Remembering New Words: Integrating Early Memory Development into Word Learning  

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Full Text Available In order to successfully acquire a new word, young children must learn the correct associations between labels and their referents. For decades, word-learning researchers have explored how young children are able to form these associations. However, in addition to learning label-referent mappings, children must also remember them. Despite the importance of memory processes in forming a stable lexicon, there has been little integration of early memory research into the study of early word learning. After discussing what we know about how young children remember words over time, this paper reviews the infant memory development literature as it relates to early word learning, focusing on changes in retention duration, encoding, consolidation and retrieval across the first two years of life. A third section applies this review to word learning and presents future directions, arguing that the integration of memory processes into the study of word learning will provide researchers with novel, useful insights into how young children acquire new words.




The role of association in early word-learning  

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Full Text Available Word-learning likely involves a multiplicity of components, some domain-general, others domain-specific. Against the background of recent studies that suggest that word-learning is domain-specific, we investigated the associative component of word-learning. Seven- and 14-month-old infants viewed a pair of events in which a monkey or a truck moved back and forth, accompanied by a sung syllable or a tone, matched for pitch. Following habituation, infants were presented with displays in which the visual-auditory pairings were preserved or switched, and looked longer at the “switch” events when exposure time was sufficient to learn the intermodal association. At 7 months, performance on speech and tones conditions was statistically identical; at 14 months, infants had begun to favor speech. Thus, the associative component of word-learning does not appear (in contrast to rule-learning, Marcus et al., 2007 to initially privilege speech.




How an Appreciation of Conventionality Shapes Early Word Learning (United States)

Children's sensitivity to the shared, conventional nature of word meanings makes their word learning more efficient and less prone to error. After reviewing the evidence in support of this claim, we suggest that children's earliest appreciation of conventionality might be rooted in limitations in their theory-of-mind skills.

Sabbagh, Mark A.; Henderson, Annette M. E.



Foreign Language Learning, Hyperlexia, and Early Word Recognition. (United States)

A study involving a high-school student with hyperlexia and a student with above average word recognition skills, found they scored higher on Spanish proficiency tasks that required the exclusive use of phonological and phonological/orthographic skills than on Spanish proficiency tasks requiring listening comprehension and speaking and writing…

Sparks, Richard L.; Artzer, Marjorie



Word Learning in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Effects of Early Auditory Experience (United States)

Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this…

Houston, Derek M.; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T.



Hemispheric differences in the processing of words learned early versus later in childhood. (United States)

ABSTRACT The research investigated whether there are hemispheric differences in processing for words acquired early in childhood (early AoA) and words acquired later in childhood (late AoA). We hypothesized that because of recent evidence suggesting that there is a right hemisphere dominance in early childhood, early AoA words would be represented in the right hemisphere, and late AoA words would be represented in the left hemisphere. This hypothesis differs from an early view that late AoA words would be represented in the left hemisphere, and early AoA words would be represented in both hemispheres (Gazzaniga, 1974). We report two experiments using the divided visual field (DVF) technique. The results showed that there was a right visual field (RVF)/left hemisphere (LH) advantage only for late AoA words. For early AoA words, there was a left visual field (LVF)/right hemisphere advantage (RH). Implications for theories of hemispheric differences in word processing are discussed. PMID:24837653

Bowers, J Michael; Bradley, Kristopher I; Kennison, Shelia M



Television and the early word-learner  

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Using the splitscreen preferential looking paradigm we examined the effects of early television exposure and adult scaffolding on the ability of very young children to recognize familiar words and learn new words from video. In Study 1, younger children (18 months, N = 23) who watched 3 or more hours of television a week recognized familiar words best, t(20) = -2.13, p < .05. Older children (26 months, N = 18) who regularly watched educational television were better to learn new words than ...



Infants track word forms in early word-object associations. (United States)

A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, ; Smith, ). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar word form will lead young word learners to look for an object to associate with it (Juscyzk, ). This research investigates the relative weighing of word forms and objects in early word-object associations using the anticipatory eye-movement paradigm (AEM; McMurray & Aslin, ). Eighteen-month-old infants and adults were taught novel word-object associations and then tested on ambiguous stimuli that pitted word forms and objects against each other. Results revealed a change in weighing of these components across development. For 18-month-old infants, word forms weighed more in early word-object associative learning, while for adults, objects were more salient. Our results suggest that infants preferentially use word forms to guide the process of word-object association. PMID:24576138

Zamuner, Tania S; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F



An Image Is Worth a Thousand Words: Why Nouns Tend to Dominate Verbs in Early Word Learning (United States)

Nouns are generally easier to learn than verbs (e.g. Bornstein, 2005; Bornstein et al., 2004; Gentner, 1982; Maguire, Hirsh-Pasek & Golinkoff, 2006). Yet, verbs appear in children's earliest vocabularies, creating a seeming paradox. This paper examines one hypothesis about the difference between noun and verb acquisition. Perhaps the advantage…

McDonough, Colleen; Song, Lulu; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Lannon, Robert



Learning word meanings by instruction  

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We develop techniques for learning the meanings of unknown words in context. Working within a compositional semantics framework, we write down equations in which a sentence`s meaning is some combination function of the meaning of its words. When one of the words is unknown, we ask for a paraphrase of the sentence. We then compute the meaning of the unknown word by inverting parts of the semantic combination function. This technique can be used to learn word-concept mappings, decomposed meanings, and mappings between syntactic and semantic roles. It works for all parts of speech.

Knight, K. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA (United States)



Learning builds on learning: Infants' use of native language sound patterns to learn words. (United States)

The current research investigated how infants apply prior knowledge of environmental regularities to support new learning. The experiments tested whether infants could exploit experience with native language (English) phonotactic patterns to facilitate associating sounds with meanings during word learning. Infants (14-month-olds) heard fluent speech that contained cues for detecting target words; the target words were embedded in sequences that occur across word boundaries. A separate group heard the target words embedded without word boundary cues. Infants then participated in an object label learning task. With the opportunity to use native language patterns to segment the target words, infants subsequently learned the labels. Without this experience, infants failed. Novice word learners can take advantage of early learning about sounds to scaffold lexical development. PMID:24980741

Graf Estes, Katharine



Learning Long Words--A Typological Perspective. (United States)

Reports on the early phonological development of six children learning Finnish. Primary focus is on their production of multisyllable targets. There was a tendency to reduce the last element of long words. Results also indicated that the segmental factor may influence the deletion pattern: the syllable that contained a stop was produced,…

Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula



Contributions of infant word learning to language development  

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Infants learn the forms of words by listening to the speech they hear. Though little is known about the degree to which these forms are meaningful for young infants, the words still play a role in early language development. Words guide the infant to his or her first syntactic intuitions, aid in the development of the lexicon, and, it is proposed, may help infants learn phonetic categories.

Swingley, Daniel



Rehearsal Effects in Adult Word Learning (United States)

The goal of this research was to examine the effects of phonological familiarity and rehearsal method (vocal vs. subvocal) on novel word learning. In Experiment 1, English-speaking adults learned phonologically familiar novel words that followed English phonological structure. Participants learned half the words via vocal rehearsal (saying the…

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon



Rapid cortical plasticity underlying novel word learning. (United States)

Humans are unique in developing large lexicons as their communication tool. To achieve this, they are able to learn new words rapidly. However, neural bases of this rapid learning, which may be an expression of a more general cognitive mechanism, are not yet understood. To address this, we exposed our subjects to familiar words and novel spoken stimuli in a short passive perceptual learning session and compared automatic brain responses to these items throughout the learning exposure. Initially, we found enhanced activity for known words, indexing the ignition of their underlying memory traces. However, just after 14 min of learning exposure, the novel items exhibited a significant increase in response magnitude matching in size with that to real words. This activation increase, as we would like to propose, reflects rapid mapping of new word forms onto neural representations. Similar to familiar words, the neural activity subserving rapid learning of new word forms was generated in the left-perisylvian language cortex, especially anterior superior-temporal areas. This first report of a neural correlate of rapid learning suggests that our brain may effectively form new neuronal circuits online as it gets exposed to novel patterns in the sensory input. Understanding such fast learning is key to the neurobiological explanation of the human language faculty and learning mechanisms in general. PMID:21159957

Shtyrov, Yury; Nikulin, Vadim V; Pulvermüller, Friedemann



Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning  

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In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar no...

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon



When Does Feedback Facilitate Learning of Words? (United States)

Some researchers have suggested that although feedback may enhance performance during associative learning, it does so at the expense of later retention. To examine this issue, subjects (N = 258) learned Luganda-English word pairs. After 2 initial exposures to the materials, subjects were tested on each item several times, with the presence and…

Pashler, Harold; Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Wixted, John T.; Rohrer, Doug



Phonological Similarity Influences Word Learning in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language (United States)

Neighborhood density--the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)--influences word learning in native English-speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words

Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.



Learning Probabilistic Models of Word Sense Disambiguation  

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This dissertation presents several new methods of supervised and unsupervised learning of word sense disambiguation models. The supervised methods focus on performing model searches through a space of probabilistic models, and the unsupervised methods rely on the use of Gibbs Sampling and the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. In both the supervised and unsupervised case, the Naive Bayesian model is found to perform well. An explanation for this success is presented in terms of learning rates and bias-variance decompositions.

Pedersen, Ted



Learning Words through Multimedia Application : A Study of Implicit Learning in Chinese Words  

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  This study explores the relevance of multimedia application in relation to vocabulary acquisition in the classroom of Chinese as a foreign language. The herein depicted application refers to the computer-assisted implicit word-learning, wherein the Danish students built hypertexts to acquire meanings of unknown words aiming to research and to enlarging Chinese vocabulary.  

Zhang, Chun



Effects of instruction on deriving word meaning from context and incidental word learning  

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Full Text Available The effect of instruction on deriving word meaning from written context and incidental word learning was assessed in a randomised experiment. The experimental programme, based on the direct instruction of a strategy, produced neither a significant improvement of the skill of deriving word meaning from context, nor did the incidental word learning rate of the fourth grade, below-average readers increase. An effect of instruction on the skill of deriving word meaning from context and incidental word learning has historically been difficult to achieve; hence, an effect on vocabulary growth in the long run seems premature at this stage.

Fukkink, R.G.



Integrating Constraints for Learning Word-Referent Mappings (United States)

Learning word-referent mappings is complex because the word and its referent tend to co-occur with multiple other words and potential referents. Such complexity has led to proposals for a host of constraints on learning, though how these constraints may interact has not yet been investigated in detail. In this paper, we investigated interactions…

Monaghan, Padraic; Mattock, Karen



Goodnight Book: Sleep Consolidation Improves Word Learning via Storybooks  

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Full Text Available Reading the same storybooks repeatedly helps preschool children learn words. In addition, sleeping shortly after learning also facilitates memory consolidation and aids learning in older children and adults. The current study explored how sleep promotes word learning in preschool children using a shared storybook reading task. Children were either read the same story repeatedly or different stories and either napped after the stories or remained awake. Children’s word retention were tested 2.5 hours later, 24 hours later and 7 days later. Results demonstrate strong, persistent effects for both repeated readings and sleep consolidation on young children’s word learning. A key finding is that children who read different stories before napping learned words as well as children who had the advantage of hearing the same story. In contrast, children who read different stories and remained awake never caught up to their peers on later word learning tests. Implications for educational practices are discussed.




Brain activation and lexical learning: the impact of learning phase and word type. (United States)

This study investigated the neural correlates of second-language lexical acquisition in terms of learning phase and word type. Ten French-speaking participants learned 80 Spanish words-40 cognates, 40 non-cognates-by means of a computer program. The learning process included the early learning phase, which comprised 5 days, and the consolidation phase, which lasted 2 weeks. After each phase, participants performed an overt naming task during an er-fMRI scan. Naming accuracy was better for cognates during the early learning phase only. However, cognates were named faster than non-cognates during both phases. The early learning phase was characterized by activations in the left iFG and Broca's area, which were associated with effortful lexical retrieval and phonological processing, respectively. Further, the activation in the left ACC and DLPFC suggested that monitoring may be involved during the early phases of lexical learning. During the consolidation phase, the activation in the left premotor cortex, the right supramarginal gyrus and the cerebellum indicated that articulatory planning may contribute to the consolidation of second-language phonetic representations. No dissociation between word type and learning phase could be supported. However, a Fisher r-to-z test showed that successful cognate retrieval was associated with activations in Broca's area, which could reflect the adaptation of known L1 phonological sequences. Moreover, successful retrieval of non-cognates was associated with activity in the anterior-medial left fusiform and right posterior cingulate cortices, suggesting that their successful retrieval may rely upon the access to semantic and lexical information, and even on the greater likelihood of errors. PMID:19837173

Raboyeau, G; Marcotte, K; Adrover-Roig, D; Ansaldo, A I



The Link between Statistical Segmentation and Word Learning in Adults (United States)

Many studies have shown that listeners can segment words from running speech based on conditional probabilities of syllable transitions, suggesting that this statistical learning could be a foundational component of language learning. However, few studies have shown a direct link between statistical segmentation and word learning. We examined this…

Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S.; Estes, Katharine Graf; Dixon, James A.



The Transition to Grammar in a Bilingual Child: Positional Patterns, Model Learning, and Relational Words. (United States)

Analysis of the first 4 months of word combinations recorded for an Estonian-English learning child suggests that meaning-based generativity may play a role in this important transition in that mixed language utterances, sequence reversals, and errors revealing early attempts at analysis provide clear evidence that distributional learning alone…

Vihman, Marilyn May



Value-Added Early Learning (United States)

Elected state leaders often prioritize economic prosperity and competitiveness, which provides an important opportunity too rarely taken for investing in early education. In 2003, Pennsylvania recognized the connection between early education and the economy, and smartly embraced early learning as part of its economic prosperity and…

Dichter, Harriet



Judging words by their covers and the company they keep: probabilistic cues support word learning. (United States)

Statistical learning may be central to lexical and grammatical development. The phonological and distributional properties of words provide probabilistic cues to their grammatical and semantic properties. Infants can capitalize on such probabilistic cues to learn grammatical patterns in listening tasks. However, infants often struggle to learn labels when performance requires attending to less obvious cues, raising the question of whether probabilistic cues support word learning. The current experiment presented 22-month-olds with an artificial language containing probabilistic correlations between words' statistical and semantic properties. Only infants with higher levels of grammatical development capitalized on statistical cues to support learning word-referent mappings. These findings suggest that infants' sensitivity to correlations between sounds and meanings may support both word learning and grammatical development. PMID:24354917

Lany, Jill



The Birth of Words: Ten-Month-Olds Learn Words through Perceptual Salience (United States)

A core task in language acquisition is mapping words onto objects, actions, and events. Two studies investigated how children learn to map novel labels onto novel objects. Study 1 investigated whether 10-month-olds use both perceptual and social cues to learn a word. Study 2, a control study, tested whether infants paired the label with a…

Pruden, Shannon M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hennon, Elizabeth A.



Pictures and Words as Stimuli in Paired Associate Learning (United States)

Focuses on the effect of verbal and pictorial stimuli on paired associate learning. The discussion centers on the traditional finding that learning is easier with pictures than with words as stimuli. Hypothesizes that this effect is caused by differential coding and storing strategies for words and pictures. (Editor/RK)

Skaalvik, Einar M.



Third-Party Social Interaction and Word Learning from Video (United States)

In previous studies, very young children have learned words while "overhearing" a conversation, yet they have had trouble learning words from a person on video. In Study 1, 64 toddlers (mean age = 29.8 months) viewed an object-labeling demonstration in 1 of 4 conditions. In 2, the speaker (present or on video) directly addressed the child, and in…

O'Doherty, Katherine; Troseth, Georgene L.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Goldenberg, Elizabeth; Akhtar, Nameera; Saylor, Megan M.



Wordlikeness and Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss (United States)

Background: The more a novel word conforms to the phonotactics of the language, the more wordlike it is and the easier it is to learn. It is unknown to what extent children with hearing loss (CHL) take advantage of phonotactic cues to support word learning. Aims: This study investigated whether CHL had similar sensitivities to wordlikeness during…

Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.



Sound before Meaning: Word Learning in Autistic Disorders (United States)

Successful word learning depends on the integration of phonological and semantic information with social cues provided by interlocutors. How then, do children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) learn new words when social impairments pervade? We recorded the eye-movements of verbally-able children with ASD and their typical peers while…

Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate



Experimental comparison of discriminative learning approaches for Chinese word segmentation  

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Natural language processing tasks assume that the input is tokenized into individual words. In languages like Chinese, however, such tokens are not available in the written form. This thesis explores the use of machine learning to segment Chinese sentences into word tokens. We conduct a detailed experimental comparison between various methods for word segmentation. We have built two Chinese word segmentation systems and evaluated them on standard data sets. The state of the art in this area i...

Song, Dong



Joint attention helps infants learn new words: event-related potential evidence. (United States)

This study investigated the role of joint attention in infants' word learning. Infants aged 18-21 months were taught new words in two social contexts, joint attention (eye contact, positive tone of voice) or non-joint attention (no eye contact, neutral tone of voice). Event-related potentials were measured as the infants saw objects either congruent or incongruent with the taught words. For both social contexts, an early negativity was observed for the congruent condition, reflecting a phonological-lexical priming effect between objects and the taught words. In addition, for the joint attention, the incongruent condition elicited a late, widely distributed negativity, attributed to semantic integration difficulties. Thus, social cues have an impact on how words are learned and represented in a child's mental lexicon. PMID:19287321

Hirotani, Masako; Stets, Manuela; Striano, Tricia; Friederici, Angela D



Rapid word learning under uncertainty via cross-situational statistics. (United States)

There are an infinite number of possible word-to-word pairings in naturalistic learning environments. Previous proposals to solve this mapping problem have focused on linguistic, social, representational, and attentional constraints at a single moment. This article discusses a cross-situational learning strategy based on computing distributional statistics across words, across referents, and, most important, across the co-occurrences of words and referents at multiple moments. We briefly exposed adults to a set of trials that each contained multiple spoken words and multiple pictures of individual objects; no information about word-picture correspondences was given within a trial. Nonetheless, over trials, subjects learned the word-picture mappings through cross-trial statistical relations. Different learning conditions varied the degree of within-trial reference uncertainty, the number of trials, and the length of trials. Overall, the remarkable performance of learners in various learning conditions suggests that they calculate cross-trial statistics with sufficient fidelity and by doing so rapidly learn word-referent pairs even in highly ambiguous learning contexts. PMID:17576281

Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B



Children's learning of number words in an indigenous farming-foraging group. (United States)

We show that children in the Tsimane', a farming-foraging group in the Bolivian rain-forest, learn number words along a similar developmental trajectory to children from industrialized countries. Tsimane' children successively acquire the first three or four number words before fully learning how counting works. However, their learning is substantially delayed relative to children from the United States, Russia, and Japan. The presence of a similar developmental trajectory likely indicates that the incremental stages of numerical knowledge - but not their timing - reflect a fundamental property of number concept acquisition which is relatively independent of language, culture, age, and early education. PMID:24766463

Piantadosi, Steven T; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Gibson, Edward



Sound Symbolic Word Learning in Written Context (United States)

Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…

Parault, Susan J.



Early Dual Language Learning (United States)

Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

Genesee, Fred



Word learning and lexical development across the lifespan  

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Word learning is one of the core components of language acquisition. In this article, we provide an overview of the theme issue on word learning, describing some of the ways in which research in the area has progressed and diverged. In recent years, word learning has become central in a wider range of research areas, and is important to research on adult, as well as child and infant language. We introduce 10 papers that cover the recent developments from a wide range of perspectives, focusing...

Gaskell, M. Gareth; Ellis, Andrew W.



Effects of Negative and Positive Evidence on Adult Word Learning (United States)

This study compared negative and positive evidence in adult word learning, predicting that adults would learn more forms following negative evidence. Ninety-two native English speakers (32 men and 60 women [M[subscript age] = 20.38 years, SD = 2.80]), learned nonsense nouns and verbs provided within English frames. Later, participants produced…

Strapp, Chehalis M.; Helmick, Augusta L.; Tonkovich, Hayley M.; Bleakney, Dana M.



The Emergence of Words: Attentional Learning in Form and Meaning (United States)

Children improve at word learning during the 2nd year of life--sometimes dramatically. This fact has suggested a change in mechanism, from associative learning to a more referential form of learning. This article presents an associative exemplar-based model that accounts for the improvement without a change in mechanism. It provides a unified…

Regier, Terry



Word 2010 eLearning Kit For Dummies  

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Use this step-by-step learning package to master Word 2010 Word 2010 is one of the core applications of Microsoft Office and if you're eager to get started using all it has to offer, this value-packed eLearning Kit is essential to your learning process. This complete Word 2010 course includes a full-color printed book and a Dummies interactive eLearning course on CD. You'll discover the basics of the Word interface, how to navigate it, how to get comfortable with the terminology, and how to use its many features. Detailed instructions walk you through real-world exercises and help to make lear

Lowe, Lois



The Effect of Known-and-Unknown Word Combinations on Intentional Vocabulary Learning (United States)

The purpose of this study is to examine whether learning a known-and-unknown word combination is superior in terms of retention and retrieval of meaning to learning a single unknown word. The term "combination" in this study means a two-word collocation of a familiar word and a word that is new to the participants. Following the results of…

Kasahara, Kiwamu



Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

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Full Text Available ... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Source: National Center on ... their children's progress by monitoring how they play, learn, speak and act. More Information Learn the Signs. ...


Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early (United States)

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Source: National Center on ... their children's progress by monitoring how they play, learn, speak and act. More Information Learn the Signs. ...


A statistical learning algorithm for word segmentation  

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In natural speech, the speaker does not pause between words, yet a human listener somehow perceives this continuous stream of phonemes as a series of distinct words. The detection of boundaries between spoken words is an instance of a general capability of the human neocortex to remember and to recognize recurring sequences. This paper describes a computer algorithm that is designed to solve the problem of locating word boundaries in blocks of English text from which the spaces have been removed. This problem avoids the complexities of processing speech but requires similar capabilities for detecting recurring sequences. The algorithm that is described in this paper relies entirely on statistical relationships between letters in the input stream to infer the locations of word boundaries. The source code for a C++ version of this algorithm is presented in an appendix.

Van Aken, Jerry R



Reinforcement and inference in cross-situational word learning  

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Full Text Available Cross-situational word learning is based on the notion that a learner can determine the referent of a word by finding something in common across many observed uses of that word. Here we propose an adaptive learning algorithm that contains a parameter that controls the strength of the reinforcement applied to associations between concurrent words and referents, and a parameter that regulates inference, which includes built-in biases, such as mutual exclusivity, and information of past learning events. By adjusting these parameters so that the model predictions agree with data from representative experiments on cross-situational word learning, we were able to explain the learning strategies adopted by the participants of those experiments in terms of a trade-off between reinforcement and inference. These strategies can vary wildly depending on the conditions of the experiments. For instance, for fast mapping experiments (i.e., the correct referent could, in principle, be inferred in a single observation inference is prevalent, whereas for segregated contextual diversity experiments (i.e., the referents are separated in groups and are exhibited with members of their groups only reinforcement is predominant. Other experiments are explained with more balanced doses of reinforcement and inference.




Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition  

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Full Text Available It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters from their eye-centred (i.e., retinal locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Conversely, there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words – which was the model’s learning objective – is largely based on letter-level information.

Maria GraziaDi Bono



More than words: fast acquisition and generalization of orthographic regularities during novel word learning in adults. (United States)

In literates, reading is a fundamental channel for acquiring new vocabulary both in the mother tongue and in foreign languages. By using an artificial language learning task, we examined the acquisition of novel written words and their embedded regularities (an orthographic surface feature and a syllabic feature) in three groups of university students with different exposures (Group 1 saw 2 words once, Group 2 saw 20 words once, Group 3 saw 20 words three times). Recognition memory results for Groups 2 and 3 indicated that adults can learn novel written words even with just a single exposure, albeit repeated exposure improved target detection. A generalization task revealed that even the minimal exposure in Group 1 was enough for acquisition of the two embedded regularities. More exemplars and repeated exposure provided more robust effects for the syllable regularity. Finally, post-test interview showed that repeated exposure was needed to become aware of the regularities. The present results show that adults learn novel written words and their inherent regularities in a fast and effective fashion. PMID:23881570

Laine, Matti; Polonyi, Tünde; Abari, Kálmán



Learning Approaches toward Title Word Selection on Indic Script  

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Full Text Available Title is a compact representation of a document which distill the important information from the document. In this paper we studied the selection words as title words by using different learning approachesnamely nearest neighbor approach (NN, Naive Bayes approach with limited-vocabulary (NBL, Naive Bayes approach with full vocabulary (NBF and by using a term weighing approach (tf-idf. We compare theperformance of these approaches by using F1 metric. We compare the F1 metric results both on English Script and Indic Script ' Telugu'. We concluded the influence of linguistic complexity in the process of Title word selection.

P.Vijayapal Reddy



The Impact of Early Classroom Inattention on Phonological Processing and Word-Reading Development. (United States)

Objective: The present study investigated the longitudinal relationships between inattention, phonological processing and word reading across the first 2 years of formal reading instruction. Method: In all, 136 school entrants were administered measures of letter knowledge, phonological awareness, phonological memory, rapid naming, and word reading at the start and end of their 1st year of school, and the end of their 2nd year, while teachers completed rating scales of inattention. Results: School entry inattentiveness predicted unique variance in word reading at the end of first grade, after controlling for verbal ability, letter knowledge, and phonological processing. End-of-first-grade inattention predicted a small but significant amount of unique variance in second-grade word reading and word-reading efficiency. Inattention, however, was not a reliable predictor of phonological processing in either first or second grade. Conclusion: Early classroom inattentiveness influences learning to read independent of critical developmental precursors of word-reading development. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23475828

Dittman, Cassandra K



Third-Party Social Interaction and Word Learning from Video  

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In previous studies, very young children have learned words while “overhearing” a conversation, yet they have had trouble learning words from a person on video. In Study 1, 64 toddlers (mean age = 29.8 months) viewed an object-labeling demonstration in one of four conditions. In two, the speaker (present or on video) directly addressed the child and in two, the speaker addressed another adult who was present or was with her on video. Study 2 involved two follow-up conditions with 32 toddl...



