WorldWideScience
1

Word Learning in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Effects of Early Auditory Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this…

Houston, Derek M.; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T.

2012-01-01

2

Vocalic and consonantal processing biases in early word-learning: Cross-language differences?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Previous research showed that French-learning 16- or 20-month-olds could learn pairs of words that differed by a single consonantal but not vocalic feature. Danish has a richer vowel inventory than French, allowing for 31 phonological vowel contrasts, including vowel length and presence/absence of stod (laryngealization). The purpose of Experiment 1 was to test whether Danish-learning 20-month-olds, in spite of the importance of vowels in Danish phonology, showed a lack of sensitivity to one-feature vocalic differences in lexical learning similar to that of French-learning infants. The experiment made use of the same word-learning task as that used for French 16-month-olds. As opposed to the French-learning infants, the Danish-learning infants successfully learned the vowel pairs indicating sensitivity to small vocalic differences in word-learning. Experiment 2 tested the use of vowels in word-learning in French-learning 20-month-olds using the same task. They failed again. On the other hand, ongoing tests indicate that Danish-learning 20-month-olds, as opposed to French-learning 16- or 20-month-olds, fail to use one-feature consonantal differences in word-learning. These results may suggest that infants develop processing biases in word-learning depending on the sound-structure of their language.

HŘjen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

2010-01-01

3

Getting Specific: Early General Mechanisms Give Rise to Domain-Specific Expertise in Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper evaluates the proposal that general associative mechanisms underlie the earliest stages of word learning but that these same general mechanisms, operating over language input, enable children to identify domain-specific cues that ultimately help to constrain word learning, rendering children more sophisticated language users. As a…

Namy, Laura L.

2012-01-01

4

From Flexibility to Constraint: The Contrastive Use of Lexical Tone in Early Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Infants must develop both flexibility and constraint in their interpretation of acceptable word forms. The current experiments examined the development of infants' lexical interpretation of non-native variations in pitch contour. Fourteen-, 17-, and 19-month-olds (Experiments 1 and 2, N = 72) heard labels for two novel objects; labels…

Hay, Jessica F.; Graf Estes, Katharine; Wang, Tianlin; Saffran, Jenny R.

2015-01-01

5

Learning builds on learning: infants' use of native language sound patterns to learn words.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current research investigated how infants apply prior knowledge of environmental regularities to support new learning. The experiments tested whether infants could exploit experience with native language (English) phonotactic patterns to facilitate associating sounds with meanings during word learning. Infants (14-month-olds) heard fluent speech that contained cues for detecting target words; the target words were embedded in sequences that occur across word boundaries. A separate group heard the target words embedded without word boundary cues. Infants then participated in an object label learning task. With the opportunity to use native language patterns to segment the target words, infants subsequently learned the labels. Without this experience, infants failed. Novice word learners can take advantage of early learning about sounds to scaffold lexical development. PMID:24980741

Graf Estes, Katharine

2014-10-01

6

Cross-situational statistical word learning in young children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent empirical work has highlighted the potential role of cross-situational statistical word learning in children's early vocabulary development. In the current study, we tested 5- to 7-year-old children's cross-situational learning by presenting children with a series of ambiguous naming events containing multiple words and multiple referents. Children rapidly learned word-to-object mappings by attending to the co-occurrence regularities across these ambiguous naming events. The current study begins to address the mechanisms underlying children's learning by demonstrating that the diversity of learning contexts affects performance. The implications of the current findings for the role of cross-situational word learning at different points in development are discussed along with the methodological implications of employing school-aged children to test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms supporting early word learning. PMID:25015421

Suanda, Sumarga H; Mugwanya, Nassali; Namy, Laura L

2014-10-01

7

Word learning under infinite uncertainty  

CERN Document Server

Language learners learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite encountering them in complex environments where infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as their true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which this can happen. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints allowing learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could also be weak.

Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Kenny

2014-01-01

8

Rehearsal Effects in Adult Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this research was to examine the effects of phonological familiarity and rehearsal method (vocal vs. subvocal) on novel word learning. In Experiment 1, English-speaking adults learned phonologically familiar novel words that followed English phonological structure. Participants learned half the words via vocal rehearsal (saying the…

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

2011-01-01

9

Précis of How children learn the meanings of words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Normal children learn tens of thousands of words, and do so quickly and efficiently, often in highly impoverished environments. In How Children Learn the Meanings of Words, I argue that word learning is the product of certain cognitive and linguistic abilities that include the ability to acquire concepts, an appreciation of syntactic cues to meaning, and a rich understanding of the mental states of other people. These capacities are powerful, early emerging, and to some extent uniquely human, but they are not special to word learning. This proposal is an alternative to the view that word learning is the result of simple associative learning mechanisms, and it rejects as well the notion that children possess constraints, either innate or learned, that are specifically earmarked for word learning. This theory is extended to account for how children learn names for objects, substances, and abstract entities, pronouns and proper names, verbs, determiners, prepositions, and number words. Several related topics are also discussed, including naďve essentialism, children's understanding of representational art, the nature of numerical and spatial reasoning, and the role of words in the shaping of mental life. PMID:12412326

Bloom, P

2001-12-01

10

Learning about sounds contributes to learning about words: Effects of prosody and phonotactics on infant word learning  

OpenAIRE

This research investigates how early learning about native language sound structure affects how infants associate sounds with meanings during word learning. Nineteen-month-old infants were presented with bisyllabic labels with high or low phonotactic probability (i.e., sequences of frequent or infrequent phonemes in English). The labels were produced with the predominant English trochaic (strong/weak) stress pattern or the less common iambic (weak/strong) pattern. Using the habituation-based ...

Estes, Katharine Graf; Bowen, Sara

2012-01-01

11

Noise Hampers Children's Expressive Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To determine the effects of noise and speech style on word learning in typically developing school-age children. Method: Thirty-one participants ages 9;0 (years;months) to 10;11 attempted to learn 2 sets of 8 novel words and their referents. They heard all of the words 13 times each within meaningful narrative discourse. Signal-to-noise…

Riley, Kristine Grohne; McGregor, Karla K.

2012-01-01

12

Development of Pre-Word-Learning Skills in Infants with Cochlear Implants  

OpenAIRE

Families of infants who are congenitally deaf now have the option of cochlear implantation at a very young age. In order to assess the effectiveness of early cochlear implantation, however, new behavioral procedures are needed to measure speech perception and language skills during infancy. One important component of language development is word learning—a complex skill that involves learning arbitrary relations between words and their referents. A precursor to word learning is the ability ...

Houston, Derek M.; Ying, Elizabeth A.; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler

2001-01-01

13

Consonant/vowel asymmetry in early word form recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous preferential listening studies suggest that 11-month-olds' early word representations are phonologically detailed, such that minor phonetic variations (i.e., mispronunciations) impair recognition. However, these studies focused on infants' sensitivity to mispronunciations (or omissions) of consonants, which have been proposed to be more important for lexical identity than vowels. Even though a lexically related consonant advantage has been consistently found in French from 14 months of age onward, little is known about its developmental onset. The current study asked whether French-learning 11-month-olds exhibit a consonant-vowel asymmetry when recognizing familiar words, which would be reflected in vowel mispronunciations being more tolerated than consonant mispronunciations. In a baseline experiment (Experiment 1), infants preferred listening to familiar words over nonwords, confirming that at 11 months of age infants show a familiarity effect rather than a novelty effect. In Experiment 2, which was constructed using the familiar words of Experiment 1, infants preferred listening to one-feature vowel mispronunciations over one-feature consonant mispronunciations. Given the familiarity preference established in Experiment 1, this pattern of results suggests that recognition of early familiar words is more dependent on their consonants than on their vowels. This adds another piece of evidence that, at least in French, consonants already have a privileged role in lexical processing by 11 months of age, as claimed by Nespor, Peńa, and Mehler (2003). PMID:25544396

Poltrock, Silvana; Nazzi, Thierry

2015-03-01

14

Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. PMID:21392726

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

2011-01-01

15

A Comparison of Homonym and Novel Word Learning: The Role of Phonotactic Probability and Word Frequency  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares homonym learning to novel word learning by three- to four-year-old children to determine whether homonyms are learned more rapidly or more slowly than novel words. In addition, the role of form characteristics in homonym learning is examined by manipulating phonotactic probability and word frequency. Thirty-two children were…

Storkel, Holly L.; Maekawa, Junko

2005-01-01

16

A comparison of homonym and novel word learning: The role of phonotactic probability and word frequency  

OpenAIRE

This study compares homonym learning to novel word learning by three- to four-year-old children to determine whether homonyms are learned more rapidly or more slowly than novel words. In addition, the role of form characteristics in homonym learning is examined by manipulating phonotactic probability and word frequency. Thirty-two children were exposed to homonyms and novel words in a story with visual support and learning was measured in two tasks: referent identification; picture naming. Re...

Storkel, Holly L.; Maekawa, Junko

2005-01-01

17

WordRep: A Benchmark for Research on Learning Word Representations  

OpenAIRE

WordRep is a benchmark collection for the research on learning distributed word representations (or word embeddings), released by Microsoft Research. In this paper, we describe the details of the WordRep collection and show how to use it in different types of machine learning research related to word embedding. Specifically, we describe how the evaluation tasks in WordRep are selected, how the data are sampled, and how the evaluation tool is built. We then compare several st...

Gao, Bin; Bian, Jiang; Liu, Tie-yan

2014-01-01

18

EPS Prize Lecture. Learning to read words.  

OpenAIRE

The ease with which we process the written word belies its complexities and makes it easy to forget that it is a highly skilled behaviour and one that takes time to master. In this paper, I argue that our ability to read words has its roots in our capacity for language. Good progress has been made towards understanding how children discover the systematic relationship between speech sounds and the letters used to represents those sounds, very early in reading development. However, we understa...

Nation, K

2008-01-01

19

Learning Probabilistic Models of Word Sense Disambiguation  

CERN Document Server

This dissertation presents several new methods of supervised and unsupervised learning of word sense disambiguation models. The supervised methods focus on performing model searches through a space of probabilistic models, and the unsupervised methods rely on the use of Gibbs Sampling and the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. In both the supervised and unsupervised case, the Naive Bayesian model is found to perform well. An explanation for this success is presented in terms of learning rates and bias-variance decompositions.

Pedersen, Ted

1998-01-01

20

Learning Words through Multimedia Application : A Study of Implicit Learning in Chinese Words  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  This study explores the relevance of multimedia application in relation to vocabulary acquisition in the classroom of Chinese as a foreign language. The herein depicted application refers to the computer-assisted implicit word-learning, wherein the Danish students built hypertexts to acquire meanings of unknown words aiming to research and to enlarging Chinese vocabulary.  

Zhang, Chun

2007-01-01

21

Phonological Similarity Influences Word Learning in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language  

Science.gov (United States)

Neighborhood density--the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)--influences word learning in native English-speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words

Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2012-01-01

22

Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter) and longer (7-letter) nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords throughout the experiment. They also showed a larger length effect, indicating less effective decoding skills. Learning was demonstrated by faster reading of the nonwords across repeated presentations and by a reduction in the difference in reading speeds between shorter and longer nonwords. The dyslexics required more presentations of the nonwords before the length effect became non-significant, only showing convergence in reaction times between shorter and longer items in the second testing session where controls achieved convergence part-way through the first session. Participants also completed a psychological test battery assessing reading and spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, working memory, nonverbal ability and motor speed. The dyslexics performed at a similar level to the controls on nonverbal ability but significantly less well on all the other measures. Regression analyses found that decoding ability, measured as the speed of reading aloud nonwords when they were presented for the first time, was predicted by a composite of word reading and spelling scores (“literacy”). Word learning was assessed in terms of the improvement in naming speeds over 10 blocks of training. Learning was predicted by vocabulary and working memory scores, but not by literacy, phonological awareness, nonverbal ability or motor speed. The results show that young dyslexic adults have problems both in pronouncing novel words and in learning new written words. PMID:24834044

Kwok, Rosa K. W.; Ellis, Andrew W.

2014-01-01

23

Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter and longer (7-letter nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords throughout the experiment. They also showed a larger length effect, indicating less effective decoding skills. Learning was demonstrated by faster reading of the nonwords across repeated presentations and by a reduction in the difference in reading speeds between shorter and longer nonwords. The dyslexics required more presentations of the nonwords before the length effect became non-significant, only showing convergence in reaction times between shorter and longer items in the second testing session where controls achieved convergence part-way through the first session. Participants also completed a psychological test battery assessing reading and spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, working memory, nonverbal ability and motor speed. The dyslexics performed at a similar level to the controls on nonverbal ability but significantly less well on all the other measures. Regression analyses found that decoding ability, measured as the speed of reading aloud nonwords when they were presented for the first time, was predicted by a composite of word reading and spelling scores (‘literacy’. Word learning was assessed in terms of the improvement in naming speeds over 10 blocks of training. Learning was predicted by vocabulary and working memory scores, but not by literacy, phonological awareness, nonverbal ability or motor speed. The results show that young dyslexic adults have problems both in pronouncing novel words and in learning new written words.

Andrew Ellis

2014-05-01

24

Unconventional Word Segmentation in Brazilian Children's Early Text Production  

Science.gov (United States)

An important element of learning to read and write at school is the ability to define word boundaries. Defining word boundaries in text writing is not a straightforward task even for children who have mastered graphophonemic correspondences. In children's writing, unconventional word segmentation has been observed across a range of languages and…

Correa, Jane; Dockrell, Julie E.

2007-01-01

25

Effects of instruction on deriving word meaning from context and incidental word learning  

OpenAIRE

The effect of instruction on deriving word meaning from written context and incidental word learning was assessed in a randomised experiment. The experimental programme, based on the direct instruction of a strategy, produced neither a significant improvement of the skill of deriving word meaning from context, nor did the incidental word learning rate of the fourth grade, below-average readers increase. An effect of instruction on the skill of deriving word meaning from context and incidental...

Fukkink, R. G.

2002-01-01

26

Learning new words: the effect of context and vocalisation  

OpenAIRE

Previous literature shows that both explicit and incidental exposure to novel words can boost vocabulary. By comparing stories and definitions as ways of presenting novel words to children, the present study was able to assess the effectiveness of context on word-learning. It was predicted that learning would be greater when words are presented explicitly (in a definition) than incidentally (in a story). A comparison was also drawn between vocal and ‘passive’ interactions during word-t...

Brewer, David

2009-01-01

27

Modeling Reading Development: Cumulative, Incremental Learning in a Computational Model of Word Naming  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural reading development gradually builds up to the adult vocabulary over a period of years. This has an effect on lexical processing: early-acquired words are processed more quickly and more accurately than later-acquired words. We present a connectionist model of reading, learning to map orthography onto phonology to simulate this natural…

Monaghan, Padraic; Ellis, Andrew W.

2010-01-01

28

Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia  

OpenAIRE

We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter) and longer (7-letter) nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords t...

Andrew Ellis

2014-01-01

29

Learning Probabilistic Models of Word Sense Disambiguation  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation presents several new methods of supervised and unsupervised learning of word sense disambiguation models. The supervised methods focus on performing model searches through a space of probabilistic models, and the unsupervised methods rely on the use of Gibbs Sampling and the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. In both the supervised and unsupervised case, the Naive Bayesian model is found to perform well. An explanation for this success is presented in...

Pedersen, Ted

2007-01-01

30

From speech perception to word learning and beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

From his undergraduate days at Brown, Peter Jusczyk revolutionized our understanding of the link between infant speech perception and language use. This talk reviews how Jusczyk's work influenced my research in three important domains. The talk begins with a discussion of Jusczyk's early work on infant speech perception, and illustrates how that led to my initial work on infant cross-language perception. This is followed by a discussion of Jusczyk's work on sensitivity to probabilistic information and how this influenced the more recent work [Maye, Werker, and Gerken] on the mechanisms underlying changes in phonetic perception. The third research section briefly describes how Jusczyk's work on word segmentation influenced ongoing research in the laboratory on early word learning. In the final few minutes of the talk, an attempt will be made to give a sense of the enormous influence Peter Jusczyk's work had, and continues to have, on our field.

Werker, Janet F.

2002-05-01

31

EPS Prize Lecture. Learning to read words.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ease with which we process the written word belies its complexities and makes it easy to forget that it is a highly skilled behaviour and one that takes time to master. In this paper, I argue that our ability to read words has its roots in our capacity for language. Good progress has been made towards understanding how children discover the systematic relationship between speech sounds and the letters used to represents those sounds, very early in reading development. However, we understand much less about how beginning readers become skilled readers. To understand this, I argue that it is important to view the visual word recognition system within the context of a broader language system, one that incorporates a rich network of semantic and episodic knowledge. PMID:18609391

Nation, Kate

2008-08-01

32

Goodnight Book: Sleep Consolidation Improves Word Learning via Storybooks  

OpenAIRE

Reading the same storybooks repeatedly helps preschool children learn words. In addition, sleeping shortly after learning also facilitates memory consolidation and aids learning in older children and adults. The current study explored how sleep promotes word learning in preschool children using a shared storybook reading task. Children were either read the same story repeatedly or different stories and either napped after the stories or remained awake. Children’s word retention were tested ...

JessicaSHorst

2014-01-01

33

An Autoencoder Approach to Learning Bilingual Word Representations  

OpenAIRE

Cross-language learning allows us to use training data from one language to build models for a different language. Many approaches to bilingual learning require that we have word-level alignment of sentences from parallel corpora. In this work we explore the use of autoencoder-based methods for cross-language learning of vectorial word representations that are aligned between two languages, while not relying on word-level alignments. We show that by simply learning to recons...

P, Sarath Chandar A.; Lauly, Stanislas; Larochelle, Hugo; Khapra, Mitesh M.; Ravindran, Balaraman; Raykar, Vikas; Saha, Amrita

2014-01-01

34

Integrating Constraints for Learning Word-Referent Mappings  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning word-referent mappings is complex because the word and its referent tend to co-occur with multiple other words and potential referents. Such complexity has led to proposals for a host of constraints on learning, though how these constraints may interact has not yet been investigated in detail. In this paper, we investigated interactions…

Monaghan, Padraic; Mattock, Karen

2012-01-01

35

Neural competition as a developmental process: Early hemispheric specialization for word processing delays specialization for face processing  

OpenAIRE

Little is known about the impact of learning to read on early neural development for word processing and its collateral effects on neural development in non-word domains. Here, we examined the effect of early exposure to reading on neural responses to both word and face processing in preschool children with the use of the Event Related Potential (ERP) methodology. We specifically linked children’s reading experience (indexed by their sight vocabulary) to two major neural markers: the amplit...

Li, Su; Lee, Kang; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Zhi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

2013-01-01

36

Goodnight Book: Sleep Consolidation Improves Word Learning via Storybooks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reading the same storybooks repeatedly helps preschool children learn words. In addition, sleeping shortly after learning also facilitates memory consolidation and aids learning in older children and adults. The current study explored how sleep promotes word learning in preschool children using a shared storybook reading task. Children were either read the same story repeatedly or different stories and either napped after the stories or remained awake. Children’s word retention were tested 2.5 hours later, 24 hours later and 7 days later. Results demonstrate strong, persistent effects for both repeated readings and sleep consolidation on young children’s word learning. A key finding is that children who read different stories before napping learned words as well as children who had the advantage of hearing the same story. In contrast, children who read different stories and remained awake never caught up to their peers on later word learning tests. Implications for educational practices are discussed.

JessicaSHorst

2014-03-01

37

75 FR 20830 - Early Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

...mail, you must address it to the Office of the Secretary, Attention: Listening and Learning about Early Learning--Public Input...May 11, 2010, in Chicago, Illinois; at the Polk Bros. Lecture Hall at the Erikson Institute, 451 N. LaSalle Street,...

2010-04-21

38

The Birth of Words: Ten-Month-Olds Learn Words through Perceptual Salience  

Science.gov (United States)

A core task in language acquisition is mapping words onto objects, actions, and events. Two studies investigated how children learn to map novel labels onto novel objects. Study 1 investigated whether 10-month-olds use both perceptual and social cues to learn a word. Study 2, a control study, tested whether infants paired the label with a…

Pruden, Shannon M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hennon, Elizabeth A.

2006-01-01

39

Wordlikeness and Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The more a novel word conforms to the phonotactics of the language, the more wordlike it is and the easier it is to learn. It is unknown to what extent children with hearing loss (CHL) take advantage of phonotactic cues to support word learning. Aims: This study investigated whether CHL had similar sensitivities to wordlikeness during…

Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.

2013-01-01

40

Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions…

Steele, Sara C.

2012-01-01

41

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... TV Share Compartir Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Source: National Center on Birth Defects and ... by monitoring how they play, learn, speak and act. More Information Learn the Signs. Act Early Autism ...

42

Word Association in Early Alzheimer's Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease (AD) degrades semantic representations predicts that AD qualitatively alters spontaneous thoughts. In two experiments contrasting free associations to words with strong (e.g., "bride-groom") versus weak (e.g., "body-leg") associates participants with AD produced less common responses (e.g., "bride-pretty")…

Gollan, Tamar H.; Salmon, David P.; Paxton, Jessica L.

2006-01-01

43

Is Overt Repetition Critical to Expressive Word Learning? The Role of Overt Repetition in Word Learning with and without Semantics  

Science.gov (United States)

Five experiments examined whether overt repetition (i.e., saying a word aloud) during exposure is critical to the expressive learning of new words. When participants did not engage in overt repetition during exposure, they nevertheless exhibited clear expressive learning, both with and without an accompanying semantics, indicating that overt…

Abbs, Brandon; Gupta, Prahlad; Khetarpal, Naveen

2008-01-01

44

Electroencephalographic Coherence and Learning: Distinct Patterns of Change during Word Learning and Figure Learning Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

One likely mechanism in learning new skills is change in synchronous connections between distributed neural networks, which can be measured by coherence analysis of electroencephalographic patterns. This study examined coherence changes during the learning of two tasks, a word association task and a figure association task. Although learning

Collins, Peter; Hogan, Michael; Kilmartin, Liam; Keane, Michael; Kaiser, Jochen; Fischer, Kurt

2010-01-01

45

Early Dual Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

Genesee, Fred

2008-01-01

46

Early word segmentation in infants acquiring Parisian French: task-dependent and dialect-specific aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six experiments explored Parisian French-learning infants' ability to segment bisyllabic words from fluent speech. The first goal was to assess whether bisyllabic word segmentation emerges later in infants acquiring European French compared to other languages. The second goal was to determine whether infants learning different dialects of the same language have partly different segmentation abilities, and whether segmenting a non-native dialect has a cost. Infants were tested on standard European or Canadian French stimuli, in the word-passage or passage-word order. Our study first establishes an early onset of segmentation abilities: Parisian infants segment bisyllabic words at age 0;8 in the passage-word order only (revealing a robust order of presentation effect). Second, it shows that there are differences in segmentation abilities across Parisian and Canadian French infants, and that there is a cost for cross-dialect segmentation for Parisian infants. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding word segmentation processes. PMID:23659594

Nazzi, Thierry; Mersad, Karima; Sundara, Megha; Iakimova, Galina; Polka, Linda

2014-05-01

47

Grammatical morphology as a source of early number word meanings  

OpenAIRE

Languages vary in how they grammatically mark number (e.g., in nouns, verbs, and so forth). We test the effects of this variability on learning number words—for example, one, two, three—by investigating children learning Slovenian and Saudi Arabic, which have singular-plural marking, but also dual marking (for sets of two). We find that learning the dual is associated with faster learning of the meaning of two than in any previously studied language, even when accompanied by less experien...

Almoammer, Alhanouf; Sullivan, Jessica; Donlan, Chris; Marus?ic?, Franc; Z?aucer, Rok; O’donnell, Timothy; Barner, David

2013-01-01

48

Early science learning  

OpenAIRE

The article reports some of the findings of rather comprehensive research conducted on the preschool education in Slovenia, in which 810 preschool teachers participated. As regards the early natural science teaching the results show that the level of science literacy is on the increase, that the respondents are well aware of the scientific knowledge, its formation and acquisition; further, they also adopt a positive attitude towards natural science teaching at the preschool ...

Krnel, Dus?an; Bajd, Barbara

2010-01-01

49

Learning similarity-based word sense disambiguation from sparse data  

CERN Document Server

We describe a method for automatic word sense disambiguation using a text corpus and a machine-readable dictionary (MRD). The method is based on word similarity and context similarity measures. Words are considered similar if they appear in similar contexts; contexts are similar if they contain similar words. The circularity of this definition is resolved by an iterative, converging process, in which the system learns from the corpus a set of typical usages for each of the senses of the polysemous word listed in the MRD. A new instance of a polysemous word is assigned the sense associated with the typical usage most similar to its context. Experiments show that this method performs well, and can learn even from very sparse training data.

Karov, Y; Karov, Yael; Edelman, Shimon

1996-01-01

50

Drawings and Dialogue: Word Solving in Early Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

Envisioning oneself as a competent reader is an important first step to reading well. This article describes an intervention that employs drawings coupled with teacher-student dialogue, which sets the stage for strategy learning as a key to word-solving. A process for the interventionist, Title I or any teacher working with students who find…

Zimmerman, Belinda S.

2012-01-01

51

Influence of syllable structure on l2 auditory word learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a closed-syllable structure and consonant clusters. Two groups of college students (Japanese group, N = 22; and native speakers of English, N = 21) learned paired English pseudowords and pictures. The pseudoword types differed in terms of the syllable structure and consonant clusters (congruent vs. incongruent) and the position of consonant clusters (coda vs. onset). Recall accuracy was higher for the pseudowords in the congruent type and the pseudowords with the coda-consonant clusters. The syllable structure effect was obtained from both participant groups, disconfirming the hypothesized cross-linguistic influence on L2 auditory word learning. PMID:24493208

Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki

2015-04-01

52

Word 2010 eLearning Kit For Dummies  

CERN Document Server

Use this step-by-step learning package to master Word 2010 Word 2010 is one of the core applications of Microsoft Office and if you're eager to get started using all it has to offer, this value-packed eLearning Kit is essential to your learning process. This complete Word 2010 course includes a full-color printed book and a Dummies interactive eLearning course on CD. You'll discover the basics of the Word interface, how to navigate it, how to get comfortable with the terminology, and how to use its many features. Detailed instructions walk you through real-world exercises and help to make lear

Lowe, Lois

2012-01-01

53

Developmental Changes in Causal Supports for Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This work explores whether the facilitative effect of causal information on preschoolers' word and descriptive fact learning persists in school-age children. Twenty-three 5-year-olds just beginning school and 23 6- to 7-year-olds who had accumulated over a year of schooling were taught novel words along with descriptions of causally rich,…

Booth, Amy E.; Alvarez, Aubry

2015-01-01

54

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... TV Learn about CDC-TV Share Compartir Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Source: National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) Running Time: (4:32) Release Date: 9/22/2008 Early ...

55

Enhancing Students’ Fluency in Writing: Learning to Use Transition Words  

OpenAIRE

This study uses experimental and control group data to investigate whether learning to use transition words results in enhancing students’ fluency in writing. Common sentence connectors, such as moreover, however, thus, etc were chosen in order that students learn the use of transition words in text and improve their writing fluency. 36 first-year university students were placed in an intermediate class: 18 control group students and 18 experimental group students. Over a 12-week period, bo...

Yoshihito Sugita

2012-01-01

56

Visual word learning in skilled readers of English.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments are reported analysing the processes by which adult readers of English learn new written words. Visual word learning was simulated by presenting short (four-letter) and longer (seven-letter) nonwords repeatedly and observing the reduction in naming latencies and the convergence in reaction times (RTs) to shorter and longer items that are the hallmarks of visual word learning. Experiment 1 presented nonwords in ten consecutive blocks. Naming latencies reduced over the first four or five presentations. The effect of length on naming RTs was large in block 1 but non-significant after four or five presentations. Experiment 2 demonstrated some reduction in RTs to untrained nonwords following practice on a trained set, but the reduction was less than for the trained items and RTs to shorter and longer nonwords did not converge. Experiment 3 included a retest after seven days which showed some slowing of RTs compared with the end of the first session but also considerable retention of learning. We conclude that four to six exposures to novel words (nonwords) are sufficient to establish durable lexical representations that permit parallel processing of newly-learned words. The results are discussed in terms of theoretical models of reading and word learning. PMID:25019273

Kwok, Rosa Kit Wan; Ellis, Andrew W

2015-02-01

57

Word Learning and Attention Allocation Based on Word Class and Category Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention allocation in word learning may vary developmentally based on the novelty of the object. It has been suggested that children differentially learn verbs based on the novelty of the agent, but adults do not because they automatically infer the object's category and thus treat it like a familiar object. The current research examined…

Hupp, Julie M.

2015-01-01

58

Sound Symbolism Facilitates Word Learning in 14-Month-Olds  

Science.gov (United States)

Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association. PMID:25695741

Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H. Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro

2015-01-01

59

Sound symbolism facilitates word learning in 14-month-olds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association. PMID:25695741

Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro

2015-01-01

60

Yearning for Words, Learning With Words: Poetic Ruminations  

OpenAIRE

As a poet I am always seeking ecological interconnections amidst body, brain, language, knowing, mind, consciousness, education, imagination, heart, cognition, and spirit. In language play I hope to find my way to a purposeful pedagogy that acknowledges and honours how learning is always a holistic adventure in process and flux, an adventure of human becoming filled with wonder and mystery beyond the counting, but always abundantly available for courting with wild delight and desire.

Carl Leggo

2011-01-01

61

Yearning for Words, Learning With Words: Poetic Ruminations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a poet I am always seeking ecological interconnections amidst body, brain, language, knowing, mind, consciousness, education, imagination, heart, cognition, and spirit. In language play I hope to find my way to a purposeful pedagogy that acknowledges and honours how learning is always a holistic adventure in process and flux, an adventure of human becoming filled with wonder and mystery beyond the counting, but always abundantly available for courting with wild delight and desire.

Carl Leggo

2011-12-01

62

How are pronunciation variants of spoken words recognized? A test of generalization to newly learned words  

OpenAIRE

One account of how pronunciation variants of spoken words (center-> “senner” or “sennah”) are recognized is that sublexical processes use information about variation in the same phonological environments to recover the intended segments (Gaskell & Marslen-Wilson, 1998). The present study tests the limits of this phonological inference account by examining how listeners process for the first time a pronunciation variant of a newly learned word. Recognition of such a variant should occu...

Pitt, Mark A.

2009-01-01

63

Acquisition of English word stress patterns in early and late bilinguals  

Science.gov (United States)

Given early acquisition of prosodic knowledge as demonstrated by infants' sensitivity to native language accentual patterns, the question of whether learners can acquire new prosodic patterns across the life span arises. Acquisition of English stress by early and late Spanish-English and Korean-English bilinguals was investigated. In a production task, two-syllable nonwords were produced in noun and verb sentence frames. In a perception task, preference for first or last syllable stress on the nonwords was indicated. Also, real words that were phonologically similar to the nonwords were collected. Logistic regression analyses and ANOVAs were conducted to determine the effect of three factors (syllable structure, lexical class, and stress patterns of phonologically similar words) on the production and perception responses. In all three groups, stress patterns of phonologically similar real words predicted stress on nonwords. For the two other factors, early bilinguals patterned similarly to the native-English participants. Late Spanish-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on syllabic structure, and late Korean-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on lexical class than native-English speakers. Thus, compared to native speakers, late bilinguals' ability to abstract stress patterns is reduced and affected by the first language. [Work supported by NIH.

Guion, Susan G.

2001-05-01

64

Learning Approaches toward Title Word Selection on Indic Script  

OpenAIRE

Title is a compact representation of a document which distill the important information from the document. In this paper we studied the selection words as title words by using different learning approachesnamely nearest neighbor approach (NN), Naive Bayes approach with limited-vocabulary (NBL), Naive Bayes approach with full vocabulary (NBF) and by using a term weighing approach (tf-idf). We compare theperformance of these approaches by using F1 metric. We compare the F1 metric results both o...

Vijayapal Reddy, P.; Govardhan, A.

2011-01-01

65

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... how they play, learn, speak and act. More Information Learn the Signs. Act Early Autism Spectrum Disorders ( ... Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ...

66

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 2008 Early recognition of developmental disabilities such as autism is key for parents and providers. CDC realized ... act. More Information Learn the Signs. Act Early Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) Child Development Downloads Read the ...

67

Isolated words enhance statistical language learning in infancy  

OpenAIRE

Infants are adept at tracking statistical regularities to identify word boundaries in pause-free speech. However, researchers have questioned the relevance of statistical learning mechanisms to language acquisition, since previous studies have used simplified artificial languages that ignore the variability of real language input. The experiments reported here embraced a key dimension of variability in infant-directed speech. English-learning infants (8–10 months) listened briefly to natura...

Lew-williams, Casey; Pelucchi, Bruna; Saffran, Jenny R.

2011-01-01

68

Modularity in inductively-learned word pronunciation systems  

CERN Document Server

In leading morpho-phonological theories and state-of-the-art text-to-speech systems it is assumed that word pronunciation cannot be learned or performed without in-between analyses at several abstraction levels (e.g., morphological, graphemic, phonemic, syllabic, and stress levels). We challenge this assumption for the case of English word pronunciation. Using IGTree, an inductive-learning decision-tree algorithms, we train and test three word-pronunciation systems in which the number of abstraction levels (implemented as sequenced modules) is reduced from five, via three, to one. The latter system, classifying letter strings directly as mapping to phonemes with stress markers, yields significantly better generalisation accuracies than the two multi-module systems. Analyses of empirical results indicate that positive utility effects of sequencing modules are outweighed by cascading errors passed on between modules.

