010 for helping elementary school students with difficulties in mathematics solve word problems. Key instructional

  20. Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatto-Vallee, Gary

    This is the last topic in the series of lessons on math provided by DeafTEC. Gary Blatto-Vallee, a math and science instructor at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, guides viewers through a variety of mathematical exercises in this DeafTEC video series. All lessons are fully captioned, signed in ASL, and voiced. In this section, three videos are included that show students how to solve word problems of systems of two equations. This section builds on everything students have learned in the previous videos about working with polynomials and exponents as well as methods for solving systems of two equations. See the main Math Video Resources page for an introduction to this video series.

  1. A word of the Empirics: the ancient concept of observation and its recovery in early modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomata, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    The genealogy of observation as a philosophical term goes back to the ancient Greek astronomical and medical traditions, and the revival of the concept in the Renaissance also happened in the astronomical and medical context. This essay focuses primarily on the medical genealogy of the concept of observation. In ancient Greek culture, an elaboration of the concept of observation (t?r?sis) first emerged in the Hellenistic age with the medical sect of the Empirics, to be further developed by the ancient Sceptics. Basically unknown in the Middle Ages, the Empirics' conceptualisation of t?r?sis trickled back into Western medicine in the fourteenth century, but its meaning seems to have been fully recovered by European scholars only in the 1560s, concomitantly with the first Latin translation of the works of Sextus Empiricus. As a category originally associated with medical Scepticism, observatio was a new entry in early modern philosophy. Although the term gained wide currency in general scholarly usage in the seventeenth century, its assimilation into standard philosophical language was very slow. In fact, observatio does not even appear as an entry in the philosophical dictionaries until the eighteenth century--with one significant exception, the medical lexica, which featured the lemma, reporting its ancient Empiric definition, as early as 1564. PMID:21466002

  2. Early Experience in Implementation of a Learning Assessment Toolkit in the AOTrauma Geriatric Fracture Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Malley, Natasha T.; Cunningham, Michael; Leung, Frankie; Blauth, Michael; Kates, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Surgical education is continually expanding to encompass new techniques and technologies. It is vital that educational activity is directed at gaps in knowledge and ability to improve the quality of learning. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe a published learning assessment toolkit when applied to participants attending AOTrauma Orthogeriatric Fracture courses. Methods: Precourse, participants received a questionnaire covering 10 competencies to assess knowledge gaps and a 20-question clinical knowledge test. The knowledge gap between perceived and desired knowledge was correlated with clinical knowledge test results to help course faculty focus the course curriculum to meet identified educational needs. A commitment to change survey was also administered. Results: Over 3 courses, 48% of registered attendees responded to the precourse survey, 44.5% responded postcourse. The precourse gap scores were generally highest for 2 competencies (“address secondary prevention,” “build a system of care”) indicating a higher level of motivation to learn in these topics and lowest for a variety of competencies (eg. “restore function early,” “co-manage patient care in the US surgeons group”) indicating lower motivation to learn in these competencies. These precourse gap scores guided adaptations in the course structure. Postcourse gaps were reduced in the 4 cohorts. Large improvements were seen in “Address secondary prevention” and “Build a system of care” in many of the cohorts. Competencies with the lowest precourse knowledge test scores were noted in each cohort. Where low pretest scores were noted, it highlighted the need for faculty to put appropriate emphasis on these topics in the delivery of the course content. Conclusion: The technique of evaluating and identifying gaps in knowledge and ability allows course designers to focus on areas of deficits. Measurable success was shown with a subjectively decreased gap score and objectively improved clinical knowledge, as demonstrated by improved test results after course completion. PMID:23569686

  3. Report on Lessons Learned from the NP 2010 Early Site Permit Program FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-03-26

    This report provides a summary of lessons learned from the demonstration of the licensing process for three Early Site Permit (ESP) applications supported as part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Power 2010 (NP 2010) program. The ESP process was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to enable completion of the site evaluation component of nuclear power plant licensing under 10 CFR Part 52 before a utility makes a decision to build a plant. Early Site Permits are valid for 10 to 20 years and can be renewed for an additional 10 to 20 years. NRC review of an ESP application addresses site safety issues, environmental protection issues, and plans for coping with emergencies. Successful completion of the ESP process will establish that a site is suitable for possible future construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. Most importantly, an ESP resolves significant site-related safety and environmental issues early in the decision process and helps achieve acceptance by the public. DOE competitively selected Dominion Nuclear Energy North Anna, LLC (Dominion); System Energy Resources, Inc. (an Entergy subsidiary); and Exelon Generation Company, LLC (Exelon) in 2002 to demonstrate the ESP process and provided cost-shared support through the NP 2010 program. Dominion pursued an ESP for the North Anna site in Virginia; System Energy Resources, Inc. pursued an ESP for the Grand Gulf site in Mississippi; and Exelon pursued an ESP for the Clinton site in Illinois. After successfully demonstrating the process, the NRC issued an ESP for Clinton on March 17, 2007; Grand Gulf on April 5, 2007; and North Anna on November 27, 2007. As with all successful projects, there are lessons to be learned from the NP 2010 early site permitting demonstration that can help improve future implementation guidance documents and regulatory review standards. In general, these lessons pertain to the effectiveness of the regulatory process, experience related to guidance for developing and reviewing ESP applications, issues involving ESP plant parameters, and suggestions for future ESP applicants. The development, submittal, and issuance of these first ESPs under DOE’s NP 2010 program started the momentum to exercise NRC’s new 10 CFR Part 52 licensing process. Several key questions that define critical issues regarding the effectiveness of regulations pertaining to ESPs have been identified and summarized in this report. However, the final resolution of whether the ESP component of the Part 52 process significantly contributes to the predictability in nuclear power plant licensing requires more experience and time, such as the completion of the ongoing combined Construction and Operating License (COL) process for the North Anna and Grand Gulf sites. The three ESP project participants prepared and submitted to DOE lessons learned reports from their experience in developing, submitting, and receiving an ESP. This document summarizes these reports, which are appended hereto. The Nuclear Energy Institute (http://www.nei.org/) and NRC (http://www.nrc.gov/) have also prepared reports regarding their perspectives on lessons learned during the ESP process. Their documents can be accessed on their respective web sites. Following is a summary of the lessons learned from the NP 2010 ESP projects. Effectiveness of the ESP Process: In general, the ESP process is expected (subject to demonstration of the ESP finality provisions in the North Anna and Grand Gulf ESPs) to provide high value for applicants as a site banking and risk mitigation strategy. However, several aspects of the initial process, such as NRC hearings and determining an acceptable approach to the NRC’s Emergency Planning requirements, proved challenging for the applicants. Project Execution: Initial regulatory and industry guidance for planning and executing an ESP application program proved to be insufficient to address NRC’s document review expectations. However, continuous communication between NRC and the applicants helped establish an acceptable framework

  4. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  5. Fast mapping of novel word forms traced neurophysiologically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuryShtyrov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human capacity to quickly learn new words, critical for our ability to communicate using language, is well-known from behavioural studies and observations, but its neural underpinnings remain unclear. In this study, we have used event-related potentials to record brain activity to novel spoken word forms as they are being learnt by the human nervous system through passive auditory exposure. We found that the brain response dynamics change dramatically within the short (20 min exposure session: as the subjects become familiarised with the novel word forms, the early (~100 ms fronto-central activity they elicit increases in magnitude and becomes similar to that of known real words. At the same time, acoustically similar real words used as control stimuli show a relatively stable response throughout the recording session; these differences between the stimulus groups are confirmed using both factorial and linear regression analyses. Furthermore, acoustically matched novel non-speech stimuli do not demonstrate similar response increase, suggesting neural specificity of this rapid learning phenomenon to linguistic stimuli. Left-lateralised perisylvian cortical networks appear to be underlying such fast mapping of novel word forms unto the brain’s mental lexicon.

  6. Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: evidence from ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6 months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n = 25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n = 30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning. PMID:25463819

  7. Machine learning framework for early MRI-based Alzheimer's conversion prediction in MCI subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Elaheh; Pepe, Antonietta; Gaser, Christian; Huttunen, Heikki; Tohka, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). For the effective treatment of AD, it would be important to identify MCI patients at high risk for conversion to AD. In this study, we present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method for predicting the MCI-to-AD conversion from one to three years before the clinical diagnosis. First, we developed a novel MRI biomarker of MCI-to-AD conversion using semi-supervised learning and then integrated it with age and cognitive measures about the subjects using a supervised learning algorithm resulting in what we call the aggregate biomarker. The novel characteristics of the methods for learning the biomarkers are as follows: 1) We used a semi-supervised learning method (low density separation) for the construction of MRI biomarker as opposed to more typical supervised methods; 2) We performed a feature selection on MRI data from AD subjects and normal controls without using data from MCI subjects via regularized logistic regression; 3) We removed the aging effects from the MRI data before the classifier training to prevent possible confounding between AD and age related atrophies; and 4) We constructed the aggregate biomarker by first learning a separate MRI biomarker and then combining it with age and cognitive measures about the MCI subjects at the baseline by applying a random forest classifier. We experimentally demonstrated the added value of these novel characteristics in predicting the MCI-to-AD conversion on data obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. With the ADNI data, the MRI biomarker achieved a 10-fold cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.7661 in discriminating progressive MCI patients (pMCI) from stable MCI patients (sMCI). Our aggregate biomarker based on MRI data together with baseline cognitive measurements and age achieved a 10-fold cross-validated AUC score of 0.9020 in discriminating pMCI from sMCI. The results presented in this study demonstrate the potential of the suggested approach for early AD diagnosis and an important role of MRI in the MCI-to-AD conversion prediction. However, it is evident based on our results that combining MRI data with cognitive test results improved the accuracy of the MCI-to-AD conversion prediction. PMID:25312773

  8. Hand-assisted partial nephrectomy with early arterial clamp removal : Impact of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn H; Norus, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to present the results of hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy according to the margin, ischaemia and complications system; to assess the role of the learning curve; and to compare this approach with other approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 60 consecutive patients were obtained from a prospectively maintained database. The patients were divided into three cohorts (1, 2 and 3), with 20 patients each, according to their surgery dates. RESULTS: The overall margin, ischaemia and complications rate was 90%. The warm ischaemia time was 9.5 min in cohort 1, decreasing to 5 min in cohort 3 (p < 0.0001). The Padua score (p = 0.0287) and tumour size (p = 0.0003) were significantly increased in cohort 3, but loss of kidney function decreased significantly to 3.5% in this cohort. Loss of kidney function of less than 5% was reported for eight (40%), nine (45%) and 14 (70%) patients in cohorts 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.0185). CONCLUSIONS: Hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with early removal of arterial clamps is safe and easy to learn. An expert laparoscopic surgeon can perform hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for complex tumours with a relatively high success rate according to the margin, ischaemia and complications system. Warm ischaemia time could be obtained within 5 min after 40 procedures.

  9. Social-Emotional Learning Profiles of Preschoolers' Early School Success: A Person-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko H; Mincic, Melissa; Kalb, Sara; Way, Erin; Wyatt, Todd; Segal, Yana

    2012-04-01

    Examined how aspects of social-emotional learning (SEL)-specifically, emotion knowledge, emotional and social behaviors, social problem-solving, and self-regulation-clustered to typify groups of children who differ in terms of their motivation to learn, participation in the classroom, and other indices of early school adjustment and academic success. 275 four-year-old children from private day schools and Head Start were directly assessed and observed in these areas, and preschool and kindergarten teachers provided information on social and academic aspects of their school success. Three groups of children were identified: SEL Risk, SEL Competent-Social/Expressive, and SEL Competent-Restrained. Group members differed on demographic dimensions of gender and center type, and groups differed in meaningful ways on school success indices, pointing to needed prevention/intervention programming. In particular, the SEL Risk group could benefit from emotion-focused programming, and the long-term developmental trajectory of the SEL Competent-Restrained group requires study. PMID:22408363

  10. Preliminary Development of the Parent Involvement in Early Learning Scale for Low-Income Families Enrolled in a Child-Development-Focused Home Visiting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Patricia H.; Gernhart, Amanda L.; Bracaliello, Catherine B.; Pressimone, Vanessa J.; Eisenberg, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Salient early intervention approaches for children below the age of 3 years, such as home visiting, seek to strengthen the pivotal role that parents play in fostering their young children's early learning. Yet, measures that identify and monitor the ways in which low-income parents support toddlers' learning experiences are lacking. Without parent…

  11. Epistemic Beliefs and Beliefs about Teaching Practices for Moral Learning in the Early Years of School: Relationships and Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn Brownlee, Jo; Johansson, Eva; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Walker, Sue; Ailwood, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    While investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society, little is known about early years teaching practices that promote learning of moral values. This paper reports on observations and interviews with 11 Australian teachers, focusing on their epistemic beliefs and beliefs about…

  12. Infants of the Knowledge Economy: The Ambition of the Australian Government's Early Years Learning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Sandra; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Shifts in global education policy to formalise curricula and make explicit learning outcomes for ever younger children have become popular for a number of countries responding to changes in global market economics. Human capital discourses, broadly aimed at shaping national prosperity, have entered the early childhood education and care policy…

  13. A STUDY OF ATTITUDES TOWARD LEARNING ENGLISH AT AN EARLY AGE BY TAIWANESE PARENTS WITH YOUNG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the parental attitudes towards young children’s learning English in kindergarten at an early age. The subjects of the research survey are comprised of 189,792 young children enrolled in Taiwan kindergartens as the population. This number underwent stratified random sampling using a ratio of 0.5%, yielding a total of 949 samples. The number of valid questionnaires recovered was 709 and the valid response rate was 76.2%. The results of the subsequent analysis of the data are indicated as follows: Parents living in central and northern Taiwan with educational backgrounds of graduate school or higher tend to disagree in their attitudes towards young children learning English at an early age as compared to the attitudes of parents living in southern Taiwan with high school degrees. Parents agreeing more with secular parenting concepts tend to concur more in their attitudes towards young children learning English at an early age. The views of parents living in various regions with different educational backgrounds towards young children learning English at an early age are primarily affected by their views on secular parenting concepts. Specific research implications of these findings are discussed in the latter part of this article.