Effects of Word and Fragment Writing during L2 Vocabulary Learning (United States)

This study examined how writing (copying) target words and word fragments affects intentional second language (L2) vocabulary learning. English-speaking first-semester learners of Spanish attempted to learn 24 Spanish nouns via word-picture repetition in three conditions: (1) word writing, (2) fragment writing, and (3) no writing. After the…

Barcroft, Joe



Why word learning is not fast  

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Full Text Available Upon fast mapping, children rarely retain new words even over intervals as short as five minutes. In this study, we asked whether the memory process of encoding or consolidation is the bottleneck to retention. Forty-nine children, mean age 33 months, were exposed to eight 2-or-3-syllable nonce neighbors of words in their existing lexicons. Didactic training consisted of six exposures to each word in the context of its referent, an unfamiliar toy. Productions were elicited four times: immediately following the examiner’s model, and at 1-minute-, 5-minute-, and multiday retention intervals. At the final two intervals, the examiner said the first syllable and provided a beat gesture highlighting target word length in syllables as a cue following any erred production. The children were highly accurate at immediate posttest. Accuracy fell sharply over the 1-minute retention interval and again after an additional 5 minutes. Performance then stabilized such that the 5-minute and multiday posttests yielded comparable performance. Given this time course, we conclude that it was not the post-encoding process of consolidation but the process of encoding itself that presented the primary bottleneck to retention. Patterns of errors and responses to cueing upon error suggested that word forms were particularly vulnerable to partial decay during the time course of encoding.




Clusters of Word Properties as Predictors of Elementary School Children's Performance on Two Word Tasks (United States)

Often, the classification of words does not go beyond "difficult" (i.e., infrequent, late-learned, nonimageable, etc.) or "easy" (i.e., frequent, early-learned, imageable, etc.) words. In the present study, we used a latent cluster analysis to divide 703 Dutch words with scores for eight word properties into seven clusters of words. Each cluster…

Tellings, Agnes; Coppens, Karien; Gelissen, John; Schreuder, Rob



Modularity in inductively-learned word pronunciation systems  

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In leading morpho-phonological theories and state-of-the-art text-to-speech systems it is assumed that word pronunciation cannot be learned or performed without in-between analyses at several abstraction levels (e.g., morphological, graphemic, phonemic, syllabic, and stress levels). We challenge this assumption for the case of English word pronunciation. Using IGTree, an inductive-learning decision-tree algorithms, we train and test three word-pronunciation systems in which the number of abstraction levels (implemented as sequenced modules) is reduced from five, via three, to one. The latter system, classifying letter strings directly as mapping to phonemes with stress markers, yields significantly better generalisation accuracies than the two multi-module systems. Analyses of empirical results indicate that positive utility effects of sequencing modules are outweighed by cascading errors passed on between modules.

Van den Bosch, A; Daelemans, W; Bosch, Antal van den; Weijters, Ton; Daelemans, Walter



Highlighting: A mechanism relevant for word learning  

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Full Text Available What we attend to at any moment determines what we learn at that moment, and this also depends on our past learning. This focused conceptual paper concentrates on a single well-documented attention mechanism—highlighting. This phenomenon—well studied in nonlinguistic but not in linguistic contexts—should be highly relevant to language learning because it is a process that (1 specifically protects past learning from being disrupted by new (and potentially spurious associations in the learning environment, and (2 strongly constrains new learning to new information. Within the language-learning context, highlighting may disambiguate ambiguous references and may be related to processes of lexical competition that are known to be critical to on-line sentence comprehension. The main sections of the paper will address (1 the highlighting phenomenon in the literature; (2 its relevancy to language learning; (3 the highlighting effect in children; (4 developmental studies concerning the effect in different contexts; and (5 a developmental mechanism for highlighting in language learning.




The Role of Competition in Word Learning via Referent Selection (United States)

Previous research suggests that competition among the objects present during referent selection influences young children's ability to learn words in fast mapping tasks. The present study systematically explored this issue with 30-month-old children. Children first received referent selection trials with a target object and either two, three or…

Horst, Jessica S.; Scott, Emilly J.; Pollard, Jessica A.



Phonological Networks and New Word Learning (United States)

The first report of a connection between vocabulary learning and phonological short-term memory was published in 1988 (Baddeley, Papagno, & Vallar, 1988). At that time, both Susan Gathercole and I were involved in longitudinal studies, investigating the relation between nonword repetition and language learning. We both found a connection. Now,…

Service, Elisabet



Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning (United States)

Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki



Preschoolers Use Speakers' Preferences to Learn Words (United States)

In two studies, we investigated preschoolers' ability to use others' preferences to learn names for things. Two studies demonstrated that preschool children make smart use of others' preferences. In the first study, preschool children only used information about others' preferences when they were clearly linked to referential intentions. The…

Saylor, Megan M.; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Fortuna, Alexandra; Troseth, Georgene



Vowel bias in Danish word-learning: Processing biases are language-specific  

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The present study explored whether the phonological bias to the advantage of consonants found in French-learning infants and children when learning new words (Havy & Nazzi, 2009; Nazzi, 2005) is language-general, as proposed by Nespor, Peña, & Mehler (2003), or varies across languages, perhaps as a function of the phonological or lexical properties of the language in acquisition. To do so, we used the object manipulation task set up by Havy & Nazzi (2009), teaching Danish-learning 20-month-olds pairs of phonetically similar words that contrasted either on one of their consonants or one of their vowels, by either one or two phonological features. Danish was chosen because it has more vowels than consonants, and is characterized by extensive consonant lenition. Both phenomena could disfavor a consonant bias. Evidence of word-learning was found only for vocalic information, irrespective of whether one or two phonological features were changed. The implication of these findings is that the phonological biases found in early lexical processing are not language-general but develop during language acquisition, depending on the phonological or lexical properties of the native language.

Højen, Anders



Removing the Snare from the Pair: Using Pictures to Learn Confusing Word Pairs (United States)

The extant picture-learning research does not address confusing word pairs that are not concrete (e.g., in and into). In this study, university students viewed 11 timed Web pages containing information on confusing word pairs. Each page addressed one word pair and distinguished the words with examples (example group), examples and rules (rule…

Igo, L. Brent; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Bruning, Roger



Sound-Symbolism: A Piece in the Puzzle of Word Learning (United States)

Sound-symbolism is the idea that the relationship between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather that there are subsets of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. The present research investigates sound-symbolism as a possible route to the learning of an…

Parault, Susan J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.



Learning Words from Knowledgeable versus Ignorant Speakers: Links between Preschoolers' Theory of Mind and Semantic Development. (United States)

Two studies addressed whether preschoolers consider speakers' knowledge states when establishing initial word-referent links. Children showed better learning from a speaker knowledgeable of novel words' referents than from an ignorant speaker. Four-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, learned words better when speaker said the object was made by…

Sabbagh, Mark A.; Baldwin, Dare A.



A learning-based approach for biomedical word sense disambiguation. (United States)

In the biomedical domain, word sense ambiguity is a widely spread problem with bioinformatics research effort devoted to it being not commensurate and allowing for more development. This paper presents and evaluates a learning-based approach for sense disambiguation within the biomedical domain. The main limitation with supervised methods is the need for a corpus of manually disambiguated instances of the ambiguous words. However, the advances in automatic text annotation and tagging techniques with the help of the plethora of knowledge sources like ontologies and text literature in the biomedical domain will help lessen this limitation. The proposed method utilizes the interaction model (mutual information) between the context words and the senses of the target word to induce reliable learning models for sense disambiguation. The method has been evaluated with the benchmark dataset NLM-WSD with various settings and in biomedical entity species disambiguation. The evaluation results showed that the approach is very competitive and outperforms recently reported results of other published techniques. PMID:22666174

Al-Mubaid, Hisham; Gungu, Sandeep



The Significance of the Poetic in Early Childhood Education: Stanley Cavell and Lucy Sprague Mitchell on Language Learning (United States)

This paper begins with a discussion of Stanley Cavell's philosophy of language learning. Young people learn more than the meaning of words when acquiring language: they learn about (the quality of) our form of life. If we--as early childhood educators--see language teaching as something like handing some inert thing to a child, then we unduly…

Frank, Jeff



A Growth Curve Analysis of Novel Word Learning by Sequential Bilingual Preschool Children (United States)

Longitudinal word learning studies which control for experience can advance understanding of language learning and potential intra- and inter-language relationships in developing bilinguals. We examined novel word learning in both the first (L1) and the second (L2) languages of bilingual children. The rate and shape of change as well as the role…

Kan, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn



Auditory Learning. Dimensions in Early Learning Series. (United States)

The monograph discusses the psycho-physiological operations for processing of auditory information, the structure and function of the ear, the development of auditory processes from fetal responses through discrimination, language comprehension, auditory memory, and auditory processes related to written language. Disorders of auditory learning

Zigmond, Naomi K.; Cicci, Regina


Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

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Full Text Available ... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Source: National Center on Birth ... is key for parents and providers. CDC realized the impact on families and invested in a campaign ...


A Dual-Route Model that Learns to Pronounce English Words (United States)

This paper describes a model that learns to pronounce English words. Learning occurs in two modules: 1) a rule-based module that constructs pronunciations by phonetic analysis of the letter string, and 2) a whole-word module that learns to associate subsets of letters to the pronunciation, without phonetic analysis. In a simulation on a corpus of over 300 words the model produced pronunciation latencies consistent with the effects of word frequency and orthographic regularity observed in human data. Implications of the model for theories of visual word processing and reading instruction are discussed.

Remington, Roger W.; Miller, Craig S.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)



Independence of early speech processing from word meaning. (United States)

We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) with magnetic resonance imaging and electrocorticography to separate in anatomy and latency 2 fundamental stages underlying speech comprehension. The first acoustic-phonetic stage is selective for words relative to control stimuli individually matched on acoustic properties. It begins ?60 ms after stimulus onset and is localized to middle superior temporal cortex. It was replicated in another experiment, but is strongly dissociated from the response to tones in the same subjects. Within the same task, semantic priming of the same words by a related picture modulates cortical processing in a broader network, but this does not begin until ?217 ms. The earlier onset of acoustic-phonetic processing compared with lexico-semantic modulation was significant in each individual subject. The MEG source estimates were confirmed with intracranial local field potential and high gamma power responses acquired in 2 additional subjects performing the same task. These recordings further identified sites within superior temporal cortex that responded only to the acoustic-phonetic contrast at short latencies, or the lexico-semantic at long. The independence of the early acoustic-phonetic response from semantic context suggests a limited role for lexical feedback in early speech perception. PMID:22875868

Travis, Katherine E; Leonard, Matthew K; Chan, Alexander M; Torres, Christina; Sizemore, Marisa L; Qu, Zhe; Eskandar, Emad; Dale, Anders M; Elman, Jeffrey L; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric



Using semantics to enhance new word learning: An ERP investigation. (United States)

This study aimed to investigate whether the addition of meaning (semantics) would enhance new word learning for novel objects, and whether it would influence the neurophysiological response to new words. Twenty-five young healthy adults underwent 4 days of training to learn the names of 80 novel objects. Half of the items were learnt under a 'semantic' condition, whereby the name consisted of a legal nonword and two adjectives denoting semantic attributes. The remaining items were learnt under a 'name' condition, whereby the name consisted of a legal nonword and two proper names. Participants demonstrated superior recognition of names in the semantic condition compared to the name condition during training sessions 1-3. On the 5th day, following training, ERPs were recorded whilst participants performed a picture-word judgement task including familiar items. Analysis of the results revealed an N400 for incongruent items in the semantic condition, whilst no ERP component was observed for the name condition. These findings suggest that items learnt with semantic information form stronger associations than those trained without semantics. PMID:24846835

Angwin, Anthony J; Phua, Bernadette; Copland, David A



Early Foreign Language Learning: The Biological Perspective. (United States)

A discussion of the biological and developmental issues in early second language learning first looks at psycholinguistic research on brain growth patterns and the relationship of first and second language learning. Focus is on three phenomena observed in the self-organization of living systems: selection of input data; organization of specialized…

Peltzer-Karpf, Annemarie


Prosodic Structure in Early Word Segmentation: ERP Evidence from Dutch Ten-Month-Olds (United States)

Recognizing word boundaries in continuous speech requires detailed knowledge of the native language. In the first year of life, infants acquire considerable word segmentation abilities. Infants at this early stage in word segmentation rely to a large extent on the metrical pattern of their native language, at least in stress-based languages. In…

Kooijman, Valesca; Hagoort, Peter; Cutler, Anne



Visual attention is not enough: Individual differences in statistical word-referent learning in infants (United States)

Recent evidence shows that infants can learn words and referents by aggregating ambiguous information across situations to discern the underlying word-referent mappings. Here, we use an individual difference approach to understand the role of different kinds of attentional processes in this learning: 12-and 14-month-old infants participated in a cross-situational word-referent learning task in which the learning trials were ordered to create local novelty effects, effects that should not alter the statistical evidence for the underlying correspondences. The main dependent measures were derived from frame-by-frame analyses of eye gaze direction. The fine- grained dynamics of looking behavior implicates different attentional processes that may compete with or support statistical learning. The discussion considers the role of attention in binding heard words to seen objects, individual differences in attention and vocabulary development, and the relation between macro-level theories of word learning and the micro-level dynamic processes that underlie learning.

Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen



Learning the Phonological Forms of New Words: Effects of Orthographic and Auditory Input (United States)

We investigated the relationship between the phonological and orthographic representations of new words for adult learners. Three groups of native English speakers learned a set of auditorily-presented pseudowords along with pictures indicating their "meanings". They were later tested on their memory of the words via an auditory word-picture…

Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Nicol, Janet; Barker, Jason



Task Demand Influences Relationships Among Sex, Clustering Strategy, and Recall: 16-Word Versus 9-Word List Learning Tests (United States)

Objective We compared the relationships among sex, clustering strategy, and recall across different task demands using the 16-word California Verbal Learning Test–Second Edition (CVLT-II) and the 9-word Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test (PrVLT). Background Women generally score higher than men on verbal memory tasks, possibly because women tend to use semantic clustering. This sex difference has been established via word-list learning tests such as the CVLT-II. Methods In a retrospective between-group study, we compared how 2 separate groups of cognitively healthy older adults performed on a longer and a shorter verbal learning test. The group completing the CVLT-II had 36 women and 26 men; the group completing the PrVLT had 27 women and 21 men. Results Overall, multiple regression analyses revealed that semantic clustering was significantly associated with total recall on both tests’ lists (P < 0.001). Sex differences in recall and semantic clustering diminished with the shorter PrVLT word list. Conclusions Semantic clustering uniquely influenced recall on both the longer and shorter word lists. However, serial clustering and sex influenced recall depending on the length of the word list (ie, the task demand). These findings suggest a complex nonlinear relationship among verbal memory, clustering strategies, and task demand.

Sunderaraman, Preeti; Blumen, Helena M.; DeMatteo, David; Apa, Zoltan; Cosentino, Stephanie



Children with Autism Illuminate the Role of Social Intention in Word Learning (United States)

To what extent do children with autism (AD) versus typically developing children (TD) rely on attentional and intentional cues to learn words? Four experiments compared 17 AD children (M age = 5.08 years) with 17 language- and 17 mental-age-matched TD children (M ages = 2.57 and 3.12 years, respectively) on nonverbal enactment and word-learning

Parish-Morris, Julia; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Tager-Flusberg, Helen



The interactive nature of second-language word learning in non-instructed environments  

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Gaining the command of a second language is a difficult task for an adult. Understanding and learning novel words is challenging, particularly in non-instructed situations: Words are often parts of complex linguistic contexts and potential referents are embedded in rich visual scenes. To overcome this challenge learners can potentially exploit the richness of their multi-modal environment through a range of different word-learning mechanisms and based on automatic sentence-processing mechanis...

Ko?hne, Judith



Hybrid Approach to Word Sense Disambiguation Combining Supervised and Unsupervised Learning  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we are going to find meaning of words based on distinct situations. Word SenseDisambiguation is used to find meaning of words based on live contexts using supervised and unsupervisedapproaches. Unsupervised approaches use online dictionary for learning, and supervised approaches usemanual learning sets. Hand tagged data are populated which might not be effective and sufficient forlearning procedure. This limitation of informationis main flaw of the supervised approach. Our proposedapproach focuses to overcome the limitation using learning set which is enriched in dynamic waymaintaining new data. Trivial filtering method is utilized to achieve appropriate training data. Weintroduce a mixed methodology having “Modified Lesk” approach and “Bag-of-Words” having enrichedbags using learning methods. Our approach establishes the superiority over individual “Modified Lesk”and “Bag-of-Words” approaches based on experimentation.

Alok Ranjan Pal



Multi-Word Combinations and the Emergence of Differentiated Ordering Patterns in Early Trilingual Development (United States)

This study examines word order differentiation in early trilingual development through an analysis of the combinations produced by a Tagalog-Spanish-English trilingual child with an MLU of less than 1.5. Same- and mixed-language combinations were tracked down from diary data and weekly recordings to assess (i) whether word order significantly…

Montanari, Simona



Lexical and Phonological Effects in Early Word Production (United States)

Purpose: This study examines the influence of word frequency, phonological neighborhood density (PND), age of acquisition (AoA), and phonotactic probability on production variability and accuracy of known words by toddlers with no history of speech, hearing, or language disorders. Method: Fifteen toddlers between 2;0 (years;months) and 2;5…

Sosa, Anna V.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol



Propose but Verify: Fast Mapping Meets Cross-Situational Word Learning (United States)

We report three eyetracking experiments that examine the learning procedure used by adults as they pair novel words and visually presented referents over a sequence of referentially ambiguous trials. Successful learning under such conditions has been argued to be the product of a learning procedure in which participants provisionally pair each…

Trueswell, John C.; Medina, Tamara Nicol; Hafri, Alon; Gleitman, Lila R.



Lexical Quality in the Brain: ERP evidence for robust word learning from context  

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We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) before and after word learning, using training contexts that differed in their level of contextual support for meaning acquisition. Novel words appeared either in contexts that were semantically constraining, providing strong cues to meaning, or in contexts that were weakly constraining, that is, uninformative. After each sentence, participants were shown the word in isolation and were asked to generate a close synonym. Immediately after training, w...



DISCOVER: An Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching Students with Learning Difficulties To Solve Word Problems. (United States)

Many students with learning difficulties have trouble solving mathematical word problems. Presents DISCOVER, an intelligent tutoring system that teaches students this task with less failure and frustration. Features a review of literature on word problem instruction, an explanation of intelligent tutoring systems, and a description of DISCOVER.…

Steele, Marcee M.; Steele, John W.



Name that Word: Using Song Lyrics to Improve the Decoding Skills of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities (United States)

Many adolescents, especially those with learning disabilities, lack basic word identification skills. Finding motivating instructional techniques to improve word-level reading skills is increasingly difficult as students move through the grades. One technique that holds promise in motivating adolescents involves using song lyrics from their…

Hines, Sara J.



Words, objects, and actions in early lexical acquisition. (United States)

The influences of referent type (Objects vs. Actions) and within-category referent relationships (functionally similar vs. perceptually similar) upon children's acquisition of lexical concepts were examined. Twelve children aged 12 1/2-15 1/2 months at the outset served as subjects. During 10 experimental sessions over a period of 3-4 months the children were presented with 16 contrived lexical concepts. Each concept consisted of a nonsense word and four objects or four actions which served as the referents for that word. The children acquired object words and concepts in greater numbers than action words and concepts, suggestive of differences in the underlying complexity or structure of object and action concepts. The lack of significant differences in the acquisition of perceptually based and functionally based concepts suggests that children at this point in development may base lexical concepts on perceptual or functional attributes. PMID:6716996

Schwartz, R G; Leonard, L B



Slow Mapping: Color Word Learning as a Gradual Inductive Process (United States)

Most current accounts of color word acquisition propose that the delay between children's first production of color words and adult-like understanding is due to problems abstracting color as a domain of meaning. Here we present evidence against this hypothesis, and show that, from the time children produce color words in a labeling task they use…

Wagner, Katie; Dobkins, Karen; Barner, David



Effects of phonological awareness and semantic intervention on word-learning in children with SLI. (United States)

This study examined the effects of phonological awareness and semantic intervention on word-learning abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and whether treatment order influenced outcomes. An alternating treatment design was implemented to evaluate whether phonological awareness, semantic awareness, or a combination of both interventions positively influenced children's word-learning ability and whether the order of the treatments influenced outcomes. Nineteen children with SLI, aged between 6;3 and 8;2 years, and 19 age-matched children with typical language development participated in this study. The children with SLI were randomly assigned either to treatment condition A (phonological awareness intervention followed by semantic intervention) or treatment condition B (same interventions in reverse order). A word-learning paradigm was applied at pre-, mid-, and post-testing to evaluate which condition accelerated the receptive and expressive learning of novel words. Positive treatment effects on producing new words were found for the children who received phonological awareness intervention followed by semantic intervention. There was no improvement on the comprehension of new words for either group. The findings suggest that phonological awareness intervention may not only improve children's phonological skills, but may help to facilitate some aspects of word-learning when followed by an additional semantic based intervention. PMID:21271927

Zens, Naomi Katharina; Gillon, Gail T; Moran, Catherine



Chunking or not chunking? How do we find words in artificial language learning?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What is the nature of the representations acquired in implicit statistical learning? Recent results in the field of language learning have shown that adults and infants are able to find the words of an artificial language when exposed to a continuous auditory sequence consisting in a random ordering of these words. Such performance can only be based on processing the transitional probabilities between sequence elements. Two different kinds of mechanisms may account for these...

Franco, Ana; Destrebecqz, Arnaud



The influence of two cognitive-linguistic variables on incidental word learning in 5-year-olds. (United States)

The relation between incidental word learning and two cognitive-linguistic variables--phonological memory and phonological awareness--is not fully understood. Thirty-five typically developing, 5-year-old, preschool children participated in a study examining the association between phonological memory, phonological awareness, and incidental word learning. Children were exposed to target words in a read-aloud story that accompanied a wordless picture book. Target word comprehension was assessed before and after two readings of the story. Phonological awareness predicted incidental word learning but phonological memory did not. The influence of phonological awareness and phonological memory on word learning may be dependent on the demands of the word learning task. PMID:23979141

Abel, Alyson D; Schuele, C Melanie



Comparing Explicit and Implicit Learning of Emotional and Non-Emotional Words in Autistic Children  

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Full Text Available Background: Explicit and implicit memories have different cerebral origins and learning approaches. Defective emotional words processing in children with autism may affect the memory allocated to such words. The aim of this study was comparing two types of (explicit and implicit memories during processing the two types of (emotional and non-emotional words in autistic children and their healthy counterparts. Materials and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted on 14 autistic children, who had referred to Autism Medical Treatment Center on Tehran, and 14 healthy children in kindergartens and schools across Tehran. For the explicit memory, a list of words was presented to the subjects of our study and they were asked to repeat the words they heard one time immediately and one time with delay. For implicit memory, the subjects were asked to identify the heard words among the presented words. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that the normal children have higher efficiency in explicit and implicit memory than the children with autism (p<0.01. The two-way analysis of memory type and word type showed that the former affects memory significantly (p<0.05 while word type had no significant effect. Conclusion: Autistic children suffer from impaired memory. This defect is higher in implicit memory than in the explicit memory. It is recommended to apply rehabilitation, training, learning approaches and also explicit memory for interventions of autistic children.

Vahid Nejati



Getting it right: word learning across the hemispheres. (United States)

The brain is able to acquire information about an unknown word's meaning from a highly constraining sentence context with minimal exposure. In this study, we investigate the potential contributions of the cerebral hemispheres to this ability. Undergraduates first read weakly or strongly constraining sentences completed by known or unknown (novel) words. Subsequently, their knowledge of the previously exposed words was assessed via a lexical decision task in which each word served as visual primes for lateralized target words that varied in their semantic relationship to the primes (unrelated, identical or synonymous). As expected, smaller N400 amplitudes were seen for target words preceded by identical (vs. unrelated) known word primes, regardless of visual field of presentation. When Unknown words served as primes, N400 reductions to synonymous target words were observed only if the prime had appeared under High sentential constraint; targets appearing in the LVF/RH elicited a small N400 effect and modulation of a subsequent late positivity whereas those in the RVF/LH elicited modulation on the late positivity only. Unknown words initially seen in Low constraint contexts showed priming effects only in a late positivity and only in the RVF/LH. Strength of contextual constraint clearly seems to impact the hemispheres' rapid acquisition of novel word meanings. N400 modulation for novel words under strong contextual constraint in the LVH/RH suggests that fast-mapped lexical representations may initially activate meanings that are weakly, distantly, associatively or thematically-related. More extensive and bilateral semantic processing seems to occur at longer processing latencies (post N400). PMID:23416731

Borovsky, Arielle; Kutas, Marta; Elman, Jeffrey L



Words as "Lexical Units" in Learning/Teaching Vocabulary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the genuine contributions of theoretical linguistics to the interdisciplinary field of applied linguistics is to elucidate the nature of what should be taught and how it should be taught. Traditionally, the input supplied in vocabulary teaching has consisted either of word lists (most often) or of words-in-context (more recently). In the first case, words are treated as self-contained receptacles of meaning, and in the second case, they are considered as nodes of semantic relationships...