Van den Bosch, A; Daelemans, W; Bosch, Antal van den; Weijters, Ton; Daelemans, Walter

1999-01-01

69

Learning Words for Life: Promoting Vocabulary in Dual Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocabulary development plays a critical role in young dual language learners' success in school. As teachers become aware of how they use language in the classroom, systematically teach specific words in a variety of ways, and learn about dual language learners' level of English acquisition and sociocultural experiences, they can help…

Gillanders, Cristina; Castro, Dina C.; Franco, Ximena

2014-01-01

70

Modeling Polymorphemic Word Recognition: Exploring Differences Among Children With Early-Emerging and Late-Emerging Word Reading Difficulty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehensive models of derived polymorphemic word recognition skill in developing readers, with an emphasis on children with reading difficulty (RD), have not been developed. The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition ability at the item level among 5th-grade children (N = 173) oversampled for children with RD using item-response crossed random-effects models. We distinguish between two subtypes of RD children with word recognition problems, those with early-emerging RD and late-emerging RD. An extensive set of predictors representing item-specific knowledge, child-level characteristics, and word-level characteristics were used to predict item-level variance in polymorphemic word recognition. Results indicate that item-specific root word recognition and word familiarity; child-level RD status, morphological awareness, and orthographic choice; word-level frequency and root word family size; and the interactions between morphological awareness and RD status and root word recognition and root transparency predicted individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition item performance. Results are interpreted within a multisource individual difference model of polymorphemic word recognition skill spanning item-specific, child-level, and word-level knowledge. PMID:25331757

Kearns, Devin M; Steacy, Laura M; Compton, Donald L; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Goodwin, Amanda P; Cho, Eunsoo; Lindstrom, Esther R; Collins, Alyson A

2014-10-20

71

Reforming Ontario Early Learning: A Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein, we address the reformation of Ontario early learning. Over the next 3 years, all 4- and 5-year-olds in Ontario (Canada) will be able to attend full-day early learning with child care, before and after school provided by the Government of Ontario Ministry of Education. The benefits of such a change are both academic and societal and are…

Ryan, Thomas; Date, Gavin

2014-01-01

72

Development of Pre-Word-Learning Skills in Infants with Cochlear Implants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Families of infants who are congenitally deaf now have the option of cochlear implantation at a very young age. In order to assess the effectiveness of early cochlear implantation, however, new behavioral procedures are needed to measure speech perception and language skills during infancy. One important component of language development is word learning-a complex skill that involves learning arbitrary relations between words and their referents. A precursor to word learning is the ability to perceive and encode intersensory relations between co-occurring auditory and visual events. Recent studies in infants with normal hearing have shown that intersensory redundancies, such as temporal synchrony, can facilitate the ability to learn arbitrary pairings between speech sounds and objects (Gogate & Bahrick, 1998). To investigate the early stages of learning arbitrary pairings of sounds and objects after cochlear implantation, we used the Preferential Looking Paradigm (PLP) to assess infants' ability to associate speech sounds to objects that moved in temporal synchrony with the onset and offsets of the signals. Children with normal hearing ranging in age from 6, 9, 18, and 30 months served as controls and demonstrated the ability to learn arbitrary pairings between temporally synchronous speech sounds and dynamic visual events. Infants who received their cochlear implants (CIs) at earlier ages (7-15 months of age) performed similarly to the infants with normal hearing after about 2-6 months of CI experience. In contrast, infants who received their implants at later ages (16-25 months of age) did not demonstrate learning of the associations within the context of this experiment. Possible implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21643556

Houston, Derek M; Ying, Elizabeth A; Pisoni, David B; Kirk, Karen Iler

2001-01-01

73

Clusters of Word Properties as Predictors of Elementary School Children's Performance on Two Word Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

Often, the classification of words does not go beyond "difficult" (i.e., infrequent, late-learned, nonimageable, etc.) or "easy" (i.e., frequent, early-learned, imageable, etc.) words. In the present study, we used a latent cluster analysis to divide 703 Dutch words with scores for eight word properties into seven clusters of words. Each cluster…

Tellings, Agnes; Coppens, Karien; Gelissen, John; Schreuder, Rob

2013-01-01

74

Adding Words to the Brain's Visual Dictionary: Novel Word Learning Selectively Sharpens Orthographic Representations in the VWFA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature of orthographic representations in the human brain is still subject of much debate. Recent reports have claimed that the visual word form area (VWFA) in left occipitotemporal cortex contains an orthographic lexicon based on neuronal representations highly selective for individual written real words (RWs). This theory predicts that learning novel words should selectively increase neural specificity for these words in the VWFA. We trained subjects to recognize novel pseudowords (PWs) and used fMRI rapid adaptation to compare neural selectivity with RWs, untrained PWs (UTPWs), and trained PWs (TPWs). Before training, PWs elicited broadly tuned responses, whereas responses to RWs indicated tight tuning. After training, TPW responses resembled those of RWs, whereas UTPWs continued to show broad tuning. This change in selectivity was specific to the VWFA. Therefore, word learning appears to selectively increase neuronal specificity for the new words in the VWFA, thereby adding these words to the brain's visual dictionary. PMID:25810526

Glezer, Laurie S; Kim, Judy; Rule, Josh; Jiang, Xiong; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

2015-03-25

75

Enhancing Students’ Fluency in Writing: Learning to Use Transition Words  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study uses experimental and control group data to investigate whether learning to use transition words results in enhancing students’ fluency in writing. Common sentence connectors, such as moreover, however, thus, etc were chosen in order that students learn the use of transition words in text and improve their writing fluency. 36 first-year university students were placed in an intermediate class: 18 control group students and 18 experimental group students. Over a 12-week period, both groups received equal amounts of writing assignments. During the first half of the period, both groups were given content and form feedback, but the experimental group was given additional marginal comments on the use of sentence connectors. After six weeks, both groups were given identical types of feedback and comments. Fluency was measured by the number of words written and successful connections (SCs. These results were analyzed to determine if there was a significant difference in fluency between the two groups. Findings suggest that writing teachers should teach students the effectiveness of using transition words in EFL writing classes, and this may in part help to improve students’ fluency.

Yoshihito Sugita

2012-03-01

76

Word learning in a domestic dog: evidence for "fast mapping".  

Science.gov (United States)

During speech acquisition, children form quick and rough hypotheses about the meaning of a new word after only a single exposure-a process dubbed "fast mapping." Here we provide evidence that a border collie, Rico, is able to fast map. Rico knew the labels of over 200 different items. He inferred the names of novel items by exclusion learning and correctly retrieved those items right away as well as 4 weeks after the initial exposure. Fast mapping thus appears to be mediated by general learning and memory mechanisms also found in other animals and not by a language acquisition device that is special to humans. PMID:15192233

Kaminski, Juliane; Call, Josep; Fischer, Julia

2004-06-11

77

Early learning failure impairs adult learning in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early life experiences may affect adult learning ability. In two experiments we tested the effect of early learning failure on adult performance in Wistar rats. In the first experiment 17-day-old rats (PN17), but not 25-day-old rats (PN25), trained in a hidden platform water maze task showed deficits in tone-shock avoidance learning when they were 3-months-old. The second experiment, which included random-platform and non-platform control groups, confirmed the effect of early (PN18) spatial learning failure on adult avoidance learning. However, post-weaning training (PN25) without platform also tended to induce adult learning deficits as long as the adult task difficulty was increased. The older non-platform group did not differ from the impaired group which received early training in a fixed hidden platform task. The results are discussed in terms of the relevance of early learning outcome and developmental stage on adult general learning deficits which may be related to the learned helplessness phenomenon and developmental neural plasticity. PMID:15832321

Manrique, T; Molero, A; Cándido, A; Gallo, Milagros

2005-05-01

78

Learning Words from Knowledgeable versus Ignorant Speakers: Links between Preschoolers' Theory of Mind and Semantic Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies addressed whether preschoolers consider speakers' knowledge states when establishing initial word-referent links. Children showed better learning from a speaker knowledgeable of novel words' referents than from an ignorant speaker. Four-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, learned words better when speaker said the object was made by…

Sabbagh, Mark A.; Baldwin, Dare A.

2001-01-01

79

Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams  

Science.gov (United States)

Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

2014-01-01

80

Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning. PMID:25814973

Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

2015-01-01

81

Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context  

Science.gov (United States)

The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning.

Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

2015-01-01

82

A Dual-Route Model that Learns to Pronounce English Words  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a model that learns to pronounce English words. Learning occurs in two modules: 1) a rule-based module that constructs pronunciations by phonetic analysis of the letter string, and 2) a whole-word module that learns to associate subsets of letters to the pronunciation, without phonetic analysis. In a simulation on a corpus of over 300 words the model produced pronunciation latencies consistent with the effects of word frequency and orthographic regularity observed in human data. Implications of the model for theories of visual word processing and reading instruction are discussed.

Remington, Roger W.; Miller, Craig S.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

83

Associative learning in early vision.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensory discriminations often improve with practice (perceptual learning). Recent results show that practice does not necessarily lead to the best possible performance on the task. It was shown that learning a task (contrast discrimination) that has already reached saturation could be enabled by a contextual change in the stimulus (the addition of surrounding flankers) during practice. Psychophysical results with varying context show a behavior that is described by a network of local visual processors with horizontal recurrent interactions. We describe a mathematical learning rule for the modification of cortical synapses that is inspired by the experimental results and apply it to recurrent cortical networks that respond to external stimuli. The model predicts that repeated presentation of the same stimulus leads to saturation of synaptic modification, such that the strengths of recurrent connections depend on the configuration of the stimulus but not on its amplitude. When a new stimulus is introduced, the modification is rekindled until a new equilibrium is reached. This effect may explain the saturation of perceptual learning when practicing a certain task repeatedly. We present simulations of contrast discrimination in a simplified model of a cortical column in the primary visual cortex and show that performance of the model is reminiscent of context-dependent perceptual learning. PMID:15288900

Tsodyks, Misha; Adini, Yael; Sagi, Dov

2004-01-01

84

Learning Word Meanings from Teachers’ Repeated Story Read-Aloud in EFL Primary Classrooms  

OpenAIRE

This study used a quasi-experimental design to determine the effects of teachers’ story read-aloud on EFL elementary school students’ word learning outcomes. It specifically examined whether the word learning was enhanced by teachers’ repeated story read-aloud and word-meaning explanations and further determined whether the learning outcomes were related to children’s English proficiency. Two native English-speaking teachers read a story to their fourth-grade classes four times. The r...

Lu-Chun Lin

2014-01-01

85

Vocabulary Learning in a Yorkshire Terrier: Slow Mapping of Spoken Words  

OpenAIRE

Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to “fast mapping”, with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recogn...

Griebel, Ulrike; Oller, D. Kimbrough

2012-01-01

86

Bilingualism and inhibitory control influence statistical learning of novel word forms  

OpenAIRE

We examined the influence of bilingual experience and inhibitory control on the ability to learn a novel language. Using a statistical learning paradigm, participants learned words in two novel languages that were based on the International Morse Code. First, participants listened to a continuous stream of words in a Morse code language to test their ability to segment words from continuous speech. Since Morse code does not overlap in form with natural languages, interference from known langu...

JamesBartolotti

2011-01-01

87

Interactive Learning of Spoken Words and Their Meanings Through an Audio-Visual Interface  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a new interactive learning method for spoken word acquisition through human-machine audio-visual interfaces. During the course of learning, the machine makes a decision about whether an orally input word is a word in the lexicon the machine has learned, using both speech and visual cues. Learning is carried out on-line, incrementally, based on a combination of active and unsupervised learning principles. If the machine judges with a high degree of confidence that its decision is correct, it learns the statistical models of the word and a corresponding image category as its meaning in an unsupervised way. Otherwise, it asks the user a question in an active way. The function used to estimate the degree of confidence is also learned adaptively on-line. Experimental results show that the combination of active and unsupervised learning principles enables the machine and the user to adapt to each other, which makes the learning process more efficient.

Iwahashi, Naoto

88

MOLT: A Mobile Learning Tool That Makes Learning New Technical English Language Words Enjoyable  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is an increase use of wireless technologies in education all over the world. In fact, wireless technologies such as laptop computers, palmtop computers, and mobile phones are revolutionizing education and transforming the traditional classroom based learning and teaching into anytime and anywhere education. This paper investigates the use of wireless technologies in education with particular reference to the potential of learning new technical English Language words using SMS text messaging. The system, developed by the authors, called Mobile Learning Tool (MOLT, has been tested with 45 first-year undergraduate students. Students’ opinions have been collected after the experiment. Our results show that students enjoyed and be happy used mobile phones to learn new technical English word. We believe that if we add the improvements or modifications students wish to see in the MOLT system, then using the MOLT system as an educational tool will contribute to motivation and success of students.

Dogan - Ibrahim

2008-10-01

89

MOLT: A Mobile Learning Tool That Makes Learning New Technical English Language Words Enjoyable  

OpenAIRE

There is an increase use of wireless technologies in education all over the world. In fact, wireless technologies such as laptop computers, palmtop computers, and mobile phones are revolutionizing education and transforming the traditional classroom based learning and teaching into anytime and anywhere education. This paper investigates the use of wireless technologies in education with particular reference to the potential of learning new technical English Language words using SMS text messa...

Dogan - Ibrahim; Nadire Cavus

2008-01-01

90

The Effects of Receptive and Productive Learning of Word Pairs on Vocabulary Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

English as a foreign language students in Japan learned target words in word pairs receptively and productively. Five aspects of vocabulary knowledge--orthography, association, syntax, grammatical functions, and meaning and form--were each measured by receptive and productive tests. The study uses an innovative methodology in that each target word

Webb, Stuart

2009-01-01

91

Detection of Slang Words in e-Data using semi-Supervised Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposed algorithmic approach deals with finding the sense of a word in an electronic data. Now a day,in different communication mediums like internet, mobile services etc. people use few words, which are slang in nature. This approach detects those abusive words using supervised learning procedure. But in the real life scenario, the slang words are not used in complete word forms always. Most of the times, those words are used in different abbreviated forms like sounds alike forms, taboo morphemes etc. This proposedapproach can detect those abbreviated forms also using semi supervised learning procedure. Using the synset and concept analysis of the text, the probability of a suspicious word to be a slang word is also evaluated

Alok Ranjan Pal

2013-09-01

92

Retrieval Dynamics and Retention in Cross-Situational Statistical Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research on cross-situational word learning has demonstrated that learners are able to reduce ambiguity in mapping words to referents by tracking co-occurrence probabilities across learning events. In the current experiments, we examined whether learners are able to retain mappings over time. The results revealed that learners are able to…

Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

2014-01-01

93

Word Learning by Preschoolers with SLI: Effect of Phonotactic Probability and Object Familiarity  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether previous findings of a low phonotactic probability/unfamiliar object word-learning advantage in preschoolers could be replicated, whether this advantage would be apparent at different "stages" of word learning, and whether findings would differ for preschoolers with specific language…

Gray, Shelley; Brinkley, Shara; Svetina, Dubravka

2012-01-01

94

Prototypes for Teaching Word Meaning Skills--Homonyms--to Learning Disabled Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarized are four studies which compared the ability of learning disabled (LD) and normal students to learn the meanings of homonyms (words that sound alike but have different meanings) when presented in various modes. Homonyms were presented in either random order or in contiguous pairs, with the illustrative sentences presented after the word

Lundquist, Gerald W.

95

The Relationship between Phonological Memory, Phonological Sensitivity, and Incidental Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the cognitive abilities needed to succeed at incidental word learning, specifically by examining the role of phonological memory and phonological sensitivity in novel word learning by 4-year-olds who were typically developing. Forty 4-year-olds were administered a test of nonword repetition (to investigate phonological…

Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Hewitt, Lynne E.; Brackenbury, Tim

2011-01-01

96

Bilingualism Reduces Native-Language Interference during Novel-Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the present work was to examine the effects of bilingualism on adults' ability to resolve cross-linguistic inconsistencies in orthography-to-phonology mappings during novel-word learning. English monolinguals and English-Spanish bilinguals learned artificially constructed novel words that overlapped with English orthographically but…

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica

2009-01-01

97

Cognitive Mechanisms of Word Learning in Bilingual and Monolingual Adults: The Role of Phonological Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may facilitate lexical learning in adults. The goals of this research were (i) to examine whether bilingual influences on word learning diverge for phonologically-familiar and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words, and (ii) to examine whether increased phonological memory capacity can account for…

Kaushanskaya, Margarita

2012-01-01

98

Semantic Interaction in Early and Late Bilinguals: All Words Are Not Created Equally  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines L1-L2 interaction in semantic categorization in early and late L2 learners. Word categories that overlapped but were not identical in Arabic and English were tested. Words always showed a "wider" range of application in one language, "narrower" in the other. Three types of categories--"classical", "radial", and…

Gathercole, Virginia C. Mueller; Moawad, Ruba Abdelmatloub

2010-01-01

99

Early and Late Spanish-English Bilinguals' Acquisition of English Word Stress Patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

Guion, Clark, Harada and Wayland (2003) found that three factors affect English speakers' stress placement on bisyllabic non-words: syllabic structure, lexical class and stress patterns of phonologically similar real words. The current replication and extension included three groups (N = 30): native English speakers, early Spanish-English…

Guion, Susan G.; Harada, Tetsuo; Clark, J. J.

2004-01-01

100

Learning Word Association Norms Using Tree Cut Pair Models  

CERN Document Server

We consider the problem of learning co-occurrence information between two word categories, or more in general between two discrete random variables taking values in a hierarchically classified domain. In particular, we consider the problem of learning the `association norm' defined by A(x,y)=p(x, y)/(p(x)*p(y)), where p(x, y) is the joint distribution for x and y and p(x) and p(y) are marginal distributions induced by p(x, y). We formulate this problem as a sub-task of learning the conditional distribution p(x|y), by exploiting the identity p(x|y) = A(x,y)*p(x). We propose a two-step estimation method based on the MDL principle, which works as follows: It first estimates p(x) as p1 using MDL, and then estimates p(x|y) for a fixed y by applying MDL on the hypothesis class of {A * p1 | A \\in B} for some given class B of representations for association norm. The estimation of A is therefore obtained as a side-effect of a near optimal estimation of p(x|y). We then apply this general framework to the problem of ac...

Abe, N; Abe, Naoki; Li, Hang

1996-01-01

101

The interactive nature of second-language word learning in non-instructed environments  

OpenAIRE

Gaining the command of a second language is a difficult task for an adult. Understanding and learning novel words is challenging, particularly in non-instructed situations: Words are often parts of complex linguistic contexts and potential referents are embedded in rich visual scenes. To overcome this challenge learners can potentially exploit the richness of their multi-modal environment through a range of different word-learning mechanisms and based on automatic sentence-processing mechanis...

Ko?hne, Judith

2011-01-01

102

Effects of response and trial repetition on sight-word training for students with learning disabilities.  

OpenAIRE

Alternating treatments designs were used to compare the effects of trial repetition (one response within five trials per word) versus response repetition (five response repetitions within one trial per word) on sight-word acquisition for 3 elementary students diagnosed with specific learning disabilities in reading. Although both interventions occasioned the same number of accurate responses per word during training, the trial-repetition condition, which involved complete antecedent-response-...

Belfiore, P. J.; Skinner, C. H.; Ferkis, M. A.

1995-01-01

103

The Role of Self-Teaching in Learning Orthographic and Semantic Aspects of New Words  

OpenAIRE

This study explores how children learn the meaning (semantics) and spelling patterns (orthography) of novel words encountered in story context. English-speaking children (N = 88) aged 7 to 8 years read 8 stories and each story contained 1 novel word repeated 4 times. Semantic cues were provided by the story context such that children could infer the meaning of the word (specific context) or the category that the word belonged to (general context). Following story reading, posttests indicated ...

Ricketts, J.; Bishop, Dvm; Pimperton, H.; Nation, K

2011-01-01

104

Recognition Memory for Braille or Spoken Words: An fMRI study in Early Blind  

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We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5 yrs. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied (“old”) compared to novel (“new”) words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified “new” words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken “new” words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with “old”/“new” recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to “old” words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to “new” Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for “new” words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering “old” words. A larger response when identifying “new” words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of “old” words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a “sensory echo” that aids recollection. PMID:22251836

Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J.; Agato, Alvin

2012-01-01

105

What can we learn about visual attention to multiple words from the word-word interference task?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we develop an empirically driven model of visual attention to multiple words using the word-word interference (WWI) task. In this task, two words are simultaneously presented visually: a to-be-ignored distractor word at fixation, and a to-be-read-aloud target word above or below the distractor word. Experiment 1 showed that low-frequency distractor words interfere more than high-frequency distractor words. Experiment 2 showed that distractor frequency (high vs. low) and target frequency (high vs. low) exert additive effects. Experiment 3 showed that the effect of the case status of the target (same vs. AlTeRnAtEd) interacts with the type of distractor (word vs. string of # marks). Experiment 4 showed that targets are responded to faster in the presence of semantically related distractors than in presence of unrelated distractors. Our model of visual attention to multiple words borrows two principles governing processing dynamics from the dual-route cascaded model of reading: cascaded interactive activation and lateral inhibition. At the core of the model are three mechanisms aimed at dealing with the distinctive feature of the WWI task, which is that two words are presented simultaneously. These mechanisms are identification, tokenization, and deactivation. PMID:25052252

Mulatti, Claudio; Ceccherini, Lisa; Coltheart, Max

2015-01-01

106

Early language acquisition: Statistical learning and social learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Infants are sensitive to the statistical patterns in language input, and exposure to them alters phonetic perception. Our recent data indicate that first-time exposure to a foreign language at 9 months of age results in learning after only 5 h, suggesting a process that is fairly automatic, given natural language input. At the same time, it appears that early phonetic learning from natural language may be constrained by the need for social interaction. Our work demonstrates that infants learn phonetically when exposed to a live, but not a pre-recorded, speaker. This talk will focus on statistical learning in a social context and develop the thesis that this combination provides an ideal situation for the acquisition of a natural language.

Kuhl, Patricia K.

2003-10-01

107

Bilingualism and Inhibitory Control Influence Statistical Learning of Novel Word Forms  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the influence of bilingual experience and inhibitory control on the ability to learn a novel language. Using a statistical learning paradigm, participants learned words in two novel languages that were based on the International Morse Code. First, participants listened to a continuous stream of words in a Morse code language to test their ability to segment words from continuous speech. Since Morse code does not overlap in form with natural languages, interference from known languages was minimized. Next, participants listened to another Morse code language composed of new words that conflicted with the first Morse code language. Interference in this second language was high due to conflict between languages and due to the presence of two colliding cues (compressed pauses between words and statistical regularities) that competed to define word boundaries. Results suggest that bilingual experience can improve word learning when interference from other languages is low, while inhibitory control ability can improve word learning when interference from other languages is high. We conclude that the ability to extract novel words from continuous speech is a skill that is affected both by linguistic factors, such as bilingual experience, and by cognitive abilities, such as inhibitory control. PMID:22131981

Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica; Schroeder, Scott R.; Shook, Anthony

2011-01-01

108

Bilingualism and inhibitory control influence statistical learning of novel word forms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We examined the influence of bilingual experience and inhibitory control on the ability to learn a novel language. Using a statistical learning paradigm, participants learned words in two novel languages that were based on the International Morse Code. First, participants listened to a continuous stream of words in a Morse code language to test their ability to segment words from continuous speech. Since Morse code does not overlap in form with natural languages, interference from known languages was low. Next, participants listened to another Morse code language composed of new words that conflicted with the first Morse code language. Interference in this second language was high due to conflict between languages and due to the presence of two colliding cues (compressed pauses between words and statistical regularities that competed to define word boundaries. Results suggest that bilingual experience can improve word learning when interference from other languages is low, while inhibitory control ability can improve word learning when interference from other languages is high. We conclude that the ability to extract novel words from continuous speech is a skill that is affected both by linguistic factors, such as bilingual experience, and by cognitive abilities, such as inhibitory control.

JamesBartolotti

2011-11-01

109

Word learning and the cerebral hemispheres: from serial to parallel processing of written words  

OpenAIRE

Reading familiar words differs from reading unfamiliar non-words in two ways. First, word reading is faster and more accurate than reading of unfamiliar non-words. Second, effects of letter length are reduced for words, particularly when they are presented in the right visual field in familiar formats. Two experiments are reported in which right-handed participants read aloud non-words presented briefly in their left and right visual fields before and after training on those items. The non-wo...

Ellis, Andrew W.; Ferreira, Roberto; Cathles-hagan, Polly; Holt, Kathryn; Jarvis, Lisa; Barca, Laura

2009-01-01

110

Multiple brain networks underpinning word learning from fluent speech revealed by independent component analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although neuroimaging studies using standard subtraction-based analysis from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have suggested that frontal and temporal regions are involved in word learning from fluent speech, the possible contribution of different brain networks during this type of learning is still largely unknown. Indeed, univariate fMRI analyses cannot identify the full extent of distributed networks that are engaged by a complex task such as word learning. Here we used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to characterize the different brain networks subserving word learning from an artificial language speech stream. Results were replicated in a second cohort of participants with a different linguistic background. Four spatially independent networks were associated with the task in both cohorts: (i) a dorsal Auditory-Premotor network; (ii) a dorsal Sensory-Motor network; (iii) a dorsal Fronto-Parietal network; and (iv) a ventral Fronto-Temporal network. The level of engagement of these networks varied through the learning period with only the dorsal Auditory-Premotor network being engaged across all blocks. In addition, the connectivity strength of this network in the second block of the learning phase correlated with the individual variability in word learning performance. These findings suggest that: (i) word learning relies on segregated connectivity patterns involving dorsal and ventral networks; and (ii) specifically, the dorsal auditory-premotor network connectivity strength is directly correlated with word learning performance. PMID:25620492

López-Barroso, Diana; Ripollés, Pablo; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Mohammadi, Bahram; Münte, Thomas F; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

2015-04-15

111

Word Length Effect in Early Reading and in Developmental Dyslexia  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocal reaction times were measured in Italian dyslexics and in proficient readers while they read single words. Three groups of control participants (for a total of 79) were tested. All were in the first, second or third grade of elementary school. Nine third graders with a low level of reading ability when assessed by standard reading procedures…

Zoccolotti, P.; De Luca, M.; Di Pace, E.; Gasperini, F.; Judica, A.; Spinelli, D.

2005-01-01

112

Effect of sensory modality for presentation and word imagery on paired-associate learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recall performance on a paired-associated learning task was investigated as a function of word imagery modality (visual or auditory), presentation mode (visual or auditory), and sex. Analysis showed greater recall of visual imagery words, and the results are consistent with Paivio's (1971) conceptual-peg hypothesis. Visual presentation of word lists produced greater recall than auditory presentation, and females exhibited greater recall performance than did males. A predicted interaction between modality for presentation and for word imagery did not reach statistical significance. The implications for future research with sensory imagery in learning is discussed. PMID:7267250

Papineau, W; Lohr, J M

1981-06-01

113

Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children  

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Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

2014-01-01

114

Slow Mapping: Color Word Learning as a Gradual Inductive Process  

Science.gov (United States)

Most current accounts of color word acquisition propose that the delay between children's first production of color words and adult-like understanding is due to problems abstracting color as a domain of meaning. Here we present evidence against this hypothesis, and show that, from the time children produce color words in a labeling task they use…

Wagner, Katie; Dobkins, Karen; Barner, David

2013-01-01

115

A model linking immediate serial recall, the Hebb repetition effect and the learning of phonological word forms  

OpenAIRE

We briefly review the considerable evidence for a common ordering mechanism underlying both immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks (e.g. digit span, non-word repetition) and the learning of phonological word forms. In addition, we discuss how recent work on the Hebb repetition effect is consistent with the idea that learning in this task is itself a laboratory analogue of the sequence-learning component of phonological word-form learning. In this light, we present a unifying modelling framework ...

Page, M. P. A.; Norris, D.

2009-01-01

116

Learning Word Meanings from Teachers’ Repeated Story Read-Aloud in EFL Primary Classrooms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study used a quasi-experimental design to determine the effects of teachers’ story read-aloud on EFL elementary school students’ word learning outcomes. It specifically examined whether the word learning was enhanced by teachers’ repeated story read-aloud and word-meaning explanations and further determined whether the learning outcomes were related to children’s English proficiency. Two native English-speaking teachers read a story to their fourth-grade classes four times. The results showed that increasing frequency of story read-aloud yielded greater word-learning gains across time. The EFL children, on average, learned approximately half of the target words by the third read-aloud. While both high- and low-proficiency groups showed significant vocabulary gains with the frequency of teachers’ read-aloud, the high-proficiency children consistently outperformed their low-proficiency peers, especially on the L1 meaning-matching vocabulary test. The overall findings were quite encouraging and showed empirical evidence that teachers’ repeated story read-aloud can be an effective way to facilitate elementary school children’s word learning in a context where English is a foreign language.

Lu-Chun Lin

2014-06-01

117

Words as "Lexical Units" in Learning/Teaching Vocabulary  

OpenAIRE

One of the genuine contributions of theoretical linguistics to the interdisciplinary field of applied linguistics is to elucidate the nature of what should be taught and how it should be taught. Traditionally, the input supplied in vocabulary teaching has consisted either of word lists (most often) or of words-in-context (more recently). In the first case, words are treated as self-contained receptacles of meaning, and in the second case, they are considered as nodes of semantic relationships...

Moisés Almela; Aquilino Sánchez

2007-01-01

118

Learning with sublexical information from emerging reading vocabularies in exceptionally early and normal reading development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predictions from theories of the processes of word reading acquisition have rarely been tested against evidence from exceptionally early readers. The theories of Ehri, Share, and Byrne, and an alternative, Knowledge Sources theory, were so tested. The former three theories postulate that full development of context-free letter sounds and awareness of phonemes are required for normal acquisition, while the claim of the alternative is that with or without such, children can use sublexical information from their emerging reading vocabularies to acquire word reading. Results from two independent samples of children aged 3-5, and 5 years, with mean word reading levels of 7 and 9 years respectively, showed underdevelopment of their context-free letter sounds and phoneme awareness, relative to their word reading levels and normal comparison samples. Despite such underdevelopment, these exceptional readers engaged in a form of phonological recoding that enabled pseudoword reading, at the level of older-age normal controls matched on word reading level. Moreover, in the 5-year-old sample further experiments showed that, relative to normal controls, they had a bias toward use of sublexical information from their reading vocabularies for phonological recoding of heterophonic pseudowords with irregular consistent spelling, and were superior in accessing word meanings independently of phonology, although only if the readers were without exposure to explicit phonics. The three theories were less satisfactory than the alternative theory in accounting for the learning of the exceptionally early readers. PMID:25498743

Thompson, G Brian; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Wilson, Kathryn J; McKay, Michael F; Margrain, Valerie G

2015-03-01

119

Comparing Explicit and Implicit Learning of Emotional and Non-Emotional Words in Autistic Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Explicit and implicit memories have different cerebral origins and learning approaches. Defective emotional words processing in children with autism may affect the memory allocated to such words. The aim of this study was comparing two types of (explicit and implicit memories during processing the two types of (emotional and non-emotional words in autistic children and their healthy counterparts. Materials and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted on 14 autistic children, who had referred to Autism Medical Treatment Center on Tehran, and 14 healthy children in kindergartens and schools across Tehran. For the explicit memory, a list of words was presented to the subjects of our study and they were asked to repeat the words they heard one time immediately and one time with delay. For implicit memory, the subjects were asked to identify the heard words among the presented words. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that the normal children have higher efficiency in explicit and implicit memory than the children with autism (p<0.01. The two-way analysis of memory type and word type showed that the former affects memory significantly (p<0.05 while word type had no significant effect. Conclusion: Autistic children suffer from impaired memory. This defect is higher in implicit memory than in the explicit memory. It is recommended to apply rehabilitation, training, learning approaches and also explicit memory for interventions of autistic children.

Vahid Nejati

2013-02-01

120

Discrimination of word stress in early infant perception: electrophysiological evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Language acquisition crucially depends on the ability of the child to segment the incoming speech stream. Behavioral evidence supports the hypothesis that infants are sensitive to the rhythmic properties of the language input. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to varying stress patterns of two syllable items in adults as well as in 4- and 5-month-old infants using a mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm. Adult controls displayed a typical MMN to the trochaic item (stress on the first syllable) as well as to the iambic (stress on the second syllable) item. At the age of 4 months, no reliable discrimination response was seen. However, at the age of 5 months, a significant mismatch response (MMR) was observed for the trochaic item, indicating that the trochee, i.e. the most common stress pattern in German, was separated consistently from the iambic item. Hence, the present data demonstrate a clear development between 4 and 5 months with respect to the processing of different stress patterns relevant for word recognition. Moreover, possible contributions of different filter settings to the morphology of the mismatch response in infants are discussed. PMID:14736574

Weber, Christiane; Hahne, Anja; Friedrich, Manuela; Friederici, Angela D

2004-01-01

121

The influence of two cognitive-linguistic variables on incidental word learning in 5-year-olds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relation between incidental word learning and two cognitive-linguistic variables--phonological memory and phonological awareness--is not fully understood. Thirty-five typically developing, 5-year-old, preschool children participated in a study examining the association between phonological memory, phonological awareness, and incidental word learning. Children were exposed to target words in a read-aloud story that accompanied a wordless picture book. Target word comprehension was assessed before and after two readings of the story. Phonological awareness predicted incidental word learning but phonological memory did not. The influence of phonological awareness and phonological memory on word learning may be dependent on the demands of the word learning task. PMID:23979141

Abel, Alyson D; Schuele, C Melanie

2014-08-01

122

Helping Students Identify Base Words in Indonesian--Linking Learning Objects in an ICLL Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

For students of Indonesian, learning to identify base words is very important, but can often be quite tricky. This article describes how one of the authors used interactive digital content from The Le@rning Federation (TLF) together with an extensive range of offline activities within an intercultural language learning (ICLL) framework. It helps…

Colman, Ingrid; Davison, Janine

2008-01-01

123

When Does an Ostrich Become a Bird? The Role of Typicality in Early Word Comprehension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments used the preferential looking task to assess early word comprehension in 12- to 24-month olds. Results indicated that when target stimuli were named, 12-month olds displayed an increase in target looking for typical--but not atypical--targets, whereas 18- and 24-month olds displayed increases for both. (Author/KB)

Meints, Kerstin; Plunkett, Kim; Harris, Paul L.

1999-01-01

124

Motivating Students' Learning Using Word Association Test and Concept Maps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of a free word association test, content analysis and concept mapping on students’ achievements in human biology. The free word association test was used for revealing the scientific conceptual structures of 8th grade and 12th grade students, around a stimulus word – human being – and for motivating them to study human biology. The stimulus word retrieved a cluster of associations most of which were based on science education and experience. Associations with the stimulus word were analyzed and classified according to predetermined criteria and structured by means of a concept map. The stimulus word ‘human being’ was quantitatively assessed in order to find out the balance between the associations with its different aspects. On the basis of the results some connections between biology and other sciences studying the human being, were worked out. Each new topic in human biology was studied by using content analysis of the textbook and concept mapping as study tools and thus maintaining students’ motivation. Achievements of students were assessed by means of tests, observation and concept maps evaluation. The obtained data was also valuable in clarifying the complex nature of the human being, and confirming the statement that biology cannot answer all questions, concerning human nature. Inferences were made about the word association test combined with content analysis and concept map construction as an educational strategy.

Z. Kostova

2010-06-01

125

The Influence of Prosodic Stress Patterns and Semantic Depth on Novel Word Learning in Typically Developing Children  

OpenAIRE

The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of prosodic stress patterns and semantic depth on word learning in preschool-aged children. Twelve preschool-aged children with typically developing speech and language skills participated in a word learning task. Novel words with either a trochaic or iambic prosodic pattern were embedded in two different semantically varied learning conditions, either in children’s stories or picture matching games. Three main analyses were used to measur...

Gladfelter, Allison Lynn

2013-01-01

126

Word-of-Mouth Communication and Social Learning  

OpenAIRE

This paper studies the way that word-of-mouth communication aggregates the information of individual agents. We find that the structure of the communication process determines whether all agents end up making identical choices, with less communication making this conformity more likely. Despite the players' naive decision rules and the stochastic decision environment, word-of-mouth communication may lead all players to adopt the action that is on average superior. These socially efficient out...

Fudenberg, Drew; Ellison, Glenn

1995-01-01

127

Statistical speech segmentation and word learning in parallel: scaffolding from child-directed speech  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to acquire their native languages, children must learn richly structured systems with regularities at multiple levels. While structure at different levels could be learned serially, e.g. speech segmentation coming before word-object mapping, redundancies across levels make parallel learning more efficient. For instance, a series of syllables is likely to be a word not only because of high transitional probabilities, but also because of a consistently co-occurring object. But additional statistics require additional processing, and thus might not be useful to cognitively constrained learners. We show that the structure of child-directed speech makes this problem solvable for human learners. First, a corpus of child-directed speech was recorded from parents and children engaged in a naturalistic free-play task. Analyses revealed two consistent regularities in the sentence structure of naming events. These regularities were subsequently encoded in an artificial language to which adult participants were exposed in the context of simultaneous statistical speech segmentation and word learning. Either regularity was sufficient to support successful learning, but no learning occurred in the absence of both regularities. Thus, the structure of child-directed speech plays an important role in scaffolding speech segmentation and word learning in parallel.

DanielYurovsky

2012-10-01

128

DESIGNING A MICROCONTROLLER BASED SMART MULTI LANGUAGE LEARNING WORD MASTER  

OpenAIRE

The inconvenience encountered by the native learners in learning Bengali is there is no digital Bengali learning system except computer which is costly and not easy to use for all. In this paper we show a low power microcontroller based Multilanguage learning system to overcome the inconvenience mentioned above. This paper depicts the design procedure and the development of its hardware and software.

Md.Sharif Ullah,; A.H.M. Zadidul Karim,; Munzur-ul-Mamun,; Md.Istiaq Mahbub

2011-01-01

129

How Are Pronunciation Variants of Spoken Words Recognized? A Test of Generalization to Newly Learned Words  

Science.gov (United States)

One account of how pronunciation variants of spoken words (center-> "senner" or "sennah") are recognized is that sublexical processes use information about variation in the same phonological environments to recover the intended segments [Gaskell, G., & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (1998). Mechanisms of phonological inference in speech perception.…

Pitt, Mark A.