  14. Into the Fray: How a Funders Coalition Restored Momentum for Early Learning in Minnesota. FCD Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Dave

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, a coalition of Minnesota foundations commissioned a local research organization to assess the state's ability to undertake a major improvement in school readiness and early learning services for disadvantaged children. The findings were discouraging. Richard Chase, working at the research arm of St. Paul's Amherst H. Wilder…

  15. Development, validity, and normative data study for the 12-word Philadelphia Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12] among older and very old Czech adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Libon, David J; Stepankova, Hana; Panenkova, Erika; Lukavsky, Jiri; Garrett, Kelly Davis; Lamar, Melissa; Price, Catherine C; Kopecek, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of a 12-word Czech version of the Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12]. The construction of the czP(r)VLT-12 was modeled after the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and the nine-word Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [P(r)VLT]. The czP(r)VLT-12 was constructed from a large corpus of old (60-74) and very old (75-96) Czech adults (n = 540). Participants met strict inclusion criteria for the absence of any active or past neurodegenerative disorders and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlations between czP(r)VLT-12 factor structure and other memory tests were conducted. The czP(r)VLT-12 produced a four-factor solution, accounting for 70.90% of variance, with factors related to: (1) recall, (2) extra-list intrusion errors/recognition foils, (3) interference, and (4) acquisition rate; a solution similar to the CVLT and P(r)VLT. Increasing age resulted in a decline in most czP(r)VLT-12 indices, women outperformed men, and higher education led to higher scores. Memory performance in normal aging did not correlate with instrumental activities of daily living. Low, but significant, correlations were seen with other tests of cognitive performance (divergent validity). Appendices are available that provide normed percentile estimates of individual czP(r)VLT-12 performance stratified by age, education, and gender. In accordance with previous studies, these results demonstrate the usefulness of czP(r)VLT-12 in assessing declarative memory in older adults. PMID:25247611

  16. ‘A Gigantic Pedagogical Leap’: The Process of Shifts during Three Learning Study Projects in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Ljung-Djärf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish early childhood education (ECE offers a curriculum-based preschool for children aged one to five, and a preschool class for children aged six years. Activities in these programs have traditionally been based on play and having fun, avoiding structured activities with formal learning objectives. Due to indications that Swedish ECE has failed to use its resources to stimulate children’s learning, the revised ECE curriculum now contains discernible learning objectives. This study analyses the process by which preschool teachers shifted their emphasis when participating in an learning study based on three projects conducted in Swedish ECE practice. In total, 14 preschool teachers, 95 children (2–6-year-olds, and five researchers participated. The objects of learning were: (1 3D geometrical forms (2–3-year-olds, (2 organic decomposition (4–5-year-olds, and (3 the concept ‘twice as” (6-year-olds. The empirical material comprises 278 pre-, post-, and delayed post-tests, twelve planning meetings, and nine teaching activities. The results indicate that, during the projects, the initial focus on mere play expanded to include a focus on the object of learning. Three modes of change were discerned in how (1 the activities were framed, (2 the learning was perceived, and (3 the learning activities were conducted.

  17. WordPress for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  18. Quantitative forecasting of PTSD from early trauma responses: A Machine Learning application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatzer-Levy, I. R.; Karstoft, K. I.

    2014-01-01

    There is broad interest in predicting the clinical course of mental disorders from early, multimodal clinical and biological information. Current computational models, however, constitute a significant barrier to realizing this goal. The early identification of trauma survivors at risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is plausible given the disorder's salient onset and the abundance of putative biological and clinical risk indicators. This work evaluates the ability of Machine Learning (ML) forecasting approaches to identify and integrate a panel of unique predictive characteristics and determine their accuracy in forecasting non-remitting PTSD from information collected within10 days of a traumatic event. Data on event characteristics, emergency department observations, and early symptoms were collected in 957 trauma survivors, followed for fifteen months. An ML feature selection algorithm identified a set of predictors that rendered all others redundant. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) as well as other ML classification algorithms were used to evaluate the forecasting accuracy of i) ML selected features, ii) all available features without selection, and iii) Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) symptoms alone. SVM also compared the prediction of a) PTSD diagnostic status at 15 months to b) posterior probability of membership in an empirically derived non-remitting PTSD symptom trajectory. Results are expressed as mean Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (AUC). The feature selection algorithm identified 16 predictors, present in >= 95% cross-validation trials. The accuracy of predicting non-remitting PTSD from that set (AUC = .77) did not differ from predicting from all available information (AUC = .78). Predicting from ASD symptoms was not better then chance (AUC = .60). The prediction of PTSD status was less accurate than that of membership in a non-remitting trajectory (AUC = .71). ML methods may fill a critical gap in forecasting PTSD. The ability to identify and integrate unique risk indicators makes this a promising approach for developing algorithms that infer probabilistic risk of chronic posttraumatic stress psychopathology based on complex sources of biological, psychological, and social information. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance at Rocky Flats: Early Experiences and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Rocky Flats Site was established in 1951 as part of the United States' nationwide nuclear weapons complex to manufacture nuclear weapons components. In 1992 weapons production halted, and the Rocky Flats mission changed to include environmental investigations, cleanup, and site closure. In October 2005, DOE and its contractor completed an accelerated 10-year, $7 billion cleanup of chemical and radiological contamination left from nearly 50 years of production. The cleanup required the decommissioning, decontamination, demolition, and removal of more than 800 structures; removal of more than 500,000 cubic meters of low-level radioactive waste; and remediation of more than 360 potentially contaminated environmental sites. The final remedy for the site was selected in September 2006 and included institutional controls, physical controls, and continued monitoring for the former industrial portion of the site. The remainder of the site, which served as a buffer zone surrounding the former industrial area, was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in July 2007 for a national wildlife refuge. DOE's Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long-term surveillance and maintenance of Rocky Flats, which includes remedy implementation activities and general site maintenance. Several factors have complicated the transition from closure to post-closure at Rocky Flats. The early experiences associated with the two years siperiences associated with the two years since the physical cleanup and closure work were completed have led to several valuable lessons learned. (authors)

  20. Lessons learned from early implementation of the maintenance rule at nine nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrone, C.D.; Correia, R.P.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the lessons learned from the nine pilot site visits that were performed to review early implementation of the maintenance rule using the draft NRC Maintenance Inspection Procedure. Licensees followed NUMARC 93-01, ``Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.`` In general, the licensees were thorough in determining which structures, systems, and components (SSCS) were within the scope of the maintenance rule at each site. The use of an expert panel was an appropriate and practical method of determining which SSCs are risk significant. When setting goals, all licensees considered safety but many licensees did not consider operating experience throughout the industry. Although required to do so, licensees were not monitoring at the system or train level the performance or condition for some systems used in standby service but not significant to risk. Most licensees had not established adequate monitoring of structures under the rule. Licensees established reasonable plans for doing periodic evaluations, balancing unavailability and reliability, and assessing the effect of taking equipment out of service for maintenance. However, these plans were not evaluated because they had not been fully implemented at the time of the site visits.

  1. Collaborative Course Development in Early Childhood Special Education through Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Higgins Hains

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology is rapidly expanding and changing higher education in multifaceted ways. Although the creation of new models of higher education is revolutionizing the way colleges compete for students, distance education has a long history, with correspondence courses as the earliest examples. Presently, distance learning through multimedia technology and the Internet is the newest solution for delivering instruction to personnel who are unable to travel to on-campus training sites. This article describes the current status of distance education methods for personnel preparation programs in early childhood special education (ECSE. A case study illustrates key design issues and presents the process and resources that assisted in development of a course in Wisconsin. Topics discussed in the case study include course development and content; the course delivery and design process; and the environment, instructional team, format and strategies, support, and evaluation. The article includes a glossary of terms in distance education, information on other ECSE distance education programs, and a list of online resources.

  2. Lessons learned from early implementation of the maintenance rule at nine nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the lessons learned from the nine pilot site visits that were performed to review early implementation of the maintenance rule using the draft NRC Maintenance Inspection Procedure. Licensees followed NUMARC 93-01, ''Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' In general, the licensees were thorough in determining which structures, systems, and components (SSCS) were within the scope of the maintenance rule at each site. The use of an expert panel was an appropriate and practical method of determining which SSCs are risk significant. When setting goals, all licensees considered safety but many licensees did not consider operating experience throughout the industry. Although required to do so, licensees were not monitoring at the system or train level the performance or condition for some systems used in standby service but not significant to risk. Most licensees had not established adequate monitoring of structures under the rule. Licensees established reasonable plans for doing periodic evaluations, balancing unavailability and reliability, and assessing the effect of taking equipment out of service for maintenance. However, these plans were not evaluated because they had not been fully implemented at the time of the site visits

  3. Using errorless learning to treat letter-by-letter reading: contrasting word versus letter-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Karen; Hesketh, Anne; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2005-12-01

    Some pure alexic readers have been shown to activate lexical and semantic knowledge under brief presentation conditions. This ability is not seen when letter-by-letter reading accuracy is high or the reading impairment is very severe. It is also unlikely to occur under normal untimed presentation because the pure alexic will make deliberate use of their letter-by-letter strategy. This paper presents data from a moderately severe letter-by-letter reader, FD, who had visual processing problems affecting reading. He also had other mild aphasic characteristics. FD showed implicit reading abilities under brief presentation conditions, being able to make lexical decisions and semantic categorisations well above chance. FD was given two therapy programmes, the first, whole word therapy to exploit this implicit ability and the second to improve letter-by-letter accuracy and speed. FD showed some improvement in reading ability after both therapy programmes, particularly for words of personal interest to him. His letter naming accuracy and reading of visually similar words were the most resistant to change. A striking effect of therapy was the cessation of FD's letter-by-letter reading and the emergence of some of the characteristics of deep dyslexia. Even when therapy concentrated on letter accuracy, FD did not revert back to his original letter-by-letter reading strategy. The results are discussed with reference to the two theories of pure alexia. Some conclusions are drawn about the need for therapists to examine and exploit all residual reading skills when devising therapeutic programmes. PMID:16381144

  4. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  5. Risk of Learning and Behavioral Disorders Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    OpenAIRE

    Janulewicz, Patricia A.; White, Roberta F.; Winter, Michael R.; Weinberg, Janice M.; Gallagher, Lisa E.; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas F.; Aschengrau, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined the association between developmental disorders of learning, attention and behavior and prenatal and early postnatal drinking water exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Informat...

  6. Head First WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Siarto, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

  7. Brief Training with Co-Speech Gesture Lends a Hand to Word Learning in a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Spencer D.; McDevitt, Tara; Esch, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Recent research in psychology and neuroscience has demonstrated that co-speech gestures are semantically integrated with speech during language comprehension and development. The present study explored whether gestures also play a role in language learning in adults. In Experiment 1, we exposed adults to a brief training session presenting novel…

  8. The Effects of Using Reading Racetracks for Teaching of Sight Words to Three Third-Grade Students with Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Gregory L.; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark; Bucknell, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reading racetracks with three 8-year-old students with learning disabilities. All three children were performing well below grade level in reading. A single subject reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of employing reading racetracks. Corrects responses and errors were…

  9. Creating Rainbows from Words and Transforming Understandings: Enhancing Student Learning through Reflective Writing in an Aboriginal Music Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Katelyn; Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Reflective journal writing is acknowledged as a powerful method for promoting student learning in higher education contexts. Numerous scholars highlight the benefits of reflective writing and journaling for students and teachers in a wide range of teaching areas. There is however, little discussion of how reflective writing is used in teaching and…

  10. Electronic Learning Systems in Hong Kong Business Organizations: A Study of Early and Late Adopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Simon C. H.; Ngai, Eric W. T.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the diffusion of innovation theory (E. M. Rogers, 1983, 1995), the authors examined the antecedents of the adoption of electronic learning (e-learning) systems by using a time-based assessment model (R. C. Beatty, J. P. Shim, & M. C. Jones, 2001), which classified adopters into categories upon point in time when adopting e-learning…

  11. Word Spy

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you're the sort of person who decries the use of abbreviations like B2B as being "so five minutes ago," then you might enjoy keeping up with the very latest parlance with Word Spy. Created by Paul McFedries, this site is intended to focus attention on "recently coined words, existing words that have enjoyed a recent renaissance, and older words that are now being used in new ways." Each weekday, a new word or phrase is featured along with its definition and a citation, usually from a print media source, that shows the word or phrase in context. Recent words include "yettie," a derivative of "yuppie" that denotes a "young, entrepreneurial, tech-based twenty-something," and "retail leakage," which refers to urban residents leaving their own neighborhoods to shop in suburban stores. The site also offers a mailing list for users who want to receive Word Spy via email, a searchable index of previously featured terms, and a specialized lexicon (Tech Word Spy) that contains computer-related and technical terms exclusively.

  12. WordEdge® A Career Mobility Guide to High Speed Dictionary-Based Electronic Learning and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oliphant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As Thomas Kuhn taught us, misery loves innovation even more than company. Small wonder our recession worriers — and who isn’t one these days, directly or indirectly? — are desperately looking for new and practical ways to increase their job mobility. Statistically considered, since most unskilled jobs are already filled, jobseekers from shrinking fields of employment are being advised to broaden their search to include entry level jobs in new high tech fields that are either stable or expanding, e.g., health care.Let’s grant that each high tech field has its own hands-on skills. But it’s also true that each field, e.g., plumbing, has its own high tech vocabulary which each candidate for employment is expected to know or learn, including correct pronunciation, very much like an aspiring restaurant server learning the complete menu by heart. Hence the desirability of acquiring preliminary mastery of an employment field’s high tech vocabulary well in ADVANCE of the first interview, not in a panicky last minute cram session. Until recently, the only way we could acquire a preliminary mastery of, say, health care terms was to take a course (inconvenient and expensive or to study a specific-field booklet (usually limited inscope. Today, however, our current partnership between print dictionaries and their electronic versions gives any job candidate quick access to an amazingly efficient learning tool for masteringa wide range of high tech vocabularies in current use. Here’s the why and how of our dictionary-based learning and testing route.

