WorldWideScience

Sample records for early word learning

  1. Remembering New Words: Integrating Early Memory Development into Word Learning

    Wojcik, Erica H.

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully acquire a new word, young children must learn the correct associations between labels and their referents. For decades, word-learning researchers have explored how young children are able to form these associations. However, in addition to learning label-referent mappings, children must also remember them. Despite the importance of memory processes in forming a stable lexicon, there has been little integration of early memory research into the study of early word lear...

  2. The role of association in early word-learning

    ScottPJohnson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Word-learning likely involves a multiplicity of components, some domain-general, others domain-specific. Against the background of recent studies that suggest that word-learning is domain-specific, we investigated the associative component of word-learning. Seven- and 14-month-old infants viewed a pair of events in which a monkey or a truck moved back and forth, accompanied by a sung syllable or a tone, matched for pitch. Following habituation, infants were presented with displays in which the visual-auditory pairings were preserved or switched, and looked longer at the “switch” events when exposure time was sufficient to learn the intermodal association. At 7 months, performance on speech and tones conditions was statistically identical; at 14 months, infants had begun to favor speech. Thus, the associative component of word-learning does not appear (in contrast to rule-learning, Marcus et al., 2007 to initially privilege speech.

  3. Sonority and early words

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus; Basbøll, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises, are...

  4. Learning words

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning ...

  5. Vocalic and consonantal processing biases in early word-learning: Cross-language differences?

    Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Previous research showed that French-learning 16- or 20-month-olds could learn pairs of words that differed by a single consonantal but not vocalic feature. Danish has a richer vowel inventory than French, allowing for 31 phonological vowel contrasts, including vowel length and presence/absence o...

  6. Caregivers' Gestures Direct Infant Attention during Early Word Learning: The Importance of Dynamic Synchrony

    Rader, Nancy de Villiers; Zukow-Goldring, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How do young infants discover word meanings? We have theorized that caregivers educate infants' attention (cf. Gibson, J.J., 1966) by synchronizing the saying of a word with a dynamic gesture displaying the object/referent (Zukow-Goldring, 1997). Detecting an amodal invariant across gesture and speech brackets the word and object within the

  7. Neural bases of rapid word learning

    Shtyrov, Yury

    2012-01-01

    currently available data not only demonstrate the hippocampal role in rapid encoding followed by slow-rate consolidation of cortical word memory traces but also suggest immediate neocortical involvement in the word memory trace formation. Echoing early behavioral studies in ultra-rapid word learning, the...... levels, are not yet understood. In this update, the author highlights a selection of recent studies that attempted to trace word learning in the human brain noninvasively. A number of brain areas, most notably in hippocampus and neocortex, appear to take part in word acquisition. Critically, the......Humans are unique in developing large lexicons as their communication tool; to achieve this, they are able to learn new words rapidly. However, neural bases of this rapid learning, which may be an expression of a more general cognitive mechanism likely rooted in plasticity at cellular and synaptic...

  8. Constraints on generalisation in a self-organising model of early word learning

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2008-01-01

    We investigate from a modelling perspective how lexical structure can be grounded in the underlying speech and visual categories that infants have already acquired. We demonstrate that the formation of well-structured categories is an important prerequisite for successful generalisation of cross-modal associations such that even after a single presentation of a word-object pair, the model is able to generalise to other members of the category. This ability to generalise a label to objects of ...

  9. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  10. The Role of Exposure to Isolated Words in Early Vocabulary Development.

    Brent, Michael R.; Siskind, Jeffrey M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined role of isolated words in early vocabulary development. Found that isolated words are a reliable feature of speech to infants; that they include a variety of word types; and that a substantial fraction of words infants produce are words that mothers speak in isolation. Frequency of hearing words in isolation better predicts learning than

  11. Word learning under infinite uncertainty.

    Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Andrew D M; Smith, Kenny

    2016-06-01

    Language learners must learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite those words occurring in complex environments in which infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as a word's true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which word learning is possible. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is in fact possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints which allow learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could themselves be weak. This approach lifts the burden of explanation from 'smart' word learning constraints in learners, and suggests a programme of research into weak, unreliable, probabilistic constraints on the inference of word meaning in real word learners. PMID:26927884

  12. Novel Spoken Word Learning in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    Conner, Peggy S.

    2013-01-01

    A high percentage of individuals with dyslexia struggle to learn unfamiliar spoken words, creating a significant obstacle to foreign language learning after early childhood. The origin of spoken-word learning difficulties in this population, generally thought to be related to the underlying literacy deficit, is not well defined (e.g., Di Betta…

  13. Do Preschool Children Learn to Read Words from Environmental Prints?

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Pei; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Su

    2014-01-01

    Parents and teachers worldwide believe that a visual environment rich with print can contribute to young children's literacy. Children seem to recognize words in familiar logos at an early age. However, most of previous studies were carried out with alphabetic scripts. Alphabetic letters regularly correspond to phonological segments in a word and provide strong cues about the identity of the whole word. Thus it was not clear whether children can learn to read words by extracting visual word f...

  14. Word learning under infinite uncertainty

    Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    Language learners learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite encountering them in complex environments where infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as their true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which this can happen. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints allowing learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could also be weak.

  15. Learning Words through Multimedia Application

    Zhang, Chun

      This study explores the relevance of multimedia application in relation to vocabulary acquisition in the classroom of Chinese as a foreign language. The herein depicted application refers to the computer-assisted implicit word-learning, wherein the Danish students built hypertexts to acquire...

  16. Rehearsal Effects in Adult Word Learning

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the effects of phonological familiarity and rehearsal method (vocal vs. subvocal) on novel word learning. In Experiment 1, English-speaking adults learned phonologically familiar novel words that followed English phonological structure. Participants learned half the words via vocal rehearsal (saying the

  17. Learning and Consolidation of Novel Spoken Words

    Davis, Matthew H.; Di Betta, Anna Maria; Macdonald, Mark J. E.; Gaskell, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments explored the neural mechanisms underlying the learning and consolidation of novel spoken words. In Experiment 1, participants learned two sets of novel words on successive days. A subsequent recognition test revealed high levels of familiarity for both sets. However, a lexical decision task showed that only novel words learned on…

  18. Learning the language of time: Children's acquisition of duration words.

    Tillman, Katharine A; Barner, David

    2015-05-01

    Children use time words like minute and hour early in development, but take years to acquire their precise meanings. Here we investigate whether children assign meaning to these early usages, and if so, how. To do this, we test their interpretation of seven time words: second, minute, hour, day, week, month, and year. We find that preschoolers infer the orderings of time words (e.g., hour>minute), but have little to no knowledge of the absolute durations they encode. Knowledge of absolute duration is learned much later in development - many years after children first start using time words in speech - and in many children does not emerge until they have acquired formal definitions for the words. We conclude that associating words with the perception of duration does not come naturally to children, and that early intuitive meanings of time words are instead rooted in relative orderings, which children may infer from their use in speech. PMID:25867093

  19. La Comprensin Referencial Temprana: Aprendiendo Palabras a Travs de Imgenes con Distinto Nivel de Iconicismo / Early Referential Comprehension: Learning Words Through Pictures With Different Levels of Iconicity

    Florencia, Mareovich; Olga, Peralta.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de la comprensin referencial de imgenes transita un largo camino durante los primeros aos de vida. Esta investigacin tuvo como objetivo explorar el impacto del iconicismo en la comprensin referencial de imgenes impresas y el aprendizaje de palabras. En 2 estudios se ense a una [...] muestra por conveniencia de 34 nios de 30 meses de edad de jardines infantiles de Rosario, Argentina, una palabra nueva aplicada a un objeto desconocido, mediante un libro de imgenes. Se compar la ejecucin infantil en 2 condiciones, fotografas y bocetos, variando el nivel de iconicismo o grado en que la imagen se asemeja al referente. La Prueba Exacta de Fisher revel que aprendiendo con bocetos la palabra quedaba fuertemente asociada a la imagen, obstaculizando ver el objeto a travs de ella, lo que no se observ en los nios que aprendieron la palabra mediante fotografas. Los resultados muestran que la similitud perceptual incide en la comprensin referencial, siendo las imgenes icnicas representaciones ms transparentes a edades tempranas. Estos resultados pueden tener implicancias en el diseo de libros educativos para nios pequeos. Abstract in english The referential understanding of pictures undergoes a long development process during the first years of life. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of iconicity on the referential comprehension of printed images and on the learning of words. In 2 studies, 30-month-old children from [...] preschools in Rosario, Argentina, were taught a new word applied to an unknown object using a picture book. The performance of the children was compared in 2 conditions: photographs and sketches, with varying levels of iconicity-the degree to which the image resembles the referent. Fishers Exact Test revealed that, when learning with sketches, the word remained strongly associated with the printed picture, thus hampering access to its referent, the object. This was not the case when children learned the new word with photographs. The results show that perceptual similarity impacts on referential comprehension, with iconic pictures being more transparent representations at early ages. These findings may have implications for the design of educational books for young children.

  20. Word Learning: An ERP Investigation of Word Experience Effects on Recognition and Word Processing

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., "gloaming") in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no…

  1. A phonetic approach to consonant repetition in early words.

    Kim, Namhee; Davis, Barbara L

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate movement-based principles for understanding early speech output patterns. Consonant repetition patterns within children's actual productions of word forms were analyzed using spontaneous speech data from 10 typically developing American-English learning children between 12 and 36 months of age. Place of articulation, word level patterns, and developmental trends in CVC and CVCV repeated word forms were evaluated. Labial and coronal place repetitions dominated. Regressive repetition (e.g., [gag] for "dog") occurred frequently in CVC but not in CVCV word forms. Consonant repetition decreased over time. However, the children produced sound types available reported as being within young children's production system capabilities in consonant repetitions in all time periods. Findings suggest that a movement-based approach can provide a framework for comprehensively characterizing consonant place repetition patterns in early speech development. PMID:26176184

  2. Asymmetries in Early Word Recognition: The Case of Stops and Fricatives

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; van der Feest, Suzanne V. H.; Fikkert, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Toddlers' discrimination of native phonemic contrasts is generally unproblematic. Yet using those native contrasts in word learning and word recognition can be more challenging. In this article, we investigate perceptual versus phonological explanations for asymmetrical patterns found in early word recognition. We systematically investigated…

  3. Ambiguous Words Are Harder to Learn

    Degani, Tamar; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of ambiguity in adult second-language learning. In this study, native English speakers learned Dutch-English translation pairs that either mapped in a one-to-one fashion (unambiguous items) in that a Dutch word uniquely corresponded to one English word, or mapped in a one-to-many fashion (ambiguous items),…

  4. Sensitivity to Sampling in Bayesian Word Learning

    Xu, Fei; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2007-01-01

    We report a new study testing our proposal that word learning may be best explained as an approximate form of Bayesian inference (Xu & Tenenbaum, in press). Children are capable of learning word meanings across a wide range of communicative contexts. In different contexts, learners may encounter different sampling processes generating the examples…

  5. Noise Hampers Children's Expressive Word Learning

    Riley, Kristine Grohne; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of noise and speech style on word learning in typically developing school-age children. Method: Thirty-one participants ages 9;0 (years;months) to 10;11 attempted to learn 2 sets of 8 novel words and their referents. They heard all of the words 13 times each within meaningful narrative discourse. Signal-to-noise

  6. Noise Hampers Children's Expressive Word Learning

    Riley, Kristine Grohne; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of noise and speech style on word learning in typically developing school-age children. Method: Thirty-one participants ages 9;0 (years;months) to 10;11 attempted to learn 2 sets of 8 novel words and their referents. They heard all of the words 13 times each within meaningful narrative discourse. Signal-to-noise…

  7. Alexithymia and incidental learning of emotional words.

    Suslow, Thomas; Kersting, Anette; Arolt, Volker

    2003-12-01

    Alexithymia is thought to reflect a deficit in the cognitive capacity to process emotions. Prior research suggests that emotional valence has a memory enhancing effect in poor conceptual learning conditions. This study addressed the question of whether incidental learning of emotional words is a function of alexithymic tendencies. Incidental learning is unintentional learning that results from other activities. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and measures of depression and verbal intelligence were administered to 30 nonclinical subjects (15 women, 15 men) whose mean age was 35.5 yr. (SD = 8.6) along with a sequential word-word evaluation task. Partial correlations indicated that the TAS-20 subscale, Difficulties identifying feelings was negatively correlated with recall of positive distractor words but not with recall of neutral distractors or recall of positive or negative target words. Emotional valence appears to have less organizational power in the memory of individuals with difficulties in recognizing their feelings. PMID:14765561

  8. Do preschool children learn to read words from environmental prints?

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Pei; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Su

    2014-01-01

    Parents and teachers worldwide believe that a visual environment rich with print can contribute to young children's literacy. Children seem to recognize words in familiar logos at an early age. However, most of previous studies were carried out with alphabetic scripts. Alphabetic letters regularly correspond to phonological segments in a word and provide strong cues about the identity of the whole word. Thus it was not clear whether children can learn to read words by extracting visual word form information from environmental prints. To exclude the phonological-cue confound, this study tested children's knowledge of Chinese words embedded in familiar logos. The four environmental logos were employed and transformed into four versions with the contextual cues (i.e., something apart from the presentation of the words themselves in logo format like the color, logo and font type cues) gradually minimized. Children aged from 3 to 5 were tested. We observed that children of different ages all performed better when words were presented in highly familiar logos compared to when they were presented in a plain fashion, devoid of context. This advantage for familiar logos was also present when the contextual information was only partial. However, the role of various cues in learning words changed with age. The color and logo cues had a larger effect in 3- and 4- year-olds than in 5-year-olds, while the font type cue played a greater role in 5-year-olds than in the other two groups. Our findings demonstrated that young children did not easily learn words by extracting their visual form information even from familiar environmental prints. However, children aged 5 begin to pay more attention to the visual form information of words in highly familiar logos than those aged 3 and 4. PMID:24465677

  9. What counts as effective input for word learning?*

    SHNEIDMAN, LAURA A.; ARROYO, MICHELLE E.; LEVINE, SUSAN C.; GOLDIN-MEADOW, SUSAN

    2012-01-01

    The talk children hear from their primary caregivers predicts the size of their vocabularies. But children who spend time with multiple individuals also hear talk that others direct to them, as well as talk not directed to them at all. We investigated the effect of linguistic input on vocabulary acquisition in children who routinely spent time with one vs. multiple individuals. For all children, the number of words primary caregivers directed to them at age 2;6 predicted vocabulary size at age 3;6. For children who spent time with multiple individuals, child-directed words from all household members also predicted later vocabulary and accounted for more variance in vocabulary than words from primary caregivers alone. Interestingly, overheard words added no predictive value to the model. These findings suggest that speech directed to children is important for early word learning, even in households where a sizable proportion of input comes from overheard speech. PMID:22575125

  10. Learning Words through Computer-Adaptive Tool

    Zhang, Chun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to provide a framework for integrating computer-adaptive tool in Word Picture Game (WPG), a program designed for studying Chinese words at elementary level. The paper aims at such areas as technology, theories and practice. All of the areas are being discussed within the...... category of L2 lexical learning in computer-adaptive learning environment. The reason to adopt computer-adaptive tool in WPG is based on the following premises: 1. Lexical learning is incremental in nature. 2. Learning can be measured precisely with tests (objectivist epistemology). In the course of WPG...

  11. Infants' Learning of Novel Words in a Stochastic Environment

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Werker, Janet F.

    2009-01-01

    In everyday word learning words are only sometimes heard in the presence of their referent, making the acquisition of novel words a particularly challenging task. The current study investigated whether children (18-month-olds who are novice word learners) can track the statistics of co-occurrence between words and objects to learn novel mappings…

  12. The Role of Emotion in Word Learning

    Doan, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    The way in which emotion interacts with cognition has been of great interest to researchers for hundreds of years. Emotion has been shown to play an important role in attention, learning and memory. However, the way in which emotion influences the basic process of word learning in infancy has largely been ignored. In the current paper, the

  13. Word Learning in 6-Month-Olds: Fast Encoding-Weak Retention

    Friedrich, Manuela; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    There has been general consensus that initial word learning during early infancy is a slow and time-consuming process that requires very frequent exposure, whereas later in development, infants are able to quickly learn a novel word for a novel meaning. From the perspective of memory maturation, this shift in behavioral development might represent…

  14. Early word recognition and later language skill

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of infants who had earlier participated in speech segmentation tasks. Each study extends prior follow-up tests: Study 1 by using a novel follow-up measure that taps into online processing, Study 2 by ...

  15. Does Hearing Several Speakers Reduce Foreign Word Learning?

    Ludington, Jason Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Learning spoken word forms is a vital part of second language learning, and CALL lends itself well to this training. Not enough is known, however, about how auditory variation across speech tokens may affect receptive word learning. To find out, 144 Thai university students with no knowledge of the Patani Malay language learned 24 foreign words in…

  16. Phonological similarity influences word learning in adults learning Spanish as a foreign language

    Stamer, Melissa K.; VITEVITCH, MICHAEL S.

    2011-01-01

    Neighborhood density—the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)—influences word-learning in native English speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words with few similar sounding English words (i.e., sparse neighborhood). The present study examined how neighborhood density influences word-learning in nat...

  17. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    2010-04-21

    ... Early Learning AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of public..., is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and development, families..., researchers of early learning, stakeholders who work with early learning and development for young...

  18. Phonetic Processing When Learning Words

    Havy, Mlanie; Bouchon, Camillia; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Infants have remarkable abilities to learn several languages. However, phonological acquisition in bilingual infants appears to vary depending on the phonetic similarities or differences of their two native languages. Many studies suggest that learning contrasts with different realizations in the two languages (e.g., the /p/, /t/, /k/ stops have

  19. Phonetic Processing When Learning Words

    Havy, Mélanie; Bouchon, Camillia; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Infants have remarkable abilities to learn several languages. However, phonological acquisition in bilingual infants appears to vary depending on the phonetic similarities or differences of their two native languages. Many studies suggest that learning contrasts with different realizations in the two languages (e.g., the /p/, /t/, /k/ stops have…

  20. Learning Probabilistic Models of Word Sense Disambiguation

    Pedersen, Ted

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation presents several new methods of supervised and unsupervised learning of word sense disambiguation models. The supervised methods focus on performing model searches through a space of probabilistic models, and the unsupervised methods rely on the use of Gibbs Sampling and the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. In both the supervised and unsupervised case, the Naive Bayesian model is found to perform well. An explanation for this success is presented in terms of learning rates and bias-variance decompositions.

  1. Flexibility in Bilingual Infants' Word Learning

    Graf Estes, Katharine; Hay, Jessica F.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiments tested bilingual infants' developmental narrowing for the interpretation of sounds that form words. These studies addressed how language specialization proceeds when the environment provides varied and divergent input. Experiment 1 (N=32) demonstrated that bilingual 14- and 19-month-olds learned a pair of object labels

  2. Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia

    Andrew Ellis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter and longer (7-letter nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords throughout the experiment. They also showed a larger length effect, indicating less effective decoding skills. Learning was demonstrated by faster reading of the nonwords across repeated presentations and by a reduction in the difference in reading speeds between shorter and longer nonwords. The dyslexics required more presentations of the nonwords before the length effect became non-significant, only showing convergence in reaction times between shorter and longer items in the second testing session where controls achieved convergence part-way through the first session. Participants also completed a psychological test battery assessing reading and spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, working memory, nonverbal ability and motor speed. The dyslexics performed at a similar level to the controls on nonverbal ability but significantly less well on all the other measures. Regression analyses found that decoding ability, measured as the speed of reading aloud nonwords when they were presented for the first time, was predicted by a composite of word reading and spelling scores (‘literacy’. Word learning was assessed in terms of the improvement in naming speeds over 10 blocks of training. Learning was predicted by vocabulary and working memory scores, but not by literacy, phonological awareness, nonverbal ability or motor speed. The results show that young dyslexic adults have problems both in pronouncing novel words and in learning new written words.

  3. Learning new words: the effect of context and vocalisation

    Brewer, David

    2009-01-01

    Previous literature shows that both explicit and incidental exposure to novel words can boost vocabulary. By comparing stories and definitions as ways of presenting novel words to children, the present study was able to assess the effectiveness of context on word-learning. It was predicted that learning would be greater when words are presented explicitly (in a definition) than incidentally (in a story). A comparison was also drawn between vocal and ‘passive’ interactions during word-teach...

  4. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts.

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity of the left inferior frontal region. PMID:27085892

  5. Variables and Values in Children’s Early Word-Combinations

    Ninio Anat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A model of syntactic development proposes that children’s very first word-combinations are already generated via productive rules that express in syntactic form the relation between a predicate word and its semantic argument. An alternative hypothesis is that they learn frozen chunks. In Study 1 we analyzed a large sample of young children’s early two-word sentences comprising of verbs with direct objects. A majority of objects were generated by pronouns but a third of children’s sentences used bare common nouns as objects. We checked parents’ twoword long sentences of verbs with objects and found almost no bare common nouns. Children cannot have copied sentences with bare noun objects from parents’ two-word long sentences as frozen chunks. In Study 2 we raised the possibility that children’s early sentences with bare nouns are rote-learned ‘telegraphic speech’, acquired as unanalyzed frozen chunks from longer input sentences due to perceptual problem to hear the unstressed determiners. To test this explanation, we tested the children’s speech corpus for evidence that they avoid determiners in their word-combinations. The results showed that they do not; in fact they generate very many determiner-common noun combinations as two-word utterances. The findings suggest that children produce their early word-combinations of the core-grammar type by a productive rule that maps the predicate-argument relations of verbs and their semantic arguments to headdependent syntax, and not as frozen word-combinations. Children mostly learn to use indexical expressions such as pronouns to express the variable semantic arguments of verbs as context dependent; they also employ bare common nouns to express specific values of the arguments. The earliest word-combinations demonstrate that children understand that syntax is built on the predicate-argument relations of words and use this insight to produce their early sentences.

  6. Object Familiarity Facilitates Foreign Word Learning in Preschoolers

    Sera, Maria D.; Cole, Caitlin A.; Oromendia, Mercedes; Koenig, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Studying how children learn words in a foreign language can shed light on how language learning changes with development. In one experiment, we examined whether three-, four-, and five-year-olds could learn and remember words for familiar and unfamiliar objects in their native English and a foreign language. All age groups could learn and remember…

  7. Word Difficulty and Learning among Native Arabic Learners of EFL

    Masrai, Ahmed; Milton, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates word difficulty and learning among learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Saudi Arabia. Difficulty factors examined in the study include repetition of words in learners' EFL textbooks, word length and parts of speech, and adds a further consideration which is underexplored in the literature; word translation…

  8. Phonological Similarity Influences Word Learning in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

    Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood density--the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)--influences word learning in native English-speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words…

  9. Similarity and Difference in Learning L2 Word-Form

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    This study explored similarity and difference in L2 written word-form learning from a cross-linguistic perspective. This study investigated whether learners' L1 orthographic background, which influences L2 visual word recognition (e.g., Wang et al., 2003), also influences L2 word-form learning, in particular, the sensitivity to phonological and…

  10. The Beginnings of Word Segmentation in English-Learning Infants.

    Jusczyk, Peter W.; Houston, Derek M.; Newsome, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Explored English-learning infants' capacities to segment bisyllabic words from fluent speech in a series of 15 experiments. Findings suggest that English learners may rely heavily on stress cues when they begin to segment words from fluent speech, but within a few months, infants learn to integrate multiple sources of information about word

  11. Influence of Syllable Structure on L2 Auditory Word Learning

    Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a…

  12. Word learning is mediated by the left arcuate fasciculus.

    López-Barroso, Diana; Catani, Marco; Ripollés, Pablo; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    Human language requires constant learning of new words, leading to the acquisition of an average vocabulary of more than 30,000 words in adult life. The ability to learn new words is highly variable and may rely on the integration between auditory and motor information. Here, we combined diffusion imaging tractography and functional MRI to study whether the strength of anatomical and functional connectivity between auditory and motor language networks is associated with word learning ability. Our results showed that performance in word learning correlates with microstructural properties and strength of functional connectivity of the direct connections between Broca's and Wernicke's territories in the left hemisphere. This study suggests that our ability to learn new words relies on an efficient and fast communication between temporal and frontal areas. The absence of these connections in other animals may explain the unique ability of learning words in humans. PMID:23884655

  13. Distributional Cues and the Onset Bias in Early Word Segmentation

    Babineau, Mireille; Shi, Rushen

    2014-01-01

    In previous infant studies on statistics-based word segmentation, the unit of statistical computation was always aligned with the syllabic edge, which had a consonant onset. The current study addressed whether the learning system imposes a constraint that favors word forms beginning with a consonant onset over those beginning with an onsetless…

  14. Goodnight Book: Sleep Consolidation Improves Word Learning via Storybooks

    JessicaSHorst

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading the same storybooks repeatedly helps preschool children learn words. In addition, sleeping shortly after learning also facilitates memory consolidation and aids learning in older children and adults. The current study explored how sleep promotes word learning in preschool children using a shared storybook reading task. Children were either read the same story repeatedly or different stories and either napped after the stories or remained awake. Childrens word retention were tested 2.5 hours later, 24 hours later and 7 days later. Results demonstrate strong, persistent effects for both repeated readings and sleep consolidation on young childrens word learning. A key finding is that children who read different stories before napping learned words as well as children who had the advantage of hearing the same story. In contrast, children who read different stories and remained awake never caught up to their peers on later word learning tests. Implications for educational practices are discussed.

  15. The Link between Statistical Segmentation and Word Learning in Adults

    Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S.; Estes, Katharine Graf; Dixon, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have shown that listeners can segment words from running speech based on conditional probabilities of syllable transitions, suggesting that this statistical learning could be a foundational component of language learning. However, few studies have shown a direct link between statistical segmentation and word learning. We examined this…

  16. English Vocabulary Learning with Word Lists, Word Cards and Computers: Implications from Cognitive Psychology Research for Optimal Spaced Learning

    Nakata, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    The spacing effect is known to be one of the most robust phenomena in experimental psychology, and many attempts have been made to realize effective spaced learning for L2 vocabulary learning. This study compares vocabulary learning with word lists, word cards, and computers in order to identify which material leads to the most superior spaced

  17. Lexical Stress and Phonetic Processing in Word Learning in 20- to 24-Month-Old English-Learning Children

    Floccia, Caroline; Nazzi, Thierry; Austin, Keith; Arreckx, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the interaction between segmental and supra-segmental stress-related information in early word learning, two experiments were conducted with 20- to 24-month-old English-learning children. In an adaptation of the object categorization study designed by Nazzi and Gopnik (2001), children were presented with pairs of novel objects whose

  18. The Development of Associative Word Learning in Monolingual and Bilingual Infants

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Fennell, Christopher T.; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    Children growing up bilingual face a unique linguistic environment. The current study investigated whether early bilingual experience influences the developmental trajectory of associative word learning, a foundational mechanism for lexical acquisition. Monolingual and bilingual infants (N = 98) were tested on their ability to learn

  19. The Perception of Assimilation in Newly Learned Novel Words

    Snoeren, Natalie D.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Di Betta, Anna Maria

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying perceptual compensation for assimilation in novel words. During training, participants learned canonical versions of novel spoken words (e.g., "decibot") presented in isolation. Following exposure to a second set of novel words the next day, participants carried out a phoneme monitoring…

  20. Word Difficulty and Learning among Native Arabic Learners of EFL

    Ahmed Masrai; James Milton

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates word difficulty and learning among learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Saudi Arabia. Difficulty factors examined in the study include repetition of words in learners’ EFL textbooks, word length and parts of speech, and adds a further consideration which is underexplored in the literature; word translation equivalents in the learners’ first language (L1). A total of 156 native Arabic participants were given a vocabulary test in which they had to identify ...

  1. Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis

    Steele, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions…

  2. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to

  3. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in Written Context

    Parault, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…

  4. Contextual repetition facilitates word learning via fast mapping.

    Axelsson, Emma L; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-10-01

    The current study explores whether contextual repetition during fast mapping facilitates word learning. Three-year-old children completed fast mapping and test trials using a touchscreen computer. For half of the children, the non-targets (competitors) repeated across learning trials and for other children there was no repetition. All children received the same test trials. Children who experienced contextual repetition, that is, children for whom the competitors repeated during the initial fast mapping task, demonstrated word learning. These data demonstrate that children's word learning is facilitated by the presence of extraneous yet predictable information in the initial fast mapping task. PMID:25195163

  5. A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: universal ontology and linguistic influence.

    Imai, M; Gentner, D

    1997-02-01

    This research concerns how children learn the distinction between substance names and object names. Quine (1969) proposed that children learn the distinction through learning the syntactic distinctions inherent in count/mass grammar. However, Soja et al. (1991) found that English-speaking 2-year-olds, who did not seem to have acquired count/mass grammar, distinguished objects from substances in a word extension task, suggesting a pre-linguistic ontological distinction. To test whether the distinction between object names and substance names is conceptually or linguistically driven, we repeated Soja et al.'s study with English- and Japanese-speaking 2-, 2.5-, and 4-year-olds and adults. Japanese does not make a count-mass grammatical distinction: all inanimate nouns are treated alike. Thus if young Japanese children made the object-substance distinction in word meaning, this would support the early ontology position over the linguistic influence position. We used three types of standards: substances (e.g., sand in an S-shape), simple objects (e.g., a kidney-shaped piece of paraffin) and complex objects (e.g., a wood whisk). The subjects learned novel nouns in neutral syntax denoting each standard entity. They were then asked which of the two alternatives--one matching in shape but not material and the other matching in material but not shape--would also be named by the same label. The results suggest the universal use of ontological knowledge in early word learning. Children in both languages showed differentiation between (complex) objects and substances as early as 2 years of age. However, there were also early cross-linguistic differences. American and Japanese children generalized the simple object instances and the substance instances differently. We speculate that children universally make a distinction between individuals and non-individuals in word learning but that the nature of the categories and the boundary between them is influenced by language. PMID:9141906

  6. Children's learning of number words in an indigenous farming-foraging group.

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Gibson, Edward

    2014-07-01

    We show that children in the Tsimane', a farming-foraging group in the Bolivian rain-forest, learn number words along a similar developmental trajectory to children from industrialized countries. Tsimane' children successively acquire the first three or four number words before fully learning how counting works. However, their learning is substantially delayed relative to children from the United States, Russia, and Japan. The presence of a similar developmental trajectory likely indicates that the incremental stages of numerical knowledge - but not their timing - reflect a fundamental property of number concept acquisition which is relatively independent of language, culture, age, and early education. PMID:24766463

  7. Attention and word learning in autistic, language delayed and typically developing children

    Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Amso, Dima; Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measure...

  8. Drawings and Dialogue: Word Solving in Early Literacy

    Zimmerman, Belinda S.