2009-01-01

130

Fast Mapping Across Time: Memory Processes Support Children's Retention of Learned Words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's remarkable ability to map linguistic labels to referents in the world is commonly called fast mapping. The current study examined children's (N?=?216) and adults' (N?=?54) retention of fast-mapped words over time (immediately, after a 1-week delay, and after a 1-month delay). The fast mapping literature often characterizes children's retention of words as consistently high across timescales. However, the current study demonstrates that learners forget word mappings at a rapid rate. Moreover, these patterns of forgetting parallel forgetting functions of domain-general memory processes. Memory processes are critical to children's word learning and the role of one such process, forgetting, is discussed in detail - forgetting supports extended mapping by promoting the memory and generalization of words and categories. PMID:22375132

Vlach, Haley A; Sandhofer, Catherine M

2012-01-01

131

Fast Mapping Across Time: Memory Processes Support Children’s Retention of Learned Words  

Science.gov (United States)

Children’s remarkable ability to map linguistic labels to referents in the world is commonly called fast mapping. The current study examined children’s (N?=?216) and adults’ (N?=?54) retention of fast-mapped words over time (immediately, after a 1-week delay, and after a 1-month delay). The fast mapping literature often characterizes children’s retention of words as consistently high across timescales. However, the current study demonstrates that learners forget word mappings at a rapid rate. Moreover, these patterns of forgetting parallel forgetting functions of domain-general memory processes. Memory processes are critical to children’s word learning and the role of one such process, forgetting, is discussed in detail – forgetting supports extended mapping by promoting the memory and generalization of words and categories. PMID:22375132

Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

2012-01-01

132

Can English-learning toddlers acquire and generalize a novel spatial word?  

OpenAIRE

English-learning toddlers of 21 and 22 months were taught a novel spatial word for four actions resulting in a tight-fit spatial relation, a relation that is lexically marked in Korean but not English (Choi & Bowerman, 1991). Toddlers in a control condition viewed the same tight-fit action events without the novel word. Toddlers’ comprehension of the novel word was tested in a preferential-looking paradigm. Across four videotaped pairs of action events, a tight-fit event was paired with a l...

Casasola, Marianella; Wilbourn, Makeba Parramore; Yang, Sujin

2006-01-01

133

Acquisition of Malay word recognition skills: lessons from low-progress early readers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both syllable awareness and phoneme blending were significant predictors of word recognition, suggesting that both syllable and phonemic grain-sizes are important in Malay word recognition. Item analysis revealed a hierarchical pattern of difficulty based on the syllable and the phonic structure of the words. Error analysis identified the sources of errors to be errors due to inefficient syllable segmentation, oversimplification of syllables, insufficient grapheme-phoneme knowledge and inefficient phonemic code assembly. Evidence also suggests that direct instruction in syllable segmentation, phonemic awareness and grapheme-phoneme correspondence is necessary for low-progress readers to acquire word recognition skills. Finally, a logical sequence to teach grapheme-phoneme decoding in Malay is suggested. PMID:21241030

Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

2011-02-01

134

Adults' and 8-Year-Olds' Learning in a Foreign Word Repetition Task: Similar and Different  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the significance of age in second language acquisition is one of the most hotly debated issues in the field, very few studies have directly addressed age differences in the language learning process. The present study investigated learning in a foreign-word repetition task. Young Finnish adults and 8-year-olds repeated back Korean words.…

Service, Elisabet; Yli-Kaitala, Hely; Maury, Sini; Kim, Jeong-Young

2014-01-01

135

Italian speakers learn lexical stress of German morphologically complex words  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Italian speakers tend to stress the second component of German morphologically complex words such as compounds and prefix verbs even if the first component is lexically stressed. To improve their prosodic phrasing an automatic pronunciation teaching method was developed based on auditory feedback of prosodically corrected utterances in the learners’ own voices. Basically, the method copies contours of F0, local speech rate, and intensity from reference utterances of a Ge...

Bissiri, Maria Paola; Pfitzinger, Hartmut R.

2009-01-01

136

Testing the Limits of Statistical Learning for Word Segmentation  

OpenAIRE

Past research has demonstrated that infants can rapidly extract syllable distribution information from an artificial language and use this knowledge to infer likely word boundaries in speech. However, artificial languages are extremely simplified with respect to natural language. In this study, we ask whether infants’ ability to track transitional probabilities between syllables in an artificial language can scale up to the challenge of natural language. We do so by testing both 5.5- and 8-...

Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Tyler, Michael D.

2010-01-01

137

Bilingual and Monolingual Children Attend to Different Cues When Learning New Words  

OpenAIRE

The way in which children learn language can vary depending on their language environment. Previous work suggests that bilingual children may be more sensitive to pragmatic cues from a speaker when learning new words than monolingual children are. On the other hand, monolingual children may rely more heavily on object properties than bilingual children do. In this study we manipulate these two sources of information within the same paradigm, using eye gaze as a pragmatic cue and similarity al...

ElianaColunga

2012-01-01

138

In their own words: Student stories of seeking learning support  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many Open and Distance Learning (ODL providers report that their students are prone to lower rates of retention and completion than campus-based students. Against this background, there is growing interest around distance-specific learning support. The current research investigated the experiences of students during their first semester as distance learners at Massey University in New Zealand. The overarching methodology was Design-Based Research, within which phenomenological data gathering methods were used to study the experiences of twenty participants from their own point of view. Using video cameras, over twentytwo hours of self-reflections were gathered between July and November 2011 using a technique adapted from previous studies. A grounded theory approach was applied to the process of thematic data analysis. Results revealed how participants varied in their engagement with learning supports, including orientation events, outreach activity, cultural services, learning consultants, library services, fellow students, lecturers, residential courses, and other people. The discussion reflects on clusters of participants who utilised learning supports effectively, moderately and barely. The paper concludes by summarizing how the current research has had an impact on the design of learning support services at one of the world’s leading providers of distance education.

Mark Brown

2013-11-01

139

Using Machine Learning Algorithms for Word Sense Disambiguation: A Brief Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the entire vocabulary of Human language, numerous words have more than one distinct meaning and thus present a contextual ambiguity which is a worth of one of the many language based problems needs procedure based resolution. Approaches to WSD are often classified according to the main source of knowledge used in sense differentiation. Methods that rely primarily on dictionaries, thesauri, and lexical knowledge bases, without using any corpus evidence, are termed dictionary-based or knowledge based. Natural language tends to be ambiguous. Comparing and evaluating different WSD systems is extremely difficult, because of the different test sets, sense inventories, and knowledge resources adopted. In this research we shall address the problem of Word Sense Disambiguation by a combination of learning algorithms. The study is aimed at comparing the performance of using machine learning algorithms for Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD

Neetu Sharma,

2012-04-01

140

Word Learning in Clear and Plain Speech in Quiet and Noisy Listening Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research demonstrates enhanced speech perception abilities for typically hearing and hearing-impaired listeners when speakers use clear versus plain speech, particularly in the presence of background noise. To date, very few studies have investigated the effects of noise on word learning and no studies have examined the effects of clear…

Riley, Kristine Marie Grohne

2010-01-01

141

Event-Related EEG Oscillations to Semantically Unrelated Words in Normal and Learning Disabled Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…

Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

2012-01-01

142

Pre-Existing Background Knowledge Influences Socioeconomic Differences in Preschoolers' Word Learning and Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the current study is to explore the influence of knowledge on socioeconomic discrepancies in word learning and comprehension. After establishing socioeconomic differences in background knowledge (Study 1), the authors presented children with a storybook that incorporates this knowledge (Study 2). Results indicated that middle-income…

Kaefer, Tanya; Neuman, Susan B.; Pinkham, Ashley M.

2015-01-01

143

Combining Techniques to Reveal Emergent Effects in Infants' Segmentation, Word Learning, and Grammar  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides three representative examples that highlight the ways in which procedures can be combined to study interactions across traditional domains of study: segmentation, word learning, and grammar. The first section uses visual familiarization prior to the Headturn Preference Procedure to demonstrate that synchronized visual…

Hollich, George

2006-01-01

144

Tracking Speakers' False Beliefs: Is Theory of Mind Available Earlier for Word Learning?  

Science.gov (United States)

Happe and Loth (2002) describe word learning as a "privileged domain" in the development of a theory of mind. We test this claim in a series of experiments based on the Sally-Anne paradigm. Three- and 4-year-old children's ability to represent others' false beliefs was investigated in tasks that required the child either to predict the actions of…

Houston-Price, Carmel; Goddard, Kate; Seclier, Catherine; Grant, Sally C.; Reid, Caitlin J. B.; Boyden, Laura E.; Williams, Rhiannon

2011-01-01

145

Does Teaching Mnemonics for Vocabulary Learning Make a Difference? Putting the Keyword Method and the Word Part Technique to the Test  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research tested the effectiveness of the word part technique in comparison with the keyword method and self-strategy learning. One hundred and twenty-one Chinese year-one university students were randomly assigned to one of the three learning conditions: word part, keyword or self-strategy learning condition. Half of the target words

Wei, Zheng

2015-01-01

146

Effects of classroom bilingualism on task-shifting, verbal memory, and word learning in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of 2 years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word learning. The two groups of children did not differ on measures of non-linguistic task-shifting and verbal short-term memory. However, the classroom-exposure bilingual group outperformed the monolingual group on the measure of verbal working memory and a measure of word learning. Together, these findings indicate that while exposure to a second language in a classroom setting may not be sufficient to engender changes in cognitive control, it can facilitate verbal memory and verbal learning. PMID:24576079

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

2014-07-01

147

Developmental Differences in Children's Context-Dependent Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, 2.5-, 3-, and 4-year-olds (N=108) participated in a novel noun generalization task in which background context was manipulated. During the learning phase of each trial, children were presented with exemplars in one or multiple background contexts. At the test, children were asked to generalize to a novel exemplar in either the same…

Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

2011-01-01

148

Word sense disambiguation via high order of learning in complex networks  

CERN Document Server

Complex networks have been employed to model many real systems and as a modeling tool in a myriad of applications. In this paper, we use the framework of complex networks to the problem of supervised classification in the word disambiguation task, which consists in deriving a function from the supervised (or labeled) training data of ambiguous words. Traditional supervised data classification takes into account only topological or physical features of the input data. On the other hand, the human (animal) brain performs both low- and high-level orders of learning and it has facility to identify patterns according to the semantic meaning of the input data. In this paper, we apply a hybrid technique which encompasses both types of learning in the field of word sense disambiguation and show that the high-level order of learning can really improve the accuracy rate of the model. This evidence serves to demonstrate that the internal structures formed by the words do present patterns that, generally, cannot be corre...

Silva, Thiago C; 10.1209/0295-5075/98/58001

2013-01-01

149

Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi "sendoff"), oit (e.g., exploit "exploit"), ois (e.g., siamois, "siamese"), or oie (e.g., joie "joy"). The morphologically complex word exploiter "to exploit", with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument) but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word's final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s). 30 min after having read the stories, children's orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie). Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois) had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem. PMID:24109464

Pacton, Sébastien; Foulin, Jean Noël; Casalis, Séverine; Treiman, Rebecca

2013-01-01

150

Learning to read words in a new language shapes the neural organization of the prior languages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning a new language entails interactions with one?s prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with an fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects? second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects? proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. PMID:25447375

Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

2014-12-01

151

Word Specific Training Effects and Simultaneous Absence of Learning Transfer. Analyses of Computerized Reading Instruction for Special Learning Needs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focused on using intensive computer-based instruction to improve the learning outcomes of five adult functional illiterates who participated in a literacy class at an adult education center. During training sessions, they practiced 32 training words with three different highlighted sublexical onsets for 15 minutes on a daily basis. Results of the study indicated an increase in reading accuracy and fluency. However, only word specific training effects were found (i.e., transfer effects on untrained words could not be shown. Moreover, when compared to a control group of adults without reading problems, participants read more slowly at every measurement point (pre, post, and follow-up tests. Possible interpretations regarding the lack of transfer effects and the poor reading fluency of functional illiterates will be discussed, as well as implications for the literacy training of individuals in adult basic education.

Michael Grosche

2013-09-01

152

The neural correlates of semantic richness: Evidence from an fMRI study of word learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the neural correlates of concrete nouns with either many or few semantic features. A group of 21 participants underwent two days of training and were then asked to categorize 40 newly learned words and a set of matched familiar words as living or nonliving in an MRI scanner. Our results showed that the most reliable effects of semantic richness were located in the left angular gyrus (AG) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG), where activation was higher for semantically rich than poor words. Other areas showing the same pattern included bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus. Our findings support the view that AG and anterior MTG, as part of the multimodal network, play a significant role in representing and integrating semantic features from different input modalities. We propose that activation in bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus reflects interplay between AG and episodic memory systems during semantic retrieval. PMID:25797097

Ferreira, Roberto A; Göbel, Silke M; Hymers, Mark; Ellis, Andrew W

2015-04-01

153

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) Running Time: (4:32) Release Date: 9/22/2008 Early recognition of developmental ... All Videos Shana's Story: Let's Stop HIV Together Release Date: 01/24/2015 Tommy's Story: Let's Stop ...

154

Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi ‘sendoff’, oit (e.g., exploit ‘exploit’, ois (e.g., siamois, ‘siamese’, or oie (e.g., joie ‘joy’. The morphologically complex word exploiter ‘to exploit’, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word’s final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s. Thirty minutes after having read the stories, children’s orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie. Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

SebastienPacton

2013-10-01

155

Lessons learned from early criticality accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four accidents involving the approach to criticality occurred during the period July, 1945, through May, 1996. These have been described in the format of the OPERATING EXPERIENCE WEEKLY SUMMARY which is distributed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety. Although the lessons learned have been incorporated in standards, codes, and formal procedures during the last fifty years, this is their first presentation in this format. It is particularly appropriate that they be presented in the forum of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project Workshop closest to the fiftieth anniversary of the last of the four accidents, and that which was most instrumental in demonstrating the need to incorporate lessons learned

156

Simple Semi-supervised Learning for Chinese Word Segmentation and Pos Tagging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strategies of unlabeled data selection are important for semi-supervised learning of natural language processing tasks. To increase the accuracy and diversity of new labeled data, plenty of methods have been proposed, such as ensemble-based self-training, co-training and tri-training methods. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective semi-supervised algorithm for Chinese word segmentation and part-of-speech tagging problem which selects new labeled data agreed by two different approaches: character-based and word-based models. Theoretical and experimental analysis verifies that sentences with same annotation on both models are more accurate than those generated by single models and are suitable for semi-supervised learning as additional data. Experimental results on Chinese Treebank 5.0 demonstrate that our semi-supervised approach is comparable with the best reported semi-supervised approach which employs complex feature engineering.

Xinxin Li

2013-01-01

157

Simple Semi-supervised Learning for Chinese Word Segmentation and Pos Tagging  

OpenAIRE

Strategies of unlabeled data selection are important for semi-supervised learning of natural language processing tasks. To increase the accuracy and diversity of new labeled data, plenty of methods have been proposed, such as ensemble-based self-training, co-training and tri-training methods. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective semi-supervised algorithm for Chinese word segmentation and part-of-speech tagging problem which selects new labeled data agreed by two different approach...

Xinxin Li; Xuan Wang; Muhammad Waqas Anwar

2013-01-01

158

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 13MB] Request a higher resolution file Share this Video Embed: What do you think of our videos? Your feedback about CDC-TV and our videos ...

159

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early.  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

CDC recognized the impact of developmental disabilities and invested in a campaign to help parents measure their children's progress by monitoring how they play, learn, speak, and act. .  Created: 9/22/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Division of Human Development and Disability, Child Development Studies Team.   Date Released: 9/23/2008.

2008-09-22

160

The Role of the Phonological Loop in English Word Learning: A Comparison of Chinese ESL Learners and Native Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the role of the phonological loop in word-retention is well documented, research in Chinese character retention suggests the involvement of non-phonological encoding. This study investigated whether the extent to which the phonological loop contributes to learning and remembering visually introduced words varies between college-level…

Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

2011-01-01

161

Do iPads promote symbolic understanding and word learning in children with autism?  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of the Apple iPad has skyrocketed in educational settings, along with largely unsubstantiated claims of its efficacy for learning and communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we examine whether children with ASD are better able to learn new word-referent relations using an iPad or a traditional picture book. We also examine the hypothesis that presenting multiple, differently colored, exemplars of a target referent will promote adaptive label generalization compared to the use of a single exemplar. Sixteen minimally verbal children with ASD were taught a new word in four within-subjects conditions, which varied by media (iPad vs. book) and content (single vs. multiple exemplar presentation). Children were then tested on the ability to symbolically relate the word to a 3-D referent (real-life depicted object) and generalize it to a differently colored category member (another similarly shaped object). The extent of symbolic understanding did not differ between the two media, and levels of generalization did not differ across conditions. However, presentation of multiple exemplars increased the rate that children with ASD extended labels from pictures to depicted objects. Our findings are discussed in terms of the importance of content to picture-based learning and the potential benefits and challenges of using the Apple iPad as an educational resource for children with ASD. PMID:25729376

Allen, Melissa L; Hartley, Calum; Cain, Kate

2015-01-01

162

Word learning in preschoolers: are bilingual 3-year-olds less guided by mutual exclusivity than their monolingual counterparts?  

OpenAIRE

A fundamental question in developmental linguistics and developmental psychology is how young children learn new words. While some researchers suggest that words are primarily learned through experience, others argue that the acquisition process is guided by innate lexical biases. One of the most widely studied biases is the Mutual Exclusivity Bias (ME), which describes children’s preference for just one label per concept. The disambiguation effect in ME has been demonstrated extensively wi...

Campbell, Madeleine

2007-01-01

163

Linking Standards and Engaged Learning in the Early Years  

OpenAIRE

Early childhood educators are increasingly concerned about the trend toward national standards and national testing. This article addresses issues of assessment in the early years of schooling, prekindergarten through third grade?a period when active, engaged, hands-on learning is most appropriate. Documentation of a kindergarten project on a turtle is presented to show how a science content standard is attained and how evidence is gathered that demonstrates the attainment of those skills in...

Gaye Gronlund; Judy Harris Helm

2000-01-01

164

Word of mouth in social learning: The effects of word of mouth advice in the smartphone market  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this thesis is to examine word of mouth advice and its relationship with product sales and market shares in the context of the smartphone market. The thesis aims to determine the key properties of valuable word of mouth advice from a consumer's perspective and seeks to identify the effects of sources and transmission methods on the valuation of word of mouth advice. Furthermore, the thesis aims to clarify the market wide effects of positive word ...

Head, Mikael

2013-01-01

165

When Service Learning Meets the Project Approach: Incorporating Service Learning in an Early Childhood Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The researchers described in this case study how Service Learning was incorporated within the context of an early childhood program where the teachers used the Project Approach. The Service Learning project was embedded in an investigation about water and was designed to help tsunami victims in Asia. Participants included two teachers and 12…

Chun, Eul Jung; Hertzog, Nancy B.; Gaffney, Janet S.; Dymond, Stacy K.

2012-01-01

166

The Influence of Reading Unit Size on the Development of Stroop Interference in Early Word Decoding  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the experiments was to determine the automatic use of large or small word reading units in young readers in the absence of word decoding strategies. Picture-word Stroop interference was examined from four types of conflicting labels: (a) words containing both highly predictable grapheme-phoneme correspondence (GPC) units and highly…

Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Morris, Robin D.; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Strauss, Gregory P.; Sieczko, Jennifer M.

2008-01-01

167

Students' Learning Experiences in an Early College High School  

Science.gov (United States)

Early College High Schools (ECHS) are at the forefront of high school reform embodying the principles of rigor, relationship, and relevance. This study examines students' learning experiences in the context of relationships and rigor at an ECHS. Specifically, I investigate factors that influence students to attend an ECHS, what they attribute to…

Ongaga, Kennedy O.

2010-01-01

168

Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children's early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be…

Kuhl, Patricia K.

2011-01-01

169

Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

2012-01-01

170

The Early Learning Center, Stamford, Connecticut. Profiles of Significant Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural, functional and design features are described for the Montessori School building of Stamford, Connecticut. Emphasis is given to the utilization of a precast concrete building system and the flexibility of the early learning center spaces. The report is heavily illustrated with photographs. (FS)

Kohn, Sherwood

171

Agency in Early Childhood Learning and Development in Cameroon  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on agency, as a natural disposition in children to be active and participative. Africa's parenting attitudes and education in African family traditions encourage and foster children's responsible agency in family life, cultural and economic activities, and their own developmental learning from an early, especially within the…

Nsamenang, A. Bame

2008-01-01

172

The influence of reading unit size on the development of Stroop interference in early word decoding  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the experiments was to determine the automatic use of large or small word reading units in young readers in the absence of word decoding strategies. Picture-word Stroop interference was examined from four types of conflicting labels: (a) words containing both highly predictable grapheme–phoneme correspondence (GPC) units and highly consistent rime units (henceforth, Hi-GPC + Hi-Rime); (b) words with highly predictable GPC units and less consistent rime units (Hi-GPC + Lo-Rime...

Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Morris, Robin D.; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Strauss, Gregory P.; Sieczko, Jennifer M.

2008-01-01

173

Thai Learners’ English Pronunciation Competence: Lesson Learned from Word Stress Assignment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English has been a lingua franca in various domains of communication such as international business, academic conferences, diplomacy, science and technology. As a result, the demands for English skills in all aspects are crucial in response to the importance of English and the impact of globalization. Despite the constant efforts in developing English education in Thailand, a number of studies have shown that the achievement of Thai learners was unsatisfactory. Given the role of English as an international language which is used in almost domain of communication, amongst several factors hindering the success of English language learning, English pronunciation of the Thai learners should be focused. This study has two principle objectives: 1 to examine Thai learners’ knowledge with regard to word stress assignment; and 2 to determine possible factors affecting the Thai learners’ pronunciation competence. To achieve these objectives, 90 Thai learners of English participated in this study. The test consisting of two parts: personal information profile, and 40 selected words systematically taken from two textbooks, was employed to identify these participants’ pronunciation competence. The results showed that most of the participants’ English pronunciation was somewhat limited.  Gender was identified to be the most significant factor contributing to the participants’ test scores, while faculty and years of studying English were not. In light of the results suggested by the three variables, pedagogical suggestions were offered to help improve teaching and learning English pronunciation in general, and in focusing on the importance of teaching word stress in particular.

Attapol Khamkhien

2010-11-01

174

Get the story straight: contextual repetition promotes word learning from storybooks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although reading storybooks to preschool children is a common activity believed to improve language skills, how children learn new vocabulary from being to has been largely neglected in the shared storybook reading literature. The current study systematically explores the effects of repeatedly reading the same storybooks on both young children's fast and slow mapping ability. Specially created storybooks were read to 3-year-old children three times during the course of one week. Each of the nine storybooks contained two novel word-object pairs. At each session, children either heard three different stories with the same two novel name-object pairs or the same story three times. All children heard each novel name the same number of times. A four-alternative forced-choice task with pictures of the objects was used to test both immediate recall and retention. Children who heard the same stories repeatedly were very accurate on both the immediate recall and retention tasks. In contrast, children who heard different stories were only accurate on immediate recall during the last two sessions and failed to learn any of the new words. Overall, then, we found a dramatic increase in children’s ability to both recall and retain novel word-object associations encountered during shared storybook reading when they heard the same stories multiple times in succession. Results are discussed in terms of contextual cueing effects observed in other cognitive domains.

KellyL Parsons

2011-02-01

175

GeoSegmenter: A statistically learned Chinese word segmenter for the geoscience domain  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike English, the Chinese language has no space between words. Segmenting texts into words, known as the Chinese word segmentation (CWS) problem, thus becomes a fundamental issue for processing Chinese documents and the first step in many text mining applications, including information retrieval, machine translation and knowledge acquisition. However, for the geoscience subject domain, the CWS problem remains unsolved. Although a generic segmenter can be applied to process geoscience documents, they lack the domain specific knowledge and consequently their segmentation accuracy drops dramatically. This motivated us to develop a segmenter specifically for the geoscience subject domain: the GeoSegmenter. We first proposed a generic two-step framework for domain specific CWS. Following this framework, we built GeoSegmenter using conditional random fields, a principled statistical framework for sequence learning. Specifically, GeoSegmenter first identifies general terms by using a generic baseline segmenter. Then it recognises geoscience terms by learning and applying a model that can transform the initial segmentation into the goal segmentation. Empirical experimental results on geoscience documents and benchmark datasets showed that GeoSegmenter could effectively recognise both geoscience terms and general terms.

Huang, Lan; Du, Youfu; Chen, Gongyang

2015-03-01

176

Linking Standards and Engaged Learning in the Early Years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early childhood educators are increasingly concerned about the trend toward national standards and national testing. This article addresses issues of assessment in the early years of schooling, prekindergarten through third grade?a period when active, engaged, hands-on learning is most appropriate. Documentation of a kindergarten project on a turtle is presented to show how a science content standard is attained and how evidence is gathered that demonstrates the attainment of those skills inherent in the standard. The article then presents a framework for helping teachers and administrators to think about standards and the documentation of attainment of standards in ways that are compatible with how young children learn. The documentation procedures are especially compatible with approaches to learning that encourage student initiation and interest, such as the Project Approach.

Gaye Gronlund

2000-01-01

177

Since When or How Often? Dissociating the Roles of Age of Acquisition (AoA) and Lexical Frequency in Early Visual Word Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of both word age of acquisition (AoA) and frequency of occurrence on the timing and topographical distribution of ERP components. The processing of early- versus late-acquired words was compared with that of high-frequency versus low-frequency words. Participants were asked to perform an…

Adorni, Roberta; Manfredi, Mirella; Proverbio, Alice Mado

2013-01-01

178

Patterns of Performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test in Children with Learning, Attentional, and Psychiatric Disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the performance of children with learning, psychiatric, and attentional disabilities on the Stroop Color and Word Test. Results indicated clear differences between groups, with the learning disabled (LD) and the psychiatric/attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) groups generating unique profiles. Children with LD showed…

Golden, Zarabeth L.; Golden, Charles J.

2002-01-01

179

Vocabulary learning in a Yorkshire terrier: slow mapping of spoken words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to "fast mapping", with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey) with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before) embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion. PMID:22363421

Griebel, Ulrike; Oller, D Kimbrough

2012-01-01

180

Effects of Classroom Bilingualism on Task Shifting, Verbal Memory, and Word Learning in Children  

OpenAIRE

We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of two years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word-learning. The two groups of children ...

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

2014-01-01

181

"In Our Own Words": Creating Videos as Teaching and Learning Tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Online videos, particularly those on YouTube, have proliferated on the internet; watching them has become part of our everyday activity. While libraries have often harnessed the power of videos to create their own promotional and informational videos, few have created their own teaching and learning tools beyond screencasting videos. In the summer of 2010, the authors, two librarians at York University, decided to work on a video project which culminated in a series of instructional videos entitled “Learning: In Our Own Words.” The purpose of the video project was twofold: to trace the “real” experience of incoming students and their development of academic literacies skills (research, writing and learning throughout their first year, and to create videos that librarians and other instructors could use as instructional tools to engage students in critical thinking and discussion. This paper outlines the authors’ experience filming the videos, creating a teaching guide, and screening the videos in the classroom. Lessons learned during this initiative are discussed in the hope that more libraries will develop videos as teaching and learning tools.

Norda Majekodunmi

2012-11-01

182

A neurocomputational theory of how explicit learning bootstraps early procedural learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely accepted that human learning and memory is mediated by multiple memory systems that are each best suited to different requirements and demands. Within the domain of categorization, at least two systems are thought to facilitate learning: an explicit (declarative) system depending largely on the prefrontal cortex, and a procedural (non-declarative) system depending on the basal ganglia. Substantial evidence suggests that each system is optimally suited to learn particular categorization tasks. However, it remains unknown precisely how these systems interact to produce optimal learning and behavior. In order to investigate this issue, the present research evaluated the progression of learning through simulation of categorization tasks using COVIS, a well-known model of human category learning that includes both explicit and procedural learning systems. Specifically, the model's parameter space was thoroughly explored in procedurally learned categorization tasks across a variety of conditions and architectures to identify plausible interaction architectures. The simulation results support the hypothesis that one-way interaction between the systems occurs such that the explicit system "bootstraps" learning early on in the procedural system. Thus, the procedural system initially learns a suboptimal strategy employed by the explicit system and later refines its strategy. This bootstrapping could be from cortical-striatal projections that originate in premotor or motor regions of cortex, or possibly by the explicit system's control of motor responses through basal ganglia-mediated loops. PMID:24385962

Paul, Erick J; Ashby, F Gregory

2013-01-01

183

Word memory test performance in Canadian adolescents with learning disabilities: a preliminary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate Word Memory Test (WMT) performances in students with identified learning disabilities (LDs) providing good effort to examine the influence of severe reading or learning problems on WMT performance. Participants were 63 students with LDs aged 11 to 14 years old (M = 12.19 years), who completed psychoeducational assessments as part of a transition program to secondary school. Participants were administered a battery of psychodiagnostic tests including the WMT. Results indicated that 9.5% of students with LD met Criterion A on the WMT (i.e., perform below cut-offs on any of the first three subtests of the WMT), but less than 1% met both criteria necessary for identification of low effort. Failure on the first three subtests of the WMT was associated with word reading at or below the 1st percentile and severely impaired phonetic decoding and phonological awareness skills. These results indicate that the majority of students with a history of LD are capable of passing the WMT, and use of profile analysis reduces the false-positive rate to below 1%. PMID:23428276

Larochette, Anne-Claire; Harrison, Allyson G

2012-01-01

184

Unsupervised Learning and Linguistic Rule Based Algorithm for Uyghur Word Segmentation  

OpenAIRE

Inter-word spaces based traditional word segmentation method not very appropriate for multi-word structured semantic words due to the fact that it will split the semantic words into several fragments that inconsistent with its original meaning. So, this will be a bottleneck problem in Uyghur text analysis and text understanding applications. This paper puts forward a new idea and related algorithms for segmentation of Uyghur multiword structured semantic words. In this algorithm, the word bas...

Turdi Tohti; Winira Musajan; Askar Hamdulla

2014-01-01

185

Multiple aspects of self-regulation uniquely predict mathematics but not letter-word knowledge in the early elementary grades.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relation of self-regulation measured prior to school entry to developing math and reading ability in prekindergarten through the second grade was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children and families in predominantly rural and low-income communities in 2 regions of high poverty in the United States. Direct assessments of executive function, effortful control, and stress response physiology (indexed by resting levels of cortisol and alpha amylase obtained from saliva) were measured at child age 48 months and parents and teachers reported on children's effortful control using temperament rating scales at child age approximately 60 months. Math and reading ability, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson III applied problems and letter-word subtests, respectively, were measured at prekindergarten through the second grade. Effects for self-regulation measures were seen primarily for initial level and to some extent growth in both mathematics and reading, even when controlling for family demographic characteristics that represent relevant selection factors into higher levels of both self-regulation and academic achievement. These effects persisted for mathematics but not for reading with the inclusion of child cognitive abilities, vocabulary, and speed of processing measured in prekindergarten, concurrent with the first time point for the academic measures. Results are interpreted as indicating a role for self-regulation in learning ability generally, likely through support for attention and reasoning abilities that are most specific to the assessment of mathematics in this analysis. Implications for instruction and for assessment and the best ways to support the development of early math and reading ability for children at risk for school failure are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25688999

Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Greenberg, Mark; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

2015-04-01

186

Identification of Sub-Types of Students with Learning Disabilities in Reading and Its Implications for Chinese Word Recognition and Instructional Methods in Hong Kong Primary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper consists of three studies. The first study aimed to identify sub-types of students with learning disabilities in reading. Based on the dual-route model of reading, words may be read using either a lexical (words are recognized as wholes) or a sub-lexical (words are recognized through grapheme-phoneme correspondence) procedure. Castles…

Ho, Fuk-chuen; Siegel, Linda

2012-01-01

187

Shakespeare and the Words of Early Modern Physic: Between Academic and Popular Medicine. A Lexicographical Approach to the Plays  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article aims at showing how Shakespeare relied on the medical vocabulary shared by his coeval society, which had, for centuries, been witnessing the continuous process of vernacularization of ancient and medieval scientific texts. After outlining the state of early modern medicine, the author presents and discusses the results of her search for relevant medical terms in nine plays by Shakespeare. In order to do this, a wide range of medical treatises has been analysed (either directly or through specific corpora such as Medieval English Medical Texts, MEMT 2005, and Early Modern English Medical Texts, EMEMT 2010, so as to verify the ancestry or the novelty of Shakespearean medical words. In addition to this, the author has also built a corpus of word types derived from seventeenth-century quack doctors’ handbills, with the purpose of creating a word list of medical terms connected to popular rather than university medicine, comparable with the list drawn out of the Shakespearean plays. The results most stressed in the article concern Shakespeare’s use of medical terminology already well known to his contemporary society (thus confuting the Oxfordian thesis about the impossibility for William Shakespeare the actor to master so many medical words and the playwright’s skill in transforming – rather than inventing – old popular terms. The article is accompanied by five tables that collect the results of the various lexicographical searches.

Roberta Mullini

2013-03-01

188

Disentangling the Influence of Salience and Familiarity on Infant Word Learning: Methodological Advances  

OpenAIRE

The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants' environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While ...

HeatherBortfeld

2013-01-01

189

Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments  

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Full Text Available This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of the interactional triangle—the children, the adults, and their physical environment—is assessed by means of an observation schedule called the Quality Learning Instrument (QLI. The paper illustrates the design and validation of the instrument with data from a project involving observations of classroom practice in Northern Ireland primary schools and Danish kindergartens. It describes how judgments made using the instrument can be triangulated or “calibrated” against the judgments of experts not connected with the data collection. The article concludes with the argument that the instrument may be successfully used to provide a basis for external quality assessments or as a means for early years teachers to reflect on the environment for learning that they generate in their own classrooms.

Glenda Walsh

2005-01-01

190

The Differential Roles of Paired Associate Learning in Chinese and English Word Reading Abilities in Bilingual Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Paired associated learning (PAL) is a critical skill for making arbitrary associations among print, pronunciation and meaning in reading development. Extended from past research of PAL, this study investigated whether PAL operated flexibly to linguistic demands of languages, by examining word reading abilities in Chinese-English bilingual…

Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin

2014-01-01

191

A Story about a Word: Does Narrative Presentation Promote Learning of a Spatial Preposition in German Two-Year-Olds?  

Science.gov (United States)

We trained forty German-speaking children aged 1;8-2;0 in their comprehension of UNTER [UNDER]. The target word was presented within semantically organized input in the form of a "narrative" to the experimental group and within "unconnected speech" to the control group. We tested children's learning by asking them to…

Nachtigaller, Kerstin; Rohlfing, Katharina J.; McGregor, Karla K.

2013-01-01

192

Linking Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: A Computational Model of the Learning of New Words  

Science.gov (United States)

The nonword repetition (NWR) test has been shown to be a good predictor of children's vocabulary size. NWR performance has been explained using phonological working memory, which is seen as a critical component in the learning of new words. However, no detailed specification of the link between phonological working memory and long-term memory…

Jones, Gary; Gobet, Fernand; Pine, Julian M.

2007-01-01

193

Open Learning Environment in Early Modern Low Countries History  

OpenAIRE

This project, part of the individual strand of JISC’s and the Higher Education Academy’s Open Educational Resources pilot programme, will turn a comprehensive survey course in Early Modern Low Countries history, from the late Middle Ages to the end of the 18th century, into a multimedia and Web 2.0 enriched Open Educational Resource (OER), published on the internet and freely available for anyone. In doing so it will create an important teaching and learning resource not only for the stra...

Tiedau, U.

2010-01-01

194

Does Early Algebraic Reasoning Differ as a Function of Students' Difficulty with Calculations versus Word Problems?  