  13. Early literacy learning in the perspective of the child : literacy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellgren, Elisabeth; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    En socio-kulturel tilgang til early literacy skitseres, og der redegøres for, hvordan denne tilgang har inspireret arbejdet med at målrette Carr's mere generelle læringshistorie-tilgang til en mere early literacy fokuseret dokumentationsmetode.

  14. Developing WordSmith

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Scott

    2008-01-01

    WordSmith Tools, since its launch in 1996, has had a rather unusual history and the aim of this paper is to record some of the chief influences on its development. The paper thus presents and discusses the history of WordSmith Tools and its predecessors going back to the early 1980s when processors were much slower, memory very limited and disk space expensive. It is structured around the discussion of certain key issues, principles and themes. These include: “on the fly” processing, corp...

  15. Assessment and Stability of Early Learning Abilities in Preterm and Full-Term Infants across the First Two Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Infants born preterm have increased risk for learning disabilities yet we lack assessments to successfully detect these disabilities in early life. We followed 23 full-term and 29 preterm infants from birth through 24 months to assess for differences in and stability of learning abilities across time. Measures included the Bayley-III cognitive…

  16. Microsoft Word Training Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Susan

    With a variety of training modules designed for those in the field of medical administration and general business environments, these well-thought out educational materials will be a most welcome find. Created by the staff members at the Internet4Classrooms site, these modules address such topics as inserting images in MS Word, creating signs with MS Word, and keyboard shortcuts. Each of the modules is written with introductory users in mind, and they include helpful graphics that illustrate different actions and tools. Additionally, the site also includes a series of â??Beyond the Basicsâ? learning modules that provide guidance on how to use the mail merge function and how to create hyperlinks within MS Word.

  17. The early bee catches the flower - circadian rhythmicity influences learning performance in honey bees, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Marina; Gustav, David; Galizia, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Circadian rhythmicity plays an important role for many aspects of honey bees’ lives. However, the question whether it also affects learning and memory remained unanswered. To address this question, we studied the effect of circadian timing on olfactory learning and memory in honey bees Apis mellifera using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex paradigm. Bees were differentially conditioned to odours and tested for their odour learning at four different “Zeitgeber”...

  18. Sleep and sensorimotor integration during early vocal learning in a songbird

    OpenAIRE

    Shank, Sylvan S.; Margoliash, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural studies widely implicate sleep in memory consolidation in the learning of a broad range of behaviours1-4. During sleep, brain regions are reactivated5,6, and specific patterns of neural activity are replayed7-10, consistent with patterns observed in prior waking behaviour. Birdsong learning is a paradigmatic model system for skill learning11-14. Song development in juvenile zebra finches is characterised by sleep-dependent circadian fluctuations in singing behaviour, with immediat...

  19. Historical education in Portugal: learning goals in the early years of schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Barca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Learning Outcomes Project for K-Basic Schooling recently carried out in Portugal intended to produce a set of learning outcomes for each curriculum subject matter or area. It has aimed to provide a set of useful tools to the teaching process, thus promoting student achievement. With respect to the History Learning Outcomes, their team got inspiration in relevant empirical studies on situated historical cognition grounded on recent epistemological perspectives concerning history. Under this framework, this paper discusses some of the “History Learning Outcomes” for K-Cycle 1 (3-10 year-olders, seen as significant in the light of historical thinking and consciousness.

  20. Word Detectives: Morphological Instruction That Supports Academic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Perkins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an intervention that uses morphology to support word learning within comprehension instruction of content-specific texts. The intervention is detailed such that the morphological understandings used to support word choice and word learning activities are clear and can be replicated by researchers and educators. Six main…

  1. The Acquisition of Abstract Words by Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, Elika; Swingley, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Young infants' learning of words for abstract concepts like "all gone" and "eat," in contrast to their learning of more concrete words like "apple" and "shoe," may follow a relatively protracted developmental course. We examined whether infants know such abstract words. Parents named one of two events shown in side-by-side videos while their…

  2. The Correlation between Early Second Language Learning and Native Language Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Terry

    2007-01-01

    It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…

  3. MATLAB in Early Undergraduate Mathematics: An Investigation into the Effects of Scientific Software on Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretchley, Patricia; Harman, Chris; Ellerton, Nerida; Fogarty, Gerard

    2000-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the effects of introducing scientific software into the learning experience of a large and diverse first year university mathematics class on attitudes and learning. Confirms the affective potential of this kind of technology. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/ASK)

  4. Changes in theta and Beta oscillations as signatures of novel word consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Iske; Takashima, Atsuko; van Hell, Janet G; Janzen, Gabriele; McQueen, James M

    2015-07-01

    The complementary learning systems account of word learning states that novel words, like other types of memories, undergo an offline consolidation process during which they are gradually integrated into the neocortical memory network. A fundamental change in the neural representation of a novel word should therefore occur in the hours after learning. The present EEG study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether novel words learned before a 24-hr consolidation period elicited more word-like oscillatory responses than novel words learned immediately before testing. In line with previous studies indicating that theta synchronization reflects lexical access, unfamiliar novel words elicited lower power in the theta band (4-8 Hz) than existing words. Recently learned words still showed a marginally lower theta increase than existing words, but theta responses to novel words that had been acquired 24 hr earlier were indistinguishable from responses to existing words. Consistent with evidence that beta desynchronization (16-21 Hz) is related to lexical-semantic processing, we found that both unfamiliar and recently learned novel words elicited less beta desynchronization than existing words. In contrast, no difference was found between novel words learned 24 hr earlier and existing words. These data therefore suggest that an offline consolidation period enables novel words to acquire lexically integrated, word-like neural representations. PMID:25761007

  5. Aplicabilidade do software Fast Forword na reabilitação dos distúrbios do processamento auditivo: resultados iniciais / Applicability of Fast ForWord software to management auditory process disorders: early result

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sheila Andreoli, Balen; Rosiana, Massignani; Raquel, Schillo.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: novas propostas de reabilitação para crianças com distúrbios do processamento auditivo associadas aos distúrbios de linguagem e de aprendizagem são necessárias para aumentar a eficácia do tratamento fonoaudiológico. Assim, o objetivo foi descrever a aplicabilidade do software Fast ForWord Lang [...] uage (FFWL) na reabilitação dos distúrbios de processamento auditivo (DPA) em três crianças brasileiras. PROCEDIMENTOS: estas três crianças, na faixa-etária de 9 a 14 anos, foram selecionadas pela avaliação audiológica básica, do processamento auditivo, de linguagem escrita e de consciência fonológica. Estes procedimentos foram utilizados antes e após a realização do treinamento com o software FFWL, que foi aplicado durante 80 minutos por dia, em cinco dias por semana em até oito semanas de treinamento. Foram utilizadas as seguintes estratégias: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification e Phonic Match, envolvendo detecção, discriminação, atenção sustentada e memória auditiva. RESULTADOS: após, em média 30,67 dias de uso do FFW, observou-se adequação em duas crianças do processamento auditivo. Em uma das crianças isso não foi evidenciado mantendo-se com as mesmas alterações na reavaliação do processamento auditivo. Após a terceira semana de estimulação observou-se diminuição do interesse pelas estratégias, o que necessitou uma intervenção mais intensa e criativa dos pesquisadores. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se inferir que o FFW apresenta aplicabilidade para crianças brasileiras com distúrbio do processamento auditivo, entretanto, são necessárias novas pesquisas com uma amostra maior para verificar a eficácia deste software para crianças brasileiras. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: news proposals of rehabilitation for children with auditory processing disorders associated to language and learning disorders are necessary to increase the efficacy of speech and language treatment. So, the purpose was to check the applicability of Fast Forword (FFW) software for managi [...] ng auditory processing disorder (APD) in three Brazilian kids. PROCEDURE: these three children, ranging from 9 to 14-year old, were selected in basic auditory evaluation, auditory process evaluation, language evaluation and phonological awareness. These tests applied before and after the training with FFW, ran during 100 minutes a day, five days a week along eight weeks. The following strategies were applied: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification and Phonic Match, involving detection, discrimination, sustained attention and auditory memory. RESULTS: after about 30.67 days using FFW, we noted adequacy in auditory process of two kids. In one of the kids that were not the case, the same alterations showed in the auditory process re-evaluation. After a third week of stimulation a diminution of interest for the strategies was observed, which demanded a more intense and creative intervention of the researchers. CONCLUSION: it is possible to infer that FFW presents applicability for Brazilian kids with auditory process disturbances; however, research with larger samples is necessary in order to check the effectiveness of this software on Brazilian kids.

  6. Aplicabilidade do software Fast Forword na reabilitação dos distúrbios do processamento auditivo: resultados iniciais Applicability of Fast ForWord software to management auditory process disorders: early result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Andreoli Balen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: novas propostas de reabilitação para crianças com distúrbios do processamento auditivo associadas aos distúrbios de linguagem e de aprendizagem são necessárias para aumentar a eficácia do tratamento fonoaudiológico. Assim, o objetivo foi descrever a aplicabilidade do software Fast ForWord Language (FFWL na reabilitação dos distúrbios de processamento auditivo (DPA em três crianças brasileiras. PROCEDIMENTOS: estas três crianças, na faixa-etária de 9 a 14 anos, foram selecionadas pela avaliação audiológica básica, do processamento auditivo, de linguagem escrita e de consciência fonológica. Estes procedimentos foram utilizados antes e após a realização do treinamento com o software FFWL, que foi aplicado durante 80 minutos por dia, em cinco dias por semana em até oito semanas de treinamento. Foram utilizadas as seguintes estratégias: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification e Phonic Match, envolvendo detecção, discriminação, atenção sustentada e memória auditiva. RESULTADOS: após, em média 30,67 dias de uso do FFW, observou-se adequação em duas crianças do processamento auditivo. Em uma das crianças isso não foi evidenciado mantendo-se com as mesmas alterações na reavaliação do processamento auditivo. Após a terceira semana de estimulação observou-se diminuição do interesse pelas estratégias, o que necessitou uma intervenção mais intensa e criativa dos pesquisadores. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se inferir que o FFW apresenta aplicabilidade para crianças brasileiras com distúrbio do processamento auditivo, entretanto, são necessárias novas pesquisas com uma amostra maior para verificar a eficácia deste software para crianças brasileiras.BACKGROUND: news proposals of rehabilitation for children with auditory processing disorders associated to language and learning disorders are necessary to increase the efficacy of speech and language treatment. So, the purpose was to check the applicability of Fast Forword (FFW software for managing auditory processing disorder (APD in three Brazilian kids. PROCEDURE: these three children, ranging from 9 to 14-year old, were selected in basic auditory evaluation, auditory process evaluation, language evaluation and phonological awareness. These tests applied before and after the training with FFW, ran during 100 minutes a day, five days a week along eight weeks. The following strategies were applied: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification and Phonic Match, involving detection, discrimination, sustained attention and auditory memory. RESULTS: after about 30.67 days using FFW, we noted adequacy in auditory process of two kids. In one of the kids that were not the case, the same alterations showed in the auditory process re-evaluation. After a third week of stimulation a diminution of interest for the strategies was observed, which demanded a more intense and creative intervention of the researchers. CONCLUSION: it is possible to infer that FFW presents applicability for Brazilian kids with auditory process disturbances; however, research with larger samples is necessary in order to check the effectiveness of this software on Brazilian kids.

  7. Dark and light rearing during early postnatal life impairs spatial learning of rats in Morris water maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Davari, Mahmoud Salami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In early postnatal life, sensory-driven processes deeply affect structure and function of sensory cortices. Because some visual signals pass from visual cortex to the hippocampal formation, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of change in visual experience on rat’s spatial learning and memory. This experimental study was carried out on 30 Wistar male rats (45 days old which were randomly distributed into 3 groups; the CO (Control group was in 12 light/12 dark cycle through birth to the end of the study, the LR (Light Reared group was in complete lightness and the DR (Dark Reared group was in complete darkness (n=10 for each. Using MWM (Morris Water Maze, the animals learned to find a hidden platform for 4 trials per day during 5 days. After removing the platform, spatial memory was tested at day 5 in one trial (probe trial. Our results indicated that in the learning stage, the CO rats spent less time and distance to find the hidden platform than the other groups. There was no difference between all groups in probe trial. Change in visual experience impairs spatial learning of rats in Morris water maze and their spatial memory formation is not influenced.

  8. A STUDY OF ATTITUDES TOWARD LEARNING ENGLISH AT AN EARLY AGE BY TAIWANESE PARENTS WITH YOUNG CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Hung-Chung Lee; Mei-Ju Chou

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the parental attitudes towards young children’s learning English in kindergarten at an early age. The subjects of the research survey are comprised of 189,792 young children enrolled in Taiwan kindergartens as the population. This number underwent stratified random sampling using a ratio of 0.5%, yielding a total of 949 samples. The number of valid questionnaires recovered was 709 and the valid response rate was 76.2%. The results of the subsequent analysi...

  9. Early Reading Intervention: Responding to the Learning Needs of Young At-Risk English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyovai, Lisa Klett; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Kourea, Lefki; Yurick, Amanda; Gibson, Lenwood

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a supplemental early reading intervention on the beginning literacy skills of 12 kindergarten/first-grade urban English language learners (ELLs). The Early Reading Intervention (ERI; Simmons & Kame'enui, 2003) was the instructional intervention used with all students. A multiple-baseline design across students…

  10. 77 FR 36958 - Proposed Requirements-Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...comments have maximum effect in developing the...review the comments or other documents in the...Meta-analysis of the effects of early education...Sebelius announced the Race to the Top-Early...remaining funds for the Race to the Top district-level...reward the efforts of other high-scoring...