    2012-01-01

    Envisioning oneself as a competent reader is an important first step to reading well. This article describes an intervention that employs drawings coupled with teacher-student dialogue, which sets the stage for strategy learning as a key to word-solving. A process for the interventionist, Title I or any teacher working with students who find

  9. Why is number word learning hard? Evidence from bilingual learners.

    Wagner, Katie; Kimura, Katherine; Cheung, Pierina; Barner, David

    2015-12-01

    Young children typically take between 18months and 2years to learn the meanings of number words. In the present study, we investigated this developmental trajectory in bilingual preschoolers to examine the relative contributions of two factors in number word learning: (1) the construction of numerical concepts, and (2) the mapping of language specific words onto these concepts. We found that children learn the meanings of small number words (i.e., one, two, and three) independently in each language, indicating that observed delays in learning these words are attributable to difficulties in mapping words to concepts. In contrast, children generally learned to accurately count larger sets (i.e., five or greater) simultaneously in their two languages, suggesting that the difficulty in learning to count is not tied to a specific language. We also replicated previous studies that found that children learn the counting procedure before they learn its logic - i.e., that for any natural number, n, the successor of n in the count list denotes the cardinality n+1. Consistent with past studies, we found that children's knowledge of successors is first acquired incrementally. In bilinguals, we found that this knowledge exhibits item-specific transfer between languages, suggesting that the logic of the positive integers may not be stored in a language-specific format. We conclude that delays in learning the meanings of small number words are mainly due to language-specific processes of mapping words to concepts, whereas the logic and procedures of counting appear to be learned in a format that is independent of a particular language and thus transfers rapidly from one language to the other in development. PMID:26413888

  10. Interactive language learning by robots: the transition from babbling to word forms.

    Lyon, Caroline; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L; Saunders, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The advent of humanoid robots has enabled a new approach to investigating the acquisition of language, and we report on the development of robots able to acquire rudimentary linguistic skills. Our work focuses on early stages analogous to some characteristics of a human child of about 6 to 14 months, the transition from babbling to first word forms. We investigate one mechanism among many that may contribute to this process, a key factor being the sensitivity of learners to the statistical distribution of linguistic elements. As well as being necessary for learning word meanings, the acquisition of anchor word forms facilitates the segmentation of an acoustic stream through other mechanisms. In our experiments some salient one-syllable word forms are learnt by a humanoid robot in real-time interactions with naive participants. Words emerge from random syllabic babble through a learning process based on a dialogue between the robot and the human participant, whose speech is perceived by the robot as a stream of phonemes. Numerous ways of representing the speech as syllabic segments are possible. Furthermore, the pronunciation of many words in spontaneous speech is variable. However, in line with research elsewhere, we observe that salient content words are more likely than function words to have consistent canonical representations; thus their relative frequency increases, as does their influence on the learner. Variable pronunciation may contribute to early word form acquisition. The importance of contingent interaction in real-time between teacher and learner is reflected by a reinforcement process, with variable success. The examination of individual cases may be more informative than group results. Nevertheless, word forms are usually produced by the robot after a few minutes of dialogue, employing a simple, real-time, frequency dependent mechanism. This work shows the potential of human-robot interaction systems in studies of the dynamics of early language acquisition. PMID:22719871

  11. Effects of Negative and Positive Evidence on Adult Word Learning

    Strapp, Chehalis M.; Helmick, Augusta L.; Tonkovich, Hayley M.; Bleakney, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared negative and positive evidence in adult word learning, predicting that adults would learn more forms following negative evidence. Ninety-two native English speakers (32 men and 60 women [M[subscript age] = 20.38 years, SD = 2.80]), learned nonsense nouns and verbs provided within English frames. Later, participants produced…

  12. Learning Words from Context and Dictionaries: An Experimental Comparison.

    Fischer, Ute

    1994-01-01

    Investigated the independent and interactive effects of contextual and definitional information on vocabulary learning. German students of English received either a text with unfamiliar English words or their monolingual English dictionary entries. A third group received both. Information about word context is crucial to understanding meaning. (44

  13. Discourse Bootstrapping: Preschoolers Use Linguistic Discourse to Learn New Words

    Sullivan, Jessica; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    When children acquire language, they often learn words in the absence of direct instruction (e.g. "This is a ball!") or even social cues to reference (e.g. eye gaze, pointing). However, there are few accounts of how children do this, especially in cases where the referent of a new word is ambiguous. Across two experiments, we test…

  14. Word 2010 eLearning Kit For Dummies

    Lowe, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Use this step-by-step learning package to master Word 2010 Word 2010 is one of the core applications of Microsoft Office and if you're eager to get started using all it has to offer, this value-packed eLearning Kit is essential to your learning process. This complete Word 2010 course includes a full-color printed book and a Dummies interactive eLearning course on CD. You'll discover the basics of the Word interface, how to navigate it, how to get comfortable with the terminology, and how to use its many features. Detailed instructions walk you through real-world exercises and help to make lear

  15. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. PMID:26094128

  16. Word Learning and Attention Allocation Based on Word Class and Category Knowledge

    Hupp, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Attention allocation in word learning may vary developmentally based on the novelty of the object. It has been suggested that children differentially learn verbs based on the novelty of the agent, but adults do not because they automatically infer the object's category and thus treat it like a familiar object. The current research examined…

  17. A statistical learning algorithm for word segmentation

    Van Aken, Jerry R

    2011-01-01

    In natural speech, the speaker does not pause between words, yet a human listener somehow perceives this continuous stream of phonemes as a series of distinct words. The detection of boundaries between spoken words is an instance of a general capability of the human neocortex to remember and to recognize recurring sequences. This paper describes a computer algorithm that is designed to solve the problem of locating word boundaries in blocks of English text from which the spaces have been removed. This problem avoids the complexities of processing speech but requires similar capabilities for detecting recurring sequences. The algorithm that is described in this paper relies entirely on statistical relationships between letters in the input stream to infer the locations of word boundaries. The source code for a C++ version of this algorithm is presented in an appendix.

  18. Early Dual Language Learning

    Genesee, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  19. Yearning for Words, Learning With Words: Poetic Ruminations

    Carl Leggo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As a poet I am always seeking ecological interconnections amidst body, brain, language, knowing, mind, consciousness, education, imagination, heart, cognition, and spirit. In language play I hope to find my way to a purposeful pedagogy that acknowledges and honours how learning is always a holistic adventure in process and flux, an adventure of human becoming filled with wonder and mystery beyond the counting, but always abundantly available for courting with wild delight and desire.

  20. Yearning for Words, Learning With Words: Poetic Ruminations

    Carl Leggo

    2011-01-01

    As a poet I am always seeking ecological interconnections amidst body, brain, language, knowing, mind, consciousness, education, imagination, heart, cognition, and spirit. In language play I hope to find my way to a purposeful pedagogy that acknowledges and honours how learning is always a holistic adventure in process and flux, an adventure of human becoming filled with wonder and mystery beyond the counting, but always abundantly available for courting with wild delight and desire.

  1. Can writing a new word detract from learning it? More negative effects of forced output during vocabulary learning

    Barcroft, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This study examined effects of word writing on second language vocabulary learning. In two experiments, English-speaking learners of Spanish attempted to learn 24 Spanish nouns while viewing word?picture pairs. The participants copied 12 target words and wrote nothing for the other 12 target words being studied. Productive vocabulary learning on immediate and delayed (2 days later) measures was ...

  2. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition.

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters) from their eye-centered (i.e., retinal) locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity) was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Word-tuning and location-invariance were found at the level of single neurons, but there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words-which was the model's learning objective-is largely based on letter-level information. PMID:24065939

  3. Phonological and Semantic Knowledge Are Causal Influences on Learning to Read Words in Chinese

    Zhou, Lulin; Duff, Fiona J.; Hulme, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We report a training study that assesses whether teaching the pronunciation and meaning of spoken words improves Chinese children's subsequent attempts to learn to read the words. Teaching the pronunciations of words helps children to learn to read those same words, and teaching the pronunciations and meanings improves learning still further.…

  4. Acquisition of English word stress patterns in early and late bilinguals

    Guion, Susan G.

    2001-05-01

    Given early acquisition of prosodic knowledge as demonstrated by infants' sensitivity to native language accentual patterns, the question of whether learners can acquire new prosodic patterns across the life span arises. Acquisition of English stress by early and late Spanish-English and Korean-English bilinguals was investigated. In a production task, two-syllable nonwords were produced in noun and verb sentence frames. In a perception task, preference for first or last syllable stress on the nonwords was indicated. Also, real words that were phonologically similar to the nonwords were collected. Logistic regression analyses and ANOVAs were conducted to determine the effect of three factors (syllable structure, lexical class, and stress patterns of phonologically similar words) on the production and perception responses. In all three groups, stress patterns of phonologically similar real words predicted stress on nonwords. For the two other factors, early bilinguals patterned similarly to the native-English participants. Late Spanish-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on syllabic structure, and late Korean-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on lexical class than native-English speakers. Thus, compared to native speakers, late bilinguals' ability to abstract stress patterns is reduced and affected by the first language. [Work supported by NIH.

  5. Sound before meaning: word learning in autistic disorders.

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2010-12-01

    Successful word learning depends on the integration of phonological and semantic information with social cues provided by interlocutors. How then, do children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) learn new words when social impairments pervade? We recorded the eye-movements of verbally-able children with ASD and their typical peers while completing a word learning task in a social context. We assessed learning of semantic and phonological features immediately after learning and again four weeks later. Eye-movement data revealed that both groups could follow social cues, but that typically developing children were more sensitive to the social informativeness of gaze cues. In contrast, children with ASD were more successful than peers at mapping phonological forms to novel referents; however, this advantage was not maintained over time. Typical children showed clear consolidation of learning both semantic and phonological information, children with ASD did not. These results provide unique evidence of qualitative differences in word learning and consolidation and elucidate the different mechanisms underlying the unusual nature of autistic language. PMID:20951710

  6. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    Maria GraziaDi Bono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters from their eye-centred (i.e., retinal locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Conversely, there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words – which was the model’s learning objective – is largely based on letter-level information.

  7. Why word learning is not fast

    KarlaMcgregor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Upon fast mapping, children rarely retain new words even over intervals as short as five minutes. In this study, we asked whether the memory process of encoding or consolidation is the bottleneck to retention. Forty-nine children, mean age 33 months, were exposed to eight 2-or-3-syllable nonce neighbors of words in their existing lexicons. Didactic training consisted of six exposures to each word in the context of its referent, an unfamiliar toy. Productions were elicited four times: immediately following the examiner’s model, and at 1-minute-, 5-minute-, and multiday retention intervals. At the final two intervals, the examiner said the first syllable and provided a beat gesture highlighting target word length in syllables as a cue following any erred production. The children were highly accurate at immediate posttest. Accuracy fell sharply over the 1-minute retention interval and again after an additional 5 minutes. Performance then stabilized such that the 5-minute and multiday posttests yielded comparable performance. Given this time course, we conclude that it was not the post-encoding process of consolidation but the process of encoding itself that presented the primary bottleneck to retention. Patterns of errors and responses to cueing upon error suggested that word forms were particularly vulnerable to partial decay during the time course of encoding.

  8. Learning to Order Words: A Connectionist Model of Heavy NP Shift and Accessibility Effects in Japanese and English

    Chang, Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Languages differ from one another and must therefore be learned. Processing biases in word order can also differ across languages. For example, heavy noun phrases tend to be shifted to late sentence positions in English, but to early positions in Japanese. Although these language differences suggest a role for learning, most accounts of these…

  9. Learning Approaches toward Title Word Selection on Indic Script

    P.Vijayapal Reddy; Govardhan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Title is a compact representation of a document which distill the important information from the document. In this paper we studied the selection words as title words by using different learning approachesnamely nearest neighbor approach (NN), Naive Bayes approach with limited-vocabulary (NBL), Naive Bayes approach with full vocabulary (NBF) and by using a term weighing approach (tf-idf). We compare theperformance of these approaches by using F1 metric. We compare the F1 metric results both o...

  10. Word learning emerges from the interaction of online referent selection and slow associative learning

    McMurray, Bob; Horst, Jessica S.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2012-01-01

    Classic approaches to word learning emphasize the problem of referential ambiguity: in any naming situation the referent of a novel word must be selected from many possible objects, properties, actions, etc. To solve this problem, researchers have posited numerous constraints, and inference strategies, but assume that determining the referent of a novel word is isomorphic to learning. We present an alternative model in which referent selection is an online process that is independent of long-...

  11. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  12. Learning Approaches toward Title Word Selection on Indic Script

    P.Vijayapal Reddy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Title is a compact representation of a document which distill the important information from the document. In this paper we studied the selection words as title words by using different learning approachesnamely nearest neighbor approach (NN, Naive Bayes approach with limited-vocabulary (NBL, Naive Bayes approach with full vocabulary (NBF and by using a term weighing approach (tf-idf. We compare theperformance of these approaches by using F1 metric. We compare the F1 metric results both on English Script and Indic Script ' Telugu'. We concluded the influence of linguistic complexity in the process of Title word selection.

  13. Vowel bias in Danish word-learning: processing biases are language-specific.

    Hjen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored whether the phonological bias favoring consonants found in French-learning infants and children when learning new words (Havy & Nazzi, 2009; Nazzi, 2005) is language-general, as proposed by Nespor, Pea and Mehler (2003), or varies across languages, perhaps as a function of the phonological or lexical properties of the language in acquisition. To do so, we used the interactive word-learning task set up by Havy and Nazzi (2009), teaching Danish-learning 20-month-olds pairs of phonetically similar words that contrasted either on one of their consonants or one of their vowels, by either one or two phonological features. Danish was chosen because it has more vowels than consonants, and is characterized by extensive consonant lenition. Both phenomena could disfavor a consonant bias. Evidence of word-learning was found only for vocalic information, irrespective of whether one or two phonological features were changed. The implication of these findings is that the phonological biases found in early lexical processing are not language-general but develop during language acquisition, depending on the phonological or lexical properties of the native language. PMID:25660116

  14. More than Words: Fast Acquisition and Generalization of Orthographic Regularities during Novel Word Learning in Adults

    Laine, Matti; Polonyi, Tünde; Abari, Kálmán

    2014-01-01

    In literates, reading is a fundamental channel for acquiring new vocabulary both in the mother tongue and in foreign languages. By using an artificial language learning task, we examined the acquisition of novel written words and their embedded regularities (an orthographic surface feature and a syllabic feature) in three groups of university…

  15. Attention and Word Learning in Autistic, Language Delayed and Typically Developing Children

    ElenaTenenbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measured participants’ recognition of these novel word-object pairings. Results indicated that greater attention to the speaker’s mouth was related to higher scores on standardized measures of language development for autistic and typically developing children (but not for language delayed children. This effect was mediated by age for typically developing, but not autistic children. When effects of age were controlled for, attention to the mouth among language delayed participants was negatively correlated with standardized measures of language learning. Attention to the speaker’s mouth and eyes while she was teaching the new words was also predictive of faster recognition of the newly learned words among autistic children. These results suggest that language delays among children with autism may be driven in part by aberrant social attention, and that the mechanisms underlying these delays may differ from those in language delayed participants without autism.

  16. Some Possible Causes of Children's Early Word Overextensions.

    Hoek, Dorothy; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of a one-year-old's lexical development suggested factors causing overextensions: using known words for more recently acquired or unknown words; expressing incomplete knowledge of defining features of two or more similar meaning words; producing overextensions of preferred words; using phonologically simpler more than difficult words; and

  17. Clusters of Word Properties as Predictors of Elementary School Children's Performance on Two Word Tasks

    Tellings, Agnes; Coppens, Karien; Gelissen, John; Schreuder, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Often, the classification of words does not go beyond "difficult" (i.e., infrequent, late-learned, nonimageable, etc.) or "easy" (i.e., frequent, early-learned, imageable, etc.) words. In the present study, we used a latent cluster analysis to divide 703 Dutch words with scores for eight word properties into seven clusters of words. Each cluster…

  18. The Semiotics of Learning New Words

    Nth, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    In several of his papers, Charles S. Peirce illustrates processes of interpreting and understanding signs by examples from second language vocabulary teaching and learning. The insights conveyed by means of these little pedagogical scenarios are not meant as contributions to the psychology of second language learning, but they aim at elucidating

  19. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Word Learning in 14-Month-Olds

    Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H. Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, becau...

  20. Modularity in inductively-learned word pronunciation systems

    Van den Bosch, A; Daelemans, W; Bosch, Antal van den; Weijters, Ton; Daelemans, Walter

    1999-01-01

    In leading morpho-phonological theories and state-of-the-art text-to-speech systems it is assumed that word pronunciation cannot be learned or performed without in-between analyses at several abstraction levels (e.g., morphological, graphemic, phonemic, syllabic, and stress levels). We challenge this assumption for the case of English word pronunciation. Using IGTree, an inductive-learning decision-tree algorithms, we train and test three word-pronunciation systems in which the number of abstraction levels (implemented as sequenced modules) is reduced from five, via three, to one. The latter system, classifying letter strings directly as mapping to phonemes with stress markers, yields significantly better generalisation accuracies than the two multi-module systems. Analyses of empirical results indicate that positive utility effects of sequencing modules are outweighed by cascading errors passed on between modules.

  1. Tone of voice guides word learning in informative referential contexts.

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; Nygaard, Lynne C

    2013-06-01

    Listeners infer which object in a visual scene a speaker refers to from the systematic variation of the speaker's tone of voice (ToV). We examined whether ToV also guides word learning. During exposure, participants heard novel adjectives (e.g., "daxen") spoken with a ToV representing hot, cold, strong, weak, big, or small while viewing picture pairs representing the meaning of the adjective and its antonym (e.g., elephant-ant for big-small). Eye fixations were recorded to monitor referent detection and learning. During test, participants heard the adjectives spoken with a neutral ToV, while selecting referents from familiar and unfamiliar picture pairs. Participants were able to learn the adjectives' meanings, and, even in the absence of informative ToV, generalize them to new referents. A second experiment addressed whether ToV provides sufficient information to infer the adjectival meaning or needs to operate within a referential context providing information about the relevant semantic dimension. Participants who saw printed versions of the novel words during exposure performed at chance during test. ToV, in conjunction with the referential context, thus serves as a cue to word meaning. ToV establishes relations between labels and referents for listeners to exploit in word learning. PMID:23134484

  2. Using Cognitive Tutor Software in Learning Linear Algebra Word Concept

    Yang, Kai-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…

  3. Implicit Learning of L2 Word Stress Regularities

    Chan, Ricky K. W.; Leung, Janny H. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an experiment on the implicit learning of second language stress regularities, and presents a methodological innovation on awareness measurement. After practising two-syllable Spanish words, native Cantonese speakers with English as a second language (L2) completed a judgement task. Critical items differed only in placement of

  4. The Role of Production in Infant Word Learning

    Vihman, Marilyn May; DePaolis, Rory A.; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Studies of phonological development that combine speech-processing experiments with observation and analysis of production remain rare, although production experience is necessarily relevant to developmental advance. Here we focus on three proposals regarding the relationship of production to word learning: (1) "Articulatory filter": The

  5. Learning Words for Life: Promoting Vocabulary in Dual Language Learners

    Gillanders, Cristina; Castro, Dina C.; Franco, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary development plays a critical role in young dual language learners' success in school. As teachers become aware of how they use language in the classroom, systematically teach specific words in a variety of ways, and learn about dual language learners' level of English acquisition and sociocultural experiences, they can help

  6. The Role of Elicited Verbal Imitation in Toddlers' Word Learning

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Docking, Kimberley; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This study is about the role of elicited verbal imitation in toddler word learning. Forty-eight toddlers were taught eight nonwords linked to referents. During training, they were asked to imitate the nonwords. Naming of the referents was tested at three intervals (one minute later [uncued], five minutes, and 1-7 days later [cued]) and recognition…

  7. Word Learning Processes in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether 3 aspects of the word learning process--fast mapping, retention, and extension--are problematic for children with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: The authors compared responses of 24 children with CIs, 24 age-matched hearing children, and 23 vocabulary-matched hearing children to a novel object noun training episode.…

  8. Japanese Language Students' Perceptions on "Kanji" Learning and Their Relationship to Novel "Kanji" Word Learning Ability

    Mori, Yoshiko; Sato, Kumi; Shimizu, Hideko

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between how learners of Japanese as a second language perceive the learning of "kanji" (i.e., the logographic characters shared with Chinese) and their ability to learn novel "kanji" words using morphological and contextual information. Eighty college students learning Japanese as a foreign language completed a…

  9. Consolidation of novel word learning in native English-speaking adults.

    Kurdziel, Laura B F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-04-01

    Sleep has been shown to improve the retention of newly learned words. However, most methodologies have used artificial or foreign language stimuli, with learning limited to word/novel word or word/image pairs. Such stimuli differ from many word-learning scenarios in which definition strings are learned with novel words. Thus, we examined sleep's benefit on learning new words within a native language by using very low-frequency words. Participants learned 45 low-frequency English words and, at subsequent recall, attempted to recall the words when given the corresponding definitions. Participants either learned in the morning with recall in the evening (wake group), or learned in the evening with recall the following morning (sleep group). Performance change across the delay was significantly better in the sleep than the wake group. Additionally, the Levenshtein distance, a measure of correctness of the typed word compared with the target word, became significantly worse following wake, whereas sleep protected correctness of recall. Polysomnographic data from a subsample of participants suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may be particularly important for this benefit. These results lend further support for sleep's function on semantic learning even for word/definition pairs within a native language. PMID:25768336

  10. Unspoken Words: Understanding Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Much of what is communicated in the classroom is through nonverbal means. Sending appropriate nonverbal signals, as well as recognizing and interpreting the nonverbal signals of others, are essential features of the learning process. Students' abilities to encode and decode nonverbal communication have the potential to affect all aspects of their…

  11. Prosodic Structure in Early Word Segmentation: ERP Evidence from Dutch Ten-Month-Olds

    Kooijman, Valesca; Hagoort, Peter; Cutler, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing word boundaries in continuous speech requires detailed knowledge of the native language. In the first year of life, infants acquire considerable word segmentation abilities. Infants at this early stage in word segmentation rely to a large extent on the metrical pattern of their native language, at least in stress-based languages. In

  12. Prosodic Structure in Early Word Segmentation: ERP Evidence from Dutch Ten-Month-Olds

    Kooijman, Valesca; Hagoort, Peter; Cutler, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing word boundaries in continuous speech requires detailed knowledge of the native language. In the first year of life, infants acquire considerable word segmentation abilities. Infants at this early stage in word segmentation rely to a large extent on the metrical pattern of their native language, at least in stress-based languages. In…

  13. Detection of Slang Words in e-Data using semi-Supervised Learning

    Alok Ranjan Pal; Diganta Saha

    2013-01-01

    The proposed algorithmic approach deals with finding the sense of a word in an electronic data. Now a day,in different communication mediums like internet, mobile services etc. people use few words, which are slang in nature. This approach detects those abusive words using supervised learning procedure. But in the real life scenario, the slang words are not used in complete word forms always. Most of the times, those words are used in different abbreviated forms like sounds alike forms, taboo...

  14. Detection of Slang Words in e-Data using semiSupervised Learning

    Alok Ranjan Pal; Diganta Saha

    2013-01-01

    The proposed algorithmic approach deals with finding the sense of a word in an electronic data. Now a day, in different communication mediums like internet, mobile services etc. people use few words, which are slang in nature. This approach detects those abusive words using supervised learning procedure. But in the real life scenario, the slang words are not used in complete word forms always. Most of the times, those words are used in different abbreviated forms like sounds alike...

  15. Early Word Segmentation in Infants Acquiring Parisian French: Task-Dependent and Dialect-Specific Aspects

    Nazzi, Thierry; Mersad, Karima; Sundara, Megha; Iakimova, Galina; Polka, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Six experiments explored Parisian French-learning infants' ability to segment bisyllabic words from fluent speech. The first goal was to assess whether bisyllabic word segmentation emerges later in infants acquiring European French compared to other languages. The second goal was to determine whether infants learning different dialects of the…

  16. Input and word learning: caregivers' sensitivity to lexical category distinctions.

    Hall, D Geoffrey; Burns, Tracey C; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2003-08-01

    Twenty-four caregivers and their two- to four-year-old children took part in a storybook reading task in which caregivers taught children novel labels ('DAXY') for familiar objects. One group (N = 12) received labels modelled syntactically as proper names ('This is named DAXY'), and another group (N = 12) received the same labels for the same objects modelled syntactically as adjectives ('This is very DAXY'). Caregivers took strikingly different approaches to teaching words from the two lexical categories. In teaching proper names, but not adjectives, caregivers flagged cases in which one word was paired with two objects; two words were paired with one object; and one word was paired with an inanimate object. In teaching adjectives, but not proper names, caregivers discussed meaning and offered translations. Caregivers' distinctive strategies for teaching proper names and adjectives are congruent with recent findings about children's word meaning assumptions, and with analyses of the semantics of these lexical categories. The findings indicate that parental speech could provide a rich source of information to children in learning how different lexical categories are expressed in their native language. PMID:14513475

  17. Sound-Symbolism: A Piece in the Puzzle of Word Learning

    Parault, Susan J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2006-01-01

    Sound-symbolism is the idea that the relationship between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather that there are subsets of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. The present research investigates sound-symbolism as a possible route to the learning of an…

  18. Removing the Snare from the Pair: Using Pictures to Learn Confusing Word Pairs

    Igo, L. Brent; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Bruning, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The extant picture-learning research does not address confusing word pairs that are not concrete (e.g., in and into). In this study, university students viewed 11 timed Web pages containing information on confusing word pairs. Each page addressed one word pair and distinguished the words with examples (example group), examples and rules (rule

  19. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    Maria GraziaDi Bono; MarcoZorzi

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representa...

  20. Learning word meanings during reading by children with language learning disability and typically-developing peers.

    Steele, Sara C; Watkins, Ruth V

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated whether children with language learning disability (LLD) differed from typically-developing peers in their ability to learn meanings of novel words presented during reading. Fifteen 9-11-year-old children with LLD and 15 typically-developing peers read four passages containing 20 nonsense words. Word learning was assessed through oral definition and multiple-choice tasks. Variables were position of informative context, number of exposures, part of speech, and contextual clues. The LLD group scored lower than same-aged peers on oral definition (p < .001) and multiple-choice (p < .001) tasks. For both groups, there was no effect for position of informative context (p = .867) or number of exposures (p = .223). All children benefitted from contextual clues. The findings suggested difficulty inferring and recalling word meanings during reading and pointed to the need for vocabulary intervention in the upper elementary years for children with LLD. PMID:20524848

  1. Early Word Decoding Ability as a Longitudinal Predictor of Academic Performance

    Nordström, Thomas; Jacobson, Christer; Söderberg, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    This study, using a longitudinal design with a Swedish cohort of young readers, investigates if children's early word decoding ability in second grade can predict later academic performance. In an effort to estimate the unique effect of early word decoding (grade 2) with academic performance (grade 9), gender and non-verbal cognitive ability were…

  2. Cortical plasticity induced by rapid Hebbian learning of novel tonal word-forms: evidence from mismatch negativity.

    Yue, Jinxing; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Alter, Kai

    2014-12-01

    Although several experiments reported rapid cortical plasticity induced by passive exposure to novel segmental patterns, few studies have devoted attention to the neural dynamics during the rapid learning of novel tonal word-forms in tonal languages, such as Chinese. In the current study, native speakers of Mandarin Chinese were exposed to acoustically matched real and novel segment-tone patterns. By recording their Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses (an ERP indicator of long-term memory traces for spoken words), we found enhanced MMNs to the novel word-forms over the left-hemispheric region in the late exposure phase relative to the early exposure phase. In contrast, no significant changes were identified in MMN responses to the real word during familiarisation. Our results suggest a rapid Hebbian learning mechanism in the human neocortex which develops long-term memory traces for a novel segment-tone pattern by establishing new associations between the segmental and tonal representations. PMID:25463813

  3. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  4. CALL Vocabulary Learning in Japanese: Does Romaji Help Beginners Learn More Words?

    Okuyama, Yoshiko

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using Romanized spellings on beginner-level Japanese vocabulary learning. Sixty-one first-semester students at two universities in Arizona were both taught and tested on 40 Japanese content words in a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) program. The primary goal of the study was to examine whether the…

  5. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context.

    Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning. PMID:25814973

  6. Pigeons acquire multiple categories in parallel via associative learning: a parallel to human word learning?

    Wasserman, Edward A; Brooks, Daniel I; McMurray, Bob

    2015-03-01

    Might there be parallels between category learning in animals and word learning in children? To examine this possibility, we devised a new associative learning technique for teaching pigeons to sort 128 photographs of objects into 16 human language categories. We found that pigeons learned all 16 categories in parallel, they perceived the perceptual coherence of the different object categories, and they generalized their categorization behavior to novel photographs from the training categories. More detailed analyses of the factors that predict trial-by-trial learning implicated a number of factors that may shape learning. First, we found considerable trial-by-trial dependency of pigeons' categorization responses, consistent with several recent studies that invoke this dependency to claim that humans acquire words via symbolic or inferential mechanisms; this finding suggests that such dependencies may also arise in associative systems. Second, our trial-by-trial analyses divulged seemingly irrelevant aspects of the categorization task, like the spatial location of the report responses, which influenced learning. Third, those trial-by-trial analyses also supported the possibility that learning may be determined both by strengthening correct stimulus-response associations and by weakening incorrect stimulus-response associations. The parallel between all these findings and important aspects of human word learning suggests that associative learning mechanisms may play a much stronger part in complex human behavior than is commonly believed. PMID:25497520

  7. Novel Word Learning, Reading Difficulties, and Phonological Processing Skills.

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) refers to the ability to establish an arbitrary association between a visual referent and an unfamiliar label. It is now established that this ability is impaired in children with dyslexia, but the source of this deficit is yet to be specified. This study assesses PAL performance in children with reading difficulties using a modified version of the PAL paradigm, comprising a comprehension and a production phase, to determine whether the PAL deficit lies in children's ability to establish and retain novel object-novel word associations or their ability to retrieve the learned novel labels for production. Results showed that while children with reading difficulties required significantly more trials to learn the object-word associations, when they were required to use these associations in a comprehension-referent selection task, their accuracy and speed did not differ from controls. Nevertheless, children with reading difficulties were significantly less successful when they were required to produce the learned novel labels in response to the visual stimuli. Thus, these results indicate that while children with reading difficulties are successful at establishing visual-verbal associations, they have a deficit in the verbal production component of PAL tasks, which may relate to a more general underlying impairment in auditory or phonological processing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27146374

  8. Language bootstrapping: learning word meanings from perception-action association.

    Salvi, Giampiero; Montesano, Luis; Bernardino, Alexandre; Santos-Victor, José

    2012-06-01

    We address the problem of bootstrapping language acquisition for an artificial system similarly to what is observed in experiments with human infants. Our method works by associating meanings to words in manipulation tasks, as a robot interacts with objects and listens to verbal descriptions of the interactions. The model is based on an affordance network, i.e., a mapping between robot actions, robot perceptions, and the perceived effects of these actions upon objects. We extend the affordance model to incorporate spoken words, which allows us to ground the verbal symbols to the execution of actions and the perception of the environment. The model takes verbal descriptions of a task as the input and uses temporal co-occurrence to create links between speech utterances and the involved objects, actions, and effects. We show that the robot is able form useful word-to-meaning associations, even without considering grammatical structure in the learning process and in the presence of recognition errors. These word-to-meaning associations are embedded in the robot's own understanding of its actions. Thus, they can be directly used to instruct the robot to perform tasks and also allow to incorporate context in the speech recognition task. We believe that the encouraging results with our approach may afford robots with a capacity to acquire language descriptors in their operation's environment as well as to shed some light as to how this challenging process develops with human infants. PMID:22106152

  9. Using semantics to enhance new word learning: an ERP investigation.

    Angwin, Anthony J; Phua, Bernadette; Copland, David A

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the addition of meaning (semantics) would enhance new word learning for novel objects, and whether it would influence the neurophysiological response to new words. Twenty-five young healthy adults underwent 4 days of training to learn the names of 80 novel objects. Half of the items were learnt under a 'semantic' condition, whereby the name consisted of a legal nonword and two adjectives denoting semantic attributes. The remaining items were learnt under a 'name' condition, whereby the name consisted of a legal nonword and two proper names. Participants demonstrated superior recognition of names in the semantic condition compared to the name condition during training sessions 1-3. On the 5th day, following training, ERPs were recorded whilst participants performed a picture-word judgement task including familiar items. Analysis of the results revealed an N400 for incongruent items in the semantic condition, whilst no ERP component was observed for the name condition. These findings suggest that items learnt with semantic information form stronger associations than those trained without semantics. PMID:24846835

  10. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  11. Vocabulary Learning in a Yorkshire Terrier: Slow Mapping of Spoken Words

    Griebel, Ulrike; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2012-01-01

    Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to “fast mapping”, with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognitio...