Science.gov (United States)

According to national mathematics standards, algebra instruction should begin at kindergarten and continue through elementary school. Most often, teachers address algebra in the elementary grades with problems related to solving equations or understanding functions. With 789 2(nd)- grade students, we administered (a) measures of calculations and word problems in the fall and (b) an assessment of pre-algebraic reasoning, with items that assessed solving equations and functions, in the spring. Based on the calculation and word-problem measures, we placed 148 students into 1 of 4 difficulty status categories: typically performing, calculation difficulty, word-problem difficulty, or difficulty with calculations and word problems. Analyses of variance were conducted on the 148 students; path analytic mediation analyses were conducted on the larger sample of 789 students. Across analyses, results corroborated the finding that word-problem difficulty is more strongly associated with difficulty with pre-algebraic reasoning. As an indicator of later algebra difficulty, word-problem difficulty may be a more useful predictor than calculation difficulty, and students with word-problem difficulty may require a different level of algebraic reasoning intervention than students with calculation difficulty. PMID:25309044

Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Lynn S

2014-08-01

195

The Surprising Power of Statistical Learning: When Fragment Knowledge Leads to False Memories of Unheard Words  

Science.gov (United States)

Word-segmentation, that is, the extraction of words from fluent speech, is one of the first problems language learners have to master. It is generally believed that statistical processes, in particular those tracking "transitional probabilities" (TPs), are important to word-segmentation. However, there is evidence that word forms are stored in…

Endress, Ansgar D.; Mehler, Jacques

2009-01-01

196

Reading with Meaning: The Contributions of Meaning-Related Variables at the Word and Subword Levels to Early Chinese Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the associations of three levels of meaning acquisition, i.e., whole word (vocabulary), morpheme (morphological awareness), and semantic radical (orthography-semantic awareness) to early Chinese reading comprehension among 164 Hong Kong Chinese primary school students, ages 7 and 8 years old, across 1 year. With time 1 word

Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tong, Xiuli; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Fong, Cathy Y.-C.

2012-01-01

197

Considering spatial ability in virtual route learning in early aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to broaden our understanding of the construction and early decline of spatial mental representations in route learning, considering the extent to which spatial ability and age-related differences in environment learning interact. The experiment examines spatial mental representation derived from taking a realistic route acquired using virtual environment and compares individuals different in age but with similar spatial ability. A sample of 34 young (20-30 years) and 30 middle-aged (50-60 years) females with good mental rotation ability were chosen. Participants learned a complex route through its presentation in a virtual environment and then performed a series of tasks (landmark recognition, location of landmarks and verification of spatial relations). Results show that the two participant age groups had similar performance in landmark recognition task and in verification of sentences describing direct spatial relations; instead, the middle-aged group showed a poorer performance than younger in their ability to locate landmarks and to judge the truth of indirect spatial sentences. These results first suggest that spatial abilities have to be seriously considered to avoid any confusion with age, as age-related differences are attenuated when individuals are different in age but similar in spatial ability. Second they confirm a specific difficulty of older participants to handle spatial information in a global configuration. PMID:23536003

Gyselinck, Valérie; Meneghetti, Chiara; Bormetti, Monica; Orriols, Eric; Piolino, Pascale; De Beni, Rossana

2013-08-01

198

Unsupervised Learning and Linguistic Rule Based Algorithm for Uyghur Word Segmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inter-word spaces based traditional word segmentation method not very appropriate for multi-word structured semantic words due to the fact that it will split the semantic words into several fragments that inconsistent with its original meaning. So, this will be a bottleneck problem in Uyghur text analysis and text understanding applications. This paper puts forward a new idea and related algorithms for segmentation of Uyghur multiword structured semantic words. In this algorithm, the word based Bi-gram and contextual information are derived from large scale raw text corpus automatically, and according to the association rules between Uyghur words, the liner combinations of mutual information, difference of t-test and dual adjacent entropy are taken as a new measurement(dmd to estimate the agglutinative strength between two adjacent Uyghur words. The experimental result on large-scale open tests shows that the proposed algorithm achieves 88.21% segmentation accuracy

Turdi Tohti

2014-05-01

199

The Source of Child Care Center Preschool Learning and Program Standards: Implications for Potential Early Learning Challenge Fund Grantees  

OpenAIRE

The proposed federal Early Learning Challenge Fund (ELCF) aims to improve the quality of early care and education programs by promoting the integration of more stringent program and early learning standards than are typically found in child care centers. ELCF grantees also must outline their plans for professional development and technical assistance to support these efforts. With the aim of informing potential ELCF grantees, this article reports the results of a statewide survey of 391 child...

Ackerman, Debra J.; Sansanelli, Rachel A.

2010-01-01

200

Fast-Mapping and Deliberate Word-Learning by EFL Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the abilities of young English as a foreign language (EFL) learners to identify quickly new words from a nonostensive, indirect teaching context (known as fast- mapping) and their ability to commit the words to memory. Seventy-five fourth-grade EFL learners heard novel words embedded in sentences. They were then tested for…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2012-01-01

201

Analysis of Phonemes, Graphemes, Onset-Rimes, and Words with Braille-Learning Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Six primary school-aged braille students were taught to name 4 to 10 braille letters as phonemes and another 4 to 10 braille letters as graphemes (Study 1). They were then taught to name 10 braille words as onset-rimes and another 10 braille words as whole words (Study 2). Instruction in phonemes and onset rimes resulted in fewer trials and a…

Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.

2007-01-01

202

An Ecological Footprint for an Early Learning Centre: Identifying Opportunities for Early Childhood Sustainability Education through Interdisciplinary Research  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, engineers and educators worked together to adapt and apply the ecological footprint (EF) methodology to an early learning centre in Brisbane, Australia. Results were analysed to determine how environmental impact can be reduced at the study site and more generally across early childhood settings. It was found that food, transport…

McNichol, Heidi; Davis, Julie Margaret; O'Brien, Katherine R.

2011-01-01

203

Classroom Challenges in Developing an Intercultural Early Learning Program for Refugee Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The project described here was aimed at piloting an intercultural, multilingual, early learning program that was genuinely responsive to the circumstances and early learning needs of preschool refugee children and parents from three ethnocultural communities--Somali, Sudanese, and Kurdish--in a large city in Western Canada. We discuss the unique…

Dachyshyn, Darcey; Kirova, Anna

2011-01-01

204

The effects of using flashcards with reading racetrack to teach letter sounds, sight words, and math facts to elementary students with learning disabilities  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of reading racetrack and flashcards when teaching phonics, sight words, and addition facts. The participants for the sight word and phonics portion of this study were two seven-year-old boys in the second grade. Both participants were diagnosed with a learning disability. The third participant was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by his pediatrician and with a learning disability and traumatic brain injury by his scho...

Erbey, Rachel; Mclaughlin, T. F.; Mark Derby, K.; Everson, Mary

2011-01-01

205

Neural responses to category ambiguous words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ERP response over left anterior sites as early as 100ms following stimulus onset and persisting for over 400ms. Nonsense words extracted from noun and verb contexts do not show such differences. These findings suggest that the acoustic differences between noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words are perceived and processed by adults and may be part of the lexical representation of the word. PMID:25637057

Conwell, Erin

2015-03-01

206

Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Learning of Science in a Methods Course: Examining the Predictive Ability of an Intentional Learning Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the predictive ability of an intentional learning model in the change of preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understanding of lunar phases. Fifty-two preservice early childhood teachers who were enrolled in an early childhood science methods course participated in the study. Results indicated that the use of metacognitive strategies facilitated preservice early childhood teachers' use of deep-level cognitive strategies, which in turn promoted conceptual change. Also, preservice early childhood teachers with high motivational beliefs were more likely to use cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Thus, they were more likely to engage in conceptual change. The results provided evidence that the hypothesized model of intentional learning has a high predictive ability in explaining the change in preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understandings from the pre to post-interviews. Implications for designing a science methods course for preservice early childhood teachers are provided.

Saçkes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

2014-06-01

207

Disentangling the influence of salience and familiarity on infant word learning: methodological advances.  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants' environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While the result is an accrual of data bridging the gap between brain and behavior, much work remains to make the link between behavioral evidence of infants' emerging sensitivities and neurophysiological evidence of changes in how their brains process information. Here we review the background behavioral data on how salience and familiarity in the auditory signal shape initial language learning. We follow this with a summary of more recent evidence of changes in infants' brain activity in response to specific aspects of speech. Our goal is to examine language learning through the lens of brain/environment interactions, ultimately focusing on changes in cortical processing of speech across the first year of life. We will ground our examination of recent brain data in the two auditory features initially outlined: salience and familiarity. Our own and others' findings on the influence of these two features reveal that they are key parameters in infants' emerging recognition of structure in the speech signal. Importantly, the evidence we review makes the critical link between behavioral and brain data. We discuss the importance of future work that makes this bridge as a means of moving the study of language development solidly into the domain of brain science. PMID:23616775

Bortfeld, Heather; Shaw, Katie; Depowski, Nicole

2013-01-01

208

Disentangling the Influence of Salience and Familiarity on Infant Word Learning: Methodological Advances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants’ environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While the result is an accrual of data bridging the gap between brain and behavior, much work remains to make the link between behavioral evidence of infants' emerging sensitivities and neurophysiological evidence of changes in how their brains process information. Here we review the background behavioral data on how salience and familiarity in the auditory signal shape initial language learning. We follow this with a summary of more recent evidence of changes in infants’ brain activity in response to specific aspects of speech. Our goal is to examine language learning through the lens of brain/environment interactions, ultimately focusing on changes in cortical processing of speech across the first year of life. We will ground our examination of recent brain data in the two auditory features initially outlined: salience and familiarity. Our own and others' findings on the influence of these two features reveal that they are key parameters in infants’ emerging recognition of structure in the speech signal. Importantly, the evidence we review makes the critical link between behavioral and brain data. We discuss the importance of future work that makes this bridge as a means of moving the study of language development solidly into the domain of brain science.

HeatherBortfeld

2013-04-01

209

Fast Mapping Across Time: Memory Processes Support Children’s Retention of Learned Words  

OpenAIRE

Children’s remarkable ability to map linguistic labels to referents in the world is commonly called fast mapping. The current study examined children’s (N?=?216) and adults’ (N?=?54) retention of fast-mapped words over time (immediately, after a 1-week delay, and after a 1-month delay). The fast mapping literature often characterizes children’s retention of words as consistently high across timescales. However, the current study demonstrates that learners forget word mappings ...

HaleyVlach

2012-01-01

210

The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Clustering New Words on Vocabulary Learning of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners through Hyperlinks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of explicit instruction of clustering new thematic vocabulary items into two different categories through hyperlinks of PowerPoint was examined on vocabulary learning of 75 Iranian intermediate EFL learners. The sample was randomly assigned to three groups. Experimental group 1 received the meaning of new words in their First Language (L1 translation via PowerPoint, while experimental group 2 received the meanings in English definition in the same way; control group learned the meanings through a traditional method of instruction without employing any specific strategy. To measure the participants’ vocabulary learning, a pretest and a posttest were administered to all groups. The result of t-test indicated that such explicit strategy instruction enhanced vocabulary learning of the experimental groups. According to the results of One-Way ANOVA, although there was no significant difference between the experimental groups, a significant difference was observed between the experimental groups and the control group in vocabulary learning.Keywords: CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning; hyperlinks; explicit strategy instruction; L1 translation, English definition; vocabulary learning

Hassan Soleimani

2012-07-01

211

Earthquake Word Searches  

Science.gov (United States)

Finding the words in these word searches will help you learn about earthquakes. The words in the puzzles may be hidden horizontally, vertically, diagonally, forward, or backward. To circle a discovered word, mouse-click on one end of the word and mouse-drag to the other end of the word. Once a word is found, it will be taken off the list. There are nine word searches that you can play: famous seismologists, general earthquake terms, magnitude, Mercalli Intensity Scale, plate names, plate tectonics, Richter Magnitude Scale, seismic waves, and tsunamis.

Eric Harshbarger

2009-10-27

212

Preparing Early Childhood Educators for Global Education: The Implications of Prior Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines the increasing cultural diversity of Australia's education settings and explicates the global education movement and the new Australian Early Years Learning Framework. It discusses the implication of these factors for early childhood education practice and early childhood teacher education. The key research question considered…

Horsley, Mike W.; Bauer, Kathy Anne

2010-01-01

213

Early testimonial learning: monitoring speech acts and speakers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Testimony provides children with a rich source of knowledge about the world and the people in it. However, testimony is not guaranteed to be veridical, and speakers vary greatly in both knowledge and intent. In this chapter, we argue that children encounter two primary types of conflicts when learning from speakers: conflicts of knowledge and conflicts of interest. We review recent research on children's selective trust in testimony and propose two distinct mechanisms supporting early epistemic vigilance in response to the conflicts associated with speakers. The first section of the chapter focuses on the mechanism of coherence checking, which occurs during the process of message comprehension and facilitates children's comparison of information communicated through testimony to their prior knowledge, alerting them to inaccurate, inconsistent, irrational, and implausible messages. The second section focuses on source-monitoring processes. When children lack relevant prior knowledge with which to evaluate testimonial messages, they monitor speakers themselves for evidence of competence and morality, attending to cues such as confidence, consensus, access to information, prosocial and antisocial behavior, and group membership. PMID:25735944

Stephens, Elizabeth; Suarez, Sarah; Koenig, Melissa

2015-01-01

214

Do not forget: Full memory in memory-based learning of word pronunciation  

OpenAIRE

Memory-based learning, keeping full memory of learning material, appears a viable approach to learning NLP tasks, and is often superior in generalisation accuracy to eager learning approaches that abstract from learning material. Here we investigate three partial memory-based learning approaches which remove from memory specific task instance types estimated to be exceptional. The three approaches each implement one heuristic function for estimating exceptionality of instanc...

Bosch, A. Den; Daelemans, W.

1998-01-01

215

What Paradox? Referential Cues Allow for Infant Use of Phonetic Detail in Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Past research has uncovered a surprising paradox: Although 14-month-olds have exquisite phonetic discrimination skills (e.g., distinguishing [b] from [d]), they have difficulty using phonetic detail when mapping "novel" words to objects in laboratory tasks (confusing "bin" and "din"). While some have attributed infants' difficulty to immature word

Fennell, Christopher T.; Waxman, Sandra R.

2010-01-01

216

Incremental Learning of Difficult Words in Story Contexts: The Role of Spelling and Pronouncing New Vocabulary  

Science.gov (United States)

In this exploratory study we examine the value of exposure to the spelling and pronunciation of word forms when introducing the meanings of new and difficult vocabulary words. Kindergarten English learners were randomly assigned to one of two types of storybook reading delivered by tutors. Students in both treatments listened to short stories…

Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

2015-01-01

217

Vocabulary plus Technology: An After-Reading Approach to Develop Deep Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Students who can use a term conversantly in academic environments know how to use it precisely in their writing and in their interactions with others; they can be said to deeply know, not just the word term in alphabetic or spoken forms, but the connections to ideas the term embodies. When students are intrigued by words and ideas, they want to…

Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

2015-01-01

218

Word Segmentation and Phonological Learning in Cross-Language Perception of Fluent Speech  

Science.gov (United States)

Listeners segment words from the continuous speech stream in their native language by using rhythmic structure, phrasal structure, and phonotactics (e.g. Christophe et al, 2003: McQueen, 1998). One challenging aspect of second language acquisition is the extraction of words from fluent speech, possibly because learners apply a native language…

Adams, Tuuli Morrill

2011-01-01

219

Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to document early challenges and lessons learned in the solid-state lighting (SSL) market development as part of the DOE’s SSL Program efforts to continually evaluate market progress in this area. This report summarizes early actions taken by DOE and others to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps and identifies issues, challenges, and new lessons that have been learned in the early stages of the SSL market introduction. This study identifies and characterizes12 key lessons that have been distilled from DOE SSL program results.

Sandahl, Linda J.; Cort, Katherine A.; Gordon, Kelly L.

2013-12-31

220

Letter Name Knowledge and the Ability To Learn To Read by Processing Letter-Phoneme Relations in Words: Evidence from Brazilian Portuguese-Speaking Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates whether Brazilian Portuguese-speaking prereaders who have mastered letter names are capable of processing letter-sound relations to learn to read words in which the letters correspond to phonemes contained in the names of the letters. Suggests they can use their knowledge of the names of the letters to learn to read by processing and…

Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Resende, Selmara Mamede; Rodrigues, Larissa Assuncao

2002-01-01

221

The Influence of Computer-Mediated Word-of-Mouth Communication on Student Perceptions of Instructors and Attitudes toward Learning Course Content  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to experimentally test the influence of computer-mediated word-of-mouth communication (WOM) on student perceptions of instructors (attractiveness and credibility) and on student attitudes toward learning course content (affective learning and state motivation). It was hypothesized that students who receive positive…

Edwards, Chad; Edwards, Autumn; Qing, Qingmei; Wahl, Shawn T.

2007-01-01

222

Early results of experiments with responsive open learning environments  

OpenAIRE

Responsive open learning environments (ROLEs) are the next generation of personal learning environments (PLEs). While PLEs rely on the simple aggregation of existing content and services mainly using Web 2.0 technologies, ROLEs are transforming lifelong learning by introducing a new infrastructure on a global scale while dealing with existing learning management systems, institutions, and technologies. The requirements engineering process in highly populated test-beds is as important as the t...

Friedrich, M.; Wolpers, M.; Shen, R.; Ullrich, C.; Klamma, R.; Renzel, D.; Richert, A.; Heiden, B. Von

2011-01-01

223

Nomen est omen: Investigating the dominance of nouns in word comprehension with eye movement analyses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although nouns are easily learned in early stages of lexical development, their role in adult word and text comprehension remains unexplored thus far. To investigate the role of different word classes (open-class words: nouns, adjectives, verbs; closed-class words: pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, etc.), 141 participants read a transposed German text while recording eye movements. Subsequently, participants indicated words they found difficult and reproduced the story. Then, participants were presented an untransposed text version while also tracking eye movements. Word difficulty, subjectively assessed by an interview and objectively by eye movement criteria (general fixation rate, number of fixations on specific words), text comprehension scores, and regressive fixations from one word class to another in the transposed text indicated that the noun was the most influential word class in enhancing the comprehension of other words. Developmental, intercultural, and neurophysiological aspects of noun dominance are discussed. PMID:20523853

Furtner, Marco R; Rauthmann, John F; Sachse, Pierre

2009-01-01

224

Knowledge of English Word Stress Patterns in Early and Late Korean-English Bilinguals  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of age of acquisition and native language prosody on the acquisition of English stress patterns were investigated with early and late Korean-English bilinguals (n = 20). Distributional patterns of stress placement based on syllabic structure, distributional patterns of stress placement based on lexical class, and stress patterns of…

Guion, Susan G.

2005-01-01

225

The Source of Child Care Center Preschool Learning and Program Standards: Implications for Potential Early Learning Challenge Fund Grantees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposed federal Early Learning Challenge Fund (ELCF aims to improve the quality of early care and education programs by promoting the integration of more stringent program and early learning standards than are typically found in child care centers. ELCF grantees also must outline their plans for professional development and technical assistance to support these efforts. With the aim of informing potential ELCF grantees, this article reports the results of a statewide survey of 391 child care center directors focusing on the source of their preschool learning expectations and program standards. The majority of surveyed directors report that the state’s child care licensing standards are used. Additional directors report that the state’s prekindergarten program standards or early learning standards serve as their current source. However, other responses indicate that the terms “program standards” and “learning standards” themselves may not even be part of the current child care vocabulary. These results suggest that potential ELCF grantees might be better positioned to help child care centers incorporate stricter program and learning standards if they design varying levels of training and technical assistance based on the variety of child care quality “starting points.”

Debra J. Ackerman

2010-01-01

226

The effects of perceptual similarity and category membership on early word-referent identification.  

OpenAIRE

We investigated the impact of perceptual and categorical relatedness between a target and a distracter object on early referent identification in infants and adults. In an intermodal preferential looking (IPL) task, participants looked at a target object paired with a distracter object that could be perceptually similar or dissimilar and drawn from the same or different global category. The proportion of target looking measures revealed that infants and adults were sensitive to the interplay ...

Arias-trejo, N.; Plunkett, K.

2010-01-01

227

Early EFL Education Is on the Rise in Oman: A Qualitative Inquiry of Parental Beliefs about Early EFL Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today’s parents are more interested in having their children acquire English language skills as early as possible because they see the demands of the globalizing world context and contemporary trends in society and wish to ensure that their children can live in a future (quite possibly English-speaking society. These developments, particularly in the Gulf Region in general and in Oman in particular, have led the educational sector to accelerate efforts over the last decade to initiate hundreds of early childhood education programs that offer bilingual education systems. However, no research has been conducted in the Omani context on parents’ beliefs about early instruction in English as a Foreign Language (EFL; claims regarding this issue remain speculative. This qualitative research study investigated parental beliefs about early EFL learning in Oman. Participants were 11 parents with children enrolled at a bilingual early childhood program. Interviews and a demographic survey were conducted. Findings revealed that parents are well aware of the benefits, challenges, and solutions of early EFL education. An exhaustive description of parents’ beliefs about early EFL learning was extracted. Implications and recommendations for research, policy, and practice are offered.

Ali Kemal Tekin

2015-01-01

228

Signature Pedagogy in Early Years Education: A Role for COTS Game-Based Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we look at the links between early years pedagogy and the use of digital game-based learning. Early years education is a distinctive phase of the education system in many countries, generally covering the age range from 3-6 or 7 years. In the United Kingdom, it tends to bridge preschool and the first two years in primary school.…

Miller, David; Robertson, Derek; Hudson, Alison; Shimi, Jill

2012-01-01

229

Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

2014-01-01

230

Early-Grade Retention and Children's Reading and Math Learning in Elementary Years  

Science.gov (United States)

Many schools have adopted early-grade retention as an intervention strategy for children displaying academic or behavioral problems. Previous analyses of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Cohort data have found evidence of negative effects of kindergarten retention on academic learning during the repeated year. Will kindergarten…

Hong, Guanglei; Yu, Bing

2007-01-01

231

Learning words : Children disregard some pragmatic information that conflicts with mutual exclusivity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning process about what the speaker intended? In two studies, we distinguish between these possibilities. Preschoolers watched as a speaker pointed toward (Study 1) or looked at (Study 2) a familiar object while requesting the referent for a new word (e.g. 'Can you give me the blicket?'). In both studies, despite the speaker's unambiguous behavioral cue indicating an intent to refer to a familiar object, children inferred that the novel label referred to an unfamiliar object. These results suggest that children expect words to be mutually exclusive even when a speaker provides some kinds of pragmatic evidence to the contrary. © 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

2006-01-01

232

Early Learning Standards: Results from a National Survey to Document Trends in State-Level Policies and Practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early learning standards—documents that outline what children should know and be able to do before kindergarten entry—are increasingly common in the United States. Data from a national survey are presented to illustrate trends in how states have developed and implemented early learning standards within the past four years. Results indicate that almost all states have developed early learning standards for prekindergarten-age children, and the number of states that have developed infant-toddler early learning standards has increased markedly. States have used a variety of strategies to support teachers in their use of early learning standards, and a number of states have or are developing monitoring systems to gauge the extent to which programs are using the standards. The authors discuss the implications that trends related to the development and implementation of early learning standards have for early childhood policies and practices, and they discuss areas where further research is needed.

Jana Martella

2007-01-01

233

Word families 3  

CERN Document Server

This series of three books covers over 50 word families and 450 words. By presenting these words in rhyming groups, this series not only helps learners to acquire a rich vocabulary, but also helps them to learn and remember their spelling with ease.

Curtis, Stephen

2014-01-01

234

Conceptual Distance and Word Learning: Patterns of Acquisition in Samoan-English Bilingual Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated cross-linguistic influence in acquisition of a second lexicon, evaluating Samoan-English sequentially bilingual children (initial mean age 4 ; 9) during their first 18 months of school. Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary tasks evaluated acquisition of four word types: cognates, matched nouns, phrasal nouns and holonyms.…

Hemsley, Gayle; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara

2013-01-01

235

Does early learning drive ecological divergence during speciation processes in parasitoid wasps?  

Science.gov (United States)

Central to the concept of ecological speciation is the evolution of ecotypes, i.e. groups of individuals occupying different ecological niches. However, the mechanisms behind the first step of separation, the switch of individuals into new niches, are unclear. One long-standing hypothesis, which was proposed for insects but never tested, is that early learning causes new ecological preferences, leading to a switch into a new niche within one generation. Here, we show that a host switch occurred within a parasitoid wasp, which is associated with the ability for early learning and the splitting into separate lineages during speciation. Lariophagus distinguendus consists of two genetically distinct lineages, most likely representing different species. One attacks drugstore beetle larvae (Stegobium paniceum (L.)), which were probably the ancestral host of both lineages. The drugstore beetle lineage has an innate host preference that cannot be altered by experience. In contrast, the second lineage is found on Sitophilus weevils as hosts and changes its preference by early learning. We conclude that a host switch has occurred in the ancestor of the second lineage, which must have been enabled by early learning. Because early learning is widespread in insects, it might have facilitated ecological divergence and associated speciation in this hyperdiverse group. PMID:25621331

König, Kerstin; Krimmer, Elena; Brose, Sören; Gantert, Cornelia; Buschlüter, Ines; König, Christian; Klopfstein, Seraina; Wendt, Ingo; Baur, Hannes; Krogmann, Lars; Steidle, Johannes L M

2015-01-22

236

Word 2013 for dummies  

CERN Document Server

This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

Gookin, Dan

2013-01-01

237

Learning from the early adopters: developing the digital practitioner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores how Sharpe and Beetham's Digital Literacies Framework which was derived to model students’ digital literacies, can be applied to lecturers’ digital literacy practices. Data from a small-scale phenomenological study of higher education lecturers who used Web 2.0 in their teaching and learning practices are used to examine if this pyramid model represents their motivations for adopting technology-enhanced learning in their pedagogic practices. The paper argues that whilst Sharpe and Beetham's model has utility in many regards, these lecturers were mainly motivated by the desire to achieve their pedagogic goals rather than by a desire to become a digital practitioner.

Liz Bennett

2014-07-01

238

Exploring Partnerships in Early Childhood Teacher Education through Scenario-based Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Belonging to “a family, a cultural group, a neighbourhood and a wider community” (Department of Education,Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR], 2009, p. 7 is integral to children’s early development and learning.Acknowledging families as “children’s first and most influential educators” (DEEWR, 2009, p. 7, DEEWR notes that,“as children participate in everyday life, they develop interests and construct their own identities and understandings ofthe world” (Ibid. So, when children transition from the family context to participate in early education, establishingand maintaining partnerships with families and community members is essential to early childhood pedagogy. TheEarly Years Learning Framework acknowledges, “Belonging is central to being and becoming in that it shapes whochildren are and who they can become” (Ibid.While an important component of education, professional topics such as partnerships can be given less priority inuniversity subjects that focus on curriculum components. To “bridge perceived gaps between subject theory andprofessional practice” (Errington, 2010, p. 17 professional topics can be explored through scenario-based learning.This paper presents findings about the understanding and implementation of partnerships through scenario-basedlearning in a third year, online early childhood education subject, “Early Childhood Education and Care 2”. Theresearch question was, “How can scenario-based learning be implemented to increase students’ understanding andpractice of partnerships?”

Reesa Sorin

2013-01-01

239

Bringing back the body into the mind: gestures enhance word learning in foreign language  

OpenAIRE

Foreign language education in the twenty-first century still teaches vocabulary mainly through reading and listening activities. This is due to the link between teaching practice and traditional philosophy of language, where language is considered to be an abstract phenomenon of the mind. However, a number of studies have shown that accompanying words or phrases of a foreign language with gestures leads to better memory results. In this paper, I review behavioral research on the positive effe...

Macedonia, Manuela

2014-01-01

240

Early Learning Standards: Results from a National Survey to Document Trends in State-Level Policies and Practices  

OpenAIRE

Early learning standards—documents that outline what children should know and be able to do before kindergarten entry—are increasingly common in the United States. Data from a national survey are presented to illustrate trends in how states have developed and implemented early learning standards within the past four years. Results indicate that almost all states have developed early learning standards for prekindergarten-age children, and the number of states that have developed infant-to...

Jana Martella; Jim Lesko; Catherine Scott-Little; Penny Milburn

2007-01-01

241

Early life stress disrupts attachment learning: The role of amygdala corticosterone, locus coeruleus CRH and olfactory bulb NE  

OpenAIRE

Infant rats require maternal odor learning to guide pups proximity-seeking of the mother and nursing. Maternal odor learning occurs using a simple learning circuit including robust olfactory bulb norepinephrine (NE) release from the locus coeruleus (LC) and amygdala suppression by low corticosterone (CORT). Early life stress increases NE but also CORT and we questioned whether early life stress disrupted attachment learning and its neural correlates (2-DG autoradiography). Neonatal rats were ...

Moriceau, Stephanie; Shionoya, Kiseko; Jakubs, Katherine; Sullivan, Regina M.

2009-01-01

242

Think Summer: Early Planning, Teacher Support Boost Summer Learning Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

A fundamental problem that continues to plague educators is the achievement gap between low-income and higher-income students. In the ongoing search for solutions, one of the more promising approaches is expanding opportunities for learning, particularly in the summer. This article describes a project funded by The Wallace Foundation that offers…

Browne, Daniel

2013-01-01

243

Short-Term Word-Learning Rate in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Hearing Loss in Limited and Extended High-Frequency Bandwidths  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This study examined children's word learning in limited and extended high-frequency bandwidth conditions. These conditions represent typical listening environments for children with hearing loss (HL) and children with normal hearing (NH), respectively. Method: Thirty-six children with NH and 14 children with moderate-to-severe HL served…

Pittman, Andrea L.

2008-01-01

244

Attitude of medical students towards Early Clinical Exposure in learning endocrine physiology  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Different teaching-learning methods have been used in teaching endocrine physiology for the medical students, so as to increase their interest and enhance their learning. This paper describes the pros and cons of the various approaches used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology and goes on to describe the value of adding an Early Clinical Exposure program (ECE) to didactic instruction in endocrine physiology, as well as student reactions to it as an alt...

Neelakantan Nithya; Tharion Elizabeth; Thomas Nihal; Sathishkumar Solomon; Vyas Rashmi

2007-01-01

245

Social-Emotional Learning Profiles of Preschoolers’ Early School Success: A Person-Centered Approach  

OpenAIRE

Examined how aspects of social-emotional learning (SEL)—specifically, emotion knowledge, emotional and social behaviors, social problem-solving, and self-regulation—clustered to typify groups of children who differ in terms of their motivation to learn, participation in the classroom, and other indices of early school adjustment and academic success. 275 four-year-old children from private day schools and Head Start were directly assessed and observed in these areas, and preschool and kin...

Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Mincic, Melissa; Kalb, Sara; Way, Erin; Wyatt, Todd; Segal, Yana

2012-01-01

246

Teaching Adults, Revisited: Active Learning for Early Childhood Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

This book follows master educator Elizabeth (Betty) Jones as she teaches an introductory course in early childhood education. She actively engages the students, encouraging them to make decisions, ask questions, and engage in collaborative problem solving--herself modeling the behaviors that should be practiced by adults working with young…

Jones, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

247

Diversity and Learning in the Early Years of School.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ongoing longitudinal study, conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research and Aboriginal consultants in 13 schools across Australia, is following the progress of a group of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in their early years of schooling. This report discusses findings from the first 2 years of the study. The…

Frigo, Tracey; Adams, Isabelle

248

Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

StephanieMoriceau

2009-09-01

249

Developing Multi-Agency Partnerships for Early Learning: Seven Keys to Success  

OpenAIRE

The ongoing emphasis on early years education in Ontario provided a rich context for this research project, commissioned by The Learning Partnership (TLP), to evaluate a new provincial project called FACES (Family and Community Engagement Strategy). This initiative seeks to extend and enhance community-based, multi-agency partnerships that support young children and their families in successful transitions to school. Interview data from individuals and focus groups suggest re-thinking early c...

Elliott-johns, Susan E.; Ron Wideman; Black, Glenda L.; Maria Cantalini-Williams; Jenny Guibert

2013-01-01

250

Abnormal explicit but not implicit sequence learning in pre-manifest and early Huntington’s disease  

OpenAIRE

Learning may occur with or without awareness, as explicit (intentional) or implicit (incidental) learning. The caudate nucleus and the putamen, which are affected early in Huntington’s disease (HD), are thought to be essential for motor sequence learning. However, the results of existing studies are inconsistent concerning presence/absence of deficits in implicit and explicit motor sequence learning in HD. We assessed implicit and explicit motor sequence learning using sequences of equivale...

Schneider, Susanne A.; Wilkinson, Leonora; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Henley, Susie; Rothwell, John C.; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Jahanshahi, Marjan

2010-01-01

251

How 'love' and 'hate' differ from 'sleep': using combined electro/magnetoencephalographic data to reveal the sources of early cortical responses to emotional words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotional words--as symbols for biologically relevant concepts--are preferentially processed in brain regions including the visual cortex, frontal and parietal regions, and a corticolimbic circuit including the amygdala. Some of the brain structures found in functional magnetic resonance imaging are not readily apparent in electro- and magnetoencephalographic (EEG; MEG) measures. By means of a combined EEG/MEG source localization procedure to fully exploit the available information, we sought to reduce these discrepancies and gain a better understanding of spatiotemporal brain dynamics underlying emotional-word processing. Eighteen participants read high-arousing positive and negative, and low-arousing neutral nouns, while EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Combined current-density reconstructions (L2-minimum norm least squares) for two early emotion-sensitive time intervals, the P1 (80-120 ms) and the early posterior negativity (EPN, 200-300 ms), were computed using realistic individual head models with a cortical constraint. The P1 time window uncovered an emotion effect peaking in the left middle temporal gyrus. In the EPN time window, processing of emotional words was associated with enhanced activity encompassing parietal and occipital areas, and posterior limbic structures. We suggest that lexical access, being underway within 100 ms, is speeded and/or favored for emotional words, possibly on the basis of an "emotional tagging" of the word form during acquisition. This gives rise to their differential processing in the EPN time window. The EPN, as an index of natural selective attention, appears to reflect an elaborate interplay of distributed structures, related to cognitive functions, such as memory, attention, and evaluation of emotional stimuli. PMID:23281129

Keuper, Kati; Zwanzger, Peter; Nordt, Marisa; Eden, Annuschka; Laeger, Inga; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kissler, Johanna; Junghöfer, Markus; Dobel, Christian

2014-03-01

252

Early prefrontal brain responses to the Hedonic quality of emotional words--a simultaneous EEG and MEG study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hedonic meaning of words affects word recognition, as shown by behavioral, functional imaging, and event-related potential (ERP) studies. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics and cognitive functions behind are elusive, partly due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Here, we account for these difficulties by computing combined electro-magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) source localization techniques. Participants covertly read emotionally high-arousing positive and negative nouns, while EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Combined EEG/MEG current-density reconstructions for the P1 (80-120 ms), P2 (150-190 ms) and EPN component (200-300 ms) were computed using realistic individual head models, with a cortical constraint. Relative to negative words, the P1 to positive words predominantly involved language-related structures (left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions), and posterior structures related to directed attention (occipital and parietal regions). Effects shifted to the right hemisphere in the P2 component. By contrast, negative words received more activation in the P1 time-range only, recruiting prefrontal regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Effects in the EPN were not statistically significant. These findings show that different neuronal networks are active when positive versus negative words are processed. We account for these effects in terms of an "emotional tagging" of word forms during language acquisition. These tags then give rise to different processing strategies, including enhanced lexical processing of positive words and a very fast language-independent alert response to negative words. The valence-specific recruitment of different networks might underlie fast adaptive responses to both approach- and withdrawal-related stimuli, be they acquired or biological. PMID:23940642

Keuper, Kati; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rehbein, Maimu A; Eden, Annuschka S; Laeger, Inga; Junghöfer, Markus; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

2013-01-01

253

Problem-based learning spanning real and virtual words: a case study in Second Life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing use of immersive virtual environments for educational purposes. However, much of this activity is not yet documented in the public domain, or is descriptive rather than analytical. This paper presents a case study in which university students were tasked with building an interactive learning experience using Second Life as a platform. Both problem-based learning and constructionism acted as framing pedagogies for the task, with students working in teams to design and build a learning experience which could potentially meet the needs of a real client in innovative ways which might not be possible in real life. A process account of the experience is provided, which examines how the pedagogies and contexts (real and virtual influence and enhance each other. The use of a virtual environment, combined with problem-based learning and constructionism, subtly changed the nature of the instructor–student relationship, allowed students to explore ‘problematic problems' in a motivating and relevant manner, provided students with greater ownership over their work, and allowed problems to be set which were flexible, but at the same time allowed for ease of assessment.