  11. Colors of Learning: Integrating the Visual Arts into the Early Childhood Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Rosemary; Johnson, Margaret H.; Mitchell, Sharon T.

    Based on the view that young children will benefit from having art experiences as an integrated part of the curriculum and based on a 3-year study conducted with 5 early childhood teachers, this book presents information on the theory, research, and practice of art in early childhood education. Chapter 1 begins with a description of the…

  12. Early Workplace Learning Experiences: What Are the Pedagogical Possibilities beyond Retention and Employability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trede, Franziska; McEwen, Celina

    2015-01-01

    With this paper, we explore early placement experiences and their pedagogical potential, including ways of keeping students enrolled and persisting with their studies. Few university courses offer early placements because traditionally placement experiences have a focus on employability and work readiness of graduates, hence occur towards the end…

  13. Using the Scientific Method to Guide Learning: An Integrated Approach to Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerde, Hope K.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have become increasingly interested in how early childhood programs prepare young children for science. Due to a number of factors, including educators' low self-efficacy for teaching science and lack of educational resources, many early childhood classrooms do not offer high-quality science experiences for young…

  14. Constitutional designs: lessons we can learn from the early American republic

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina E. Parau; Wittmeier Bains, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the vexed question of who should have the 'last word' in saying what a democratic constitution means in controversies between the Judiciary and the other Branches of government. The aim is to contribute to debates in post-Communist Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), which to date have been dominated by the paradigm of a Constitutional Court (CC) with monopoly power to expound the constitution. This institutional configuration sits uneasily with the separation of powers a...

  15. Are reading and face processing related? A study of word processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K.

    Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition. In this light, investigating face processing in dyslexia, and reading in prosopagnosia becomes interesting: Do deficits in the two domains dissociate? We present data from 11 people with developmental prosopagnosia, which is a disorder of face processing in people with no known brain injury, and in the context of normal intelligence and other cognitive abilities. The face processing deficits in developmental prosopagnosia appear early in life and seem to be the result of developmental problems that are currently poorly understood. In three experiments, we investigated whether reading performance in this group was abnormal. First, we examined if reading speed was affected by word length in any of the subjects. Secondly, we compared performance with single word and single letter stimuli using RT measures. Third, we measured the word superiority effect in accuracy of word and letter report with brief exposure durations. These data were also analysed using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention1, to extract estimates of perceptual processing speed for words and letters. We find that the group of developmental prosopagnosics perform well within the normal range on all reading tests. In the traditional RT test, they show normal RTs, and no abnormal word length effects. As a group, they also show an RT advantage for short words over single letters, as we have previously found in normal subjects.2 In the word superiority experiment, the group of prosopagnosics show the typical word superiority effect, reflected in better overall accuracy, a lower perceptual threshold, and higher processing speed for words compared to letters. In sum, we find no evidence that reading skills are abnormal in developmental prosopagnosia, a finding that may challenge the recently proposed hypothesis that reading development and face processing abilities are intrinsically linked.

  16. Are reading and face processing related? : A study of word processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K.

    Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition. In this light, investigating face processing in dyslexia, and reading in prosopagnosia becomes interesting: Do deficits in the two domains dissociate? We present data from 11 people with developmental prosopagnosia, which is a disorder of face processing in people with no known brain injury, and in the context of normal intelligence and other cognitive abilities. The face processing deficits in developmental prosopagnosia appear early in life and seem to be the result of developmental problems that are currently poorly understood. In three experiments, we investigated whether reading performance in this group was abnormal. First, we examined if reading speed was affected by word length in any of the subjects. Secondly, we compared performance with single word and single letter stimuli using RT measures. Third, we measured the word superiority effect in accuracy of word and letter report with brief exposure durations. These data were also analysed using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention1, to extract estimates of perceptual processing speed for words and letters. We find that the group of developmental prosopagnosics perform well within the normal range on all reading tests. In the traditional RT test, they show normal RTs, and no abnormal word length effects. As a group, they also show an RT advantage for short words over single letters, as we have previously found in normal subjects.2 In the word superiority experiment, the group of prosopagnosics show the typical word superiority effect, reflected in better overall accuracy, a lower perceptual threshold, and higher processing speed for words compared to letters. In sum, we find no evidence that reading skills are abnormal in developmental prosopagnosia, a finding that may challenge the recently proposed hypothesis that reading development and face processing abilities are intrinsically linked.

  17. Teach yourself visually Word 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Get up to speed on the newest version of Word with visual instruction Microsoft Word is the standard for word processing programs, and the newest version offers additional functionality you'll want to use. Get up to speed quickly and easily with the step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots in this popular guide! You'll see how to perform dozens of tasks, including how to set up and format documents and text; work with diagrams, charts, and pictures; use Mail Merge; post documents online; and much more. Easy-to-follow, two-page lessons make learning a snap.Full-

  18. Microsoft Word 2010 Digital Classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Team, Training

    2011-01-01

    The perfect book-and-video training package for Word 2010! This Word 2010 book-and-video training package-from the same professional training experts who also create many training materials for Adobe Systems-is like having your own personal instructor guiding you through each lesson, but you work at your own pace! The full-color ebook includes 8 lessons that teach you the new features and quirks of Microsoft Word 2010. Each lesson includes step-by-step instructions and lesson files, and provides valuable video tutorials that complement what you're learning and clearly demonstr

  19. When Hands Speak Louder than Words: The Role of Gesture in the Communication, Encoding, and Recall of Words in a Novel Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morett, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    In the interest of clarifying how gesture facilitates L2 word learning, the current study investigates gesture's influence on three interrelated cognitive processes subserving L2 word learning: communication, encoding, and recall. Individuals unfamiliar with Hungarian learned 20 Hungarian words that were either accompanied or unaccompanied by…

  20. Learning Mathematics in Two Dimensions: A Review and Look Ahead at Teaching and Learning Early Childhood Mathematics with Children’s Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuciaM.Flevares

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne & Griffiths, 1991; Haury, 2001; Hellwig, Monroe, & Jacobs, 2000; Hong, 1996; Welchman-Tischler, 1992. We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children’s mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O’Neill, Pearce & Pick, 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004. For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children’s understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (Skoumpourdi & Mpakopoulou, 2011; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen & Van den Boogaard, 2008 and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (Clements et al., 1999; Hannibal, 1999; van Hiele, 1986. We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000, Schiro (1997, Hunsader (2004 and Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012. Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Chard, Baker & Clarke, 2008; Clements & Sarama, 2000 which lead to misconceptions (Inan & Dogan-Temur, 2010; Oberdorf & Taylor-Cox, 1999. Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children’s literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children’s books in mathematics activities and for teacher training.

  1. Borrowed Words in English and Chinese Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Shen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Borrowed words are the products of language development and cultural contact. This paper probes into the brief study of borrowed words in both English and Chinese vocabulary. At the very beginning it generally introduces issues being covered, and the following two parts center on the study of borrowed words on the basis of dictionary research. Later, this paper figures out the significance of borrowed words study for EFL (English as Foreign Language learners, particularly those Chinese ones, and gives some advice for borrowed words learning.

  2. Typical Didactical Activities in the Greek Early-Years Science Classroom: Do they promote science learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Kallery, Maria; Psillos, Dimitris; Tselfes, Vassilis

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents an epistemological analysis of typical didactical activities noted in early-years science lessons, which was carried out in an attempt to diagnose the extent to which the teaching practices adopted by early-years educators are successful in supporting young children’s understanding in science. The analysis of didactical activities used a framework that allowed us to discover whether they promoted desired connections between theoretical ideas, ev...

  3. Lexical retrieval stages of momentarily inaccessible foreign language words1 Lexical retrieval stages of momentarily inaccessible foreign language words1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ecke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of foreign language (FL vocabulary involves two aspects: (1 learning to recognize a word’s meaning, and (2 becoming able to retrieve or produce the word’s form in speech production. The second aspect usually takes more time and practice to be developed. While learners may have no problem understanding a FL word’s meaning, they frequently are unable to recall the word when necessary. Probably the most frustrating form of word retrieval failures is the so-called tip-of-the-tongue (TOT phenomenon: Sometimes we look for a certain word or phrase which we feel we know but at the time cannot find and articulate it. The acquisition of foreign language (FL vocabulary involves two aspects: (1 learning to recognize a word’s meaning, and (2 becoming able to retrieve or produce the word’s form in speech production. The second aspect usually takes more time and practice to be developed. While learners may have no problem understanding a FL word’s meaning, they frequently are unable to recall the word when necessary. Probably the most frustrating form of word retrieval failures is the so-called tip-of-the-tongue (TOT phenomenon: Sometimes we look for a certain word or phrase which we feel we know but at the time cannot find and articulate it.

  4. Heritage Motivation, Identity, and the Desire to Learn Arabic in U.S. Early Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lanier Temples

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Arabic language learning has received considerable attention in recent years due to its status as a critical language, a heritage language,and a less-commonly taught language and its linguistic and sociopolitical complexity (Al-Batal, 2007; Wiley, 2007. Though the number of learners in the U.S. has increased dramatically since 2001 (Furman, Goldberg, & Lusin, 2007, much remains to be learned about learners’ various needs and desires and the role of family support, particularly for younger learners. This paper draws on findings from surveys and interviews conducted at a U.S. public school with students in grades 6-8 and their parents. Results elaborate the motivations that students from different linguistic and ethnic backgrounds and their families bring to the learning experience. In particular, this paper defines heritage learners (HLLs, foreign language learners (FLLs,and religious heritage learners (RHLs in this population and suggests implications for teaching these and other comparable learner populations.

  5. 15-month-old infants fast map words but not representational gestures of multimodal labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DanielPuccini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether 15-month-old infants fast map multimodal labels, and, when given the choice of two modalities, whether they preferentially fast map one better than the other. Sixty 15-month-old infants watched films where an actress repeatedly and ostensively labeled two novel objects using a spoken word along with a representational gesture. In the test phase, infants were assigned to one of three conditions: Word, Word + Gesture, or Gesture. The objects appeared in a shelf next to the experimenter and, depending on the condition, infants were prompted with either a word, a gesture, or a multimodal word-gesture combination. Using an infant eye tracker, we determined whether infants made the correct mappings. Results revealed that only infants in the Word condition had learned the novel object labels. When the representational gesture was presented alone or when the verbal label was accompanied by a representational gesture, infants did not succeed in making the correct mappings. Results reveal that 15-month-old infants do not benefit from multimodal labeling and that they prefer words over representational gestures as object labels in multimodal utterances. Findings put into question the role of multimodal labeling in early language development.

  6. Word Geology – its Roots and Meanings

    OpenAIRE

    Mihael Bren?i?

    2011-01-01

    In the period up to 18th century the meaning of the word geology has substantially changed; from Latin word geologia written by de Bury in the 14th century, through the use of word giologia by Aldrovandi in the beginning of 17th century and to near final definition of word geology that appeared in French Encyclopaedia from 1751.With the help of Internet some other early works not known to the literature of geology history were discovered.Among them are German books where in the title word geo...

  7. Do-It-Yourself Early Learning: Easy and Fun Activities from Everyday Home Center Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeff A.; Johnson, Tasha A.

    2006-01-01

    Learning through play is as natural and important for young children as breathing. With this book, parents and teachers can create toys that help children become more confident, develop their intellect, and encourage play and exploration--all with materials easily found at the local hardware store or home center. Written by two experienced family…

  8. Effects of Early Bilingualism on Learning Phonological Regularities in a New Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Anderson, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on structural sensitivity theory, the current study investigated monolingual and bilingual children's ability to learn how phonemes combine to form acceptable syllables in a new language. A total of 186 monolingual and bilingual kindergarteners, first graders, and second graders in Taiwan participated in the study. Bilingual children,…

  9. Promoting Language and Literacy Skills in the Early Years: Lessons from Interdisciplinary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jannet A.; Stackhouse, Joy; Wood, Janet

    2008-01-01

    The recent focus on joint training programmes to support the development of interagency/interdisciplinary collaboration places considerable emphasis on interprofessional education at undergraduate and postgraduate level. It is therefore important to ensure that interprofessional learning is embedded in Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and…

  10. Picture This: Using Photography as a Learning Tool in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Julia; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Typically, classroom photography is used to identify children's cubbies or to capture only special events in school. Rarely is it used as an everyday teaching tool. However, with the increasing affordability and availability of disposable and digital cameras, photography can be readily used in classrooms to facilitate learning. In one preschool…

  11. Perceptual learning, aging, and improved visual performance in early stages of visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, George J; Ni, Rui; Bower, Jeffrey D; Watanabe, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether perceptual learning methods can be used to improve performance of older individuals. Subjects performed a texture discrimination task in the peripheral visual field and a letter discrimination task in central vision. The SOA threshold was derived by presenting a mask following the stimuli. Older subjects (age greater than 65 years) were either trained for 2 days using near threshold stimuli (experimental group) or were trained with the task with supra-threshold stimuli (older control group). The experimental group showed significant improvement in the task as a result of training whereas the older control group showed no significant improvement. The improved performance post-training equaled that of a younger control group and was maintained for at least 3 months. The results of two additional experiments indicate that the improved performance was not due to changes in divided attention, that the effect of perceptual learning was location specific, and that the pattern of learning was similar to that of younger subjects. These results indicate that perceptual learning with near threshold training can be used to improve visual performance among older individuals, that the improvements are not the result of practice with the visual task, and that the improvements do not transfer to non-trained locations. PMID:21149304

  12. Performance on the "Stroop Color-Word Test" as Related to Learning Potential Status of Educable Mentally Retarded Adolescents. Volume 1, Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Ayala; Budoff, Milton

    Adolescents defined as educable retarded who have demonstrated their ability to profit from experiences (highscorers and gainers) were hypothesized to perform more adequately than nongainers on the Stroop Color-Word interference task. The tasks were administered on three successive days to each subject in the following order: color, word