  12. Semantic representations of new cognate vs. non cognate words : evidence from two second language learning methods

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Lima, Cátia

    2010-01-01

    How is the new vocabulary connected with the semantic memory? Starting from the Revised Hierarchical Model (Kroll & Stewart, 1994), this study aimed to explore the links established between the new words and the conceptual system manipulating two learning methods and the type of word to be learned (cognate vs. no cognate). The data showed that the learning method and the type of words modulate the organization of bilingual memory.

  13. Bilingualism and inhibitory control influence statistical learning of novel word forms

    JamesBartolotti

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influence of bilingual experience and inhibitory control on the ability to learn a novel language. Using a statistical learning paradigm, participants learned words in two novel languages that were based on the International Morse Code. First, participants listened to a continuous stream of words in a Morse code language to test their ability to segment words from continuous speech. Since Morse code does not overlap in form with natural languages, interference from known langu...

  14. Bilingualism and Inhibitory Control Influence Statistical Learning of Novel Word Forms

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica; Schroeder, Scott R.; Shook, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influence of bilingual experience and inhibitory control on the ability to learn a novel language. Using a statistical learning paradigm, participants learned words in two novel languages that were based on the International Morse Code. First, participants listened to a continuous stream of words in a Morse code language to test their ability to segment words from continuous speech. Since Morse code does not overlap in form with natural languages, interference from known langu...

  15. Learning Word Meanings from Teachers’ Repeated Story Read-Aloud in EFL Primary Classrooms

    Lu-Chun Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental design to determine the effects of teachers’ story read-aloud on EFL elementary school students’ word learning outcomes. It specifically examined whether the word learning was enhanced by teachers’ repeated story read-aloud and word-meaning explanations and further determined whether the learning outcomes were related to children’s English proficiency. Two native English-speaking teachers read a story to their fourth-grade classes four times. The results s...

  16. Early Acquisition of Basic Word Order in Japanese

    Sugisaki, Koji

    2008-01-01

    The acquisition of word order has been one of the central issues in the study of child language. One striking finding from the detailed investigation of various child languages is that from the earliest observable stages, children are highly sensitive to the basic word order of their target language. However, the evidence so far comes mainly from…

  17. Early lexical development and maternal speech: a comparison of children's initial and subsequent uses of words.

    Barrett, M; Harris, M; Chasin, J

    1991-02-01

    In Harris, Barrett, Jones & Brookes (1988), we reported the results of a detailed analysis of the initial uses of the first 10 words which were produced by four children. The present paper reports the results of an analysis of the subsequent uses of these 40 words. This analysis reveals that seven qualitatively different patterns of change occurred between the children's initial and subsequent uses of these words; the particular patterns of change which occurred support Barrett's (1986) model of early lexical development. In addition, it was found that, although there was a strong relationship between maternal speech and the children's initial word uses, the relationship between maternal speech and the children's subsequent word uses was very much weaker. These findings indicate that the role of linguistic input in early lexical development may decline quite sharply once the child has established initial uses for words. PMID:2010501

  18. Learning from input and memory evolution: Points of vulnerability on a pathway to mastery in word learning

    Storkel, Holly L.

    2014-01-01

    Word learning consists of at least two neurocognitive processes: learning from input during training and memory evolution during gaps between training sessions. Fine-grained analysis of word learning by normal adults provides evidence that learning from input is swift and stable, whereas memory evolution is a point of potential vulnerability on the pathway to mastery. Moreover, success during learning from input is linked to positive outcomes from memory evolution. These two neurocognitive pr...

  19. Becoming a written word: eye movements reveal order of acquisition effects following incidental exposure to new words during silent reading

    Joseph, Holly S. S. L.; Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Forbes, Paul; Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    We know that from mid-childhood onwards most new words are learned implicitly via reading; however, most word learning studies have taught novel items explicitly. We examined incidental word learning during reading by focusing on the well-documented finding that words which are acquired early in life are processed more quickly than those acquired later. Novel words were embedded in meaningful sentences and were presented to adult readers early (day 1) or later (day 2) during a five-day exposu...

  20. Newly learned word forms are abstract and integrated immediately after acquisition.

    Kapnoula, Efthymia C; McMurray, Bob

    2016-04-01

    A hotly debated question in word learning concerns the conditions under which newly learned words compete or interfere with familiar words during spoken word recognition. This has recently been described as a key marker of the integration of a new word into the lexicon and was thought to require consolidation Dumay & Gaskell, (Psychological Science, 18, 35-39, 2007; Gaskell & Dumay, Cognition, 89, 105-132, 2003). Recently, however, Kapnoula, Packard, Gupta, and McMurray, (Cognition, 134, 85-99, 2015) showed that interference can be observed immediately after a word is first learned, implying very rapid integration of new words into the lexicon. It is an open question whether these kinds of effects derive from episodic traces of novel words or from more abstract and lexicalized representations. Here we addressed this question by testing inhibition for newly learned words using training and test stimuli presented in different talker voices. During training, participants were exposed to a set of nonwords spoken by a female speaker. Immediately after training, we assessed the ability of the novel word forms to inhibit familiar words, using a variant of the visual world paradigm. Crucially, the test items were produced by a male speaker. An analysis of fixations showed that even with a change in voice, newly learned words interfered with the recognition of similar known words. These findings show that lexical competition effects from newly learned words spread across different talker voices, which suggests that newly learned words can be sufficiently lexicalized, and abstract with respect to talker voice, without consolidation. PMID:26202702

  1. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  2. Early and Late Spanish-English Bilinguals' Acquisition of English Word Stress Patterns

    Guion, Susan G.; Harada, Tetsuo; Clark, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Guion, Clark, Harada and Wayland (2003) found that three factors affect English speakers' stress placement on bisyllabic non-words: syllabic structure, lexical class and stress patterns of phonologically similar real words. The current replication and extension included three groups (N = 30): native English speakers, early Spanish-English…

  3. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. PMID:22804703

  4. Learning the Phonological Forms of New Words: Effects of Orthographic and Auditory Input

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Nicol, Janet; Barker, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the phonological and orthographic representations of new words for adult learners. Three groups of native English speakers learned a set of auditorily-presented pseudowords along with pictures indicating their "meanings". They were later tested on their memory of the words via an auditory word-picture…

  5. MOLT: A Mobile Learning Tool That Makes Learning New Technical English Language Words Enjoyable

    Dogan - Ibrahim

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase use of wireless technologies in education all over the world. In fact, wireless technologies such as laptop computers, palmtop computers, and mobile phones are revolutionizing education and transforming the traditional classroom based learning and teaching into anytime and anywhere education. This paper investigates the use of wireless technologies in education with particular reference to the potential of learning new technical English Language words using SMS text messaging. The system, developed by the authors, called Mobile Learning Tool (MOLT, has been tested with 45 first-year undergraduate students. Students’ opinions have been collected after the experiment. Our results show that students enjoyed and be happy used mobile phones to learn new technical English word. We believe that if we add the improvements or modifications students wish to see in the MOLT system, then using the MOLT system as an educational tool will contribute to motivation and success of students.

  6. Information Analysis of Three-Word Verbal Discrimination Learning.

    Dvornick, Eugene Steven

    Naval Postgraduate School students participated in a verbal discrimination experiment using three-word items of different frequency ratios. Half of the three-word items were composed of similar words and half, dissimilar words. Based on information theory, the words were grouped into two lists, both of equal lengths and approximately equal…

  7. The Word Frequency Effect on Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Koirala, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    This study examines several linguistic factors as possible contributors to perceived word difficulty in second language learners in an experimental setting. The investigated factors include: (1) frequency of word usage in the first language, (2) word length, (3) number of syllables in a word, and (4) number of consonant clusters in a word. Word…

  8. Recognition Memory for Braille or Spoken Words: An fMRI study in Early Blind

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin

    2011-01-01

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5 yrs. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied (“old”) compared to novel (“new”) words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified “new” words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken “new” words were la...

  9. Word-Level Information Influences Phonetic Learning in Adults and Infants

    Feldman, Naomi H.; Myers, Emily B.; White, Katherine S.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Morgan, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Infants begin to segment words from fluent speech during the same time period that they learn phonetic categories. Segmented words can provide a potentially useful cue for phonetic learning, yet accounts of phonetic category acquisition typically ignore the contexts in which sounds appear. We present two experiments to show that, contrary to the

  10. Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish

  11. Bilingualism Reduces Native-Language Interference during Novel-Word Learning

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to examine the effects of bilingualism on adults' ability to resolve cross-linguistic inconsistencies in orthography-to-phonology mappings during novel-word learning. English monolinguals and English-Spanish bilinguals learned artificially constructed novel words that overlapped with English orthographically but

  12. Accuracy Feedback Improves Word Learning from Context: Evidence from a Meaning-Generation Task

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Hodges, Leslie; Crossley, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The present study asked whether accuracy feedback on a meaning generation task would lead to improved contextual word learning (CWL). Active generation can facilitate learning by increasing task engagement and memory retrieval, which strengthens new word representations. However, forced generation results in increased errors, which can be…

  13. Word-Level Information Influences Phonetic Learning in Adults and Infants

    Feldman, Naomi H.; Myers, Emily B.; White, Katherine S.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Morgan, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Infants begin to segment words from fluent speech during the same time period that they learn phonetic categories. Segmented words can provide a potentially useful cue for phonetic learning, yet accounts of phonetic category acquisition typically ignore the contexts in which sounds appear. We present two experiments to show that, contrary to the…

  14. Investigating Word Learning in Fragile X Syndrome: A Fast-Mapping Study

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara T.; Hagerman, Randi; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Fast-mapping paradigms have not been used previously to examine the process of word learning in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), who are likely to have intellectual impairment, language delays, and symptoms of autism. In this study, a fast-mapping task was used to investigate associative word learning in 4- to 10-year-old boys with FXS relative…

  15. Retrieval Dynamics and Retention in Cross-Situational Statistical Word Learning

    Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on cross-situational word learning has demonstrated that learners are able to reduce ambiguity in mapping words to referents by tracking co-occurrence probabilities across learning events. In the current experiments, we examined whether learners are able to retain mappings over time. The results revealed that learners are able to…

  16. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The

  17. Mobile Learning and Early Age Mathematics

    Peled, Shir; Schocken, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop engaging simulations and constructive learning experiences using mobile devices is unprecedented, presenting a disruption in educational practices of historical proportions. In this paper we describe some of the unique virtues that mobile learning hold for early age mathematics education. In particular, we describe how

  18. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  19. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  20. Theory of mind selectively predicts preschoolers' knowledge-based selective word learning.

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2015-11-01

    Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory-of-mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children's preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children's developing social cognition and early learning. PMID:26211504

  1. Learning Word Association Norms Using Tree Cut Pair Models

    Abe, N; Abe, Naoki; Li, Hang

    1996-01-01

    We consider the problem of learning co-occurrence information between two word categories, or more in general between two discrete random variables taking values in a hierarchically classified domain. In particular, we consider the problem of learning the `association norm' defined by A(x,y)=p(x, y)/(p(x)*p(y)), where p(x, y) is the joint distribution for x and y and p(x) and p(y) are marginal distributions induced by p(x, y). We formulate this problem as a sub-task of learning the conditional distribution p(x|y), by exploiting the identity p(x|y) = A(x,y)*p(x). We propose a two-step estimation method based on the MDL principle, which works as follows: It first estimates p(x) as p1 using MDL, and then estimates p(x|y) for a fixed y by applying MDL on the hypothesis class of {A * p1 | A \\in B} for some given class B of representations for association norm. The estimation of A is therefore obtained as a side-effect of a near optimal estimation of p(x|y). We then apply this general framework to the problem of ac...

  2. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades

    Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…

  3. Bilingualism and inhibitory control influence statistical learning of novel word forms

    JamesBartolotti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of bilingual experience and inhibitory control on the ability to learn a novel language. Using a statistical learning paradigm, participants learned words in two novel languages that were based on the International Morse Code. First, participants listened to a continuous stream of words in a Morse code language to test their ability to segment words from continuous speech. Since Morse code does not overlap in form with natural languages, interference from known languages was low. Next, participants listened to another Morse code language composed of new words that conflicted with the first Morse code language. Interference in this second language was high due to conflict between languages and due to the presence of two colliding cues (compressed pauses between words and statistical regularities that competed to define word boundaries. Results suggest that bilingual experience can improve word learning when interference from other languages is low, while inhibitory control ability can improve word learning when interference from other languages is high. We conclude that the ability to extract novel words from continuous speech is a skill that is affected both by linguistic factors, such as bilingual experience, and by cognitive abilities, such as inhibitory control.

  4. Correlation versus prediction in children’s word learning: Cross-linguistic evidence and simulations

    COLUNGA, ELIANA; SMITH, LINDA B.; Gasser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The ontological distinction between discrete individuated objects and continuous substances, and the way this distinction is expressed in different languages has been a fertile area for examining the relation between language and thought. In this paper we combine simulations and a cross-linguistic word learning task as a way to gain insight into the nature of the learning mechanisms involved in word learning. First, we look at the effect of the different correlational structures on novel gene...

  5. When Actions Speak Too Much Louder than Words: Hand Gestures Disrupt Word Learning when Phonetic Demands Are High

    Kelly, Spencer D.; Lee, Angela L.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that hand gestures help people understand and learn language. Here, we provide an exception to this general rule--when phonetic demands are high, gesture actually hurts. Native English-speaking adults were instructed on the meaning of novel Japanese word pairs that were for non-native speakers phonetically hard (/ite/ vs.

  6. When Actions Speak Too Much Louder than Words: Hand Gestures Disrupt Word Learning when Phonetic Demands Are High

    Kelly, Spencer D.; Lee, Angela L.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that hand gestures help people understand and learn language. Here, we provide an exception to this general rule--when phonetic demands are high, gesture actually hurts. Native English-speaking adults were instructed on the meaning of novel Japanese word pairs that were for non-native speakers phonetically hard (/ite/ vs.…

  7. Early Visual Word Processing Is Flexible: Evidence from Spatiotemporal Brain Dynamics.

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Davis, Matthew H; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Visual word recognition is often described as automatic, but the functional locus of top-down effects is still a matter of debate. Do task demands modulate how information is retrieved, or only how it is used? We used EEG/MEG recordings to assess whether, when, and how task contexts modify early retrieval of specific psycholinguistic information in occipitotemporal cortex, an area likely to contribute to early stages of visual word processing. Using a parametric approach, we analyzed the spatiotemporal response patterns of occipitotemporal cortex for orthographic, lexical, and semantic variables in three psycholinguistic tasks: silent reading, lexical decision, and semantic decision. Task modulation of word frequency and imageability effects occurred simultaneously in ventral occipitotemporal regions-in the vicinity of the putative visual word form area-around 160 msec, following task effects on orthographic typicality around 100 msec. Frequency and typicality also produced task-independent effects in anterior temporal lobe regions after 200 msec. The early task modulation for several specific psycholinguistic variables indicates that occipitotemporal areas integrate perceptual input with prior knowledge in a task-dependent manner. Still, later task-independent effects in anterior temporal lobes suggest that word recognition eventually leads to retrieval of semantic information irrespective of task demands. We conclude that even a highly overlearned visual task like word recognition should be described as flexible rather than automatic. PMID:25848683

  8. Dynamic versus Static Dictionary with and without Printed Focal Words in e-Book Reading as Facilitator for Word Learning

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Ben-Shabt, Anat; Shneor, Dafna; Bokovza, Limor

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a dictionary embedded in an e-book with static or dynamic visuals with and without printed focal words affects word learning. A pretest-posttest design was used to measure gains of expressive words' meaning and their spelling. The participants included 250 Hebrew-speaking second graders from…

  9. Multivariate genetic analysis of learning and early reading development

    Byrne, Brian; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Boehme, Kristi; Talk, Andrew C.; Coventry, William L; Olson, Richard K; Samuelsson, Stefan; Corley, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The genetic factor structure of a range of learning measures was explored in twin children, recruited in preschool and followed to Grade 2 (total N = 2084). Measures of orthographic learning and word reading were included in the analyses to determine how these patterned with the learning processes. An exploratory factor analysis of the genetic correlations among the variables indicated a three-factor model. Vocabulary tests loaded on the first factor, the Grade 2 measures of word reading and ...

  10. How Words Are Learned Incrementally over Multiple Exposures.

    Stahl, Steven A.

    2003-01-01

    When encountering a word for the first time, information about it is connected to information from the context. There are four levels of word knowledge: never having seen it before; having heard of it but not knowing what it means; recognizing it in context; and knowing it. A full and flexible knowledge of a word involves understanding the core…

  11. Use of key words as an adjunctive learning tool improves learning during a perioperative medicine rotation for anesthesiology residents.

    Tetzlaff, J E; Ryckman, J V

    2000-05-01

    Designing a successful block rotation for anesthesiology residents requires not only an appropriate curriculum but also a set of teaching tools, which promote learning. Traditional clinical rotations in Anesthesiology residencies emphasize clinical teaching, supported by interaction with staff. Since Perioperative Medicine is a nontraditional subject for anesthesia residents, we introduced a syllabus and didactic curriculum to support clinical teaching. We hypothesized that the use of key words would enhance learning. Alternating groups of residents were assigned to receive key words, while control residents were expected to learn without key words. The key words were delivered in writing on the first day of the rotation and the syllabus was highlighted to identify the key words in the text. Pretests and posttests were administered to residents participating in the perioperative rotation. Learning was assessed by calculating the change in test scores. There was significantly more learning in the group given the key words. We conclude that key word designation improved learning in a rotation designed to teach perioperative medicine. PMID:10869930

  12. Early gesture selectively predicts later language learning

    Rowe, Meredith Lee; GOLDIN-MEADOW, SUSAN

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively predicted lexical versus syntactic skills at 42 months, even with early child speech controlled. Specifically, number of different mean...

  13. The Influence of Prosodic Stress Patterns and Semantic Depth on Novel Word Learning in Typically Developing Children

    Gladfelter, Allison; Goffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prosodic stress patterns and semantic depth on word learning. Twelve preschool-aged children with typically developing speech and language skills participated in a word learning task. Novel words with either a trochaic or iambic prosodic pattern were embedded in one of two learning conditions, either in children’s stories (semantically rich) or picture matching games (semantically sparse). Three main analyses were used to measure word l...

  14. What is rhetoric anyway? Briared in words in Early China

    Indraccolo, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The present article explores the applicability of the term “rhetoric” in a non-Western context and, in particular, the legitimacy of such an attempt in the case of Early China, where the Warring States period is traditionally considered as the golden age of early Chinese “rhetoric”. The pre-imperial and early imperial received literature provides good evidence for the employment of a well-established and clearly defined set of argumentative techniques in everyday political practice in ancient...

  15. Early words, multiword utterances and maternal reading strategies as predictors of mastering word inflections in Finnish.

    Silvén, Maarit; Ahtola, Annarilla; Niemi, Pekka

    2003-05-01

    This is the first study to report how children's language skills and mothers' book-reading strategies, measured at 2;0, predict mastery of word inflections at 3;0 and 5;0 in a sample of 66 Finnish children. Three theoretical models were tested on the longitudinal data using path analyses. The testing of the models suggests direct developmental continuity from producing words and multiword utterances on later inflectional growth, but indirect effects of maternal strategies on language outcomes. Moreover, mothers' complex expansions and questions are positively related, whereas labellings and corrections are negatively related, to children's concurrent and subsequent language skills. Finally, vocabulary size relates negatively to maternal attention regulation. When joint attention is easily built up in the dyad, mothers concentrate more on direct reading, which, together with the child's vocabulary, predicts mastery of inflections. In conclusion, the results can be viewed as support for a child-driven view on the future course of language acquisition. PMID:12846298

  16. Online Learning from Input versus Offline Memory Evolution in Adult Word Learning: Effects of Neighborhood Density and Phonologically Related Practice

    Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Pak, Natalie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated adult word learning to determine how neighborhood density and practice across phonologically related training sets influence online learning from input during training versus offline memory evolution during no-training gaps. Method: Sixty-one adults were randomly assigned to learn low- or…

  17. How Much Input Do You Need to Learn the Most Frequent 9,000 Words?

    Nation, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how much input is needed to gain enough repetition of the 1st 9,000 words of English for learning to occur. It uses corpora of various sizes and composition to see how many tokens of input would be needed to gain at least twelve repetitions and to meet most of the words at eight of the nine 1000 word family levels. Corpus sizes

  18. Word, Nonword, and Visual Paired Associate Learning in Dutch Dyslexic Children.

    Messbauer, Vera C. S.; de Jong, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated verbal and nonverbal paired associate learning among 8- to 11-year-old Dutch dyslexic children and chronological-age and reading-age controls. Found that dyslexic children had difficulty with verbal learning of words and nonwords. Phonological and general learning errors were distributed similarly for the reading groups. Found no…

  19. Reading Clinic. A New Use for Dr. Seuss: Rhymes Help Children Learn About Words.

    Cunningham, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    This activity for K-3 students helps them learn to decode and spell words using rhyme, noting that hearing and creating rhyme helps children hear similarities among words. Books with the Dr. Seuss imprint are recommended because they appeal to children. A sample poem entitled March, by Solveig Paulson Russell, is included on a reproducible sheet.…

  20. Using Number Lines to Solve Math Word Problems: A Strategy for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Gonsalves, Nicola; Krawec, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities (LD) consistently struggle with word problem solving in mathematics classes. This difficulty has made curricular, state, and national tests particularly stressful, as word problem solving has become a predominant feature of such student performance assessments. Research suggests that students with LD perform…

  1. Effect of Repeated Exposures on Word Learning in Quiet and Noise

    Blaiser, Kristina M.; Nelson, Peggy B.; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of repeated exposures on word learning of preschool children with and without hearing loss (HL) in quiet and noise conditions. Participants were 19 children with HL and 17 peers with normal hearing (NH). Children were introduced to 16 words: 8 in quiet and 8 in noise conditions. Production and identification scores…

  2. Early Gesture "Selectively" Predicts Later Language Learning

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively…

  3. Early Gesture "Selectively" Predicts Later Language Learning

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively

  4. All Words Are Not Created Equal: Expectations about Word Length Guide Infant Statistical Learning

    Lew-Williams, Casey; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2012-01-01

    Infants have been described as "statistical learners" capable of extracting structure (such as words) from patterned input (such as language). Here, we investigated whether prior knowledge influences how infants track transitional probabilities in word segmentation tasks. Are infants biased by prior experience when engaging in sequential…

  5. The impact of iconic gestures on foreign language word learning and its neural substrate.

    Macedonia, Manuela; Müller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-06-01

    Vocabulary acquisition represents a major challenge in foreign language learning. Research has demonstrated that gestures accompanying speech have an impact on memory for verbal information in the speakers' mother tongue and, as recently shown, also in foreign language learning. However, the neural basis of this effect remains unclear. In a within-subjects design, we compared learning of novel words coupled with iconic and meaningless gestures. Iconic gestures helped learners to significantly better retain the verbal material over time. After the training, participants' brain activity was registered by means of fMRI while performing a word recognition task. Brain activations to words learned with iconic and with meaningless gestures were contrasted. We found activity in the premotor cortices for words encoded with iconic gestures. In contrast, words encoded with meaningless gestures elicited a network associated with cognitive control. These findings suggest that memory performance for newly learned words is not driven by the motor component as such, but by the motor image that matches an underlying representation of the word's semantics. PMID:20645312

  6. Play along: effects of music and social interaction on word learning

    Verga, Laura; Bigand, Emmanuel; Sonja A. Kotz

    2015-01-01

    Learning new words is an increasingly common necessity in everyday life. External factors, among which music and social interaction are particularly debated, are claimed to facilitate this task. Due to their influence on the learner’s temporal behavior, these stimuli are able to drive the learner’s attention to the correct referent of new words at the correct point in time. However, do music and social interaction impact learning behavior in the same way? The current study aims to answer this...

  7. Gaze Following, Gaze Reading, and Word Learning in Children at Risk for Autism

    Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Hudry, Kristelle; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gaze-following abilities as a prerequisite for word learning, in a population expected to manifest a wide range of social and communicative skills--children with a family history of autism. Fifty-three 3-year-olds with or without a family history of autism took part in a televised word-learning task. Using an eye-tracker to…

  8. The involvement of the left motor cortex in learning of a novel action word lexicon.

    Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Hoppe, Julia; Heise, Kirstin; Zimerman, Maximo; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Gerloff, Christian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2010-10-12

    Current theoretical positions assume that action-related word meanings are established by functional connections between perisylvian language areas and the motor cortex (MC) according to Hebb's associative learning principle. To test this assumption, we probed the functional relevance of the left MC for learning of a novel action word vocabulary by disturbing neural plasticity in the MC with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In combination with tDCS, subjects learned a novel vocabulary of 76 concrete, body-related actions by means of an associative learning paradigm. Compared with a control condition with "sham" stimulation, cathodal tDCS reduced success rates in vocabulary acquisition, as shown by tests of novel action word translation into the native language. The analysis of learning behavior revealed a specific effect of cathodal tDCS on the ability to associatively couple actions with novel words. In contrast, we did not find these effects in control experiments, when tDCS was applied to the prefrontal cortex or when subjects learned object-related words. The present study lends direct evidence to the proposition that the left MC is causally involved in the acquisition of novel action-related words. PMID:20888226

  9. Finding patterns and learning words: Infant phonotactic knowledge is associated with vocabulary size.

    Graf Estes, Katharine; Gluck, Stephanie Chen-Wu; Grimm, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    Native language statistical regularities about allowable phoneme combinations (i.e., phonotactic patterns) may provide learners with cues to support word learning. The current research investigated the association between infants' native language phonotactic knowledge and their word learning progress, as measured by vocabulary size. In the experiment, 19-month-old infants listened to a corpus of nonce words that contained novel phonotactic patterns. All words began with "illegal" consonant clusters that cannot occur in native (English) words. The rationale for the task was that infants with fragile phonotactic knowledge should exhibit stronger learning of the novel illegal phonotactic patterns than infants with robust phonotactic knowledge. We found that infants with smaller vocabularies showed stronger phonotactic learning than infants with larger vocabularies even after accounting for general cognition. We propose that learning about native language structure may promote vocabulary development by providing a foundation for word learning; infants with smaller vocabularies may have weaker support from phonotactics than infants with larger vocabularies. Furthermore, stored vocabulary knowledge may promote the detection of phonotactic patterns even during infancy. PMID:26905502

  10. Early Spanish Grammatical Gender Bootstrapping: Learning Nouns through Adjectives

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Alva, Elda Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that children use different strategies to infer a referent. One of these strategies is to use inflectional morphology. We present evidence that toddlers learning Spanish are capable of using gender word inflections to infer word reference. Thirty-month-olds were tested in a preferential looking experiment. Participants

  11. Early Spanish Grammatical Gender Bootstrapping: Learning Nouns through Adjectives

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Alva, Elda Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that children use different strategies to infer a referent. One of these strategies is to use inflectional morphology. We present evidence that toddlers learning Spanish are capable of using gender word inflections to infer word reference. Thirty-month-olds were tested in a preferential looking experiment. Participants…

  12. Early Action and Gesture "Vocabulary" and Its Relation with Word Comprehension and Production

    Caselli, Maria Cristina; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Stefanini, Silvia; Volterra, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Data from 492 Italian infants (8-18 months) were collected with the parental questionnaire MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories to describe early actions and gestures (A-G) "vocabulary" and its relation with spoken vocabulary in both comprehension and production. A-G were more strongly correlated with word comprehension than word…

  13. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies

  14. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  15. Category specificity in early perception : face and word n170 responses differ in both lateralization and habituation properties

    Maurer, Urs; Rossion, Bruno; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2008-01-01

    N170 event-related potential (ERP) responses to both faces and visual words raises questions about category specific processing mechanisms during early perception and their neural basis. Topographic differences across word and face N170s suggests a form of category specific processing in early perception - the word N170 is consistently left-lateralized, while less consistent evidence supports a right-lateralization for the face N170. Additionally, the face N170 shows a reduction in amplitude ...

  16. Category Specificity in Early Perception: Face and Word N170 Responses Differ in Both Lateralization and Habituation Properties

    Maurer, Urs; Rossion, Bruno; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2008-01-01

    N170 event-related potential (ERP) responses to both faces and visual words raises questions about category specific processing mechanisms during early perception and their neural basis. Topographic differences across word and face N170s suggests a form of category specific processing in early perception – the word N170 is consistently left-lateralized, while less consistent evidence supports a right-lateralization for the face N170. Additionally, the face N170 shows a reduction in amplitude ...

  17. A HYBRID APPROACH TO WORD SENSE DISAMBIGUATION COMBINING SUPERVISED AND UNSUPERVISED LEARNING

    Alok Ranjan Pal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are going to find meaning of words based on distinct situations. Word Sense Disambiguation is used to find meaning of words based on live contexts using supervised and unsupervised approaches. Unsupervised approaches use online dictionary for learning, and supervised approaches use manual learning sets. Hand tagged data are populated which might not be effective and sufficient for learning procedure. This limitation of information is main flaw of the supervised approach. Our proposed approach focuses to overcome the limitation using learning set which is enriched in dynamic way maintaining new data. Trivial filtering method is utilized to achieve appropriate training data. We introduce a mixed methodology having “Modified Lesk” approach and “Bag-of-Words” having enriched bags using learning methods. Our approach establishes the superiority over individual “Modified Lesk” and “Bag-of-Words” approaches based on experimentation.

  18. Digital Transformation of Words in Learning Processes: A Critical View.

    Saga, Hiroo

    1999-01-01

    Presents some negative aspects of society's dependence on digital transformation of words by referring to works by Walter Ong and Martin Heidegger. Discusses orality, literacy and digital literacy and describes three aspects of the digital transformation of words. Compares/contrasts art with technology and discusses implications for education.

  19. Digital Transformation of Words in Learning Processes: A Critical View.

    Saga, Hiroo

    1999-01-01

    Presents some negative aspects of society's dependence on digital transformation of words by referring to works by Walter Ong and Martin Heidegger. Discusses orality, literacy and digital literacy and describes three aspects of the digital transformation of words. Compares/contrasts art with technology and discusses implications for education.…

  20. The Effects of Semantic Grouping on Learning Word Meaning.

    Stahl, Steven A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compares effects of teaching words in either semantic random groupings. Finds that the treatment had very strong effects, but student performance was not affected by whether the words were grouped in categories. Suggests that, given rich and elaborate instruction, semantic grouping is not necessary. (RS)

  1. Learning by doing? The effect of gestures on implicit retrieval of newly acquired words.

    Krönke, Klaus-Martin; Mueller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2013-10-01

    Meaningful gestures enhance speech comprehensibility. However, their role during novel-word acquisition remains elusive. Here we investigate how meaningful versus meaningless gestures impact on novel-word learning and contrast these conditions to a purely verbal training. After training, neuronal processing of the novel words was assessed by blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI), disclosing that networks affording retrieval differ depending on the training condition. Over 3 days participants learned pseudowords for common objects (e.g., /klira/ -cap). For training they repeated the novel word while performing (i) an iconic, (ii) a grooming or (iii) no gesture. For the two conditions involving gestures, these were either actively repeated or passively observed during training. Behaviorally no substantial differences between the five different training conditions were found while fMRI disclosed differential networks affording implicit retrieval of the learned pseudowords depending on the training procedure. Most notably training with actively performed iconic gestures yielded larger activation in a semantic network comprising left inferior frontal (BA47) and inferior temporal gyri. Additionally hippocampal activation was stronger for all trained compared to unknown pseudowords of identical structure. The behavioral results challenge the generality of an 'enactment-effect' for single word learning. Imaging results, however, suggest that actively performed meaningful gestures lead to a deeper semantic encoding of novel words. The findings are discussed regarding their implications for theoretical accounts and for empirical approaches of gesture-based strategies in language (re)learning. PMID:23357203

  2. The Influence of Prosodic Stress Patterns and Semantic Depth on Novel Word Learning in Typically Developing Children.

    Gladfelter, Allison; Goffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prosodic stress patterns and semantic depth on word learning. Twelve preschool-aged children with typically developing speech and language skills participated in a word learning task. Novel words with either a trochaic or iambic prosodic pattern were embedded in one of two learning conditions, either in children's stories (semantically rich) or picture matching games (semantically sparse). Three main analyses were used to measure word learning: comprehension and production probes, phonetic accuracy, and speech motor stability. Results revealed that prosodic frequency and density influence the learnability of novel words, or that there are prosodic neighborhood density effects. The impact of semantic depth on word learning was minimal and likely depends on the amount of experience with the novel words. PMID:23667328

  3. Diversity priors for learning early visual features

    Xiong, Hanchen; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Antonio J.; Szedmak, Sandor; Piater, Justus

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how utilizing diversity priors can discover early visual features that resemble their biological counterparts. The study is mainly motivated by the sparsity and selectivity of activations of visual neurons in area V1. Most previous work on computational modeling emphasizes selectivity or sparsity independently. However, we argue that selectivity and sparsity are just two epiphenomena of the diversity of receptive fields, which has been rarely exploited in learning. In ...