Moisés Almela; Aquilino Sánchez



Do children with autism spectrum disorders show a shape bias in word learning? (United States)

Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) acquire a sizeable lexicon. However, these children also seem to understand and/or store the meanings of words differently from typically developing children. One of the mechanisms that helps typically developing children learn novel words is the shape bias, in which the referent of a noun is mapped onto the shape of an object, rather than onto its color, texture, or size. We hypothesized that children with autistic disorder would show reduced or absent shape bias. Using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm , we compared the performance of young children with ASD and typically developing children (TYP), across four time points, in their use of shape bias. Neither group showed a shape bias at Visit 1, when half of the children in both groups produced fewer than 50 count nouns. Only the TYP group showed a shape bias at Visits 2, 3, and 4. According to the growth curve analyses, the rate of increase in the shape bias scores over time was significant for the TYP children. The fact that the TYP group showed a shape bias at 24 months of age, whereas children with ASD did not demonstrate a shape bias despite a sizeable vocabulary, supports a dissociation between vocabulary size and principles governing acquisition in ASD children from early in language development. PMID:19360671

Tek, Saime; Jaffery, Gul; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia R



Sentence-based attention mechanisms in word learning: Evidence from a computational model  

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Full Text Available When looking for the referents of nouns, adults and young children are sensitive to cross- situational statistics (Yu & Smith, 2007; Smith & Yu, 2008. In addition, the linguistic context that a word appears in has been shown to act as a powerful attention mechanism for guiding sentence processing and word learning (Landau & Gleitman, 1985; Altmann & Kamide, 1999; Kako & Trueswell, 2000. Koehne & Crocker (2010, 2011 investigate the interaction between cross-situational evidence and guidance from the sentential context in an adult language learning scenario. Their studies reveal that these learning mechanisms interact in a complex manner: they can be used in a complementary way when context helps reduce referential uncertainty; they influence word learning about equally strongly when cross-situational and contextual evidence are in conflict; and contextual cues block aspects of cross-situational learning when both mechanisms are independently applicable. To address this complex pattern of findings, we present a probabilistic computational model of word learning which extends a previous cross-situational model (Fazly et al., 2010 with an attention mechanism based on sentential cues. Our model uses a framework that seamlessly combines the two sources of evidence in order to study their emerging pattern of interaction during the process of word learning. Simulations of the experiments of Koehne & Crocker (2010, 2011 reveal an overall patterns of results that are in line with their findings. Importantly, we demonstrate that our model does not need to explicitly assign priority to either source of evidence in order to produce these results: learning patterns emerge as a result of a probabilistic interaction between the two types of cues. Moreover, using a computational model allows us to examine the developmental trajectory of the differential roles of cross-situational and sentential cues in word learning.




Helping Students Identify Base Words in Indonesian--Linking Learning Objects in an ICLL Framework (United States)

For students of Indonesian, learning to identify base words is very important, but can often be quite tricky. This article describes how one of the authors used interactive digital content from The Le@rning Federation (TLF) together with an extensive range of offline activities within an intercultural language learning (ICLL) framework. It helps…

Colman, Ingrid; Davison, Janine



All Words Are Not Created Equal: Expectations about Word Length Guide Infant Statistical Learning (United States)

Infants have been described as "statistical learners" capable of extracting structure (such as words) from patterned input (such as language). Here, we investigated whether prior knowledge influences how infants track transitional probabilities in word segmentation tasks. Are infants biased by prior experience when engaging in sequential…

Lew-Williams, Casey; Saffran, Jenny R.



An associative model of adaptive inference for learning word-referent mappings. (United States)

People can learn word-referent pairs over a short series of individually ambiguous situations containing multiple words and referents (Yu & Smith, 2007, Cognition 106: 1558-1568). Cross-situational statistical learning relies on the repeated co-occurrence of words with their intended referents, but simple co-occurrence counts cannot explain the findings. Mutual exclusivity (ME: an assumption of one-to-one mappings) can reduce ambiguity by leveraging prior experience to restrict the number of word-referent pairings considered but can also block learning of non-one-to-one mappings. The present study first trained learners on one-to-one mappings with varying numbers of repetitions. In late training, a new set of word-referent pairs were introduced alongside pretrained pairs; each pretrained pair consistently appeared with a new pair. Results indicate that (1) learners quickly infer new pairs in late training on the basis of their knowledge of pretrained pairs, exhibiting ME; and (2) learners also adaptively relax the ME bias and learn two-to-two mappings involving both pretrained and new words and objects. We present an associative model that accounts for both results using competing familiarity and uncertainty biases. PMID:22215466

Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M



Statistical speech segmentation and word learning in parallel: scaffolding from child-directed speech  

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Full Text Available In order to acquire their native languages, children must learn richly structured systems with regularities at multiple levels. While structure at different levels could be learned serially, e.g. speech segmentation coming before word-object mapping, redundancies across levels make parallel learning more efficient. For instance, a series of syllables is likely to be a word not only because of high transitional probabilities, but also because of a consistently co-occurring object. But additional statistics require additional processing, and thus might not be useful to cognitively constrained learners. We show that the structure of child-directed speech makes this problem solvable for human learners. First, a corpus of child-directed speech was recorded from parents and children engaged in a naturalistic free-play task. Analyses revealed two consistent regularities in the sentence structure of naming events. These regularities were subsequently encoded in an artificial language to which adult participants were exposed in the context of simultaneous statistical speech segmentation and word learning. Either regularity was sufficient to support successful learning, but no learning occurred in the absence of both regularities. Thus, the structure of child-directed speech plays an important role in scaffolding speech segmentation and word learning in parallel.




Motivating Students' Learning Using Word Association Test and Concept Maps  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of a free word association test, content analysis and concept mapping on students’ achievements in human biology. The free word association test was used for revealing the scientific conceptual structures of 8th grade and 12th grade students, around a stimulus word – human being – and for motivating them to study human biology. The stimulus word retrieved a cluster of associations most of which were based on science education and experience. Associations with the stimulus word were analyzed and classified according to predetermined criteria and structured by means of a concept map. The stimulus word ‘human being’ was quantitatively assessed in order to find out the balance between the associations with its different aspects. On the basis of the results some connections between biology and other sciences studying the human being, were worked out. Each new topic in human biology was studied by using content analysis of the textbook and concept mapping as study tools and thus maintaining students’ motivation. Achievements of students were assessed by means of tests, observation and concept maps evaluation. The obtained data was also valuable in clarifying the complex nature of the human being, and confirming the statement that biology cannot answer all questions, concerning human nature. Inferences were made about the word association test combined with content analysis and concept map construction as an educational strategy.

Z. Kostova



Young children learning Spanish make rapid use of grammatical gender in spoken word recognition. (United States)

All nouns in Spanish have grammatical gender, with obligatory gender marking on preceding articles (e.g., la and el, the feminine and masculine forms of "the," respectively). Adult native speakers of languages with grammatical gender exploit this cue in on-line sentence interpretation. In a study investigating the early development of this ability, Spanish-learning children (34-42 months) were tested in an eye-tracking procedure. Presented with pairs of pictures with names of either the same grammatical gender (la pelota, "ball [feminine]"; la galleta, "cookie [feminine]") or different grammatical gender (la pelota; el zapato, "shoe [masculine]"), they heard sentences referring to one picture (Encuentra la pelota, "Find the ball"). The children were faster to orient to the referent on different-gender trials, when the article was potentially informative, than on same-gender trials, when it was not, and this ability was correlated with productive measures of lexical and grammatical competence. Spanish-learning children who can speak only 500 words already use gender-marked articles in establishing reference, a processing advantage characteristic of native Spanish-speaking adults. PMID:17444909

Lew-Williams, Casey; Fernald, Anne



Semantic categories and contexts of written words affect the early ERP component. (United States)

We investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of event-related potentials to examine how semantic categories affect early stages of written word processing in the brain. We used a semantic priming paradigm in which the categories of prime and target words were the same (animate or inanimate). Event-related potentials were recorded while native Japanese participants made semantic-relatedness judgments of word pairs. Semantic category effects were observed approximately 150 ms after the target item was presented. Inanimate words elicited greater positive deflection than animate words, but no significant difference was observed for prime item processing. Source modeling estimated that the observed effects were induced by neural mechanisms occurring in the anterior temporal region, the posterior portion of the inferior temporal region, and the inferior parietal regions in both the hemispheres. Our results suggest that semantic category effects in the early stages of word processing are evoked by multiple cortical regions related to top-down processing of the preceding semantic information. PMID:23426108

Hata, Masahiro; Homae, Fumitaka; Hagiwara, Hiroko



Does tonal information affect the early stages of visual-word processing in Thai? (United States)

Thai offers a unique opportunity to investigate the role of lexical tone processing during visual-word recognition, as tone is explicitly expressed in its script. In order to investigate the contribution of tone at the orthographic/phonological level during the early stages of word processing in Thai, we conducted a masked priming experiment-using both lexical decision and word naming tasks. For a given target word (e.g., ????/h?:?2/, room), five priming conditions were created: (a) identity (e.g., ????/h?:?2/), (b) same initial consonant, but with a different tone marker (e.g., ????/h?:?1/), (c) different initial consonant, but with the same tone marker (e.g., ????/s?:?2/), (d) orthographic control (different initial consonant, different tone marker; e.g., ????/s?:?1/), and (e) same tone homophony, but with a different initial consonant and different tone marker (e.g., ????/t(h)?:?2/). Results of the critical comparisons revealed that segmental information (i.e., consonantal information) appears to be more important than tone information (i.e., tone marker) in the early stages of visual-word processing in alphabetic, tonal languages like Thai. Thus, these findings may help constrain models of visual-word recognition and reading in tonal languages. PMID:24456408

Winskel, Heather; Perea, Manuel



Do Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Show a Shape Bias in Word Learning?  

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Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) acquire a sizeable lexicon. However, these children also seem to understand and/or store the meanings of words differently from typically developing children. One of the mechanisms that helps typically developing children learn novel words is the shape bias, in which the referent of a noun is mapped onto the shape of an object, rather than onto its color, texture, or size. We hypothesized that children with Autistic Disorder would show reduce...

Tek, Saime; Jaffery, Gul; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia R.



Emotional conflict occurs at an early stage: evidence from the emotional face-word Stroop task. (United States)

The perceptual processing of emotional conflict was studied using electrophysiological techniques to measure event-related potentials (ERPs). The emotional face-word Stroop task in which emotion words are written in prominent red color across a face was use to study emotional conflict. In each trial, the emotion word and facial expression were either congruent or incongruent (in conflict). When subjects were asked to identify the expression of the face during a trial, the incongruent condition evoked a more negative N170 ERP component in posterior lateral sites than in the congruent condition. In contrast, when subjects were asked to identify the word during a trial, the incongruent condition evoked a less negative N170 component than the congruent condition. The present findings extend our understanding of the control processes involved in emotional conflict by demonstrating that differentiation of emotional congruency begins at an early perceptual processing stage. PMID:20417689

Zhu, Xiang-ru; Zhang, Hui-jun; Wu, Ting-ting; Luo, Wen-bo; Luo, Yue-jia



Not so fast: Hippocampal amnesia slows word learning despite successful fast mapping. (United States)

The human hippocampus is widely believed to be necessary for the rapid acquisition of new declarative relational memories. However, processes supporting on-line inferential word use ("fast mapping") may also exercise a dissociable learning mechanism and permit rapid word learning without the hippocampus (Sharon et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:1146-1151). We investigated fast mapping in severely amnesic patients with hippocampal damage (N = 4), mildly amnesic patients (N = 6), and healthy comparison participants (N = 10) using on-line measures (eye movements) that reflected ongoing processing. All participants studied unique word-picture associations in two encoding conditions. In the explicit-encoding condition, uncommon items were paired with their names (e.g., "This is a numbat."). In the fast mapping study condition, participants heard an instruction using a novel word (e.g., "Click on the numbat.") while two items were presented (an uncommon target such as a numbat, and a common distracter such as a dog). All groups performed fast mapping well at study, and on-line eye movement measures did not reveal group differences. However, while comparison participants showed robust word learning irrespective of encoding condition, severely amnesic patients showed no evidence of learning after fast mapping or explicit encoding on any behavioral or eye-movement measure. Mildly amnesic patients showed some learning, but performance was unaffected by encoding condition. The findings are consistent with the following propositions: the hippocampus is not essential for on-line fast mapping of novel words; but is necessary for the rapid learning of arbitrary relational information irrespective of encoding conditions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24719218

Warren, David E; Duff, Melissa C



A “Bat” Is Easier to Learn than a “Tab”: Effects of Relative Phonotactic Frequency on Infant Word Learning  

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Many studies have shown that during the first year of life infants start learning the prosodic, phonetic and phonotactic properties of their native language. In parallel, infants start associating sound sequences with semantic representations. However, the question of how these two processes interact remains largely unknown. The current study explores whether (and when) the relative phonotactic probability of a sound sequence in the native language has an impact on infants’ word learning. W...

Gonzalez-gomez, Nayeli; Poltrock, Silvana; Nazzi, Thierry



The Role of Pictures and Gestures as Nonverbal Aids in Preschoolers' Word Learning in a Novel Language (United States)

Previous research suggests that presenting redundant nonverbal semantic information in the form of gestures and/or pictures may aid word learning in first and foreign languages. But do nonverbal supports help all learners equally? We address this issue by examining the role of gestures and pictures as nonverbal supports for word learning in a…

Rowe, Meredith L.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Mullan, Bridget E.



When Does an Ostrich Become a Bird? The Role of Typicality in Early Word Comprehension. (United States)

Two experiments used the preferential looking task to assess early word comprehension in 12- to 24-month olds. Results indicated that when target stimuli were named, 12-month olds displayed an increase in target looking for typical--but not atypical--targets, whereas 18- and 24-month olds displayed increases for both. (Author/KB)

Meints, Kerstin; Plunkett, Kim; Harris, Paul L.



Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence (United States)

We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti



Learning to spell from reading: general knowledge about spelling patterns influences memory for specific words. (United States)

Adults often learn to spell words during the course of reading for meaning, without intending to do so. We used an incidental learning task in order to study this process. Spellings that contained double n, r and t which are common doublets in French, were learned more readily by French university students than spellings that contained less common but still legal doublets. When recalling or recognizing the latter, the students sometimes made transposition errors, doubling a consonant that often doubles in French rather than the consonant that was originally doubled (e.g., tiddunar recalled as tidunnar). The results, found in three experiments using different nonwords and different types of instructions, show that people use general knowledge about the graphotactic patterns of their writing system together with word-specific knowledge to reconstruct spellings that they learn from reading. These processes contribute to failures and successes in memory for spellings, as in other domains. PMID:24224481

Pacton, Sébastien; Borchardt, Gaëlle; Treiman, Rebecca; Lété, Bernard; Fayol, Michel



Just a Talking Book? Word Learning from Watching Baby Videos (United States)

This study examined the relationship between viewing an infant DVD and expressive and receptive language outcomes. Children between 12 and 15 months were randomly assigned to view "Baby Wordsworth," a DVD highlighting words around the house marketed for children beginning at 12 months of age. Viewings took place in home settings over 6 weeks.…

Robb, Michael B.; Richert, Rebekah A.; Wartella, Ellen A.



What Can We Learn from the Word Writing CAFE? (United States)

Building on the work of an earlier article ["The Word Writing CAFE: Assessing Student Writing for Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency," Dorothy J. Leal, "Reading Teacher," 59 (4) Dec 2005 (EJ738016)], these authors investigated the use of a simple assessment tool with a different audience to yield similar useful results. (Contains 3 figures and 4…

Bromley, Karen; Vandenberg, Amy; White, Jennifer



Once upon a time, there was a pulchritudinous princess…: the role of word definitions and multiple story contexts in children’s learning of difficult vocabulary  

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The close relationship between children’s vocabulary size and their later academic success has led researchers to explore how vocabulary development might be promoted during the early school years. We describe a study that explored the effectiveness of naturalistic classroom storytelling as an instrument for teaching new vocabulary to six- to nine-year-old children. We examined whether learning was facilitated by encountering new words in single versus multiple story contexts, or by the pro...

Wilkinson, Kathryn S.; Houston-price, Carmel




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Full Text Available The inconvenience encountered by the native learners in learning Bengali is there is no digital Bengali learning system except computer which is costly and not easy to use for all. In this paper we show a low power microcontroller based Multilanguage learning system to overcome the inconvenience mentioned above. This paper depicts the design procedure and the development of its hardware and software.

Md.Sharif Ullah,



Using Machine Learning Algorithms for Word Sense Disambiguation: A Brief Survey  

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Full Text Available In the entire vocabulary of Human language, numerous words have more than one distinct meaning and thus present a contextual ambiguity which is a worth of one of the many language based problems needs procedure based resolution. Approaches to WSD are often classified according to the main source of knowledge used in sense differentiation. Methods that rely primarily on dictionaries, thesauri, and lexical knowledge bases, without using any corpus evidence, are termed dictionary-based or knowledge based. Natural language tends to be ambiguous. Comparing and evaluating different WSD systems is extremely difficult, because of the different test sets, sense inventories, and knowledge resources adopted. In this research we shall address the problem of Word Sense Disambiguation by a combination of learning algorithms. The study is aimed at comparing the performance of using machine learning algorithms for Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD

Neetu Sharma,



Measuring incremental changes in word knowledge: experimental validation and implications for learning and assessment. (United States)

The goal of this study was to test a new technique for assessing vocabulary development. This technique is based on an algorithm for scoring the accuracy of word definitions using a continuous scale (Collins-Thompson & Callan, 2007). In an experiment with adult learners, target words were presented in six different sentence contexts, and the number of informative versus misleading contexts was systematically manipulated. Participants generated a target definition after each sentence, and the definition-scoring algorithm was used to assess the degree of accuracy on each trial. We observed incremental improvements in definition accuracy across trials. Moreover, learning curves were sensitive to the proportion of misleading contexts, the use of spaced versus massed practice, and individual differences, demonstrating the utility of this procedure for capturing specific experimental effects on the trajectory of word learning. We discuss the implications of these results for measurement of meaning, vocabulary assessment, and instructional design. PMID:19001382

Frishkoff, Gwen A; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Perfetti, Charles A; Callan, Jamie



Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education (United States)

The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.



Learning of Letter Names and Sounds and Their Contribution to Word Recognition (United States)

This study investigated knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, their learning, and their contributions to word recognition. Of 123 preschoolers examined on letter knowledge, 65 underwent training on both letter names and letter sounds in a counterbalanced order. Prior to training, children were more advanced in associating letters with their…

Levin, Iris; Shatil-Carmon, Sivan; Asif-Rave, Ornit



Memory and Attention Make Smart Word Learning: An Alternative Account of Akhtar, Carpenter, and Tomasello. (United States)

Used a modification of Akhtar, Carpenter, and Tomasello's (1996) task involving interpretation of novel nouns to test whether 18- to 28-month-olds' smart word learning derived from general attention and memory processes rather than knowledge about the communicative intents of others. Findings similar to those of Akhtar and colleagues suggest that…

Samuelson, Larissa K.; Smith, Linda B.



Context Effects on Orthographic Learning of Regular and Irregular Words (United States)

The self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic learning takes place via phonological decoding in meaningful texts, that is, in context. Context is proposed to be important in learning to read, especially when decoding is only partial. However, little research has directly explored this hypothesis. The current study looked at the effect of…

Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Nation, Kate



Effects of classroom bilingualism on task-shifting, verbal memory, and word learning in children. (United States)

We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of 2 years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word learning. The two groups of children did not differ on measures of non-linguistic task-shifting and verbal short-term memory. However, the classroom-exposure bilingual group outperformed the monolingual group on the measure of verbal working memory and a measure of word learning. Together, these findings indicate that while exposure to a second language in a classroom setting may not be sufficient to engender changes in cognitive control, it can facilitate verbal memory and verbal learning. PMID:24576079

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana



Learning perceptually grounded word meanings from unaligned parallel data  

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In order for robots to effectively understand natural language commands, they must be able to acquire meaning representations that can be mapped to perceptual features in the external world. Previous approaches to learning these grounded meaning representations require detailed annotations at training time. In this paper, we present an approach to grounded language acquisition which is capable of jointly learning a policy for following natural language commands such as “Pick up the tire pal...

Tellex, Stefanie A.; Thaker, Pratiksha R.; Joseph, Joshua Mason; Roy, Nicholas



In their own words: Student stories of seeking learning support  

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Full Text Available Many Open and Distance Learning (ODL providers report that their students are prone to lower rates of retention and completion than campus-based students. Against this background, there is growing interest around distance-specific learning support. The current research investigated the experiences of students during their first semester as distance learners at Massey University in New Zealand. The overarching methodology was Design-Based Research, within which phenomenological data gathering methods were used to study the experiences of twenty participants from their own point of view. Using video cameras, over twentytwo hours of self-reflections were gathered between July and November 2011 using a technique adapted from previous studies. A grounded theory approach was applied to the process of thematic data analysis. Results revealed how participants varied in their engagement with learning supports, including orientation events, outreach activity, cultural services, learning consultants, library services, fellow students, lecturers, residential courses, and other people. The discussion reflects on clusters of participants who utilised learning supports effectively, moderately and barely. The paper concludes by summarizing how the current research has had an impact on the design of learning support services at one of the world’s leading providers of distance education.

Mark Brown



Word sense disambiguation via high order of learning in complex networks  

CERN Multimedia

Complex networks have been employed to model many real systems and as a modeling tool in a myriad of applications. In this paper, we use the framework of complex networks to the problem of supervised classification in the word disambiguation task, which consists in deriving a function from the supervised (or labeled) training data of ambiguous words. Traditional supervised data classification takes into account only topological or physical features of the input data. On the other hand, the human (animal) brain performs both low- and high-level orders of learning and it has facility to identify patterns according to the semantic meaning of the input data. In this paper, we apply a hybrid technique which encompasses both types of learning in the field of word sense disambiguation and show that the high-level order of learning can really improve the accuracy rate of the model. This evidence serves to demonstrate that the internal structures formed by the words do present patterns that, generally, cannot be corre...

Silva, Thiago C; 10.1209/0295-5075/98/58001



Word sense disambiguation via high order of learning in complex networks (United States)

Complex networks have been employed to model many real systems and as a modeling tool in a myriad of applications. In this paper, we use the framework of complex networks to the problem of supervised classification in the word disambiguation task, which consists in deriving a function from the supervised (or labeled) training data of ambiguous words. Traditional supervised data classification takes into account only topological or physical features of the input data. On the other hand, the human (animal) brain performs both low- and high-level orders of learning and it has facility to identify patterns according to the semantic meaning of the input data. In this paper, we apply a hybrid technique which encompasses both types of learning in the field of word sense disambiguation and show that the high-level order of learning can really improve the accuracy rate of the model. This evidence serves to demonstrate that the internal structures formed by the words do present patterns that, generally, cannot be correctly unveiled by only traditional techniques. Finally, we exhibit the behavior of the model for different weights of the low- and high-level classifiers by plotting decision boundaries. This study helps one to better understand the effectiveness of the model.

Silva, Thiago C.; Amancio, Diego R.



Learning to read new words in individuals with Down syndrome: testing the role of phonological knowledge. (United States)

This study examined the effect of word level phonological knowledge on learning to read new words in Down syndrome compared to typical development. Children were taught to read 12 nonwords, 6 of which were pre-trained on their phonology. The 16 individuals with Down syndrome aged 8-17 years were compared first to a group of 30 typically developing children aged 5-7 years matched for word reading and then to a subgroup of these children matched for decoding. There was a marginally significant effect for individuals with Down syndrome to benefit more from phonological pre-training than typically developing children matched for word reading but when compared to the decoding-matched subgroup, the two groups benefitted equally. We explain these findings in terms of partial decoding attempts being resolved by word level phonological knowledge and conclude that being familiar with the spoken form of a new word may help children when they attempt to read it. This may be particularly important for children with Down syndrome and other groups of children with weak decoding skills. PMID:24582853

Mengoni, Silvana E; Nash, Hannah M; Hulme, Charles



A Model of Grounded Language Acquisition: Sensorimotor Features Improve Lexical and Grammatical Learning (United States)

It is generally accepted that children have sensorimotor mental representations for concepts even before they learn the words for those concepts. We argue that these prelinguistic and embodied concepts direct and ground word learning, such that early concepts provide scaffolding by which later word learning, and even grammar learning, is enabled…

Howell, S.R.; Jankowicz, D.; Becker, S.



Associative Vocabulary Learning: Development and Testing of Two Paradigms for the (Re-) Acquisition of Action- and Object-Related Words  

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Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects...

Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; Liuzzi, Gianpiero



Learning with Technology for Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers (United States)

This paper describes an innovative pilot project at the University of Canberra aimed at providing pre-service early childhood teachers with the skills, confidence and ideological change required to include technology-enhanced learning as part of the early childhood curriculum. The impact of the project was evaluated through participant…

Campbell, Anne; Scotellaro, Grazia



Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words  

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Full Text Available Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi ‘sendoff’, oit (e.g., exploit ‘exploit’, ois (e.g., siamois, ‘siamese’, or oie (e.g., joie ‘joy’. The morphologically complex word exploiter ‘to exploit’, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word’s final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s. Thirty minutes after having read the stories, children’s orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie. Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.




Simple Semi-supervised Learning for Chinese Word Segmentation and Pos Tagging  

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Full Text Available Strategies of unlabeled data selection are important for semi-supervised learning of natural language processing tasks. To increase the accuracy and diversity of new labeled data, plenty of methods have been proposed, such as ensemble-based self-training, co-training and tri-training methods. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective semi-supervised algorithm for Chinese word segmentation and part-of-speech tagging problem which selects new labeled data agreed by two different approaches: character-based and word-based models. Theoretical and experimental analysis verifies that sentences with same annotation on both models are more accurate than those generated by single models and are suitable for semi-supervised learning as additional data. Experimental results on Chinese Treebank 5.0 demonstrate that our semi-supervised approach is comparable with the best reported semi-supervised approach which employs complex feature engineering.

Xinxin Li



Hand Movement Effects on Word Learning and Retrieval in Adults  

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The present study investigated the effect of performing an intentional non-meaningful hand movement on subsequent lexical acquisition and retrieval in healthy adults. Twenty-five right-handed healthy individuals were required to learn the names (2-syllable legal nonwords) for a series of unfamiliar objects. Participants also completed a familiar picture naming task to investigate the effects of the intentional non-meaningful movement on lexical retrieval. Results revealed that performing this...

Ciantar, Jessica; Finch, Emma; Copland, David A.



Toddlers learn words in a foreign language: The role of native vocabulary knowledge  

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The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers’ (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English and secondly, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furt...

Koenig, Melissa A.; Woodward, Amanda L.



The Early Learning Accomplishment Profile (Early LAP) Examiner's Manual and Reliability and Validity Technical Report. (United States)

The Early Learning Accomplishment Profile (Early LAP) provides a systematic method for observing children's functioning in the birth to 36-month age range in order to assist teachers, clinicians, and parents in assessing individual skills development in six developmental domains: gross motor, fine motor, cognition, language, self-help, and social…

Hardin, Belinda J.; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen S.