  13. School Climate and Students' Early Mathematics Learning: Another Search for Contextual Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodovski, Katerina; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Walsh, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K)--a large, nationally representative sample of US elementary school students, we employed multilevel analysis to answer the following research questions: (a) Does students' mathematics achievement growth in grades K-3 vary among schools? (b) To what extent does…

  14. Literacy Learning of At-Risk First-Grade Students in the Reading Recovery Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness and efficiency of the Reading Recovery early intervention. At-risk 1st-grade students were randomly assigned to receive the intervention during the 1st or 2nd half of the school year. High-average and low-average students from the same classrooms provided additional comparisons. Thirty-seven teachers from…

  15. Partnerships in Learning: Linking Early Childhood Services, Families and Schools for Optimal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Jean; Woodrow, Christine; Johnston, Christine; Wangmann, June; Singh, Linda; James, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    Vygotsky believed that "individual consciousness is built from outside through relations with others" (Vygotsky, 1997, p. xxiv). He argued that human higher mental functions are products of mediated activity and that the mediator uses a range of psychological tools and interpersonal communication to achieve understanding. In the early years…

  16. Teaching Respect for Cultural Diversity in Australian Early Childhood Programs: A Challenge for Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Glenda; Hughes, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Early childhood teachers in Victoria, Australia face increasing cultural and "racial" diversity among the children and families with whom they work. A small-scale exploratory study found that many teachers were uncertain about how best to respond to such diversity and a mismatch between social expectations that teachers would encourage children to…

  17. Developing Early Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Alphabet Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of preschool instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that…

  18. Master's Programs in Israeli Colleges of Education: A New Learning Opportunity in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevorach, Miriam; Miron, Mordechai

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of advanced studies for the professional staff working in the field of early childhood education (ECE). Until 2001, Israeli MA programs were controlled exclusively by Israeli universities. The article deals with the development of MEd programs in Israeli colleges of education, using the…

  19. Embedding Research-Based Learning Early in the Undergraduate Geography Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkington, Helen; Griffin, Amy L.; Keys-Mathews, Lisa; Metoyer, Sandra K.; Miller, Wendy E.; Baker, Richard; France, Derek

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the rationale for embedding research and enquiry skills early in the undergraduate geography curriculum and for making these skills explicit to students. A survey of 52 international geography faculty identified critical thinking, framing research questions, reflectivity and creativity as the most challenging research skills…

  20. Using triangulation to identify word senses

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Paul J.; Mitchell, Richard; Ruiz, Virginie

    2008-01-01

    Word sense disambiguation is the task of determining which sense of a word is intended from its context. Previous methods have found the lack of training data and the restrictiveness of dictionaries' choices of senses to be major stumbling blocks. A robust novel algorithm is presented that uses multiple dictionaries, the Internet, clustering and triangulation to attempt to discern the most useful senses of a given word and learn how they can be disambiguated. The algorithm is explained, and s...

  1. Chinese kindergartners learn to read characters analytically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print. PMID:25711130

  2. Social Partners : Out with Early Exit - in with lifelong learning and career development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address the demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society and the contribution of lifelong learning to the needs and potential of older workers is crucial, as the demographic situation already today, and in particular the one to be expected within the next about 40 years, is historically without a precedent. The idea of continuous learning and the need for a meaningful work has been included in the agreements between the working life parties in all the Nordic countries. However, not all people are provided with – or take an advantage of – the possibilities to continue learning relevant to their career development. Studies show that trade unions are in “an especially difficult position” regarding this matter, but also that they should develop clearer strategy in response to demographic change, and communicate it to their members. The OWNsurvey was carried out as a part of the work in the network Older workers in the Nordic countries (OWN) supported by the Nordic Council. The findings showed, on one hand, that while some social partners have started very good work, for many the issues of lifelong learning and opportunities for career development for older workers are not on their agenda. Besides differences between the unions in regards many aspects and within most countries, the findings also revealed systematic differences between the Nordic countries. Targeted policy measures regarding the older workers showed to be in place in Denmark and Norway, while this seems to be least the case in Sweden. Finland and Iceland have been prioritizing general policies. Targeted measures provide strongest, and in many cases much needed support to older workers’ competence and career development. However, even a strong lifelong learning policy seems not alone to guarantee real opportunities for and participation in learning during the latter half of the lifetime job careers, especially if the implementation of these policies is not followed up. On another note, also general policies can provide the necessary support, provided that other policy domains and practice are aligned with them. Overall, there is a need for a more active approach from social partners, in policy and practice, to promote lifelong learning and career development to their senior members during their last 15-20 years in working life. In this issue the social partners can and should play an active role – indeed, a leading role if needed – among the other key actors in society.

  3. ``The sun is sleeping now'': Early learning about light and shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Gilda; Cosgrove, Mark

    1993-12-01

    To keep intuitive knowledge fluid for an extended time, we wish to encourage young children to examine continuously those intuitive explanations for natural phenomena which later become hard wired, highly resistant to development or change. To assist this we designed a learning package which integrated three extensively researched educational strategies (cooperative learning, informal inquiry and familiar context) for children to explore their notions about the topic light. Children in a kindergarten class were encouraged to share their ideas about shadows and shadow formation with peers, as they took part in explorations of shadow formation inside and outside their classroom. Whole class discussions, small group conversations and final conversations between researcher and small groups provide insights into social and individual construction of knowledge, young children's abilities to be scientific and the social construction of gender.

  4. Word Walk: Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning

  5. Reading Coaching for Math Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sharon A.; Maloy, Robert W.; Anderson, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    "Math is language, too," Phyllis and David Whitin (2000) remind everyone in their informative book about reading and writing in the mathematics classroom. This means that students in elementary school math classes are learning two distinct, yet related languages--one of numbers, the other of words. These languages of numbers and words are combined…

  6. Lexical Integration of Novel Words without Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Shane; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new word involves integration with existing lexical knowledge. Previous work has shown that sleep-associated memory consolidation processes are important for the engagement of novel items in lexical competition. In 3 experiments we used spaced exposure regimes to investigate memory for novel words and whether lexical integration can…

  7. Sight-Word Mini-Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keri

    2006-01-01

    The author created these engaging mini-books to help her own kindergarten students learn and practice sight words. They are now collected in one place. Each reproducible mini-book introduces one or two new sight words and reviews others, so the books are progressively more difficult. A quick assessment form helps teachers choose the book that is…

  8. Teaching How to Think about Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Peter; Blachowicz, Camille

    2007-01-01

    The authors address the need to teach students to become more word aware by focusing on metasemantic awareness, alongside morphological and syntactic awareness, as a basis for developing metacognition about words. They extend the concept of a definition map to other forms of vocabulary learning and provide several helpful graphic organizers.…

  9. Early prediction of electric power system blackouts by temporal machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Geurts, Pierre; Wehenkel, Louis

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of machine learning to the design of power system blackout prediction criteria, using a large database of random power system scenarios generated by Monte-Carlo simulation. Each scenario is described by temporal variables and sequences of events describing the dynamics of the system as it might be observed from real-time measurements. The aime is to exploit the data base in order to derive as simple as possible rules which would allow to detect an incipien...

  10. Inquiry-Based Learning through the Creative Thinking and Expression in Early Years Education

    OpenAIRE

    Aikaterini Michalopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Many different skills make up inquiry-based learning for children, and children need many opportunities to develop and use these skills as they progress through the Kindergarten years. Inquiry skills should not be taught in isolation, but integrated into interesting topics and ideas. Children need many opportunities to generate and discuss ideas, make plans, brainstorm solutions to problems, reflect and give reasons for their choices. The aim of the research conducted a...

  11. Changes in Visual Object Recognition Precede the Shape Bias in Early Noun Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Meagan; Jones, Susan S.; SMITH, LINDA B.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most formidable skills that characterize human beings are language and our prowess in visual object recognition. They may also be developmentally intertwined. Two experiments, a large sample cross-sectional study and a smaller sample 6-month longitudinal study of 18- to 24-month-olds, tested a hypothesized developmental link between changes in visual object representation and noun learning. Previous findings in visual object recognition indicate that children’s ability to recogni...

  12. Perceptual learning, aging, and improved visual performance in early stages of visual processing

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, George J.; Ni, Rui; Bower, Jeffrey D.; Watanabe, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether perceptual learning methods can be used to improve performance of older individuals. Subjects performed a texture discrimination task in the peripheral visual field and a letter discrimination task in central vision. The SOA threshold was derived by presenting a mask following the stimuli. Older subjects (age greater than 65 years) were either trained for 2 days using near threshold stimuli (experimental group) or were trained with the task with supra...

  13. Expectations and Beliefs in Science Communication : Learning from Three European Gene Therapy Discussions of the Early 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that the potential of gene therapy was oversold in the early 1990s. This study, however, comparing written material from the British, Danish and German gene therapy discourses of the period finds significant differences: Over-optimism was not equally strong everywhere; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical–ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention to internalised beliefs.

  14. Learning from Normal Aging: Preserved Emotional Functioning Facilitates Adaptation among Early Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Ho, Yuan Wan; Fung, Helene H

    2015-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been largely characterized by severe deterioration of cognitive functioning. Only recently has more attention been shifted to identifying the preserved capacity and functioning of AD patients. By reviewing the AD literature, we observe that despite the various cognitive impairment and deficits, early Alzheimer's patients perform certain types of automatic emotion regulation and display a positivity effect in emotion recognition and emotional memory. Moreover, we argue that, like their healthy aged peers, the optimization of such preserved emotion-based capacities helps early AD patients increase positive emotions, which may counteract the negative effects of the disease, thus maintaining their socio-emotional functioning. Finally, we discuss the emotion-based capacities strategies that AD patients may use to facilitate their adjustment to a life with Alzheimer's. PMID:26029479

  15. Learning from Normal Aging: Preserved Emotional Functioning Facilitates Adaptation among Early Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Ho, Yuan Wan; Fung, Helene H.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been largely characterized by severe deterioration of cognitive functioning. Only recently has more attention been shifted to identifying the preserved capacity and functioning of AD patients. By reviewing the AD literature, we observe that despite the various cognitive impairment and deficits, early Alzheimer’s patients perform certain types of automatic emotion regulation and display a positivity effect in emotion recognition and emotional memory. Moreover, we argue that, like their healthy aged peers, the optimization of such preserved emotion-based capacities helps early AD patients increase positive emotions, which may counteract the negative effects of the disease, thus maintaining their socio-emotional functioning. Finally, we discuss the emotion-based capacities strategies that AD patients may use to facilitate their adjustment to a life with Alzheimer’s.

  16. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants

    OpenAIRE

    Internicola, Antonina I.; Harder, Lawrence D.

    2011-01-01

    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pol...

  17. How does Early Child Care affect Child Development? Learning from the Children of German Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Felfe, Christina; Lalive, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the role of early center-based child care (age 0-3) for the development of a wide range of skills. The identification strategy uses historical variation in regional child care offer rates in Germany to address selection into center based care. While differences in parenting style across Germany may be confounding the effect of center based care, our analysis indicates that such differences are largely absent among the generation raising children today. Center-based care imp...

  18. Relational associative learning induces cross-modal plasticity in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Drew B; Weinberger, Norman M

    2015-05-01

    Neurobiological theories of memory posit that the neocortex is a storage site of declarative memories, a hallmark of which is the association of two arbitrary neutral stimuli. Early sensory cortices, once assumed uninvolved in memory storage, recently have been implicated in associations between neutral stimuli and reward or punishment. We asked whether links between neutral stimuli also could be formed in early visual or auditory cortices. Rats were presented with a tone paired with a light using a sensory preconditioning paradigm that enabled later evaluation of successful association. Subjects that acquired this association developed enhanced sound evoked potentials in their primary and secondary visual cortices. Laminar recordings localized this potential to cortical Layers 5 and 6. A similar pattern of activation was elicited by microstimulation of primary auditory cortex in the same subjects, consistent with a cortico-cortical substrate of association. Thus, early sensory cortex has the capability to form neutral stimulus associations. This plasticity may constitute a declarative memory trace between sensory cortices. PMID:24275832

  19. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  20. Electrophysiological cross-language neighborhood density effects in late and early English-Welsh bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GiordanaGrossi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies with proficient late bilinguals have revealed the existence of orthographic neighborhood density effects across languages when participants read either in their first (L1 or second (L2 language. Words with many cross-language neighbors have been found to elicit more negative event-related potentials (ERPs than words with few cross-language neighbors (Midgley et al., 2008; the effect started earlier, and was larger, for L2 words. Here, 14 late and 14 early English-Welsh bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task on English and Welsh words presented in separate blocks. The pattern of cross-language activation was different for the two groups of bilinguals. In late bilinguals, words with high cross-language neighborhood density elicited more negative ERP amplitudes than words with low cross-language neighborhood density starting around 175 ms after word onset and lasting until 500 ms. This effect interacted with language in the 300-500 ms time window. A more complex pattern of early effects was revealed in early bilinguals and there were no effects in the N400 window. These results suggest that cross-language activation of orthographic neighbors is highly sensitive to the bilinguals’ learning experience of the two languages.

  1. Asperger syndrome and "non-verbal learning problems" in a longitudinal perspective: neuropsychological and social adaptive outcome in early adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi S; Nydén, Agneta; Cederlund, Mats; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-12-15

    Co-existence of Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) has been proposed based on the observation that people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal than performance IQ (VIQ > PIQ by ? 15 points), one of the core features of NLD. In the present study we examined neuropsychological and social adaptive profiles with "non-verbal learning problems" associated with NLD in a group of individuals with AS followed from childhood into early adult life. The group was divided into three subgroups: (i) persistent NLD (P-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) both in childhood and early adulthood occasions, (ii) childhood NLD (CO-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) only at original diagnosis, or (iii) No NLD (VIQ > PIQ) ever (NO-NLD). All three subgroups were followed prospectively from childhood into adolescence and young adult life. One in four to one in five of the whole group of males with AS had P-NLD. The P-NLD subgroup had poorer neuropsychological outcome in early adult life than did those with CO-NLD and those with NO-NLD. There were no unequivocal markers in early childhood that predicted subgroup status in early adult life, but early motor delay and a history of early speech-language problems tended to be associated with P-NLD. PMID:23871410

  2. Quality Matters! Understanding the Relationship between Quality of Early Childhood Education and Learning Competencies of Children: An Exploratory Study in Tamil Nadu. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Madras (India).