  4. Early use of orthographic information in spoken word recognition: Event-related potential evidence from the Korean language.

    Kwon, Youan; Choi, Sungmook; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study examines whether orthographic information is used during prelexical processes in spoken word recognition by investigating ERPs during spoken word processing for Korean words. Differential effects due to orthographic syllable neighborhood size and sound-to-spelling consistency on P200 and N320 were evaluated by recording ERPs from 42 participants during a lexical decision task. The results indicate that P200 was smaller for words whose orthographic syllable neighbors are large in number rather than those that are small. In addition, a word with a large orthographic syllable neighborhood elicited a smaller N320 effect than a word with a small orthographic syllable neighborhood only when the word had inconsistent sound-to-spelling mapping. The results provide support for the assumption that orthographic information is used early during the prelexical spoken word recognition process. PMID:26669620

  5. Sentence-based attentional mechanisms in word learning: evidence from a computational model.

    Alishahi, Afra; Fazly, Afsaneh; Koehne, Judith; Crocker, Matthew W

    2012-01-01

    When looking for the referents of novel nouns, adults and young children are sensitive to cross-situational statistics (Yu and Smith, 2007; Smith and Yu, 2008). In addition, the linguistic context that a word appears in has been shown to act as a powerful attention mechanism for guiding sentence processing and word learning (Landau and Gleitman, 1985; Altmann and Kamide, 1999; Kako and Trueswell, 2000). Koehne and Crocker (2010, 2011) investigate the interaction between cross-situational evidence and guidance from the sentential context in an adult language learning scenario. Their studies reveal that these learning mechanisms interact in a complex manner: they can be used in a complementary way when context helps reduce referential uncertainty; they influence word learning about equally strongly when cross-situational and contextual evidence are in conflict; and contextual cues block aspects of cross-situational learning when both mechanisms are independently applicable. To address this complex pattern of findings, we present a probabilistic computational model of word learning which extends a previous cross-situational model (Fazly et al., 2010) with an attention mechanism based on sentential cues. Our model uses a framework that seamlessly combines the two sources of evidence in order to study their emerging pattern of interaction during the process of word learning. Simulations of the experiments of (Koehne and Crocker, 2010, 2011) reveal an overall pattern of results that are in line with their findings. Importantly, we demonstrate that our model does not need to explicitly assign priority to either source of evidence in order to produce these results: learning patterns emerge as a result of a probabilistic interaction between the two clue types. Moreover, using a computational model allows us to examine the developmental trajectory of the differential roles of cross-situational and sentential cues in word learning. PMID:22783211

  6. Sentence-based attention mechanisms in word learning: Evidence from a computational model

    AfraAlishahi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available When looking for the referents of nouns, adults and young children are sensitive to cross- situational statistics (Yu & Smith, 2007; Smith & Yu, 2008. In addition, the linguistic context that a word appears in has been shown to act as a powerful attention mechanism for guiding sentence processing and word learning (Landau & Gleitman, 1985; Altmann & Kamide, 1999; Kako & Trueswell, 2000. Koehne & Crocker (2010, 2011 investigate the interaction between cross-situational evidence and guidance from the sentential context in an adult language learning scenario. Their studies reveal that these learning mechanisms interact in a complex manner: they can be used in a complementary way when context helps reduce referential uncertainty; they influence word learning about equally strongly when cross-situational and contextual evidence are in conflict; and contextual cues block aspects of cross-situational learning when both mechanisms are independently applicable. To address this complex pattern of findings, we present a probabilistic computational model of word learning which extends a previous cross-situational model (Fazly et al., 2010 with an attention mechanism based on sentential cues. Our model uses a framework that seamlessly combines the two sources of evidence in order to study their emerging pattern of interaction during the process of word learning. Simulations of the experiments of Koehne & Crocker (2010, 2011 reveal an overall patterns of results that are in line with their findings. Importantly, we demonstrate that our model does not need to explicitly assign priority to either source of evidence in order to produce these results: learning patterns emerge as a result of a probabilistic interaction between the two types of cues. Moreover, using a computational model allows us to examine the developmental trajectory of the differential roles of cross-situational and sentential cues in word learning.

  7. Play along: effects of music and social interaction on word learning

    Verga, Laura; Bigand, Emmanuel; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    Learning new words is an increasingly common necessity in everyday life. External factors, among which music and social interaction are particularly debated, are claimed to facilitate this task. Due to their influence on the learner’s temporal behavior, these stimuli are able to drive the learner’s attention to the correct referent of new words at the correct point in time. However, do music and social interaction impact learning behavior in the same way? The current study aims to answer this question. Native German speakers (N = 80) were requested to learn new words (pseudo-words) during a contextual learning game. This learning task was performed alone with a computer or with a partner, with or without music. Results showed that music and social interaction had a different impact on the learner’s behavior: Participants tended to temporally coordinate their behavior more with a partner than with music, and in both cases more than with a computer. However, when both music and social interaction were present, this temporal coordination was hindered. These results suggest that while music and social interaction do influence participants’ learning behavior, they have a different impact. Moreover, impaired behavior when both music and a partner are present suggests that different mechanisms are employed to coordinate with the two types of stimuli. Whether one or the other approach is more efficient for word learning, however, is a question still requiring further investigation, as no differences were observed between conditions in a retrieval phase, which took place immediately after the learning session. This study contributes to the literature on word learning in adults by investigating two possible facilitating factors, and has important implications for situations such as music therapy, in which music and social interaction are present at the same time. PMID:26388818

  8. Task Demands and Knowledge Influence How Children Learn to Read Words

    Ross, Shannon; Treiman, Rebecca; Bick, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    To examine how young children learn to read new words, we asked preschoolers (N = 115, mean age 4 years, 8 months) to learn and remember novel spellings that made sense based on letter names (e.g. TZ for "tease") and spellings that were visually distinctive but phonetically inappropriate. Children who were more knowledgeable about letter names…

  9. Modelling the Implicit Learning of Phonological Decoding from Training on Whole-Word Spellings and Pronunciations

    Pritchard, Stephen C.; Coltheart, Max; Marinus, Eva; Castles, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Phonological decoding is central to learning to read, and deficits in its acquisition have been linked to reading disorders such as dyslexia. Understanding how this skill is acquired is therefore important for characterising reading difficulties. Decoding can be taught explicitly, or implicitly learned during instruction on whole word spellings…

  10. Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-01-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of…

  11. Vowel bias in Danish word-learning: Processing biases are language-specific

    Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored whether the phonological bias favoring consonants found in French-learning infants and children when learning new words (Havy & Nazzi, 2009; Nazzi, 2005) is language-general, as proposed by Nespor, Peña and Mehler (2003), or varies across languages, perhaps as a functio...

  12. Vowel bias in Danish word-learning: processing biases are language-specific

    Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored whether the phonological bias favoring consonants found in French-learning infants and children when learning new words (Havy & Nazzi, 2009; Nazzi, 2005) is language-general, as proposed by Nespor, Peña, & Mehler (2003), or varies across languages, perhaps as a function...

  13. Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-01-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of

  14. Hybrid Approach to Word Sense Disambiguation Combining Supervised and Unsupervised Learning

    Alok Ranjan Pal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are going to find meaning of words based on distinct situations. Word SenseDisambiguation is used to find meaning of words based on live contexts using supervised and unsupervisedapproaches. Unsupervised approaches use online dictionary for learning, and supervised approaches usemanual learning sets. Hand tagged data are populated which might not be effective and sufficient forlearning procedure. This limitation of informationis main flaw of the supervised approach. Our proposedapproach focuses to overcome the limitation using learning set which is enriched in dynamic waymaintaining new data. Trivial filtering method is utilized to achieve appropriate training data. Weintroduce a mixed methodology having “Modified Lesk” approach and “Bag-of-Words” having enrichedbags using learning methods. Our approach establishes the superiority over individual “Modified Lesk”and “Bag-of-Words” approaches based on experimentation.

  15. Getting it right: Word learning across the hemispheres

    Borovsky, Arielle; Kutas, Marta; ELMAN, JEFFREY L.

    2013-01-01

    The brain is able to acquire information about an unknown word’s meaning from a highly constraining sentence context with minimal exposure. In this study, we investigate the potential contributions of the cerebral hemispheres to this ability. Undergraduates first read weakly or strongly constraining sentences completed by known or unknown (novel) words. Subsequently, their knowledge of these words was assessed via a lexical decision task in which they served as visual primes for lateralized t...

  16. What factors predict individual subjects' re-learning of words during anomia treatment?

    William Hayward

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies are addressing methodological approaches to treating anomia in persons with aphasia. What is missing from these studies are validated procedures for determining which words have the greatest potential for recovery. The current study evaluates the usefulness of several word-specific variables and one subject-specific measure in predicting success in re-learning problematic words. Methods: Two participants, YPR and ODH, presented with fluent aphasia and marked anomia. YPR’s Aphasia Quotient on the Western Aphasia Battery was 58.8; ODH’s AQ was 79.5. Stimuli were 96 pictures chosen individually for each participant from among those that they named incorrectly on multiple baselines. Subsequently, participants were presented with each picture and asked to indicate whether they could name it covertly, or “in their head.” Each subject completed a biweekly anomia treatment for these pictures. We performed separate statistical analyses for each subject. Dependent variables included whether each word was learned during treatment (Acquisition and the number of sessions required to learn each word (#Sessions. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the association of (self-reported covert naming success with Acquisition, and linear regression models to assess the relationship between (self-reported covert naming success and #Sessions. Starting with the predictors of covert naming accuracy, number of syllables (#syllables, number of phonemes (#phonemes, and frequency, we used backwards elimination methods to select the final regression models. Results: By the end of 25 treatment sessions, YPR had learned 90.2% (37/41 of the covertly correct words but only 70.4% (38/54 of the covertly incorrect words. In the unadjusted analysis, covert naming was significantly associated with Acquisition, OR=3.89, 95% CI: (1.19, 12.74, p=0.025. The result remained significant after adjustment for #phonemes (the only other predictor included in the final model for Acquisition, OR=3.54, 95% CI: (1.02, 12.35, p=0.047. During 19 treatment sessions, ODH learned 97.8% (44/45 of the covertly correct words and 93.6% (44/47 of the covertly incorrect words. Since most of the words were learned, logistic regression analyses for Acquisition were not performed. In the unadjusted analysis covert naming was significantly related to #Sessions (p<0.001. The result remained significant (p<0.001 after adjustment for #syllables (the only other predictor included in the final model for #Sessions. Specifically, the words that ODH could name covertly were learned on average 2.28 sessions earlier than the other words, 95% CI: (0.98, 3.58. For YPR covert naming and #phonemes were associated with Acquisition, while for ODH covert naming and #syllables were related to #Sessions. Interestingly, word frequency was not identified as an important predictor for any outcome for either subject. It is important to note that for the 35 words common to the two subjects’ word lists, there was very little agreement (kappa=0.11 between the subjects’ self-reports of covert naming success. These result suggests that the subject-dependent property of a word, i.e. the subjective experience of correct covert naming, is a better indicator of the strength of that word’s representation in the person’s lexicon than word-specific properties such as number of phonemes, number of syllables, and word frequency.

  17. Learning minimally different words in a third language: L2 proficiency as a crucial predictor of accuracy in an L3 word learning task

    Simon, E.; P. Escudero; Broersma, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency in the L2 (English) and L3 (Dutch) on word learning in the L3. Learners were 92 L1 Spanish speakers with differing proficiencies in L2 and L3, and 20 native speakers of Dutch. The learners were divided into basic and advanced English and Dutch proficiency groups according to their scores on general listening comprehension language tests. Participants were trained and subsequently tested on the mapping between pseudo-words and pictures of non-objec...

  18. Acquisition of Malay word recognition skills: lessons from low-progress early readers.

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both syllable awareness and phoneme blending were significant predictors of word recognition, suggesting that both syllable and phonemic grain-sizes are important in Malay word recognition. Item analysis revealed a hierarchical pattern of difficulty based on the syllable and the phonic structure of the words. Error analysis identified the sources of errors to be errors due to inefficient syllable segmentation, oversimplification of syllables, insufficient grapheme-phoneme knowledge and inefficient phonemic code assembly. Evidence also suggests that direct instruction in syllable segmentation, phonemic awareness and grapheme-phoneme correspondence is necessary for low-progress readers to acquire word recognition skills. Finally, a logical sequence to teach grapheme-phoneme decoding in Malay is suggested. PMID:21241030

  19. How Are Pronunciation Variants of Spoken Words Recognized? A Test of Generalization to Newly Learned Words

    Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    One account of how pronunciation variants of spoken words (center-> "senner" or "sennah") are recognized is that sublexical processes use information about variation in the same phonological environments to recover the intended segments [Gaskell, G., & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (1998). Mechanisms of phonological inference in speech perception.…

  20. E-Learning System for English Education to emphasize Pronunciation, Word-for-Word Translation and Free Translation

    Nomura, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Ryota

    In order to get students in engineering courses to acquire a good command of English, a coursework named “English for Engineers” has been offered to senior students in the department of mechanical engineering of Mie University. The authors place much value on the coursework from the viewpoints of acquiring the ability of (1) accurate pronunciations in accordance with phonetic symbols, and (2) a series of translations from a word-for-word translation to a free one. To make the coursework more effective, the authors have developed an e-learning system. The system supports teachers in engineering departments who are normally non-professionals in English education. The results showed that the proposed system is effective for comprehending the importance on the above-mentioned two viewpoints.

  1. Unsupervised Learning of Semantic Orientation from a Hundred-Billion-Word Corpus

    Turney, P D; Turney, Peter D.; Littman, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The evaluative character of a word is called its semantic orientation. A positive semantic orientation implies desirability (e.g., "honest", "intrepid") and a negative semantic orientation implies undesirability (e.g., "disturbing", "superfluous"). This paper introduces a simple algorithm for unsupervised learning of semantic orientation from extremely large corpora. The method involves issuing queries to a Web search engine and using pointwise mutual information to analyse the results. The algorithm is empirically evaluated using a training corpus of approximately one hundred billion words -- the subset of the Web that is indexed by the chosen search engine. Tested with 3,596 words (1,614 positive and 1,982 negative), the algorithm attains an accuracy of 80%. The 3,596 test words include adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs. The accuracy is comparable with the results achieved by Hatzivassiloglou and McKeown (1997), using a complex four-stage supervised learning algorithm that is restricted to determining t...

  2. The effect of a word processor as an accommodation for students with learning disabilities

    Larry Lewandowski; Cassie L. Berger

    2013-01-01

    The effects of writing format (handwritten (HW) versus word processor (WP)) were examined in a sample of college students with and without learning disabilities (LD). All students wrote two essays, one in each format, scored for quality and length. Groups did not differ in age, gender, ethnicity, mathematical calculation, writing fluency, essay length or essay quality. The "interaction hypothesis" was not supported, in that the use of a word processor as a writing accommodation did not provid...

  3. Sentence-Based Attentional Mechanisms in Word Learning: Evidence from a Computational Model

    AfraAlishahi; MatthewWCrocker; AfsanehFazly

    2012-01-01

    When looking for the referents of nouns, adults and young children are sensitive to cross- situational statistics (Yu & Smith, 2007; Smith & Yu, 2008). In addition, the linguistic context that a word appears in has been shown to act as a powerful attention mechanism for guiding sentence processing and word learning (Landau & Gleitman, 1985; Altmann & Kamide, 1999; Kako & Trueswell, 2000). Koehne & Crocker (2010, 2011) investigate the interaction between cross-situation...

  4. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill. PMID:26351964

  5. Substantial gains in word learning ability between 20 and 24 months: A longitudinal ERP study.

    Borgstrm, Kristina; von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-10-01

    This longitudinal ERP study investigated changes in children's ability to map novel words to novel objects during the dynamic period of vocabulary growth between 20 and 24 months. During this four-month period the children on average tripled their productive vocabulary, an increase which was coupled with changes in the N400 effect to pseudoword-referent associations. Moreover, productive vocabulary size was related to the dynamics of semantic processing during novel word learning. In children with large productive vocabularies, the N400 amplitude was linearly reduced during the five experimental learning trials, consistent with the repetition effect typically seen in adults, while in children with smaller vocabularies the N400 attenuation did not appear until the end of the learning phase. Vocabulary size was related only to modulation of the N400 to pseudowords, not to real words. These findings demonstrate a remarkable development of fast mapping ability between 20 and 24 months. PMID:26185047

  6. Early gesture selectively predicts later language learning

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively predicted lexical versus syntactic skills at 42 months, even with early child speech controlled. Specifically, number of different meanings conveyed in gesture at 18 months predicted vocabulary at 42 months, but number of gesture+speech combinations did not. In contrast, number of gesture+speech combinations, particularly those conveying sentence-like ideas, produced at 18 months predicted sentence complexity at 42 months, but meanings conveyed in gesture did not. We can thus predict particular milestones in vocabulary and sentence complexity at age 3 1/2 by watching how children move their hands two years earlier. PMID:19120426

  7. Implicit learning of L2 word stress rules

    Chan, RKW; Leung, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades, cognitive psychologists and linguists have shown increasing research interest in the phenomenon of implicit learning, a term generally defined as learning of regularities in the environment without intention and awareness. Some psychologists regard implicit learning as the primary mechanism for knowledge attainment and language acquisition (Reber, 1993), whereas others deny the possibility of learning even simple contingencies in an implicit manner (Lovibond and Shan...

  8. Images as a Substitute for Words? The Notion of Visual Arts in Early Christian Writings

    Tine Germ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relation between verbal and visual communication in the early Christian era and its influence on the perception of visual arts in the Middle Ages. Taking as its starting point the famous statement by Pope Gregory the Great that “what Scripture is to the educated, images are to the ignorant, who read in them what they cannot read in books,” it traces the issue back to the early church fathers and Christian apologists, who rejected the practice of making images of God and other sacred images. Many of them categorically condemned the visual arts and branded artists as sinners that supported idolatry with works of art. The theological arguments against sacred images concentrate on the idea that it is completely impossible for any human being to imagine what God looks like, let alone make an image of Him. The only possible way to visualize and depict God is through symbolic and allegorical images. This idea, clearly formulated by Origen, marks the position of later church fathers as well, although even by the early fourth century the attitude towards sacred images and the visual arts had become less austere. Eusebius of Caesarea followed Origen in his speculation on sacred images, yet he described the statue of Christ with the woman that had an issue of blood in his native Caesarea without questioning the artist’s intention to render the image of Christ realistically and thus recreate the figure of the historical Jesus. Eusebius and the church fathers of the fifth century realized that the visual arts were very important media and could be applied to the purpose of the Church: images could be useful in spreading Christian teachings, illustrating interpretations of the Scriptures, and rendering them more comprehensible. Biblical exegesis thus found its counterpart in the allegorical and narrative motifs of early Christian art. Although the didactic value of early Christian art prevailed at least in the polemics on art, the aesthetic component seems to have been of less concern to the church fathers. Only at the beginning of the sixth century did the topic of aesthetic value begin to figure in Christian writings. Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite made some important observations on aesthetics in his description of the gnoseological function of symbolic images. He felt that visual symbols were the most appropriate instruments for learning about God Himself (who is beyond any definition or description that words can provide because they could at least evoke some idea of His divine nature. However, what was new in the evaluation of symbols in their gnoseological function was the idea that the beauty of these images stimulates the mind to strive to attain knowledge of the divine order that rules the universe. Visual communication and the visual arts thus cease to be regarded as mere aids to the verbal message—a sort of picture-book for the ignorant “who read in them what they cannot read in books”—and begin to be considered autonomous media that by far transcend their didactic religious function.

  9. DESIGNING A MICROCONTROLLER BASED SMART MULTI LANGUAGE LEARNING WORD MASTER

    Md.Sharif Ullah,; A.H.M. Zadidul Karim,; Munzur-ul-Mamun,; Md.Istiaq Mahbub

    2011-01-01

    The inconvenience encountered by the native learners in learning Bengali is there is no digital Bengali learning system except computer which is costly and not easy to use for all. In this paper we show a low power microcontroller based Multilanguage learning system to overcome the inconvenience mentioned above. This paper depicts the design procedure and the development of its hardware and software.

  10. What Can We Learn from the Word Writing CAFE?

    Bromley, Karen; Vandenberg, Amy; White, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Building on the work of an earlier article ["The Word Writing CAFE: Assessing Student Writing for Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency," Dorothy J. Leal, "Reading Teacher," 59 (4) Dec 2005 (EJ738016)], these authors investigated the use of a simple assessment tool with a different audience to yield similar useful results. (Contains 3 figures and 4…

  11. Using electronic storybooks to support word learning in children with severe language impairments.

    Smeets, Daisy J H; van Dijken, Marianne J; Bus, Adriana G

    2014-01-01

    Novel word learning is reported to be problematic for children with severe language impairments (SLI). In this study, we tested electronic storybooks as a tool to support vocabulary acquisition in SLI children. In Experiment 1, 29 kindergarten SLI children heard four e-books each four times: (a) two stories were presented as video books with motion pictures, music, and sounds, and (b) two stories included only static illustrations without music or sounds. Two other stories served as the control condition. Both static and video books were effective in increasing knowledge of unknown words, but static books were most effective. Experiment 2 was designed to examine which elements in video books interfere with word learning: video images or music or sounds. A total of 23 kindergarten SLI children heard 8 storybooks each four times: (a) two static stories without music or sounds, (b) two static stories with music or sounds, (c) two video stories without music or sounds, and (d) two video books with music or sounds. Video images and static illustrations were equally effective, but the presence of music or sounds moderated word learning. In children with severe SLI, background music interfered with learning. Problems with speech perception in noisy conditions may be an underlying factor of SLI and should be considered in selecting teaching aids and learning environments. PMID:23213051

  12. The Role of Novelty in Early Word Learning

    Mather, Emily; Plunkett, Kim

    2012-01-01

    What mechanism implements the mutual exclusivity bias to map novel labels to objects without names? Prominent theoretical accounts of mutual exclusivity (e.g., Markman, 1989, 1990) propose that infants are guided by their knowledge of object names. However, the mutual exclusivity constraint could be implemented via monitoring of object novelty…

  13. E-Word Wall: An Interactive Vocabulary Instruction Tool for Students with Learning Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Narkon, Drue E.; Wells, Jenny C.; Segal, Lillian S.

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary development for students with learning disability (LD) is affected by "differences in the amount of independent reading, lack of strategies to learn words from content, and diffuse word knowledge" (Jitendra, Edwards, Sacks, & Jacobson, 2004, p. 300). Generally, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have relatively strong skills

  14. The Role of Pictures and Gestures as Nonverbal Aids in Preschoolers' Word Learning in a Novel Language

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Mullan, Bridget E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that presenting redundant nonverbal semantic information in the form of gestures and/or pictures may aid word learning in first and foreign languages. But do nonverbal supports help all learners equally? We address this issue by examining the role of gestures and pictures as nonverbal supports for word learning in a…

  15. What counts as effective input for word learning?*

    SHNEIDMAN, LAURA A.; ARROYO, MICHELLE E.; Levine, Susan C; GOLDIN-MEADOW, SUSAN

    2012-01-01

    The talk children hear from their primary caregivers predicts the size of their vocabularies. But children who spend time with multiple individuals also hear talk that others direct to them, as well as talk not directed to them at all. We investigated the effect of linguistic input on vocabulary acquisition in children who routinely spent time with one vs. multiple individuals. For all children, the number of words primary caregivers directed to them at age 2;6 predicted vocabulary size at ag...

  16. The Words Children Hear: Picture Books and the Statistics for Language Learning.

    Montag, Jessica L; Jones, Michael N; Smith, Linda B

    2015-09-01

    Young children learn language from the speech they hear. Previous work suggests that greater statistical diversity of words and of linguistic contexts is associated with better language outcomes. One potential source of lexical diversity is the text of picture books that caregivers read aloud to children. Many parents begin reading to their children shortly after birth, so this is potentially an important source of linguistic input for many children. We constructed a corpus of 100 children's picture books and compared word type and token counts in that sample and a matched sample of child-directed speech. Overall, the picture books contained more unique word types than the child-directed speech. Further, individual picture books generally contained more unique word types than length-matched, child-directed conversations. The text of picture books may be an important source of vocabulary for young children, and these findings suggest a mechanism that underlies the language benefits associated with reading to children. PMID:26243292

  17. Active Learning for Prediction of Prosodic Word Boundaries in Chinese TTS Using Maximum Entropy Markov Model

    Ziping Zhao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For a Chinese speech synthesis system, hierarchical prosody structure generation is a key component. The prosodic word, which is the basic prosodic unit, plays an important role for the naturalness and the intelligibility for the Chinese Text-To-Speech system. However, obtaining human annotations of prosodic word to train a supervised system has become a laborious and costly effort. To overcome this, we explore active learning techniques with the goal of reducing the amount of human-annotated data needed to attain a given level of performance. In this paper Active Maximum Entropy Markov Model(AMEMM is used for prediction of Chinese prosodic word boundaries in unrestricted Chinese text. Experiments show that for most of the cases considered, active selection strategies for labeling prosodic word boundaries are as good as or exceed the performance of random data selection.

  18. In Their Own Words: Student Stories of Seeking Learning Support

    Brown, Mark; Hughes, Helen; Keppell, Mike; Hard, Natasha; Smith, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Many Open and Distance Learning (ODL) providers report that their students are prone to lower rates of retention and completion than campus-based students. Against this background, there is growing interest around distance-specific learning support. The current research investigated the experiences of students during their first semester as…

  19. Harder Words: Learning Abstract Verbs with Opaque Syntax

    Becker, Misha; Estigarribia, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Highly abstract predicates (e.g. "think") present a number of difficulties for language learners (Gleitman et al., 2005). A partial solution to learning these verbs is that learners exploit regularities in the syntactic frames in which these verbs occur. While agreeing with this general approach to learning verbs, we caution that this

  20. Using Machine Learning Algorithms for Word Sense Disambiguation: A Brief Survey

    Neetu Sharma,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the entire vocabulary of Human language, numerous words have more than one distinct meaning and thus present a contextual ambiguity which is a worth of one of the many language based problems needs procedure based resolution. Approaches to WSD are often classified according to the main source of knowledge used in sense differentiation. Methods that rely primarily on dictionaries, thesauri, and lexical knowledge bases, without using any corpus evidence, are termed dictionary-based or knowledge based. Natural language tends to be ambiguous. Comparing and evaluating different WSD systems is extremely difficult, because of the different test sets, sense inventories, and knowledge resources adopted. In this research we shall address the problem of Word Sense Disambiguation by a combination of learning algorithms. The study is aimed at comparing the performance of using machine learning algorithms for Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD

  1. WEakly supervised hmm learning for spoken word acquisition in human computer interaction with little manual effort

    Sun, Meng; Van hamme, Hugo; Zhang, Xiongwei

    2014-01-01

    Sun M., Van hamme H., Zhang X, ''WEakly supervised hmm learning for spoken word acquisition in human computer interaction with little manual effort'', 12th international conference on signal processing - ICSP 2014, pp. 1341-1345, October 19-23, 2014, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

  2. Evidence for Preserved Novel Word Learning in Down Syndrome Suggests Multiple Routes to Vocabulary Acquisition

    Mosse, Emma K.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to…

  3. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  4. Sources of Support for Learning Words in Conversation: Evidence from Mealtimes.

    Beals, Diane E.

    1997-01-01

    Examines mealtimes of preschoolers' families to determine whether rare words are used in informative ways so that a child could learn their meanings. Each use was coded for whether it was informative or uninformative; each informative exchange was coded for type of strategy used to provide support. Frequency of use was positively correlated with…

  5. Tracking Speakers' False Beliefs: Is Theory of Mind Available Earlier for Word Learning?

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Goddard, Kate; Seclier, Catherine; Grant, Sally C.; Reid, Caitlin J. B.; Boyden, Laura E.; Williams, Rhiannon

    2011-01-01

    Happe and Loth (2002) describe word learning as a "privileged domain" in the development of a theory of mind. We test this claim in a series of experiments based on the Sally-Anne paradigm. Three- and 4-year-old children's ability to represent others' false beliefs was investigated in tasks that required the child either to predict the actions of…

  6. Syntactic Awareness and Arithmetic Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Learning Disabilities

    Peake, Christian; Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Bisschop, Elaine; Villarroel, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Arithmetic word problem (AWP) solving is a highly demanding task for children with learning disabilities (LD) since verbal and mathematical information have to be integrated. This study examines specifically how syntactic awareness (SA), the ability to manage the grammatical structures of language, affects AWP solving. Three groups of children in…

  7. Teaching Children to Learn Word Meanings from Context: A Synthesis and Some Questions.

    Kuhn, Melanie R.; Stahl, Steven A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews 14 studies investigating approaches for teaching children to learn words from context. Finds nearly all treatments were effective compared to a no-treatment control; however, in the 4 studies that included a practice-only treatment, no significant differences were found. Suggests effects of treatments were due to the practice rather than…

  8. Event-Related EEG Oscillations to Semantically Unrelated Words in Normal and Learning Disabled Children

    Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…

  9. The role of the phonological loop in English word learning: a comparison of Chinese ESL learners and native speakers.

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

    2011-04-01

    Although the role of the phonological loop in word-retention is well documented, research in Chinese character retention suggests the involvement of non-phonological encoding. This study investigated whether the extent to which the phonological loop contributes to learning and remembering visually introduced words varies between college-level Chinese ESL learners (N = 20) and native speakers of English (N = 20). The groups performed a paired associative learning task under two conditions (control versus articulatory suppression) with two word types (regularly spelled versus irregularly spelled words) differing in degree of phonological accessibility. The results demonstrated that both groups' recall declined when the phonological loop was made less available (with irregularly spelled words and in the articulatory suppression condition), but the decline was greater for the native group. These results suggest that word learning entails phonological encoding uniformly across learners, but the contribution of phonology varies among learners with diverse linguistic backgrounds. PMID:20640514

  10. In their own words: Student stories of seeking learning support

    Mark Brown

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Open and Distance Learning (ODL providers report that their students are prone to lower rates of retention and completion than campus-based students. Against this background, there is growing interest around distance-specific learning support. The current research investigated the experiences of students during their first semester as distance learners at Massey University in New Zealand. The overarching methodology was Design-Based Research, within which phenomenological data gathering methods were used to study the experiences of twenty participants from their own point of view. Using video cameras, over twentytwo hours of self-reflections were gathered between July and November 2011 using a technique adapted from previous studies. A grounded theory approach was applied to the process of thematic data analysis. Results revealed how participants varied in their engagement with learning supports, including orientation events, outreach activity, cultural services, learning consultants, library services, fellow students, lecturers, residential courses, and other people. The discussion reflects on clusters of participants who utilised learning supports effectively, moderately and barely. The paper concludes by summarizing how the current research has had an impact on the design of learning support services at one of the world’s leading providers of distance education.