Digital Word Walls and Vocabulary Learning: The Use of iPods to Facilitate Vocabulary Instruction with ESL Students  

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Full Text Available Mobile devices such as iPods can be potentially effective learning tools, especially for advancing the vocabulary development of English as a Second Language (ESL learners. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1 to investigate ESL high school students’ knowledge of using iPods for learning vocabulary; and (2 to determine ESL high school students’ achievement differences in vocabulary when exposed to two traditional vocabulary instructional frameworks using word walls versus digital word wall instruction. The study followed a mixed-method design using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The specific strategies used to support vocabulary learning in all three instructional frameworks were based upon the principles of effective vocabulary instruction and factors related to active student engagement. Findings indicate no statistically significant differences between instructional frameworks in word-meaning acquisition. However, students were more engaged in the activities associated with the digital word wall framework, i.e. activities related to developing vocabulary vodcasts.

Lucretia M. Fraga



Short-term memory for serial order supports vocabulary development: new evidence from a novel word learning paradigm. (United States)

Although recent studies suggest a strong association between short-term memory (STM) for serial order and lexical development, the precise mechanisms linking the two domains remain to be determined. This study explored the nature of these mechanisms via a microanalysis of performance on serial order STM and novel word learning tasks. In the experiment, 6- and 7-year-old children were administered tasks maximizing STM for either item or serial order information as well as paired-associate learning tasks involving the learning of novel words, visual symbols, or familiar word pair associations. Learning abilities for novel words were specifically predicted by serial order STM abilities. A measure estimating the precision of serial order coding predicted the rate of correct repetitions and the rate of phoneme migration errors during the novel word learning process. In line with recent theoretical accounts, these results suggest that serial order STM supports vocabulary development via ordered and detailed reactivation of the novel phonological sequences that characterize new words. PMID:24056204

Majerus, Steve; Boukebza, Claire



Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

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Full Text Available ... Running Time: (4:32) Release Date: 9/22/2008 Early recognition of developmental disabilities such as autism ... Why Flu Vaccination Matters Release Date: 12/8/2008 The Quiet Killer Release Date: 11/3/2008 ...


Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

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Full Text Available ... the Signs. Act Early Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) Child Development Downloads Read the script High resolution (.wmv)[28MB] Open Captioned (.mp4)[13MB] Request a higher resolution file Share this Video Embed: What do you think of our videos? ...


Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

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Full Text Available ... Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) Running Time: (4:32) Release Date: 9/22/2008 Early recognition ... Salt Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health Release Date: 4/20/2011 Your Wake-Up Call Release Date: ...


Professional development for the early learning content social studies standards  

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Full Text Available This article describes early childhood educators’ responses to a professional development series aimed at helping them to understand and incorporate early learning standards for social studies. While the primary aim of the professional development was to focus on thesocial studies content standards, the secondary aim was to introduce early childhood educators to culturally relevant pedagogical strategies that take into account the unique learning needs of diverse children, particularly children of colour, English languagelearners and children with special needs. The findings suggest that early childhood educators can benefit from sustained professional development that not only addresses content standards but also helps them to understand how to incorporate the standards into their existing curriculum using developmentally and culturally appropriate pedagogy.

Laurie KATZ



Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1997-1998. (United States)

This document consists of the three issues of the journal "Learning Languages" published during volume year 3. These issues contain the following major articles: "A National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL): A Brief History, 1987-1997;""Juguetes Fantasticos" (Mari Haas); "A Perspective on the Cultural Perspective" (Genelle Morain);…

Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998



Get the story straight: contextual repetition promotes word learning from storybooks  

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Full Text Available Although reading storybooks to preschool children is a common activity believed to improve language skills, how children learn new vocabulary from being to has been largely neglected in the shared storybook reading literature. The current study systematically explores the effects of repeatedly reading the same storybooks on both young children's fast and slow mapping ability. Specially created storybooks were read to 3-year-old children three times during the course of one week. Each of the nine storybooks contained two novel word-object pairs. At each session, children either heard three different stories with the same two novel name-object pairs or the same story three times. All children heard each novel name the same number of times. A four-alternative forced-choice task with pictures of the objects was used to test both immediate recall and retention. Children who heard the same stories repeatedly were very accurate on both the immediate recall and retention tasks. In contrast, children who heard different stories were only accurate on immediate recall during the last two sessions and failed to learn any of the new words. Overall, then, we found a dramatic increase in children’s ability to both recall and retain novel word-object associations encountered during shared storybook reading when they heard the same stories multiple times in succession. Results are discussed in terms of contextual cueing effects observed in other cognitive domains.

KellyL Parsons



Thai Learners’ English Pronunciation Competence: Lesson Learned from Word Stress Assignment  

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Full Text Available English has been a lingua franca in various domains of communication such as international business, academic conferences, diplomacy, science and technology. As a result, the demands for English skills in all aspects are crucial in response to the importance of English and the impact of globalization. Despite the constant efforts in developing English education in Thailand, a number of studies have shown that the achievement of Thai learners was unsatisfactory. Given the role of English as an international language which is used in almost domain of communication, amongst several factors hindering the success of English language learning, English pronunciation of the Thai learners should be focused. This study has two principle objectives: 1 to examine Thai learners’ knowledge with regard to word stress assignment; and 2 to determine possible factors affecting the Thai learners’ pronunciation competence. To achieve these objectives, 90 Thai learners of English participated in this study. The test consisting of two parts: personal information profile, and 40 selected words systematically taken from two textbooks, was employed to identify these participants’ pronunciation competence. The results showed that most of the participants’ English pronunciation was somewhat limited.  Gender was identified to be the most significant factor contributing to the participants’ test scores, while faculty and years of studying English were not. In light of the results suggested by the three variables, pedagogical suggestions were offered to help improve teaching and learning English pronunciation in general, and in focusing on the importance of teaching word stress in particular.

Attapol Khamkhien



Patterns of Performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test in Children with Learning, Attentional, and Psychiatric Disabilities. (United States)

Investigates the performance of children with learning, psychiatric, and attentional disabilities on the Stroop Color and Word Test. Results indicated clear differences between groups, with the learning disabled (LD) and the psychiatric/attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) groups generating unique profiles. Children with LD showed…

Golden, Zarabeth L.; Golden, Charles J.



A Tsallis’ statistics based neural network model for novel word learning (United States)

We invoke the Tsallis entropy formalism, a nonextensive entropy measure, to include some degree of non-locality in a neural network that is used for simulation of novel word learning in adults. A generalization of the gradient descent dynamics, realized via nonextensive cost functions, is used as a learning rule in a simple perceptron. The model is first investigated for general properties, and then tested against the empirical data, gathered from simple memorization experiments involving two populations of linguistically different subjects. Numerical solutions of the model equations corresponded to the measured performance states of human learners. In particular, we found that the memorization tasks were executed with rather small but population-specific amounts of nonextensivity, quantified by the entropic index q. Our findings raise the possibility of using entropic nonextensivity as a means of characterizing the degree of complexity of learning in both natural and artificial systems.

Hadzibeganovic, Tarik; Cannas, Sergio A.



When Do Computer Graphics Contribute to Early Literacy Learning? (United States)

Notes that new literacies use computer graphics to tell a story, demonstrate a theory, or support a definition. Offers a functionality framework for assessing the value of computer graphics for early literacy learning. Provides ideas for determining the value of CD-ROM software and websites. Concludes that graphics that give text meaning or…

Wepner, Shelley B.; Cotter, Michelle



Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy (United States)

This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy



A spatially supported forced-choice recognition test reveals children's long-term memory for newly learned word forms. (United States)

Children's memories for the link between a newly trained word and its referent have been the focus of extensive past research. However, memory for the word form itself is rarely assessed among preschool-age children. When it is, children are typically asked to verbally recall the forms, and they generally perform at floor on such tests. To better measure children's memory for word forms, we aimed to design a more sensitive test that required recognition rather than recall, provided spatial cues to off-set the phonological memory demands of the test, and allowed pointing rather than verbal responses. We taught 12 novel word-referent pairs via ostensive naming to sixteen 4- to 6-year-olds and measured their memory for the word forms after a week-long retention interval using the new spatially supported form recognition test. We also measured their memory for the word-referent links and the generalization of the links to untrained referents with commonly used recognition tests. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at above chance levels; however, their memory for forms was poorer than their memory for trained or generalized word-referent links. When in error, children were no more likely to select a foil that was a close neighbor to the target form than a maximally different foil. Additionally, they more often selected correct forms that were among the first six than the last six to be trained. Overall, these findings suggest that children are able to remember word forms after a limited number of ostensive exposures and a long-term delay. However, word forms remain more difficult to learn than word-referent links and there is an upper limit on the number of forms that can be learned within a given period of time. PMID:24639660

Gordon, Katherine R; McGregor, Karla K



Linking Standards and Engaged Learning in the Early Years  

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Full Text Available Early childhood educators are increasingly concerned about the trend toward national standards and national testing. This article addresses issues of assessment in the early years of schooling, prekindergarten through third grade?a period when active, engaged, hands-on learning is most appropriate. Documentation of a kindergarten project on a turtle is presented to show how a science content standard is attained and how evidence is gathered that demonstrates the attainment of those skills inherent in the standard. The article then presents a framework for helping teachers and administrators to think about standards and the documentation of attainment of standards in ways that are compatible with how young children learn. The documentation procedures are especially compatible with approaches to learning that encourage student initiation and interest, such as the Project Approach.

Gaye Gronlund



Learning word sense disambiguation in biomedical text with difference between training and test distributions. (United States)

Word Sense Disambiguation methods based on machine learning techniques with lexical features suffer from the discordance between distributions of the training and test documents, due to the diversity of lexical space. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes Support Vector Machines with Example-wise Weights. In this method, the training distribution is matched with the test distribution by weighting training examples according to their similarity to all test data. The experimental results show the distribution change between the training and test data is actually recognised and the proposed method which considers this change in its training phase outperforms ordinary SVMs. PMID:22724299

Son, Jeong-Woo; Park, Seong-Bae



"In Our Own Words": Creating Videos as Teaching and Learning Tools  

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Full Text Available Online videos, particularly those on YouTube, have proliferated on the internet; watching them has become part of our everyday activity. While libraries have often harnessed the power of videos to create their own promotional and informational videos, few have created their own teaching and learning tools beyond screencasting videos. In the summer of 2010, the authors, two librarians at York University, decided to work on a video project which culminated in a series of instructional videos entitled “Learning: In Our Own Words.” The purpose of the video project was twofold: to trace the “real” experience of incoming students and their development of academic literacies skills (research, writing and learning throughout their first year, and to create videos that librarians and other instructors could use as instructional tools to engage students in critical thinking and discussion. This paper outlines the authors’ experience filming the videos, creating a teaching guide, and screening the videos in the classroom. Lessons learned during this initiative are discussed in the hope that more libraries will develop videos as teaching and learning tools.

Kent Murnaghan



E-Learning Content for Early Detection Cervival Cancer  

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Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most commonly type of cancer that strikes women. The rate of deaths caused by this type of cancer is quite high. The mortality rate caused by this cancer can be reduced through early detection program. To support this program, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia is aware of the need for training the health workers in order to do the socialization quickly and evenly to all corners of Indonesia in order to reduce the number of cases of death due to cervical cancer. The aim of this research was to find out the type of online learning content that was suitable and easy for the public and medical personnel to understand on early detection of cervical cancer. The method used British Columbia’s standard for online learning content which mainly focused on four criteria. Moreover, the method that was used by Jeong and Kim to design the content of an instructional approach was also employed. Bloom’s taxonomy theory was followed as the reference theory in designing the online learning material. The result described the information content of the early detection of cervical cancer in form of multimedia in online learning.




A Neurocomputational Theory of how Explicit Learning Bootstraps Early Procedural Learning  

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Full Text Available It is widely accepted that human learning and memory is mediated by multiple memory systems that are each best suited to different requirements and demands. Within the domain of categorization, at least two systems are thought to facilitate learning: an explicit (declarative system depending largely on the prefrontal cortex, and a procedural (non-declarative system depending on the basal ganglia. Substantial evidence suggests that each system is optimally suited to learn particular categorization tasks. However, it remains unknown precisely how these systems interact to produce optimal learning and behavior. In order to investigate this issue, the present research evaluated the progression of learning through simulation of categorization tasks using COVIS, a well-known model of human category learning that includes both explicit and procedural learning systems. Specifically, the model's parameter space was thoroughly explored in procedurally learned categorization tasks across a variety of conditions and architectures to identify plausible interaction architectures. The simulation results support the hypothesis that one-way interaction between the systems occurs such that the explicit system "bootstraps" learning early on in the procedural system. Thus, the procedural system initially learns a suboptimal strategy employed by the explicit system and later refines its strategy. This bootstrapping could be from cortical-striatal projections that originate in premotor or motor regions of cortex, or possibly by the explicit system’s control of motor responses through basal ganglia-mediated loops.




The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome (United States)

This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma



Successful Learning of Academic Word List via MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning  

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Mobile phones as new addition to information and communication technologies have created new ways to help learners in the process of foreign language learning. Given the importance of academic vocabularies for university students, this study tried to investigate the effectiveness of SMS on Iranian university students’ vocabulary learning and retention. To this end forty five university freshman students with upper intermediate proficiency level were chosen to take part in this stud...

Minoo Alemi; Mohammad Reza Anani Sarab; Zahra Lari



The Source of Child Care Center Preschool Learning and Program Standards: Implications for Potential Early Learning Challenge Fund Grantees (United States)

The proposed federal Early Learning Challenge Fund (ELCF) aims to improve the quality of early care and education programs by promoting the integration of more stringent program and early learning standards than are typically found in child care centers. ELCF grantees also must outline their plans for professional development and technical…

Ackerman, Debra J.; Sansanelli, Rachel A.



Current policy issues in early foreign language learning  

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The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and com...

Enever, Janet



Early Prediction of Reading Disability using Machine Learning  

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This paper presents application of machine learning methods on a 356 sample dataset for early prediction of reading disability among first graders. A wide array of classifiers consisting of Support Vector Machines, Decision Trees (CART and C4.5), Linear Discriminant Analysis, k Nearest Neighbor and Naďve Bayes Classifiers were used in this study. Markov Blanket based feature selection algorithms (HITON-PC and HITON-MB) and wrapper based feature selection algorithms (forward, backward, forwar...

Varol, H. Atakan; Mani, Subramani; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas



Sounds, Letters and Meanings: The Independent Influences of Phonological, Morphological and Orthographic Skills on Early Word Reading Accuracy (United States)

This study was designed to examine the independent contributions of phonological awareness, orthographic processing and morphological awareness on early word reading. English-speaking children in Grades 1 and 3 completed measures of these three constructs, as well as standardised measures of real and pseudoword reading and of vocabulary. Each of…

Deacon, S. Helene



The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: effect of direct instruction and discovery learning. (United States)

In a study with 112 third- and fourth-grade children, we measured the relative effectiveness of discovery learning and direct instruction at two points in the learning process: (a) during the initial acquisition of the basic cognitive objective (a procedure for designing and interpreting simple, unconfounded experiments) and (b) during the subsequent transfer and application of this basic skill to more diffuse and authentic reasoning associated with the evaluation of science-fair posters. We found not only that many more children learned from direct instruction than from discovery learning, but also that when asked to make broader, richer scientific judgments, the many children who learned about experimental design from direct instruction performed as well as those few children who discovered the method on their own. These results challenge predictions derived from the presumed superiority of discovery approaches in teaching young children basic procedures for early scientific investigations. PMID:15447636

Klahr, David; Nigam, Milena



Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning  

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Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

Janet Enever



Orthographic Analogies and Early Reading: Evidence from a Multiple Clue Word Paradigm (United States)

Two experiments using a variation of the clue word analogy task (Goswami, 1986) explored whether children can make orthographic analogies when given multiple clue words, beyond the known effects of purely phonological activation. In Experiment 1, 42 children (mean age 6 years and 8 months) were first taught 3 "clue" words (e.g., "fail", "mail",…

Savage, Robert S.; Deault, Louise; Daki, Julia; Aouad, Julie



Bilingual and monolingual children attend to different cues when learning new words  

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Full Text Available The way in which children learn language can vary depending on their language environment. Previous work suggests that bilingual children may be more sensitive to pragmatic cues from a speaker when learning new words than monolingual children are. On the other hand, monolingual children may rely more heavily on object properties than bilingual children do. In this study we manipulate these two sources of information within the same paradigm, using eye gaze as a pragmatic cue and similarity along different dimensions as an object cue. In the crucial condition, object and pragmatic cues were inconsistent with each other. Our results showed that in this ambiguous condition monolingual children attend more to object property cues whereas bilingual children attend more to pragmatic cues. Control conditions showed that monolingual children were sensitive to eye gaze and bilingual children were sensitive to similarity by shape; it was only when the cues were inconsistent that children’s preference for one or the other cue was apparent. Our results suggest that children learn to weigh different cues depending on their relative informativeness in their environment




Children's Participation Rights in Early Childhood Education and Care: The Case of Early Literacy Learning and Pedagogy (United States)

This position article argues that educators' knowledge of young children's perspectives on aspects of early learning, including literacy learning, and subsequent interpretations of the ways that these perspectives can inform and shape pedagogy are key to promoting children's participation rights in early childhood education and care. Drawing on…

Dunphy, Elizabeth



Fast Mapping, Slow Learning: Disambiguation of Novel Word-Object Mappings in Relation to Vocabulary Learning at 18, 24, and 30 Months (United States)

When hearing a novel name, children tend to select a novel object rather than a familiar one, a bias known as disambiguation. Using online processing measures with 18-, 24-, and 30-month-olds, we investigate how the development of this bias relates to word learning. Children's proportion of looking time to a novel object after hearing a novel name…

Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Borovsky, Arielle; Fernald, Anne



Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments  

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Full Text Available This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of the interactional triangle—the children, the adults, and their physical environment—is assessed by means of an observation schedule called the Quality Learning Instrument (QLI. The paper illustrates the design and validation of the instrument with data from a project involving observations of classroom practice in Northern Ireland primary schools and Danish kindergartens. It describes how judgments made using the instrument can be triangulated or “calibrated” against the judgments of experts not connected with the data collection. The article concludes with the argument that the instrument may be successfully used to provide a basis for external quality assessments or as a means for early years teachers to reflect on the environment for learning that they generate in their own classrooms.

Glenda Walsh



Young Children Learning Spanish Make Rapid Use of Grammatical Gender in Spoken Word Recognition  

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All nouns in Spanish have grammatical gender, with obligatory gender marking on preceding articles (e.g., la and el, the feminine and masculine forms of “the,” respectively). Adult native speakers of languages with grammatical gender exploit this cue in on-line sentence interpretation. In a study investigating the early development of this ability, Spanish-learning children (34–42 months) were tested in an eye-tracking procedure. Presented with pairs of pictures with names of either the...

Lew-williams, Casey; Fernald, Anne



Shakespeare and the Words of Early Modern Physic: Between Academic and Popular Medicine. A Lexicographical Approach to the Plays  

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Full Text Available The article aims at showing how Shakespeare relied on the medical vocabulary shared by his coeval society, which had, for centuries, been witnessing the continuous process of vernacularization of ancient and medieval scientific texts. After outlining the state of early modern medicine, the author presents and discusses the results of her search for relevant medical terms in nine plays by Shakespeare. In order to do this, a wide range of medical treatises has been analysed (either directly or through specific corpora such as Medieval English Medical Texts, MEMT 2005, and Early Modern English Medical Texts, EMEMT 2010, so as to verify the ancestry or the novelty of Shakespearean medical words. In addition to this, the author has also built a corpus of word types derived from seventeenth-century quack doctors’ handbills, with the purpose of creating a word list of medical terms connected to popular rather than university medicine, comparable with the list drawn out of the Shakespearean plays. The results most stressed in the article concern Shakespeare’s use of medical terminology already well known to his contemporary society (thus confuting the Oxfordian thesis about the impossibility for William Shakespeare the actor to master so many medical words and the playwright’s skill in transforming – rather than inventing – old popular terms. The article is accompanied by five tables that collect the results of the various lexicographical searches.

Roberta Mullini



Predictability affects early perceptual processing of word onsets in continuous speech  

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Event-related potential (ERP) evidence indicates that listeners selectively attend to word onsets in continuous speech, but the reason for this preferential processing is unknown. The current study measured ERPs elicited by syllable onsets in an artificial language to test the hypothesis that listeners direct attention to word onsets because their identity is unpredictable. Both before and after recognition training, participants listened to a continuous stream of six nonsense words arranged ...



Learning to talk in a gesture-rich world: Early communication in Italian vs. American children  

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Italian children are immersed in a gesture-rich culture. Given the large gesture repertoire of Italian adults, young Italian children might be expected to develop a larger inventory of gestures than American children. If so, do these gestures impact the course of language learning? We examined gesture and speech production in Italian and US children between the onset of first words and the onset of two-word combinations. We found differences in the size of the gesture repertoires produced by ...

Iverson, Jana M.; Capirci, Olga; Volterra, Virginia; Goldin-meadow, Susan



Cognitive Load and Learning Effects of Having Students Organize Pictures and Words in Multimedia Environments: The Role of Student Interactivity and Feedback (United States)

The cognitive load and learning effects of dual-code and interactivity--two multimedia methods intended to promote meaningful learning--were examined. In Experiment 1, college students learned about the causal chain of events leading to the process of lightning formation with a set of words and corresponding pictures (Group WP), pictures (Group…

Moreno, Roxana; Valdez, Alfred



Semantic similarity influences early morphological priming in Serbian: A challenge to form-then-meaning accounts of word recognition  

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Semantically similar (e.g., coolant-COOL) primes produced greater facilitation than did form similar, semantically dissimilar (e.g., rampant-RAMP) primes when English words appeared in the forward masked primed lexical decision task (Feldman, O'Connor & Moscoso del Prado Martín, 2009). Results challenge claims that form-based semantically blind activation underlies early morphological facilitation. Some have argued that those English materials were not ideally constructed insofar as types of...

Feldman, Laurie Beth; Kostic?, Aleksandar; Gvozdenovic?, Vasilije; O Connor, Patrick A.; Marti?n, Fermi?n Moscoso Del Prado



Reading with Meaning: The Contributions of Meaning-Related Variables at the Word and Subword Levels to Early Chinese Reading Comprehension (United States)

This study examined the associations of three levels of meaning acquisition, i.e., whole word (vocabulary), morpheme (morphological awareness), and semantic radical (orthography-semantic awareness) to early Chinese reading comprehension among 164 Hong Kong Chinese primary school students, ages 7 and 8 years old, across 1 year. With time 1 word

Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tong, Xiuli; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Fong, Cathy Y.-C.



Emotions in Word and Face Processing: Early and Late Cortical Responses (United States)

Recent research suggests that emotion effects in word processing resemble those in other stimulus domains such as pictures or faces. The present study aims to provide more direct evidence for this notion by comparing emotion effects in word and face processing in a within-subject design. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded as…

Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner



Fast-Mapping and Deliberate Word-Learning by EFL Children (United States)

This study examined the abilities of young English as a foreign language (EFL) learners to identify quickly new words from a nonostensive, indirect teaching context (known as fast- mapping) and their ability to commit the words to memory. Seventy-five fourth-grade EFL learners heard novel words embedded in sentences. They were then tested for…

Hu, Chieh-Fang



Short-term memory for serial order supports vocabulary development: New evidence from a novel word learning paradigm  

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Although recent studies suggest a strong association between short-term memory (STM) for serial order and lexical development, the precise mechanisms linking the two domains remain to be determined. This study explored the nature of these mechanisms via a microanalysis of performance on serial order STM and novel word learning tasks. In the experiment, 6- and 7-year-old children were administered tasks maximizing STM for either item or serial order information as well as paired-associate lear...

Majerus, Steve; Boukebza, C.



Machine learning and word sense disambiguation in the biomedical domain: design and evaluation issues  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD is critical in the biomedical domain for improving the precision of natural language processing (NLP, text mining, and information retrieval systems because ambiguous words negatively impact accurate access to literature containing biomolecular entities, such as genes, proteins, cells, diseases, and other important entities. Automated techniques have been developed that address the WSD problem for a number of text processing situations, but the problem is still a challenging one. Supervised WSD machine learning (ML methods have been applied in the biomedical domain and have shown promising results, but the results typically incorporate a number of confounding factors, and it is problematic to truly understand the effectiveness and generalizability of the methods because these factors interact with each other and affect the final results. Thus, there is a need to explicitly address the factors and to systematically quantify their effects on performance. Results Experiments were designed to measure the effect of "sample size" (i.e. size of the datasets, "sense distribution" (i.e. the distribution of the different meanings of the ambiguous word and "degree of difficulty" (i.e. the measure of the distances between the meanings of the senses of an ambiguous word on the performance of WSD classifiers. Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers were applied to an automatically generated data set containing four ambiguous biomedical abbreviations: BPD, BSA, PCA, and RSV, which were chosen because of varying degrees of differences in their respective senses. Results showed that: 1 increasing the sample size generally reduced the error rate, but this was limited mainly to well-separated senses (i.e. cases where the distances between the senses were large; in difficult cases an unusually large increase in sample size was needed to increase performance slightly, which was impractical, 2 the sense distribution did not have an effect on performance when the senses were separable, 3 when there was a majority sense of over 90%, the WSD classifier was not better than use of the simple majority sense, 4 error rates were proportional to the similarity of senses, and 5 there was no statistical difference between results when using a 5-fold or 10-fold cross-validation method. Other issues that impact performance are also enumerated. Conclusion Several different independent aspects affect performance when using ML techniques for WSD. We found that combining them into one single result obscures understanding of the underlying methods. Although we studied only four abbreviations, we utilized a well-established statistical method that guarantees the results are likely to be generalizable for abbreviations with similar characteristics. The results of our experiments show that in order to understand the performance of these ML methods it is critical that papers report on the baseline performance, the distribution and sample size of the senses in the datasets, and the standard deviation or confidence intervals. In addition, papers should also characterize the difficulty of the WSD task, the WSD situations addressed and not addressed, as well as the ML methods and features used. This should lead to an improved understanding of the generalizablility and the limitations of the methodology.