    Noting that few studies have examined the relationship between quality of early childhood education (ECE) programs in India and the impact of such programs on young children's learning competencies, this study explored the relationship between various components of programs in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and other family and…

  3. Global technology learning and national policy-An incentive scheme for governments to assume the high cost of early deployment exemplified by Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper it is argued that technology learning may be both a barrier and an incentive for technology change in the national energy system. The possibility to realize an ambitious global emission reduction scenario is enhanced by coordinated action between countries in national policy implementation. An indicator for coordinated action is suggested. Targeted measures to increase deployment of nascent energy technologies and increasing energy efficiency in a small open economy like Norway are examined. The measures are evaluated against a set of baselines with different levels of spillover of technology learning from the global market. It is found that implementation of technology subsidies increase the national contribution to early deployment independent of the level of spillover. In a special case with no spillover for offshore floating wind power and endogenous technology learning substantial subsidy or a learning rate of 20% is required. Combining the high learning rate and a national subsidy increases the contribution to early deployment. Enhanced building code on the other hand may reduce Norway's contribution to early deployment, and thus the realization of a global emission reduction scenario, unless sufficient electricity export capacity is assured.

  4. Ear2 deletion causes early memory and learning deficits in APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Markus P; Hammerschmidt, Thea; Martinez, Ana; Terwel, Dick; Eichele, Gregor; Witten, Anika; Figura, Stefanie; Stoll, Monika; Schwartz, Stephanie; Pape, Hans-Christian; Schultze, Joachim L; Weinshenker, David; Heneka, Michael T; Urban, Inga

    2014-06-25

    To assess the consequences of locus ceruleus (LC) degeneration and subsequent noradrenaline (NA) deficiency in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) were crossed with Ear2(-/-) mice that have a severe loss of LC neurons projecting to the hippocampus and neocortex. Testing spatial memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation revealed an impairment in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice, whereas APP/PS1 or Ear2(-/-) mice showed only minor changes. These deficits were associated with distinct synaptic changes including reduced expression of the NMDA 2A subunit and increased levels of NMDA receptor 2B in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice. Acute pharmacological replacement of NA by L-threo-DOPS partially restored phosphorylation of ?-CaMKII and spatial memory performance in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice. These changes were not accompanied by altered APP processing or amyloid ? peptide (A?) deposition. Thus, early LC degeneration and subsequent NA reduction may contribute to cognitive deficits via CaMKII and NMDA receptor dysfunction independent of A? and suggests that NA supplementation could be beneficial in treating AD. PMID:24966384

  5. Early history of chemical exchange isotope enrichment and lessons we learn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical exchange isotope enrichment process has an advantage over other isotope separation methods in that it involves two chemicals rather than one and, consequently, relatively large separation factors can be obtained. However, the chemical exchange method requires a chemical conversion of the substance enriched in the target isotope into the second substance. The idiosyncrasies of the isotope separation process by this method are pointed out using McCabe-Thiele diagram and, from them, the difficulties involved in the chemical exchange methods are itemized. Examples of the points being made are taken from the pioneering works of this field carried out by Harold C. Urey, his contemporaries, the students and the students' students. Lessons we learn from these works are discussed. (author)

  6. Assessing self-regulated learning in early childhood education: Difficulties, needs, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Lozano Díaz, Antonia

    2010-05-01

    Self-regulated learning is one of the main processes being investigated today within developmental and educational psychology; however, the research has come up against a number of challenges for which no satisfactory response has been found, and which are impeding progress in the field. These challenges are two-fold: one part is methodological, as the process of self-regulation must be evaluated at the very moment in which it occurs, and the other part is developmental, as these processes have not been fully assessed in children under the age of 6 years. This article gives a broad overview of these challenges, as well as prospects for future solutions which are beginning to take shape. PMID:20423633

  7. Common complications of deep lamellar keratoplasty in the early phase of the learning curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosny M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed HosnyOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate and record the common complications that face surgeons when they perform their first few series of deep lamellar keratoplasty and measures to avoid these.Setting: Dar El Oyoun Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.Methods: Retrospective study of the first 40 eyes of 40 patients carried out by two corneal surgeons working in the same center. All patients were planned to undergo a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the big bubble technique. Twelve patients suffered from keratoconus while 28 patients had anterior corneal pathologies. Recorded complications were classified as either intraoperative or postoperative.Results: Perforation of Descemet's membrane was the most common intraoperative complication. It occurred in nine eyes (22.5%: five eyes (12.5% had microperforations while four eyes (10% had macroperforations, three eyes (7.5% had central perforations, and six eyes (15% had peripheral perforations. Other complications included incomplete separation of Descemet's membrane and remnants of peripheral stromal tissue. Postoperative complications included double anterior chamber which occurred in four eyes (10% and Descemet's membrane corrugations. Postoperative astigmatism ranged from 1.25 to 4.5 diopters with a mean of 2.86 diopters in the whole series, but in the six cases with identified residual stroma in the periphery of the host bed, the astigmatism ranged from 2.75 to 4.5 diopters with a mean of 3.62 diopters.Conclusion: Deep lamellar keratoplasty is sensitive to procedural details. Learning the common complications and how to avoid them helps novice surgeons to learn the procedure faster.Keywords: deep lamellar keratoplasty, complications, big bubble technique

  8. [Specific learning disabilities and psychopathological aspects: the importance of early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappedi, M; Zoppello, M; Rossi, R; Scarabello, E M; Piazza, F

    2007-06-01

    The case of a couple of monozygotic twins, for whom the diagnosis of Specific Learning Disabilities was made when they were 14.5 years old, even if reading and writing difficulties had been present since the beginning of primary school, is described. The consultation had been required due to difficulties in relating with same age boys, with social withdrawal and depressive traits, leaving in second place school difficulties; clinical suspect has led to extend the evaluation to include the neuropsychological aspects and so to reach the diagnosis. The differences in terms of adaptive modalities facing the discomfort, probably based on temperament differences, and neuropsychological disorder (low grade dyslexia for one twin, dis-orthography and low-to-medium grade dyslexia for the other one) are discussed. The acquired awareness of being intelligent has permitted the boys to look back in a new way to the school failures they had collected through years; namely, understanding that their difficulties reflected a specific neuropsychological deficit has permitted to reconsider their own past history with a consequent modification of the ''beliefs'' about their abilities. This all has led as a consequence to an increase of life quality (with an improved school and relational adaptation), without cancelling but instead supporting the research of on individuality based on temperament differences. This was possible in spite of the evident delay in reaching the diagnosis and the consequent accumulation of frustration and inadequacy experiences for many years; it's therefore demonstrated the importance of a global evaluation of patients with anamnesis of difficulties in learning to read and write, also in order to treat the possible psychopathological aspects of the clinical picture, which can be the result of a sense of helplessness. PMID:17519874

  9. The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh

    2012-01-01

    Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

  10. A Survey of Word-sense Disambiguation Effective Techniques and Methods for Indian Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Shallu Shallu; Vishal Gupta,

    2013-01-01

    Word Sense Disambiguation is a challenging technique in Natural Language Processing. There are some words in the natural languages which can cause ambiguity about the sense of the word.WSD identifies the correct sense of the word in a sentence or a document. The paper summarizes about the history of WSD. We have discussed about the knowledge - based and machine learning – based approaches for WSD. Various supervised learning and unsupervised learning techniques have been discussed. WSD ...

  11. Distributed Representations of Words and Phrases and their Compositionality

    OpenAIRE

    Mikolov, Tomas; Sutskever, Ilya; Chen, Kai; Corrado, Greg; Dean, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The recently introduced continuous Skip-gram model is an efficient method for learning high-quality distributed vector representations that capture a large number of precise syntactic and semantic word relationships. In this paper we present several extensions that improve both the quality of the vectors and the training speed. By subsampling of the frequent words we obtain significant speedup and also learn more regular word representations. We also describe a simple altern...

  12. Lessons Learned During Implementation and Early Operations of the DS1 Beacon Monitor Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Rob; Wyatt, Jay; Hotz, Henry; Schlutsmeyer, Alan; Sue, Miles

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to mission operations will be flight validated on NASA's New Millennium Program Deep Space One (DS1) mission which launched in October 1998. The Beacon Monitor Operations Technology is aimed at decreasing the total volume of downlinked engineering telemetry by reducing the frequency of downlink and the volume of data received per pass. Cost savings are achieved by reducing the amount of routine telemetry processing and analysis performed by ground staff. The technology is required for upcoming NASA missions to Pluto, Europa, and possibly some other missions. With beacon monitoring, the spacecraft will assess its own health and will transmit one of four beacon messages each representing a unique frequency tone to inform the ground how urgent it is to track the spacecraft for telemetry. If all conditions are nominal, the tone provides periodic assurance to ground personnel that the mission is proceeding as planned without having to receive and analyze downlinked telemetry. If there is a problem, the tone will indicate that tracking is required and the resulting telemetry will contain a concise summary of what has occurred since the last telemetry pass. The primary components of the technology are a tone monitoring technology, AI-based software for onboard engineering data summarization, and a ground response system. In addition, there is a ground visualization system for telemetry summaries. This paper includes a description of the Beacon monitor concept, the trade-offs with adapting that concept as a technology experiment, the current state of the resulting implementation on DS1, and our lessons learned during the initial checkout phase of the mission. Applicability to future missions is also included.

  13. Early experience and reinforcer quality in delayed flavour-food learning in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakes, R A; Rossi-Arnaud, C; Garcia-Hoz, V

    1987-12-01

    The ability of hungry rats to associate flavours with the consequences of ingesting glucose solutions was studied in three experiments. Experiment 1 used a procedure in which on some days one flavour, e.g. cinnamon, was presented and followed after 20 min by 20% glucose, while on other days a second flavour, e.g. wintergreen, was presented, but not followed by any event. During this training, subjects who received quinine-tainted glucose increased their consumption of the predictive flavour relative to groups given no quinine, but quinine tainting did not affect conditioned preference for the predictive flavour in choice tests. With the aim of discovering whether prior experience of a variety of foods improves ability to learn new flavour-calorie associations, Experiment 2 and used a similar procedure to compare subjects raised on a varied diet ("supermarket" rats) with controls previously given only chow. Contrary to expectation, the supermarket rats showed some impairment both on this delay task and, in Experiment 3, on one using a "mixtures" procedure. This involved presenting a mixture of one cue flavour with glucose-quinine on some days and a mixture of a second cue with an equally palatable saccharin solution on other days. Acquisition was particularly rapid in control subjects, reaching asymptote after only two flavour-glucose pairings. It was concluded that neither a decrease in palatability, as in Experiment 1, nor prior experience with a range of foods, as in Experiments 2 and 3, improve a rat's ability to associate a new flavour with calories. PMID:3435136

  14. Word, Words, Words: Ellul and the Mediocritization of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…

  15. Audiovisual Spoken Word Training can Promote or Impede Auditory-only Perceptual Learning: Results from Prelingually Deafened Adults with Late-Acquired Cochlear Implants and Normal-Hearing Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LynneEBernstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Training with audiovisual (AO speech can promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. Pre-/perilingually deafened adults rely on visual speech even when they also use a cochlear implant. This study investigated whether visual speech promotes auditory perceptual learning in these cochlear implant users. In Experiment 1, 28 prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants were assigned to learn paired associations between spoken disyllabic C(=consonantV(=vowelCVC nonsense words and nonsense pictures (fribbles, under AV and then under auditory-only (AO (or counter-balanced AO then AV training conditions. After training on each list of paired-associates (PA, testing was carried out AO. Across AV and AO training, AO PA test scores improved as did identification of consonants in untrained CVCVC stimuli. However, whenever PA training was carried out with AV stimuli, AO test scores were steeply reduced. Experiment 2 repeated the experiment with 43 normal-hearing adults. Their AO tests scores did not drop following AV PA training and even increased relative to scores following AO training. Normal-hearing participants' consonant identification scores improved also but with a pattern that contrasted with cochlear implant users’: Normal hearing adults were most accurate for medial consonants, and in contrast cochlear implant users were most accurate for initial consonants. The results are interpreted within a multisensory reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that perceptual tasks are carried out whenever possible based on immediate high-level perception without scrutiny of lower-level features. The theory implies that, based on their bias towards visual speech, cochlear implant participants learned the PAs with greater reliance on vision to the detriment of auditory perceptual learning. Normal-hearing participants' learning took advantage of the concurrence between auditory and visual speech.

  16. Word Sense Disambiguation by Web Mining for Word Co-occurrence Probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Turney, Peter D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the National Research Council (NRC) Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) system, as applied to the English Lexical Sample (ELS) task in Senseval-3. The NRC system approaches WSD as a classical supervised machine learning problem, using familiar tools such as the Weka machine learning software and Brill's rule-based part-of-speech tagger. Head words are represented as feature vectors with several hundred features. Approximately half of the features are syntact...