  11. Category specificity in early perception: face and word N170 responses differ in both lateralization and habituation properties

    Bruno Rossion

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced N170 ERP responses to both faces and visual words raises questions about category specific processing mechanisms during early perception and their neural basis. Topographic differences across word and face N170s might suggest a form of category specific processing in early perception - the word N170 is consistently left lateralized, while less consistent evidence suggests a right lateralization for the face N170. Additionally, the face N170 shows a reduction in amplitude across consecutive unique faces, a form of habituation that might differ across studies thereby helping to explain inconsistencies in lateralization. This effect remains unexplored for visual words. The current study directly contrasts N170 responses to words and faces within the same subjects, examining both category-level habituation and lateralization effects. ERP responses to a series of different faces and words were collected under two contexts: blocks that alternated faces and words versus pure blocks designed to induce category level habituation. Global and occipito-temporal measures of N170 amplitude demonstrated an interaction between category (word, faces and block context (alternating, pure. N170 amplitude demonstrated class level habituation for faces but not words. Furthermore, the pure block context diminished the right lateralization of the face N170, potentially pointing to class level habituation as a factor that might drive inconsistencies of right lateralization across different paradigms. No analogous effect for the word N170 was found, suggesting category specificity for this process. Taken together, these topographic and habituation effects suggest distinct forms of perceptual processing drive the face N170 and the visual word form N170.

  12. The role of reward in word learning and its implications for language acquisition.

    Ripollés, Pablo; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Hielscher, Ulrike; Mestres-Missé, Anna; Tempelmann, Claus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Noesselt, Toemme

    2014-11-01

    The exact neural processes behind humans' drive to acquire a new language--first as infants and later as second-language learners--are yet to be established. Recent theoretical models have proposed that during human evolution, emerging language-learning mechanisms might have been glued to phylogenetically older subcortical reward systems, reinforcing human motivation to learn a new language. Supporting this hypothesis, our results showed that adult participants exhibited robust fMRI activation in the ventral striatum (VS)--a core region of reward processing--when successfully learning the meaning of new words. This activation was similar to the VS recruitment elicited using an independent reward task. Moreover, the VS showed enhanced functional and structural connectivity with neocortical language areas during successful word learning. Together, our results provide evidence for the neural substrate of reward and motivation during word learning. We suggest that this strong functional and anatomical coupling between neocortical language regions and the subcortical reward system provided a crucial advantage in humans that eventually enabled our lineage to successfully acquire linguistic skills. PMID:25447993

  13. Assessing Early Learning through Formative Assessment: Key Issues and Considerations

    Dunphy, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    At all levels of education the assessment of learning is generally regarded as an integral part of teachers' work. For early childhood teachers, i.e., those who work with children in the age-range birth to six years, there are very particular considerations arising from the characteristics of young learners and the nature of early learning. This

  14. English Learners (ELs) and Early Learning. Fast Facts

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) and Office of Early Learning (OEL) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) and early learning into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report include: (1) State-funded preschool programs with highest percentage of ELs: Fall 2013; (2)…

  15. Word sense disambiguation via high order of learning in complex networks

    Silva, Thiago C; 10.1209/0295-5075/98/58001

    2013-01-01

    Complex networks have been employed to model many real systems and as a modeling tool in a myriad of applications. In this paper, we use the framework of complex networks to the problem of supervised classification in the word disambiguation task, which consists in deriving a function from the supervised (or labeled) training data of ambiguous words. Traditional supervised data classification takes into account only topological or physical features of the input data. On the other hand, the human (animal) brain performs both low- and high-level orders of learning and it has facility to identify patterns according to the semantic meaning of the input data. In this paper, we apply a hybrid technique which encompasses both types of learning in the field of word sense disambiguation and show that the high-level order of learning can really improve the accuracy rate of the model. This evidence serves to demonstrate that the internal structures formed by the words do present patterns that, generally, cannot be corre...

  16. Building Machine Learning Based Senti-word Lexicon for Sentiment Analysis

    Alaa Hamouda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis involves classifying opinions in text into categories like "positive" or "negative". One of approaches used to make sentiment classification is using sentiment lexicon. This paper aims to build a sentiment lexicon which is domain independent. We propose a Machine Learning Based Senti-word Lexicon (MLBSL based on the Amazon data set which contains reviews from different domains. Our proposed MLBSL yields an improvement over previous published manual and automatic-built lexicons like SentiWordNet. We also provide an improvement in calculation method used in reviews sentiment analysis.

  17. Word Specific Training Effects and Simultaneous Absence of Learning Transfer. Analyses of Computerized Reading Instruction for Special Learning Needs

    Michael Grosche

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on using intensive computer-based instruction to improve the learning outcomes of five adult functional illiterates who participated in a literacy class at an adult education center. During training sessions, they practiced 32 training words with three different highlighted sublexical onsets for 15 minutes on a daily basis. Results of the study indicated an increase in reading accuracy and fluency. However, only word specific training effects were found (i.e., transfer effects on untrained words could not be shown. Moreover, when compared to a control group of adults without reading problems, participants read more slowly at every measurement point (pre, post, and follow-up tests. Possible interpretations regarding the lack of transfer effects and the poor reading fluency of functional illiterates will be discussed, as well as implications for the literacy training of individuals in adult basic education.

  18. Parents Provide Children with Social Cues for Word Learning

    Kyger, Mariel F.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that child language development trajectories, and specifically, the size and content of children's vocabularies, depend in large part on input from social partners like parents or caregivers. However, the existing literature lacks detailed descriptions of the types and frequencies of social language cues provided to children. In order for children to learn language from social input, they must have access to frequent, predictive, and informative cues. This dissertation des...

  19. The influence of bilingualism on statistical word learning.

    Poepsel, Timothy J; Weiss, Daniel J

    2016-07-01

    Statistical learning is a fundamental component of language acquisition, yet to date, relatively few studies have examined whether these abilities differ in bilinguals. In the present study, we examine this issue by comparing English monolinguals with Chinese-English and English-Spanish bilinguals in a cross-situational statistical learning (CSSL) task. In Experiment 1, we assessed the ability of both monolinguals and bilinguals on a basic CSSL task that contained only one-to-one mappings. In Experiment 2, learners were asked to form both one-to-one and two-to-one mappings, and were tested at three points during familiarization. Overall, monolinguals and bilinguals did not differ in their learning of one-to-one mappings. However, bilinguals more quickly acquired two-to-one mappings, while also exhibiting greater proficiency than monolinguals. We conclude that the fundamental SL mechanism may not be affected by language experience, in accord with previous studies. However, when the input contains greater variability, bilinguals may be more prone to detecting the presence of multiple structures. PMID:27015348

  20. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds. PMID:26505918

  1. Development of Entrepreneurship Learning Model for Early Childhood

    Martha Christianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is an early pace in the research development of entrepreneurship learning model for early childhood. This study aims to explore how learning entrepreneurship that has been done in the early childhood; to know whether parents, teachers, and principals support the entrepreneurship learning; and what kind of values of entrepreneurship can be developed for early childhood. The results of this research are useful to create early childhood entrepreneurial learning design. The research conducts in the form of interviews, observation, and documentation. The result shows that the school which has been developing entrepreneurship has no clear guidance of learning to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship; all teachers and principals in the research agree that entrepreneurship learning developed from an early age. However, there are 90.79% of parents agreed that from an early age has begun to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship and 9.21% said they did not agree; and the values of entrepreneurship that are able to be developed since they are in early age are self-confidence, honesty, independence, responsibility, creative, never give up/hard work, caring for the environment, teamwork, discipline, and respect.

  2. The Role of the Phonological Loop in English Word Learning: A Comparison of Chinese ESL Learners and Native Speakers

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Although the role of the phonological loop in word-retention is well documented, research in Chinese character retention suggests the involvement of non-phonological encoding. This study investigated whether the extent to which the phonological loop contributes to learning and remembering visually introduced words varies between college-level…

  3. Failure to Learn from Feedback underlies Word Learning Difficulties in Toddlers at Risk for Autism

    Bedford, R.; Gliga, T.; Frame, K.; Hudry, K.; Chandler, S.; Johnson, M. H.; Charman, T.

    2013-01-01

    Children's assignment of novel words to nameless objects, over objects whose names they know (mutual exclusivity; ME) has been described as a driving force for vocabulary acquisition. Despite their ability to use ME to fast-map words (Preissler & Carey, 2005), children with autism show impaired language acquisition. We aimed to address…

  4. Bringing back the body into the mind: gestures enhance word learning in foreign language.

    Macedonia, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Foreign language education in the twenty-first century still teaches vocabulary mainly through reading and listening activities. This is due to the link between teaching practice and traditional philosophy of language, where language is considered to be an abstract phenomenon of the mind. However, a number of studies have shown that accompanying words or phrases of a foreign language with gestures leads to better memory results. In this paper, I review behavioral research on the positive effects of gestures on memory. Then I move to the factors that have been addressed as contributing to the effect, and I embed the reviewed evidence in the theoretical framework of embodiment. Finally, I argue that gestures accompanying foreign language vocabulary learning create embodied representations of those words. I conclude by advocating the use of gestures in future language education as a learning tool that enhances the mind. PMID:25538671

  5. Word of mouth in social learning: The effects of word of mouth advice in the smartphone market

    Head, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this thesis is to examine word of mouth advice and its relationship with product sales and market shares in the context of the smartphone market. The thesis aims to determine the key properties of valuable word of mouth advice from a consumer's perspective and seeks to identify the effects of sources and transmission methods on the valuation of word of mouth advice. Furthermore, the thesis aims to clarify the market wide effects of positive word ...

  6. Building Machine Learning Based Senti-word Lexicon for Sentiment Analysis

    Alaa Hamouda; Mahmoud Marei; Mohamed Rohaim

    2011-01-01

    Sentiment analysis involves classifying opinions in text into categories like "positive" or "negative". One of approaches used to make sentiment classification is using sentiment lexicon. This paper aims to build a sentiment lexicon which is domain independent. We propose a Machine Learning Based Senti-word Lexicon (MLBSL) based on the Amazon data set which contains reviews from different domains. Our proposed MLBSL yields an improvement over previous published manual and automatic-built lexi...

  7. Unit Blocks: A Curriculum for Early Learning.

    Banta, Mary Ann

    Teachers can use unit blocks as tools for directed learning activities, or blocks can be reserved for children's discovery learning experiences. To use unit blocks for discovery learning, children need adequate, protected space and sufficient, uninterrupted time. Given opportunities for free play with unit blocks, children progress through seven…

  8. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  9. The influence of reading unit size on the development of Stroop interference in early word decoding

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Morris, Robin D; KUHN, MELANIE R.; Strauss, Gregory P; Sieczko, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to determine the automatic use of large or small word reading units in young readers in the absence of word decoding strategies. Picture-word Stroop interference was examined from four types of conflicting labels: (a) words containing both highly predictable grapheme–phoneme correspondence (GPC) units and highly consistent rime units (henceforth, Hi-GPC + Hi-Rime); (b) words with highly predictable GPC units and less consistent rime units (Hi-GPC + Lo-Rime);...

  10. Dynamic changes in network activations characterize early learning of a natural language.

    Plante, Elena; Patterson, Dianne; Dailey, Natalie S; Kyle, R Almyrde; Fridriksson, Julius

    2014-09-01

    Those who are initially exposed to an unfamiliar language have difficulty separating running speech into individual words, but over time will recognize both words and the grammatical structure of the language. Behavioral studies have used artificial languages to demonstrate that humans are sensitive to distributional information in language input, and can use this information to discover the structure of that language. This is done without direct instruction and learning occurs over the course of minutes rather than days or months. Moreover, learners may attend to different aspects of the language input as their own learning progresses. Here, we examine processing associated with the early stages of exposure to a natural language, using fMRI. Listeners were exposed to an unfamiliar language (Icelandic) while undergoing four consecutive fMRI scans. The Icelandic stimuli were constrained in ways known to produce rapid learning of aspects of language structure. After approximately 4 min of exposure to the Icelandic stimuli, participants began to differentiate between correct and incorrect sentences at above chance levels, with significant improvement between the first and last scan. An independent component analysis of the imaging data revealed four task-related components, two of which were associated with behavioral performance early in the experiment, and two with performance later in the experiment. This outcome suggests dynamic changes occur in the recruitment of neural resources even within the initial period of exposure to an unfamiliar natural language. PMID:25058056

  11. The Role of Pictures and Gestures as a Support Mechanism for Novel Word Learning: A Training Study with 2-Year-Old Children

    Kapalková, Svetlana; Polišenská, Kamila; Süssová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    A training study examined novel word learning in 2-year-old children and assessed two nonverbal mechanisms, pictures and gestures, which are commonly used as communication support. The aim was to (1) compare these two support mechanisms and measure their effects on expressive word learning and (2) to investigate these effects on word production…

  12. Orthographic Learning Through Self-Teaching: Effects of Decoding Accuracy, Decoding Speed, Word Length, Morphology, and Individual Differences

    Callahan, Maria Deborah

    2011-01-01

    AbstractOrthographic Learning Through Self-Teaching: Effects of Decoding Accuracy, Decoding Speed, Word Length, Morphology, and Individual DifferencesbyMaria Deborah CallahanDoctor of Philosophy in EducationUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Anne E. Cunningham, ChairThe self-teaching hypothesis (Share, 1995) posits that readers learn the orthography of new words incidentally through the process of phonological recoding. In the current study, the self-teaching hypothesis was tested b...

  13. Digital Word Walls and Vocabulary Learning: The Use of iPods to Facilitate Vocabulary Instruction with ESL Students

    Lucretia M. Fraga; Janis M. Harmon; Karen D. Wood; Elizabeth Buckelew-Martin

    2011-01-01

    Mobile devices such as iPods can be potentially effective learning tools, especially for advancing the vocabulary development of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate ESL high school students’ knowledge of using iPods for learning vocabulary; and (2) to determine ESL high school students’ achievement differences in vocabulary when exposed to two traditional vocabulary instructional frameworks using word walls versus digital word...

  14. Word learning in preschoolers: are bilingual 3-year-olds less guided by mutual exclusivity than their monolingual counterparts?

    Campbell, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental question in developmental linguistics and developmental psychology is how young children learn new words. While some researchers suggest that words are primarily learned through experience, others argue that the acquisition process is guided by innate lexical biases. One of the most widely studied biases is the Mutual Exclusivity Bias (ME), which describes childrens preference for just one label per concept. The disambiguation effect in ME has been demonstrated extensively with...

  15. Syntactic Awareness and Arithmetic Word Problem Solving in Children With and Without Learning Disabilities.

    Peake, Christian; Jimnez, Juan E; Rodrguez, Cristina; Bisschop, Elaine; Villarroel, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Arithmetic word problem (AWP) solving is a highly demanding task for children with learning disabilities (LD) since verbal and mathematical information have to be integrated. This study examines specifically how syntactic awareness (SA), the ability to manage the grammatical structures of language, affects AWP solving. Three groups of children in elementary education were formed: children with arithmetic learning disabilities (ALD), children with reading learning disabilities (RLD), and children with comorbid arithmetic and reading learning disabilities (ARLD). Mediation analysis confirmed that SA was a mediator variable for both groups of children with reading disabilities when solving AWPs, but not for children in the ALD group. All groups performed below the control group in the problem solving task. When SA was controlled for, semantic structure and position of the unknown set were variables that affected both groups with ALD. Specifically, children with ALD only were more affected by the place of the unknown set. PMID:24509567

  16. Interactive Language Learning by Robots: The Transition from Babbling to Word Forms

    Lyon, Caroline; CHRYSTOPHER L. NEHANIV; Saunders, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The advent of humanoid robots has enabled a new approach to investigating the acquisition of language, and we report on the development of robots able to acquire rudimentary linguistic skills. Our work focuses on early stages analogous to some characteristics of a human child of about 6 to 14 months, the transition from babbling to first word forms. We investigate one mechanism among many that may contribute to this process, a key factor being the sensitivity of learners to the statistical di...

  17. Fast Mapping and Word Learning by Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment in a Supported Learning Context: Effect of Encoding Cues, Phonotactic Probability, and Object Familiarity

    Gray, Shelley; Brinkley, Shara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether phonological or semantic encoding cues improved the fast mapping or word learning performance of preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) or typical development (TD) and whether performance varied for words containing high- or low-frequency sublexical sequences that named familiar or unfamiliar objects.…

  18. Early stage visual-orthographic processes predict long-term retention of word form and meaning: a visual encoding training study.

    Cao, Fan; Rickles, Ben; Vu, Marianne; Zhu, Ziheng; Chan, Derek Ho Lung; Harris, Lindsay N; Stafura, Joseph; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A

    2013-07-01

    Adult learners of Chinese learned new characters through writing, visual chunking or reading-only. Following training, ERPs were recorded during character recognition tasks, first shortly after the training and then three months later. We hypothesized that the character training effects would be seen in ERP components associated with word recognition and episodic memory. Results confirmed a larger N170 for visual chunking training than other training and a larger P600 for learned characters than novel characters. Another result was a training effect on the amplitude of the P100, which was greater following writing training than other training, suggesting that writing training temporarily lead to increased visual attention to the orthographic forms. Furthermore, P100 amplitude at the first post-test was positively correlated with character recall 3 months later. Thus the marker of early visual attention (P100) was predictive of retention of orthographic knowledge acquired in training. PMID:23798804

  19. Get the story straight: contextual repetition promotes word learning from storybooks

    KellyL Parsons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Although reading storybooks to preschool children is a common activity believed to improve language skills, how children learn new vocabulary from being to has been largely neglected in the shared storybook reading literature. The current study systematically explores the effects of repeatedly reading the same storybooks on both young children's fast and slow mapping ability. Specially created storybooks were read to 3-year-old children three times during the course of one week. Each of the nine storybooks contained two novel word-object pairs. At each session, children either heard three different stories with the same two novel name-object pairs or the same story three times. All children heard each novel name the same number of times. A four-alternative forced-choice task with pictures of the objects was used to test both immediate recall and retention. Children who heard the same stories repeatedly were very accurate on both the immediate recall and retention tasks. In contrast, children who heard different stories were only accurate on immediate recall during the last two sessions and failed to learn any of the new words. Overall, then, we found a dramatic increase in children’s ability to both recall and retain novel word-object associations encountered during shared storybook reading when they heard the same stories multiple times in succession. Results are discussed in terms of contextual cueing effects observed in other cognitive domains.

  20. GeoSegmenter: A statistically learned Chinese word segmenter for the geoscience domain

    Huang, Lan; Du, Youfu; Chen, Gongyang

    2015-03-01

    Unlike English, the Chinese language has no space between words. Segmenting texts into words, known as the Chinese word segmentation (CWS) problem, thus becomes a fundamental issue for processing Chinese documents and the first step in many text mining applications, including information retrieval, machine translation and knowledge acquisition. However, for the geoscience subject domain, the CWS problem remains unsolved. Although a generic segmenter can be applied to process geoscience documents, they lack the domain specific knowledge and consequently their segmentation accuracy drops dramatically. This motivated us to develop a segmenter specifically for the geoscience subject domain: the GeoSegmenter. We first proposed a generic two-step framework for domain specific CWS. Following this framework, we built GeoSegmenter using conditional random fields, a principled statistical framework for sequence learning. Specifically, GeoSegmenter first identifies general terms by using a generic baseline segmenter. Then it recognises geoscience terms by learning and applying a model that can transform the initial segmentation into the goal segmentation. Empirical experimental results on geoscience documents and benchmark datasets showed that GeoSegmenter could effectively recognise both geoscience terms and general terms.

  1. Beyond Subprime Learning: Accelerating Progress in Early Education. Policy Brief

    Bornfreund, Laura; McCann, Clare; Williams, Conor; Guernsey, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Earlier this year, in "Subprime Learning: Early Education in America since the Great Recession," the current state of early education in the U.S. was surveyed by examining progress over the last five years . It was found that while the public, political, and research consensus is stronger than ever, the field remains in dire need of…

  2. Learning words : comparing two-year-olds’ learning success in dyadic and triadic teaching situations embedded in familiar and unfamiliar contexts

    Salas Poblete, Juana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is motivated by the question whether it is possible to use a teaching technique created for animals to propagate children’s learning. I will present two studies designed to evaluate children’s learning success in a word learning scenario and their performance while learning frames, i.e. pragmatic routines. The first study is based on a teaching technique called model/rival training that had been developed by Pepperberg (2002) with the aim to teach words to grey parrots. I adap...

  3. Semi-supervised Phonetic Category Learning: Does Word-level Information Enhance the Efficacy of Distributional Learning?

    Till Poppels

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To test whether word-level information facilitates the learning of phonetic categories, 40 adult native English speakers were exposed to a bimodal distribution of vowels embedded in non-words. Half of the subjects received phonetic categories aligned with lexical categories, while the other half received no such cue. It was hypothesized that the subjects exposed to lexically-informative training stimuli that were aligned with the target categories would outperform the control subjects on a perceptual categorization task after training. While the results revealed no such group differences, the data indicated that many subjects used the relevant dimension for categorization before having received any training. Implications regarding experimental design and suggestions for future research based on the results are discussed.

  4. The Development of Word-Object Associations in Typically Developing Infants and Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Ha, Oh Ryeong

    2013-01-01

    The ability to form associations between words and objects rapidly with a short amount of exposure is a marker of more proficient word learners in typically developing (TD) infants. Investigating the underlying mechanisms for how words are associated with objects is necessary for understanding early word learning in the TD population as well as in

  5. Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education

    Patricia K. Kuhl

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children’s early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be documented at a remarkably early point in development, and these early measures predict performance in children’s language and pre-reading abilities in...

  6. The effect of a word processor as an accommodation for students with learning disabilities

    Larry Lewandowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of writing format (handwritten (HW versus word processor (WP were examined in a sample of college students with and without learning disabilities (LD. All students wrote two essays, one in each format, scored for quality and length. Groups did not differ in age, gender, ethnicity, mathematical calculation, writing fluency, essay length or essay quality. The "interaction hypothesis" was not supported, in that the use of a word processor as a writing accommodation did not provide a differential boost to students with LD. Both groups produced longer essays in the WP versus HW condition. The best predictor of essay quality was essay length regardless of writing format. Most students in each group preferred the WP format. Interestingly, a smaller percentage of students in the LD group (72% than NLD group (91% used the available time for writing.

  7. Are word representations abstract or instance-based? Effects of spelling inconsistency in orthographic learning.

    Burt, Jennifer S; Long, Julia

    2011-09-01

    In Experiment 1, 62 10-year-old children studied printed pseudowords with semantic information. The items were later represented in a different format for reading, with half of the items spelled in the same way as before and half displayed in a new phonologically equivalent spelling. In a dictation test, the exposure to an alternative spelling substantially increased the number of errors that matched the alternative spelling, especially in good spellers. Orthographic learning predicted word identification when accuracy on orthographic choice for words was controlled. In Experiment 2, the effects on dictation responses of exposure to a misspelling versus the correct spelling, and the interactive effect of spelling ability, were confirmed relative to a no-exposure control in adults. The results support a single-lexicon view of reading and spelling and have implications for abstractionist and instance-based theories of orthographic representations. PMID:21875176

  8. Limits on Monolingualism? A Comparison of Monolingual and Bilingual Infants’ Abilities to Integrate Lexical Tone in Novel Word Learning

    Singh, Leher; Poh, Felicia L. S.; Fu, Charlene S. L.

    2016-01-01

    To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English–Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12–13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12–13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17–18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  9. Patterns of Performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test in Children with Learning, Attentional, and Psychiatric Disabilities.

    Golden, Zarabeth L.; Golden, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the performance of children with learning, psychiatric, and attentional disabilities on the Stroop Color and Word Test. Results indicated clear differences between groups, with the learning disabled (LD) and the psychiatric/attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) groups generating unique profiles. Children with LD showed…

  10. Constant Time Delay and Interspersal of Known Items To Teach Sight Words to Students with Mental Retardation and Learning Disabilities.

    Knight, Melissa G.; Ross, Denise E.; Taylor, Ronald L.; Ramasamy, Rangasamy

    2003-01-01

    This study compared efficacy and efficiency of constant time delay and interspersal of known items to teach sight words to four students with mild mental retardation and learning disabilities. Results support effectiveness of constant time delay and suggest that interspersal of known items was more effective with students with learning

  11. Effects of rehearsal activity and level of word processing on learning disabled and normal readers' free recall.

    Swanson, L

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of stimulus encoding and rehearsal activity in accounting for learning disabled readers' deficient recall performance. Learning disabled and nondisabled readers from ages 8 and 10.6 were compared on free recall of semantically and phonemically related words under two types of rehearsal conditions, one-item and multiitem repetitions. Consistent with previous work, developmental differences occurred in word recall with semantically related word lists being recalled more often than phonemically related ones. Regardless of age and rehearsal activity, learning disabled readers were inferior in recall to nondisabled readers. For both reading groups, the influence of the type of processing and rehearsal activity were not independent. That is, an interaction occurred between level of processing and rehearsal activity. The results were construed as evidence for deficient elaborative rehearsal and semantic encoding in learning disabled readers. PMID:6834018

  12. Young Word Learners' Interpretations of Words and Symbolic Gestures within the Context of Ambiguous Reference

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation

  13. Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words

    SebastienPacton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi ‘sendoff’, oit (e.g., exploit ‘exploit’, ois (e.g., siamois, ‘siamese’, or oie (e.g., joie ‘joy’. The morphologically complex word exploiter ‘to exploit’, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word’s final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s. Thirty minutes after having read the stories, children’s orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie. Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

  14. Malfunctioning of new word learning in SLI children as indexed by Mismatch Negativity

    Sung E Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, the aetiology of Specific Language Impairment (SLI has been associated with central auditory processing deficits disrupting the normal language development of the affected children. Within research on central auditory processing Mismatch Negativity (MMN, a component of the event-related potentials (ERP, is a useful tool to probe central auditory functions of SLI children (e.g. Rinker et al. 2007, for a review Bishop 2007. The MMN has also been used to study phonological learning effects (Shestakova et al. 2003. It is also known that memory traces of words influence central auditory processing (e.g. Pulvermller et al. 2001, 2004, for a review Ntnen et al. 2007; see also Lee et al. 2009, and another Poster. We wanted to investigate whether learning of word meaning influences central auditory processing in SLI compared with normal children. 10 SLI-children and 19 age matched controls participated in a passive oddball paradigm, which comprised two conditions. In both conditions the German pseudoword /fa-po/ served as standard stimulus, /fa-pe/ as deviant 1 and /fa-pu/ as deviant 2. Before the second condition, subjects learned to connect meaning with the deviant 1. For deviant 1, we observed a significant reduction of MMN-amplitude and the elicitation of a P3a after learning in the control group. There were no changes concerning deviant 2. This leads to the interpretation that the reduction of MMN and the P3a can be ascribed to meaning learning. In the SLI-group, such changes were not observed after learning. In this study the reduction of the MMN-amplitude in the control-group was interpreted as meaning-related MMN-effect caused by the possibility to connect the incoming auditory information with conceptual-semantic knowledge. It was also suggested that the P3a reflects an automatic attention switch to the newly learned verbal stimulus. These meaning effects could not be observed in the SLI-group, as no change after learning could be confirmed. We hypothesize that the learning-mechanism of new verbal meaning malfunctions in children with SLI.

  15. Effects of Classroom Bilingualism on Task Shifting, Verbal Memory, and Word Learning in Children

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of two years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word-learning. The two groups of children ...

  16. Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early.

    2008-09-22

    CDC recognized the impact of developmental disabilities and invested in a campaign to help parents measure their children's progress by monitoring how they play, learn, speak, and act. .  Created: 9/22/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Division of Human Development and Disability, Child Development Studies Team.   Date Released: 9/23/2008.

  17. Parents Resourcing Children's Early Development and Learning

    Nichols, Sue; Nixon, Helen; Pudney, Valerie; Jurvansuu, Sari

    2009-01-01

    Parents deal with a complex web of choices when seeking and using knowledge and resources related to their young children's literacy development. Information concerning children's learning and development comes in many forms and is produced by an increasingly diverse range of players including governments, non-government organizations and

  18. Word associations contribute to machine learning in automatic scoring of degree of emotional tones in dream reports.

    Amini, Reza; Sabourin, Catherine; De Koninck, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Scientific study of dreams requires the most objective methods to reliably analyze dream content. In this context, artificial intelligence should prove useful for an automatic and non subjective scoring technique. Past research has utilized word search and emotional affiliation methods, to model and automatically match human judges' scoring of dream report's negative emotional tone. The current study added word associations to improve the model's accuracy. Word associations were established using words' frequency of co-occurrence with their defining words as found in a dictionary and an encyclopedia. It was hypothesized that this addition would facilitate the machine learning model and improve its predictability beyond those of previous models. With a sample of 458 dreams, this model demonstrated an improvement in accuracy from 59% to 63% (kappa=.485) on the negative emotional tone scale, and for the first time reached an accuracy of 77% (kappa=.520) on the positive scale. PMID:21873081

  19. "In Our Own Words": Creating Videos as Teaching and Learning Tools

    Norda Majekodunmi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Online videos, particularly those on YouTube, have proliferated on the internet; watching them has become part of our everyday activity. While libraries have often harnessed the power of videos to create their own promotional and informational videos, few have created their own teaching and learning tools beyond screencasting videos. In the summer of 2010, the authors, two librarians at York University, decided to work on a video project which culminated in a series of instructional videos entitled “Learning: In Our Own Words.” The purpose of the video project was twofold: to trace the “real” experience of incoming students and their development of academic literacies skills (research, writing and learning throughout their first year, and to create videos that librarians and other instructors could use as instructional tools to engage students in critical thinking and discussion. This paper outlines the authors’ experience filming the videos, creating a teaching guide, and screening the videos in the classroom. Lessons learned during this initiative are discussed in the hope that more libraries will develop videos as teaching and learning tools.

  20. Electrophysiological assessment of the time course of bilingual visual word recognition: Early access to language membership.

    Yiu, Loretta K; Pitts, Michael A; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta

    2015-08-01

    Previous research examining the time course of lexical access during word recognition suggests that phonological processing precedes access to semantic information, which in turn precedes access to syntactic information. Bilingual word recognition likely requires an additional level: knowledge of which language a specific word belongs to. Using the recording of event-related potentials, we investigated the time course of access to language membership information relative to semantic (Experiment 1) and syntactic (Experiment 2) encoding during visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals viewed a series of printed words while making dual-choice go/nogo and left/right hand decisions based on semantic (whether the word referred to an animal or an object) and language membership information (whether the word was in English or in Spanish). Experiment 2 used a similar paradigm but with syntactic information (whether the word was a noun or a verb) as one of the response contingencies. The onset and peak latency of the N200, a component related to response inhibition, indicated that language information is accessed earlier than semantic information. Similarly, language information was also accessed earlier than syntactic information (but only based on peak latency). We discuss these findings with respect to models of bilingual word recognition and language comprehension in general. PMID:26102192

  1. IMAGE ANNOTATION BASED ON BAG OF VISUAL WORDS AND OPTIMIZED SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING METHOD

    Jun Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new approach to annotate image. First, in order to precisely model training data, shape context features of each image is represented as a bag of visual words. Then, we specifically design a novel optimized graph-based semi-supervised learning for image annotation, in which we maximize the average weighed distance between the different semantic objects, and minimize the average weighed distance between the same semantic objects. Training data insufficiency and lack of generalization of learning method can be resolved through OGSSL with significantly improved image semantic annotation performance. This approach is compared with several other approaches. The experimental results show that this approach performs more effectively and accurately.

  2. Can I have a quick word? Early electrophysiological manifestations of psycholinguistic processes revealed by event-related regression analysis of the EEG.