Liu Hongfang



You know what it is: learning words through listening to hip-hop. (United States)

Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE) vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free-response definitions to AAE vocabulary items, after which they answered demographic questions as well as questions addressing their social networks, their musical preferences, and their knowledge of popular culture. Results from the survey show a positive association between the number of hip-hop artists listened to and AAE comprehension vocabulary scores. Additionally, participants were more likely to know an AAE vocabulary item if the hip-hop artists they listen to use the word in their song lyrics. Together, these results suggest that young adults can acquire vocabulary through exposure to hip-hop music, a finding relevant for research on vocabulary acquisition, the construction of adolescent and adult identities, and the adoption of lexical innovations. PMID:22205942

Chesley, Paula



Earthquake Word Searches (United States)

Finding the words in these word searches will help you learn about earthquakes. The words in the puzzles may be hidden horizontally, vertically, diagonally, forward, or backward. To circle a discovered word, mouse-click on one end of the word and mouse-drag to the other end of the word. Once a word is found, it will be taken off the list. There are nine word searches that you can play: famous seismologists, general earthquake terms, magnitude, Mercalli Intensity Scale, plate names, plate tectonics, Richter Magnitude Scale, seismic waves, and tsunamis.

Harshbarger, Eric



Implementing Performance Indicators of Early Learning and Teaching: A Chinese Study (United States)

This study investigated how a set of newly developed indicators of early learning and teaching by the government, which was based on western ideology of child learning, was implemented in a Chinese context like Hong Kong. Twelve early childhood settings of 5747 children and 284 staff volunteered to implement the indicators within two years and the…

Li, Hui; Wong, Ngai Chun Margaret



Early Learning Standards for Young Children: A Survey of the States. (United States)

Examined the ages of children and developmental domains covered by state early learning standards and degree to which they are linked to state K-12 standards. Found that 39 states have or are developing state early learning standards, the majority addressing expectations for 3- to 5-year-olds. Found little guidance on adapting standards for…

Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Scott-Little, Catherine; Frelow, Victoria Stebbins



WordSpy: identifying transcription factor binding motifs by building a dictionary and learning a grammar  

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Transcription factor (TF) binding sites or motifs (TFBMs) are functional cis-regulatory DNA sequences that play an essential role in gene transcriptional regulation. Although many experimental and computational methods have been developed, finding TFBMs remains a challenging problem. We propose and develop a novel dictionary based motif finding algorithm, which we call WordSpy. One significant feature of WordSpy is the combination of a word counting method and a statistical model which consis...

Wang, Guandong; Yu, Taotao; Zhang, Weixiong



Developmental differences in the effects of phonological, lexical, and semantic variables on word learning by infants  

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The influence of phonological (i.e., individual sounds), lexical (i.e., whole-word forms), and semantic (i.e., meaning) characteristics on the words known by infants age 1;4 to 2;6 was examined, using an existing database (Dale & Fenson, 1996). For each noun, word frequency, two phonological (i.e., positional segment average, biphone average), two lexical (i.e., neighborhood density, word length), and four semantic variables (i.e., semantic set size, connectivity, probability resonance, reson...

Storkel, Holly L.



Words, Objects, and Actions in Early Lexical Acquisition. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, Number 19. (United States)

Children ranging in age from 1;1 to 1;3 were presented with 16 contrived lexical concepts, each consisting of a nonsense word (eight object words and eight action words) and four unfamiliar exemplars that served as the referents for that word. Overall, the children used 65% of the experimental words one or more times to refer to at least one of…

Schwartz, Richard G.; Leonard, Laurence B.


Unfamiliar Orthographic Information and Second Language Word Learning: A Novel Lexicon Study (United States)

Recent research indicates that knowledge of words' spellings can influence knowledge of the phonological forms of second language (L2) words when the first and second languages use the same orthographic symbols. It is yet unknown whether learners can make similar use of unfamiliar orthographic symbols. In this study we investigate whether native…

Showalter, Catherine E.; Hayes-Harb, Rachel



Disentangling the Influence of Salience and Familiarity on Infant Word Learning: Methodological Advances  

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Full Text Available The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants’ environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While the result is an accrual of data bridging the gap between brain and behavior, much work remains to make the link between behavioral evidence of infants' emerging sensitivities and neurophysiological evidence of changes in how their brains process information. Here we review the background behavioral data on how salience and familiarity in the auditory signal shape initial language learning. We follow this with a summary of more recent evidence of changes in infants’ brain activity in response to specific aspects of speech. Our goal is to examine language learning through the lens of brain/environment interactions, ultimately focusing on changes in cortical processing of speech across the first year of life. We will ground our examination of recent brain data in the two auditory features initially outlined: salience and familiarity. Our own and others' findings on the influence of these two features reveal that they are key parameters in infants’ emerging recognition of structure in the speech signal. Importantly, the evidence we review makes the critical link between behavioral and brain data. We discuss the importance of future work that makes this bridge as a means of moving the study of language development solidly into the domain of brain science.




Learning from parents' stories about what works in early intervention. (United States)

Using a multiple case study approach, this ethnography examined the experiences of parents of children deemed at risk for developmental delays or disabilities who had received early intervention (EI) services (birth to age 3?years) in a large urban location in Western Canada. Participants (11 adult parents and 7 children) were drawn from six families. Methods of data collection included focus groups (FG), face-to-face interviews and file reviews. Member check and expert reviews were conducted throughout data collection and data analyses as part of the validation process in this ethnography. Qualitative content analyses followed by thematic analyses highlighted the implementation of family-centred practices (FCP) as a main theme. Parents identified how EI professionals using FCP embraced collaborative practices. FCP resulted in parents leading the EI process for their children. More specifically, EI professionals shared strategies and information to support parents in gaining a deeper understanding of their children's individual developmental characteristics. Parents expressed how empowering this level of understanding was for them as they learned to articulate what were their children's needs for developmental, health and educational services. Recommendations for future research include inquiring about parents' experiences for families of diverse constellations and/or residing in smaller urban or rural communities. PMID:24990637

Pighini, Maria J; Goelman, Hillel; Buchanan, Marla; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly; Brynelsen, Dana



A spatially-supported forced-choice recognition test reveals children’s long-term memory for newly learned word forms  

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Full Text Available Children’s memories for the link between a newly trained word and its referent have been the focus of extensive past research. However, memory for the word form itself is rarely assessed among preschool-age children. When it is, children are typically asked to verbally recall the forms, and they generally perform at floor on such tests. To better measure children’s memory for word forms, we aimed to design a more sensitive test that required recognition rather than recall, provided spatial cues to off-set the phonological memory demands of the test, and allowed pointing rather than verbal responses. We taught 12 novel word-referent pairs via ostensive naming to sixteen 4-to-6-year-olds and measured their memory for the word forms after a week-long retention interval using the new spatially-supported form recognition test. We also measured their memory for the word-referent links and the generalization of the links to untrained referents with commonly used recognition tests. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at above chance levels; however, their memory for forms was poorer than their memory for trained or generalized word-referent links. When in error, children were no more likely to select a foil that was a close neighbor to the target form than a maximally different foil. Additionally, they more often selected correct forms that were among the first six than the last six to be trained. Overall, these findings suggest that children are able to remember word forms after a limited number of ostensive exposures and a long-term delay. However, word forms remain more difficult to learn than word-referent links and there is an upper limit on the number of forms that can be learned within a given period of time.




The effects of audibility and novel word learning ability on vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants. (United States)

Objectives A novel word learning (NWL) paradigm was used to explore underlying phonological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for delayed vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants (CIs). Methods One hundred and one children using CIs, 6-12 years old, were tested along with 47 children with normal hearing (NH). Tests of NWL, receptive vocabulary, and speech perception at 2 loudness levels were administered to children with CIs. Those with NH completed the NWL task and a receptive vocabulary test. CI participants with good audibility (GA) versus poor audibility (PA) were compared on all measures. Analysis of variance was used to compare performance across the children with NH and the two groups of children with CIs. Multiple regression analysis was employed to identify independent predictors of vocabulary outcomes. Results Children with CIs in the GA group scored higher in receptive vocabulary and NWL than children in the PA group, although they did not reach NH levels. CI-aided pure tone threshold and performance on the NWL task predicted independent variance in vocabulary after accounting for other known predictors. Discussion Acquiring spoken vocabulary is facilitated by GA with a CI and phonological learning and memory skills. Children with CIs did not learn novel words at the same rate or achieve the same receptive vocabulary levels as their NH peers. Maximizing audibility for the perception of speech and direct instruction of new vocabulary may be necessary for children with CIs to reach levels seen in peers with NH. PMID:23998324

Davidson, Lisa S; Geers, Ann E; Nicholas, Johanna G



Early results of experiments with responsive open learning environments  

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Responsive open learning environments (ROLEs) are the next generation of personal learning environments (PLEs). While PLEs rely on the simple aggregation of existing content and services mainly using Web 2.0 technologies, ROLEs are transforming lifelong learning by introducing a new infrastructure on a global scale while dealing with existing learning management systems, institutions, and technologies. The requirements engineering process in highly populated test-beds is as important as the t...

Friedrich, M.; Wolpers, M.; Shen, R.; Ullrich, C.; Klamma, R.; Renzel, D.; Richert, A.; Heiden, B. Von



It’s More Than Content: Expanding the Conception of Early Learning Standards  

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Full Text Available This article presents a case study of standards-based reform in early childhood education to demonstrate how a particular set of early childhood stakeholders—by laterally incorporating a range of developmental domains within their standards—provided a "rhizoanalytic" response to the Bush administration's call for early learning standards in language, early literacy, and mathematics. By incorporating the work of the National Research Council with Wisconsin's Model Early Learning Standards, the author considers how early childhood stakeholders can construct future political responses that horizontally and vertically align the field of early childhood education. Such a rhizomatic response provides the opportunity to propose politically viable policies that respect the heterogeneity that exists within the field of early childhood education.

Christopher P. Brown



The Source of Child Care Center Preschool Learning and Program Standards: Implications for Potential Early Learning Challenge Fund Grantees  

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Full Text Available The proposed federal Early Learning Challenge Fund (ELCF aims to improve the quality of early care and education programs by promoting the integration of more stringent program and early learning standards than are typically found in child care centers. ELCF grantees also must outline their plans for professional development and technical assistance to support these efforts. With the aim of informing potential ELCF grantees, this article reports the results of a statewide survey of 391 child care center directors focusing on the source of their preschool learning expectations and program standards. The majority of surveyed directors report that the state’s child care licensing standards are used. Additional directors report that the state’s prekindergarten program standards or early learning standards serve as their current source. However, other responses indicate that the terms “program standards” and “learning standards” themselves may not even be part of the current child care vocabulary. These results suggest that potential ELCF grantees might be better positioned to help child care centers incorporate stricter program and learning standards if they design varying levels of training and technical assistance based on the variety of child care quality “starting points.”

Debra J. Ackerman



Conceptual distance and word learning: patterns of acquisition in Samoan-English bilingual children. (United States)

This study investigated cross-linguistic influence in acquisition of a second lexicon, evaluating Samoan-English sequentially bilingual children (initial mean age 4 ; 9) during their first 18 months of school. Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary tasks evaluated acquisition of four word types: cognates, matched nouns, phrasal nouns and holonyms. Each word type had varying phonological and conceptual difference between Samoan (L1) and English (L2). Results highlighted conceptual distance between L1 and L2 as a key factor in L2 lexical acquisition. The children acquired L2 lexical items earlier if their conceptual representation was similar to that of L1. Words with greater conceptual distance between L1 and L2 emerged more slowly. This suggests that L1 knowledge influences L2 lexical consolidation for sequential bilinguals. Words that require a conceptual shift from L1 take longer to consolidate and strengthen within the L2 lexicon. PMID:22849815

Hemsley, Gayle; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara



Teach Yourself VISUALLY Word 2010  

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Learn to use Microsoft Word 2010 the easy, visual way. Word is the most popular application in the Microsoft Office suite, and Word 2010 has some exciting new features. If you learn best when you can see how something is done, you'll find the step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots make it quick and easy to learn this new version of Word. The visual format helps you understand Word's new features, including Web Apps and the revised user interface. Learn to set up and format documents, work with graphics, use Mail Merge, post documents to the Web, and more.: Word 2010 includes sup

Marmel, Elaine



WordSpy: identifying transcription factor binding motifs by building a dictionary and learning a grammar. (United States)

Transcription factor (TF) binding sites or motifs (TFBMs) are functional cis-regulatory DNA sequences that play an essential role in gene transcriptional regulation. Although many experimental and computational methods have been developed, finding TFBMs remains a challenging problem. We propose and develop a novel dictionary based motif finding algorithm, which we call WordSpy. One significant feature of WordSpy is the combination of a word counting method and a statistical model which consists of a dictionary of motifs and a grammar specifying their usage. The algorithm is suitable for genome-wide motif finding; it is capable of discovering hundreds of motifs from a large set of promoters in a single run. We further enhance WordSpy by applying gene expression information to separate true TFBMs from spurious ones, and by incorporating negative sequences to identify discriminative motifs. In addition, we also use randomly selected promoters from the genome to evaluate the significance of the discovered motifs. The output from WordSpy consists of an ordered list of putative motifs and a set of regulatory sequences with motif binding sites highlighted. The web server of WordSpy is available at PMID:15980501

Wang, Guandong; Yu, Taotao; Zhang, Weixiong



Different Kinds of Information Affect Word Learning in the Preschool Years: The Case of Part-Term Learning (United States)

Two studies investigated how preschool children's interpretations of novel words as names for parts of objects were affected by 3 kinds of information: (a) whole object familiarity, (b) whole part juxtaposition, and (c) syntactic information indicating possession. Study 1 tested 3- to 4-year-olds and found that although there was evidence that all…

Saylor, Megan M.; Sabbagh, Mark A.



The Flexible Learning System: A Program for Early Childhood Staff Development. Project Documentary. (United States)

This report is a description of the Flexible Learning System (FLS) project as viewed from the three major work phases of development, research and implementation. The Flexibile Learning System (FLS) began as an outgrowth of the Far West Laboratory's several years of investment in research and development of a Responsive Model of Early Childhood…

Tanaka, Masako N.; And Others


Magical Words (United States)

Prompted by a parent's comment that indicated a desire for her elementary-age children to learn the elements and principles of design in their art class, the author set out to enrich her own understanding and appreciation of the language used in the art room. Looking at word origins helps students appreciate the significance of art and craft in…

Strauch-Nelson, Wendy



Associative asymmetry of compound words. (United States)

Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A??) and backward (??B) cued recall. This was viewed as arguing against the independent-associations hypothesis and in favor of the hypothesis that associations are remembered as holistic units. Here we test the Holistic Representation hypothesis further by examining cued recall of compound words. If we suppose preexisting words are more unitized than novel associations, the Holistic Representation hypothesis predicts compound words (e.g., ROSE BUD) will have a higher forward-backward correlation than novel compounds (e.g., BRIEF TAX). We report the opposite finding: Compound words, as well as noncompound words, exhibited less associative symmetry than novel compounds. This challenges the Holistic Representation account of associative symmetry. Moreover, preexperimental associates (positional family size) influenced associative symmetry-but asymmetrically: Increasing family size of the last constituent increasing decoupled forward and backward recall, but family size of the 1st constituent had no such effect. In short, highly practiced, meaningful associations exhibit associative asymmetry, suggesting associative symmetry is not diagnostic of holistic representations but, rather, is a characteristic of ad hoc associations. With additional learning, symmetric associations may be replaced by directional, independently modifiable associations as verbal associations become embedded within a rich knowledge structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24773284

Caplan, Jeremy B; Boulton, Kathy L; Gagné, Christina L



Emergence and retention of learning in early fetal development. (United States)

Prior research has demonstrated that the late-term fetus is capable of learning and then remembering a passage of speech for several days, but there are no data to describe the earliest emergence of learning a passage of speech, and thus, how long that learning could be remembered before birth. This study investigated these questions. Pregnant women began reciting or speaking a passage out loud (either Rhyme A or Rhyme B) when their fetuses were 28 weeks gestational age (GA) and continued to do so until their fetuses reached 34 weeks of age, at which time the recitations stopped. Fetuses' learning and memory of their rhyme were assessed at 28, 32, 33, 34, 36 and 38 weeks. The criterion for learning and memory was the occurrence of a stimulus-elicited heart rate deceleration following onset of a recording of the passage spoken by a female stranger. Detection of a sustained heart rate deceleration began to emerge by 34 weeks GA and was statistically evident at 38 weeks GA. Thus, fetuses begin to show evidence of learning by 34 weeks GA and, without any further exposure to it, are capable of remembering until just prior to birth. Further study using dose-response curves is needed in order to more fully understand how ongoing experience, in the context of ongoing development in the last trimester of pregnancy, affects learning and memory. PMID:24548971

Krueger, Charlene; Garvan, Cynthia



Signature Pedagogy in Early Years Education: A Role for COTS Game-Based Learning (United States)

In this article we look at the links between early years pedagogy and the use of digital game-based learning. Early years education is a distinctive phase of the education system in many countries, generally covering the age range from 3-6 or 7 years. In the United Kingdom, it tends to bridge preschool and the first two years in primary school.…

Miller, David; Robertson, Derek; Hudson, Alison; Shimi, Jill



The subthalamic nucleus modulates the early phase of probabilistic classification learning. (United States)

Previous models proposed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is critical in the early phase of skill acquisition. We hypothesized that subthalamic deep brain stimulation modulates the learning curve in early classification learning. Thirteen idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (iPD) with subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), 9 medically treated iPD, and 21 age-matched healthy controls were tested with a probabilistic classification task. STN-DBS patients were tested with stimulation OFF and ON, and medically treated patients with medication OFF and ON, respectively. Performance and reaction time were analyzed on the first 100 consecutive trials as early learning phase. Moreover, data were separated for low and high-probability patterns, and more differentiated strategy analyses were used. The major finding was a significant modulation of the learning curve in DBS patients with stimulation ON: although overall learning was similar to healthy controls, only the stimulation ON group showed a transient significant performance dip from trials '41-60' that rapidly recovered. Further analysis indicated that this might be paralleled by a modulation of the learning strategy, particularly on the high-probability patterns. The reaction time was unchanged during the dip. Our study supports that the STN serves as a relay in early classification learning and directs attention toward unacquainted content. The STN might play a role in balancing the short-term success against strategy optimization for improved long-term outcome. PMID:24718493

Weiss, Daniel; Lam, Judith M; Breit, Sorin; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Krüger, Rejko; Luft, Andreas R; Wächter, Tobias



Word 2013 for dummies  

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This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

Gookin, Dan



Early Learning Standards: Results from a National Survey to Document Trends in State-Level Policies and Practices  

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Full Text Available Early learning standards—documents that outline what children should know and be able to do before kindergarten entry—are increasingly common in the United States. Data from a national survey are presented to illustrate trends in how states have developed and implemented early learning standards within the past four years. Results indicate that almost all states have developed early learning standards for prekindergarten-age children, and the number of states that have developed infant-toddler early learning standards has increased markedly. States have used a variety of strategies to support teachers in their use of early learning standards, and a number of states have or are developing monitoring systems to gauge the extent to which programs are using the standards. The authors discuss the implications that trends related to the development and implementation of early learning standards have for early childhood policies and practices, and they discuss areas where further research is needed.

Jana Martella



Word, Definitions and Concepts in Discourses of Mathematics, Teaching and Learning (United States)

National Numeracy Strategy (NNS) guidance appears to characterise mathematical language as a set of specialist words with unambiguous definitions, yet analysis of the classroom transcript suggests that at least some mathematical concepts cannot be captured by such definitions. This paper explores the notion of definition within mathematics,…

Morgan, Candia



Enactive Approach To Word Problems in a Computer Environment Enhances Mathematical Learning for Teachers. (United States)

Suggests that using the iconic and computing features of a spreadsheet enhances the transition from natural language sentences to pictorial and numerical representations of algebraic word problems. Presents work performed in a lab setting with preservice and inservice teachers enrolled in contemporary general mathematics and problem-solving…

Abramovich, Sergei; Nabors, Wanda



What Can Graph Theory Tell Us about Word Learning and Lexical Retrieval? (United States)

Purpose: Graph theory and the new science of networks provide a mathematically rigorous approach to examine the development and organization of complex systems. These tools were applied to the mental lexicon to examine the organization of words in the lexicon and to explore how that structure might influence the acquisition and retrieval of…

Vitevitch, Michael S.



Implicit Statistical Learning in Language Processing: Word Predictability is the Key  

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Fundamental learning abilities related to the implicit encoding of sequential structure have been postulated to underlie language acquisition and processing. However, there is very little direct evidence to date supporting such a link between implicit statistical learning and language. In three experiments using novel methods of assessing implicit learning and language abilities, we show that sensitivity to sequential structure -- as measured by improvements to immediate memory span for struc...

Conway, Christopher M.; Baurnschmidt, Althea; Huang, Sean; Pisoni, David B.



Fundamentals of the Design and the Operation of an Intelligent Tutoring System for the Learning of the Arithmetical and Algebraic Way of Solving Word Problems (United States)

Designers of interactive learning environments with a focus on word problem solving usually have to compromise between the amount of resolution paths that a user is allowed to follow and the quality of the feedback provided. We have built an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that is able to both track the user's actions and provide adequate…

Arnau, David; Arevalillo-Herraez, Miguel; Puig, Luis; Gonzalez-Calero, Jose Antonio



Strategy Choice in Solving Arithmetic Word Problems: Are There Differences between Students with Learning Disabilities, G-V Poor Performance, and Typical Achievement Students? (United States)

A study was designed to test whether there are differences between Spanish children (ages 7-9) with arithmetic learning disabilities (n=60), garden-variety (G-V) poor performance (n=44), and typical children (n=44) in strategy choice when solving arithmetic word problems. No significant differences were found between children with dyscalculia and…

Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Espinel, Ana Isabel Garcia



Spike Timing Dependent Competitive Learning in Recurrent Self Organizing Pulsed Neural Networks Case Study: Phoneme and Word Recognition  

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Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity seems to be a capital aspect of the dynamics of neural networks. It is about the physiological modifications of the synapse, which have like consequence a variation of the value of the synaptic weight. The information encoding is based on the precise timing of single spike events that is based on the relative timing of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes, local synapse competitions within a single neuron and global competition via lateral connections. In order to classify temporal sequences, we present in this paper how to use a local hebbian learning, spike-timing dependent plasticity for unsupervised competitive learning, preserving self-organizing maps of spiking neurons. In fact we present three variants of self-organizing maps (SOM with spike-timing dependent Hebbian learning rule, the Leaky Integrators Neurons (LIN, the Spiking_SOM and the recurrent Spiking_SOM (RSSOM models. The case study of the proposed SOM variants is phoneme classification and word recognition in continuous speech and speaker independent.

Tarek Behi



Implicit Statistical Learning in Language Processing: Word Predictability Is the Key (United States)

Fundamental learning abilities related to the implicit encoding of sequential structure have been postulated to underlie language acquisition and processing. However, there is very little direct evidence to date supporting such a link between implicit statistical learning and language. In three experiments using novel methods of assessing implicit…

Conway, Christopher M.; Bauernschmidt, Althea; Huang, Sean S.; Pisoni, David B.



The Role of Embodied Intention in Early Lexical Acquisition (United States)

We examine the influence of inferring interlocutors' referential intentions from their body movements at the early stage of lexical acquisition. By testing human participants and comparing their performances in different learning conditions, we find that those embodied intentions facilitate both word discovery and word-meaning association. In…

Yu, Chen; Ballard, Dana H.; Aslin, Richard N.



Using Machine Learning Algorithms for Word Sense Disambiguation: A Brief Survey  

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In the entire vocabulary of Human language, numerous words have more than one distinct meaning and thus present a contextual ambiguity which is a worth of one of the many language based problems needs procedure based resolution. Approaches to WSD are often classified according to the main source of knowledge used in sense differentiation. Methods that rely primarily on dictionaries, thesauri, and lexical knowledge bases, without using any corpus evidence, are termed dictionary-based or knowle...



Multiple Labels for Objects in Conversations with Young Children: Parents' Language and Children's Developing Expectations about Word Meanings (United States)

Children sometimes seem to expect words to have mutually exclusive meanings in certain contexts of early word learning. In 2 studies, 12- to 24-month-old children and their parents were videotaped as they engaged in conversations while playing with sets of toys (sea creatures, vehicles, doll clothing) in free-play, storytelling, and categorization…

Callanan, Maureen A.; Sabbagh, Mark A.



The Language Learning Motivation of Early Adolescent French Immersion Graduates (United States)

This interpretive multiple case study examines the motivation to learn a second language among sixth grade students who attended a French immersion school for grades K-5. Parent surveys, student surveys based on Gardner's Attitude/Motivation Test Battery, and individual and group interviews with students were the data sources used to identify…

Wesely, Pamela M.



Is assessment for learning possible in early school years?  

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Nowadays, most countries consider assessment for learning a challenge towards a more inclusive school. Their adherence to the idea may be consensual but the practices don’t seem to express this desire yet. Many teachers have been wondering whether there is an appropriate minimum age for students to reflect upon their actions, along with their teacher, so to overcome difficulties. This article reports a study that seeks to understand assessment practices, developed for five and eigh...

Santos, Leonor; Pinto, Jorge



Early learning about ORT; children can be teachers. (United States)

79 children from 2 primary schools in Tanzania practiced 2 lessons in oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for diarrhea, reviewed what they had learned with their mothers and mothers were asked about their knowledge before and after the lessons. The classes entailed making visual aids and making the oral rehydration solution. Mothers were generally familiar with seriousness of infantile diarrhea, had heard of or seen ORT used at clinics, but often did not know how to make solutions properly or the reason for the therapy. After the childrens' instruction, mothers were better able to recognize signs of dehydration such as decrease in urine, dry mouth, sunken fontanelle and eyes. Many more understood why rehydration is used, and could make solutions properly. The success of this trial is significant because there are many times more primary schools in some developing countries than there are health clinics. In another setting, Bombay, India, primary school children learned about diarrhea and ORT by means of a simple board game. The children learned the causes, symptoms, signs and treatment in simple rhymes, which they bring home to their families. PMID:12341645

Swai, M



Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression  

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Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.