Judith Good

2008-12-01

254

Educational E-Books: A Support for Vocabulary and Early Math for Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematical learning difficulties can originate at an early age. However, research on young children's math development, especially those who are at risk, is in its early stages. The current study is the first to examine the effects of an activity with an educational e-book on emergent math with 52 preschoolers at risk for learning disability…

Shamir, Adina; Baruch, Dorit

2012-01-01

255

The "Work" of Community in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article articulates the appeal of different conceptualisations of community to the curriculum writers of Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia and to the Council of Australian Governments that commissioned the Framework, and the tensions within and between those respective conceptualisations. It then…

Millei, Zsuzsa; Sumsion, Jennifer

2011-01-01

256

Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

2011-01-01

257

Investigating Analytic Tools for e-Book Design in Early Literacy Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Toward the goal of better e-book design to support early literacy learning, this study investigates analytic tools for examining design qualities of e-books for young children. Three research-based analytic tools related to e-book design were applied to a mixed genre collection of 50 e-books from popular online sites. Tool performance varied…

Roskos, Kathleen; Brueck, Jeremy; Widman, Sarah

2009-01-01

258

Studies in Early Infant Learning: Classical Conditioning of the Neonatal Heart Rate  

Science.gov (United States)

In three experiments, it was demonstrated that human newborn heart rate level can be reliably modified through classical conditioning procedures. Findings support the idea that early learning may occur under a variety of conditions and different theories may account for the results. (Author/SB)

Crowell, David H.; And Others

1976-01-01

259

"From Bricks to Clicks": Hybrid Commercial Spaces in the Landscape of Early Literacy and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

In their quest for resources to support children's early literacy learning and development, parents encounter and traverse different spaces in which discourses and artifacts are produced and circulated. This paper uses conceptual tools from the field of geosemiotics to examine some commercial spaces designed for parents and children that…

Nixon, Helen

2011-01-01

260

Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

2014-01-01

261

Social Class, Habitus, and Language Learning: The Case of Korean Early Study-Abroad Students  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean…

Shin, Hyunjung

2014-01-01

262

Co-Located Single Display Collaborative Learning for Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The benefits of collaborative learning are well documented. However, most of the research has been done with children beyond the ages of early childhood. This could be due to the common and erroneous belief that young children have not developed the capacity to work collaboratively toward a given aim. In this paper we show how small group…

Gomez, Florencia; Nussbaum, Miguel; Weitz, Juan F.; Lopez, Ximena; Mena, Javiera; Torres, Alex

2013-01-01

263

Desarrollo psíquico temprano y aprendizaje / Early psychological development and learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El aumento de las consultas relacionadas con dificultades de atención, hiperactividad y trastornos de comportamiento constatado en los nińos al inicio de la enseńanza primaria (escolaridad propiamente dicha) lleva a los autores a reflexionar sobre la influencia de los acelerados cambios en las socie [...] dades desarrolladas en el desarrollo psíquico y la organización de la personalidad. Se hace énfasis sobre los procesos de latencia (sublimación, control de la motricidad y del paso al acto) como posibilitadores de los aprendizajes escolares y su puesta en marcha en los nińos de hoy. Abstract in english The ultimate increased volume of outpatient first consultations related to attention impairment, hyperactivity and conduct disorders in children starting Lower School led the authors to ponder about the influence that high speed changes in developed societies have upon psychological development and [...] personality organization. Emphasis is made on latency processes (sublimation, motor control and acting out) as learning promoters in the school environment of here and now kids.

Fernando, González-Serrano; Xabier, Tapia; Manuel, Hernanz; Francisco, Vaccari.

2012-12-01

264

Early Prefrontal Brain Responses to the Hedonic Quality of Emotional Words – A Simultaneous EEG and MEG Study  

OpenAIRE

The hedonic meaning of words affects word recognition, as shown by behavioral, functional imaging, and event-related potential (ERP) studies. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics and cognitive functions behind are elusive, partly due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Here, we account for these difficulties by computing combined electro-magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) source localization techniques. Participants covertly read emotionally high-arousing positive and negative n...

Keuper, K.; Zwitserlood, P.; Rehbein, M. A. R.; Eden, A. S.; Laeger, I. B.; Jungho?fer, M.; Zwanzger, P. M.; Dobel, C.

2014-01-01

265

Early warnings, weak signals and learning from healthcare disasters.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the wake of healthcare disasters, such as the appalling failures of care uncovered in Mid Staffordshire, inquiries and investigations often point to a litany of early warnings and weak signals that were missed, misunderstood or discounted by the professionals and organisations charged with monitoring the safety and quality of care. Some of the most urgent challenges facing those responsible for improving and regulating patient safety are therefore how to identify, interpret, integrate and act on the early warnings and weak signals of emerging risks-before those risks contribute to a disastrous failure of care. These challenges are fundamentally organisational and cultural: they relate to what information is routinely noticed, communicated and attended to within and between healthcare organisations-and, most critically, what is assumed and ignored. Analysing these organisational and cultural challenges suggests three practical ways that healthcare organisations and their regulators can improve safety and address emerging risks. First, engage in practices that actively produce and amplify fleeting signs of ignorance. Second, work to continually define and update a set of specific fears of failure. And third, routinely uncover and publicly circulate knowledge on the sources of systemic risks to patient safety and the improvements required to address them. PMID:24599729

Macrae, Carl

2014-06-01

266

Hippocampal contribution to early and later stages of implicit motor sequence learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Implicit motor sequence learning refers to an important human ability to acquire new motor skills through the repeated performance of a motor sequence. This learning process is characterized by slow, incremental gains of motor performance. The present fMRI study was developed to better delineate the areas supporting these temporal dynamics of learning. By using the serial color matching paradigm, our study focused on the motor level of sequence learning and tracked the time course of learning-related neural changes. Imaging results showed a significant contribution of the left anterior hippocampus in an early sequence acquisition stage (first scanning session) as well as during a later stage with stabilized learning effects (second scanning session). Hippocampal activation significantly correlated with the behavioral learning process and was affected by a change of the motor sequence. These results suggest a strong involvement of the hippocampus in implicit motor sequence learning. On the other hand, a very extensive and bilateral neural network of parietal, temporal and frontal cortical areas (including SMA, pre-SMA) together with parts of the cerebellum and striatum were found to play a role during random visuo-motor task performance. PMID:20195849

Gheysen, Freja; Van Opstal, Filip; Roggeman, Chantal; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Fias, Wim

2010-05-01

267

"In Our Own Words": Creating Videos as Teaching and Learning Tools  

OpenAIRE

Online videos, particularly those on YouTube, have proliferated on the internet; watching them has become part of our everyday activity. While libraries have often harnessed the power of videos to create their own promotional and informational videos, few have created their own teaching and learning tools beyond screencasting videos. In the summer of 2010, the authors, two librarians at York University, decided to work on a video project which culminated in a series of instructional videos en...

Norda Majekodunmi; Kent Murnaghan

2012-01-01

268

Early comprehension of the Spanish plural.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how linguistic cues map to the environment is crucial for early language comprehension and may provide a way for bootstrapping and learning words. Research has suggested that learning how plural syntax maps to the perceptual environment may show a trajectory in which children first learn surrounding cues (verbs, modifiers) before a full mastery of the noun morpheme alone. The Spanish plural system of simple codas, dominated by one allomorph -s, and with redundant agreement markers, may facilitate early understanding of how plural linguistic cues map to novel referents. Two-year-old Mexican children correctly identified multiple novel object referents when multiple verbal cues in a phrase indicated plurality as well as in instances when the noun morphology in novel nouns was the only indicator of plurality. These results demonstrate Spanish-speaking children's ability to use plural noun inflectional morphology to infer novel word referents which may have implications for their word learning. PMID:24560441

Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Cantrell, Lisa M; Smith, Linda B; Alva Canto, Elda A

2014-11-01

269

EFFECT OF EARLY REARING AND HATCHERY ENRICHMENT ON ROUTE LEARNING ABILITY OF CLIMBING PERCH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Housing conditions have significant effects on the behaviour and physiology of captive animals. Enriching barren hatchery environments by providing structural complexity or companionship are generally considered beneficial as they can decrease the occurrence of abnormal behaviours and physiological responses. Effects of enrichment of rearing environments on behaviour are studied in juvenile climbing perch. Induced bred juveniles were reared under three different conditions i.e., in barren (normal, enriched and super enriched aquariums and tested their route learning capacity and memory retention ability in a maze. The results indicate that the spatial learning ability is enhanced in fish that had been reared in enriched environments. Among different rearing groups, juveniles reared in super enriched tanks show greater spatial learning ability than the other two rearing groups. The study reveals that experience during early larval life is critical in spatial learning ability of climbing perch.

K. K. SHEENAJA

2013-09-01

270

Creating the Conditions for Success with Early Learning Standards: Results from a National Study of State-Level Standards for Children's Learning Prior to Kindergarten  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historically the field of early care and education has focused on one type of standards?program standards to define requirements for important features of the services children receive. Recently another type of standards has come to the forefront of early care and education policy and practice?early learning standards that define expectations for children's learning and development. This article reports the results of a national study undertaken to collect data on early learning standards across the country. Using the position statement on early learning standards recently adopted by the National Association for the Education of Young Children and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education as a framework for analyzing data from the study, this article presents data on which states have early learning standards, how they were developed, and how they are being used. The article suggests that many of the "conditions for success" described in the position statement are being addressed but also outlines several recommendations for improvements in how early learning standards are developed and implemented.

Catherine Scott-Little

2003-01-01

271

Toddlers' ability to map the meaning of new words in multi-talker environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether in a noisy daycare center, home, or classroom, many of the environments children are exposed to are, undoubtedly, not acoustically ideal for speech processing. Yet, somehow, these toddlers are still able to acquire vocabularies consisting of hundreds of words. The current study explores the effect of background speech noise on children's early word learning (specifically, their ability to map a label onto an object). Three groups of children aged 32-36 months were taught two new words either in quiet, or in the presence of multi-talker babble at a +5 or 0?dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). They were then tested on their learning of these new word-to-object mappings. Children showed similar accuracy in all three conditions, suggesting that even at a 0?dB SNR, children were successfully able to learn new words. PMID:25373980

Dombroski, Justine; Newman, Rochelle S

2014-11-01

272

A neural network for learning the meaning of objects and words from a featural representation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work investigates how complex semantics can be extracted from the statistics of input features, using an attractor neural network. The study is focused on how feature dominance and feature distinctiveness can be naturally coded using Hebbian training, and how similarity among objects can be managed. The model includes a lexical network (which represents word-forms) and a semantic network composed of several areas: each area is topologically organized (similarity) and codes for a different feature. Synapses in the model are created using Hebb rules with different values for pre-synaptic and post-synaptic thresholds, producing patterns of asymmetrical synapses. This work uses a simple taxonomy of schematic objects (i.e., a vector of features), with shared features (to realize categories) and distinctive features (to have individual members) with different frequency of occurrence. The trained network can solve simple object recognition tasks and object naming tasks by maintaining a distinction between categories and their members, and providing a different role for dominant features vs. marginal features. Marginal features are not evoked in memory when thinking of objects, but they facilitate the reconstruction of objects when provided as input. Finally, the topological organization of features allows the recognition of objects with some modified features. PMID:25569782

Ursino, Mauro; Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa

2015-03-01

273

Thematic Journeys. Words that I Own  

Science.gov (United States)

Children may feel a sense of ownership when they learn a new vocabulary word that genuinely excites them--a dynamic word, a poetic word, a word with a delicious sound or interesting meaning. Right away, they like to try out these words, experiment with them, incorporate them into the speaking and writing, and impress others with their mastery.…

Zingher, Gary

2005-01-01

274

A Review of School Readiness Practices in the States: Early Learning Guidelines and Assessments. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 1, Issue 3  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the importance of the early childhood years has compelled states to support children's school readiness. This brief provides an overview of states' Early Learning Guidelines (ELGs) and school readiness assessments and outlines the following considerations: (1) School Readiness is more than Academics; (2) Align standards in appropriate…

Daily, Sarah; Burkhauser, Mary; Halle, Tamara

2010-01-01

275

The effects of using flashcards with reading racetrack to teach letter sounds, sight words, and math facts to elementary students with learning disabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of reading racetrack and flashcards when teaching phonics, sight words, and addition facts. The participants for the sight word and phonics portion of this study were two seven-year-old boys in the second grade. Both participants were diagnosed with a learning disability. The third participant was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by his pediatrician and with a learning disability and traumatic brain injury by his school’s multi-disciplinary team.. The dependent measures were corrects and errors when reading from a first grade level sight word list. Math facts were selected based on a 100 add fact test for the third participant. The study demonstrated that racetracks paired with the flashcard intervention improved the students’ number of corrects for each subject-matter area (phonics, sight words, and math facts. However, the results show that some students had more success with it than others. These outcomes clearly warrant further research.

Rachel ERBEY

2011-07-01

276

Learning to Pronounce First Words in Three Languages: An Investigation of Caregiver and Infant Behavior Using a Computational Model of an Infant  

OpenAIRE

Words are made up of speech sounds. Almost all accounts of child speech development assume that children learn the pronunciation of first language (L1) speech sounds by imitation, most claiming that the child performs some kind of auditory matching to the elements of ambient speech. However, there is evidence to support an alternative account and we investigate the non-imitative child behavior and well-attested caregiver behavior that this account posits using Elija, a computational model of ...

Howard, Ian S.; Messum, Piers

2014-01-01

277

Exploring the relationship between new word learning and short-term memory for serial order recall, item recall, and item recognition  

OpenAIRE

We reexplored the relationship between new word learning and verbal short-term memory (STM) capacities, by distinguishing STM for serial order information, item recall, and item recognition. STM capacities for order information were estimated via a serial order reconstruction task. A rhyme probe recognition task assessed STM for item recognition. Item recall capacities were derived from the proportion of item errors in an immediate serial recall task. In Experiment 1, strong correlations were...

Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Elsen, B.; Linden, Martial

2006-01-01

278

Developing Multi-Agency Partnerships for Early Learning: Seven Keys to Success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ongoing emphasis on early years education in Ontario provided a rich context for this research project, commissioned by The Learning Partnership (TLP, to evaluate a new provincial project called FACES (Family and Community Engagement Strategy. This initiative seeks to extend and enhance community-based, multi-agency partnerships that support young children and their families in successful transitions to school. Interview data from individuals and focus groups suggest re-thinking early childhood education practices to include innovative multi-agency, community-based partnerships. "Seven Keys to Success" in building multi-agency partnerships emerged from the data providing direction for educators and policy makers.

Susan E. Elliott-Johns

2013-12-01

279

Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers. PMID:23772822

Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

2014-02-01

280

?7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: Role in Early Odor Learning Preference in Mice  

OpenAIRE

Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of ?7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7) in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased ?7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP), an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented s...

Hellier, Jennifer L.; Arevalo, Nicole L.; Smith, Lynelle; Xiong, Ka-na; Restrepo, Diego

2012-01-01

281

Learning Motivation Mediates Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Mathematics Achievement in Early Childhood  

OpenAIRE

There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children’s entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences on early achievement is by facilitating the processes by which children select, evoke, and attend to learning experiences that are consistent with...

Tucker-drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2011-01-01

282

Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression  

OpenAIRE

Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN)13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occur...

StephanieMoriceau; CharlisRaineki; ReginaMSullivan

2009-01-01

283

Scientific education early in the curriculum using a constructivist approach on learning  

OpenAIRE

Physicians need to stay up-to-date with new developments in their field of expertise. This expectation has been made explicit by competency-based educational outcomes in the domain of scholar in the Dutch blueprint. There is a great diversity in teaching methods that aim to achieve a better understanding of scientific knowledge. Applying a constructivist approach to learning in acquiring research competencies we wonder how a research-intensive course is evaluated early in the curriculum and w...

Vereijken, M. W. C.; Kruidering-hall, M.; Jong, P. G. M.; Beaufort, A. J.; Dekker, F. W.

2013-01-01

284

Word processing at 19 months and its relation to language performance at 30 months : a retrospective analysis of data from German learning children  

OpenAIRE

Recent research has shown that the early lexical representations children establish in their second year of life already seem to be phonologically detailed enough to allow differentiation from very similar forms. In contrast to these findings children with specific language impairment show problems in discriminating phonologically similar word forms up to school age. In our study we investigated the question whether there would be differences in the processing of phonological details in no...

Ho?hle, Barbara; Vijver, Ruben; Weissenborn, Ju?rgen

2006-01-01

285

Learning to pronounce first words in three languages: an investigation of caregiver and infant behavior using a computational model of an infant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Words are made up of speech sounds. Almost all accounts of child speech development assume that children learn the pronunciation of first language (L1) speech sounds by imitation, most claiming that the child performs some kind of auditory matching to the elements of ambient speech. However, there is evidence to support an alternative account and we investigate the non-imitative child behavior and well-attested caregiver behavior that this account posits using Elija, a computational model of an infant. Through unsupervised active learning, Elija began by discovering motor patterns, which produced sounds. In separate interaction experiments, native speakers of English, French and German then played the role of his caregiver. In their first interactions with Elija, they were allowed to respond to his sounds if they felt this was natural. We analyzed the interactions through phonemic transcriptions of the caregivers' utterances and found that they interpreted his output within the framework of their native languages. Their form of response was almost always a reformulation of Elija's utterance into well-formed sounds of L1. Elija retained those motor patterns to which a caregiver responded and formed associations between his motor pattern and the response it provoked. Thus in a second phase of interaction, he was able to parse input utterances in terms of the caregiver responses he had heard previously, and respond using his associated motor patterns. This capacity enabled the caregivers to teach Elija to pronounce some simple words in their native languages, by his serial imitation of the words' component speech sounds. Overall, our results demonstrate that the natural responses and behaviors of human subjects to infant-like vocalizations can take a computational model from a biologically plausible initial state through to word pronunciation. This provides support for an alternative to current auditory matching hypotheses for how children learn to pronounce. PMID:25333740

Howard, Ian S; Messum, Piers

2014-01-01

286

Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills  

OpenAIRE

An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and...

LynneG.Duncan; PascaleColé

2014-01-01

287

Editorial: E-learning and Knowledge Management in the Early Years: Where Are We and Where Should We Go  

OpenAIRE

E-learning and knowledge management are increasingly accepted as established practices in the field of early childhood education. Living in the age of Web 2.0, young children can learn through experience, application, and conversation in community, physically or virtually, with peers, parents, teachers, and other adults, beyond the classroom and across the media. These concepts are of growing interest in communities of practice and knowledge networks. Although most early childhood educators r...

Hui Li; Jennifer Masters

2009-01-01

288

The Right Word Making Sense of the Words that Confuse  

CERN Document Server

'Affect' or 'effect'? 'Right', 'write' or 'rite'? English can certainly be a confusing language, whether you're a native speaker or learning it as a second language. 'The Right Word' is the essential reference to help people master its subtleties and avoid making mistakes. Divided into three sections, it first examines homophones - those tricky words that sound the same but are spelled differently - then looks at words that often confuse before providing a list of commonly misspelled words.

Morrison, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

289

How my now six-year-old daughter learned how to write her name, recognize numbers, read some words and draw: A narrative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I want to share how my now six-year-old daughter learned how to write her name, recognize numbers, read some words and draw. By doing so I hope to offer an alternative to a schooling-centered curriculum that would have us believe that the only way to learn these things is to have an expert train young people to do these things. Methodologically, this paper is a narrative. I also consider this paper to be a political piece of writing. For me writing politically in this paper means, in part, engaging the reader in a dialogue about, on the one hand, trusting and respecting young people’s right to learn what they want, when they want, how they want and, on the other hand, imposing an externally directed curriculum on them. I am arguing in favour of the former.

Dr. Carlo Ricci

2010-11-01

290

Open Experimentation on Phenomena of Chemical Reactions via the Learning Company Approach in Early Secondary Chemistry Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is a case study on the implementation of open and inquiry-type experimentation in early German secondary chemistry education. The teaching strategy discussed follows the learning company approach. Originally adopted from vocational education, the learning company method is used to redirect lab-oriented classroom practice towards a more…

Beck, Katharina; Witteck, Torsten; Eilks, Ingo

2010-01-01

291

Word for Word  

Science.gov (United States)

Not many public radio programs can claim to have a host who has worked on a pirate radio ship off the English coast, but Word for Word is just that type of program. Host Melinda Penkava oversees the work of this remarkable program, which offers up an interesting and timely speech on a pressing topic in the news. These speeches come from such venues as the National Press Club, the Chautauqua Institution, and the Aspen Institute. Visitors to the Word for Word site can listen to these intelligent programs and also sign up to receive their podcasts as well. Recent programs have included a speech by the late David Halberstam, Representative Charles Rangel, and National Urban League President Mark Morial.

292

Totally Weird and Wonderful Words  

CERN Document Server

Do you know what a snollygoster is? Would you eat something called a muktuk? Do you know anyone who engages in onolatry? Impress your friends and pepper your dinner party conversations with such nuggets as gobemouche, mumpsimus, and cachinnate. You can learn about all of these bizarre and beautiful words and many more in Totally Weird and Wonderful Words. Both witty and entertaining, this new paperback brings together two best-selling compendiums to all words unique and strange, Weird and Wonderful Words and More Weird and Wonderful Words. Offering a potpourri of colorful and fascinating words

McKean, Erin

2006-01-01

293

Use of the mutual exclusivity assumption by young word learners  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual exclusivity in such indirect word learning has been questioned because: (1) it comes mostly from 2 and 3-year-olds and (2) the findings might be accounted for, not by children avoiding second labels, but by the novel object which creates a lexical gap children are motivated to fill. Three studies addressed these concerns by having only a familiar object visible. Fifteen to seventeen and 18-20-month-olds were selected to straddle the vocabulary spurt. In Study 1, babies saw a familiar object and an opaque bucket as a location to search. Study 2 handed babies the familiar object to play with. Study 3 eliminated an obvious location to search. On the whole, babies at both ages resisted second labels for objects and, with some qualifications, tended to search for a better referent for the novel label. Thus mutual exclusivity is in place before the onset of the naming explosion. The findings demonstrate that lexical constraints enable babies to learn words even under non-optimal conditions-when speakers are not clear and referents are not visible. The results are discussed in relation to an alternative social-pragmatic account. © 2003 Elsevier (USA). All rights reserved.

Markman, Ellen M.; Wasow, Judith L.

2003-01-01

294

The Importance of Teaching and Learning Nature of Science in the Early Childhood Years  

Science.gov (United States)

Though research has shown that students do not have adequate understandings of nature of science (NOS) by the time they exit high school, there is also evidence that they have not received NOS instruction that would enable them to develop such understandings. How early is "too early" to teach and learn NOS? Are students, particularly young students, not capable of learning NOS due to developmental unreadiness? Or would young children be capable of learning about NOS through appropriate instruction? Young children (Kindergarten through third grade) were interviewed and taught about NOS in a variety of contexts (informal, suburban, and urban) using similar teaching strategies that have been found effective at teaching about NOS with older students. These teaching strategies included explicit decontextualized and contextualized NOS instruction, through the use of children's literature, debriefings of science lessons, embedded written NOS assessments, and guided inquiries. In each context the researchers interviewed students prior to and after instruction, videotaped science instruction and maintained researcher logs and field notes, collected lesson plans, and copies of student work. The researchers found that in each setting young children did improve their understandings of NOS. Across contexts there were similar understandings of NOS aspects prior to instruction, as well as after instruction. There were also several differences evident across contexts, and across grade levels. However, it is clear that students as young as kindergarten are developmentally capable of conceptualizing NOS when it is taught to them. The authors make recommendations for teaching NOS to young children, and for future studies that explore learning progressions of NOS aspects as students proceed through school.

Akerson, Valarie L.; Buck, Gayle A.; Donnelly, Lisa A.; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri; Weiland, Ingrid S.

2011-10-01

295

Intervention Research for Helping Elementary School Students with Math Learning Difficulties Understand and Solve Word Problems: 1996-2010  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors completed a narrative review of studies of mathematics interventions from 1996 to 2010 for helping elementary school students with difficulties in mathematics solve word problems. Key instructional

Hord, Casey; Xin, Yan Ping

2013-01-01

296

Neural stages of spoken, written, and signed word processing in beginning second language learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to examine how sensory modality, language type, and language proficiency interact during two fundamental stages of word processing: (1 an early word encoding stage, and (2 a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2 instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language.

MatthewKLeonard

2013-07-01

297

Word Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the last topic in the series of lessons on math provided by DeafTEC. Gary Blatto-Vallee, a math and science instructor at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, guides viewers through a variety of mathematical exercises in this DeafTEC video series. All lessons are fully captioned, signed in ASL, and voiced. In this section, three videos are included that show students how to solve word problems of systems of two equations. This section builds on everything students have learned in the previous videos about working with polynomials and exponents as well as methods for solving systems of two equations. See the main Math Video Resources page for an introduction to this video series.

Blatto-Vallee, Gary

298

Second language learning difficulties in Chinese children with dyslexia: what are the reading-related cognitive skills that contribute to English and Chinese word reading?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children-28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls-participated and were administered measures of word reading, rapid naming, visual-orthographic skills, and phonological and morphological awareness in both L1 and L2. Children with dyslexia showed weaker performance than CA controls in both languages and had more difficulties in phonological awareness in English but not in Chinese. In addition, reading-related cognitive skills in Chinese contributed significantly to the ability to read English words, suggesting cross-linguistic transfer from L1 to L2. Results found evidence for different phonological units of awareness related to the characteristics of the different languages being learned, supporting the psycholinguistic grain size and linguistic coding differences hypotheses. PMID:19897734

Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

2010-01-01

299

WordPress Bible  

CERN Document Server

Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

Brazell, Aaron

2011-01-01

300

Beginning WordPress 3  

CERN Document Server

One of the most popular open source blogging and content management systems, WordPress lets you create a website to promote yourself or your business quickly and easilyi' "and better yet, it's free. WordPress is a flexible, user-friendly system, and it can be extended with a variety of themes and plugins. Beginning WordPress 3 is a complete guide for the beginning developer who wants to start using WordPress. You'll learn how to publish and manage online content, add media, create widgets and plugins, and much more. What you'll learn * How to get started with Wordpress, create new content

Leary, Stephanie

2009-01-01

301

Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald

2002-01-01

302

Fast mapping of novel word forms traced neurophysiologically  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human capacity to quickly learn new words, critical for our ability to communicate using language, is well-known from behavioural studies and observations, but its neural underpinnings remain unclear. In this study, we have used event-related potentials to record brain activity to novel spoken word forms as they are being learnt by the human nervous system through passive auditory exposure. We found that the brain response dynamics change dramatically within the short (20 min exposure session: as the subjects become familiarised with the novel word forms, the early (~100 ms fronto-central activity they elicit increases in magnitude and becomes similar to that of known real words. At the same time, acoustically similar real words used as control stimuli show a relatively stable response throughout the recording session; these differences between the stimulus groups are confirmed using both factorial and linear regression analyses. Furthermore, acoustically matched novel non-speech stimuli do not demonstrate similar response increase, suggesting neural specificity of this rapid learning phenomenon to linguistic stimuli. Left-lateralised perisylvian cortical networks appear to be underlying such fast mapping of novel word forms unto the brain’s mental lexicon.

YuryShtyrov

2011-11-01

303

Communication-and-resolution programs: the challenges and lessons learned from six early adopters.  

Science.gov (United States)

In communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs), health systems and liability insurers encourage the disclosure of unanticipated care outcomes to affected patients and proactively seek resolutions, including offering an apology, an explanation, and, where appropriate, reimbursement or compensation. Anecdotal reports from the University of Michigan Health System and other early adopters of CRPs suggest that these programs can substantially reduce liability costs and improve patient safety. But little is known about how these early programs achieved success. We studied six CRPs to identify the major challenges in and lessons learned from implementing these initiatives. The CRP participants we interviewed identified several factors that contributed to their programs' success, including the presence of a strong institutional champion, investing in building and marketing the program to skeptical clinicians, and making it clear that the results of such transformative change will take time. Many of the early CRP adopters we interviewed expressed support for broader experimentation with these programs even in settings that differ from their own, such as systems that do not own and control their liability insurer, and in states without strong tort reforms. PMID:24395931

Mello, Michelle M; Boothman, Richard C; McDonald, Timothy; Driver, Jeffrey; Lembitz, Alan; Bouwmeester, Darren; Dunlap, Benjamin; Gallagher, Thomas

2014-01-01

304

Report on Lessons Learned from the NP 2010 Early Site Permit Program FINAL REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a summary of lessons learned from the demonstration of the licensing process for three Early Site Permit (ESP) applications supported as part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Power 2010 (NP 2010) program. The ESP process was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to enable completion of the site evaluation component of nuclear power plant licensing under 10 CFR Part 52 before a utility makes a decision to build a plant. Early Site Permits are valid for 10 to 20 years and can be renewed for an additional 10 to 20 years. NRC review of an ESP application addresses site safety issues, environmental protection issues, and plans for coping with emergencies. Successful completion of the ESP process will establish that a site is suitable for possible future construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. Most importantly, an ESP resolves significant site-related safety and environmental issues early in the decision process and helps achieve acceptance by the public. DOE competitively selected Dominion Nuclear Energy North Anna, LLC (Dominion); System Energy Resources, Inc. (an Entergy subsidiary); and Exelon Generation Company, LLC (Exelon) in 2002 to demonstrate the ESP process and provided cost-shared support through the NP 2010 program. Dominion pursued an ESP for the North Anna site in Virginia; System Energy Resources, Inc. pursued an ESP for the Grand Gulf site in Mississippi; and Exelon pursued an ESP for the Clinton site in Illinois. After successfully demonstrating the process, the NRC issued an ESP for Clinton on March 17, 2007; Grand Gulf on April 5, 2007; and North Anna on November 27, 2007. As with all successful projects, there are lessons to be learned from the NP 2010 early site permitting demonstration that can help improve future implementation guidance documents and regulatory review standards. In general, these lessons pertain to the effectiveness of the regulatory process, experience related to guidance for developing and reviewing ESP applications, issues involving ESP plant parameters, and suggestions for future ESP applicants. The development, submittal, and issuance of these first ESPs under DOE’s NP 2010 program started the momentum to exercise NRC’s new 10 CFR Part 52 licensing process. Several key questions that define critical issues regarding the effectiveness of regulations pertaining to ESPs have been identified and summarized in this report. However, the final resolution of whether the ESP component of the Part 52 process significantly contributes to the predictability in nuclear power plant licensing requires more experience and time, such as the completion of the ongoing combined Construction and Operating License (COL) process for the North Anna and Grand Gulf sites. The three ESP project participants prepared and submitted to DOE lessons learned reports from their experience in developing, submitting, and receiving an ESP. This document summarizes these reports, which are appended hereto. The Nuclear Energy Institute (http://www.nei.org/) and NRC (http://www.nrc.gov/) have also prepared reports regarding their perspectives on lessons learned during the ESP process. Their documents can be accessed on their respective web sites. Following is a summary of the lessons learned from the NP 2010 ESP projects. Effectiveness of the ESP Process: In general, the ESP process is expected (subject to demonstration of the ESP finality provisions in the North Anna and Grand Gulf ESPs) to provide high value for applicants as a site banking and risk mitigation strategy. However, several aspects of the initial process, such as NRC hearings and determining an acceptable approach to the NRC’s Emergency Planning requirements, proved challenging for the applicants. Project Execution: Initial regulatory and industry guidance for planning and executing an ESP application program proved to be insufficient to address NRC’s document review expectations. However, continuous communication between NRC and the applicants helped establish an acceptable framework

none,

2008-03-26

305

Editorial: E-learning and Knowledge Management in the Early Years: Where Are We and Where Should We Go  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-learning and knowledge management are increasingly accepted as established practices in the field of early childhood education. Living in the age of Web 2.0, young children can learn through experience, application, and conversation in community, physically or virtually, with peers, parents, teachers, and other adults, beyond the classroom and across the media. These concepts are of growing interest in communities of practice and knowledge networks. Although most early childhood educators recognize and practice some kinds of e-learning, most have yet to master the basic theory and practice of knowledge management. What does e-learning mean for young children? How do we apply knowledge management in early childhood setting? These questions are of great importance and a special collection such as this issue will be beneficial to take stock of the ongoing practices as well as to explore future directions in the field. This issue will combine knowledge management and e-learning with early childhood education to provide a valuable arena for the discussion and dissemination of this topic and related studies.

Hui Li

2009-12-01

306

The Differential Effects of Two Vocabulary Instruction Methods on EFL Word Learning: A Study into Task Effectiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effect of two vocabulary instruction treatments on word retention by 56 EFL learners. In particular, it focuses on the differential effects of a message-oriented treatment (reading text and answering comprehension questions) and a vocabulary-oriented treatment (reading text and performing two vocabulary tasks) on learners'…

Peters, Elke

2012-01-01

307

Early Childhood Educators Teaching and Learning in Professional Learning Communities: A New Approach to Professional Development for Preschool Teachers in a Southern California School District  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education teachers have been challenged with the demands for accountability in literacy and English language development, as well as kindergarten readiness skills of preschool children. Researchers have studied professional learning communities (PLCs) as a framework for professional development and student achievement. However, few…

Fairfield, Robin

2011-01-01

308

Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: Evidence from ERP.  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n=25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n=30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning. PMID:25463819

Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

2014-12-01

309

Implicit and Explicit Awareness of a Phonics Rule in the Word Recognition of Students with and without Learning Disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Students aged 10-12, with and without learning disabilities, acquired knowledge implicitly about pseudoword pronunciation governed by one of two phonics rules. They were then asked to verbalize explicitly about the acquired knowledge. Students did not differ significantly in implicit knowledge capabilities, but student with and without learning

McNamara, John K.; Wagner, Jim

2001-01-01

310

Neurophysiological correlates of word recognition in dyslexia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neurobiological basis of learning word spellings and recognition of recently learned words was assessed in a learning experiment in 9 dyslexics and 9 controls male adolescents. In a recognition paradigm previously learned pseudowords and graphic symbols were presented 50 times each interspersed pseudo-randomly between 3 unlearned items which were repeated 50 times and 150 filler pseudowords. The electrophysiological correlate of recognition of learned pseudowords and graphic symbols was a positivity around 600 ms. For pseudowords the amplitude of this ERP component was significantly attenuated in the dyslexic group, no differences between the groups were found for recognition of graphic material. These data suggest that dyslexic children are able to learn the spelling of simple words, however, the neurophysiological correlate of recognition of these learned words is significantly attenuated. This result strengthens the view that dyslexic children are not generally impaired in recognition memory but specific for linguistic material like words. PMID:15206010

Schulte-Körne, G; Deimel, W; Bartling, J; Remschmidt, H

2004-07-01

311

Student Learning of Early Embryonic Development via the Utilization of Research Resources from the Nematode "Caenorhabditis elegans"  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to gain insights into undergraduate students' understanding of early embryonic development, specifically, how well they comprehend the concepts of volume constancy, cell lineages, body plan axes, and temporal and spatial dimensionality in development. To study student learning, a curriculum was developed incorporating…

Lu, Fong-Mei; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Squirrell, Jayne M.; White, John G.; Stewart, James

2008-01-01

312

Early Disparities in Mathematics Gains among Poor and Non-Poor Children: Examining the Role of Behavioral Engagement in Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between poverty status, mathematics achievement gains, and behavioral engagement in learning over kindergarten. Data included information on 11,680 poor, low-income, and non-poor kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K). Results…

Robinson, Keith

2013-01-01

313

Indentifying Latent Classes and Testing Their Determinants in Early Adolescents' Use of Computers and Internet for Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to identify latent classes resting on early adolescents' change trajectory patterns in using computers and the Internet for learning and to test the effects of gender, self-control, self-esteem, and game use in South Korea. Latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) was used to identify subpopulations in the Korea…

Heo, Gyun

2013-01-01

314

Early Sound Patterns in the Speech of Two Brazilian Portuguese Speakers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares sound patterns in the speech of two Brazilian-Portuguese speaking children with early production patterns in English-learning children as well as English and Brazilian-Portuguese characteristics. Results emphasize the primacy of production system effects in early acquisition, although even the earliest word forms show evidence of…

Teixeira, Elizabeth Reis; Davis, Barbara L.