    Hauk, O; Pulvermüller, F; Ford, M; Marslen-Wilson, W D; Davis, M H

    2009-01-01

    We applied multiple linear regression analysis to event-related electrophysiological responses to words and pseudowords in a visual lexical decision task, yielding event-related regression coefficients (ERRCs) instead of the traditional event-related potential (ERP) measure. Our main goal was to disentangle the earliest ERP effects of the length of letter strings ("word length") and orthographic neighbourhood size (Coltheart's "N"). With respect to N, existing evidence is still ambiguous with respect to whether effects of N reflect early access to lexico-semantic information, or whether they occur at later decision or verification stages. In the present study, we found distinct neurophysiological manifestations of both N and word length around 100ms after word onset. Importantly, the effect of N distinguished between words and pseudowords, while the effect of word length did not. Minimum norm source estimation revealed the most dominant sources for word length in bilateral posterior brain areas for both words and pseudowords. For N, these sources were more left-lateralised and consistent with perisylvian brain areas, with activation peaks in temporal areas being more anterior for words compared to pseudowords. Our results support evidence for an effect of N at early and elementary stages of word recognition. We discuss the implications of these results for the time line of word recognition processes, and emphasise the value of ERRCs in combination with source analysis in psycholinguistic and cognitive brain research. PMID:18565639

  3. Shakespeare and the Words of Early Modern Physic: Between Academic and Popular Medicine. A Lexicographical Approach to the Plays

    Roberta Mullini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at showing how Shakespeare relied on the medical vocabulary shared by his coeval society, which had, for centuries, been witnessing the continuous process of vernacularization of ancient and medieval scientific texts. After outlining the state of early modern medicine, the author presents and discusses the results of her search for relevant medical terms in nine plays by Shakespeare. In order to do this, a wide range of medical treatises has been analysed (either directly or through specific corpora such as Medieval English Medical Texts, MEMT 2005, and Early Modern English Medical Texts, EMEMT 2010, so as to verify the ancestry or the novelty of Shakespearean medical words. In addition to this, the author has also built a corpus of word types derived from seventeenth-century quack doctors’ handbills, with the purpose of creating a word list of medical terms connected to popular rather than university medicine, comparable with the list drawn out of the Shakespearean plays. The results most stressed in the article concern Shakespeare’s use of medical terminology already well known to his contemporary society (thus confuting the Oxfordian thesis about the impossibility for William Shakespeare the actor to master so many medical words and the playwright’s skill in transforming – rather than inventing – old popular terms. The article is accompanied by five tables that collect the results of the various lexicographical searches.

  4. Identification of Sub-Types of Students with Learning Disabilities in Reading and Its Implications for Chinese Word Recognition and Instructional Methods in Hong Kong Primary Schools

    Ho, Fuk-chuen; Siegel, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This paper consists of three studies. The first study aimed to identify sub-types of students with learning disabilities in reading. Based on the dual-route model of reading, words may be read using either a lexical (words are recognized as wholes) or a sub-lexical (words are recognized through grapheme-phoneme correspondence) procedure. Castles…

  5. The Comparison between Contextual Guessing Strategies vs. Memorizing a List of Isolated Words in Vocabulary Learning Regarding Long Term Memory

    Leyla Vakili S AMIYAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guessing the meaning of unknown vocabularies within a text is a way of learning new words which is named textual vocabulary acquisition. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a textual guessing strategy on vocabulary learning at the intermediate le vel. Textual guessing strategy is to guess the meaning of vocabularies with the help of surrounding words or sentences in the co - text without any translation. This paper reports the findings of two quantitative studies conducted on English language learner s with the Intermediate 2 level of proficiency in Kavosh foreign language institute, Mashhad, Iran. Twenty male and female attendants were selected and assigned to ’context’ and ‘non - context’ groups. The context group received an instruction to infer the m eaning of new words while the non - context participants were treated as learning new vocabularies individually (autonomously. The result of the independent sample t - test at the post - test stage revealed that the probability value of t - test with an equality of variances assumption is lower than 0.05 (0.04700. So this result represented that there is a meaningful difference between the experimental group and the control group considering their amount of learning. The results indicated that textual guessing s trategy had more effect on their long term memory. It was also revealed that the words learned through context are used more frequently than those learned in isolation in the speaking repertoire of the participants.

  6. Word memory test performance in Canadian adolescents with learning disabilities: a preliminary study.

    Larochette, Anne-Claire; Harrison, Allyson G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Word Memory Test (WMT) performances in students with identified learning disabilities (LDs) providing good effort to examine the influence of severe reading or learning problems on WMT performance. Participants were 63 students with LDs aged 11 to 14 years old (M = 12.19 years), who completed psychoeducational assessments as part of a transition program to secondary school. Participants were administered a battery of psychodiagnostic tests including the WMT. Results indicated that 9.5% of students with LD met Criterion A on the WMT (i.e., perform below cut-offs on any of the first three subtests of the WMT), but less than 1% met both criteria necessary for identification of low effort. Failure on the first three subtests of the WMT was associated with word reading at or below the 1st percentile and severely impaired phonetic decoding and phonological awareness skills. These results indicate that the majority of students with a history of LD are capable of passing the WMT, and use of profile analysis reduces the false-positive rate to below 1%. PMID:23428276

  7. Learning about Print in Preschool: Working with Letters, Words, and Beginning Links with Phonemic Awareness

    Strickland, Dorothy S.; Schickedanz, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Help young students master concepts of print, phonemic awareness, and alphabet knowledge--the key predictors of early literacy success and school readiness. This resource will show what children need to know about print in order to become successful readers, how to connect children's development with learning about print, and how to provide a

  8. Effects of Semantic Features on Machine Learning-Based Drug Name Recognition Systems: Word Embeddings vs. Manually Constructed Dictionaries

    Shengyu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic features are very important for machine learning-based drug name recognition (DNR systems. The semantic features used in most DNR systems are based on drug dictionaries manually constructed by experts. Building large-scale drug dictionaries is a time-consuming task and adding new drugs to existing drug dictionaries immediately after they are developed is also a challenge. In recent years, word embeddings that contain rich latent semantic information of words have been widely used to improve the performance of various natural language processing tasks. However, they have not been used in DNR systems. Compared to the semantic features based on drug dictionaries, the advantage of word embeddings lies in that learning them is unsupervised. In this paper, we investigate the effect of semantic features based on word embeddings on DNR and compare them with semantic features based on three drug dictionaries. We propose a conditional random fields (CRF-based system for DNR. The skip-gram model, an unsupervised algorithm, is used to induce word embeddings on about 17.3 GigaByte (GB unlabeled biomedical texts collected from MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA. The system is evaluated on the drug-drug interaction extraction (DDIExtraction 2013 corpus. Experimental results show that word embeddings significantly improve the performance of the DNR system and they are competitive with semantic features based on drug dictionaries. F-score is improved by 2.92 percentage points when word embeddings are added into the baseline system. It is comparative with the improvements from semantic features based on drug dictionaries. Furthermore, word embeddings are complementary to the semantic features based on drug dictionaries. When both word embeddings and semantic features based on drug dictionaries are added, the system achieves the best performance with an F-score of 78.37%, which outperforms the best system of the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge by 6.87 percentage points.

  9. Click-words: learning to predict document keywords from a user perspective

    Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Lu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Recognizing words that are key to a document is important for ranking relevant scientific documents. Traditionally, important words in a document are either nominated subjectively by authors and indexers or selected objectively by some statistical measures. As an alternative, we propose to use documents' words popularity in user queries to identify click-words, a set of prominent words from the users' perspective. Although they often overlap, click-words differ significantly from ...

  10. The Beginning Spanish Lexicon: A Web-based interface to calculate phonological similarity among Spanish words in adults learning Spanish as a foreign language

    VITEVITCH, MICHAEL S.; Stamer, Melissa K.; Kieweg, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The Beginning Spanish Lexicon. The present report describes the words contained in this web-accessible resource, and the information about those words provi...

  11. Successful Learning of Academic Word List via MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    Minoo Alemi; Mohammad Reza Anani Sarab; Zahra Lari

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones as new addition to information and communication technologies have created new ways to help learners in the process of foreign language learning. Given the importance of academic vocabularies for university students, this study tried to investigate the effectiveness of SMS on Iranian university students’ vocabulary learning and retention. To this end forty five university freshman students with upper intermediate proficiency level were chosen to take part in this study. During 1...

  12. Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme?

    van der Leij, Aryan

    2013-11-01

    Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the prereading phase was investigated. The rationale was that intervention studies reveal insights about the weaknesses of the learning mechanisms of FR children. In addition, the studies aimed to gather practical insights to be used in the development of a system of early diagnosis and prevention. Focused on the last period of kindergarten before formal reading instruction starts in Grade 1, intervention methods with comparable samples and designs but differences in delivery mode (use of computer or manual), tutor (semi-professional or parent), location (at school or at home), and additional practices (serial rapid naming or simple word reading) have been executed to test the hypothesis that the incidence and degree of dyslexia can be reduced. The present position paper summarizes the Dutch Dyslexia Programme findings and relates them to findings of other studies. It is discussed that the Dutch studies provide evidence on why prevention of dyslexia is hard to accomplish. It is argued that effective intervention should not only start early but also be adapted to the individual and often long-lasting educational needs of children at risk of reading failure. PMID:24133037

  13. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

  14. Students' Learning Experiences in an Early College High School

    Ongaga, Kennedy O.

    2010-01-01

    Early College High Schools (ECHS) are at the forefront of high school reform embodying the principles of rigor, relationship, and relevance. This study examines students' learning experiences in the context of relationships and rigor at an ECHS. Specifically, I investigate factors that influence students to attend an ECHS, what they attribute to…

  15. When Do Computer Graphics Contribute to Early Literacy Learning?

    Wepner, Shelley B.; Cotter, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Notes that new literacies use computer graphics to tell a story, demonstrate a theory, or support a definition. Offers a functionality framework for assessing the value of computer graphics for early literacy learning. Provides ideas for determining the value of CD-ROM software and websites. Concludes that graphics that give text meaning or…

  16. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the

  17. Developmental Gradations of Kindergartners' Concept of Word in Text: An Examination of the Relationship between Fingerpoint Reading Skills and Other Early Literacy Measures

    Smith, Regina E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between concept of word development and other early literacy measures (rhyme awareness, beginning sound awareness, alphabet knowledge, letter sound knowledge, spelling, and word recognition in isolation) using data from the PALS-K. Supporting previous research by using a much larger data set than had been used

  18. Outdoor learning in the early years : the benefits of outdoor learning in a natural environment

    Rachel Wilkinson 1982

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was completed in the spring of 2013 towards a B.Ed.-degree in teaching from the University of Akureyri. It discusses the concept and benefits of outdoor learning in a natural environment during early childhood. A variety of natural environments and the learning opportunities they provide are explored. Teaching activities for use during outdoor learning sessions in a variety of natural environments, including how to create a natural area within a preschool, are put forth. In to...

  19. Dynamics of Learning Motivation in Early School Age Children

    Arkhireyeva T.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of a longitudinal study on learning motivation in children of early school age. The aim was to reveal the leading motives in first, second, third and fourth grades and to explore the dynamics of some learning motives in children over the whole period of elementary school. As it was found, the learning activity in the children was mostly motivated by social motives, among which the leading ones were the motives of selfdetermination and wellbeing. As for learning motives, over the course of all four years the children were for the most part motivated by the content of the learning activity, and not by its process. The dynamics of certain social motives of the learning activity varied across the sample, with some going through the periods of increase and decrease and others having a oneway dynamics. The study also revealed a decrease in the motivation rooted in the learning activity itself between the second and third year; at the same time, in the second, third and fourth years the children were more motivated by the content of the learning activity than by its process

  20. M-Learning: An Experiment in Using SMS to Support Learning New English Language Words

    Cavus, Nadire; Ibrahim, Dogan

    2009-01-01

    There is an increase use of wireless technologies in education all over the world. In fact, wireless technologies such as laptop computers, palmtop computers and mobile phones are revolutionizing education and transforming the traditional classroom-based learning and teaching into "anytime" and "anywhere" education. This paper investigates the use…

  1. M-Learning: An Experiment in Using SMS to Support Learning New English Language Words

    Cavus, Nadire; Ibrahim, Dogan

    2009-01-01

    There is an increase use of wireless technologies in education all over the world. In fact, wireless technologies such as laptop computers, palmtop computers and mobile phones are revolutionizing education and transforming the traditional classroom-based learning and teaching into "anytime" and "anywhere" education. This paper investigates the use

  2. You Sound Like Mommy: Bilingual and Monolingual Infants Learn Words Best from Speakers Typical of Their Language Environments

    Fennell, Christopher; Byers-Heinlein, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that monolingual infants have difficulty learning minimal pairs (i.e., words differing by one phoneme) produced by a speaker uncharacteristic of their language environment and that bilinguals might share this difficulty. To clearly reveal infants' underlying phonological representations, we minimized task demands

  3. Verbal Discrimination Learning in a Random Mixture of Two-, Three-, and Four-Word Items with Two Stimulus Presentation Rates.

    Bugarin, Temotio Espina, Jr.

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether a constant information processing rate would occur when subjects in verbal discrimination (VD) learning were presented a mixture of items of different lengths. Forty-two Naval Postgraduate School students served in a VD experiment with a random mixture of two-, three-, and four-word items at…

  4. The Influence of Two Cognitive-Linguistic Variables on Incidental Word Learning in 5-Year-Olds

    Abel, Alyson D.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The relation between incidental word learning and two cognitive-linguistic variables--phonological memory and phonological awareness--is not fully understood. Thirty-five typically developing, 5-year-old, preschool children participated in a study examining the association between phonological memory, phonological awareness, and incidental word…

  5. Spanish Vocabulary-Bridging Technology-Enhanced Instruction for Young English Language Learners' Word Learning

    Leacox, Lindsey; Jackson, Carla Wood

    2014-01-01

    This study examined preschool and kindergarten English language learners (ELLs) attending a migrant summer programme and their vocabulary word learning during both adult-read and technology-enhanced repeated readings. In a within-subject design, 24 ELLs (four to six years old) engaged in repeated readings in a control and a treatment condition. In…

  6. Effect of Speaker Gaze on Word Learning in Fragile X Syndrome: A Comparison with Nonsyndromic Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Benjamin, David P.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Thurman, Angela J.; Kover, Sara T.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined use of a speaker's direction of gaze during word learning by boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), boys with nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typically developing (TD) boys. Method: A fast-mapping task with follow-in and discrepant labeling conditions was administered. We expected that the use of speaker…

  7. Type of Maternal Object Motion during Synchronous Naming Predicts Preverbal Infants' Learning of Word-Object Relations

    Matatyaho, Dalit J.; Gogate, Lakshmi J.

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' use of specific types of object motion in synchrony with object naming was examined, along with infants' joint attention to the mother and object, as a predictor of word learning. During a semistructured 3-min play episode, mothers (N = 24) taught the names of 2 toy objects to their preverbal 6- to 8-month-old infants. The episodes were…

  8. Narrative assessment: making mathematics learning visible in early childhood settings

    Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning storiesthe preferred form of narrative assessmentcurrently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.

  9. KidSmart© in Early Childhood Learning Practices

    Petersson, Eva; Borum, Nanna

    in Varde municipality, Denmark, Varde Library, Denmark, and Aalborg University, Denmark. The project is concerned with preparing young children to enter the digital world and to bridge the digital divide. In doing so, there is a specific interest in how digital technology can foster integration......This paper reports on a study exploring the outcomes from young children’s play with digital technology in formal and semi-formal learning practices. The study is part of a bigger project being conducted by IBM KidSmart Early Learning Program, Denmark, the Danish Agency of Culture, 13 kindergartens...

  10. Supporting learning with 3D interactive applications in early years

    Cascales Martínez, Antonia; Martínez Segura, María José; Laguna- Segobia, María; Pérez Lopez, David Clemente; Contero, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Early years education is an key element for the introduction of children in the education system. In order to improve this process, the aim of this study was to explore how guided interaction with 3D apps can fit into a preschool setting, how it can help children learn through playing and how it can improve their learning outcomes. A study was conducted with six classes of 87 students aged between 3 years to 6 years, over a 12-week period. Children used 10 inch Android tablets with a series o...

  11. The first steps in word learning are easier when the shoes fit: comparing monolingual and bilingual infants.

    Mattock, Karen; Polka, Linda; Rvachew, Susan; Krehm, Madelaine

    2010-01-01

    English, French, and bilingual English-French 17-month-old infants were compared for their performance on a word learning task using the Switch task. Object names presented a /b/ vs. /g/ contrast that is phonemic in both English and French, and auditory strings comprised English and French pronunciations by an adult bilingual. Infants were habituated to two novel objects labeled 'bowce' or 'gowce' and were then presented with a switch trial where a familiar word and familiar object were paired in a novel combination, and a same trial with a familiar word-object pairing. Bilingual infants looked significantly longer to switch vs. same trials, but English and French monolinguals did not, suggesting that bilingual infants can learn word-object associations when the phonetic conditions favor their input. Monolingual infants likely failed because the bilingual mode of presentation increased phonetic variability and did not match their real-world input. Experiment 2 tested this hypothesis by presenting monolingual infants with nonce word tokens restricted to native language pronunciations. Monolinguals succeeded in this case. Experiment 3 revealed that the presence of unfamiliar pronunciations in Experiment 2, rather than a reduction in overall phonetic variability was the key factor to success, as French infants failed when tested with English pronunciations of the nonce words. Thus phonetic variability impacts how infants perform in the switch task in ways that contribute to differences in monolingual and bilingual performance. Moreover, both monolinguals and bilinguals are developing adaptive speech processing skills that are specific to the language(s) they are learning. PMID:20121879

  12. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word derivations from other languages;…

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Hanen's "More than Words" in Toddlers with Early Autism Symptoms

    Carter, Alice S.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Stone, Wendy L.; Celimli, Seniz; Nahmias, Allison S.; Yoder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: This randomized controlled trial compared Hanen's "More than Words" (HMTW), a parent-implemented intervention, to a "business as usual" control group. Methods: Sixty-two children (51 boys and 11 girls; M age = 20 months; SD = 2.6) who met criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their parents participated in the study. The HMTW…

  14. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Janet Enever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

  15. Audiovisual alignment of co-speech gestures to speech supports word learning in 2-year-olds.

    Jesse, Alexandra; Johnson, Elizabeth K

    2016-05-01

    Analyses of caregiver-child communication suggest that an adult tends to highlight objects in a child's visual scene by moving them in a manner that is temporally aligned with the adult's speech productions. Here, we used the looking-while-listening paradigm to examine whether 25-month-olds use audiovisual temporal alignment to disambiguate and learn novel word-referent mappings in a difficult word-learning task. Videos of two equally interesting and animated novel objects were simultaneously presented to children, but the movement of only one of the objects was aligned with an accompanying object-labeling audio track. No social cues (e.g., pointing, eye gaze, touch) were available to the children because the speaker was edited out of the videos. Immediately afterward, toddlers were presented with still images of the two objects and asked to look at one or the other. Toddlers looked reliably longer to the labeled object, demonstrating their acquisition of the novel word-referent mapping. A control condition showed that children's performance was not solely due to the single unambiguous labeling that had occurred at experiment onset. We conclude that the temporal link between a speaker's utterances and the motion they imposed on the referent object helps toddlers to deduce a speaker's intended reference in a difficult word-learning scenario. In combination with our previous work, these findings suggest that intersensory redundancy is a source of information used by language users of all ages. That is, intersensory redundancy is not just a word-learning tool used by young infants. PMID:26765249

  16. Learning To Make Meaning without Making "Sense": New Media for Juxtaposing Words To Create Imagery.

    Reinartz, Tom, Jr.; Hokanson, Brad

    2001-01-01

    The authors recount some challenges associated with teaching poetry to high school students and describe how an interactive software program to generate "found" poetry based on student input helped simulate dialogue about words and word choices. (AEF)

  17. Analysis of Phonemes, Graphemes, Onset-Rimes, and Words with Braille-Learning Children

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Six primary school-aged braille students were taught to name 4 to 10 braille letters as phonemes and another 4 to 10 braille letters as graphemes (Study 1). They were then taught to name 10 braille words as onset-rimes and another 10 braille words as whole words (Study 2). Instruction in phonemes and onset rimes resulted in fewer trials and a…

  18. Fast-Mapping and Deliberate Word-Learning by EFL Children

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the abilities of young English as a foreign language (EFL) learners to identify quickly new words from a nonostensive, indirect teaching context (known as fast- mapping) and their ability to commit the words to memory. Seventy-five fourth-grade EFL learners heard novel words embedded in sentences. They were then tested for

  19. Developmental Differences in the Effects of Phonological, Lexical and Semantic Variables on Word Learning by Infants

    Storkel, Holly L.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of phonological (i.e. individual sounds), lexical (i.e. whole-word forms) and semantic (i.e. meaning) characteristics on the words known by infants age 1;4 to 2;6 was examined, using an existing database (Dale & Fenson, 1996). For each noun, word frequency, two phonological (i.e. positional segment average, biphone average), two…

  20. Fast-Mapping and Deliberate Word-Learning by EFL Children

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the abilities of young English as a foreign language (EFL) learners to identify quickly new words from a nonostensive, indirect teaching context (known as fast- mapping) and their ability to commit the words to memory. Seventy-five fourth-grade EFL learners heard novel words embedded in sentences. They were then tested for…

  1. Children's Participation Rights in Early Childhood Education and Care: The Case of Early Literacy Learning and Pedagogy

    Dunphy, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This position article argues that educators' knowledge of young children's perspectives on aspects of early learning, including literacy learning, and subsequent interpretations of the ways that these perspectives can inform and shape pedagogy are key to promoting children's participation rights in early childhood education and care. Drawing on…

  2. Young Children Learning Spanish Make Rapid Use of Grammatical Gender in Spoken Word Recognition

    Lew-Williams, Casey; FERNALD, ANNE

    2007-01-01

    All nouns in Spanish have grammatical gender, with obligatory gender marking on preceding articles (e.g., la and el, the feminine and masculine forms of “the,” respectively). Adult native speakers of languages with grammatical gender exploit this cue in on-line sentence interpretation. In a study investigating the early development of this ability, Spanish-learning children (34–42 months) were tested in an eye-tracking procedure. Presented with pairs of pictures with names of either the same ...

  3. Languages Are More than Words: Spanish and American Sign Language in Early Childhood Settings

    Sherman, Judy; Torres-Crespo, Marisel N.

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing on preschoolers' inherent enthusiasm and capacity for learning, the authors developed and implemented a dual-language program to enable young children to experience diversity and multiculturalism by learning two new languages: Spanish and American Sign Language. Details of the curriculum, findings, and strategies are shared.

  4. A Cross-Linguistic Study of Early Word Meaning: Universal Ontology and Linguistic Influence.

    Imai, Mutsumi; Gentner, Dedre

    1997-01-01

    Investigated whether learning the distinction between substance names and object names is conceptually or linguistically driven, by repeating Soja et al.'s study with English- and Japanese-speaking children. (Japanese does not make the count-mass grammatical distinction proposed to contribute to learning the distinction.) Found evidence for

  5. Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments

    Glenda Walsh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of the interactional trianglethe children, the adults, and their physical environmentis assessed by means of an observation schedule called the Quality Learning Instrument (QLI. The paper illustrates the design and validation of the instrument with data from a project involving observations of classroom practice in Northern Ireland primary schools and Danish kindergartens. It describes how judgments made using the instrument can be triangulated or calibrated against the judgments of experts not connected with the data collection. The article concludes with the argument that the instrument may be successfully used to provide a basis for external quality assessments or as a means for early years teachers to reflect on the environment for learning that they generate in their own classrooms.

  6. Machine learning and word sense disambiguation in the biomedical domain: design and evaluation issues

    Liu Hongfang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD is critical in the biomedical domain for improving the precision of natural language processing (NLP, text mining, and information retrieval systems because ambiguous words negatively impact accurate access to literature containing biomolecular entities, such as genes, proteins, cells, diseases, and other important entities. Automated techniques have been developed that address the WSD problem for a number of text processing situations, but the problem is still a challenging one. Supervised WSD machine learning (ML methods have been applied in the biomedical domain and have shown promising results, but the results typically incorporate a number of confounding factors, and it is problematic to truly understand the effectiveness and generalizability of the methods because these factors interact with each other and affect the final results. Thus, there is a need to explicitly address the factors and to systematically quantify their effects on performance. Results Experiments were designed to measure the effect of "sample size" (i.e. size of the datasets, "sense distribution" (i.e. the distribution of the different meanings of the ambiguous word and "degree of difficulty" (i.e. the measure of the distances between the meanings of the senses of an ambiguous word on the performance of WSD classifiers. Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers were applied to an automatically generated data set containing four ambiguous biomedical abbreviations: BPD, BSA, PCA, and RSV, which were chosen because of varying degrees of differences in their respective senses. Results showed that: 1 increasing the sample size generally reduced the error rate, but this was limited mainly to well-separated senses (i.e. cases where the distances between the senses were large; in difficult cases an unusually large increase in sample size was needed to increase performance slightly, which was impractical, 2 the sense distribution did not have an effect on performance when the senses were separable, 3 when there was a majority sense of over 90%, the WSD classifier was not better than use of the simple majority sense, 4 error rates were proportional to the similarity of senses, and 5 there was no statistical difference between results when using a 5-fold or 10-fold cross-validation method. Other issues that impact performance are also enumerated. Conclusion Several different independent aspects affect performance when using ML techniques for WSD. We found that combining them into one single result obscures understanding of the underlying methods. Although we studied only four abbreviations, we utilized a well-established statistical method that guarantees the results are likely to be generalizable for abbreviations with similar characteristics. The results of our experiments show that in order to understand the performance of these ML methods it is critical that papers report on the baseline performance, the distribution and sample size of the senses in the datasets, and the standard deviation or confidence intervals. In addition, papers should also characterize the difficulty of the WSD task, the WSD situations addressed and not addressed, as well as the ML methods and features used. This should lead to an improved understanding of the generalizablility and the limitations of the methodology.

  7. Short Research Note: The Beginning Spanish Lexicon--A Web-Based Interface to Calculate Phonological Similarity among Spanish Words in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Stamer, Melissa K.; Kieweg, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The…

  8. You know what it is: learning words through listening to hip-hop.

    Chesley, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE) vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free-response definitions to AAE vocabulary items, after which they answered demographic questions as well as questions addressing their social networks, their musical preferences, and their knowledge of popular culture. Results from the survey show a positive association between the number of hip-hop artists listened to and AAE comprehension vocabulary scores. Additionally, participants were more likely to know an AAE vocabulary item if the hip-hop artists they listen to use the word in their song lyrics. Together, these results suggest that young adults can acquire vocabulary through exposure to hip-hop music, a finding relevant for research on vocabulary acquisition, the construction of adolescent and adult identities, and the adoption of lexical innovations. PMID:22205942

  9. The Learning of Pronouns and Word Order : With a Focus on Chinese and Japanese Learners of English

    Zhang, Shixia

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether there were differences in SLA (second language acquisition) between learners with different language backgrounds, specifically Japanese and Chinese learners of English, and to investigate the effect of the two language structures upon SLA: pronouns and word order. The main conclusion of this study is that the differences in second language learning for Japanese and Chinese high school students could not be explained from the viewpoint of differen...

  10. Usage-based vs. Rule-based Learning: The Acquisition of Word Order in Wh-Questions in English and Norwegian

    Westergaard, Marit

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to language acquisition in relation to children’s acquisition of word order in wh-questions in English and Norwegian. While generative models assert that children set major word order parameters and thus acquire a rule of subject-auxiliary inversion or generalized verb second (V2) at an early stage, some constructivist work argues that English-speaking children are simply reproducing frequent wh-word + auxiliary combinations in the input. The paper qu...

  11. The effects of using flashcards with reading racetrack to teach letter sounds, sight words, and math facts to elementary students with learning disabilities

    Rachel ERBEY; McLaughlin, T F; K. MARK DERBY; Mary EVERSON

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of reading racetrack and flashcards when teaching phonics, sight words, and addition facts. The participants for the sight word and phonics portion of this study were two seven-year-old boys in the second grade. Both participants were diagnosed with a learning disability. The third participant was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by his pediatrician and with a learning disability and traumatic brain injury by his scho...

  12. Pennsylvania Office of Child Development and Early Learning. Annual Report, 2009-2010

    Pennsylvania Office of Child Development and Early Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Pennsylvania Office of Child Development and Early Learning's annual report for 2009-2010. Providing quality early learning opportunities in the first five years shapes a child's learning and success for life. The window to make a difference in a child's future is small, but outcomes show that the agency is having an…

  13. Whats in a binu? short-term plasticity of lexico-semantic memory as indexed by naming with recently learned words

    Sebastian Geukes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The picture-word interference (PWI and blocked naming (BN paradigms have been frequently applied in mono- and bilingual settings to index lexical and semantic relationships between native and second language words, and their respective concepts. They allow to distinguish subtle differences in the processing of languages learned earlier and later in life. However, due to the historic focus on mid- to long-term bilinguals, relatively little is known so far about semantic integration of newly learned words immediately after learning. In our study, we therefore looked at short-term lexico-semantic effects of word-to-concept learning, using an artificial vocabulary. Over a few days, participants learned a set of pseudowords as names for common objects by means of a statistical learning procedure. These newly learned names, along with corresponding native language names, were used in PWI and BN tasks. Semantic inhibition effects were found for both native and novel object names, indicating that the novel names were rapidly integrated with conceptual memory after few exposures. These results conflict with models of bilingual representation that predict conceptual integration of novel words only for advanced stages of learning.

  14. Usage-Based vs. Rule-Based Learning: The Acquisition of Word Order in "Wh"-Questions in English and Norwegian

    Westergaard, Marit

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to language acquisition in relation to children's acquisition of word order in "wh"-questions in English and Norwegian. While generative models assert that children set major word order parameters and thus acquire a rule of subject-auxiliary inversion or generalized verb second (V2) at an early stage, some…

  15. Learning to talk in a gesture-rich world: Early communication in Italian vs. American children

    Iverson, Jana M.; Capirci, Olga; Volterra, Virginia; GOLDIN-MEADOW, SUSAN

    2008-01-01

    Italian children are immersed in a gesture-rich culture. Given the large gesture repertoire of Italian adults, young Italian children might be expected to develop a larger inventory of gestures than American children. If so, do these gestures impact the course of language learning? We examined gesture and speech production in Italian and US children between the onset of first words and the onset of two-word combinations. We found differences in the size of the gesture repertoires produced by ...

  16. 77 FR 58301 - Final Requirements-Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    2012-09-20

    ... understanding of, child development and specialized training in early childhood education. The commenter further... Final Requirements--Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2 AGENCY: Department of Education... children with high needs. This program focuses on improving early learning and development for...