  17. Hydrological cycle during the early Eocene: What can we learn from leaf waxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.; Huber, M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding how rapid warming modified global precipitation patterns during periods of global warming is essential to forecasting the impact of future climate change. The early Eocene (~55-52 Ma) represents a period of peak warmth for the past 65 million years with global temperatures ~10 degrees C warmer than present. This period is also known for at least three, greenhouse gas-induced episodes of rapid global warming (hyperthermals: PETM; ~55 Ma, ETM-2; ~53.7 Ma and ETM-3; 52.8 Ma), often considered extreme analogues to modern climate change. Hyperthermals are also characterized by negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE), which reflect the input of isotopically light carbon responsible for observed temperature increases. A novel proxy used for hydrological reconstructions uses the hydrogen isotopic composition of compound-specific biomarkers preserved in the sedimentary record. For terrestrial leaf-wax lipids (e.g., n-alkanes), the hydrogen isotopic composition primarily reflects the isotopic composition of meteoric waters, which is dependent on distance of vapor transport, number of rainout events, precipitation amount, and evapotranspiration. Isotopic compositions of PETM n-alkanes (?Dalkanes) recovered from the Arctic Ocean show a substantial deuterium (D)-enrichment at the onset of the CIE which was argued to potentially reflect reduced rainout in the mid-latitudes, resulting in increased precipitation in the Arctic (Pagani et al., 2006). D-depleted values of n-alkanes during peak warmth of the PETM suggest either modification of local precipitation or a global change in the fraction of rainout. In this study, we evaluate the veracity of previous conclusions by compiling existing ?Dalkanes records (including from Mar-2X, Venezuela; Tawanui, New Zealand; Wilkes Land, Antarctica; and the Lomonsov Ridge, Arctic) with new records from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and marginal marine sections (including Cicogna, Italy; Giraffe Core, Canadian High Arctic). To determine the background state of the hydrological cycle in a warmer world, we measured early Eocene ?Dalkanes at these sites. This compilation was then compared against results from the isotope-coupled National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model v3.0 (CCSM) global climate model, with Eocene boundary conditions and two different pCO2 levels (2240 and 4480 ppm). Preliminary analyses suggest that the model is able to simulate the equator-pole trends in precipitation ?D. However, predicted values are offset from the n-alkane data by up to 40‰. To study changes in the hydrological cycle with rapid warming, we analyze n-alkane ?D and ?13C values for the PETM and ETM-2. Leads and lags between the carbon and hydrogen isotopic records help constrain the timing and type of hydrological shifts with respect to carbon input. Preliminary results from the ETM-2 recovered from the Arctic indicate similar hydrological changes during both hyperthermals. A pre-event increase in ?D values (of 60‰ during the PETM and 25‰ during ETM-2) is observed, followed by a decrease in ?D (~10-15‰ for both the events) during the peak of the CIE. A significant pre-PETM D-enrichment at mid-latitudes is not evident, however, more negative ?D values during the CIE is observed in some sites. The reasons for these isotopic shifts and their implication for the local and global water cycles will be discussed.

  18. Word Recognition Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the entry page for participating in the Word Recognition Experiment. This study involves a series of word recognition trials in which participants are flashed a word either in the left or in the right hemifield and then identify the presented word. Performance is measured as the minimum presentation display time required for an individual to correctly identify the word.

  19. How necessary is the activation of the immediate early gene zif268 in synaptic plasticity and learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sabrina; Bozon, Bruno; Laroche, Serge

    2003-06-16

    The immediate early genes (IEGs) are activated rapidly and transiently in response to a multitude of stimuli. The zif268 belongs to a category of regulatory IEGs that activate downstream target genes and is considered to be a triggering mechanism to activate the genomic response in neurons. Several studies have shown that zif268 mRNA is upregulated during different forms of associative learning, and following tetanic stimulation that induces long-lasting LTP. To date, there is a general consensus that zif268 activation may constitute a critical mechanism for the encoding of long-lasting memories, however this is based on relatively few studies. Given the fact that zif268 can be activated by a number of different types of stimuli, it becomes important to determine exactly how it may be implicated in memory. Examination of the current literature suggests that zif268 is necessary in the processing of several types of memory, however, it is not entirely clear what aspects of memory zif268 may be implicated in. Here, we review the existing literature and emphasise that understanding the signalling pathways that lead to activation of the IEGs and the downstream targets of these genes will advance our understanding of how functional activation of zif268 may be implicated in processing long-term memories. PMID:12798262

  20. Second Language Learning Difficulties in Chinese Children with Dyslexia: What Are the Reading-Related Cognitive Skills that Contribute to English and Chinese Word Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children--28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls--participated and were administered…

  1. Strengthening Vocabulary for Literacy: An Analysis of the Use of Explicit Instruction Techniques to Improve Word Learning from Story Book Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy; Hammond, Lorraine; Fetherston, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is an important predictor of literacy and broader academic outcomes, and children's literature is a rich source of sophisticated vocabulary. This study investigated the effect of providing instruction in word meanings as an adjunct to story-book read-aloud sessions in Grade One classrooms. The main intervention programme…

  2. Math word problems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

  3. A Classification Approach to Word Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Even-Zohar, Y; Even-Zohar, Yair; Roth, Dan

    2000-01-01

    The eventual goal of a language model is to accurately predict the value of a missing word given its context. We present an approach to word prediction that is based on learning a representation for each word as a function of words and linguistics predicates in its context. This approach raises a few new questions that we address. First, in order to learn good word representations it is necessary to use an expressive representation of the context. We present a way that uses external knowledge to generate expressive context representations, along with a learning method capable of handling the large number of features generated this way that can, potentially, contribute to each prediction. Second, since the number of words ``competing'' for each prediction is large, there is a need to ``focus the attention'' on a smaller subset of these. We exhibit the contribution of a ``focus of attention'' mechanism to the performance of the word predictor. Finally, we describe a large scale experimental study in which the a...

  4. E-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Goyal

    2013-01-01

    E-Learning or Edutainment Learning, the word has several meanings, E-Learning can best be defined as the science of learning without using paper printed instructional material. The concept is new, dynamic and robust approach towards learning and is gaining more and more popularity, as the Subject Matter Experts (SME) are using several tools to create E-Learning modules for the learners. Numerous top institutions and distance learning universities have started degree and diploma courses based ...

  5. Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Learning to Read: Print Tuning in Beginning Readers Related to Word-Reading Fluency and Semantics but Not Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K.; Jost, Lea B.; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role…

  6. Pedagogical Change at Times of Change in the Higher Education System: An Exploration of Early Career Mentoring, Co-publication and Teaching & Learning Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Boyd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities are at a time of change. Their social, political and economic conditions are under challenge, while technological change challenges curriculum design and implementation, requiring reconsiderations of teaching and learning practices. In this context, and as par t of the conference session on Higher education in 2014: threshold, watershed or business as usual? , I reviewed an approach I have been trialing to supporting early - and mid - career academics to navigate throug h this changing environment. This paper presents an illustrated essay on a human - scale approach to early - and mid - career mentoring through the establishment of small team - based research and writing projects. The essay provides examples of activities that, on the one hand, assist academics to develop the tools they need to navigate the new and evolving environment of higher education, while on the other hand directly addresses key pedagogical issue s and provide s new insight into teaching and learning in high er education .

  7. Early gamma oscillations during rapid auditory processing in children with a language-learning impairment: Changes in neural mass activity after training

    OpenAIRE

    Heim, Sabine; Keil, Andreas; Choudhury, Naseem; Friedman, Jennifer Thomas; Benasich, April A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with language-learning impairment (LLI) have consistently shown difficulty with tasks requiring precise, rapid auditory processing. Remediation based on neural plasticity assumes that the temporal precision of neural coding can be improved by intensive training protocols. Here, we examined the extent to which early oscillatory responses in auditory cortex change after audio-visual training, using combined source modeling and time-frequency analysis of the human electroencephalogram (...

  8. Primitive words and roots of words

    CERN Document Server

    Lischke, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    In the algebraic theory of codes and formal languages, the set $Q$ of all primitive words over some alphabet $\\zi $ has received special interest. With this survey article we give an overview about relevant research to this topic during the last twenty years including own investigations and some new results. In Section 1 after recalling the most important notions from formal language theory we illustrate the connection between coding theory and primitive words by some facts. We define primitive words as words having only a trivial representation as the power of another word. Nonprimitive words (without the empty word) are exactly the periodic words. Every nonempty word is a power of an uniquely determined primitive word which is called the root of the former one. The set of all roots of nonempty words of a language is called the root of the language. The primitive words have interesting combinatorial properties which we consider in Section 2. In Section 3 we investigate the relationship between the set $Q$ of...

  9. Episturmian words: a survey

    CERN Document Server

    Glen, Amy

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we survey the rich theory of infinite episturmian words which generalize to any finite alphabet, in a rather resembling way, the well-known family of Sturmian words on two letters. After recalling definitions and basic properties, we consider episturmian morphisms that allow for a deeper study of these words. Some properties of factors are described, including factor complexity, palindromes, fractional powers, frequencies, and return words. We also consider lexicographical properties of episturmian words, as well as their connection to the balance property, and related notions such as finite episturmian words, Arnoux-Rauzy sequences, and "episkew words" that generalize the skew words of Morse and Hedlund.

  10. Word Geology – its Roots and Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Bren?i?

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the period up to 18th century the meaning of the word geology has substantially changed; from Latin word geologia written by de Bury in the 14th century, through the use of word giologia by Aldrovandi in the beginning of 17th century and to near final definition of word geology that appeared in French Encyclopaedia from 1751.With the help of Internet some other early works not known to the literature of geology history were discovered.Among them are German books where in the title word geology is also present. Works of Zaharius Grapo, JoannesSchnabel and Johann Gregorii can be listed. Short analysis of other German geological works from the second half of the 18th century important for Slovenian territory are briefly presented. Starting from the database of earlier Slovenian publications available on the Internet an analysis of word geology early appearances in Slovene language is presented. First publication of the word root geol- appeared in newspaper Slovenija in year 1849. Amongearly authors Davorin Trstenjak was first using geological information starting in year 1853. Earliest longer textpresented information on geological work in Slovene language was published in the newspaper Novice in year 1853. Based on the available literature and other sources reinterpretation of the meaning of word geology is based in the context of its role in the natural sciences development as well as its historical context.

  11. An Action Research on Deep Word Processing Strategy Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Zhang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For too long a time, how to memorize more words and keep them longer in mind has been a primary and everlasting problem for vocabulary teaching and learning. This study focused on deep processing as a word memorizing strategy in contextualizing, de- and re- contextualizing learning stages. It also examined possible effects of such pedagogy on vocabulary competence and attitude towards word learning. The context of the action research was an 11-week deep word processing strategy instruction program, involving 39 non-English major freshmen. The results showed that teacher’s strategy-based instructional intervention affected the changes both in learners’ vocabulary competence and in teachers’ and learners’ attitude toward word learning. These findings were discussed in terms of some issues deserving more considerations. And accommodations for future study were also made.

  12. The Relationship between influencing Factors and the Implementation of Early Intervention Programme: The Possibility of Open Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Mahyuddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, there is a grave concern from various quarters (educators, parents, the public and the Ministry of Education (MOE on the inability of children not acquiring the basic skills (reading, writing and arithmetic. Evidence (Samsilah, Abd Rahman, Sharifah, 2005 showed that there were grade seven students who still could neither read nor write and it was also found that 30 students in the same grade were illiterate (STAR, 1997. Even with intervention programmes, 43.5% of the students reworded failed to acquire the basic skills. One factor identified was teaching effectiveness. Related to this factor is the lack of teachers. Due to the lack of teachers, in some schools, teachers are asked to take on the task of teaching in the intervention programme without proper training, hence, the poor student performance outcome. Yet, there are a number of individuals who would like to be teachers but had no opportunity because of economic reasons or not meeting the requirements post high school for entrance to higher institutions. Therefore, Open Distance Learning (ODL may be the option for these individuals. This may perhaps also solve the woe of the nation’s lacking of teaching staffs. The basic philosophy of ODL promotes ‘inclusion’ and ‘openness’. These two concepts ensure a place and space for all those who were left out from the education mainstream but have the motivation to be corrected a teacher. But, with ODL the academic system will demand a shift in pedagogical paradigm, because ODL entails notably multimedia products and services. Therefore would-be ODL teachers and trainers will be trained via the use of innovative methods and techniques using multi media as the tool of instruction. This study suggests that with instructional innovations perhaps Early Intervention Programme (EIP may have better prospect for success. Other factors in influencing the implementation of the EIP and implications for ODL are also discussed.