2002-01-01

315

WordPress for dummies  

CERN Document Server

The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

2014-01-01

316

‘A Gigantic Pedagogical Leap’: The Process of Shifts during Three Learning Study Projects in Swedish Early Childhood Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Swedish early childhood education (ECE offers a curriculum-based preschool for children aged one to five, and a preschool class for children aged six years. Activities in these programs have traditionally been based on play and having fun, avoiding structured activities with formal learning objectives. Due to indications that Swedish ECE has failed to use its resources to stimulate children’s learning, the revised ECE curriculum now contains discernible learning objectives. This study analyses the process by which preschool teachers shifted their emphasis when participating in an learning study based on three projects conducted in Swedish ECE practice. In total, 14 preschool teachers, 95 children (2–6-year-olds, and five researchers participated. The objects of learning were: (1 3D geometrical forms (2–3-year-olds, (2 organic decomposition (4–5-year-olds, and (3 the concept ‘twice as” (6-year-olds. The empirical material comprises 278 pre-, post-, and delayed post-tests, twelve planning meetings, and nine teaching activities. The results indicate that, during the projects, the initial focus on mere play expanded to include a focus on the object of learning. Three modes of change were discerned in how (1 the activities were framed, (2 the learning was perceived, and (3 the learning activities were conducted.

Agneta Ljung-Djärf

2014-01-01

317

Children's perception of foreign-accented words.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acoustic-phonetic realizations of words can vary dramatically depending on a variety of within- and across-talker characteristics such as regional dialect, native language, age, and gender. Robust word learning requires that children are able to recognize words amidst this substantial variability. In the current study, perception of foreign-accented words was assessed in four- to seven-year-old children to test how one form of variability influences word recognition in children. Results demonstrated that children had less accurate word recognition than adults for both native- and foreign-accented words. Both adults and children were less accurate at identifying foreign-accented words compared to native-accented words with children and adults showing similar decrements. For children, age and lexicon size contributed to accurate word recognition. PMID:24423250

Bent, Tessa

2014-11-01

318

Early Contingency Learning and Child and Teacher Concomitant Social–Emotional Behavior  

OpenAIRE

The value-added benefits of young children’s response-contingent learning were examined in a study of three children (2 females, 1 male) with multiple disabilities and profound developmental delays. Contingency learning games were used to increase child operant responding, and both the children’s and their teachers’ concomitant social–emotional behavior associated with operant responding were mapped onto child learning. Results showed that the learning games promoted child learning an...

Melinda Raab; Dunst, Carl J.; Wilson, Linda L.; Cindy Parkey

2009-01-01

319

Head First WordPress  

CERN Document Server

Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

Siarto, Jeff

2010-01-01

320

Word Count  

Science.gov (United States)

Words are used as invectives, toasts, and tirades, among other forms of human expression. As a type of artistic experiment, Jonathan Harris of Flaming Toast Productions decided to create this engaging website that documents the 86,000 most frequently used English words, ranked in order of commonality. Nay-sayers beware: This is no simple listing of the words, contained within a mundane series of connected web pages. As visitors quickly realize, this articulated end-to-end listing of these 86,000 words features scaled versions of each word, giving a "visual barometer of relevance." As the site notes, "The goal is for the user to feel embedded in the language, sifting through words like an archaeologist through sand, awaiting the unexpected find." Interestingly enough, the word "God" is one word from "began" (which is at number 375), and six words from "war." Budding urbanologists will find it interesting that the word "Chicago" is at number 6,692 and that "Shanghai" makes into the list at 18,242.

321

Creating Rainbows from Words and Transforming Understandings: Enhancing Student Learning through Reflective Writing in an Aboriginal Music Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Reflective journal writing is acknowledged as a powerful method for promoting student learning in higher education contexts. Numerous scholars highlight the benefits of reflective writing and journaling for students and teachers in a wide range of teaching areas. There is however, little discussion of how reflective writing is used in teaching and…

Barney, Katelyn; Mackinlay, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

322

Lessons learned from early implementation of the maintenance rule at nine nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the lessons learned from the nine pilot site visits that were performed to review early implementation of the maintenance rule using the draft NRC Maintenance Inspection Procedure. Licensees followed NUMARC 93-01, ''Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' In general, the licensees were thorough in determining which structures, systems, and components (SSCS) were within the scope of the maintenance rule at each site. The use of an expert panel was an appropriate and practical method of determining which SSCs are risk significant. When setting goals, all licensees considered safety but many licensees did not consider operating experience throughout the industry. Although required to do so, licensees were not monitoring at the system or train level the performance or condition for some systems used in standby service but not significant to risk. Most licensees had not established adequate monitoring of structures under the rule. Licensees established reasonable plans for doing periodic evaluations, balancing unavailability and reliability, and assessing the effect of taking equipment out of service for maintenance. However, these plans were not evaluated because they had not been fully implemented at the time of the site visits

323

Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance at Rocky Flats: Early Experiences and Lessons Learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Rocky Flats Site was established in 1951 as part of the United States' nationwide nuclear weapons complex to manufacture nuclear weapons components. In 1992 weapons production halted, and the Rocky Flats mission changed to include environmental investigations, cleanup, and site closure. In October 2005, DOE and its contractor completed an accelerated 10-year, $7 billion cleanup of chemical and radiological contamination left from nearly 50 years of production. The cleanup required the decommissioning, decontamination, demolition, and removal of more than 800 structures; removal of more than 500,000 cubic meters of low-level radioactive waste; and remediation of more than 360 potentially contaminated environmental sites. The final remedy for the site was selected in September 2006 and included institutional controls, physical controls, and continued monitoring for the former industrial portion of the site. The remainder of the site, which served as a buffer zone surrounding the former industrial area, was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in July 2007 for a national wildlife refuge. DOE's Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long-term surveillance and maintenance of Rocky Flats, which includes remedy implementation activities and general site maintenance. Several factors have complicated the transition from closure to post-closure at Rocky Flats. The early experiences associated with the two years siperiences associated with the two years since the physical cleanup and closure work were completed have led to several valuable lessons learned. (authors)

324

Word Spy  

Science.gov (United States)

If you're the sort of person who decries the use of abbreviations like B2B as being "so five minutes ago," then you might enjoy keeping up with the very latest parlance with Word Spy. Created by Paul McFedries, this site is intended to focus attention on "recently coined words, existing words that have enjoyed a recent renaissance, and older words that are now being used in new ways." Each weekday, a new word or phrase is featured along with its definition and a citation, usually from a print media source, that shows the word or phrase in context. Recent words include "yettie," a derivative of "yuppie" that denotes a "young, entrepreneurial, tech-based twenty-something," and "retail leakage," which refers to urban residents leaving their own neighborhoods to shop in suburban stores. The site also offers a mailing list for users who want to receive Word Spy via email, a searchable index of previously featured terms, and a specialized lexicon (Tech Word Spy) that contains computer-related and technical terms exclusively.

325

WordEdge® A Career Mobility Guide to High Speed Dictionary-Based Electronic Learning and Testing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As Thomas Kuhn taught us, misery loves innovation even more than company. Small wonder our recession worriers — and who isn’t one these days, directly or indirectly? — are desperately looking for new and practical ways to increase their job mobility. Statistically considered, since most unskilled jobs are already filled, jobseekers from shrinking fields of employment are being advised to broaden their search to include entry level jobs in new high tech fields that are either stable or expanding, e.g., health care.Let’s grant that each high tech field has its own hands-on skills. But it’s also true that each field, e.g., plumbing, has its own high tech vocabulary which each candidate for employment is expected to know or learn, including correct pronunciation, very much like an aspiring restaurant server learning the complete menu by heart. Hence the desirability of acquiring preliminary mastery of an employment field’s high tech vocabulary well in ADVANCE of the first interview, not in a panicky last minute cram session. Until recently, the only way we could acquire a preliminary mastery of, say, health care terms was to take a course (inconvenient and expensive or to study a specific-field booklet (usually limited inscope. Today, however, our current partnership between print dictionaries and their electronic versions gives any job candidate quick access to an amazingly efficient learning tool for masteringa wide range of high tech vocabularies in current use. Here’s the why and how of our dictionary-based learning and testing route.

Robert Oliphant

2009-01-01

326

Let’s Replace Words with Pictures: The Role of Pictures and Spatial Intelligence in Learning English Idioms  

OpenAIRE

The present study attempted to explore the effects of spatial intelligence—one of Gardner’s (1993) eight intelligences—on learning idiomatic expressions through pictures. To this end, 76 Iranian learners of English were assigned to 2 groups: pictorial and non-pictorial. Both groups were comprised of learners with low, moderate, and high levels of spatial intelligence profile. Put differently, there were three subgroups in each group, totaling 6 subgroups. Groups proved to be...

Mehdi Solhi Andarab; Afsar Rouhi

2014-01-01

327

Schools as Professional Learning Communities for Early-Career Teachers: How Do Early-Career Teachers Rate Them?  

Science.gov (United States)

For teachers, the early years in the profession are critical for developing the knowledge and skills of an expert teacher. The "Teachers of Promise" study examines the experiences of 57 registered teachers who began their employment in New Zealand primary and secondary schools in 2003. The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which…

Lovett, Susan; Cameron, Marie

2011-01-01

328

Age effects on acquisition of word stress in Spanish-English bilinguals  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on studies of syntactic and semantic learning, it has been proposed that certain aspects of second language learning may be more adversely affected by delays in language learning than others. Here, this proposal is extended to the phonological domain in which the acquisition of English word stress patterns by early (AOA 14 years) Spanish-English bilinguals is investigated. The knowledge of English word stress was investigated by three behavioral tasks. In a production task, participants produced two syllable nonwords in both noun and verb sentence frames. In a perception task, participants indicated a preference for first or last syllable stress on the nonwords. Real words that were phonologically similar to the test items were also collected from each participant. Regression analyses and ANOVAs were conducted to determine the effect of syllable structure, lexical class, and stress pattern of phonologically similar words on the data from the production and perception tasks. Early bilinguals patterned similarly to the native English participants. Late bilinguals showed little evidence of learning prosodically based stress patterns but did show evidence of application of distributional patterns based on lexical class and analogy in stress assignment. [Research supported by NIH.

Guion, Susan G.; Clark, J. J.; Harada, Tetsuo

2003-10-01

329

Electronic Learning Systems in Hong Kong Business Organizations: A Study of Early and Late Adopters  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the diffusion of innovation theory (E. M. Rogers, 1983, 1995), the authors examined the antecedents of the adoption of electronic learning (e-learning) systems by using a time-based assessment model (R. C. Beatty, J. P. Shim, & M. C. Jones, 2001), which classified adopters into categories upon point in time when adopting e-learning

Chan, Simon C. H.; Ngai, Eric W. T.

2012-01-01

330

Learning Communities for Developmental Education Students: Early Results from Randomized Experiments at Three Community Colleges  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents results from a rigorous random assignment study of Learning Communities programs operated at three of six community colleges participating in the National Center for Postsecondary Research's (NCPR) Learning Communities Demonstration. The demonstration's focus is on determining whether Learning Communities are an effective…

Weiss, Michael J.; Visher, Mary; Weissman, Evan

2011-01-01

331

The Role of Rewards and Reinforcements in Early Education Programs: II: Fostering Intrinsic Motivation to Learn  

Science.gov (United States)

Teacher Training should prepare teachers to develop intrinsic motivation to learn in children, rather than to consequate their learning efforts with extrinsic rewards. Examples of teacher behaviors believed necessary for fostering intrinsic motivation to learn are provided, along with suggestions for training teachers to use them in the classroom.…

Brophy, Jere E.

1972-01-01

332

Early  

OpenAIRE

Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Dec;50(12):3934-40. Early response to immunosuppressive therapy predicts good renal outcome in lupus nephritis: lessons from long-term followup of patients in the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial. Houssiau FA, Vasconcelos C, D'Cruz D, Sebastiani GD, de Ramon Garrido E, Danieli MG, Abramovicz D, Blockmans D, Mathieu A, Direskeneli H, Galeazzi M, Gül A, Levy Y, Petera P, Popovic R, Petrovic R, Sinico RA, Cattaneo R, Font J, Depresseux G, Cosyns JP, Cervera R. Univers...

Houssiau, F. A.; Vasconcelos, C.; D Cruz, D.; Sebastiani, G. D.; Ramon Garrido, E.; Danieli, M. G.; Abramovicz, D.; Blockmans, D.; Mathieu, A.; Direskeneli, H.; Galeazzi, M.; Gul, A.; Levy, Y.; Petera, P.; Popovic, R.

2004-01-01

333

Risk of Learning and Behavioral Disorders Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water  

OpenAIRE

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined the association between developmental disorders of learning, attention and behavior and prenatal and early postnatal drinking water exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Informat...

Janulewicz, Patricia A.; White, Roberta F.; Winter, Michael R.; Weinberg, Janice M.; Gallagher, Lisa E.; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas F.; Aschengrau, Ann

2008-01-01

334

Early Contingency Learning and Child and Teacher Concomitant Social–Emotional Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The value-added benefits of young children’s response-contingent learning were examined in a study of three children (2 females, 1 male with multiple disabilities and profound developmental delays. Contingency learning games were used to increase child operant responding, and both the children’s and their teachers’ concomitant social–emotional behavior associated with operant responding were mapped onto child learning. Results showed that the learning games promoted child learning and that collateral child and teacher behavior were predictably associated with operant responding. The manner in which the findings extend the results from previous research are described.

Melinda Raab

2009-07-01

335

Microsoft Word Training Modules  

Science.gov (United States)

With a variety of training modules designed for those in the field of medical administration and general business environments, these well-thought out educational materials will be a most welcome find. Created by the staff members at the Internet4Classrooms site, these modules address such topics as inserting images in MS Word, creating signs with MS Word, and keyboard shortcuts. Each of the modules is written with introductory users in mind, and they include helpful graphics that illustrate different actions and tools. Additionally, the site also includes a series of â??Beyond the Basicsâ?ť learning modules that provide guidance on how to use the mail merge function and how to create hyperlinks within MS Word.

Brooks, Susan

336

Teaching Adults New Words: The Role of Practice and Consolidation  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic and orthographic learning of new words was investigated with the help of the picture-word interference (PWI) task. In this version of the Stroop task, picture naming is delayed by the simultaneous presentation of a semantically related as opposed to an unrelated distractor word (a specific PWI effect), as well as by an unrelated word

Clay, Felix; Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.; Hanley, Derek A.

2007-01-01

337

78 FR 53991 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

...includes knowledge of early mathematics and literacy development...instructional practices to support mathematics and literacy development...Award Management: To do business with the Department of Education...minimum, early literacy and mathematics; (c) Includes...

2013-08-30

338

Early literacy learning in the perspective of the child : literacy stories  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

En socio-kulturel tilgang til early literacy skitseres, og der redegřres for, hvordan denne tilgang har inspireret arbejdet med at mĺlrette Carr's mere generelle lćringshistorie-tilgang til en mere early literacy fokuseret dokumentationsmetode.

Mellgren, Elisabeth; Jensen, Anders Skriver

2010-01-01

339

Birle?tirme-II Tekni?inin Frans?zca Okuma Dersinde Ö?renilen Sözcükleri Hat?rda Tutmaya Etkisi (Effect of Jigsaw-II on the Retention of New Words Learned in the Course of Reading in French  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find the effect of the Jigsaw-II technique regarding the retention of new words learned in the French reading course conducted with freshman of the French Foreign Language Department. In this research, comparative unsynchronized group post-test model was used. The participants of this research are 1st year students studying in the French Foreign Language Department of the Anadolu University (Eski?ehir during the spring semester of the academic year 2009-2010. There were 16 participants in the experimental group, 14 participants in the control group. The data were analyzed by analysis of frequency and percentage. As a result, in contrast to the control group using traditional teaching methods, students of the experimental group were greatly remembered new words learned in French reading course.

Zühre YILMAZ GÜNGÖR

2011-10-01

340

Word classes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology.

Rijkhoff, Jan

2007-01-01

341

A MOBILE-DEVICE-SUPPORTED PEER-ASSISTED LEARNING SYSTEM FOR COLLABORATIVE EARLY EFL READING  

OpenAIRE

Collaborative learning methods which emphasize peer interaction have been widely applied to increase the intensity and effectiveness of EFL reading programs. However, simply grouping students heterogeneously and assigning them group goals does not guarantee that effective collaborative learning will ensue. The present research includes two studies. In Study One, the weaknesses of collaborative learning in a traditional EFL setting were observed. Then, in Study Two, a mobile-device-supported p...

Yu-Ju Lan; Kuo-En Chang; Yao-ting Sung

2007-01-01

342

Word Processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the kinds of computer equipment needed for a personal word processing system. The characteristics and capabilities of specific devices, including keyboards, printers, and disk drives, are discussed. (JL)

McWilliams, Peter

1982-01-01

343

Transformational Learning and Community Development: Early Reflections on Professional and Community Engagement at Macquarie University  

Science.gov (United States)

Professional and Community Engagement (PACE) at Macquarie University offers undergraduate students experiential learning opportunities with local, regional, and international partners. In PACE projects, students work toward meeting the partner's organizational goals while they develop their capabilities, learn through the process of…

Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity; Sachs, Judyth

2014-01-01

344

Effect of musical experience on verbal memory in Williams syndrome: evidence from a novel word learning task.  

Science.gov (United States)

Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by an increased affinity for music, deficits in verbal memory, and atypical brain development. Music has been shown to improve verbal memory in typical individuals as well as those with learning difficulties, but no studies have examined this relationship in WS. The aim of our two studies was to examine whether music can enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS. In Study 1, we presented a memory task of eight spoken or sung sentences that described an animal and identified its group name to 38 individuals with WS. Study 2, involving another group of individuals with WS (n=38), included six spoken or sung sentences that identified an animal group name. In both studies, those who had participated in formal music lessons scored significantly better on the verbal memory task when the sentences were sung than when they were spoken. Those who had not taken formal lessons showed no such benefit. We also found that increased enjoyment of music and heightened emotional reactions to music did not impact performance on the memory task. These compelling findings provide the first evidence that musical experience may enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS and shed more light on the complex relationship between aspects of cognition and altered neurodevelopment in this unique disorder. PMID:21807007

Martens, Marilee A; Jungers, Melissa K; Steele, Anita L

2011-09-01

345

WordPress 3.1  

Science.gov (United States)

Though commonly thought of as a type of blogging application, WordPress is much more than that. Recently, WordPress released a new version of their software that includes helpful new plugins (many created by their dedicated users) and themes. Visitors can use the tutorial on their site to learn about the many uses of WordPress, and they should also look through the "Extend" area to learn about the many different customizable options available here. This version of WordPress is compatible with all operating systems, including those running Linux.

Boren, Ryan

2011-01-01

346

Words translated in sentence contexts produce repetition priming in visual word comprehension and spoken word production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research with words read in context at encoding showed little if any long-term repetition priming. In Experiment 1, 96 Spanish-English bilinguals translated words in isolation or in sentence contexts at encoding. At test, they translated words or named pictures corresponding to words produced at encoding and control words not previously presented. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were generally smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Repetition priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context. A componential analysis indicated priming from comprehension in context, but only in the less fluent language. Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with auditory presentation of the words and sentences to be translated. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were again smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context, but the componential analysis indicated no detectable priming for auditory comprehension. The results of the two experiments taken together suggest that repetition priming reflects the long-term learning that occurs with comprehension and production exposures to words in the context of natural language. PMID:24867824

Francis, Wendy S; Camacho, Alejandra; Lara, Carolina

2014-10-01

347

Are reading and face processing related? A study of word processing in developmental prosopagnosia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition. In this light, investigating face processing in dyslexia, and reading in prosopagnosia becomes interesting: Do deficits in the two domains dissociate? We present data from 11 people with developmental prosopagnosia, which is a disorder of face processing in people with no known brain injury, and in the context of normal intelligence and other cognitive abilities. The face processing deficits in developmental prosopagnosia appear early in life and seem to be the result of developmental problems that are currently poorly understood. In three experiments, we investigated whether reading performance in this group was abnormal. First, we examined if reading speed was affected by word length in any of the subjects. Secondly, we compared performance with single word and single letter stimuli using RT measures. Third, we measured the word superiority effect in accuracy of word and letter report with brief exposure durations. These data were also analysed using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention1, to extract estimates of perceptual processing speed for words and letters. We find that the group of developmental prosopagnosics perform well within the normal range on all reading tests. In the traditional RT test, they show normal RTs, and no abnormal word length effects. As a group, they also show an RT advantage for short words over single letters, as we have previously found in normal subjects.2 In the word superiority experiment, the group of prosopagnosics show the typical word superiority effect, reflected in better overall accuracy, a lower perceptual threshold, and higher processing speed for words compared to letters. In sum, we find no evidence that reading skills are abnormal in developmental prosopagnosia, a finding that may challenge the recently proposed hypothesis that reading development and face processing abilities are intrinsically linked.

Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K.

348

Aplicabilidade do software Fast Forword na reabilitaçăo dos distúrbios do processamento auditivo: resultados iniciais / Applicability of Fast ForWord software to management auditory process disorders: early result  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese TEMA: novas propostas de reabilitaçăo para crianças com distúrbios do processamento auditivo associadas aos distúrbios de linguagem e de aprendizagem săo necessárias para aumentar a eficácia do tratamento fonoaudiológico. Assim, o objetivo foi descrever a aplicabilidade do software Fast ForWord Lang [...] uage (FFWL) na reabilitaçăo dos distúrbios de processamento auditivo (DPA) em tręs crianças brasileiras. PROCEDIMENTOS: estas tręs crianças, na faixa-etária de 9 a 14 anos, foram selecionadas pela avaliaçăo audiológica básica, do processamento auditivo, de linguagem escrita e de conscięncia fonológica. Estes procedimentos foram utilizados antes e após a realizaçăo do treinamento com o software FFWL, que foi aplicado durante 80 minutos por dia, em cinco dias por semana em até oito semanas de treinamento. Foram utilizadas as seguintes estratégias: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification e Phonic Match, envolvendo detecçăo, discriminaçăo, atençăo sustentada e memória auditiva. RESULTADOS: após, em média 30,67 dias de uso do FFW, observou-se adequaçăo em duas crianças do processamento auditivo. Em uma das crianças isso năo foi evidenciado mantendo-se com as mesmas alteraçőes na reavaliaçăo do processamento auditivo. Após a terceira semana de estimulaçăo observou-se diminuiçăo do interesse pelas estratégias, o que necessitou uma intervençăo mais intensa e criativa dos pesquisadores. CONCLUSĂO: pode-se inferir que o FFW apresenta aplicabilidade para crianças brasileiras com distúrbio do processamento auditivo, entretanto, săo necessárias novas pesquisas com uma amostra maior para verificar a eficácia deste software para crianças brasileiras. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: news proposals of rehabilitation for children with auditory processing disorders associated to language and learning disorders are necessary to increase the efficacy of speech and language treatment. So, the purpose was to check the applicability of Fast Forword (FFW) software for managi [...] ng auditory processing disorder (APD) in three Brazilian kids. PROCEDURE: these three children, ranging from 9 to 14-year old, were selected in basic auditory evaluation, auditory process evaluation, language evaluation and phonological awareness. These tests applied before and after the training with FFW, ran during 100 minutes a day, five days a week along eight weeks. The following strategies were applied: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification and Phonic Match, involving detection, discrimination, sustained attention and auditory memory. RESULTS: after about 30.67 days using FFW, we noted adequacy in auditory process of two kids. In one of the kids that were not the case, the same alterations showed in the auditory process re-evaluation. After a third week of stimulation a diminution of interest for the strategies was observed, which demanded a more intense and creative intervention of the researchers. CONCLUSION: it is possible to infer that FFW presents applicability for Brazilian kids with auditory process disturbances; however, research with larger samples is necessary in order to check the effectiveness of this software on Brazilian kids.

Sheila Andreoli, Balen; Rosiana, Massignani; Raquel, Schillo.

2008-12-01

349

Teach yourself visually Word 2013  

CERN Document Server

Get up to speed on the newest version of Word with visual instruction Microsoft Word is the standard for word processing programs, and the newest version offers additional functionality you'll want to use. Get up to speed quickly and easily with the step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots in this popular guide! You'll see how to perform dozens of tasks, including how to set up and format documents and text; work with diagrams, charts, and pictures; use Mail Merge; post documents online; and much more. Easy-to-follow, two-page lessons make learning a snap.Full-

Marmel, Elaine

2013-01-01

350

Microsoft Word 2010 Digital Classroom  

CERN Document Server

The perfect book-and-video training package for Word 2010! This Word 2010 book-and-video training package-from the same professional training experts who also create many training materials for Adobe Systems-is like having your own personal instructor guiding you through each lesson, but you work at your own pace! The full-color ebook includes 8 lessons that teach you the new features and quirks of Microsoft Word 2010. Each lesson includes step-by-step instructions and lesson files, and provides valuable video tutorials that complement what you're learning and clearly demonstr

Team, Training

2011-01-01

351

Let’s Replace Words with Pictures: The Role of Pictures and Spatial Intelligence in Learning English Idioms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study attempted to explore the effects of spatial intelligence—one of Gardner’s (1993 eight intelligences—on learning idiomatic expressions through pictures. To this end, 76 Iranian learners of English were assigned to 2 groups: pictorial and non-pictorial. Both groups were comprised of learners with low, moderate, and high levels of spatial intelligence profile. Put differently, there were three subgroups in each group, totaling 6 subgroups. Groups proved to be homogeneous with regard to their understanding of the idioms in focus. During the treatment period, which lasted for 3 months, 2 sessions a week, the pictorial group received idiomatic expressions along with pictures associated with those idioms while the control group received the idioms with no pictures. An omnibus t-test run on the scores obtained from a posttest demonstrated statistically significant difference between the pictorial and non-pictorial groups in understanding the meaning of idiomatic expressions. Fine-grained analyses including 3 separate t-tests showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the lows and between the moderates in the pictorial and non-pictorial groups. The difference between the highs, however, turned out to reach statistical significance. A one-way ANOVA run on the scores of the 3 subgroups of the pictorial reached statistical difference while the one-way ANOVA run on the scores of the 3 subgroups of the non-pictorial group did not show any significant difference. Viewed generally, the results suggest that learners with higher levels of spatial intelligence would be more privileged to benefit from idiomatic expressions presented along with associated pictures.

Mehdi Solhi Andarab

2014-02-01

352

Dark and light rearing during early postnatal life impairs spatial learning of rats in Morris water maze  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In early postnatal life, sensory-driven processes deeply affect structure and function of sensory cortices. Because some visual signals pass from visual cortex to the hippocampal formation, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of change in visual experience on rat’s spatial learning and memory. This experimental study was carried out on 30 Wistar male rats (45 days old which were randomly distributed into 3 groups; the CO (Control group was in 12 light/12 dark cycle through birth to the end of the study, the LR (Light Reared group was in complete lightness and the DR (Dark Reared group was in complete darkness (n=10 for each. Using MWM (Morris Water Maze, the animals learned to find a hidden platform for 4 trials per day during 5 days. After removing the platform, spatial memory was tested at day 5 in one trial (probe trial. Our results indicated that in the learning stage, the CO rats spent less time and distance to find the hidden platform than the other groups. There was no difference between all groups in probe trial. Change in visual experience impairs spatial learning of rats in Morris water maze and their spatial memory formation is not influenced.

Saeideh Davari, Mahmoud Salami

2010-01-01

353

Developmental Spelling and Word Recognition: A Validation of Ehri's Model of Word Recognition Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Ehri's developmental model of word recognition outlines early reading development that spans from the use of logos to advanced knowledge of oral and written language to read words. Henderson's developmental spelling theory presents stages of word knowledge that progress in a similar manner to Ehri's phases. The purpose of this research study was…

Ebert, Ashlee A.

2009-01-01

354

Dark and light rearing during early postnatal life impairs spatial learning of rats in Morris water maze  

OpenAIRE

In early postnatal life, sensory-driven processes deeply affect structure and function of sensory cortices. Because some visual signals pass from visual cortex to the hippocampal formation, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of change in visual experience on rat’s spatial learning and memory. This experimental study was carried out on 30 Wistar male rats (45 days old) which were randomly distributed into 3 groups; the CO (Control group) was in 12 light/12 dark cycle throug...

Saeideh Davari, Mahmoud Salami; Sayyed Alireza Talaei Zavareh

2010-01-01

355

Early Experience in Implementation of a Learning Assessment Toolkit in the AOTrauma Geriatric Fracture Course  

OpenAIRE

Background: Surgical education is continually expanding to encompass new techniques and technologies. It is vital that educational activity is directed at gaps in knowledge and ability to improve the quality of learning. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe a published learning assessment toolkit when applied to participants attending AOTrauma Orthogeriatric Fracture courses. Methods: Precourse, participants received a questionnaire covering 10 competencies to assess knowledge gaps and a...

O’malley, Natasha T.; Cunningham, Michael; Leung, Frankie; Blauth, Michael; Kates, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

356

Using the Scientific Method to Guide Learning: An Integrated Approach to Early Childhood Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers and practitioners have become increasingly interested in how early childhood programs prepare young children for science. Due to a number of factors, including educators' low self-efficacy for teaching science and lack of educational resources, many early childhood classrooms do not offer high-quality science experiences for young…

Gerde, Hope K.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Wasik, Barbara A.

2013-01-01

357

Early Workplace Learning Experiences: What Are the Pedagogical Possibilities beyond Retention and Employability?  

Science.gov (United States)

With this paper, we explore early placement experiences and their pedagogical potential, including ways of keeping students enrolled and persisting with their studies. Few university courses offer early placements because traditionally placement experiences have a focus on employability and work readiness of graduates, hence occur towards the end…

Trede, Franziska; McEwen, Celina

2015-01-01

358

Confirming "Chanclas": What Early Childhood Teacher Educators Can Learn from Immigrant Preschool Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

The immigrant teacher perspective has been largely missing from local and national debates on early childhood pedagogy and has certainly been marginalized in debates about language in early childhood settings. Interviews with dozens of preschool teachers in multiple U.S. cities about children of immigrants' language choices at school (as part of…

Adair, Jennifer Keys

2011-01-01

359

Colors of Learning: Integrating the Visual Arts into the Early Childhood Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the view that young children will benefit from having art experiences as an integrated part of the curriculum and based on a 3-year study conducted with 5 early childhood teachers, this book presents information on the theory, research, and practice of art in early childhood education. Chapter 1 begins with a description of the…

Althouse, Rosemary; Johnson, Margaret H.; Mitchell, Sharon T.

360

Neural Correlates of Motor Learning, Transfer of Learning, and Learning to Learn  

OpenAIRE

Recent studies on the neural bases of sensorimotor adaptation demonstrate that the cerebellar and striatal thalamocortical pathways contribute to early learning. Transfer of learning involves a reduction in the contribution of early learning networks, and increased reliance on the cerebellum. The neural correlates of learning to learn remain to be determined, but likely involve enhanced functioning of general aspects of early learning.

Seidler, Rachael D.

2010-01-01

361

Learning Mathematics in Two Dimensions: A Review and Look Ahead at Teaching and Learning Early Childhood Mathematics with Children’s Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne & Griffiths, 1991; Haury, 2001; Hellwig, Monroe, & Jacobs, 2000; Hong, 1996; Welchman-Tischler, 1992. We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children’s mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O’Neill, Pearce & Pick, 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004. For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children’s understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (Skoumpourdi & Mpakopoulou, 2011; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen & Van den Boogaard, 2008 and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (Clements et al., 1999; Hannibal, 1999; van Hiele, 1986. We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000, Schiro (1997, Hunsader (2004 and Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012. Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Chard, Baker & Clarke, 2008; Clements & Sarama, 2000 which lead to misconceptions (Inan & Dogan-Temur, 2010; Oberdorf & Taylor-Cox, 1999. Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children’s literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children’s books in mathematics activities and for teacher training.

LuciaM.Flevares

2014-05-01

362

Supervised mid-level features for word image representation  

OpenAIRE

This paper addresses the problem of learning word image representations: given the cropped image of a word, we are interested in finding a descriptive, robust, and compact fixed-length representation. Machine learning techniques can then be supplied with these representations to produce models useful for word retrieval or recognition tasks. Although many works have focused on the machine learning aspect once a global representation has been produced, little work has been dev...

Gordo, Albert

2014-01-01

363

Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog  

CERN Document Server

Smashing WordPress shows you how to utilize the power of the WordPress platform, and provides a creative spark to help you build WordPress-powered sites that go beyond the obvious. The second edition of Smashing WordPress has been updated for WordPress 3.1+, which includes internal, custom post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to build just about anything in WordPress, resulting in fast deployments and greater design flexib

Hedengren, Thord Daniel

2011-01-01

364

Word Geology – its Roots and Meanings  

OpenAIRE

In the period up to 18th century the meaning of the word geology has substantially changed; from Latin word geologia written by de Bury in the 14th century, through the use of word giologia by Aldrovandi in the beginning of 17th century and to near final definition of word geology that appeared in French Encyclopaedia from 1751.With the help of Internet some other early works not known to the literature of geology history were discovered.Among them are German books where in the title word geo...

Mihael Bren?i?

2011-01-01

365

Developing Word Knowledge through Word Sorts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systematically incorporated into classroom instruction in word analysis, word sorts provide a sensible alternative to phonics or whole-word approaches and are congruent with the meaning-based direction of today's basal reading programs. A word sort is an activity in which the learner arranges words printed on cards into groups. This technique can…

Gillet, Jean Wallace; Temple, Charles

366

Early learning influences species assortative mating preferences in Lake Victoria cichlid fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lake Victoria 'species flock' of cichlids is puzzling because reproductive isolation often occurs in the absence of substantial ecological differences among species. Theory predicts that this cannot evolve with most genetic mechanisms for mate choice. We provide the first evidence that learning, in the form of sexual imprinting, helps maintain reproductive isolation among closely related cichlid species. Using a cross-fostering experiment, we show that young females develop a sexual preference for males of their foster mothers' species, even reversing species assortative mating preferences. We suggest that learning creates favourable conditions for reproductive isolation to evolve. PMID:17287180

Verzijden, Machteld N; ten Cate, Carel

2007-04-22

367

Risk of learning and behavioral disorders following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined the association between developmental disorders of learning, attention and behavior and prenatal and early postnatal drinking water exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Mothers completed a questionnaire on disorders of attention, learning and behavior in their children and on potential confounding variables. The final cohort consisted of 2086 children. Results of crude and multivariate analyses showed no association between prenatal exposure and receiving tutoring for reading or math, being placed on an Individual Education Plan, or repeating a school grade (adjusted Odds Ratios (OR)=1.0-1.2). There was also no consistent pattern of increased risk for receiving a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Hyperactive Disorder (HD), special class placement for academic or behavioral problems, or lower educational attainment. Modest associations were observed for the latter outcomes only in the low exposure group (e.g., adjusted ORs for ADD were 1.4 and 1.0 for low and high exposure, respectively). (All ORs are based on an unexposed referent group.) Results for postnatal exposure through age five years were similar to those for prenatal exposure. We conclude that prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure is not associated with disorders of attention, learning and behavior identified on the basis of questionnaire responses and at the exposure levels experienced by this population. PMID:18353612

Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Gallagher, Lisa E; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas F; Aschengrau, Ann

2008-01-01

368

Investigating the Relationship between the Morphological Processing of Regular and Irregular Words and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigates the relationship between the morphological processing of regular and irregular words and second language (L2 vocabulary acquisition. In considering that monolingual Arabic speakers derive a large number of new words from roots by leaning heavily on the regularity of rules in Arabic (Bar & Dershowitz, 2012; Habash, 2010, they are expected to experience difficulty when developing the lexicon of a language with less regular rules, such as English. To examine this assumption empirically, data were collected by administering an English receptive vocabulary knowledge test that included 100 regular and irregular inflected and derived words to 450 Arabic English as a foreign language (EFL learners from schools in Saudi Arabia. The test also included pesudowords (non-words to act as ‘gatekeepers’ against the possibility of guessing. The t-test results revealed a non-significant difference in learners’ uptake of L2 words, whether regular or irregular. However, the study indicates that word frequency plays a statistically significant role in learning L2 vocabulary that is irregularly inflected or derived. The frequency effect on irregular word morphology found in this study is in line with the approach of a dual-route mechanism. This approach suggests that irregular words are not rule-based, so are stored in the mental lexicon as full entries, whereas regular words are not. This article suggests that introducing rules for deriving new words from base forms to EFL learners in the early stages of learning would be very useful for L2 vocabulary development.Keywords: morphological processing, vocabulary acquisition, frequency, Arabic, mental lexicon

Ahmed Masrai

2015-07-01

369

Sex-related differences in spatial learning during the early postnatal development of the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some authors have reported that male rats younger than 21 days old are unable to perform spatial learning correctly because they have still not developed the ability to use extra-maze cues. In experiment 1, we analyzed spatial learning in 14-, 21-, 30- and 42-day-old rats using the Morris water maze (MWM). According to our results, a good performance was observed in 30-day-old male rats whereas this was not observed in female rats until they were 42 days old. In experiment 2 we studied the role of sex hormones in this kind of learning using the MWM and 30-day-old rats (castrated male rats and female rats treated with testosterone propionate (TP) after birth). The latter group, the male control group and the castrated males all solved the task correctly. The objective of experiment 3 was to determine possible differences between the sexes in the use of taxon strategies in the T water maze. To summarize, sexual dimorphism was only observed in spatial learning during development. PMID:24895848

Cimadevilla, J M; González-Pardo, H; López, L; Diaz, F; Cueto, E G; Garcia-Moreno, L M; Arias, J L

1999-06-01

370

Effects of Early Bilingualism on Learning Phonological Regularities in a New Language  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on structural sensitivity theory, the current study investigated monolingual and bilingual children's ability to learn how phonemes combine to form acceptable syllables in a new language. A total of 186 monolingual and bilingual kindergarteners, first graders, and second graders in Taiwan participated in the study. Bilingual children,…

Kuo, Li-Jen; Anderson, Richard C.