Discovering Words in Fluent Speech: The Contribution of Two Kinds of Statistical Information  

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Full Text Available To efficiently segment fluent speech, infants must discover the predominant phonological form of words in the native language. In English, for example, content words typically begin with a stressed syllable. To discover this regularity, infants need to identify a set of words. We propose that statistical learning plays two roles in this process. First, it provides a cue that allows infants to segment words from fluent speech, even without language-specific phonological knowledge. Second, once infants have identified a set of lexical forms, they can learn from the distribution of acoustic features across those word forms. The current experiments demonstrate both processes are available to 5-month-old infants. This is an earlier age than prior demonstration of sensitivity to statistical structure in speech, and consistent with theoretical accounts that claim statistical learning plays a role in helping infants to adapt to the structure of their native language from very early in life.




Investigating Learning Space with Photography in Early Childhood Education: A Participatory Research Approach  

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Full Text Available Contemporary research in early childhood education turned from adult-centered orientations to investigations based on children’s views, involved in data collection as competent research informants. Within this context, a variety of creative methodological frames and tools infused specific research. The present contribution discusses and exemplifies one of the innovative research tools in early education research, namely photography, through a small-scale qualitative study conducted with preschoolers as main data collectors. The study focuses on children’s perceptions of their learning space, in its very material understanding, in an attempt to challenge at the same time anthropocentric tendencies in early education research. Data are discussed mainly against the methodological framework, but discussions also emphasize materiality and material surroundings as sources and determinants of early learning experiences. Photographs produced by preschoolers as research participants illustrate their balanced orientation towards human and material determinants of their learning processes: although instructed to take photos of their learning space, final data included a large percentage of photos with human figures as central points of interest (either early education professionals or peers. These results are consistent with findings of similar studies, as well as participants’ preference for outdoor settings and indoor objects with aesthetic value.

Nicoleta Laura POPA



Abnormal explicit but not implicit sequence learning in pre-manifest and early Huntington’s disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Learning may occur with or without awareness, as explicit (intentional) or implicit (incidental) learning. The caudate nucleus and the putamen, which are affected early in Huntington’s disease (HD), are thought to be essential for motor sequence learning. However, the results of existing studies are inconsistent concerning presence/absence of deficits in implicit and explicit motor sequence learning in HD. We assessed implicit and explicit motor sequence learning using sequences of equivale...

Schneider, Susanne A.; Wilkinson, Leonora; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Henley, Susie; Rothwell, John C.; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Jahanshahi, Marjan



Children's early approaches to learning and academic trajectories through fifth grade. (United States)

Children's early approaches to learning (ATL) enhance their adaptation to the demands they experience with the start of formal schooling. The current study uses individual growth modeling to investigate whether children's early ATL, which includes persistence, emotion regulation, and attentiveness, explain individual differences in their academic trajectories during elementary school. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the present investigation examined the association between ATL at kindergarten entry and trajectories of reading and math achievement across 6 waves of data from kindergarten, 1st, 3rd, and 5th grade (n = 10,666). The current study found a positive link between early ATL and individual trajectories of reading and math performance. Overall, children's early ATL was equally beneficial for children regardless of their race/ethnicity and dimensions of their socioeconomic background. However, links between early ATL and academic trajectories differed by their gender and initial levels of math and reading achievement. PMID:20822223

Li-Grining, Christine P; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Maldonado-Carreńo, Carolina; Haas, Kelly



WordPress Bible  

CERN Document Server

The WordPress Bible provides a complete and thorough guide to the largest self hosted blogging tool. This guide starts by covering the basics of WordPress such as installing and the principles of blogging, marketing and social media interaction, but then quickly ramps the reader up to more intermediate to advanced level topics such as plugins, WordPress Loop, themes and templates, custom fields, caching, security and more. The WordPress Bible is the only complete resource one needs to learning WordPress from beginning to end.

Brazell, Aaron



Problem-based learning spanning real and virtual words: a case study in Second Life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing use of immersive virtual environments for educational purposes. However, much of this activity is not yet documented in the public domain, or is descriptive rather than analytical. This paper presents a case study in which university students were tasked with building an interactive learning experience using Second Life as a platform. Both problem-based learning and constructionism acted as framing pedagogies for the task, with students working in teams to design and build a learning experience which could potentially meet the needs of a real client in innovative ways which might not be possible in real life. A process account of the experience is provided, which examines how the pedagogies and contexts (real and virtual influence and enhance each other. The use of a virtual environment, combined with problem-based learning and constructionism, subtly changed the nature of the instructor–student relationship, allowed students to explore ‘problematic problems' in a motivating and relevant manner, provided students with greater ownership over their work, and allowed problems to be set which were flexible, but at the same time allowed for ease of assessment.

Judith Good



Powerful Students, Powerful Words: Writing and Learning in a Poetry Workshop (United States)

A poetry workshop can present opportunities to integrate students' knowledge and perspectives in classroom contexts, encouraging the use of language for expression, communication, learning and even empowerment. This paper describes how adolescent students respond to a poetry workshop in an English classroom centred on teaching writing that is…

Wiseman, Angela



The Effect of the Temporal Structure of Spoken Words on Paired-Associate Learning (United States)

In a series of experiments, participants learned to associate black-and-white shapes with nonsense spoken labels (e.g., "joop"). When tested on their recognition memory, participants falsely recognized as correct a shape paired with a label that began with the same sounds as the shape's original label (onset-overlapping lure; e.g., "joob") more…

Creel, Sarah C.; Dahan, Delphine



The Willy Wagtail Tale: Knowledge Management and E-Learning Enriching Multiliteracies in the Early Years  

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Full Text Available While our multimedia world, with rapid advances in technologies, now challenges educators to consider new pedagogies that expand cultural and linguistic diversity, the potential for information and communication technologies (ICT to support literacy learning in the early years remains a seriously under-researched area. There is an urgency to address a range of questions raised by teacher practitioners such as what new literacies will look like in their programs, how ICT can be used to learn in new ways, and which pedagogies of multiliteracies are relevant for early childhood education. This paper explores these questions in relation to knowledge management initiatives and e-learning opportunities. The Willy Wagtail Tale presents a case study of how knowledge management and e-learning is socially constructed to enrich multiliteracies experiences in the early years. The study occurred in a small Western Australian school committed to the Reggio Emilia teaching approach. Implications for educational research are that multiliteracies experiences occur inadvertently through children’s play, are integral to The Hundred Languages of Children, and are dramatically enriched through social constructivist knowledge management and child-centered e-learning.

Sandra Hesterman



The Effect of Early Reading Failure on Acquisition of Knowledge among Students with Learning Disabilities. (United States)

This article considers the ramifications of early reading failure within the context of J. Chall's five-stage model of reading development: (1) initial decoding, (2) fluency, (3) reading for meaning, (4) relationships and viewpoints, and (5) synthesis. Instructional implications include learning disabled students' special need for good instruction…

Snider, Vicki E.; Tarver, Sara G.



"Teacher, There's an Elephant in the Room!" An Inquiry Approach to Preschoolers' Early Language Learning (United States)

Children need sound language and literacy skills to communicate with others and actively participate in a classroom learning community. When an early childhood classroom offers a language- and literacy-rich environment, children have numerous opportunities to practice language and literacy in a social setting. A language-rich classroom includes an…

Kampmann, Jennifer Anne; Bowne, Mary Teresa



Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview (United States)

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen



Early warnings, weak signals and learning from healthcare disasters. (United States)

In the wake of healthcare disasters, such as the appalling failures of care uncovered in Mid Staffordshire, inquiries and investigations often point to a litany of early warnings and weak signals that were missed, misunderstood or discounted by the professionals and organisations charged with monitoring the safety and quality of care. Some of the most urgent challenges facing those responsible for improving and regulating patient safety are therefore how to identify, interpret, integrate and act on the early warnings and weak signals of emerging risks-before those risks contribute to a disastrous failure of care. These challenges are fundamentally organisational and cultural: they relate to what information is routinely noticed, communicated and attended to within and between healthcare organisations-and, most critically, what is assumed and ignored. Analysing these organisational and cultural challenges suggests three practical ways that healthcare organisations and their regulators can improve safety and address emerging risks. First, engage in practices that actively produce and amplify fleeting signs of ignorance. Second, work to continually define and update a set of specific fears of failure. And third, routinely uncover and publicly circulate knowledge on the sources of systemic risks to patient safety and the improvements required to address them. PMID:24599729

Macrae, Carl



The effects of using flashcards with reading racetrack to teach letter sounds, sight words, and math facts to elementary students with learning disabilities  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of reading racetrack and flashcards when teaching phonics, sight words, and addition facts. The participants for the sight word and phonics portion of this study were two seven-year-old boys in the second grade. Both participants were diagnosed with a learning disability. The third participant was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by his pediatrician and with a learning disability and traumatic brain injury by his school’s multi-disciplinary team.. The dependent measures were corrects and errors when reading from a first grade level sight word list. Math facts were selected based on a 100 add fact test for the third participant. The study demonstrated that racetracks paired with the flashcard intervention improved the students’ number of corrects for each subject-matter area (phonics, sight words, and math facts. However, the results show that some students had more success with it than others. These outcomes clearly warrant further research.

Rachel ERBEY



"In Our Own Words": Creating Videos as Teaching and Learning Tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Online videos, particularly those on YouTube, have proliferated on the internet; watching them has become part of our everyday activity. While libraries have often harnessed the power of videos to create their own promotional and informational videos, few have created their own teaching and learning tools beyond screencasting videos. In the summer of 2010, the authors, two librarians at York University, decided to work on a video project which culminated in a series of instructional videos en...

Norda Majekodunmi; Kent Murnaghan



Creating the Conditions for Success with Early Learning Standards: Results from a National Study of State-Level Standards for Children's Learning Prior to Kindergarten  

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Full Text Available Historically the field of early care and education has focused on one type of standards?program standards to define requirements for important features of the services children receive. Recently another type of standards has come to the forefront of early care and education policy and practice?early learning standards that define expectations for children's learning and development. This article reports the results of a national study undertaken to collect data on early learning standards across the country. Using the position statement on early learning standards recently adopted by the National Association for the Education of Young Children and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education as a framework for analyzing data from the study, this article presents data on which states have early learning standards, how they were developed, and how they are being used. The article suggests that many of the "conditions for success" described in the position statement are being addressed but also outlines several recommendations for improvements in how early learning standards are developed and implemented.

Catherine Scott-Little



Learning to remember: The early ontogeny of episodic memory? (United States)

Over the past 60 years the neural correlates of human episodic memory have been the focus of intense neuroscientific scrutiny. By contrast, neuroscience has paid substantially less attention to understanding the emergence of this neurocognitive system. In this review we consider how the study of memory development has evolved. In doing so, we concentrate primarily on the first postnatal year because it is within this time window that the most dramatic shifts in scientific opinion have occurred. Moreover, this time frame includes the critical age (?9 months) at which human infants purportedly first begin to demonstrate rudimentary hippocampal-dependent memory. We review the evidence for and against this assertion, note the lack of direct neurocognitive data speaking to this issue, and question how demonstrations of exuberant relational learning and memory in infants as young as 3-months old can be accommodated within extant models. Finally, we discuss whether current impasses in the infant memory literature could be leveraged by making greater use of neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which have been deployed so successfully in adults.

Mullally, Sinead L.; Maguire, Eleanor A.



Desarrollo psíquico temprano y aprendizaje / Early psychological development and learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El aumento de las consultas relacionadas con dificultades de atención, hiperactividad y trastornos de comportamiento constatado en los nińos al inicio de la enseńanza primaria (escolaridad propiamente dicha) lleva a los autores a reflexionar sobre la influencia de los acelerados cambios en las socie [...] dades desarrolladas en el desarrollo psíquico y la organización de la personalidad. Se hace énfasis sobre los procesos de latencia (sublimación, control de la motricidad y del paso al acto) como posibilitadores de los aprendizajes escolares y su puesta en marcha en los nińos de hoy. Abstract in english The ultimate increased volume of outpatient first consultations related to attention impairment, hyperactivity and conduct disorders in children starting Lower School led the authors to ponder about the influence that high speed changes in developed societies have upon psychological development and [...] personality organization. Emphasis is made on latency processes (sublimation, motor control and acting out) as learning promoters in the school environment of here and now kids.

Fernando, González-Serrano; Xabier, Tapia; Manuel, Hernanz; Francisco, Vaccari.



Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is a fact that only hereditary, i.e. genetic factors are not sufficient for development of a child’s brain; on the contrary, a child needs external stimuli expressed through touch, speech, images, which lead to the conclusion that immediate and extended surroundings shape the brain, meaning that the external stimuli, stronger or weaker, mutually connect the brain cells and neurons. Questions regarding the development of mathematical manner of thinking are mostly based on the natural process of learning, however, this paper deals with deeper set of problems, which are not only difficult to resolve but possibly there is no resolution. Namely, a question is posed what is the appropriate age when a child is ready and able to solve certain mathematical problems or notice mathematical principles, that is, whether they are actually exist clearly defined age boundaries based on which a conclusion could be made about the time and individual is ready to solve mathematical problems of a concrete difficulty level or to notice mathematical laws.

Sead Reši?



Get by with a Little Help from a Word: Multimodal Input Facilitates 26-Month-Olds' Ability to Map and Generalize Arbitrary Gestural Labels (United States)

In the early stages of word learning, children demonstrate considerable flexibility in the type of symbols they will accept as object labels. However, around the 2nd year, as children continue to gain language experience, they become focused on more conventional symbols (e.g., words) as opposed to less conventional symbols (e.g., gestures). During…

Wilbourn, Makeba Parramore; Sims, Jacqueline Prince



The effect of the temporal structure of spoken words on paired-associate learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a series of experiments, participants learned to associate black-and-white shapes with nonsense spoken labels (e.g., “joop”). When tested on their recognition memory, participants falsely recognized as correct a shape paired with a label that began with the same sounds as the shape’s original label (onset-overlapping lure, e.g., joob) more often than a shape paired with a label that overlapped with the original label at offset (offset-overlapping lure, e.g., choop). Furthermore, the ...

Creel, Sarah C.; Dahan, Delphine



Early Cretaceous climate change (Hauterivian - Early Aptian): Learning from the past to prevent modern reefs decline (United States)

In the last decades, the anthropogenic increase pCO2atm has been considered as one of the main contributors for the decline of modern coral reefs, and nearly 60% of these marine ecosystems are presently threatened (Bryant et al., 1998). Interactions between anthropogenic change and reef growth can, however, not be reduced to a single factor, and it is essential to look at the Earth's history to understand and counterbalance. During the Early Cretaceous, enhanced pCO2atm may have been responsible, at least in part, for the demise of the carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys through climatic feedback mechanisms. From the Hauterivian to the Early Aptian, increased rainfalls are documented from the clay-mineral association, by a change from a smectite-dominated (most of the Hauterivian), to a kaolinite-dominated assemblage (latest Hauterivian up to the early Late Barremian). This switch is dated to the Pseudothurmannia ohmi ammonozone in the Vocontian Trough of southeastern France (Angles section, Godet et al., 2008). It is immediately followed in time by major nutrient input, as is illustrated by the substantial increase in phosphorus accumulation rates (PAR), not only in this section, but also in the Ultrahelvetic area of Switzerland and in the Umbria-Marche basin of Italy (Bodin et al., 2006). On the other hand, the remainder of the Hauterivian is characterized by PAR mean values characteristic of mesotrophic conditions, whereas the Late Barremian witnesses the return to oligotrophic environments (lower PAR values). Synchronously, these perturbations are mirrored on the platform by changes in the type of carbonate ecosystems. Indeed, a stronger continental runoff, and a subsequent input in the oceanic domain of nutrients (e.g., phosphorus) and clastic material modified marine palaeoenvironmental conditions and triggered changes in ecosystems. A unique archive of the Early Cretaceous carbonate platform is preserved in the Helvetic Alps, where the Kieselkalk Formation (Fm), is dated as Hauterivian; it consists of a quartz-bearing crinoidal limestone with bryozoans (Föllmi et al., 2007). The Lidernen Member (Mb; glauconitic and phosphatic interval) splits the Kieselkalk Fm into a lower and an upper part. Following on top of the Kieselkalk Fm, the Altmann Mb represents a second phase of slow-down or even cessation in the platform ecosystem activity, when the PAR values are the highest in basinal sections. This suggests that high trophic levels control the disappearance of healthy carbonate ecosystems; this hypothesis is testified by the rise of Urgonian-type carbonates during time of low nutrient input in the Late Barremian (Schrattenkalk Fm from the Gerhardtia sartousiana ammonozone upward). Interestingly, the same evolutionary pattern is recovered in the western Swiss Jura, where heterozoan association characterizes the Pierre Jaune de Neuchâtel (Hauterivian), whereas the Urgonien Blanc (Late Barremian - earliest Aptian), corresponds to photozoan carbonates deposited under oligotrophic conditions, as is suggested by the presence of rudists and corals. References Bodin et al., 2006. "The late Hauterivian Faraoni oceanic anoxic event in the western Tethys: Evidence from phosphorus burial rates." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 235: 245-264. Bryant et al., 1998. Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of Potential Threats to the World's Coral Reefs. Washington D.C. Föllmi et al., 2007. "Unlocking paleo-environmental interaction from Early Cretceous shelf sediments in the Helvetic Alps: stratigraphy is the key!" Swiss Journal of Geosciences 100: 349-369. Godet et al., 2008. "Platform-induced clay-mineral fractionation along a northern Tethyan basin-platform transect: implications for the interpretation of Early Cretaceous climate change (Late Hauterivian-Early Aptian)." Cretaceous Research 29: 830-847.

Godet, Alexis; Bodin, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.



Jail Participants Actively Study Words (United States)

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of a word study literacy approach on the spelling ability and self-efficacy of adults in a county jail. Forty-four inmates participated in the word study intervention that provided them with hands-on learning. The word study intervention was conducted in four separate sessions (September,…

Shaw, Donita Massengill; Berg, Margaret A.



Beyond words. Action and learning from Oxfam's Gender Policy Implementation Workshop. (United States)

Oxfam UK/I sponsored a gender learning workshop in April 1996 for 40 Oxfam staff members from around the world as well as UK-based staff and invited guests. Case studies were presented as examples of good practice, and key issues such as management performance and the use of incentives for developing the best practice on gender were discussed. Major issues generating debate centered around budget cuts versus gender performance and the need for leadership commitment. The workshop provided an opportunity to examine gender practice from the point of view of front-line personnel. The International Director of Oxfam UK/I stressed the importance of focusing the agency's work through a gender perspective. PMID:12347255



Learning words by hand: Gesture’s role in predicting vocabulary development  

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Children vary widely in how quickly their vocabularies grow. Can looking at early gesture use in children and parents help us predict this variability? We videotaped 53 English-speaking parent-child dyads in their homes during their daily activities for 90-minutes every four months between child age 14 and 34 months. At 42 months, children were given the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). We found that child gesture use at 14 months was a significant predictor of vocabulary size at 42 mo...

Rowe, Meredith L.; O?zc?alis?kan, S?eyda; Goldin-meadow, Susan



Conceptual Foundations and Components of a Contextual Intervention to Promote Student Engagement during Early Adolescence: The Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Success (SEALS) Model (United States)

Decades of research indicate that many early adolescents are at risk for developing significant school adjustment problems in the academic, behavioral, and social domains during the transition to middle school. The Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Success (SEALS) model has been developed as a professional development and…

Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Hall, Cristin M.; Murray, Robert A.



Developing learning environments which support early algebraic reasoning: a case from a New Zealand primary classroom (United States)

Current reforms in mathematics education advocate the development of mathematical learning communities in which students have opportunities to engage in mathematical discourse and classroom practices which underlie algebraic reasoning. This article specifically addresses the pedagogical actions teachers take which structure student engagement in dialogical discourse and activity which facilitates early algebraic reasoning. Using videotaped recordings of classroom observations, the teacher and researcher collaboratively examined the classroom practices and modified the participatory practices to develop a learning environment which supported early algebraic reasoning. Facilitating change in the classroom environment was a lengthy process which required consistent and ongoing attention initially to the social norms and then to the socio-mathematical norms. Specific pedagogical actions such as the use of specifically designed tasks, materials and representations and a constant press for justification and generalisation were required to support students to link their numerical understandings to algebraic reasoning.

Hunter, Jodie



Oxytocin in learning and addiction: From early discoveries to the present. (United States)

Oxytocin (OXT) has a plethora of effects on brain function. This review provides a historical overview of the development of research on OXT and drug addiction. By focusing on research that has emerged from our laboratories, we describe how early discoveries of the influence of OXT on learning and memory processes and the emerging conceptualization of addiction as 'pathological learning' have contributed to the demonstration that OXT effectively attenuates long-term neuroadaptation related to opiate and psychostimulant addiction. Through integrating earlier evidence with recent discoveries of the social/affiliative role of OXT, we propose that OXT may interfere with reward and addiction by influencing neurobiological processes involved in stress, learning and memory and social/affiliative behavior. PMID:24280016

Sarnyai, Zoltán; Kovács, Gábor L



The Utility of Vygotskian Behavioral Criteria in the Early Childhood Classroom: Learning from Non-compliance  

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Non-compliant behavior in young children is consistently an area of concern for the teachers and caregivers ofyoung children. These behaviors can disrupt learning, teaching and positive social interactions, increase referralsfor special services, discourage the teacher, and reduce positive interactions with family. Behaviors such asdefiance and non-compliance also present early childhood educators with difficult situations in their classrooms,are often considered indic...

Laura Reynolds-Keefer



Patterns of Variation: A Way to Support and Challenge Early Childhood Learning?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose in this article is to elaborate on how the use of patterns of variation designed by variation theory can challenge and develop the early childhood education (ECE) practice. The analysis is based on six learning study (LS) projects conducted in Swedish ECE. A LS is a systematical, theoretical based development of teacher professionalism, often in close cooperation with researchers. The projects included 17 teachers, 140 children and 7 researchers. The video docu...

Agneta Ljung-Djärf; Mona Holmqvist Olander Brante; Eva Wennĺs Brante



Exploring Partnerships in Early Childhood Teacher Education through Scenario-based Learning  

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Belonging to “a family, a cultural group, a neighbourhood and a wider community” (Department of Education,Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR], 2009, p. 7) is integral to children’s early development and learning.Acknowledging families as “children’s first and most influential educators” (DEEWR, 2009, p. 7), DEEWR notes that,“as children participate in everyday life, they develop interests and construct their own identities and understandings ofthe world” (Ibid). So, whe...

Reesa Sorin



Using Technology in Early Childhood Environments - Facilitating Learning and Child-Family-Community Connections  

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Pedagogy is demonstrated for using technological resources (computer, digital camera, software, and printer) for an early childhood learning environment to create curriculum materials, enhance activities, and promote child-family-community interactions. Developing lesson materials for introducing concepts; virtual trips into the community; and communication with families are integrated into the daily program planning. This approach using technology always supports and does not overshadow the ...

Murphy, Frances L.



?7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: Role in Early Odor Learning Preference in Mice  

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Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of ?7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7) in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased ?7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP), an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented s...

Hellier, Jennifer L.; Arevalo, Nicole L.; Smith, Lynelle; Xiong, Ka-na; Restrepo, Diego



Affective style and early life experiences moderate cortisol's effects on emotional learning  

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Background : Relatively little is known about how lasting qualities of the individual (e.g., traits and/or one's past history) moderate the effects of cortisol on emotional learning. We hypothesized that cortisol would have more pronounced effects on memory formation in individuals who show greater levels of trait negative affect (Trait NA) or who experienced early life separation (ELS). Methods : In Study 1, involving 42 healthy adults (22 women), we examined how Trait NA moderated th...



Patterns of Variation: A Way to Support and Challenge Early Childhood Learning?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose in this article is to elaborate on how the use of patterns of variation designed by variation theory can challenge and develop the early childhood education (ECE practice. The analysis is based on six learning study (LS projects conducted in Swedish ECE. A LS is a systematical, theoretical based development of teacher professionalism, often in close cooperation with researchers. The projects included 17 teachers, 140 children and 7 researchers. The video documented empirical material consists of 16 analysis meetings, 14 interventions and 407 pre-, post-, and delayed posttests. Each project is a concrete example of the use of patterns of variation to increase early childhood learning. In all cases a tendency of qualitative changes in children’s ways of discerning the object of learning could be noticed. The purpose is to search for how this can be understood from a variation theoretical perspective. The main focus is on changed ways of performing the interventions to search for how patterns of variation were used to create and capture the learning situations throughout the projects. One of our findings is that we have seen that it takes more than one intervention for the teachers to capture which aspects of the object of learning are critical in the targeted group, but as the iterative process allows them to try out the design more than once, they manage to find them. The second finding is that the teachers changed focus from taken for granted assumptions of each child to focusing on their own design to facilitate the child’s learning. Finally, the aspect supposed to be discerned has to vary against an invariant background to be discerned by the children, and to separate the principle from the representation is needed to be able to generalize their new knowledge.

Agneta Ljung-Djärf



Changes in visual object recognition precede the shape bias in early noun learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two of the most formidable skills that characterize human beings are language and our prowess in visual object recognition. They may also be developmentally intertwined. Two experiments, a large sample cross-sectional study and a smaller sample 6-month longitudinal study of 18- 24 month olds tested a hypothesized developmental link between changes in the visual object representation and noun learning. Previous findings in visual object recognition indicate that children’s ability to recognize common basic level categories from sparse structural shape representations of object shape emerges between the ages of 18 and 24 months, is related to noun vocabulary size, and is lacking in children with language delay. Other research shows that in artificial noun learning tasks, during this same developmental period, young children systematically generalize object names by shape, that this shape bias predicts future noun learning, and is lacking in children with language delay. The two experiments examine the developmental relation between visual object recognition and the shape bias for the first time. The results show that developmental changes in visual object recognition systematically preceded the emergence of the shape bias. The results suggest a developmental pathway in which early changes in visual object recognition that are themselves linked to category learning enable the discovery of higher-order regularities in category structure and thus the shape bias in novel noun learning tasks. The proposed developmental pathway has implications for understanding the role of specific experience in the development of both visual object recognition and the shape bias in early noun learning.