  13. Impaired Word Recognition in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Age of Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, Fernando; Herrera, Elena; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of word production in patients with Alzheimer's disease have identified the age of acquisition of words as an important predictor of retention or loss, with early acquired words remaining accessible for longer than later acquired words. If, as proposed by current theories, effects of age of acquisition reflect the involvement of semantic…

  14. Consonant-Free Words: Evidence from Hebrew Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Bensaid, Limor; Tubul-Lavy, Gila

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a rare phenomenon in language development--the production of words without consonants, and thus syllables without an onset. Such words, which are referred as Consonant-free words (CFWs), appeared for a short period in the early speech of hearing impaired Hebrew-speaking children, who produced words consisting of one or two…

  15. Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visual presentation of words activates extrastriate regions of the occipital lobes of the brain. When analyzed by positron emission tomography (PET), certain areas in the left, medial extrastriate visual cortex were activated by visually presented pseudowords that obey English spelling rules, as well as by actual words. These areas were not activated by nonsense strings of letters or letter-like forms. Thus visual word form computations are based on learned distinctions between words and nonwords. In addition, during passive presentation of words, but not pseudowords, activation occurred in a left frontal area that is related to semantic processing. These findings support distinctions made in cognitive psychology and computational modeling between high-level visual and semantic computations on single words and describe the anatomy that may underlie these distinctions

  16. Acquisition of a 250-word vocabulary through a tactile vocoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P L; Frost, B J; Mason, J L; Chung, K

    1985-04-01

    In a previous experiment [P. L. Scilley, "Evaluation of a vibrotactile auditory prosthetic device for the profoundly deaf," unpublished Masters thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada (1980)] two normal subjects learned to identify 70 and 150 words, respectively, using the Queen's Tactile Vocoder. In the present experiment, the most advanced subject continued word learning until a tactile vocabulary of 250 words was acquired. At this point randomized tests were given to obtain an indication of final performance level. From these data conditional probabilities of correct response for each stimulus word and significant confusions were obtained, which provides insight into the advantages and present limitations of the tactile vocoder. PMID:3157716

  17. Re-Envisioning the Role of Universities in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Community Partnerships for 21st-Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Adam S.; Heineke, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Despite contrasting views on the overlap of early childhood education and teacher education, opportunities abound for expanding the role of early childhood educators in broader teacher education discourse. University-based early childhood education and kindergarten-through-grade-12 teacher education share purposes, philosophies, and resources that…

  18. It's All in a Word History, meaning and the sheer joy of words

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    Cross words, crass words, kind words, bad words, first words, rude words, new words, weazel words, teen words, rap words, power words, colour words, Indian words, Brit words, Blairwords, war words, ad words, p-c words, borrowed words, Shakespeare's amazing words, false words, fine words, wine words, American words, name words, last words, even lost for words – this book has them all. Vivian Cook takes us on a series of excursions down the curious byways of word history and meaning, mingling the fare with games, lists, tests, and quotes. Discover the theojollylogical joys of infixation. Find ou

  19. Professional WordPress Plugin Development

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brad; Tadlock, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Taking WordPress to the next level with advanced plugin developmentWordPress is used to create self-hosted blogs and sites, and it's fast becoming the most popular content management system (CMS) on the Web. Now you can extend it for personal, corporate and enterprise use with advanced plugins and this professional development guide. Learn how to create plugins using the WordPress plugin API: utilize hooks, store custom settings, craft translation files, secure your plugins, set custom user roles, integrate widgets, work with JavaScript and AJAX, create custom post types. You'll find a practic

  20. How to Learn Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Qing

    2007-01-01


    This thesis sums up the basic methods of foreign language learning and analyzes the relationship between English learning and Spanish learning. It expounded the difficulties and focal points of Spanish learning, in order to be helpful to the students who are learning a foreign language, especially Spanish.
    Key Words: Spanish, learning methods and strategies
    Résumé : L’article présent résume les m&eac...

  1. Finding words and word structure in artificial speech: the development of infants' sensitivity to morphosyntactic regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L

    2015-07-01

    To achieve language proficiency, infants must find the building blocks of speech and master the rules governing their legal combinations. However, these problems are linked: words are also built according to rules. Here, we explored early morphosyntactic sensitivity by testing when and how infants could find either words or within-word structure in artificial speech snippets embodying properties of morphological constructions. We show that 12-month-olds use statistical relationships between syllables to extract words from continuous streams, but find word-internal regularities only if the streams are segmented. Seven-month-olds fail both tasks. Thus, 12-month-olds infants possess the resources to analyze the internal composition of words if the speech contains segmentation information. However, 7-month-old infants may not possess them, although they can track several statistical relations. This developmental difference suggests that morphosyntactic sensitivity may require computational resources extending beyond the detection of simple statistics. PMID:25300736

  2. Indicators of Early and Late Processing Reveal the Importance of Within-Trial-Time for Theories of Associative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lachnit, Harald; Thorwart, Anna; Schultheis, Holger; Lotz, Anja; Koenig, Stephan; Uengoer, Metin

    2013-01-01

    In four human learning experiments (Pavlovian skin conductance, causal learning, speeded classification task), we evaluated several associative learning theories that assume either an elemental (modified unique cue model and Harris’ model) or a configural (Pearce’s configural theory and an extension of it) form of stimulus processing. The experiments used two modified patterning problems (A/B/C+, AB/BC/AC+ vs. ABC-; A+, BC+ vs. ABC-). Pearce’s configural theory successfully predicted al...

  3. Internet Marketing with WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Mercer, David

    2011-01-01

    The book's accompanying Interactive learning environment on siteprebuilder.com gives you an online place to enhance and extend your practical experience through exercises, consolidate your learning and theoretical knowledge with marked quizzes, interaction with your WordPress marketing community, and fun and exciting extras such as challenges and competitions. This book is for people already using WordPress, who want more visitors, better visitors, and to convert more of them into paying customers. No prior marketing experience is required, although a basic understanding of either hosted or se

  4. WordPress 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2015-01-01

    Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site

  5. Evaluation of a computer-assisted errorless learning-based memory training program for patients with early Alzheimer’s disease in Hong Kong: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee GY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace Y Lee,1 Calvin CK Yip,2 Edwin CS Yu,3 David WK Man4 1Occupational Therapy Department, Kwai Chung Hospital, 2CY Functional Recovery Services, 3Psychogeriatric Team, Kwai Chung Hospital, 4Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China Background: Improving the situation in older adults with cognitive decline and evidence of cognitive rehabilitation is considered crucial in long-term care of the elderly. The objective of this study was to implement a computerized errorless learning-based memory training program (CELP for persons with early Alzheimer’s disease, and to compare the training outcomes of a CELP group with those of a therapist-led errorless learning program (TELP group and a waiting-list control group. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with a single-blind research design was used in the study. Chinese patients with early Alzheimer’s disease screened by the Clinical Dementia Rating (score of 1 were recruited. The subjects were randomly assigned to CELP (n = 6, TELP (n = 6, and waiting-list control (n = 7 groups. Evaluation of subjects before and after testing, and at three-month follow-up was achieved using primary outcomes on the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination, Chinese Dementia Rating Scale, Hong Kong List Learning Test, and the Brief Assessment of Prospective Memory-Short Form. Secondary outcomes were the Modified Barthel Index, Hong Kong Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form. The data were analyzed using Friedman's test for time effect and the Kruskal-Wallis test for treatment effect. Results: Positive treatment effects on cognition were found in two errorless learning-based memory groups (ie, computer-assisted and therapist-led. Remarkable changes were shown in cognitive function for subjects receiving CELP and emotional/daily functions in those receiving TELP. Conclusion: Positive changes in the cognitive function of Chinese patients with early Alzheimer's disease were initially found after errorless training through CELP. Further enhancement of the training program is recommended. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, memory training, errorless learning, computerized, early dementia

  6. Jordan's Strategies for Early Childhood Education in a Lifelong Learning Framework. UNESCO Policy Brief on Early Childhood. Number 39, July-August 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Yoshie

    2007-01-01

    Jordan has been paying increased attention to early childhood education in recent years. In particular, the government allocated unprecedented resources to the sector through its Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) 2003/08. Funded by the World Bank and other donor agencies, ERfKE is designed to revamp the education sector starting…

  7. Deja Vu All over Again: Re-Revisiting the Conceptual Status of Early Word Learning: Comment on Smith and Samuelson (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy E.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors assert that L. B. Smith and L. Samuelson's (2006; see record EJ750228) most recent critique of A. E. Booth, S. R. Waxman, and Y. T. Huang's (2005; see record EJ684979) work missed its mark, deflecting attention from the important theoretical difference between the two sets of authors' positions and focusing instead on imagined…

  8. Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology

    2011-03-01

    Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses, prisms, and colored lenses and filters are effective direct or indirect treatments for learning disabilities. There is no valid evidence that children who participate in vision therapy are more responsive to educational instruction than children who do not participate. PMID:21357342

  9. The Early Years: Recording Sensory Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggy Ashbrook

    2007-12-01

    From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone."What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk."

  10. Learning Mathematics in Two Dimensions: A Review and Look Ahead at Teaching and Learning Early Childhood Mathematics with Children’s Literature

    OpenAIRE

    LuciaM.Flevares

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne & Griffiths, 1991; Haury, 2001; Hellwig, Monroe, & Jacobs, 2000; Hong, 1996; Welchman-Tischler, 1992). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using pic...

  11. Bilingual word recognition in a sentence context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EvaVan Assche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of bilingualism research on visual word recognition in isolation and in sentence context. Many studies investigating the processing of words out-of-context have shown that lexical representations from both languages are activated when reading in one language (language-nonselective lexical access. A newly developed research line asks whether language-nonselective access generalizes to word recognition in sentence contexts, providing a language cue and/or semantic constraint information for upcoming words. Recent studies suggest that the language of the preceding words is insufficient to restrict lexical access to words of the target language, even when reading in the native language. Eyetracking studies revealing the time course of word activation further showed that semantic constraint does not restrict language-nonselective access at early reading stages, but there is evidence that it has a relatively late effect. The theoretical implications for theories of bilingual word recognition are discussed in light of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 2002.

  12. Using Portfolios as a Learning Tool to Develop Preservice Teachers' Inquiries and Perspectives in Early Science Teaching in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Yoeun

    2009-01-01

    This study has identified the effectiveness of using portfolios for the prospective teachers as a tool of an explicit, reflective, and instructional approach in science education. Early childhood science method courses in a college for unskilled early childhood teachers influence their theory and practice toward science teaching. It describes…

  13. Can I Have A Word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just a single word can make all the difference in a poem, an essay, or an entire novel. Educating students of all ages about the importance of words, particularly in creative writing, can be a difficult task. Fortunately, this visually refreshing and well-laid out site created by the Barbican Education group is quite inspiring. The site is divided into four projects including the elements, the human body, the Odyssey, and changing voices. In the elements area, visitors will learn how to create descriptive writing through watching visual presentations and listening to new poems by a variety of authors, including Margot Henderson, Jackie Kay, and Michael Rosen. Also, this section (as with all the other sections) includes classroom activities for teachers. Overall, the site is easy to use and will hopefully serve to inspire a new generation of creative writers.

  14. Do children with specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders benefit from the presence of orthography when learning new spoken words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E; Patel, Nita; Charman, Tony; Lindsay, Geoff

    2015-06-01

    This experiment investigated whether children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and typically developing children benefit from the incidental presence of orthography when learning new oral vocabulary items. Children with SLI, children with ASD, and typically developing children (n=27 per group) between 8 and 13years of age were matched in triplets for age and nonverbal reasoning. Participants were taught 12 mappings between novel phonological strings and referents; half of these mappings were trained with orthography present and half were trained with orthography absent. Groups did not differ on the ability to learn new oral vocabulary, although there was some indication that children with ASD were slower than controls to identify newly learned items. During training, the ASD, SLI, and typically developing groups benefited from orthography to the same extent. In supplementary analyses, children with SLI were matched in pairs to an additional control group of younger typically developing children for nonword reading. Compared with younger controls, children with SLI showed equivalent oral vocabulary acquisition and benefit from orthography during training. Our findings are consistent with current theoretical accounts of how lexical entries are acquired and replicate previous studies that have shown orthographic facilitation for vocabulary acquisition in typically developing children and children with ASD. We demonstrate this effect in SLI for the first time. The study provides evidence that the presence of orthographic cues can support oral vocabulary acquisition, motivating intervention approaches (as well as standard classroom teaching) that emphasize the orthographic form. PMID:25795987

  15. Picturing words? Sensorimotor cortex activation for printed words in child and adult readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Tessa M; Mareschal, Denis; Johnson, Mark H; Sereno, Martin I

    2014-12-01

    Learning to read involves associating abstract visual shapes with familiar meanings. Embodiment theories suggest that word meaning is at least partially represented in distributed sensorimotor networks in the brain (Barsalou, 2008; Pulvermueller, 2013). We explored how reading comprehension develops by tracking when and how printed words start activating these "semantic" sensorimotor representations as children learn to read. Adults and children aged 7-10 years showed clear category-specific cortical specialization for tool versus animal pictures during a one-back categorisation task. Thus, sensorimotor representations for these categories were in place at all ages. However, co-activation of these same brain regions by the visual objects' written names was only present in adults, even though all children could read and comprehend all presented words, showed adult-like task performance, and older children were proficient readers. It thus takes years of training and expert reading skill before spontaneous processing of printed words' sensorimotor meanings develops in childhood. PMID:25463817

  16. Doug Clements: Early Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    This collection of 5 video "snap shots" features Dr. Doug Clements speaking on mathematics in early childhood. Topics include Learning Trajectories, Intentional Play-Based Learning, Intentional Instruction, Integrated Concrete Concepts, and Early Math Learning. He addresses content knowledge necessary for teaching and the development of children's mathematical understanding. Each video is between 2 and 9 minutes long and may be viewed online or downloaded.

  17. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at 8 Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    OpenAIRE

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    School-age language outcomes for children in a longitudinal, randomized controlled study of foster care were examined. Even though children had different placement status at 8 years, children originally placed in Romanian foster care had higher sentence repetition accuracy and longer sentences at 8 years than children who originally lived in severely depriving institutional care. A larger number of foster children also showed written word identification ability. Children placed in foster care...

  18. The Development of Cortical Sensitivity to Visual Word Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Shachar, Michal; Dougherty, Robert F; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to extract visual word forms quickly and efficiently is essential for using reading as a tool for learning. We describe the first longitudinal fMRI study to chart individual changes in cortical sensitivity to written words as reading develops. We conducted four annual measurements of brain function and reading skills in a heterogeneous group of children, initially 7–12 years old. The results show age-related increase in children's cortical sensitivity to word visibility in posteri...

  19. PNNL: A Supervised Maximum Entropy Approach to Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tratz, Stephen C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Posse, Christian; Whitney, Paul D.

    2007-06-23

    In this paper, we described the PNNL Word Sense Disambiguation system as applied to the English All-Word task in Se-mEval 2007. We use a supervised learning approach, employing a large number of features and using Information Gain for dimension reduction. Our Maximum Entropy approach combined with a rich set of features produced results that are significantly better than baseline and are the highest F-score for the fined-grained English All-Words subtask.

  20. Optimization of Word Sense Disambiguation using Clustering in WEKA

    OpenAIRE

    Neetu Sharma,; Niranjan, Dr S.

    2012-01-01

    In the Natural Language Processing (NLP) community, Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) has been described as the task which selects the appropriate meaning (sense) to a given word in a text or discourse where this meaning is distinguishable from other senses potentially attributable to that word. These senses could be seen as the target labels of a classification problem. Clustering and classification are two important techniques of data mining. Classification is a supervised learning problem of...