  17. Learning from gesture: How early does it happen?

    Novack, Miriam A; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Woodward, Amanda L

    2015-09-01

    Iconic gesture is a rich source of information for conveying ideas to learners. However, in order to learn from iconic gesture, a learner must be able to interpret its iconic form-a nontrivial task for young children. Our study explores how young children interpret iconic gesture and whether they can use it to infer a previously unknown action. In Study 1, 2- and 3-year-old children were shown iconic gestures that illustrated how to operate a novel toy to achieve a target action. Children in both age groups successfully figured out the target action more often after seeing an iconic gesture demonstration than after seeing no demonstration. However, the 2-year-olds (but not the 3-year-olds) figured out fewer target actions after seeing an iconic gesture demonstration than after seeing a demonstration of an incomplete-action and, in this sense, were not yet experts at interpreting gesture. Nevertheless, both age groups seemed to understand that gesture could convey information that can be used to guide their own actions, and that gesture is thus not movement for its own sake. That is, the children in both groups produced the action displayed in gesture on the object itself, rather than producing the action in the air (in other words, they rarely imitated the experimenter's gesture as it was performed). Study 2 compared 2-year-olds' performance following iconic vs. point gesture demonstrations. Iconic gestures led children to discover more target actions than point gestures, suggesting that iconic gesture does more than just focus a learner's attention, it conveys substantive information about how to solve the problem, information that is accessible to children as young as 2. The ability to learn from iconic gesture is thus in place by toddlerhood and, although still fragile, allows children to process gesture, not as meaningless movement, but as an intentional communicative representation. PMID:26036925

  18. Learning abilities and disabilities: Generalist genes in early adolescence

    Davis, Oliver S.P.; Haworth, Claire M.A.; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The new view of cognitive neuropsychology that considers not just case studies of rare severe disorders but also common disorders, as well as normal variation and quantitative traits, is more amenable to recent advances in molecular genetics, such as genome-wide association studies, and advances in quantitative genetics, such as multivariate genetic analysis. A surprising finding emerging from multivariate quantitative genetic studies across diverse learning abilities is that most genetic influences are shared: they are generalist, rather than specialist. Methods We exploited widespread access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections in the United Kingdom to assess over 5000 pairs of 12-year-old twins from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) on four distinct batteries: reading, mathematics, general cognitive ability (g) and, for the first time, language. Results Genetic correlations remain high among all of the measured abilities, with language as highly correlated genetically with g as reading and mathematics. Conclusions Despite developmental upheaval, generalist genes remain important into early adolescence, suggesting optimal strategies for molecular genetic studies seeking to identify the genes of small effect that influence learning abilities and disabilities. PMID:19634033

  19. What Paradox? Referential Cues Allow for Infant Use of Phonetic Detail in Word Learning

    Fennell, Christopher T.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has uncovered a surprising paradox: Although 14-month-olds have exquisite phonetic discrimination skills (e.g., distinguishing [b] from [d]), they have difficulty using phonetic detail when mapping "novel" words to objects in laboratory tasks (confusing "bin" and "din"). While some have attributed infants' difficulty to immature word

  20. Mapping Novel Labels to Actions: How the Rhythm of Words Guides Infants' Learning

    Curtin, Suzanne; Campbell, Jennifer; Hufnagle, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of lexical stress on 16-month-olds' ability to form associations between labels and paths of motion. Disyllabic English nouns tend to have a strong-weak (trochaic) stress pattern, and verbs tend to have a weak-strong (iambic) pattern. We explored whether infants would use word stress information to guide word-action

  1. Mapping Novel Labels to Actions: How the Rhythm of Words Guides Infants' Learning

    Curtin, Suzanne; Campbell, Jennifer; Hufnagle, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of lexical stress on 16-month-olds' ability to form associations between labels and paths of motion. Disyllabic English nouns tend to have a strong-weak (trochaic) stress pattern, and verbs tend to have a weak-strong (iambic) pattern. We explored whether infants would use word stress information to guide word-action…

  2. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  3. Classification of Word Levels with Usage Frequency, Expert Opinions and Machine Learning

    Sohsah, Gihad N.; nal, Muhammed Esad; Gzey, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Educational applications for language teaching can utilize the language levels of words to target proficiency levels of students. This paper and the accompanying data provide a methodology for making educational standard-aligned language-level predictions for all English words. The methodology involves expert opinions on language levels and

  4. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control

  5. Classification of Word Levels with Usage Frequency, Expert Opinions and Machine Learning

    Sohsah, Gihad N.; Ünal, Muhammed Esad; Güzey, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Educational applications for language teaching can utilize the language levels of words to target proficiency levels of students. This paper and the accompanying data provide a methodology for making educational standard-aligned language-level predictions for all English words. The methodology involves expert opinions on language levels and…

  6. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning.

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-02-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars. PMID:26752451

  7. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars. PMID:26752451

  8. 78 FR 38957 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Race to the Top-Early Learning...

    2013-06-28

    ... learning programs; (2) design and implement an integrated system of high-quality early learning programs... improve young children's health, social-emotional, and cognitive outcomes; enhance school readiness;...

  9. Jump-Starting Early Childhood Education at Home: Early Learning, Parent Motivation, and Public Policy.

    Maloney, Erin A; Converse, Benjamin A; Gibbs, Chloe R; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-11-01

    By the time children begin formal schooling, their experiences at home have already contributed to large variations in their math and language development, and once school begins, academic achievement continues to depend strongly on influences outside of school. It is thus essential that educational reform strategies involve primary caregivers. Specifically, programs and policies should promote and support aspects of caregiver-child interaction that have been empirically demonstrated to boost early learning and should seek to impede "motivational sinkholes" that threaten to undermine caregivers' desires to engage their children effectively. This article draws on cognitive and behavioral science to detail simple, low-cost, and effective tools caregivers can employ to prepare their children for educational success and then describes conditions that can protect and facilitate caregivers' motivation to use those tools. Policy recommendations throughout focus on using existing infrastructure to more deeply engage caregivers in effective early childhood education at home. PMID:26581726

  10. Disentangling the influence of salience and familiarity on infant word learning: methodological advances.

    Bortfeld, Heather; Shaw, Katie; Depowski, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants' environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While the result is an accrual of data bridging the gap between brain and behavior, much work remains to make the link between behavioral evidence of infants' emerging sensitivities and neurophysiological evidence of changes in how their brains process information. Here we review the background behavioral data on how salience and familiarity in the auditory signal shape initial language learning. We follow this with a summary of more recent evidence of changes in infants' brain activity in response to specific aspects of speech. Our goal is to examine language learning through the lens of brain/environment interactions, ultimately focusing on changes in cortical processing of speech across the first year of life. We will ground our examination of recent brain data in the two auditory features initially outlined: salience and familiarity. Our own and others' findings on the influence of these two features reveal that they are key parameters in infants' emerging recognition of structure in the speech signal. Importantly, the evidence we review makes the critical link between behavioral and brain data. We discuss the importance of future work that makes this bridge as a means of moving the study of language development solidly into the domain of brain science. PMID:23616775

  11. Disentangling the Influence of Salience and Familiarity on Infant Word Learning: Methodological Advances

    HeatherBortfeld

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants’ environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While the result is an accrual of data bridging the gap between brain and behavior, much work remains to make the link between behavioral evidence of infants' emerging sensitivities and neurophysiological evidence of changes in how their brains process information. Here we review the background behavioral data on how salience and familiarity in the auditory signal shape initial language learning. We follow this with a summary of more recent evidence of changes in infants’ brain activity in response to specific aspects of speech. Our goal is to examine language learning through the lens of brain/environment interactions, ultimately focusing on changes in cortical processing of speech across the first year of life. We will ground our examination of recent brain data in the two auditory features initially outlined: salience and familiarity. Our own and others' findings on the influence of these two features reveal that they are key parameters in infants’ emerging recognition of structure in the speech signal. Importantly, the evidence we review makes the critical link between behavioral and brain data. We discuss the importance of future work that makes this bridge as a means of moving the study of language development solidly into the domain of brain science.

  12. Early Foundations for Mathematics Learning and Their Relations to Learning Disabilities

    Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Children’s quantitative competencies upon entry into school can have lifelong consequences. Children who start behind generally stay behind, and mathematical skills at school completion influence employment prospects and wages in adulthood. I review the current debate over whether early quantitative learning is supported by (a) an inherent system for representing approximate magnitudes, (b) an attentional-control system that enables explicit processing of quantitative symbols, such as Arabic ...

  13. The Source of Child Care Center Preschool Learning and Program Standards: Implications for Potential Early Learning Challenge Fund Grantees

    Ackerman, Debra J.; Rachel A. Sansanelli

    2010-01-01

    The proposed federal Early Learning Challenge Fund (ELCF) aims to improve the quality of early care and education programs by promoting the integration of more stringent program and early learning standards than are typically found in child care centers. ELCF grantees also must outline their plans for professional development and technical assistance to support these efforts. With the aim of informing potential ELCF grantees, this article reports the results of a statewide survey of 391 child...

  14. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage and learning…

  15. Predicting Response to Early Reading Intervention from Verbal IQ, Reading-Related Language Abilities, Attention Ratings, and Verbal IQ-Word Reading Discrepancy: Failure To Validate Discrepancy Method.

    Stage, Scott A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Jenkins, Joseph R.; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2003-01-01

    Additional analysis of a previously published study involving 128 first-graders with double or triple deficit in language skills (rapid automatized naming, phonological, and orthographic processing) responded more slowly to early intervention than students without language deficits. Verbal IQ-word reading discrepancy did not predict response to…

  16. Interactive Word Walls

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a

  17. Word families 3

    Curtis, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This series of three books covers over 50 word families and 450 words. By presenting these words in rhyming groups, this series not only helps learners to acquire a rich vocabulary, but also helps them to learn and remember their spelling with ease.

  18. An Evaluative Checklist for Computer Games Used for Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning and Practice: VocaWord Sample

    Levent Uzun

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the use of games in FL teaching and learning, and to present a vocabulary learning game which can be used as supplementary material in CALL and/or traditional language classes in any language, and to compare it with two other widely used games in FLT. A criteria checklist for CALL systems and more specifically for vocabulary learning software is offered and applied to the evaluation of one game, namely VocaWord. The checklist’s application to the game showed that the weakness of the game is half as much, and the strengths might be twice as much compared to Scrabble and Taboo, which are commercially oriented games widely used by teachers and foreign language learners. These results suggest that VocaWord is a promising game that has the potential to be quite effective. The study underlines the necessity to develop more educational games that can be used in CALL.

  19. Word 2013 for dummies

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  20. Semantic representations and additional material in facilitating learning words in the less preferred modality of deaf children

    Whiteley, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Four deaf childrens (mean age = 10 years 10 months) semantic representations of particular vocabulary items were explored in this study. It was intended to investigate how the familiarity of a word in the childs preferred modality (BSL or English) would determine how much could be learned about the corresponding item in the childs less preferred modality. On the basis of the pre-test, items used were classified as familiar or less familiar to the child. It was hypothesised t...

  1. Effects of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning to identify L2 phonemes in words and sentences

    Ikuma, Yuko; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory training experiment was conducted in order to examine the effect of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning second language phoneme perception. Fifty minimal pairs of English words contrasting in /r/ and /l/ were produced by native speakers of American English in three conditions; in isolation (WD), within semantically neutral carrier sentences (NS), and within semantically contextual carrier sentences (CS). Participants were native speakers of Japanese, and were divided into three groups; each was trained to identify /r/ and /l/ in one of above three conditions. In pretest, identification accuracy varied by condition in the order, NSlanguage education will be discussed. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  2. Metals, words and gods. Early knowledge of metallurgical skills in Europe, and reflections in terminology

    Solin Paliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How can metallurgical terminology - specifically names of metals - support ar­ chaeological investigation? Can comparative linguistics and archaeology co-operate in order to identify the emergence and development of metallurgical skills? How did Neolithic and Bronze Age man imagine the taming of nature in order to achieve metal artifacts? Such questions -and many others -may arise whenever we try to investigate the beginnings and making of civilization. It is clear that the various aspects connected to archaeometallurgy cannot be analyzed separately from other aspects of human life, like agriculture, trade, urbanization, religious beliefs, early writing systems, pottery techniques, a.o. The earliest known (or identifiable names of metals do reflect a cer­ tain ideology and a certain way of 'seeing' metals as imbued with magic powers. It is certain that colours and reflections - specific to metals - made early man interpret them as divine (Biek and Bayley 1979; Muşu 1981, chapter Symphony of colours, a first attempt in reconstructing pre-Greek names of colours.

  3. Solid-State Lighting. Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    Sandahl, L. J.; Cort, K. A.; Gordon, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of issues and lessons learned during the early stages of solid-state lighting market introduction in the U.S., which also summarizes early actions taken to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps.

  4. A Young Researcher's Project on the Benefits of Early Language Learning: An Interview with Eve Wallwork

    Redmond, Mary Lynn

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, Eve Wallwork, a junior at David W. Butler High School in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) School District, talks about her research project on the field of early language learning. Wallwork shares the most important findings of her research, the benefits of early language learning, and her plans in the future.

  5. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  6. Parent Engagement in Early Learning: Strategies for Working with Families, Second Edition

    Powers, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This updated second edition of Parent ­Friendly Early Learning brings to life real scenarios that care providers face in today's world. We know parent engagement is important for a child's success, but how do you turn parent ­provider relationships into partnerships? Parent Engagement in Early Learning will help you: (1) Improve parent-­teacher…

  7. The teaching and learning of multimeaning words within a metacognitively based curriculum.

    Aceti, Katherine Jane; Wang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    The study explored the effects of an 8-week intervention in which a teacher/researcher used direct instruction to show the multiple meanings of 7 words to 4 deaf students ages 11-13 years in a school for the deaf. Applying conclusions from emerging research that links knowledge and strategy with metacognitive skills, the teacher/researcher used specific metacognitive strategies to facilitate both the acquisition of the concept of multimeaning words and the ability to distinguish one meaning from another while reading, and thus improved the students' reading comprehension. The study participants were able to increase their vocabulary of multimeaning words as well as their reading comprehension in general, and, overall, experienced an improvement in their observable understanding and confidence when approaching the task of reading. PMID:20925282

  8. Grasping the world through words: from action to linguistic production of verbs in early childhood.

    Levi, Gabriel; Colonnello, Valentina; Giacch, Roberta; Piredda, Maria Letizia; Sogos, Carla

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether the bodily-mediated production of verbs emerges earlier than verb recognition and oral production during early language acquisition. Children (aged 18-22, 23-27, 28-32, and 33-37 months) viewed animated pictures representing actions related to transitive and intransitive verbs and were asked to (i) orally indicate the verb presented, (ii) recognize the target verb among other verbs, and (iii) perform the actions corresponding to the target verb enunciated by the experimenter. Children 18-22 months showed a capacity to enact the verbs, while their recognition and oral production abilities were not comparably developed. Until 27 months of age, children produced more transitive than intransitive verbs across tasks. The gap between verb recognition and verb oral production was found in all ages tested. This is the first study to directly demonstrate that the ability to produce verbs, especially transitive verbs, via overt body actions emerges ontogenetically earlier than recognition and oral production. PMID:23794163

  9. EFL Students' Vocabulary Learning in NS-NNS E-Mail Interactions: Do They Learn New Words by Imitation?

    Sasaki, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated Japanese students' EFL vocabulary development through e-mail interactions with a native English speaker (NS), with primary focus on students' imitation of new words. According to sociocultural theory, learners can internalize new linguistic knowledge by imitating an expert's expressions to create his/her own

  10. How Many Words Is a Picture Worth? Integrating Visual Literacy in Language Learning with Photographs

    Baker, Lottie

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive research has shown that the human brain processes images quicker than it processes words, and images are more likely than text to remain in long-term memory. With the expansion of technology that allows people from all walks of life to create and share photographs with a few clicks, the world seems to value visual media more than ever…

  11. What Can Graph Theory Tell Us about Word Learning and Lexical Retrieval?

    Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Graph theory and the new science of networks provide a mathematically rigorous approach to examine the development and organization of complex systems. These tools were applied to the mental lexicon to examine the organization of words in the lexicon and to explore how that structure might influence the acquisition and retrieval of…

  12. Influence of First Language Orthographic Experience on Second Language Decoding and Word Learning

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of first language (L1) orthographic experiences on decoding and semantic information retention of new words in a second language (L2). Hypotheses were that congruity in L1 and L2 orthographic experiences determines L2 decoding efficiency, which, in turn, affects semantic information encoding and retention.…

  13. A Computational Study of Cross-Situational Techniques for Learning Word-to-Meaning Mappings.

    Siskind, Jeffrey Mark

    1996-01-01

    Presents a computational study of children's acquisition of word-to-meaning mappings, approximates this task as a mathematical problem, and presents an algorithm for solving the problem, illustrating the algorithm's operation on a small example. Notes that computational simulations demonstrated the robustness of the algorithm and illustrated how

  14. Conceptual Distance and Word Learning: Patterns of Acquisition in Samoan-English Bilingual Children

    Hemsley, Gayle; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated cross-linguistic influence in acquisition of a second lexicon, evaluating Samoan-English sequentially bilingual children (initial mean age 4 ; 9) during their first 18 months of school. Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary tasks evaluated acquisition of four word types: cognates, matched nouns, phrasal nouns and holonyms.

  15. What Paradox? Referential Cues Allow for Infant Use of Phonetic Detail in Word Learning

    Fennell, Christopher T.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has uncovered a surprising paradox: Although 14-month-olds have exquisite phonetic discrimination skills (e.g., distinguishing [b] from [d]), they have difficulty using phonetic detail when mapping "novel" words to objects in laboratory tasks (confusing "bin" and "din"). While some have attributed infants' difficulty to immature word…

  16. Prior Knowledge and Task Variations in Learning Word Meanings from Context.

    Stahl, Steven A.

    To examine the effects of general and specific comprehension ability of a target reading passage and prior knowledge of the subject of the passage, a study examined 182 sixth graders from two central Illinois rural and urban communities. Subjects were given a fifth-grade passage (a 500-word fictional narrative description of the Yanomamo tribe of…

  17. Early ERF responses to final words in a sentence context during reading in individuals with autism spectrum disorders and typically developing individuals: an MEG study

    Banu Ahtam

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study used magnetoencephalography (MEG to study the neural basis of abnormalities in sentence context effects in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD. 22 individuals with ASD and 22 typically developing (TD individuals participated in the study. Participants were matched on age, gender, and IQ. All measurements were taken at the Oxford Neurodevelopmental Magnetoencephalography Centre using a Neuromag-306 VectorViewTM system, providing a helmet-shaped array of 102 pairs of gradiometers. Participants read sentences ending either with a homonym [dominant (DH vs. subordinate (SH meanings] or an unambiguous word (UW. The sentences were followed by a probe word that was semantically related or unrelated to the meaning of the sentence. Participants were asked to indicate whether the probe word was related or unrelated to the meaning of the sentence that it followed and to give their responses with a key press. This study has been approved by the local NHS (UK Ethics Committee. All participants gave written informed consent before the experiment. The final word results showed that the ERF responses around 150ms were weaker and a little delayed in the ASD group. The rank ordering of amplitude strengths for ~150ms response to final words was the same in the TD and ASD groups (DH > UW > SH. Activity was observed over parietal and left occipito-temporal regions in both groups, but the left posterior temporal activity was reduced in ASD. The argument that semantic access can take place as early as 150-180ms [1] is supported by the findings of this study. The reduced activity in SH was more pronounced in the ASD group suggesting different semantic representations for more and less frequent meanings of the homonyms in the ASD than the TD group. Additionally, delayed responses to final words at ~150ms in ASD may suggest differences in the time course of semantic context influences on the semantic activation of the final words between TD and ASD.

  18. Early testimonial learning: monitoring speech acts and speakers.

    Stephens, Elizabeth; Suarez, Sarah; Koenig, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Testimony provides children with a rich source of knowledge about the world and the people in it. However, testimony is not guaranteed to be veridical, and speakers vary greatly in both knowledge and intent. In this chapter, we argue that children encounter two primary types of conflicts when learning from speakers: conflicts of knowledge and conflicts of interest. We review recent research on children's selective trust in testimony and propose two distinct mechanisms supporting early epistemic vigilance in response to the conflicts associated with speakers. The first section of the chapter focuses on the mechanism of coherence checking, which occurs during the process of message comprehension and facilitates children's comparison of information communicated through testimony to their prior knowledge, alerting them to inaccurate, inconsistent, irrational, and implausible messages. The second section focuses on source-monitoring processes. When children lack relevant prior knowledge with which to evaluate testimonial messages, they monitor speakers themselves for evidence of competence and morality, attending to cues such as confidence, consensus, access to information, prosocial and antisocial behavior, and group membership. PMID:25735944

  19. Learning from parents' stories about what works in early intervention.

    Pighini, Maria J; Goelman, Hillel; Buchanan, Marla; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly; Brynelsen, Dana

    2014-08-01

    Using a multiple case study approach, this ethnography examined the experiences of parents of children deemed at risk for developmental delays or disabilities who had received early intervention (EI) services (birth to age 3 years) in a large urban location in Western Canada. Participants (11 adult parents and 7 children) were drawn from six families. Methods of data collection included focus groups (FG), face-to-face interviews and file reviews. Member check and expert reviews were conducted throughout data collection and data analyses as part of the validation process in this ethnography. Qualitative content analyses followed by thematic analyses highlighted the implementation of family-centred practices (FCP) as a main theme. Parents identified how EI professionals using FCP embraced collaborative practices. FCP resulted in parents leading the EI process for their children. More specifically, EI professionals shared strategies and information to support parents in gaining a deeper understanding of their children's individual developmental characteristics. Parents expressed how empowering this level of understanding was for them as they learned to articulate what were their children's needs for developmental, health and educational services. Recommendations for future research include inquiring about parents' experiences for families of diverse constellations and/or residing in smaller urban or rural communities. PMID:24990637

  20. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties.

    Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions. PMID:26090806

  1. Early Requestive Development in Consecutive Third Language Learning

    Safont-Jorda, Maria-Pilar

    2011-01-01

    While research on early simultaneous bilingual acquisition is well-documented, studies on multiple language acquisition in early childhood are still needed. Existing studies have mainly focused on early simultaneous acquisition of three or more languages. Some attention has already been paid to early pragmatic differentiation and cross-linguistic…

  2. Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    Sandahl, Linda J.; Cort, Katherine A.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document early challenges and lessons learned in the solid-state lighting (SSL) market development as part of the DOE’s SSL Program efforts to continually evaluate market progress in this area. This report summarizes early actions taken by DOE and others to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps and identifies issues, challenges, and new lessons that have been learned in the early stages of the SSL market introduction. This study identifies and characterizes12 key lessons that have been distilled from DOE SSL program results.

  3. Use of the mutual exclusivity assumption by young word learners

    Markman, Ellen M.; Wasow, Judith L.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual...... exclusivity in such indirect word learning has been questioned because: (1) it comes mostly from 2 and 3-year-olds and (2) the findings might be accounted for, not by children avoiding second labels, but by the novel object which creates a lexical gap children are motivated to fill. Three studies addressed...... these concerns by having only a familiar object visible. Fifteen to seventeen and 18-20-month-olds were selected to straddle the vocabulary spurt. In Study 1, babies saw a familiar object and an opaque bucket as a location to search. Study 2 handed babies the familiar object to play with. Study 3...

  4. False recognition of incidentally learned pictures and words in primary progressive aphasia☆

    Rogalski, Emily; Blum, Diana; Rademaker, Alfred; Weintraub, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Recognition memory was tested in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a language based dementia with relative preservation of memory for at least the first 2 years. The goal of the study was two-fold: (1) to compare true and false recognition rates for words versus pictures in patients with PPA and cognitively intact controls and (2) to determine if the semantic relatedness of distracters-to-targets influences recognition memory performance. Overall, performance of PPA patients wa...

  5. Bringing back the body into the mind: gestures enhance word learning in foreign language

    Macedonia, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Foreign language education in the twenty-first century still teaches vocabulary mainly through reading and listening activities. This is due to the link between teaching practice and traditional philosophy of language, where language is considered to be an abstract phenomenon of the mind. However, a number of studies have shown that accompanying words or phrases of a foreign language with gestures leads to better memory results. In this paper, I review behavioral research on the positive effe...

  6. Object Properties and Knowledge in Early Lexical Learning.

    Jones, Susan S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two experiments concerning the generality of shape bias in two and three year olds. The experiments were intended to provide new information about shape bias in children's novel word extensions. Results suggest that very young children possess considerable knowledge about conditional relations between kinds of perceptual properties. (GLR)

  7. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies

    Farine, Damien R.; Spencer, Karen A.; Boogert, Neeltje J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike [1]. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways [2, 3]. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies [4, 5] between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning) [6]. However, whether juveniles’ learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles’ fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. PMID:26212879

  8. Benefit-cost Trade-offs of Early Learning in Foraging Predatory Mites Amblyseius Swirskii.

    Christiansen, Inga C; Szin, Sandra; Schausberger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Learning is changed behavior following experience, and ubiquitous in animals including plant-inhabiting predatory mites (Phytoseiidae). Learning has many benefits but also incurs costs, which are only poorly understood. Here, we addressed learning, especially its costs, in the generalist predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii, a biocontrol agent of several herbivores, which can also survive on pollen. The goals of our research were (1) to scrutinize if A. swirskii is able to learn during early life in foraging contexts and, if so, (2) to determine the costs of early learning. In the experiments, we used one difficult-to-grasp prey, i.e., thrips, and one easy-to-grasp prey, i.e., spider mites. Our experiments show that A. swirskii is able to learn during early life. Adult predators attacked prey experienced early in life (i.e., matching prey) more quickly than they attacked unknown (i.e., non-matching) prey. Furthermore, we observed both fitness benefits and operating (physiological) costs of early learning. Predators receiving the matching prey produced the most eggs, whereas predators receiving the non-matching prey produced the least. Thrips-experienced predators needed the longest for juvenile development. Our findings may be used to enhance A. swirskii's efficacy in biological control, by priming young predators on a specific prey early in life. PMID:27006149

  9. Benefit-cost Trade-offs of Early Learning in Foraging Predatory Mites Amblyseius Swirskii

    Christiansen, Inga C.; Szin, Sandra; Schausberger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Learning is changed behavior following experience, and ubiquitous in animals including plant-inhabiting predatory mites (Phytoseiidae). Learning has many benefits but also incurs costs, which are only poorly understood. Here, we addressed learning, especially its costs, in the generalist predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii, a biocontrol agent of several herbivores, which can also survive on pollen. The goals of our research were (1) to scrutinize if A. swirskii is able to learn during early life in foraging contexts and, if so, (2) to determine the costs of early learning. In the experiments, we used one difficult-to-grasp prey, i.e., thrips, and one easy-to-grasp prey, i.e., spider mites. Our experiments show that A. swirskii is able to learn during early life. Adult predators attacked prey experienced early in life (i.e., matching prey) more quickly than they attacked unknown (i.e., non-matching) prey. Furthermore, we observed both fitness benefits and operating (physiological) costs of early learning. Predators receiving the matching prey produced the most eggs, whereas predators receiving the non-matching prey produced the least. Thrips-experienced predators needed the longest for juvenile development. Our findings may be used to enhance A. swirskii’s efficacy in biological control, by priming young predators on a specific prey early in life. PMID:27006149

  10. In Their Own Words: How Do Students Relate Drama Pedagogy to Their Learning in Curriculum Subjects?

    Chan, Yuk-Lan Phoebe

    2009-01-01

    The rationale for this study is that students' views on their own learning play an integral part in their educational journeys. Students' voice has been gaining recognition as a vehicle for cultivating ownership of learning, restoring classroom dialogue, and developing strategies for school improvement. These benefits echo the pedagogical purposes

  11. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  12. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on

  13. Strategy Choice in Solving Arithmetic Word Problems: Are There Differences between Students with Learning Disabilities, G-V Poor Performance, and Typical Achievement Students?

    Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Espinel, Ana Isabel Garcia

    2002-01-01

    A study was designed to test whether there are differences between Spanish children (ages 7-9) with arithmetic learning disabilities (n=60), garden-variety (G-V) poor performance (n=44), and typical children (n=44) in strategy choice when solving arithmetic word problems. No significant differences were found between children with dyscalculia and…

  14. Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Screening at 18 Months of Age Predicts Concurrent Understanding of Desires, Word Learning and Expressive Vocabulary

    Wright, Kristyn; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a 23-item questionnaire used in primary screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current studies examine the concurrent validity of the M-CHAT in its ability to predict 18-month-olds' performance on theory of mind and word learning tasks. In Experiment 1, infants' understanding of

  15. The Effect of Time on Word Learning: An Examination of Decay of the Memory Trace and Vocal Rehearsal in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Alt, Mary; Spaulding, Tammie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of time to response in a fast-mapping word learning task for children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typically developing language skills (TD). Manipulating time to response allows us to examine decay of the memory trace, the use of vocal rehearsal, and their…

  16. Early Literacy and Assessment for Learning (K-3) Series: Little Book Insert: Little Honu's Journey

    Noto, Lee

    2005-01-01

    This illustrated children's story accompanies "Exploring Comprehension through Retelling: A Teacher's Story", part of the Early Literacy and Assessment for Learning (K-3) Series (ED490189). It describes a baby turtle's adventures on his journey to the ocean.

  17. Developing Competence: Early and Mid Career in Community Learning and Development

    Tett, Lyn; Bamber, John; Edwards, Vivien; Martin, Ian; Shaw, Mae

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research has been to contribute to, and support, the early career development and continuing professional development of CLD practitioners through an investigation of practice and to contribute to theories of informal/ non-formal learning.

  18. The subthalamic nucleus modulates the early phase of probabilistic classification learning

    Weiss, D.; Lam, J M; Breit, S; Gharabaghi, A.; Krüger, R; Luft, A R; Wächter, T

    2014-01-01

    Previous models proposed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is critical in the early phase of skill acquisition. We hypothesized that subthalamic deep brain stimulation modulates the learning curve in early classification learning. Thirteen idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (iPD) with subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), 9 medically treated iPD, and 21 age-matched healthy controls were tested with a probabilistic classification task. STN-DBS patients were tested with stimulatio...

  19. Prevalence and influences of preschoolers’ sedentary behaviors in early learning centers: a cross-sectional study

    Tucker, Patricia; Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Burke, Shauna M; Irwin, Jennifer D.; Johnson, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent research has highlighted the need for increased evidence regarding the sedentary activity levels of preschoolers. Given the large proportion of time this population spends in various early learning facilities, the exploration of sedentary behaviors within this particular environment should be a priority. The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to compare sedentary time of preschoolers in three different early learning environments (i.e., full-day kindergarten [FDK], cente...

  20. Learning to Read Words in a New Language Shapes the Neural Organization of the Prior Languages

    MEI, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Learning a new language entails interactions with one's prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semant...

  1. Social-Emotional Learning Profiles of Preschoolers' Early School Success: A Person-Centered Approach

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko; Mincic, Melissa; Kalb, Sara; Way, Erin; Wyatt, Todd; Segal, Yana

    2012-01-01

    Examined how aspects of social-emotional learning (SEL)--specifically, emotion knowledge, emotional and social behaviors, social problem-solving, and self-regulation--clustered to typify groups of children who differ in terms of their motivation to learn, participation in the classroom, and other indices of early school adjustment and academic…

  2. An Evaluation of the Individualized Learning Intervention: A Mentoring Program for Early Childhood Teachers

    Gallagher, Peggy A.; Abbott-Shim, Martha; VandeWiele, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the results of an evaluation of the Individualized Learning Intervention (ILI), a mentoring program for early childhood educators that is built upon adult self-directed learning experiences and the collaborative support of others. Sixteen Mentor and 16 Protege teachers in Head Start classrooms were selected for participation…

  3. KidSmart© in Early Childhood Learning Practices

    Petersson, Eva; Borum, Nanna

    , language and concept development through an inquiry-based mode of play, learning, and interaction. This study applies a human-centred design approach to learning and play in order to investigate affordances and constraints that emerge from younger children’s engagement with digital technology, particularly...

  4. Early-life stress triggers juveniles to switch social learning strategies

    Farine, Damien Roger; Spencer, Karen Anne; Boogert, Neeltje Janna

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike [1]. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways [2, 3]. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies [4, 5] between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their p...

  5. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning

    HannesRuge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one’s own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the common outcome control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are ‘actively’ integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode.

  6. Early Markers of Ongoing Action-Effect Learning

    Ruge, Hannes; Krebs, Ruth M.; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one’s own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations) can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-)R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO) learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-)R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the CO control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are “actively” integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-)R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode. PMID:23205016

  7. Perceptual Correlates of Turkish Word Stress and Their Contribution to Automatic Lexical Access: Evidence from Early ERP Components

    Zora, Hatice; Heldner, Mattias; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual correlates of Turkish word stress and their contribution to lexical access were studied using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component in event-related potentials (ERPs). The MMN was expected to indicate if segmentally identical Turkish words were distinguished on the sole basis of prosodic features such as fundamental frequency (f0), spectral emphasis (SE), and duration. The salience of these features in lexical access was expected to be reflected in the amplitude of MMN responses. In a multi-deviant oddball paradigm, neural responses to changes in f0, SE, and duration individually, as well as to all three features combined, were recorded for words and pseudowords presented to 14 native speakers of Turkish. The word and pseudoword contrast was used to differentiate language-related effects from acoustic-change effects on the neural responses. First and in line with previous findings, the overall MMN was maximal over frontal and central scalp locations. Second, changes in prosodic features elicited neural responses both in words and pseudowords, confirming the brain's automatic response to any change in auditory input. However, there were processing differences between the prosodic features, most significantly in f0: While f0 manipulation elicited a slightly right-lateralized frontally-maximal MMN in words, it elicited a frontal P3a in pseudowords. Considering that P3a is associated with involuntary allocation of attention to salient changes, the manipulations of f0 in the absence of lexical processing lead to an intentional evaluation of pitch change. f0 is therefore claimed to be lexically specified in Turkish. Rather than combined features, individual prosodic features differentiate language-related effects from acoustic-change effects. The present study confirms that segmentally identical words can be distinguished on the basis of prosodic information alone, and establishes the salience of f0 in lexical access. PMID:26834534

  8. Perceptual Correlates of Turkish Word Stress and Their Contribution to Automatic Lexical Access: Evidence from Early ERP Components.