Age-related changes in learning across early childhood: a new imitation task. (United States)

Imitation plays a critical role in social and cognitive development, but the social learning mechanisms contributing to the development of imitation are not well understood. We developed a new imitation task designed to examine social learning mechanisms across the early childhood period. The new task involves assembly of abstract-shaped puzzle pieces in an arbitrary sequence on a magnet board. Additionally, we introduce a new scoring system that extends traditional goal-directed imitation scoring to include measures of both children's success at copying gestures (sliding the puzzle pieces) and goals (connecting the puzzle pieces). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated an age-invariant baseline from 1.5 to 3.5 years of age, accompanied by age-related changes in success at copying goals and gestures from a live demonstrator. In Experiment 2, we applied our new task to learning following a video demonstration. Imitation performance in the video demonstration group lagged behind that of the live demonstration group, showing a protracted video deficit effect. Across both experiments, children were more likely to copy gestures at earlier ages, suggesting mimicry, and only later copy both goals and gestures, suggesting imitation. Taken together, the findings suggest that different social learning strategies may predominate in imitation learning dependent upon the degree of object affordance, task novelty, and task complexity. PMID:22786801

Dickerson, Kelly; Gerhardstein, Peter; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel



Learning mathematics in two dimensions: a review and look ahead at teaching and learning early childhood mathematics with children's literature (United States)

In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne and Griffiths, 1991; Welchman-Tischler, 1992; Hong, 1996; Hellwig etal., 2000; Haury, 2001). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children’s mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O’Neill etal., 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004). For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children’s understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and van den Boogaard, 2008; Skoumpourdi and Mpakopoulou, 2011) and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (van Hiele, 1986; Clements etal., 1999; Hannibal, 1999). We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000), Schiro (1997), Hunsader (2004), and van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012). Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Clements and Sarama, 2000; Chard etal., 2008) which lead to misconceptions (Oberdorf and Taylor-Cox, 1999; Inan and Dogan-Temur, 2010). Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children’s literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children’s books in mathematics activities and for teacher training.

Flevares, Lucia M.; Schiff, Jamie R.



The Utility of Vygotskian Behavioral Criteria in the Early Childhood Classroom: Learning from Non-compliance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Non-compliant behavior in young children is consistently an area of concern for the teachers and caregivers ofyoung children. These behaviors can disrupt learning, teaching and positive social interactions, increase referralsfor special services, discourage the teacher, and reduce positive interactions with family. Behaviors such asdefiance and non-compliance also present early childhood educators with difficult situations in their classrooms,are often considered indicators of hyperactivity, attachment or relationship disturbances, and a predictors of lateracademic and socio-emotional problems. Despite being a common concern on the part of both families andcaregivers, relatively few tools exist that give early childhood educators ways in which to analyze these difficultbehaviors. This study explores the strengths, limitations and utility of the behavioral categories created byVygotsky in the documentation and analysis of non-compliance in young children in the modern early childhoodclassroom.

Laura Reynolds-Keefer



Neural stages of spoken, written, and signed word processing in beginning second language learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to examine how sensory modality, language type, and language proficiency interact during two fundamental stages of word processing: (1 an early word encoding stage, and (2 a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2 instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language.




Neural stages of spoken, written, and signed word processing in beginning second language learners. (United States)

WE COMBINED MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY (MEG) AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) TO EXAMINE HOW SENSORY MODALITY, LANGUAGE TYPE, AND LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY INTERACT DURING TWO FUNDAMENTAL STAGES OF WORD PROCESSING: (1) an early word encoding stage, and (2) a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL) performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2) instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language. PMID:23847496

Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric



Open Experimentation on Phenomena of Chemical Reactions via the Learning Company Approach in Early Secondary Chemistry Education (United States)

Presented is a case study on the implementation of open and inquiry-type experimentation in early German secondary chemistry education. The teaching strategy discussed follows the learning company approach. Originally adopted from vocational education, the learning company method is used to redirect lab-oriented classroom practice towards a more…

Beck, Katharina; Witteck, Torsten; Eilks, Ingo



Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments (United States)

Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students' interactions in narrative-centered learning environments. Experimental results suggest that induced models can make accurate early predictions of student goals and affect states, and they are sufficiently efficient to meet the real-time performance requirements of interactive learning environments.

Lee, Sunyoung



Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Word association is one of the major subjects studied in linguistics, psychology and psycholinguistics. According to Richards et al. (1985 word association is a way in which words come to be associated with each other and which influence the learning and remembering of words. The aim of this study is to investigate word associations of elementary and advanced level EFL learners through a 20-item Word Association Test in order to see whether there are differences or similarities between the results of the students in these groups. The results of the study suggested that EFL learners try to use a wide range of word association techniques and the proficiency level of the students have partial effect on their use of word associations.

?lknur ?ST?FÇ?



Fast mapping of novel word forms traced neurophysiologically  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human capacity to quickly learn new words, critical for our ability to communicate using language, is well-known from behavioural studies and observations, but its neural underpinnings remain unclear. In this study, we have used event-related potentials to record brain activity to novel spoken word forms as they are being learnt by the human nervous system through passive auditory exposure. We found that the brain response dynamics change dramatically within the short (20 min exposure session: as the subjects become familiarised with the novel word forms, the early (~100 ms fronto-central activity they elicit increases in magnitude and becomes similar to that of known real words. At the same time, acoustically similar real words used as control stimuli show a relatively stable response throughout the recording session; these differences between the stimulus groups are confirmed using both factorial and linear regression analyses. Furthermore, acoustically matched novel non-speech stimuli do not demonstrate similar response increase, suggesting neural specificity of this rapid learning phenomenon to linguistic stimuli. Left-lateralised perisylvian cortical networks appear to be underlying such fast mapping of novel word forms unto the brain’s mental lexicon.




Beginning WordPress 3  

CERN Document Server

One of the most popular open source blogging and content management systems, WordPress lets you create a website to promote yourself or your business quickly and easilyi' "and better yet, it's free. WordPress is a flexible, user-friendly system, and it can be extended with a variety of themes and plugins. Beginning WordPress 3 is a complete guide for the beginning developer who wants to start using WordPress. You'll learn how to publish and manage online content, add media, create widgets and plugins, and much more. What you'll learn * How to get started with Wordpress, create new content

Leary, Stephanie



Word for Word (United States)

Not many public radio programs can claim to have a host who has worked on a pirate radio ship off the English coast, but Word for Word is just that type of program. Host Melinda Penkava oversees the work of this remarkable program, which offers up an interesting and timely speech on a pressing topic in the news. These speeches come from such venues as the National Press Club, the Chautauqua Institution, and the Aspen Institute. Visitors to the Word for Word site can listen to these intelligent programs and also sign up to receive their podcasts as well. Recent programs have included a speech by the late David Halberstam, Representative Charles Rangel, and National Urban League President Mark Morial.


Bootstrapping Word Order in Prelexical Infants: A Japanese-Italian Cross-Linguistic Study (United States)

Learning word order is one of the earliest feats infants accomplish during language acquisition [Brown, R. (1973). "A first language: The early stages", Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.]. Two theories have been proposed to account for this fact. Constructivist/lexicalist theories [Tomasello, M. (2000). Do young children have adult…

Gervain, Judit; Nespor, Marina; Mazuka, Reiko; Horie, Ryota; Mehler, Jacques



Signal Words (United States)

1 SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC is a cooperative agreement between Oregon State University and the U.S. Environmental ... the position of the U.S. EPA. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product ...


Clustering words  

CERN Multimedia

We characterize words which cluster under the Burrows-Wheeler transform as those words $w$ such that $ww$ occurs in a trajectory of an interval exchange transformation, and build examples of clustering words.

Ferenczi, Sébastien



WordPress Bible  

CERN Document Server

Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

Brazell, Aaron



Early Adolescents’ Enjoyment Experienced in Learning Situations at School and Its Relation to Student Achievement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While many studies confirm that positive emotions, including enjoyment, lead to better student achievement, less empirical evidence exists about possible mediator variables that link achievement to enjoyment. It is proposed that achievement and enjoyment form a circular dependency; enjoyment in learning leads to higher achievement but a degree of achievement is required to enjoy learning. This study provides insight into the reverse of the much studied enjoyment to achievement link and provides practical recommendations on how to use these findings. Founded in Control-value theory, which suggests that control and value cognitions are important variables that mediate the connection between enjoyment and achievement, this study explores the reciprocal achievement-cognition-enjoyment link. The reciprocal link was investigated by applying a one year longitudinal design to students of grade 6 and 7 (N = 356. This age group was chosen because early adolescence represents a critical period during which a strong decrease in positive learning emotions is observed. Part of the work involved identifying factors that might be responsible for this negative development. Results of cross-lagged path analysis identified reciprocal effects between student achievement and enjoyment with control and value cognitions functioning as partial mediators. High achievement goes with high control and value cognitions, which in turn positively affect enjoyment. However, cross-lagged correlations could only be partly confirmed. The results are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications

Gerda Hagenauer



Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment (United States)

This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald



A Contrastive Analysis of Chinese College English Syllabus Word List with a General Service List of English Words and Academic Word List  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chinese College English Syllabus Word List issued by Chinese Ministry of Education has always been instructing Chinese college English teaching for about 14 years. Now Chinese college English teaching is focusing more and more on learners and to satisfy learners’ needs, Chinese college English teaching is turning from teaching English for general purposes to for academic purposes. To investigate whether Chinese College English Syllabus Word List can meet the vocabulary requirements of academic learning of Chinese college learners or not, a contrastive analysis between Chinese College English Syllabus Word List and A General Service List of English Words and Academic Word List is made via the software, Range. The results show that Chinese College English Syllabus Word List (level 1 to 4 can accord with A General Service List of English Words in word families, but has a low coverage in word types in Academic Word List and most words in Chinese College English Syllabus Word List (level 5 to 6 & level after 6 are not in A General Service List of English Words or Academic Word List. Thus, it can be concluded that Chinese College English Syllabus Word List (level 1 to 4 is made up of high frequent words but not academic words while Chinese College English Syllabus Word List (level 5 to 6 & level after 6 is neither high frequent word list nor academic word list. It is proposed that Chinese College English Syllabus Word List must be revised to meet the requirements of academic learning of Chinese college learners.

Yongxue TANG



Report on Lessons Learned from the NP 2010 Early Site Permit Program FINAL REPORT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a summary of lessons learned from the demonstration of the licensing process for three Early Site Permit (ESP) applications supported as part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Power 2010 (NP 2010) program. The ESP process was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to enable completion of the site evaluation component of nuclear power plant licensing under 10 CFR Part 52 before a utility makes a decision to build a plant. Early Site Permits are valid for 10 to 20 years and can be renewed for an additional 10 to 20 years. NRC review of an ESP application addresses site safety issues, environmental protection issues, and plans for coping with emergencies. Successful completion of the ESP process will establish that a site is suitable for possible future construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. Most importantly, an ESP resolves significant site-related safety and environmental issues early in the decision process and helps achieve acceptance by the public. DOE competitively selected Dominion Nuclear Energy North Anna, LLC (Dominion); System Energy Resources, Inc. (an Entergy subsidiary); and Exelon Generation Company, LLC (Exelon) in 2002 to demonstrate the ESP process and provided cost-shared support through the NP 2010 program. Dominion pursued an ESP for the North Anna site in Virginia; System Energy Resources, Inc. pursued an ESP for the Grand Gulf site in Mississippi; and Exelon pursued an ESP for the Clinton site in Illinois. After successfully demonstrating the process, the NRC issued an ESP for Clinton on March 17, 2007; Grand Gulf on April 5, 2007; and North Anna on November 27, 2007. As with all successful projects, there are lessons to be learned from the NP 2010 early site permitting demonstration that can help improve future implementation guidance documents and regulatory review standards. In general, these lessons pertain to the effectiveness of the regulatory process, experience related to guidance for developing and reviewing ESP applications, issues involving ESP plant parameters, and suggestions for future ESP applicants. The development, submittal, and issuance of these first ESPs under DOE’s NP 2010 program started the momentum to exercise NRC’s new 10 CFR Part 52 licensing process. Several key questions that define critical issues regarding the effectiveness of regulations pertaining to ESPs have been identified and summarized in this report. However, the final resolution of whether the ESP component of the Part 52 process significantly contributes to the predictability in nuclear power plant licensing requires more experience and time, such as the completion of the ongoing combined Construction and Operating License (COL) process for the North Anna and Grand Gulf sites. The three ESP project participants prepared and submitted to DOE lessons learned reports from their experience in developing, submitting, and receiving an ESP. This document summarizes these reports, which are appended hereto. The Nuclear Energy Institute ( and NRC ( have also prepared reports regarding their perspectives on lessons learned during the ESP process. Their documents can be accessed on their respective web sites. Following is a summary of the lessons learned from the NP 2010 ESP projects. Effectiveness of the ESP Process: In general, the ESP process is expected (subject to demonstration of the ESP finality provisions in the North Anna and Grand Gulf ESPs) to provide high value for applicants as a site banking and risk mitigation strategy. However, several aspects of the initial process, such as NRC hearings and determining an acceptable approach to the NRC’s Emergency Planning requirements, proved challenging for the applicants. Project Execution: Initial regulatory and industry guidance for planning and executing an ESP application program proved to be insufficient to address NRC’s document review expectations. However, continuous communication between NRC and the applicants helped establish an acceptable framework




WordPress for dummies  

CERN Multimedia

The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted version and the more flexible, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

Sabin-Wilson, Lisa



Fast Mapping Semantic Features: Performance of Adults with Normal Language, History of Disorders of Spoken and Written Language, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on a Word-Learning Task (United States)

Purpose: This study was designed to test the word learning abilities of adults with typical language abilities, those with a history of disorders of spoken or written language (hDSWL), and hDSWL plus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (+ADHD). Methods: Sixty-eight adults were required to associate a novel object with a novel label, and then…

Alt, Mary; Gutmann, Michelle L.



"Learning Stories"--Crossing Borders: Introducing Qualitative Early Childhood Observation Techniques to Early Childhood Practitioners in Saudi Arabia (United States)

Early childhood education has become a focus of government policy across the world. Part of the present increased interest in early childhood education has been a focus on curriculum frameworks and socio/cultural methods of assessment. Currently, New Zealand has emerged as a world leader in early childhood education, and observation and assessment…

Nyland, Berenice; Alfayez, Shatha



Constraints on the Meanings of Words. (United States)

Between their second and fifth years, young children learn approximately 15 new words a day. For every word the child hears, he or she must choose the correct referent out of an infinite set of candidates. An important problem for developmental psychologists is to understand the principles that limit the child's hypotheses about word meanings. A…

Soja, N.; And Others


Gelehrte Frauen in der Frühen Neuzeit Learned Woman in the Early Modern Era  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Welche Möglichkeiten bestanden für Frauen in der frühen Neuzeit, gelehrtes Wissen zu erwerben, und welche soziale Position konnten sie durch Gelehrsamkeit erlangen? Davon ausgehend, dass Wissen in der Frühen Neuzeit nicht allen Menschen gleichermaßen zugänglich war, werden in den Beiträgen dieses Sammelbandes die sozialen, politischen und repräsentativen Funktionen der Wissensaneignung und die damit verbundenen Prozesse der Hierarchisierung und Dehierarchisierung untersucht. Die eindeutig geschlechtsspezifische Zuordnung von Wissen und Gelehrsamkeit wird so erneut in Frage gestellt. Die Untersuchung von nicht-institutionalisierten Formen des Wissensaustausches erlaubt es, die soziale Rolle von Frauen und Männern neu in den Blick zu nehmen, ohne dass Frauen dabei lediglich als „Objekte einer Ausschlussforschung“ (S. 11 begriffen würden.What possibilities did women in the early modern era have to acquire learned knowledge and what social positions could they achieve through scholarliness? Assuming that knowledge was not accessible to all people equally in the early modern era, the articles in this anthology examine the social, political, and representative functions of the acquirement of knowledge and the processes of change in hierarchical status connected to these. The obvious gender-specific allocation of knowledge and scholarliness are thus put to question anew. The study of non-institutionalized forms of the exchange of knowledge makes it possible to examine the social role of men and women with new insight without making women understood merely as “objects of research on exclusion” (11.

Xenia von Tippelskirch



Indentifying Latent Classes and Testing Their Determinants in Early Adolescents' Use of Computers and Internet for Learning (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to identify latent classes resting on early adolescents' change trajectory patterns in using computers and the Internet for learning and to test the effects of gender, self-control, self-esteem, and game use in South Korea. Latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) was used to identify subpopulations in the Korea…

Heo, Gyun



Conventional and Piecewise Growth Modeling Techniques: Applications and Implications for Investigating Head Start Children's Early Literacy Learning (United States)

This article reviews the mechanics of conventional and piecewise growth models to demonstrate the unique affordances of each technique for examining the nature and predictors of children's early literacy learning during the transition from preschool through first grade. Using the nationally representative Family and Child Experiences Survey…

Hindman, Annemarie H.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Miller, Alison L.



Children's Learning and Developmental Potential: Examining the Theoretical Informants of Early Childhood Curricula from the Educator's Perspective (United States)

The early childhood curriculum is informed by a complicated array of developmental and learning theories. In recent times these theories have been most readily articulated in approaches to curriculum planning emerging from the Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) guidelines and the project work in Reggio Emilia. Drawing on a common…

Edwards, Suzy



Student Learning of Early Embryonic Development via the Utilization of Research Resources from the Nematode "Caenorhabditis elegans" (United States)

This study was undertaken to gain insights into undergraduate students' understanding of early embryonic development, specifically, how well they comprehend the concepts of volume constancy, cell lineages, body plan axes, and temporal and spatial dimensionality in development. To study student learning, a curriculum was developed incorporating…

Lu, Fong-Mei; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Squirrell, Jayne M.; White, John G.; Stewart, James



Novel second language words and asymmetric lexical access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lexical and phonetic mapping of auditorily confusable L2 nonwords was examined by teaching L2 learners novel words and by later examining their word recognition using an eye-tracking paradigm. During word learning, two groups of highly proficient Dutch learners of English learned 20 English nonwords, of which 10 contained the English contrast /?/-ć/ (a confusable contrast for native Dutch speakers). One group of subjects learned the words by matching their auditory forms to pictured mea...



Authentic early experience in Medical Education: a socio-cultural analysis identifying important variables in learning interactions within workplaces. (United States)

This paper addresses the question 'what are the variables influencing social interactions and learning during Authentic Early Experience (AEE)?' AEE is a complex educational intervention for new medical students. Following critique of the existing literature, multiple qualitative methods were used to create a study framework conceptually orientated to a socio-cultural perspective. Study participants were recruited from three groups at one UK medical school: students, workplace supervisors, and medical school faculty. A series of intersecting spectra identified in the data describe dyadic variables that make explicit the parameters within which social interactions are conducted in this setting. Four of the spectra describe social processes related to being in workplaces and developing the ability to manage interactions during authentic early experiences. These are: (1) legitimacy expressed through invited participation or exclusion; (2) finding a role-a spectrum from student identity to doctor mindset; (3) personal perspectives and discomfort in transition from lay to medical; and, (4) taking responsibility for 'risk'-moving from aversion to management through graded progression of responsibility. Four further spectra describe educational consequences of social interactions. These spectra identify how the reality of learning is shaped through social interactions and are (1) generic-specific objectives, (2) parallel-integrated-learning, (3) context specific-transferable learning and (4) performing or simulating-reality. Attention to these variables is important if educators are to maximise constructive learning from AEE. Application of each of the spectra could assist workplace supervisors to maximise the positive learning potential of specific workplaces. PMID:23212811

Yardley, Sarah; Brosnan, Caragh; Richardson, Jane; Hays, Richard



Head First WordPress  

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Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

Siarto, Jeff



Enriching the Professional Learning of Early Years Teachers in Disadvantaged Contexts: The Impact of Quality Resources and Quality Professional Learning (United States)

Studies indicate that very few teachers entering disadvantaged contexts feel prepared academically or professionally to teach effectively. This study focuses on the impact of a model for professional learning, the RoleM Professional Learning model (RPL), situated in a disadvantaged context over a three-year period. The participating teachers (n =…

Warren, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Jodie



Two-Year-Olds Differentially Disambiguate Novel Words and Facts (United States)

When presented with a pair of objects, one familiar and one unfamiliar, and asked to select the referent of a novel word, children reliably demonstrate the disambiguation effect and select the unfamiliar object. The current study investigated two competing word learning accounts of this effect: a pragmatic account and a word learning principles…

Scofield, Jason; Behrend, Douglas A.



Impaired extinction of learned contextual fear memory in early growth response 1 knockout mice. (United States)

Inductive expression of early growth response 1 (Egr-1) in neurons is associated with many forms of neuronal activity. However, only a few Egr-1 target genes are known in the brain. The results of this study demonstrate that Egr-1 knockout (KO) mice display impaired contextual extinction learning and normal fear acquisition relative to wild-type (WT) control animals. Genome-wide microarray experiments revealed 368 differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus of Egr-1 WT exposed to different phases of a fear conditioning paradigm compared to gene expression profiles in the hippocampus of KO mice. Some of genes, such as serotonin receptor 2C (Htr2c), neuropeptide B (Npb), neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4), NPY receptor Y1 (Npy1r), fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7), and neuropeptide Y (Npy) are known to regulate processing of fearful memories, and promoter analyses demonstrated that several of these genes contained Egr-1 binding sites. This study provides a useful list of potential Egr-1 target genes which may be regulated during fear memory processing. PMID:24552706

Han, Seungrie; Hong, Soontaek; Mo, Jiwon; Lee, Dongmin; Choi, Eunju; Choi, June-seek; Sun, Woong; Lee, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hyun



Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance at Rocky Flats: Early Experiences and Lessons Learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Rocky Flats Site was established in 1951 as part of the United States' nationwide nuclear weapons complex to manufacture nuclear weapons components. In 1992 weapons production halted, and the Rocky Flats mission changed to include environmental investigations, cleanup, and site closure. In October 2005, DOE and its contractor completed an accelerated 10-year, $7 billion cleanup of chemical and radiological contamination left from nearly 50 years of production. The cleanup required the decommissioning, decontamination, demolition, and removal of more than 800 structures; removal of more than 500,000 cubic meters of low-level radioactive waste; and remediation of more than 360 potentially contaminated environmental sites. The final remedy for the site was selected in September 2006 and included institutional controls, physical controls, and continued monitoring for the former industrial portion of the site. The remainder of the site, which served as a buffer zone surrounding the former industrial area, was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in July 2007 for a national wildlife refuge. DOE's Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long-term surveillance and maintenance of Rocky Flats, which includes remedy implementation activities and general site maintenance. Several factors have complicated the transition from closure to post-closure at Rocky Flats. The early experiences associated with the two years since the physical cleanup and closure work were completed have led to several valuable lessons learned. (authors)



Lessons learned from early implementation of the maintenance rule at nine nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the lessons learned from the nine pilot site visits that were performed to review early implementation of the maintenance rule using the draft NRC Maintenance Inspection Procedure. Licensees followed NUMARC 93-01, ''Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' In general, the licensees were thorough in determining which structures, systems, and components (SSCS) were within the scope of the maintenance rule at each site. The use of an expert panel was an appropriate and practical method of determining which SSCs are risk significant. When setting goals, all licensees considered safety but many licensees did not consider operating experience throughout the industry. Although required to do so, licensees were not monitoring at the system or train level the performance or condition for some systems used in standby service but not significant to risk. Most licensees had not established adequate monitoring of structures under the rule. Licensees established reasonable plans for doing periodic evaluations, balancing unavailability and reliability, and assessing the effect of taking equipment out of service for maintenance. However, these plans were not evaluated because they had not been fully implemented at the time of the site visits



The Vocabulary-Rich Classroom: Modeling Sophisticated Word Use to Promote Word Consciousness and Vocabulary Growth (United States)

Vocabulary knowledge is a critical contributor to reading, especially reading comprehension. A word-rich classroom environment maximizes students' opportunities to learn new words. The teacher's use of language provides an important model for children's vocabulary development. By modeling the use of sophisticated words, teachers can promote…

Lane, Holly B.; Allen, Stephanie Arriaza



The Role of Rewards and Reinforcements in Early Education Programs: II: Fostering Intrinsic Motivation to Learn (United States)

Teacher Training should prepare teachers to develop intrinsic motivation to learn in children, rather than to consequate their learning efforts with extrinsic rewards. Examples of teacher behaviors believed necessary for fostering intrinsic motivation to learn are provided, along with suggestions for training teachers to use them in the classroom.…

Brophy, Jere E.



Word Count (United States)

Words are used as invectives, toasts, and tirades, among other forms of human expression. As a type of artistic experiment, Jonathan Harris of Flaming Toast Productions decided to create this engaging website that documents the 86,000 most frequently used English words, ranked in order of commonality. Nay-sayers beware: This is no simple listing of the words, contained within a mundane series of connected web pages. As visitors quickly realize, this articulated end-to-end listing of these 86,000 words features scaled versions of each word, giving a "visual barometer of relevance." As the site notes, "The goal is for the user to feel embedded in the language, sifting through words like an archaeologist through sand, awaiting the unexpected find." Interestingly enough, the word "God" is one word from "began" (which is at number 375), and six words from "war." Budding urbanologists will find it interesting that the word "Chicago" is at number 6,692 and that "Shanghai" makes into the list at 18,242.


Birle?tirme-II Tekni?inin Frans?zca Okuma Dersinde Ö?renilen Sözcükleri Hat?rda Tutmaya Etkisi (Effect of Jigsaw-II on the Retention of New Words Learned in the Course of Reading in French  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find the effect of the Jigsaw-II technique regarding the retention of new words learned in the French reading course conducted with freshman of the French Foreign Language Department. In this research, comparative unsynchronized group post-test model was used. The participants of this research are 1st year students studying in the French Foreign Language Department of the Anadolu University (Eski?ehir during the spring semester of the academic year 2009-2010. There were 16 participants in the experimental group, 14 participants in the control group. The data were analyzed by analysis of frequency and percentage. As a result, in contrast to the control group using traditional teaching methods, students of the experimental group were greatly remembered new words learned in French reading course.




Auditory Working Memory Training Leads to Specific Decreases in Left Prefrontal Cortex When Learning The Phonology Of Chinese Words  

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Logographic Chinese differs from alphabetic languages in aspects of orthography and phonology. While there are different neural networks involved in processing orthography across these language systems, there is evidence for a common neural network across languages for auditory phonology. Since lexical tones are phonemically relevant in Chinese only, learning Chinese phonology should benefit more from auditory than visual working memory (WM) training and result in activation decreases in its ...