2012-01-01

371

Bridging: Assessment for Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Classrooms, PreK-3  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective teaching requires skill in implementing challenging and inviting curricular activities. It also involves evaluating children's learning in order to extend their development through the school year. Being able to implement and evaluate at the same time is at the heart of good teaching. Written for PreK-3 educators, this book blends…

Chen, Jie-Qi; McNamee, Gillian Dowley

2007-01-01

372

Picture This: Using Photography as a Learning Tool in Early Childhood Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Typically, classroom photography is used to identify children's cubbies or to capture only special events in school. Rarely is it used as an everyday teaching tool. However, with the increasing affordability and availability of disposable and digital cameras, photography can be readily used in classrooms to facilitate learning. In one preschool…

Byrnes, Julia; Wasik, Barbara A.

2009-01-01

373

Social Partners : Out with Early Exit - in with lifelong learning and career development?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address the demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society and the contribution of lifelong learning to the needs and potential of older workers is crucial, as the demographic situation already today, and in particular the one to be expected within the next about 40 years, is historically without a precedent. The idea of continuous learning and the need for a meaningful work has been included in the agreements between the working life parties in all the Nordic countries. However, not all people are provided with – or take an advantage of – the possibilities to continue learning relevant to their career development. Studies show that trade unions are in “an especially difficult position” regarding this matter, but also that they should develop clearer strategy in response to demographic change, and communicate it to their members. The OWNsurvey was carried out as a part of the work in the network Older workers in the Nordic countries (OWN) supported by the Nordic Council. The findings showed, on one hand, that while some social partners have started very good work, for many the issues of lifelong learning and opportunities for career development for older workers are not on their agenda. Besides differences between the unions in regards many aspects and within most countries, the findings also revealed systematic differences between the Nordic countries. Targeted policy measures regarding the older workers showed to be in place in Denmark and Norway, while this seems to be least the case in Sweden. Finland and Iceland have been prioritizing general policies. Targeted measures provide strongest, and in many cases much needed support to older workers’ competence and career development. However, even a strong lifelong learning policy seems not alone to guarantee real opportunities for and participation in learning during the latter half of the lifetime job careers, especially if the implementation of these policies is not followed up. On another note, also general policies can provide the necessary support, provided that other policy domains and practice are aligned with them. Overall, there is a need for a more active approach from social partners, in policy and practice, to promote lifelong learning and career development to their senior members during their last 15-20 years in working life. In this issue the social partners can and should play an active role – indeed, a leading role if needed – among the other key actors in society.

Hansen, Leif Emil

2011-01-01

374

Early learning influences species assortative mating preferences in Lake Victoria cichlid fish  

OpenAIRE

The Lake Victoria ‘species flock’ of cichlids is puzzling because reproductive isolation often occurs in the absence of substantial ecological differences among species. Theory predicts that this cannot evolve with most genetic mechanisms for mate choice. We provide the first evidence that learning, in the form of sexual imprinting, helps maintain reproductive isolation among closely related cichlid species. Using a cross-fostering experiment, we show that young females develop a sexual p...

Verzijden, Machteld N.; Ten Cate, Carel

2007-01-01

375

Social Partners : Out with Early Exit - in with lifelong learning and career development?  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address the demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the...

Hansen, Leif Emil

2011-01-01

376

Changes in Visual Object Recognition Precede the Shape Bias in Early Noun Learning  

OpenAIRE

Two of the most formidable skills that characterize human beings are language and our prowess in visual object recognition. They may also be developmentally intertwined. Two experiments, a large sample cross-sectional study and a smaller sample 6-month longitudinal study of 18- 24 month olds tested a hypothesized developmental link between changes in the visual object representation and noun learning. Previous findings in visual object recognition indicate that children’s ability to recogn...

LindaBSmith

2012-01-01

377

Knowledge Development in Early Childhood: Sources of Learning and Classroom Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthesizing cutting-edge research from multiple disciplines, this book explores how young children acquire knowledge in the "real world" and describes practical applications for early childhood classrooms. The breadth and depth of a child's knowledge base are important predictors of later literacy development and academic achievement. Leading…

Pinkham, Ashley M., Ed.; Kaefer, Tanya, Ed.; Neuman, Susan B., Ed.

2012-01-01

378

Eating Apples and Houseplants: Typicality Constraints on Thematic Roles in Early Verb Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Are thematic roles linked to verbs in young children as in adults or will children accept any participant in a given role with any verb? To assess early verb comprehension we used typicality ratings with adults, parental questionnaires, and Intermodal Preferential Looking with children. We predicted that children would look at named targets, would…

Meints, Kerstin; Plunkett, Kim; Harris, Paul L.

2008-01-01

379

Learning Early Twentieth-Century History through First-Person Interviews  

Science.gov (United States)

For many of the students in the author's American history class, early twentieth-century American history seems far removed from their daily lives. Being first and second-generation American citizens, many of the students do not have the luxury of hearing grandparents and great-grandparents telling stories about FDR and Henry Ford. More…

Lark, Lisa A.

2007-01-01

380

Promoting Effective Early Learning: What Every Policymaker and Educator Should Know  

Science.gov (United States)

Language and literacy skills are critical to success in school. For low-income preschoolers, increasing early literacy and math skills is vital to closing the achievement gap between them and their more advantaged peers. New research shows that an intentional curriculum and professional development and supports for teachers are important…

Klein, Lisa; Knitzer, Jane

2007-01-01

381

Watching, Creating and Achieving: Creative Technologies as a Conduit for Learning in the Early Years  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the use of robotics in an Early Years classroom as a tool to aid the development of technological skills in a creative environment rich with literacy and numeracy opportunities. The pilot project illustrates how a three-phase process can result in the development of: (1) emergent literacy and numeracy, (2) digital access for…

McDonald, Susan; Howell, Jennifer

2012-01-01

382

Living Jazz, Learning Jazz: Thoughts on a Responsive Pedagogy of Early Childhood Music  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, jazz music is used as a lens through which early childhood music pedagogy is viewed, specifically thinking about swing and improvisation--the listening and responding to what is heard and seen, and the openness to possibility. These two concepts are defined by prominent jazz musicians and are traced in the child development…

Custodero, Lori A.

2008-01-01

383

Investigating the Effectiveness of an Integrated Learning System on Early Emergent Readers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents the results of a one-year study of the effectiveness of the Waterford Early Reading Program on kindergarten and first-grade children in a large urban school district in New York state. Concludes that the Waterford program failed to outperform non-Waterford classrooms in part because it did not simulate or encourage the social…

Paterson, Wendy A.; Henry, Julie Jacobs; O'Quin, Karen; Ceprano, Maria A.; Blue, Elfreda V.

2003-01-01

384

Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional…

Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

2013-01-01

385

Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

2011-01-01

386

Mi Primer Libro de Palabras (My First Book of Words).  

Science.gov (United States)

This book was written to facilitate the learning and teaching of phonetic and vocabulary skills important for the development of reading. The book uses the manipulative approach to the usage of words. Words are presented with corresponding pictures in order to enhance the child's comprehension. In addition to the words, the book includes a…

Bay Area Bilingual Education League, Berkeley, CA.

387

Pedagogical Implications of Concept of Word Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three recent studies have focused upon prereading children's concepts of written language, what they think words are, and how they understand the concept of a word. These explorations of young children's early attempts to understand and produce writing have important implications for the preschool and primary classroom. R. D. Morris found that…

Gillet, Jean Wallace

388

Developing Early Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Alphabet Learning and Instruction  

OpenAIRE

Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of pre-school instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that instructional impacts differed by type of alphabet outcome examined and content of instruction provided. School-based instruction yielded larger eff...

Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

2010-01-01

389

Learning to Eat Vegetables in Early Life: The Role of Timing, Age and Individual Eating Traits  

OpenAIRE

Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n?=?332) aged 4–38 m (18....

Caton, Samantha J.; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M.; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; Mřller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Eloi?se; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M.

2014-01-01

390

Relational associative learning induces cross-modal plasticity in early visual cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurobiological theories of memory posit that the neocortex is a storage site of declarative memories, a hallmark of which is the association of two arbitrary neutral stimuli. Early sensory cortices, once assumed uninvolved in memory storage, recently have been implicated in associations between neutral stimuli and reward or punishment. We asked whether links between neutral stimuli also could be formed in early visual or auditory cortices. Rats were presented with a tone paired with a light using a sensory preconditioning paradigm that enabled later evaluation of successful association. Subjects that acquired this association developed enhanced sound evoked potentials in their primary and secondary visual cortices. Laminar recordings localized this potential to cortical Layers 5 and 6. A similar pattern of activation was elicited by microstimulation of primary auditory cortex in the same subjects, consistent with a cortico-cortical substrate of association. Thus, early sensory cortex has the capability to form neutral stimulus associations. This plasticity may constitute a declarative memory trace between sensory cortices. PMID:24275832

Headley, Drew B; Weinberger, Norman M

2015-05-01

391

Estimating the Effectiveness and Feasibility of a Game-based Project for Early Foreign Language Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper outlines the rationale for and the purpose of designing and implementing a project aiming to make very young EFL learners develop their language skills through their involvement in interactive psychomotor activities. The project, which is a part of a broader longitudinal project having introduced EFL in the first primary school grade, was implemented in two 2nd grade Greek classrooms with a total of 44 seven year old children. Multisensory teaching was followed through the use of a combination of activities: classroom creative activities included memory and word games, drawings, constructions, role-play games, pantomime as well as songs. In the gym, children participated in physical activities such as races, chases and hopscotch as well as dance and music activities, with the aim to improve their oral communicative skills and creativity. In order to examine the effectiveness and feasibility of the project, an evaluation study was conducted by using a pre- and post- language test and journals kept by the teachers. It was evident that the project had a positive effect on developing very young learners’ language skills, and on enhancing their motivation to participate in psychomotor activities.

Eleni Griva

2012-07-01

392

Distinct basal ganglia territories are engaged in early and advanced motor sequence learning  

OpenAIRE

In this study, we used functional MRI (fMRI) at high field (3T) to track the time course of activation in the entire basal ganglia circuitry, as well as other motor-related structures, during the explicit learning of a sequence of finger movements over a month of training. Fourteen right-handed healthy volunteers had to practice 15 min daily a sequence of eight moves using the left hand. MRI sessions were performed on days 1, 14 and 28. In both putamen, activation decreased with practice in r...

Lehe?ricy, Ste?phane; Benali, Habib; Moortele, Pierre-franc?ois; Pe?le?grini-issac, Me?lanie; Waechter, Tobias; Ugurbil, Kamil; Doyon, Julien

2005-01-01

393

Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuň. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words. PMID:24268905

Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

2014-03-01

394

The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh

2012-01-01

395

Processing of words and pseudo-words in patients with dementia  

OpenAIRE

In the thesis we focus on word and pseudo-word processing in patients suffering from dementia of Alzheimer’s type. One of the early problems of patients with dementia is difficulty with naming and word finding, which could suggest a decay of lexical representations. The aim of the thesis is to find out how this decay progresses and to find out at which stage difficulties occur in patients with dementia. We approach this issue by using an acceptability task for words and pseudo-words which v...

Marjanovic?, Katarina

2013-01-01

396

Electrophysiological cross-language neighborhood density effects in late and early English-Welsh bilinguals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Behavioral studies with proficient late bilinguals have revealed the existence of orthographic neighborhood density effects across languages when participants read either in their first (L1 or second (L2 language. Words with many cross-language neighbors have been found to elicit more negative event-related potentials (ERPs than words with few cross-language neighbors (Midgley et al., 2008; the effect started earlier, and was larger, for L2 words. Here, 14 late and 14 early English-Welsh bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task on English and Welsh words presented in separate blocks. The pattern of cross-language activation was different for the two groups of bilinguals. In late bilinguals, words with high cross-language neighborhood density elicited more negative ERP amplitudes than words with low cross-language neighborhood density starting around 175 ms after word onset and lasting until 500 ms. This effect interacted with language in the 300-500 ms time window. A more complex pattern of early effects was revealed in early bilinguals and there were no effects in the N400 window. These results suggest that cross-language activation of orthographic neighbors is highly sensitive to the bilinguals’ learning experience of the two languages.

GiordanaGrossi

2012-10-01

397

Travelling Policies and Global Buzzwords: How International Non-Governmental Organizations and Charities Spread the Word about Early Childhood in the Global South  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is based on a web-search commissioned by an international charity to review the work of international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) and charities which promote and support early childhood education and care (ECEC) in the global South. The article examines examples of such initiatives. It is suggested that there is…

Penn, Helen

2011-01-01

398

A Survey of Word-sense Disambiguation Effective Techniques and Methods for Indian Languages  

OpenAIRE

Word Sense Disambiguation is a challenging technique in Natural Language Processing. There are some words in the natural languages which can cause ambiguity about the sense of the word.WSD identifies the correct sense of the word in a sentence or a document. The paper summarizes about the history of WSD. We have discussed about the knowledge - based and machine learning – based approaches for WSD. Various supervised learning and unsupervised learning techniques have been discussed. WSD ...

Shallu Shallu; Vishal Gupta

2013-01-01

399

The Acquisition of Word Stress Rules in Spanish.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study investigated the hypothesis that children learning Spanish as a first language learn rules for assigning stress, as opposed to simply memorizing stress for individual words. The subjects were 50 Spanish-speaking preschool children. In one portion of the experiment, they imitated sets of 2, 3, or 4 Spanish nonsense words that were…

Hochberg, Judith G.

400

Prosody cues word order in 7-month-old bilingual infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A central problem in language acquisition is how children effortlessly acquire the grammar of their native language even though speech provides no direct information about underlying structure. This learning problem is even more challenging for dual language learners, yet bilingual infants master their mother tongues as efficiently as monolinguals do. Here we ask how bilingual infants succeed, investigating the particularly challenging task of learning two languages with conflicting word orders (English: eat an apple versus Japanese: ringo-wo taberu 'apple.acc eat'). We show that 7-month-old bilinguals use the characteristic prosodic cues (pitch and duration) associated with different word orders to solve this problem. Thus, the complexity of bilingual acquisition is countered by bilinguals' ability to exploit relevant cues. Moreover, the finding that perceptually available cues like prosody can bootstrap grammatical structure adds to our understanding of how and why infants acquire grammar so early and effortlessly. PMID:23411502

Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F

2013-01-01

401

Transitional Probability and Word Segmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims at reviewing the literature in the studies of the relationship between transitional probability and word segmentation in an attempt to emphasize statistical learning as the experience-dependent factor in language acquisition. Transitional probability, the crucial cue of the statistical relationship between syllables, is characterized by its two computation directions: the forward transitional probability and backward transitional probability. Results from the empirical research on artificial languages and natural languages are also discussed to prove the effectiveness and defectiveness of transitional probability in word segmentation.

Yingying Xie

2012-11-01

402

Global technology learning and national policy-An incentive scheme for governments to assume the high cost of early deployment exemplified by Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper it is argued that technology learning may be both a barrier and an incentive for technology change in the national energy system. The possibility to realize an ambitious global emission reduction scenario is enhanced by coordinated action between countries in national policy implementation. An indicator for coordinated action is suggested. Targeted measures to increase deployment of nascent energy technologies and increasing energy efficiency in a small open economy like Norway are examined. The measures are evaluated against a set of baselines with different levels of spillover of technology learning from the global market. It is found that implementation of technology subsidies increase the national contribution to early deployment independent of the level of spillover. In a special case with no spillover for offshore floating wind power and endogenous technology learning substantial subsidy or a learning rate of 20% is required. Combining the high learning rate and a national subsidy increases the contribution to early deployment. Enhanced building code on the other hand may reduce Norway's contribution to early deployment, and thus the realization of a global emission reduction scenario, unless sufficient electricity export capacity is assured.

403

Focus for Impact: The PacifiCorp Foundation for Learning's Early Childhood Literacy Initiative. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 5  

Science.gov (United States)

To better advance its mission of promoting lifelong learning, the PacifiCorp Foundation committed in 2001 to begin devoting 20 percent of its grantmaking budget to a long-term, multi-year initiative to support a small number of grantees; trustees chose the area of early literacy for its first initiative. "Focus for Impact" is intended to help…

Grantmakers for Education, 2012

2012-01-01

404

Early history of chemical exchange isotope enrichment and lessons we learn  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical exchange isotope enrichment process has an advantage over other isotope separation methods in that it involves two chemicals rather than one and, consequently, relatively large separation factors can be obtained. However, the chemical exchange method requires a chemical conversion of the substance enriched in the target isotope into the second substance. The idiosyncrasies of the isotope separation process by this method are pointed out using McCabe-Thiele diagram and, from them, the difficulties involved in the chemical exchange methods are itemized. Examples of the points being made are taken from the pioneering works of this field carried out by Harold C. Urey, his contemporaries, the students and the students' students. Lessons we learn from these works are discussed. (author)

405

Solving Word Problems Using Story Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students will learn how to use their knowledge of beginning, middle, and end to solve word problems that include result unknown, change unknown, and start unknown. They will learn how to use a modified story map to write an equation to represent the problem.

2012-10-16

406

Segmentation of vowel-initial words is facilitated by function words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the first year of life, infants learn to segment words from fluent speech. Previous research has shown that infants at 0;7·5 can segment consonant-initial words, yet the ability to segment vowel-initial words does not emerge until the age of 1;1-1;4 (0;11 in some restricted cases). In five experiments, we show that infants aged 0;11 but not 0;8 are able to segment vowel-initial words that immediately follow the function word the [đi], while ruling out a bottom-up, phonotactic account of these results. Thus, function words facilitate the segmentation of vowel-initial words that appear sentence-medially for infants aged 0;11. PMID:25158755

Kim, Yun Jung; Sundara, Megha

2014-08-27

407

Construction of Vietnamese SentiWordNet by using Vietnamese Dictionary  

OpenAIRE

SentiWordNet is an important lexical resource supporting sentiment analysis in opinion mining applications. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to construct a Vietnamese SentiWordNet (VSWN). SentiWordNet is typically generated from WordNet in which each synset has numerical scores to indicate its opinion polarities. Many previous studies obtained these scores by applying a machine learning method to WordNet. However, Vietnamese WordNet is not available unfortunately b...

Vu, Xuan-son; Park, Seong-bae

2014-01-01

408

Word Sense Disambiguation by Web Mining for Word Co-occurrence Probabilities  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the National Research Council (NRC) Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) system, as applied to the English Lexical Sample (ELS) task in Senseval-3. The NRC system approaches WSD as a classical supervised machine learning problem, using familiar tools such as the Weka machine learning software and Brill's rule-based part-of-speech tagger. Head words are represented as feature vectors with several hundred features. Approximately half of the features are syntact...

Turney, Peter D.

2004-01-01

409

E-Learning  

OpenAIRE

E-Learning or Edutainment Learning, the word has several meanings, E-Learning can best be defined as the science of learning without using paper printed instructional material. The concept is new, dynamic and robust approach towards learning and is gaining more and more popularity, as the Subject Matter Experts (SME) are using several tools to create E-Learning modules for the learners. Numerous top institutions and distance learning universities have started degree and diploma courses based ...

Sumit Goyal

2013-01-01

410

Word Recognition Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the entry page for participating in the Word Recognition Experiment. This study involves a series of word recognition trials in which participants are flashed a word either in the left or in the right hemifield and then identify the presented word. Performance is measured as the minimum presentation display time required for an individual to correctly identify the word.

411

Strengthening Vocabulary for Literacy: An Analysis of the Use of Explicit Instruction Techniques to Improve Word Learning from Story Book Read-Alouds  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocabulary knowledge is an important predictor of literacy and broader academic outcomes, and children's literature is a rich source of sophisticated vocabulary. This study investigated the effect of providing instruction in word meanings as an adjunct to story-book read-aloud sessions in Grade One classrooms. The main intervention programme…

Moore, Wendy; Hammond, Lorraine; Fetherston, Tony

2014-01-01

412

Kambaata children's songs and word games: Or what can we learn about the grammar of Kambaata by analysing marginal literature genres?  

OpenAIRE

The present article analyses children's songs and word games of the Cushitic language Kambaata and follows up on the question whether this text genre can contribute useful data for a grammatical analysis of this little known language. The corpus of nine texts, which are glossed, translated and annotated, constitute the core of this article. Recordings of the texts are made available online.

Treis, Yvonne

2012-01-01

413

Bootstrapping word alignment via word packing  

OpenAIRE

We introduce a simple method to pack words for statistical word alignment. Our goal is to simplify the task of automatic word alignment by packing several consecutive words together when we believe they correspond to a single word in the opposite language. This is done using the word aligner itself, i.e. by bootstrapping on its output. We evaluate the performance of our approach on a Chinese-to-English machine translation task, and report a 12.2% relative increase in BLEU score over a stat...

Ma, Yanjun; Stroppa, Nicolas; Way, Andy

2007-01-01

414

Clinical role models are important in the early years of a problem-based learning curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following a comprehensive study of the role models identified by the first five years of students in a traditional medical programme, it was hypothesized that with curriculum reform clinical role models would assume greater importance earlier in the undergraduate medical programme. Indeed, when compared with their first- and second-year traditional curriculum colleagues, more problem-based learning students identified role models. Almost four times as many identified faculty role models (largely medically qualified) in comparison with their traditional curriculum counterparts. Concomitant with this increase was a decline in the selection by the PBL students of family members, friends and other students as role models. For all cohorts, however, the mother was the most important role model. Since students in integrated curricula have earlier clinical experience and patient contact, they interact with clinicians in hospitals and clinics as well as in the academic environment of the small-group tutorial and lecture theatres. Academic faculty members, particularly clinicians, need to be aware that students take note of their attitudes and behaviour as members of the medical profession, a profession that students had chosen as a career. Retraining of senior doctors from the traditional curriculum might be necessary to ensure that all clinicians have an equivalent understanding of patient care. PMID:16627327

McLean, Michelle

2006-02-01

415

Math word problems for dummies  

CERN Document Server

Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

Sterling, Mary Jane

2008-01-01

416

Learning for supplying as a motive to be the early adopter of a new energy technology: A study on the adoption of stationary fuel cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By early adopting a new technology, firms may attempt to improve their production efficiency and become further involved in the supply chain of the technology. These two different advantages derived from learning a new technology are identified as motives for adopting the technology. When learning for supplying (LFS) (becoming involved in the supply chain of the new technology) highlighted in this paper is significant enough, potential adopters may still be willing to adopt the new technology, even though learning for using (LFU) (increasing current production efficiency) is not significant. This paper identifies LFS as a motive for early adopters of the new technology. Firms may adopt a new technology for the purpose of learning how to become the suppliers of the relevant parts, materials, or equipment for the new technology. By investigating the adoption decision of a new energy technology (namely, phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC)), our arguments are supported by both observation of early adopters' attributes and a survey of Taiwanese firms' willingness to adopt new technology

417

12-Month-Olds' Phonotactic Knowledge Guides Their Word-Object Mappings  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether 12-month-olds will accept words that differ phonologically and phonetically from their native language as object labels in an associative learning task. Sixty infants were presented with sets of English word-object (N = 30), Japanese word-object (N = 15), or Czech word-object (N = 15) pairings until they habituated.…

MacKenzie, Heather; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

2012-01-01

418

Hydrological cycle during the early Eocene: What can we learn from leaf waxes?  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how rapid warming modified global precipitation patterns during periods of global warming is essential to forecasting the impact of future climate change. The early Eocene (~55-52 Ma) represents a period of peak warmth for the past 65 million years with global temperatures ~10 degrees C warmer than present. This period is also known for at least three, greenhouse gas-induced episodes of rapid global warming (hyperthermals: PETM; ~55 Ma, ETM-2; ~53.7 Ma and ETM-3; 52.8 Ma), often considered extreme analogues to modern climate change. Hyperthermals are also characterized by negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE), which reflect the input of isotopically light carbon responsible for observed temperature increases. A novel proxy used for hydrological reconstructions uses the hydrogen isotopic composition of compound-specific biomarkers preserved in the sedimentary record. For terrestrial leaf-wax lipids (e.g., n-alkanes), the hydrogen isotopic composition primarily reflects the isotopic composition of meteoric waters, which is dependent on distance of vapor transport, number of rainout events, precipitation amount, and evapotranspiration. Isotopic compositions of PETM n-alkanes (?Dalkanes) recovered from the Arctic Ocean show a substantial deuterium (D)-enrichment at the onset of the CIE which was argued to potentially reflect reduced rainout in the mid-latitudes, resulting in increased precipitation in the Arctic (Pagani et al., 2006). D-depleted values of n-alkanes during peak warmth of the PETM suggest either modification of local precipitation or a global change in the fraction of rainout. In this study, we evaluate the veracity of previous conclusions by compiling existing ?Dalkanes records (including from Mar-2X, Venezuela; Tawanui, New Zealand; Wilkes Land, Antarctica; and the Lomonsov Ridge, Arctic) with new records from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and marginal marine sections (including Cicogna, Italy; Giraffe Core, Canadian High Arctic). To determine the background state of the hydrological cycle in a warmer world, we measured early Eocene ?Dalkanes at these sites. This compilation was then compared against results from the isotope-coupled National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model v3.0 (CCSM) global climate model, with Eocene boundary conditions and two different pCO2 levels (2240 and 4480 ppm). Preliminary analyses suggest that the model is able to simulate the equator-pole trends in precipitation ?D. However, predicted values are offset from the n-alkane data by up to 40‰. To study changes in the hydrological cycle with rapid warming, we analyze n-alkane ?D and ?13C values for the PETM and ETM-2. Leads and lags between the carbon and hydrogen isotopic records help constrain the timing and type of hydrological shifts with respect to carbon input. Preliminary results from the ETM-2 recovered from the Arctic indicate similar hydrological changes during both hyperthermals. A pre-event increase in ?D values (of 60‰ during the PETM and 25‰ during ETM-2) is observed, followed by a decrease in ?D (~10-15‰ for both the events) during the peak of the CIE. A significant pre-PETM D-enrichment at mid-latitudes is not evident, however, more negative ?D values during the CIE is observed in some sites. The reasons for these isotopic shifts and their implication for the local and global water cycles will be discussed.

Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.; Huber, M.

2012-12-01

419

Learning to eat vegetables in early life; the role of timing, age and individual eating traits  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n?=?332) aged 4-38 m (18.9±9.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were "learners" (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled "plate-clearers". 16% were considered "non-eaters" eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as "others" (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children.

Caton, Samantha J; Blundell, Pam

2014-01-01

420

Learning to eat vegetables in early life: the role of timing, age and individual eating traits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n?=?332) aged 4-38 m (18.9±9.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were "learners" (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled "plate-clearers". 16% were considered "non-eaters" eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as "others" (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children. PMID:24878745

Caton, Samantha J; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; Mřller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Eloďse; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M

2014-01-01

421

Inquiry in early years science teaching and learning: Curriculum design and the scientific story  

Science.gov (United States)

Inquiry in school science, as conceived by the authors of the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes K--12, is dependent upon four areas of skills. These are the skills of initiating and planning, performing and recording, analysing and interpreting, and communication and teamwork that map onto what Hodson calls the five phases of scientific inquiry in school science: initiation, design and planning, performance, interpretation, and reporting and communicating. This study looked at initiation in a multiage (Grades 1--3) classroom, and the curriculum, design tools, and inquiry acts believed to be necessary precursors of design and planning phases whether the inquiry in which young children engage is archival or laboratory investigation. The curriculum was designed to build upon children's everyday biological knowledge and through a series of carefully organized lessons to help them to begin to build scientifically valid conceptual models in the area of animal life cycles. The lessons began with what is called benchmark-invention after the historical work of Robert Karplus and the contemporary work of Earl Hunt and Jim Minstrell. The introduction of a biological concept was followed by a series of exploration activities in which children were encouraged to apply the concept invented in the benchmark lesson. Enlargement followed. This was the instructional phase in which children were helped to establish scientifically valid relationships between the invented concept and other biological concepts. The pre-instruction and post-instruction interview data suggest that the enacted curriculum and sequence in which the biological knowledge was presented helped the nineteen children in the study to recognize the connections and regularities within the life cycles of the major groupings of animals, and to begin to build scientific biological conceptual models. It is, however, argued that everyday biology, in the form of the person analogy, acts as an obstacle to biological understanding, and that the construction of scientific knowledge depends upon first hand experiences with organisms, as much as it does dialogical interaction, "acts of inquiry", and reflective exploration of multiple sources of information.

McMillan, Barbara Alexander

2001-07-01

422

Transitional Probability and Word Segmentation  

OpenAIRE

This article aims at reviewing the literature in the studies of the relationship between transitional probability and word segmentation in an attempt to emphasize statistical learning as the experience-dependent factor in language acquisition. Transitional probability, the crucial cue of the statistical relationship between syllables, is characterized by its two computation directions: the forward transitional probability and backward transitional probability. Results from the empirical resea...

Yingying Xie

2012-01-01

423

Primitive words and roots of words  

CERN Document Server

In the algebraic theory of codes and formal languages, the set $Q$ of all primitive words over some alphabet $\\zi $ has received special interest. With this survey article we give an overview about relevant research to this topic during the last twenty years including own investigations and some new results. In Section 1 after recalling the most important notions from formal language theory we illustrate the connection between coding theory and primitive words by some facts. We define primitive words as words having only a trivial representation as the power of another word. Nonprimitive words (without the empty word) are exactly the periodic words. Every nonempty word is a power of an uniquely determined primitive word which is called the root of the former one. The set of all roots of nonempty words of a language is called the root of the language. The primitive words have interesting combinatorial properties which we consider in Section 2. In Section 3 we investigate the relationship between the set $Q$ of...

Lischke, Gerhard

2011-01-01

424

Chikungunya outbreak in Al-Hudaydah, Yemen, 2011: epidemiological characterization and key lessons learned for early detection and control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the occurrence of chikungunya fever in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). In January 2011, the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPH&P) of Yemen reported to WHO an increasing number of "dengue-like" acute febrile illnesses of unknown origin from one of its coastal governorates. An epidemiological investigation was conducted in Al-Hudaydah governorate between 23 and 26 January 2011 by a joint team of WHO, the MoPH&P of Yemen and the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit (NAMRU-3) in Cairo, Egypt. The investigation led to the detection of an outbreak of chikungunya in Yemen which was the first time ever from any of the 22 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO. Appropriate public health control measures were strengthened following the investigation, and the outbreak was contained. This paper provides a short description of the outbreak and its epidemiological characteristics and highlights the important lessons that were learned for early detection and control of chikungunya in countries where competent vectors for transmission of the virus exist. PMID:25107656

Malik, Mamunur Rahman; Mnzava, Abraham; Mohareb, Emad; Zayed, Alia; Al Kohlani, Abdulhakeem; Thabet, Ahmed A K; El Bushra, Hassan

2014-09-01

425

Recurrent Partial Words  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

Francine Blanchet-Sadri

2011-08-01

426

A Cross-Linguistic Study of Sound-Symbolism in Children’s Verb Learning  

OpenAIRE

A long history of research has considered the role of iconicity in language and the existence and role of non-arbitrary properties in language and the use of language. Previous studies with Japanese-speaking children whose language defines a large grammatical class of words with clear sound symbolism suggest that iconicity properties in Japanese may aid early verb learning, and a recent extended work suggest that such early sensitivity is not limited to children whose language supports such w...

Yoshida, Hanako

2012-01-01

427

Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Visual presentation of words activates extrastriate regions of the occipital lobes of the brain. When analyzed by positron emission tomography (PET), certain areas in the left, medial extrastriate visual cortex were activated by visually presented pseudowords that obey English spelling rules, as well as by actual words. These areas were not activated by nonsense strings of letters or letter-like forms. Thus visual word form computations are based on learned distinctions between words and nonwords. In addition, during passive presentation of words, but not pseudowords, activation occurred in a left frontal area that is related to semantic processing. These findings support distinctions made in cognitive psychology and computational modeling between high-level visual and semantic computations on single words and describe the anatomy that may underlie these distinctions

428

Pedagogical Change at Times of Change in the Higher Education System: An Exploration of Early Career Mentoring, Co-publication and Teaching & Learning Insights  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Universities are at a time of change. Their social, political and economic conditions are under challenge, while technological change challenges curriculum design and implementation, requiring reconsiderations of teaching and learning practices. In this context, and as par t of the conference session on Higher education in 2014: threshold, watershed or business as usual? , I reviewed an approach I have been trialing to supporting early - and mid - career academics to navigate throug h this changing environment. This paper presents an illustrated essay on a human - scale approach to early - and mid - career mentoring through the establishment of small team - based research and writing projects. The essay provides examples of activities that, on the one hand, assist academics to develop the tools they need to navigate the new and evolving environment of higher education, while on the other hand directly addresses key pedagogical issue s and provide s new insight into teaching and learning in high er education .

Bill Boyd

2015-03-01

429

[Long-term effect of a cognitive intervention on learning and participation in a significant leisure activity in early dementia of Alzheimer type: a case study].  