    Zora, Hatice; Heldner, Mattias; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual correlates of Turkish word stress and their contribution to lexical access were studied using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component in event-related potentials (ERPs). The MMN was expected to indicate if segmentally identical Turkish words were distinguished on the sole basis of prosodic features such as fundamental frequency (f 0), spectral emphasis (SE), and duration. The salience of these features in lexical access was expected to be reflected in the amplitude of MMN responses. In a multi-deviant oddball paradigm, neural responses to changes in f 0, SE, and duration individually, as well as to all three features combined, were recorded for words and pseudowords presented to 14 native speakers of Turkish. The word and pseudoword contrast was used to differentiate language-related effects from acoustic-change effects on the neural responses. First and in line with previous findings, the overall MMN was maximal over frontal and central scalp locations. Second, changes in prosodic features elicited neural responses both in words and pseudowords, confirming the brain's automatic response to any change in auditory input. However, there were processing differences between the prosodic features, most significantly in f 0: While f 0 manipulation elicited a slightly right-lateralized frontally-maximal MMN in words, it elicited a frontal P3a in pseudowords. Considering that P3a is associated with involuntary allocation of attention to salient changes, the manipulations of f 0 in the absence of lexical processing lead to an intentional evaluation of pitch change. f 0 is therefore claimed to be lexically specified in Turkish. Rather than combined features, individual prosodic features differentiate language-related effects from acoustic-change effects. The present study confirms that segmentally identical words can be distinguished on the basis of prosodic information alone, and establishes the salience of f 0 in lexical access. PMID:26834534

  9. The Early Childhood Educator in a Critical Learning Community: Towards Sustainable Change

    van Keulen, Anke

    2010-01-01

    The action research project Sustainable Change in a Critical Learning Community was conducted in the Netherlands (2007-08) to improve quality in early childhood by enhancement of critical reflection at all levels in early childhood organisations: educators individually and collectively, pedagogical leaders and coaches, and (middle) management. The…

  10. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main lines of

  11. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  12. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions

  13. Constructive Play: A Value-Added Strategy for Meeting Early Learning Standards

    Drew, Walter F.; Christie, James; Johnson, James E.; Meckley, Alice M.; Nell, Marcia L.

    2008-01-01

    As a structural element of education reform, early learning standards shape the content of instructional curriculum, set the goals of professional development, and establish the focus of outcomes assessment. Many early childhood teachers are concerned that the standards movement and its narrowing of educational goals are pushing aside classroom…

  14. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main lines of…

  15. Spoken word recognition by Latino children learning Spanish as their first language*

    Hurtado, Nereyda; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Research on the development of efficiency in spoken language understanding has focused largely on middle-class children learning English. Here we extend this research to Spanish-learning children (n=49; M=2;0; range=1;3–3;1) living in the USA in Latino families from primarily low socioeconomic backgrounds. Children looked at pictures of familiar objects while listening to speech naming one of the objects. Analyses of eye movements revealed developmental increases in the efficiency of speech p...

  16. Early literacy learning in the perspective of the child

    Mellgren, Elisabeth; Jensen, Anders Skriver; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    En socio-kulturel tilgang til early literacy skitseres, og der redegøres for, hvordan denne tilgang har inspireret arbejdet med at målrette Carr's mere generelle læringshistorie-tilgang til en mere early literacy fokuseret dokumentationsmetode....

  17. Learning by observation requires an early sleep window

    van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Van Der Helm, Els; Schoonheim, Menno M.; Ridderikhoff, Arne; Van Someren, Eus J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that sleep enhances memory for motor skills learned through practice. Motor skills can, however, also be learned through observation, a process possibly involving the mirror neuron system. We investigated whether motor skill enhancement through prior observation requires sleep to follow the observation, either immediately or after a delay, to consolidate the procedural memory. Sequence-specific fingertapping performance was tested in 64 healthy subjects in a balanc...

  18. Four- and Six-Year-Olds Use Pragmatic Competence to Guide Word Learning

    Vazquez, Maria D.; Delisle, Sarah S.; Saylor, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates whether four- and six-year-old children use pragmatic competence as a criterion for learning from someone else. Specifically, we ask whether children use others' adherence to Gricean maxims to determine whether they will offer valid labels for novel objects. Six-year-olds recognized adherence to the maxims of…

  19. Problem-based learning spanning real and virtual words: a case study in Second Life

    Judith Good

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing use of immersive virtual environments for educational purposes. However, much of this activity is not yet documented in the public domain, or is descriptive rather than analytical. This paper presents a case study in which university students were tasked with building an interactive learning experience using Second Life as a platform. Both problem-based learning and constructionism acted as framing pedagogies for the task, with students working in teams to design and build a learning experience which could potentially meet the needs of a real client in innovative ways which might not be possible in real life. A process account of the experience is provided, which examines how the pedagogies and contexts (real and virtual influence and enhance each other. The use of a virtual environment, combined with problem-based learning and constructionism, subtly changed the nature of the instructor–student relationship, allowed students to explore ‘problematic problems' in a motivating and relevant manner, provided students with greater ownership over their work, and allowed problems to be set which were flexible, but at the same time allowed for ease of assessment.

  20. What a Difference a Day Makes: Change in Memory for Newly Learned Word Forms over 24 Hours

    McGregor, Karla K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role of time and retrieval experience in the consolidation of word forms. Method: Participants were 106 adults trained on 16 novel word-referent pairs, then tested immediately and 24 hr later for recognition and recall of word forms. In the interim, tests were repeated 2 hr or 12 hr after training, or not at all,…

  1. Word-Play and "Musike": Young Children Learning Literacies while Communicating Playfully

    Alcock, Sophie; Cullen, Joy; St George, Alison

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores young children's rhythmic, musical, humorous and playful communication in the context of empowering themselves to create meaningful curriculum during teacher-controlled routine morning-tea times in an early childhood education centre. The data, presented as "events", formed part of an interpretive qualitative study exploring

  2. Word-Play and "Musike": Young Children Learning Literacies while Communicating Playfully

    Alcock, Sophie; Cullen, Joy; St George, Alison

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores young children's rhythmic, musical, humorous and playful communication in the context of empowering themselves to create meaningful curriculum during teacher-controlled routine morning-tea times in an early childhood education centre. The data, presented as "events", formed part of an interpretive qualitative study exploring…

  3. Get the story straight: contextual repetition promotes word learning from storybooks

    KellyL Parsons

    2011-01-01

    Although reading storybooks to preschool children is a common activity believed to improve language skills, how children learn new vocabulary from being to has been largely neglected in the shared storybook reading literature. The current study systematically explores the effects of repeatedly reading the same storybooks on both young children's fast and slow mapping ability. Specially created storybooks were read to 3-year-old children three times during the course of one week. Each of the n...

  4. Get the Story Straight: Contextual Repetition Promotes Word Learning from Storybooks

    Horst, Jessica S.; Parsons, Kelly L.; Bryan, Natasha M

    2011-01-01

    Although shared storybook reading is a common activity believed to improve the language skills of preschool children, how children learn new vocabulary from such experiences has been largely neglected in the literature. The current study systematically explores the effects of repeatedly reading the same storybooks on both young children's fast and slow mapping abilities. Specially created storybooks were read to 3-year-old children three times during the course of 1 week. Each of the nine sto...

  5. You Know What It Is: Learning Words through Listening to Hip-Hop

    Chesley, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE) vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free-response definitions to AAE vocabulary items, after which they answered demographic questions as well as questions addressing their social networks, their musical preferences, and their knowledge ...

  6. "In Our Own Words": Creating Videos as Teaching and Learning Tools

    Norda Majekodunmi; Kent Murnaghan

    2012-01-01

    Online videos, particularly those on YouTube, have proliferated on the internet; watching them has become part of our everyday activity. While libraries have often harnessed the power of videos to create their own promotional and informational videos, few have created their own teaching and learning tools beyond screencasting videos. In the summer of 2010, the authors, two librarians at York University, decided to work on a video project which culminated in a series of instructional videos en...

  7. Dogs, Bogs, Labs, and Lads: What Phonemic Generalizations Indicate about the Nature of Children's Early Word-Form Representations

    Thiessen, Erik D.; Yee, Meagan N.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas young children accept words that differ by only a single phoneme as equivalent labels for novel objects, older children do not (J. F. Werker, C. J. Fennell, K. M. Corcoran, & C. L. Stager, 2002). In these experiments, 106 children were exposed to a training regime that has previously been found to facilitate children's use of phonemic

  8. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: an fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Eden, Annuschka S.; Dehmelt, Vera; Bischoff, Matthias; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at 4-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit) memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons. PMID:26347689

  9. Selective effects of explanation on learning during early childhood.

    Legare, Cristine H; Lombrozo, Tania

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examined the specificity of effects of explanation on learning by prompting 3- to 6-year-old children to explain a mechanical toy and comparing what they learned about the toy's causal and non-causal properties with children who only observed the toy, both with and without accompanying verbalization. In Study 1, children were experimentally assigned to either explain or observe the mechanical toy. In Study 2, children were classified according to whether the content of their response to an undirected prompt involved explanation. Dependent measures included whether children understood the toy's functional-mechanical relationships, remembered perceptual features of the toy, effectively reconstructed the toy, and (for Study 2) generalized the function of the toy when constructing a new one. Results demonstrate that across age groups, explanation promotes causal learning and generalization but does not improve (and in younger children can even impair) memory for causally irrelevant perceptual details. PMID:24945685

  10. Jail Participants Actively Study Words

    Shaw, Donita Massengill; Berg, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of a word study literacy approach on the spelling ability and self-efficacy of adults in a county jail. Forty-four inmates participated in the word study intervention that provided them with hands-on learning. The word study intervention was conducted in four separate sessions (September,

  11. Learning from the early adopters: developing the digital practitioner

    Liz Bennett

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how Sharpe and Beetham's Digital Literacies Framework which was derived to model students’ digital literacies, can be applied to lecturers’ digital literacy practices. Data from a small-scale phenomenological study of higher education lecturers who used Web 2.0 in their teaching and learning practices are used to examine if this pyramid model represents their motivations for adopting technology-enhanced learning in their pedagogic practices. The paper argues that whilst Sharpe and Beetham's model has utility in many regards, these lecturers were mainly motivated by the desire to achieve their pedagogic goals rather than by a desire to become a digital practitioner.

  12. Formal and informal home learning activities in relation to children's early numeracy and literacy skills: the development of a home numeracy model.

    Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Snchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes. PMID:24462995

  13. Age and Experience Shape Developmental Changes in the Neural Basis of Language-Related Learning

    McNealy, Kristin; Mazziotta, John C.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known about the neural underpinnings of language learning across the lifespan and how these might be modified by maturational and experiential factors. Building on behavioral research highlighting the importance of early word segmentation (i.e. the detection of word boundaries in continuous speech) for subsequent language learning,…

  14. Learning from the Early Adopters: Developing the Digital Practitioner

    Bennett, Liz

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how Sharpe and Beetham's Digital Literacies Framework which was derived to model students' digital literacies, can be applied to lecturers' digital literacy practices. Data from a small-scale phenomenological study of higher education lecturers who used Web 2.0 in their teaching and learning practices are used to…

  15. Play: Ten Power Boosts for Children's Early Learning

    Honig, Alice

    2007-01-01

    Play is children's work. Alice Honig enumerates from the heart 10 ways in which children learn through play, including building dexterity; social skills; cognitive and language skills; number and time concepts; spatial understanding; reasoning of cause and effect; clarification of pretend versus real; sensory and aesthetic appreciation; extended…

  16. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence

    Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick Karl; Doudin, Pierre André; Harris, Paul L.; Giménez-Dasí, Marta

    2014-01-01

    had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning...... learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally...... difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not...

  17. Examining the Acquisition of Phonological Word Forms with Computational Experiments

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that known words in the lexicon strengthen newly formed representations of novel words, resulting in words with dense neighborhoods being learned more quickly than words with sparse neighborhoods. Tests of this hypothesis in a connectionist network showed that words with dense neighborhoods were learned better than words…

  18. The effects of using flashcards with reading racetrack to teach letter sounds, sight words, and math facts to elementary students with learning disabilities

    Rachel ERBEY

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of reading racetrack and flashcards when teaching phonics, sight words, and addition facts. The participants for the sight word and phonics portion of this study were two seven-year-old boys in the second grade. Both participants were diagnosed with a learning disability. The third participant was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by his pediatrician and with a learning disability and traumatic brain injury by his school’s multi-disciplinary team.. The dependent measures were corrects and errors when reading from a first grade level sight word list. Math facts were selected based on a 100 add fact test for the third participant. The study demonstrated that racetracks paired with the flashcard intervention improved the students’ number of corrects for each subject-matter area (phonics, sight words, and math facts. However, the results show that some students had more success with it than others. These outcomes clearly warrant further research.

  19. English-learning infants' perception of word stress patterns [JASA Express Letter

    Skoruppa, K.; Cristia, A.; Peperkamp, S.; Seidl, A.

    2011-01-01

    Adult speakers of different free stress languages (e.g., English, Spanish) differ both in their sensitivity to lexical stress and in their processing of suprasegmental and vowel quality cues to stress. In a head-turn preference experiment with a familiarization phase, both 8-month-old and 12-month-old English-learning infants discriminated between initial stress and final stress among lists of Spanish-spoken disyllabic nonwords that were segmentally varied (e.g. [ˈnila, ˈtuli] vs [luˈta, puˈk...

  20. Parental Attitudes and Motivational Factors in Enrollment of Children in Early Foreign Language Learning in the Notranjska Region

    Darja Premrl

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present the parents‘ opinions about the contemporary sources in the field of early foreign language teaching and learning and their influence on the decisions parents make about including/excluding their child into the program of early foreign language learning. We found out, on the one hand, that parents are poorly informed about the current state of early foreign language learning both in Slovenia and abroad. On the other hand, parents reported positive attitudes about ea...

  1. Word Translation Entropy

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard; Balling, Laura Winther; Carl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while l...

  2. Conceptualising Arts-Based Learning in the Early Years

    Nutbrown, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that, because young children's response to the world is primarily sensory and aesthetic, early years curriculum should give due attention to the arts. There is an urgent need to better conceptualise ways of working with young children in relation to the arts. The paper is based on three key and permeating ideas: first, that…

  3. The Enigma of Number: Why Children Find the Meanings of Even Small Number Words Hard to Learn and How We Can Help Them Do Better

    Ramscar, Michael; Dye, Melody; Popick, Hanna Muenke; O'Donnell-McCarthy, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Although number words are common in everyday speech, learning their meanings is an arduous, drawn-out process for most children, and the source of this delay has long been the subject of inquiry. Children begin by identifying the few small numerosities that can be named without counting, and this has prompted further debate over whether there is a specific, capacity-limited system for representing these small sets, or whether smaller and larger sets are both represented by the same system. He...

  4. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a point...

  5. Social-Emotional Learning Profiles of Preschoolers’ Early School Success: A Person-Centered Approach

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Mincic, Melissa; Kalb, Sara; Way, Erin; Wyatt, Todd; Segal, Yana

    2012-01-01

    Examined how aspects of social-emotional learning (SEL)—specifically, emotion knowledge, emotional and social behaviors, social problem-solving, and self-regulation—clustered to typify groups of children who differ in terms of their motivation to learn, participation in the classroom, and other indices of early school adjustment and academic success. 275 four-year-old children from private day schools and Head Start were directly assessed and observed in these areas, and preschool and kinderg...

  6. Innovative teaching and assessment at the university for quality learning, against early university leaving

    Bombardelli Olga

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the contribution given by innovative University teaching and learning to the development of transversal competences needed by the students in the contemporary society. I discuss updated teaching ways, and new evaluation forms, included formative assessment for a successful learning of all university students, premise to prevent early university leaving as well. The main aims of university studies are stated in the curricula (s. Dublin Descritors 2004 and National rules),...

  7. Get by with a Little Help from a Word: Multimodal Input Facilitates 26-Month-Olds' Ability to Map and Generalize Arbitrary Gestural Labels

    Wilbourn, Makeba Parramore; Sims, Jacqueline Prince

    2013-01-01

    In the early stages of word learning, children demonstrate considerable flexibility in the type of symbols they will accept as object labels. However, around the 2nd year, as children continue to gain language experience, they become focused on more conventional symbols (e.g., words) as opposed to less conventional symbols (e.g., gestures). During

  8. Clustering words

    Ferenczi, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    We characterize words which cluster under the Burrows-Wheeler transform as those words $w$ such that $ww$ occurs in a trajectory of an interval exchange transformation, and build examples of clustering words.

  9. Signal Words

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  10. Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression

    Stephanie Moriceau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

  11. Early Adverse Care, Stress Neurobiology, and Prevention Science: Lessons Learned

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that some of the difficulties observed among children who have experienced early adverse care (e.g., children internationally adopted from institutional care and maltreated children in foster care) involve experience-induced alterations in stress-responsive neurobiological systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Thus, incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research could aid in identifying the children most in need of pre...

  12. The Comportmental Learning Disabilities of Early Frontal Lobe Damage

    Price, Bruce Heimburger; Kirk R. Daffner; Stowe, Robert C.; Mesulam, M. Marsel

    1990-01-01

    Two adult patients are described who suffered bilateral prefrontal damage early in life and who subsequently came to psychiatric attention because of severely aberrant behaviour. A battery of developmental psychology paradigms (not previously used to assess neurologically impaired individuals) showed that social and moral development of these 2 patients was arrested at an immature stage. In comparison with other types of brain damage which disrupt cognitive development, frontal damage acquire...

  13. [Usefulness of hybrid small group learning and age-mixing method in early exposure learning in 2006 and 2007].

    Mizuno, Tomohiro; Taguchi, Tadao; Kato, Hiroshi; Yoshimi, Akira; Yamada, Shinnosuke; Kato, Marina; Yoshimura, Tomoko; Ito, Tatsuo; Noda, Yukihiro

    2009-09-01

    In 2006 the Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University has introduced an early exposure learning into the first-year curriculum of the 6-year pharmacy education system, with the aim of "understanding of patients," "enhancing motivation to learn pharmacy," and "understanding of the roles of pharmacists in the clinical setting". This program has three approaches: "active learning", "hybrid small group learning (SGL)" and "age-mixing". The 2006 questionnaire survey on this program revealed some disadvantages, including the inability of student facilitators to get the program in perspective, due to their lack of numbers and time assigned to each group. In response to the survey results, steps were taken to rectify these defects. Accordingly, in the 2007 questionnaire survey, the first-year undergraduates, student facilitators and faculty facilitators responded that the program was achieving its aims. In particular, they acknowledged the usefulness of "age-mixing" and "hybrid SGL" as educational approaches fundamental to the 6-year education system. Thus, in 2007 the program became more useful through our efforts to remedy the issues pointed out in 2006, including the low degree of understanding of "age-mixing" among the first-year undergraduates, and poor assignment of student facilitators to each group. The challenges for 2008 include further enhancing motivation of first-year undergraduates regarding SGL and establishment of a method for student facilitator intervention in SGL. Focusing on these challenges, we will continue our efforts to enhance the quality of pharmaceutical education through such approaches as early exposure learning. PMID:19721385

  14. The role of emotionality in the acquisition of new concrete and abstract words.

    Ferré, Pilar; Ventura, David; Comesaña, Montserrat; Fraga, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A processing advantage for emotional words relative to neutral words has been widely demonstrated in the monolingual domain (e.g., Kuperman et al., 2014). It is also well-known that, in bilingual speakers who have a certain degree of proficiency in their second language, the effects of the affective content of words on cognition are not restricted to the native language (e.g., Ferré et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to test whether this facilitatory effect can also be obtained during the very early stages of word acquisition. In the context of a novel word learning paradigm, participants were trained on a set of Basque words by associating them to their Spanish translations. Words' concreteness and affective valence were orthogonally manipulated. Immediately after the learning phase and 1 week later, participants were tested in a Basque go-no go lexical decision task as well as in a translation task in which they had to provide the Spanish translation of the Basque words. A similar pattern of results was found across tasks and sessions, revealing main effects of concreteness and emotional content as well as an interaction between both factors. Thus, the emotional content facilitated the acquisition of abstract, but not concrete words, in the new language, with a more reliable effect for negative words than for positive ones. The results are discussed in light of the embodied theoretical view of semantic representation proposed by Kousta et al. (2011). PMID:26217289

  15. The role of emotionality in the acquisition of new concrete and abstract words

    Ferr, Pilar; Ventura, David; Comesaa, Montserrat; Fraga, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A processing advantage for emotional words relative to neutral words has been widely demonstrated in the monolingual domain (e.g., Kuperman et al., 2014). It is also well-known that, in bilingual speakers who have a certain degree of proficiency in their second language, the effects of the affective content of words on cognition are not restricted to the native language (e.g., Ferr et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to test whether this facilitatory effect can also be obtained during the very early stages of word acquisition. In the context of a novel word learning paradigm, participants were trained on a set of Basque words by associating them to their Spanish translations. Words concreteness and affective valence were orthogonally manipulated. Immediately after the learning phase and 1 week later, participants were tested in a Basque go-no go lexical decision task as well as in a translation task in which they had to provide the Spanish translation of the Basque words. A similar pattern of results was found across tasks and sessions, revealing main effects of concreteness and emotional content as well as an interaction between both factors. Thus, the emotional content facilitated the acquisition of abstract, but not concrete words, in the new language, with a more reliable effect for negative words than for positive ones. The results are discussed in light of the embodied theoretical view of semantic representation proposed by Kousta et al. (2011). PMID:26217289

  16. Basic auditory processing predicts rule learning in early infancy

    Jutta L Mueller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to discover remote dependencies between speech units is a basic requirement for language acquisition. We applied event-related potentials (ERPs in a passive oddball paradigm to test whether this capacity is influenced by the developmental status of basic auditory processes. Standard stimuli consisted of three-syllabic spoken sequences that followed two different AXB rules for which A syllables predicted B syllables with variable X syllables. Interspersed among standards were pitch deviants and rule deviants, i.e. violations of the final B element according to the AXB rules. Infants were grouped according to the polarity of their mismatch responses to the pitch deviant as an index for the maturational status of the auditory cortex. Only those infants who showed a negativity for the pitch deviants showed a mismatch response to the rule deviants. In an adult control group no rule deviance effects were found. We conclude that the ability to extract remote dependencies is present in early infancy and critically depends on the maturational status of basic auditory mechanisms. Interestingly, it seems to be absent in its automatic form in adulthood. Future research is needed to test the impact of the observed early interindividual differences in perceptual functions on later stages of language acquisition. Funding: Supported by DFG (MU 3112/1-1.

  17. Improving Hospital-Wide Early Resource Allocation through Machine Learning.

    Gartner, Daniel; Padman, Rema

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which early determination of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) can be used for better allocation of scarce hospital resources. When elective patients seek admission, the true DRG, currently determined only at discharge, is unknown. We approach the problem of early DRG determination in three stages: (1) test how much a Nave Bayes classifier can improve classification accuracy as compared to a hospital's current approach; (2) develop a statistical program that makes admission and scheduling decisions based on the patients' clincial pathways and scarce hospital resources; and (3) feed the DRG as classified by the Nave Bayes classifier and the hospitals' baseline approach into the model (which we evaluate in simulation). Our results reveal that the DRG grouper performs poorly in classifying the DRG correctly before admission while the Nave Bayes approach substantially improves the classification task. The results from the connection of the classification method with the mathematical program also reveal that resource allocation decisions can be more effective and efficient with the hybrid approach. PMID:26262062

  18. Desarrollo psquico temprano y aprendizaje / Early psychological development and learning

    Fernando, Gonzlez-Serrano; Xabier, Tapia; Manuel, Hernanz; Francisco, Vaccari.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de las consultas relacionadas con dificultades de atencin, hiperactividad y trastornos de comportamiento constatado en los nios al inicio de la enseanza primaria (escolaridad propiamente dicha) lleva a los autores a reflexionar sobre la influencia de los acelerados cambios en las socie [...] dades desarrolladas en el desarrollo psquico y la organizacin de la personalidad. Se hace nfasis sobre los procesos de latencia (sublimacin, control de la motricidad y del paso al acto) como posibilitadores de los aprendizajes escolares y su puesta en marcha en los nios de hoy. Abstract in english The ultimate increased volume of outpatient first consultations related to attention impairment, hyperactivity and conduct disorders in children starting Lower School led the authors to ponder about the influence that high speed changes in developed societies have upon psychological development and [...] personality organization. Emphasis is made on latency processes (sublimation, motor control and acting out) as learning promoters in the school environment of here and now kids.

  19. Words and gestures: infants' interpretations of different forms of symbolic reference.

    Namy, L L; Waxman, S R

    1998-04-01

    In 3 experiments, we examine the relation between language acquisition and other symbolic abilities in the early stages of language acquisition. We introduce 18- and 26-month-olds to object categories (e.g., fruit, vehicles) using a novel word or a novel symbolic gesture to name the objects. We compare the influence of these two symbolic forms on infants' object categorization. Children at both ages interpreted novel words as names for object categories. However, infants' interpretations of gestures changed over development. At 18 months, infants spontaneously interpreted gestures, like words, as names for object categories; at 26 months, infants spontaneously interpreted words but not gestures as names. The older infants succeeded in interpreting novel gestures as names only when given additional practice with the gestural medium. This clear developmental pattern supports the prediction that an initial general ability to learn symbols (both words and gestures) develops into a more focused tendency to use words as the predominant symbolic form. PMID:9586206

  20. Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills

    LynneG.Duncan; PascaleColé

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and...

  1. Research on the Integrated Performance Assessment in an Early Foreign Language Learning Program

    Davin, Kristin; Troyan, Francis J.; Donato, Richard; Hellman, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the implementation of the Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA) in an Early Foreign Language Learning program. The goal of this research was to examine the performance of grade 4 and 5 students of Spanish on the IPA. Performance across the three communicative tasks is described and modifications to IPA procedures based on…

  2. French Nursery Schools and German Kindergartens: Effects of Individual and Contextual Variables on Early Learning

    Tazouti, Youssef; Viriot-Goeldel, Caroline; Matter, Cornelie; Geiger-Jaillet, Anemone; Carol, Rita; Deviterne, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The present article investigates the effects of individual and contextual variables on children's early learning in French nursery schools and German kindergartens. Our study of 552 children at preschools in France (299 children from French nursery schools) and Germany (253 children from German kindergartens) measured skills that facilitate the…

  3. Early Child Contingency Learning and Detection: Research Evidence and Implications for Practice

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda; Masiello, Tracy L.

    2008-01-01

    The types of contingency experiences infants and young children are typically exposed to are examined with a focus on the implications for early childhood intervention with young children who have developmental disabilities and delays. Studies of response-contingent child learning, the manner in which contingencies are not under direct child…

  4. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)

  5. Socio-Economic Status, Parenting Practices and Early Learning at French Kindergartens

    Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…

  6. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  7. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  8. California's Early Learning & Development System: A Review of Funding Streams and Programs

    Miller, Kate; Perez, Giannina S.

    2010-01-01

    California's public early learning and development programs and related services are funded through a range of federal, state and local sources. The purpose and scope of these funding streams vary broadly: some sources are dedicated primarily to serving children, birth to age five, and their families, while others can also be utilized for…

  9. Community-Based Learning to Support South African Early Group Care

    Casper, Virginia; Lamb-Parker, Faith

    2012-01-01

    The Developing Families Project-South Africa (DFP-SA) is a community-based model of education and training for the care, support and education of vulnerable children birth-to-three and their caregivers, guardians and families in rural and peri-urban townships. The approach fosters interactive learning among community members about early care and…

  10. The Challenges and Possibilities of a Narrative Learning Approach in the Finnish Early Childhood Education System

    Hakkarainen, Pentti

    2008-01-01

    Finnish curriculum guidelines for early education emphasise play and creative activities as significant factors in healthy child development. Constructivist theory loosely frames the guidelines, but the recommended approach lacks precise developmental goals. Since 1996, we have carried out a narrative learning project with vertically integrated

  11. Social Class, Habitus, and Language Learning: The Case of Korean Early Study-Abroad Students

    Shin, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean

  12. Early Verb Learning in 20-Month-Old Japanese-Speaking Children

    Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Ariyama, Junko; Kobayashi, Tessei; Katerelos, Marina; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children's representations of morphosyntactic information are abstract enough to guide early verb learning. Using an infant-controlled habituation paradigm with a switch design, Japanese-speaking children aged 1 ; 8 were habituated to two different events in which an object was engaging in an action. Each…

  13. Brain Development and Early Learning: Research on Brain Development. Quality Matters. Volume 1, Winter 2007

    Edie, David; Schmid, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    For decades researchers have been aware of the extraordinary development of a child's brain during the first five years of life. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped crystallize earlier findings, bringing new clarity and understanding to the field of early childhood brain development. Children are born ready to learn. They cultivate 85

  14. "Teacher, There's an Elephant in the Room!" An Inquiry Approach to Preschoolers' Early Language Learning

    Kampmann, Jennifer Anne; Bowne, Mary Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Children need sound language and literacy skills to communicate with others and actively participate in a classroom learning community. When an early childhood classroom offers a language- and literacy-rich environment, children have numerous opportunities to practice language and literacy in a social setting. A language-rich classroom includes an…

  15. Investigating Analytic Tools for e-Book Design in Early Literacy Learning

    Roskos, Kathleen; Brueck, Jeremy; Widman, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Toward the goal of better e-book design to support early literacy learning, this study investigates analytic tools for examining design qualities of e-books for young children. Three research-based analytic tools related to e-book design were applied to a mixed genre collection of 50 e-books from popular online sites. Tool performance varied…

  16. Aesthetic Codes in Early Childhood Classrooms: What Art Educators Can Learn from Reggio Emilia.

    Tarr, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Compares early childhood classrooms in Italy and the United States. Concludes that art educators must create environments that support children's aesthetic and artistic development, incorporate aspects from the world into the life of classrooms, and critically examine classroom learning spaces. (DAJ)

  17. Social Class, Habitus, and Language Learning: The Case of Korean Early Study-Abroad Students

    Shin, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean…

  18. Effects of Learning about Historical Gender Discrimination on Early Adolescents' Occupational Judgments and Aspirations

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Green, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the consequences of learning about gender discrimination, early adolescents (n = 121, aged 10-14) were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard biographical lessons about historical figures (standard condition) or (b) nearly identical lessons that included information about gender discrimination (discrimination condition).…

  19. The Challenges and Possibilities of a Narrative Learning Approach in the Finnish Early Childhood Education System

    Hakkarainen, Pentti

    2008-01-01

    Finnish curriculum guidelines for early education emphasise play and creative activities as significant factors in healthy child development. Constructivist theory loosely frames the guidelines, but the recommended approach lacks precise developmental goals. Since 1996, we have carried out a narrative learning project with vertically integrated…

  20. Parents' Translations of Child Gesture Facilitate Word Learning in Children with Autism, Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    Dimitrova, Nevena; zaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.

    2016-01-01

    Typically-developing (TD) children frequently refer to objects uniquely in gesture. Parents translate these gestures into words, facilitating children's acquisition of these words (Goldin-Meadow et al. in "Dev Sci" 10(6):778-785, 2007). We ask whether this pattern holds for children with autism (AU) and with Down syndrome (DS) who show