Science.gov (United States)

Decreased ability to accomplish significant leisure activities often occurs in early stages of dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT). As a long term effect, it may eventually affect the quality of life of the patient as well as that of the caregiver's. In a previous study, a woman with early DAT (77 years old, MMSE: 24/30) improved her participation in 2 leisure activities (listening to music and praying in a group) following the learning of a few tasks (e.g. using a radio cassette, remembering the significance of an pre-programmed ring) as a result of a cognitive intervention. The present study presents the long term effect of this intervention on the retention of the learned tasks and on spontaneous participation in both leisure activities of her daily living. Measures of tasks' learning and spontaneous participation in activities have been obtained through direct observation (ex: ability to use the tasks learned without assistance) and telephone conversations with the caregiver. The measures were taken 9 to 15 months post-intervention. Nine months after the end of the intervention, the participant could no longer use the radio cassette, but was able to remember the significance of the pre-programmed ring. Similarly, she stopped listening to music, but still attended her prayer group. The intervention appears to maintain participation in a leisure activity for several months in a patient with early DAT, in spite of expected functional decline. This functional impact can be achieved through retention of specific learned tasks as well as by strong external cues (daily pre-programmed ring), and can increase the quality of life for patients with DAT. PMID:19473956

Provencher, Véronique; Bier, Nathalie; Audet, Thérčse; Gagnon, Lise

2009-06-01

430

Informative Words and Discreteness  

CERN Document Server

There are certain families of words and word sequences (words in the generators of a two-generator group) that arise frequently in the Teichm{\\"u}ller theory of hyperbolic three-manifolds and Kleinian and Fuchsian groups and in the discreteness problem for two generator matrix groups. We survey some of the families of such words and sequences: the semigroup of so called {\\sl good} words of Gehring-Martin, the so called {\\sl killer} words of Gabai-Meyerhoff-NThurston, the Farey words of Keen-Series and Minsky, the discreteness-algorithm Fibonacci sequences of Gilman-Jiang and {\\sl parabolic dust} words. We survey connections between the families and establish a new connection between good words and Farey words.

Gilman, J

2007-01-01

431

The Relationship between influencing Factors and the Implementation of Early Intervention Programme: The Possibility of Open Distance Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Malaysia, there is a grave concern from various quarters (educators, parents, the public and the Ministry of Education (MOE on the inability of children not acquiring the basic skills (reading, writing and arithmetic. Evidence (Samsilah, Abd Rahman, Sharifah, 2005 showed that there were grade seven students who still could neither read nor write and it was also found that 30 students in the same grade were illiterate (STAR, 1997. Even with intervention programmes, 43.5% of the students reworded failed to acquire the basic skills. One factor identified was teaching effectiveness. Related to this factor is the lack of teachers. Due to the lack of teachers, in some schools, teachers are asked to take on the task of teaching in the intervention programme without proper training, hence, the poor student performance outcome. Yet, there are a number of individuals who would like to be teachers but had no opportunity because of economic reasons or not meeting the requirements post high school for entrance to higher institutions. Therefore, Open Distance Learning (ODL may be the option for these individuals. This may perhaps also solve the woe of the nation’s lacking of teaching staffs. The basic philosophy of ODL promotes ‘inclusion’ and ‘openness’. These two concepts ensure a place and space for all those who were left out from the education mainstream but have the motivation to be corrected a teacher. But, with ODL the academic system will demand a shift in pedagogical paradigm, because ODL entails notably multimedia products and services. Therefore would-be ODL teachers and trainers will be trained via the use of innovative methods and techniques using multi media as the tool of instruction. This study suggests that with instructional innovations perhaps Early Intervention Programme (EIP may have better prospect for success. Other factors in influencing the implementation of the EIP and implications for ODL are also discussed.

Rahil Mahyuddin

2012-08-01

432

Internet Marketing with WordPress  

CERN Document Server

The book's accompanying Interactive learning environment on siteprebuilder.com gives you an online place to enhance and extend your practical experience through exercises, consolidate your learning and theoretical knowledge with marked quizzes, interaction with your WordPress marketing community, and fun and exciting extras such as challenges and competitions. This book is for people already using WordPress, who want more visitors, better visitors, and to convert more of them into paying customers. No prior marketing experience is required, although a basic understanding of either hosted or se

Mercer, David

2011-01-01

433

The ampakine, Org 26576, bolsters early spatial reference learning and retrieval in the Morris water maze: a subchronic, dose-ranging study in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ampakines have shown beneficial effects on cognition in selected animal models of learning. However, their ability to modify long-term spatial memory tasks has not been studied yet. This would lend credence to their possible value in treating disorders of cognition. We evaluated the actions of subchronic Org 26576 administration on spatial reference memory performance in the 5-day Morris water maze task in male Sprague-Dawley rats, at doses of 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg twice daily through intraperitoneal injection over 12 days. Org 26576 exerted a dose and time-dependent effect on spatial learning, with dosages of 3 and 10 mg/kg significantly enhancing acquisition on day 1. Globally, escape latency decreased significantly as the training days progressed in the saline and Org 26576-treated groups, indicating that significant and equal learning had taken place over the learning period. However, at the end of the learning period, all doses of Org 26576 significantly improved spatial memory storage/retrieval without confounding effects in the cued version of the task. Org 26576 offers early phase spatial memory benefits in rats, but particularly enhances search accuracy during reference memory retrieval. These results support its possible utility in treating disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive performance. PMID:19741506

Hamlyn, Eugene; Brand, Linda; Shahid, Mohammed; Harvey, Brian H

2009-10-01

434

Effects of Computer-Based Early-Reading Academic Learning Time on Early-Reading Achievement: A Dose-Response Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Academic learning time (ALT) has long had the theoretical underpinnings sufficient to claim a causal relationship with academic achievement, but to this point empirical evidence has been lacking. This dearth of evidence has existed primarily due to difficulties associated with operationalizing ALT in traditional educational settings. Recent…

Heuston, Edward Benjamin Hull

2010-01-01

435

One word to rule them?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse how the word aesthetic(s isused in the contemporary curriculum (Lpo 94 and syllabuses forcompulsory school education in Sweden. This will be done from aWittgensteinian point of view, with an emphasis on the diversity inthe usage of the word. Lpo 94’s use of the concept of aestheticsindicates that it is seen as something complementary and differentto intellectual knowledge and bodily knowledge. It seems as if ithas some kind of existentialist meaning. Apart from this, the cur-riculum says nothing about what this complementary thing calledaesthetics is. This might explain why the syllabuses for 13 out of23 subjects mention the word aesthetics in quite different ways: asa tool for value and judgement, as a skill, as experience, as a way ofexpressing oneself, as a certain kind of knowledge, as a secondarytool for learning other skills/subjects and as a way to describe asubject. The article ends with reflections on what purpose the cur-riculum has when words are used in such a diverse manner.

Ketil A Thorgersen

2005-01-01

436

Deja Vu All over Again: Re-Revisiting the Conceptual Status of Early Word Learning: Comment on Smith and Samuelson (2006)  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors assert that L. B. Smith and L. Samuelson's (2006; see record EJ750228) most recent critique of A. E. Booth, S. R. Waxman, and Y. T. Huang's (2005; see record EJ684979) work missed its mark, deflecting attention from the important theoretical difference between the two sets of authors' positions and focusing instead on imagined…

Booth, Amy E.; Waxman, Sandra R.

2006-01-01

437

Learning Mathematics in Two Dimensions: A Review and Look Ahead at Teaching and Learning Early Childhood Mathematics with Children’s Literature  

OpenAIRE

In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne & Griffiths, 1991; Haury, 2001; Hellwig, Monroe, & Jacobs, 2000; Hong, 1996; Welchman-Tischler, 1992). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using pic...

LuciaM.Flevares

2014-01-01

438

Bilingual word recognition in a sentence context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides an overview of bilingualism research on visual word recognition in isolation and in sentence context. Many studies investigating the processing of words out-of-context have shown that lexical representations from both languages are activated when reading in one language (language-nonselective lexical access. A newly developed research line asks whether language-nonselective access generalizes to word recognition in sentence contexts, providing a language cue and/or semantic constraint information for upcoming words. Recent studies suggest that the language of the preceding words is insufficient to restrict lexical access to words of the target language, even when reading in the native language. Eyetracking studies revealing the time course of word activation further showed that semantic constraint does not restrict language-nonselective access at early reading stages, but there is evidence that it has a relatively late effect. The theoretical implications for theories of bilingual word recognition are discussed in light of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 2002.

EvaVan Assche

2012-06-01

439

Picturing words? Sensorimotor cortex activation for printed words in child and adult readers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning to read involves associating abstract visual shapes with familiar meanings. Embodiment theories suggest that word meaning is at least partially represented in distributed sensorimotor networks in the brain (Barsalou, 2008; Pulvermueller, 2013). We explored how reading comprehension develops by tracking when and how printed words start activating these "semantic" sensorimotor representations as children learn to read. Adults and children aged 7-10years showed clear category-specific cortical specialization for tool versus animal pictures during a one-back categorisation task. Thus, sensorimotor representations for these categories were in place at all ages. However, co-activation of these same brain regions by the visual objects' written names was only present in adults, even though all children could read and comprehend all presented words, showed adult-like task performance, and older children were proficient readers. It thus takes years of training and expert reading skill before spontaneous processing of printed words' sensorimotor meanings develops in childhood. PMID:25463817

Dekker, Tessa M; Mareschal, Denis; Johnson, Mark H; Sereno, Martin I

2014-12-01

440

Optimization of Word Sense Disambiguation using Clustering in WEKA  

OpenAIRE

In the Natural Language Processing (NLP) community, Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) has been described as the task which selects the appropriate meaning (sense) to a given word in a text or discourse where this meaning is distinguishable from other senses potentially attributable to that word. These senses could be seen as the target labels of a classification problem. Clustering and classification are two important techniques of data mining. Classification is a supervised learning problem of...

Neetu Sharma; Niranjan, Dr S.

2012-01-01

441

PNNL: A Supervised Maximum Entropy Approach to Word Sense Disambiguation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we described the PNNL Word Sense Disambiguation system as applied to the English All-Word task in Se-mEval 2007. We use a supervised learning approach, employing a large number of features and using Information Gain for dimension reduction. Our Maximum Entropy approach combined with a rich set of features produced results that are significantly better than baseline and are the highest F-score for the fined-grained English All-Words subtask.

Tratz, Stephen C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Posse, Christian; Whitney, Paul D.

2007-06-23

442

Do children with specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders benefit from the presence of orthography when learning new spoken words?  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment investigated whether children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and typically developing children benefit from the incidental presence of orthography when learning new oral vocabulary items. Children with SLI, children with ASD, and typically developing children (n=27 per group) between 8 and 13years of age were matched in triplets for age and nonverbal reasoning. Participants were taught 12 mappings between novel phonological strings and referents; half of these mappings were trained with orthography present and half were trained with orthography absent. Groups did not differ on the ability to learn new oral vocabulary, although there was some indication that children with ASD were slower than controls to identify newly learned items. During training, the ASD, SLI, and typically developing groups benefited from orthography to the same extent. In supplementary analyses, children with SLI were matched in pairs to an additional control group of younger typically developing children for nonword reading. Compared with younger controls, children with SLI showed equivalent oral vocabulary acquisition and benefit from orthography during training. Our findings are consistent with current theoretical accounts of how lexical entries are acquired and replicate previous studies that have shown orthographic facilitation for vocabulary acquisition in typically developing children and children with ASD. We demonstrate this effect in SLI for the first time. The study provides evidence that the presence of orthographic cues can support oral vocabulary acquisition, motivating intervention approaches (as well as standard classroom teaching) that emphasize the orthographic form. PMID:25795987

Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E; Patel, Nita; Charman, Tony; Lindsay, Geoff

2015-06-01

443

Can I Have A Word?  

Science.gov (United States)

Just a single word can make all the difference in a poem, an essay, or an entire novel. Educating students of all ages about the importance of words, particularly in creative writing, can be a difficult task. Fortunately, this visually refreshing and well-laid out site created by the Barbican Education group is quite inspiring. The site is divided into four projects including the elements, the human body, the Odyssey, and changing voices. In the elements area, visitors will learn how to create descriptive writing through watching visual presentations and listening to new poems by a variety of authors, including Margot Henderson, Jackie Kay, and Michael Rosen. Also, this section (as with all the other sections) includes classroom activities for teachers. Overall, the site is easy to use and will hopefully serve to inspire a new generation of creative writers.

444

Jordan's Strategies for Early Childhood Education in a Lifelong Learning Framework. UNESCO Policy Brief on Early Childhood. Number 39, July-August 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

Jordan has been paying increased attention to early childhood education in recent years. In particular, the government allocated unprecedented resources to the sector through its Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) 2003/08. Funded by the World Bank and other donor agencies, ERfKE is designed to revamp the education sector starting…

Kaga, Yoshie

2007-01-01

445

A Statistical Model for Word Discovery in Transcribed Speech  

OpenAIRE

A statistical model for segmentation and word discovery in continuous speech is presented. An incremental unsupervised learning algorithm to infer word boundaries based on this model is described. Results of empirical tests showing that the algorithm is competitive with other models that have been used for similar tasks are also presented.

Venkataraman, Anand

2001-01-01

446

Understanding Diversity and the Teacher's Role in Supporting Learning in Diverse Classrooms: Scaffolding Early Childhood Preservice Teacher's Growth in Initial Placements with Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

This research project sought to examine the ways in which early childhood preservice teachers develop an understanding of diversity and the teacher's role in supporting learning in diverse classrooms. Preservice teachers in their initial foundations course and in their initial placements in early childhood settings were participants in the…

Solvie, Pamela A.

2013-01-01

447

Word Hyperbolic Semigroups  

OpenAIRE

The study of word hyperbolic groups is a prominent topic in geometric group theory; however word hyperbolic groups are defined by a geometric condition which does not extend naturally to semigroups. We propose a linguistic definition. Roughly speaking a semigroup is word hyperbolic if its multiplication table is a context free language. For groups this definition is equivalent to the original geometric one. We also briefly consider word problems of semigroups.

Duncan, Andrew; Gilman, Robert H.

2002-01-01

448

Boosting Applied to Word Sense Disambiguation  

CERN Document Server

In this paper Schapire and Singer's AdaBoost.MH boosting algorithm is applied to the Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) problem. Initial experiments on a set of 15 selected polysemous words show that the boosting approach surpasses Naive Bayes and Exemplar-based approaches, which represent state-of-the-art accuracy on supervised WSD. In order to make boosting practical for a real learning domain of thousands of words, several ways of accelerating the algorithm by reducing the feature space are studied. The best variant, which we call LazyBoosting, is tested on the largest sense-tagged corpus available containing 192,800 examples of the 191 most frequent and ambiguous English words. Again, boosting compares favourably to the other benchmark algorithms.

Escudero, G; Rigau, G; Escudero, Gerard; Marquez, Lluis; Rigau, German

2000-01-01

449

WORD. A. DAY  

Science.gov (United States)

A. WORD. A. DAY. is the Web page for the mailing list A.Word A Day (AWAD), which mails out a vocabulary word and its definition (with occasional commentary) to the subscribers every day. Currently AWAD has over 10,000 subscribers in 53 countries.

450

Words of Fortune.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains the game of "Words of Fortune" in which students act out vocabulary words. Notes that this activity provides students the opportunity to make strong visual, aural, and kinesthetic connections with vocabulary lists. Concludes that "Words of Fortune" helps students write better sentences for vocabulary assessment. (PM)

Zumwalt, Marcus

2003-01-01

451

Word Saliency and Frequency of Academic Words in Textbooks: A Case Study in the New Standard College English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Though textbooks are one of the main vocabulary input resources for domestic college students and core contents of learning and testing (Liu, 2013, few empirical studies are done to evaluate learning opportunities provided by textbooks. This empirical study is designed to analyze what learning opportunity is provided in a currently used series of textbooks of academic words, which in the present study are all from the 570-item Academic Word List (AWL that Coxhead (2000 produces based on his self-constructed academic corpus. Through the interpretation of the quantitative and qualitative results, it was found that a favorable learning opportunity of academic words was provided in the number of academic word families appearing in the textbooks, their frequency distribution, and the word in-depth knowledge. The pedagogical implications were as follows: the occurrences of new words in the texts could be adjusted and controlled so as to ensure learners’ learning and use of them, and more attention should be paid to the collocation of words in the textbook designing process, which is vital to realize contextual richness and is conducive to acquire vocabulary.

Yan Liqin

2014-03-01

452

Collaboration and Consultation in Preschool to Promote Early Literacy for Children: Lessons Learned from the CSS Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Collaboration and consultation in early childhood settings is essential in supporting early literacy development; however, building partnerships can be difficult. In this article, we describe a large-scale project entitled Children's School Success (Odom et al., 2003) as a context from which to discuss collaboration and consultation related…

Friesen, Amber; Butera, Gretchen; Kang, Jean; Horn, Eva; Lieber, Joan; Palmer, Susan

2014-01-01

453

From Early Attachment to Engagement with Learning in School: The Role of Self-Regulation and Persistence  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents theoretical arguments and supporting empirical evidence suggesting that attachment experiences in early life may be important in the later development of self-regulation and conscientious behavior. Analyses of data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

Drake, Kim; Belsky, Jay; Fearon, R. M. Pasco

2014-01-01

454

Advancing Early Literacy Learning for All Children: Implications of the NELP Report for Dual-Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors examine the implications and limitations of the National Early Literacy Panel report on the early care of young children who are dual-language learners (DLLs).They examine the relevance of the report for DLLs, particularly the practice in this and other national synthesis reports of extrapolating implications for the education of young…

Gutierrez, Kris D.; Zepeda, Marlene; Castro, Dina C.

2010-01-01

455

Word 2010 Simplified  

CERN Document Server

Simply the easiest way yet to get up to speed on Word 2010. Microsoft Word 2010 includes all sorts of new features and functionalities, a redesigned interface, new emphasis on collaboration, and many additional changes. Both users of previous editions and those new to the Office applications will appreciate the clear, visual instruction in this book. With step-by-step instructions and large, full-color screen shots demonstrating dozens of Word 2010 tasks, Word 2010 Simplified gets you up and running faster than you ever thought possible.: Word is the most-used application in Microsoft Office,

Marmel, Elaine

2010-01-01

456

Panorama de los estudios sobre aprendizaje de palabras en el habla de los nińos de los doce meses a los cuatro ańos de edad Overview of the studies about word learning in the speech of children from two months to four years of age  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esta es una revisión de estudios empíricos sobre el aprendizaje de nuevas palabras en nińos que comienzan a hablar. Se destacan tres grandes momentos en estos estudios. En el momento inicial, en la década de 1970, los estudios están sujetos al estudio del significado en distintos tipos de palabras. En el segundo momento (década de 1980 se estudia la relación entre el uso de nuevas palabras y expresiones verbales, y el desarrollo de conocimientos distintos al lenguaje. En el último momento (desde 1990 hasta la actualidad hay un despliegue de perspectivas conceptuales y de dispositivos experimentales en este campo de estudio. Es importante revisar en la investigación posterior algunos temas descuidados aún: el uso de palabras en oraciones, las definiciones precisas de las categorías gramaticales para clasificar palabras y las relaciones del aprendizaje de nuevas palabras con el resto del desarrollo del lenguaje en el nińo.This is a review of empirical studies on word learning in children who are beginning to speak. The studies are distributed in three phases. The first phase, in the 1970’s, researchers studied the meaning in different kinds of words. In the second phase (1980’s the relationship between new words, verbal expressions and the development of distinct recognitions of language were studied. By the third phase (1990s to date there is a boom in new conceptual perspectives and experimental devices in this field of study. It is important to review in previous research some areas that were looked over such as: the use of words in sentences, more accurate definitions for grammatical categories used to classify words, and the relationship between new word learning and others aspects of a child’s language development.

Nicolás Arias

2007-12-01

457

Panorama de los estudios sobre aprendizaje de palabras en el habla de los nińos de los doce meses a los cuatro ańos de edad / Overview of the studies about word learning in the speech of children from two months to four years of age  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Esta es una revisión de estudios empíricos sobre el aprendizaje de nuevas palabras en nińos que comienzan a hablar. Se destacan tres grandes momentos en estos estudios. En el momento inicial, en la década de 1970, los estudios están sujetos al estudio del significado en distintos tipos de palabras. [...] En el segundo momento (década de 1980) se estudia la relación entre el uso de nuevas palabras y expresiones verbales, y el desarrollo de conocimientos distintos al lenguaje. En el último momento (desde 1990 hasta la actualidad) hay un despliegue de perspectivas conceptuales y de dispositivos experimentales en este campo de estudio. Es importante revisar en la investigación posterior algunos temas descuidados aún: el uso de palabras en oraciones, las definiciones precisas de las categorías gramaticales para clasificar palabras y las relaciones del aprendizaje de nuevas palabras con el resto del desarrollo del lenguaje en el nińo. Abstract in english This is a review of empirical studies on word learning in children who are beginning to speak. The studies are distributed in three phases. The first phase, in the 1970’s, researchers studied the meaning in different kinds of words. In the second phase (1980’s) the relationship between new words, ve [...] rbal expressions and the development of distinct recognitions of language were studied. By the third phase (1990s to date) there is a boom in new conceptual perspectives and experimental devices in this field of study. It is important to review in previous research some areas that were looked over such as: the use of words in sentences, more accurate definitions for grammatical categories used to classify words, and the relationship between new word learning and others aspects of a child’s language development.

Nicolás, Arias; Barbarita, Morales.

2007-12-01

458

Differential Prefrontal and Subcortical Circuitry Engagement During Encoding of Semantically Related Words in Patients with Late Life Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Verbal memory difficulties are common among individuals with late-life depression (LLD), though there is limited knowledge about disruptions to underlying cerebral circuitry. The purpose of this study is to examine aberrations to cerebral networks implicated in encoding novel verbal semantic material among older adults with LLD. Methods Twenty-four older adults with early-onset LLD and 23 non-depressed comparisons (NDC) participated in the study. Participants completed a word list-learning task while undergoing fMRI. Results In the context of equivalent recall and recognition of words following scanning and similar hippocampal volumes, patients with LLD exhibited less activation in structures known to be relevant for new learning and memory, including hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, and cingulate, relative to non-ill comparisons. An important region in which the LLD group displayed greater activation than the NDC group was in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area involved in cognitive control and controlled semantic/phonological retrieval and analysis; this region may be critical for LLD patients to consolidate encoded words into memory. Conclusions Functional irregularities found in LLD patients may reflect different modes of processing to-be-remembered information and/or early changes predictive of incipient cognitive decline. Future studies might consider mechanisms that could contribute to these functional differences, including HPA-axis functioning and vascular integrity, and utilize longitudinal designs in order to understand whether functional changes are predictive of incipient cognitive decline. PMID:24948034

Weisenbach, Sara L.; Kassel, Michelle T.; Rao, Julia; Weldon, Annie L.; Avery, Erich T.; Briceno, Emily M.; Ajilore, Olusala; Mann, Megan; Kales, Helen C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A.

2015-01-01

459

The KhoeSan Early Learning Center Pilot Project: Negotiating Power and Possibility in a South African Institute of Higher Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

As we search for a new paradigm in post-apartheid South Africa, the knowledge base and worldview of the KhoeSan first Indigenous peoples is largely missing. The South African government has established various mechanisms as agents for social change. Institutions of higher learning have implemented transformation programs. KhoeSan peoples, however,…

De Wet, Priscilla

2011-01-01

460

Approximate number word knowledge before the cardinal principle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximate number word knowledge-understanding the relation between the count words and the approximate magnitudes of sets-is a critical piece of knowledge that predicts later math achievement. However, researchers disagree about when children first show evidence of approximate number word knowledge-before, or only after, they have learned the cardinal principle. In two studies, children who had not yet learned the cardinal principle (subset-knowers) produced sets in response to number words (verbal comprehension task) and produced number words in response to set sizes (verbal production task). As evidence of approximate number word knowledge, we examined whether children's numerical responses increased with increasing numerosity of the stimulus. In Study 1, subset-knowers (ages 3.0-4.2 years) showed approximate number word knowledge above their knower-level on both tasks, but this effect did not extend to numbers above 4. In Study 2, we collected data from a broader age range of subset-knowers (ages 3.1-5.6 years). In this sample, children showed approximate number word knowledge on the verbal production task even when only examining set sizes above 4. Across studies, children's age predicted approximate number word knowledge (above 4) on the verbal production task when controlling for their knower-level, study (1 or 2), and parents' education, none of which predicted approximation ability. Thus, children can develop approximate knowledge of number words up to 10 before learning the cardinal principle. Furthermore, approximate number word knowledge increases with age and might not be closely related to the development of exact number word knowledge. PMID:25462030

Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Spaepen, Elizabet; Levine, Susan C

2015-02-01

461

Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.  

Science.gov (United States)

Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n?=?143) and African Americans (n?=?103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

2011-08-01

462

Interactive, Conceptual Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction one Word at a Time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement. This research study explores the use of interactive, conceptual word walls to support science learning in an ethnically diverse, high-poverty middle school in a large southern state. Unit test scores of 115 sixth grade students were collected and analyzed in order to test whether the percentage of students passing, and the mean test score among students, significantly varied on the basis of whether interactive, conceptual word walls were utilized. Both were found to be significant. Linear regression determined the effects of word walls on the basis of three demographic variables. On the basis of this analysis, the percentage of students passing is expected to increase by 25% and the mean test scores is predicted to increase by 12.56 points when interactive, conceptual word walls are utilized. Qualitative methods were used to analyze student and teacher perceptions. A good, better, best word wall rubric that was used to guide word wall construction and teacher reflection is also presented. Interactive, conceptual word walls are presented as a viable teaching strategy that positively impacts both unit test means and the total number of students passing science tests.

Julie K. Jackson

2013-11-01

463

Primitive words and roots of words  

OpenAIRE

In the algebraic theory of codes and formal languages, the set $Q$ of all primitive words over some alphabet $\\zi $ has received special interest. With this survey article we give an overview about relevant research to this topic during the last twenty years including own investigations and some new results. In Section 1 after recalling the most important notions from formal language theory we illustrate the connection between coding theory and primitive words by some facts....

Lischke, Gerhard

2011-01-01

464

The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

2012-01-01

465

Early socio-emotional experience induces expression of the immediate-early gene Arc/arg3.1 (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein/activity-regulated gene) in learning-relevant brain regions of the newborn chick.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have cloned a full-length complementary DNA from the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), which encodes a polypeptide that exhibits approximately 75% identity to the product of the mammalian gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein), also known as arg3.1 (activity-regulated gene). Since this gene is an immediate-early gene that has been suggested to play a role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory processes, its expression has been analyzed in a juvenile form of learning, namely, filial imprinting. Our results demonstrate that Arc/arg3.1 mRNA is detectable in the newborn chick brain, and that at this early age the level of this transcript can be altered by brief sensory/emotional experience. After postnatal exposure to a novel 30-min auditory imprinting stimulus, Arc/arg3.1 mRNA was found to be significantly increased in two higher associative areas, the mesopallium intermediomediale (P = 0.002) and the nidopallium dorso-caudale (P = 0.031), compared with naďve controls. The transcript level was also significantly elevated after imprinting in Area L pallii (P=0.045), which is analogous to the mammalian auditory cortex. In addition, increases were seen in the medio-rostral nidopallium/mesopallium (P = 0.054), which is presumed to be the analog of the mammalian prefrontal cortex, and the hyperpallium intercalatum (P = 0.054), but these did not quite reach significance. We discuss these data in the light of those obtained in an earlier study, in the same paradigm, for the avian immediate-early gene, zenk (an acronym for zif-268, egr-1, ngfi-a and krox-24, which are different names for the orthologous mammalian gene). We conclude that, although both the Arc/arg3.1 and zenk genes are induced by auditory imprinting, they are significantly up-regulated in different learning-relevant brain regions. It is, therefore, evident that they must be activated by different mechanisms. PMID:15908132

Bock, J; Thode, C; Hannemann, O; Braun, K; Darlison, M G

2005-01-01

466

What Are Learning Disabilities?  

Science.gov (United States)

... They confuse words and are easily distracted. 11 Nonverbal learning disorders. People with these conditions have strong ... dyspraxia/ [top] National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. (2010). Apraxia of speech . Retrieved August 30, ...

467

Lessons in Early Learning: Building an Integrated Pre-K-12 System in Montgomery County Public Schools. Education Reform Series  

Science.gov (United States)

This 2010 report looked at how Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) used local and federal dollars to craft, implement and improve a system-wide education reform strategy built on a foundation of providing high-quality pre-k education. School officials, state and federal policymakers alike will benefit from learning about the trail that MCPS…

Marietta, Geoff

2010-01-01

468

Word 2010 Bible  

CERN Document Server

In-depth guidance on Word 2010 from a Microsoft MVP. Microsoft Word 2010 arrives with many changes and improvements, and this comprehensive guide from Microsoft MVP Herb Tyson is your expert, one-stop resource for it all. Master Word's new features such as a new interface and customized Ribbon, major new productivity-boosting collaboration tools, how to publish directly to blogs, how to work with XML, and much more. Follow step-by-step instructions and best practices, avoid pitfalls, discover practical workarounds, and get the very most out of your new Word 2010 with this packed guide. Coverag

Tyson, Herb

2010-01-01

469

Linguistic labels, dynamic visual features, and attention in infant category learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

How do words affect categorization? According to some accounts, even early in development words are category markers and are different from other features. According to other accounts, early in development words are part of the input and are akin to other features. The current study addressed this issue by examining the role of words and dynamic visual features in category learning in 8- to 12-month-old infants. Infants were familiarized with exemplars from one category in a label-defined or motion-defined condition and then tested with prototypes from the studied category and from a novel contrast category. Eye-tracking results indicated that infants exhibited better category learning in the motion-defined condition than in the label-defined condition, and their attention was more distributed among different features when there was a dynamic visual feature compared with the label-defined condition. These results provide little evidence for the idea that linguistic labels are category markers that facilitate category learning. PMID:25819100

Deng, Wei Sophia; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

2015-06-01

470

Discovering Words in Fluent Speech: The Contribution of Two Kinds of Statistical Information  

OpenAIRE

To efficiently segment fluent speech, infants must discover the predominant phonological form of words in the native language. In English, for example, content words typically begin with a stressed syllable. To discover this regularity, infants need to identify a set of words. We propose that statistical learning plays two roles in this process. First, it provides a cue that allows infants to segment words from fluent speech, even without language-specific phonological knowledge. Second, once...

ErikDThiessen

2013-01-01

471

Joint Chinese Word Segmentation and POS Tagging Using an Error-Driven Word-Character Hybrid Model  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a discriminative word-character hybrid model for joint Chinese word segmentation and POS tagging. Our word-character hybrid model offers high performance since it can handle both known and unknown words.We describe our strategies that yield good balance for learning the characteristics of known and unknown words and propose an error-driven policy that delivers such balance by acquiring examples of unknown words from particular errors in a training corpus. We describe an efficient framework for training our model based on the Margin Infused Relaxed Algorithm (MIRA), evaluate our approach on the Penn Chinese Treebank, and show that it achieves superior performance compared to the state-of-the-art approaches reported in the literature.

Kruengkrai, Canasai; Uchimoto, Kiyotaka; Kazama, Jun'ichi; Wang, Yiou; Torisawa, Kentaro; Isahara, Hitoshi

472

Root Words- Greek and Latin  

Science.gov (United States)

Greek and Latin are parts of many of the words you use every day. Using the links provided create 10 new words. Also figure out what the 5 words below mean. Check out these links for help in creating your new words. Sometimes you will need to scroll down to find the information. Latin and Greek Word Elements Greek and Latin Root Words List Latin Greek Roots Index Take Our Word For It Word Translation 1. Chromophobe 2. Loqumal 3. Rogospath 4. Hypnoliver 5. Aquaport Root Words Quiz Select one of the sections one-six and see how well you do now that you have become better acquainted with Greek and ...

Miss B

2007-06-21

473

Learning Partnerships with Parents of Young Children: Studying the Impact of a Major Festival of Early Childhood in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Out of the Box" Festival of Early Childhood is a unique public event in Australia designed to enrich the creative and cultural lives of children aged 3-8 years and their communities. The research linked to this festival is based on the premise that parents' participation in, and value of the arts, impacts engagements with, and value placed on…

Tayler, Collette; Mcardle, Felicity; Richer, Susan; Brennan, Collette; Weier, Katrina

2006-01-01

474

Learning by Teaching: Undergraduate Engineering Students Improving a Community's Response Capability to an Early Warning System  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a project in which students designed, constructed and tested a model of an existing early warning system with simulation of debris flow in a context of a landslide. Students also assessed rural community members' knowledge of this system and subsequently taught them to estimate the time needed for evacuation of the…

Suvannatsiri, Ratchasak; Santichaianant, Kitidech; Murphy, Elizabeth

2015-01-01

475

High-Quality School-Based Pre-K Can Boost Early Learning for Children with Special Needs  

Science.gov (United States)

This article assesses the effects of Tulsa, Oklahoma's school-based prekindergarten program on the school readiness of children with special needs using a regression discontinuity design. Participation in the pre-K program was associated with significant gains for children with special needs in early literacy scores, but not in math scores. These…

Phillips, Deborah A.; Meloy, Mary E.

2012-01-01

476

"A Day in the Life": Advancing a Methodology for the Cultural Study of Development and Learning in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the methodology of an ecological investigation of aspects of culture in the interactional construction of early childhood in diverse global communities: Peru, Italy, Canada, Thailand, and the United Kingdom. Regarding culture as a dynamic dimension of the child's socialisation, the approach taken was to film a "day in the life"…

Gillen, Julia; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Tapanya, Sombat; Pinto, Giuliana; Hancock, Roger; Young, Susan; Gamannossi, Beatrice Accorti

2007-01-01

477

Remarks on separating words  

CERN Document Server

The separating words problem asks for the size of the smallest DFA needed to distinguish between two words of length <= n (by accepting one and rejecting the other). In this paper we survey what is known and unknown about the problem, consider some variations, and prove several new results.

Demaine, Erik D; Shallit, Jeffrey; Wilson, David A

2011-01-01

478

Age of acquisition in sport: starting early matters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the age at which a skill is learned (age of acquisition [AoA]) is one of the most studied predictors of success in domains ranging from language to music, very little work has focused on this factor in sports. In order to uncover how the age at which a skill is learned relates to how athletes cognitively represent that skill, we asked a group of skilled golfers who learned to play golf before (early learners) or after (late learners) the age of 10 to take a series of putts on an indoor putting green. Golfers putted in isolation (single-task condition), while monitoring a stream of words presented over a loudspeaker (dual-task condition), or while being instructed to attend to specific aspects of their golf swing (skill-focused condition). Early and late learners putted equally well in the single-task and dual-task conditions. However, in the skill-focused condition, golfers who learned earlier performed worse than those who learned later. The results are consistent with the notion that AoA influences the manner in which sports, like other domains such as language and music, are represented in memory. PMID:21977688

Hernandez, Arturo E; Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Redding, Richard W T; Woods, Elizabeth A; Beilock, Sian

2011-01-01

479

Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines on Word Observations  

CERN Document Server

The restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) is a flexible tool for modeling complex data, however there have been significant computational difficulties in using RBMs to model high-dimensional multinomial observations. In natural language processing applications, words are naturally modeled by K-ary discrete distributions, where K is determined by the vocabulary size and can easily be in the hundred thousands. The conventional approach to training RBMs on word observations is limited because it requires sampling the states of K-way softmax visible units during block Gibbs updates, an operation that takes time linear in K. In this work, we address this issue by employing a more general class of Markov chain Monte Carlo operators on the visible units, yielding updates with computational complexity independent of K. We demonstrate the success of our approach by training RBMs on hundreds of millions of word n-grams using larger vocabularies than previously feasible with RBMs and using the learned features to improve p...

Dahl, George E; Larochelle, Hugo

2012-01-01

480

Iconic gestures prime words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a cross-modal semantic priming paradigm, both experiments of the present study investigated the link between the mental representations of iconic gestures and words. Two groups of the participants performed a primed lexical decision task where they had to discriminate between visually presented words and nonwords (e.g., flirp). Word targets (e.g., bird) were preceded by video clips depicting either semantically related (e.g., pair of hands flapping) or semantically unrelated (e.g., drawing a square with both hands) gestures. The duration of gestures was on average 3,500 ms in Experiment 1 but only 1,000 ms in Experiment 2. Significant priming effects were observed in both experiments, with faster response latencies for related gesture-word pairs than unrelated pairs. These results are consistent with the idea of interactions between the gestural and lexical representational systems, such that mere exposure to iconic gestures facilitates the recognition of semantically related words. PMID:21428996

Yap, De-Fu; So, Wing-Chee; Yap, Ju-Min Melvin; Tan, Ying-Quan; Teoh, Ruo-Li Serene

2011-01-01