Indicators of early and late processing reveal the importance of within-trial-time for theories of associative learning. (United States)

In four human learning experiments (Pavlovian skin conductance, causal learning, speeded classification task), we evaluated several associative learning theories that assume either an elemental (modified unique cue model and Harris' model) or a configural (Pearce's configural theory and an extension of it) form of stimulus processing. The experiments used two modified patterning problems (A/B/C+, AB/BC/AC+ vs. ABC-; A+, BC+ vs. ABC-). Pearce's configural theory successfully predicted all of our data reflecting early stimulus processing, while the predictions of the elemental theories were in accord with all of our data reflecting later stages of stimulus processing. Our results suggest that the form of stimulus representation depends on the amount of time available for stimulus processing. Our findings highlight the necessity to investigate stimulus processing during conditioning on a finer time scale than usually done in contemporary research. PMID:23826092

Lachnit, Harald; Thorwart, Anna; Schultheis, Holger; Lotz, Anja; Koenig, Stephan; Uengoer, Metin



Risk of Learning and Behavioral Disorders Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water  

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This population-based retrospective cohort study examined the association between developmental disorders of learning, attention and behavior and prenatal and early postnatal drinking water exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Informat...



Microsoft Word Training Modules (United States)

With a variety of training modules designed for those in the field of medical administration and general business environments, these well-thought out educational materials will be a most welcome find. Created by the staff members at the Internet4Classrooms site, these modules address such topics as inserting images in MS Word, creating signs with MS Word, and keyboard shortcuts. Each of the modules is written with introductory users in mind, and they include helpful graphics that illustrate different actions and tools. Additionally, the site also includes a series of âÂÂBeyond the Basicsâ learning modules that provide guidance on how to use the mail merge function and how to create hyperlinks within MS Word.

Brooks, Susan; Byles, Bill


Word Spy (United States)

If you're the sort of person who decries the use of abbreviations like B2B as being "so five minutes ago," then you might enjoy keeping up with the very latest parlance with Word Spy. Created by Paul McFedries, this site is intended to focus attention on "recently coined words, existing words that have enjoyed a recent renaissance, and older words that are now being used in new ways." Each weekday, a new word or phrase is featured along with its definition and a citation, usually from a print media source, that shows the word or phrase in context. Recent words include "yettie," a derivative of "yuppie" that denotes a "young, entrepreneurial, tech-based twenty-something," and "retail leakage," which refers to urban residents leaving their own neighborhoods to shop in suburban stores. The site also offers a mailing list for users who want to receive Word Spy via email, a searchable index of previously featured terms, and a specialized lexicon (Tech Word Spy) that contains computer-related and technical terms exclusively.


Early learning and speciation : the effects of early experience on sexual and aggressive behaviour in Lake Victoria cichlid fish  

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The great Lakes of East Africa are inhabited by a great number of haplochromine cichlid species, which form a diverse group in both ecology and nuptial coloration. The large number of sympatrically occuriring closely related species has raised questions about the underlying mechanism for reproductive isolation. In this thesis I describe experiments that test for the effects of early experience on their species assortative behaviour in the contexts of mate choice and male territorial interacti...

Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette



The early bee catches the flower - circadian rhythmicity influences learning performance in honey bees, Apis mellifera  

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Circadian rhythmicity plays an important role for many aspects of honey bees lives. However, the question whether it also affects learning and memory remained unanswered. To address this question, we studied the effect of circadian timing on olfactory learning and memory in honey bees Apis mellifera using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex paradigm. Bees were differentially conditioned to odours and tested for their odour learning at four different Zeitgeber time ...

Lehmann, Marina; Gustav, David; Galizia, Giovanni



The early bee catches the flower - circadian rhythmicity influences learning performance in honey bees, Apis mellifera  

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Circadian rhythmicity plays an important role for many aspects of honey bees’ lives. However, the question whether it also affects learning and memory remained unanswered. To address this question, we studied the effect of circadian timing on olfactory learning and memory in honey bees Apis mellifera using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex paradigm. Bees were differentially conditioned to odours and tested for their odour learning at four different “Zeitgeber”...

Lehmann, Marina; Gustav, David; Galizia, C. Giovanni



Sleep and sensorimotor integration during early vocal learning in a songbird  

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Behavioural studies widely implicate sleep in memory consolidation in the learning of a broad range of behaviours1-4. During sleep, brain regions are reactivated5,6, and specific patterns of neural activity are replayed7-10, consistent with patterns observed in prior waking behaviour. Birdsong learning is a paradigmatic model system for skill learning11-14. Song development in juvenile zebra finches is characterised by sleep-dependent circadian fluctuations in singing behaviour, with immediat...



The roots of the early vocabulary in infants' learning from speech  

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Psychologists have known for over 20 years that infants begin learning their language's speech sound categories during the first 12 months of life. This fact has dominated researchers' thinking about how language acquisition begins, although the relevance of this learning to the child's progress in language acquisition has never been clear. Recently, views of the role of infancy in language acquisition have begun to change, with a new focus on the development of the vocabulary. Infants' learn...

Swingley, Daniel



Mapping Concrete and Abstract Meanings to New Words Using Verbal Contexts (United States)

In three experiments, we examine the effects of semantic context and word concreteness on the mapping of existing meanings to new words. We developed a new-word-learning paradigm in which participants were required to discover the meaning of a new-word form from a specific verbal context. The stimulus materials were manipulated according to word

Mestres-Missé, Anna; Münte, Thomas F.; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni



Historical education in Portugal: learning goals in the early years of schooling  

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Full Text Available The Learning Outcomes Project for K-Basic Schooling recently carried out in Portugal intended to produce a set of learning outcomes for each curriculum subject matter or area. It has aimed to provide a set of useful tools to the teaching process, thus promoting student achievement. With respect to the History Learning Outcomes, their team got inspiration in relevant empirical studies on situated historical cognition grounded on recent epistemological perspectives concerning history. Under this framework, this paper discusses some of the “History Learning Outcomes” for K-Cycle 1 (3-10 year-olders, seen as significant in the light of historical thinking and consciousness.

Isabel Barca



78 FR 53991 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge (United States)

...the domains of language and literacy development, cognition and...early mathematics and early scientific development), approaches...Adult Education and Family Literacy Act, may be Participating...supports and adult and family literacy programs, parent...



76 FR 53563 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge (United States)

...the domains of language and literacy development, cognition and...early mathematics and early scientific development), approaches...Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) may be Participating...supports and adult and family literacy programs, parent...



15-month-old infants fast map words but not representational gestures of multimodal labels  

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Full Text Available This study investigated whether 15-month-old infants fast map multimodal labels, and, when given the choice of two modalities, whether they preferentially fast map one better than the other. Sixty 15-month-old infants watched films where an actress repeatedly and ostensively labeled two novel objects using a spoken word along with a representational gesture. In the test phase, infants were assigned to one of three conditions: Word, Word + Gesture, or Gesture. The objects appeared in a shelf next to the experimenter and, depending on the condition, infants were prompted with either a word, a gesture, or a multimodal word-gesture combination. Using an infant eye tracker, we determined whether infants made the correct mappings. Results revealed that only infants in the Word condition had learned the novel object labels. When the representational gesture was presented alone or when the verbal label was accompanied by a representational gesture, infants did not succeed in making the correct mappings. Results reveal that 15-month-old infants do not benefit from multimodal labeling and that they prefer words over representational gestures as object labels in multimodal utterances. Findings put into question the role of multimodal labeling in early language development.




15-month-old infants fast map words but not representational gestures of multimodal labels. (United States)

This study investigated whether 15-month-old infants fast map multimodal labels, and, when given the choice of two modalities, whether they preferentially fast map one better than the other. Sixty 15-month-old infants watched films where an actress repeatedly and ostensively labeled two novel objects using a spoken word along with a representational gesture. In the test phase, infants were assigned to one of three conditions: Word, Word?+?Gesture, or Gesture. The objects appeared in a shelf next to the experimenter and, depending on the condition, infants were prompted with either a word, a gesture, or a multimodal word-gesture combination. Using an infant eye tracker, we determined whether infants made the correct mappings. Results revealed that only infants in the Word condition had learned the novel object labels. When the representational gesture was presented alone or when the verbal label was accompanied by a representational gesture, infants did not succeed in making the correct mappings. Results reveal that 15-month-old infants do not benefit from multimodal labeling and that they prefer words over representational gestures as object labels in multimodal utterances. Findings put into question the role of multimodal labeling in early language development. PMID:22493588

Puccini, Daniel; Liszkowski, Ulf



Word Problems (United States)

This FAQ about solving word problems from the Ask Dr. Math service of the Math Forum @ Drexel outlines strategies for solving word problems. The response includes general strategies that apply to problem solving, as well as a specific sample problem involving distance, rate, and time.

Math Forum, Ask D.; The Math Forum @ Drexel



Microsoft Word 2010 Digital Classroom  

CERN Document Server

The perfect book-and-video training package for Word 2010! This Word 2010 book-and-video training package-from the same professional training experts who also create many training materials for Adobe Systems-is like having your own personal instructor guiding you through each lesson, but you work at your own pace! The full-color ebook includes 8 lessons that teach you the new features and quirks of Microsoft Word 2010. Each lesson includes step-by-step instructions and lesson files, and provides valuable video tutorials that complement what you're learning and clearly demonstr

Team, Training



Teach yourself visually Word 2013  

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Get up to speed on the newest version of Word with visual instruction Microsoft Word is the standard for word processing programs, and the newest version offers additional functionality you'll want to use. Get up to speed quickly and easily with the step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots in this popular guide! You'll see how to perform dozens of tasks, including how to set up and format documents and text; work with diagrams, charts, and pictures; use Mail Merge; post documents online; and much more. Easy-to-follow, two-page lessons make learning a snap.Full-

Marmel, Elaine



Individual Differences in Sequence Learning Ability and Second Language Acquisition in Early Childhood and Adulthood (United States)

Language aptitude has been hypothesized as a factor that can compensate for postcritical period effects in language learning capacity. However, previous research has primarily focused on instructed contexts and rarely on acquisition-rich learning environments where there is a potential for massive amounts of input. In addition, the studies…

Granena, Gisela



Movement and Learning in the Early Years: Supporting Dyspraxia (DCD) and Other Difficulties (United States)

This book is written to support parents and practitioners who wish to understand movement and how it contributes to all aspects of learning--intellectual, social and emotional, as well as the movement/motor aspect itself. Moreover, as there is a huge increase in the number of children with movement learning difficulties (Keen, 2001), that is…

Macintrye, Christine; McVitty, Kim



Exploring the Value of "Horizontal" Learning in Early Years Science Classrooms (United States)

In contrast to a focus on vertical learning experiences where the emphasis is on progression up a scale of complexity, this article explores the value of horizontal learning experiences. These aim to provide learners with a variety of opportunities and spaces to participate, thereby expanding the entry points for them into school science. The…

Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin



MATLAB in Early Undergraduate Mathematics: An Investigation into the Effects of Scientific Software on Learning. (United States)

Describes an investigation into the effects of introducing scientific software into the learning experience of a large and diverse first year university mathematics class on attitudes and learning. Confirms the affective potential of this kind of technology. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/ASK)

Cretchley, Patricia; Harman, Chris; Ellerton, Nerida; Fogarty, Gerard



ERP correlates of word onset priming in infants and young children. (United States)

Using word onset priming with early learned words, we tracked access to phonological representations and predictive phonological processing at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after birth. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants heard German word onsets (primes) followed by disyllabic spoken words (targets). Primes and target onsets were either congruent or incongruent (ma - Mama vs. so - Mama [Engl. 'mommy']). For an adult control group, ERP differences were found for the N100 complex, which has been related to abstract auditory analysis; and for the P350 deflection, which has been related to lexical access. A combined analysis of all infants and young children revealed an immature instance of an N100 effect, suggesting adult-like abstract speech sound processing. A central negativity effect, which had formerly been obtained when adults or older children were engaged in a lexical decision task, suggests that adult-like predictive phonological processing is available early in infancy. However, the absence of a P350-like effect in the infant data suggests that adult-like access to phonological forms is not established in the first two years of life. Taken together, ERPs recorded in word onset priming proved useful in investigating early phonological processing without an explicit behavioral measure. PMID:24561993

Becker, Angelika B C; Schild, Ulrike; Friedrich, Claudia K



Learning Curve and Interobserver Agreement of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for Detecting Precancerous or Early-Stage Esophageal Squamous Cancer (United States)

Background Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) can provide in vivo subcellular resolution images of esophageal lesions. However, the learning curve in interpreting CLE images of precancerous or early-stage esophageal squamous cancer is unknown. The goal of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and inter-observer agreement for differentiating esophageal lesions in CLE images among experienced and inexperienced observers and to assess the learning curve. Method After a short training, 8 experienced and 14 inexperienced endoscopists evaluated in sequence 4 sets of high-quality CLE images. Their diagnoses were corrected and discussed after each set. For each image, the diagnostic results, confidence in diagnosis, quality and time to evaluate were recorded. Results Overall, diagnostic accuracy was greater for the second, third, fourth set of images as compared with the initial set (odds ratio [OR] 2.01, 95% CI 1.22–3.31; 7.95, 3.74–16.87; and 6.45, 3.14–13.27), respectively, with no difference between the third and fourth sets in accuracy (p?=?0.67). Previous experience affected the diagnostic accuracy only in the first set of images (OR 3.70, 1.87–7.29, p666, p<0.01) Conclusion CLE is a promising technology that can be quickly learned after a short training period; previous experience is associated with diagnostic accuracy only at the initial stage of learning.

Liu, Jing; Li, Ming; Li, Zhen; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Li, Chang-Qing; Dong, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Cheng-Jun; Li, Yan-Qing



Dark and light rearing during early postnatal life impairs spatial learning of rats in Morris water maze  

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Full Text Available In early postnatal life, sensory-driven processes deeply affect structure and function of sensory cortices. Because some visual signals pass from visual cortex to the hippocampal formation, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of change in visual experience on rat’s spatial learning and memory. This experimental study was carried out on 30 Wistar male rats (45 days old which were randomly distributed into 3 groups; the CO (Control group was in 12 light/12 dark cycle through birth to the end of the study, the LR (Light Reared group was in complete lightness and the DR (Dark Reared group was in complete darkness (n=10 for each. Using MWM (Morris Water Maze, the animals learned to find a hidden platform for 4 trials per day during 5 days. After removing the platform, spatial memory was tested at day 5 in one trial (probe trial. Our results indicated that in the learning stage, the CO rats spent less time and distance to find the hidden platform than the other groups. There was no difference between all groups in probe trial. Change in visual experience impairs spatial learning of rats in Morris water maze and their spatial memory formation is not influenced.

Saeideh Davari, Mahmoud Salami



Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog  

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Smashing WordPress shows you how to utilize the power of the WordPress platform, and provides a creative spark to help you build WordPress-powered sites that go beyond the obvious. The second edition of Smashing WordPress has been updated for WordPress 3.1+, which includes internal, custom post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to build just about anything in WordPress, resulting in fast deployments and greater design flexib

Hedengren, Thord Daniel



The State of and Attitudes to Early Foreign Language Learning in Hungary  

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Learning foreign languages has crucial importance, especially in our world of globalization. Being able to speak more foreign languages makes people much more confident, flexible and more suitable for filling certain vacancies. European citizens speaking several foreign languages properly are highly appreciated by employers in the labour market. After its accession to the European Union in 2004 Hungary considers learning foreign languages to be much more important since one of the aims of the...

Varga, Kitti



Infinite permutations vs. infinite words  

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Full Text Available I am going to compare well-known properties of infinite words with those of infinite permutations, a new object studied since middle 2000s. Basically, it was Sergey Avgustinovich who invented this notion, although in an early study by Davis et al. permutations appear in a very similar framework as early as in 1977. I am going to tell about periodicity of permutations, their complexity according to several definitions and their automatic properties, that is, about usual parameters of words, now extended to permutations and behaving sometimes similarly to those for words, sometimes not. Another series of results concerns permutations generated by infinite words and their properties. Although this direction of research is young, many people, including two other speakers of this meeting, have participated in it, and I believe that several more topics for further study are really promising.

Anna E. Frid



Non-word repetition assesses phonological memory and is related to vocabulary development in 20- to 24-month-olds. (United States)

Two studies test the hypotheses that individual differences in phonological memory among children younger than two years can be assessed using a non-word repetition task (NWR) and that these differences are related to the children's rates of vocabulary development. NWR accuracy, real word repetition accuracy and productive vocabulary were assessed in 15 children between 1 ; 9 and 2 ; 0 in Study 1 and in 21 children between 1 ; 8 and 2 ; 0 in Study 2. In both studies, NWR accuracy was significantly related to vocabulary percentile and, furthermore, uniquely accounted for a substantial portion of the variance in vocabulary when real word repetition accuracy was held constant. The findings establish NWR as a valid measure of phonological memory in very young children, and they open the door for further studies of the role of phonological memory in early word learning. PMID:18838017

Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia; Bridges, Kelly



Learning Sequences  

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We describe the algorithms used by the ALEKS computer learning system for manipulating combinatorial descriptions of human learners' states of knowledge, generating all states that are possible according to a description of a learning space in terms of a partial order, and using Bayesian statistics to determine the most likely state of a student. As we describe, a representation of a knowledge space using learning sequences (basic words of an antimatroid) allows more general learning spaces to be implemented with similar algorithmic complexity. We show how to define a learning space from a set of learning sequences, find a set of learning sequences that concisely represents a given learning space, generate all states of a learning space represented in this way, and integrate this state generation procedure into a knowledge assessment algorithm. We also describe some related theoretical results concerning projections of learning spaces, decomposition and dimension of learning spaces, and algebraic representati...

Eppstein, David



Color Word Acquisition: Conceptual or Linguistic Challenge. (United States)

A study investigated children's difficulty in learning color words and attempted to determine whether the difficulty was perceptual, conceptual, or linguistic. The subjects were 24 two-year-olds, half with knowledge of color words and half without, and a similar control group. The experimental subjects were given conceptual and comprehension tasks…

Soja, Nancy N.


Word Walk: Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children (United States)

Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning.…

Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.



Early literacy learning in the perspective of the child : literacy stories  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

En socio-kulturel tilgang til early literacy skitseres, og der redegøres for, hvordan denne tilgang har inspireret arbejdet med at målrette Carr's mere generelle læringshistorie-tilgang til en mere early literacy fokuseret dokumentationsmetode.

Mellgren, Elisabeth; Jensen, Anders Skriver



Sensitivities to Early Exchange in Synchronous Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Groups (United States)

This study reports the impact of high sensitivity to early exchange in 11th-grade, CSCL triads solving well- and ill-structured problems in Newtonian Kinematics. A mixed-method analysis of the evolution of participation inequity (PI) in group discussions suggested that participation levels tended to get locked-in relatively early on in the…

Kapur, Manu; Voiklis, John; Kinzer, Charles K.



From early attachment to engagement with learning in school: the role of self-regulation and persistence. (United States)

This article presents theoretical arguments and supporting empirical evidence suggesting that attachment experiences in early life may be important in the later development of self-regulation and conscientious behavior. Analyses of data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2005; N = 1,149) were conducted to test the association between attachment, measured at 15 and 36 months, and 3 measures of self-regulation (social self-control rated by teachers, task persistence as measured by observers in a series of lab tasks, and a continuous performance test) between Grades 1 and 5. Mediational analyses were also conducted to test whether self-regulation mediates the effect of attachment on children's engagement with learning in the classroom, as measured by direct observation. The results confirmed the hypothesis that attachment would be related to later self-regulation, but only for social self-control, and attentional impulsivity, not task persistence. Furthermore, social self-control at Grade 1 mediated the effect of attachment (at both 15 and 36 months) on school engagement at Grade 5, even when Grade 1 school engagement was statistically controlled. The discussion focuses on the potential importance of early attachment experiences for the development and maintenance of conscientiousness across the lifespan. PMID:23647414

Drake, Kim; Belsky, Jay; Fearon, R M Pasco



A privileged and exemplar resource: traumatic avoidance learning and the early triumph of mathematical psychology. (United States)

The relationship between a classic 1953 study by R. L. Solomon and L.C. Wynne on traumatic avoidance learning adn the pioneering efforts by Robert Bush and Frederick Mosteller and others to develop mathematical models of learning is analyzed. The main purpose is to explore how Bush and Mosteller disembedded a carefully selected set of Solomon and Wynne's data from its original context, which allowed something as seemingly humble as a set of numbers to become a widely available and valuable resource for the newly emerging field of mathematical learning theory (MLT). The creative use that the MLT community made of these data once Bush and Mosteller had systematically reduced the empirical and conceptual uncertainties within Solomon and Wynne's study is also discussed. PMID:15382376

Lovie, Sandy; Lovie, Pat



Aplicabilidade do software Fast Forword na reabilitaçăo dos distúrbios do processamento auditivo: resultados iniciais Applicability of Fast ForWord software to management auditory process disorders: early result  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEMA: novas propostas de reabilitaçăo para crianças com distúrbios do processamento auditivo associadas aos distúrbios de linguagem e de aprendizagem săo necessárias para aumentar a eficácia do tratamento fonoaudiológico. Assim, o objetivo foi descrever a aplicabilidade do software Fast ForWord Language (FFWL na reabilitaçăo dos distúrbios de processamento auditivo (DPA em tręs crianças brasileiras. PROCEDIMENTOS: estas tręs crianças, na faixa-etária de 9 a 14 anos, foram selecionadas pela avaliaçăo audiológica básica, do processamento auditivo, de linguagem escrita e de conscięncia fonológica. Estes procedimentos foram utilizados antes e após a realizaçăo do treinamento com o software FFWL, que foi aplicado durante 80 minutos por dia, em cinco dias por semana em até oito semanas de treinamento. Foram utilizadas as seguintes estratégias: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification e Phonic Match, envolvendo detecçăo, discriminaçăo, atençăo sustentada e memória auditiva. RESULTADOS: após, em média 30,67 dias de uso do FFW, observou-se adequaçăo em duas crianças do processamento auditivo. Em uma das crianças isso năo foi evidenciado mantendo-se com as mesmas alteraçőes na reavaliaçăo do processamento auditivo. Após a terceira semana de estimulaçăo observou-se diminuiçăo do interesse pelas estratégias, o que necessitou uma intervençăo mais intensa e criativa dos pesquisadores. CONCLUSĂO: pode-se inferir que o FFW apresenta aplicabilidade para crianças brasileiras com distúrbio do processamento auditivo, entretanto, săo necessárias novas pesquisas com uma amostra maior para verificar a eficácia deste software para crianças brasileiras.BACKGROUND: news proposals of rehabilitation for children with auditory processing disorders associated to language and learning disorders are necessary to increase the efficacy of speech and language treatment. So, the purpose was to check the applicability of Fast Forword (FFW software for managing auditory processing disorder (APD in three Brazilian kids. PROCEDURE: these three children, ranging from 9 to 14-year old, were selected in basic auditory evaluation, auditory process evaluation, language evaluation and phonological awareness. These tests applied before and after the training with FFW, ran during 100 minutes a day, five days a week along eight weeks. The following strategies were applied: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification and Phonic Match, involving detection, discrimination, sustained attention and auditory memory. RESULTS: after about 30.67 days using FFW, we noted adequacy in auditory process of two kids. In one of the kids that were not the case, the same alterations showed in the auditory process re-evaluation. After a third week of stimulation a diminution of interest for the strategies was observed, which demanded a more intense and creative intervention of the researchers. CONCLUSION: it is possible to infer that FFW presents applicability for Brazilian kids with auditory process disturbances; however, research with larger samples is necessary in order to check the effectiveness of this software on Brazilian kids.

Sheila Andreoli Balen



Early Lexical Acquisition: Rate, Content, and the Vocabulary Spurt. (United States)

The transition from slow to rapid word-learning was examined in a longitudinal study of 18 children. Results revealed that most children evidenced a prolonged period during which rate of acquisition increased, with most of the acquired words being nouns, while those who demonstrated gradual word-learning acquired a balance of nouns and other word

Goldfield, Beverly A.; Reznick, J. Steven



Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part II: From Canonical Babbling up to the Appearance of the First Word (United States)

The aim of this study was to systematically describe the preverbal development of preterm infants from canonical babbling up to the first word and to compare it with that of healthy full-term infants. In addition, the amount of vocalization between the preterm and full-term groups was compared. The sample consisted of 18 preterm infants with…

Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli



Preschool Children Master the Logic of Number Word Meanings (United States)

Although children take over a year to learn the meanings of the first three number words, they eventually master the logic of counting and the meanings of all the words in their count list. Here, we ask whether children's knowledge applies to number words beyond those they have mastered: Does a child who can only count to 20 infer that number…

Lipton, Jennifer S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.




Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

E-Learning or Edutainment Learning, the word has several meanings, E-Learning can best be defined as the science of learning without using paper printed instructional material. The concept is new, dynamic and robust approach towards learning and is gaining more and more popularity, as the Subject Matter Experts (SME) are using several tools to create E-Learning modules for the learners. Numerous top institutions and distance learning universities have started degree and di...

Sumit Goyal



Risk of learning and behavioral disorders following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water. (United States)

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined the association between developmental disorders of learning, attention and behavior and prenatal and early postnatal drinking water exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Mothers completed a questionnaire on disorders of attention, learning and behavior in their children and on potential confounding variables. The final cohort consisted of 2086 children. Results of crude and multivariate analyses showed no association between prenatal exposure and receiving tutoring for reading or math, being placed on an Individual Education Plan, or repeating a school grade (adjusted Odds Ratios (OR)=1.0-1.2). There was also no consistent pattern of increased risk for receiving a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Hyperactive Disorder (HD), special class placement for academic or behavioral problems, or lower educational attainment. Modest associations were observed for the latter outcomes only in the low exposure group (e.g., adjusted ORs for ADD were 1.4 and 1.0 for low and high exposure, respectively). (All ORs are based on an unexposed referent group.) Results for postnatal exposure through age five years were similar to those for prenatal exposure. We conclude that prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure is not associated with disorders of attention, learning and behavior identified on the basis of questionnaire responses and at the exposure levels experienced by this population. PMID:18353612

Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Gallagher, Lisa E; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas F; Aschengrau, Ann



Typical Didactical Activities in the Greek Early-Years Science Classroom: Do they promote science learning?  

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This paper presents an epistemological analysis of typical didactical activities noted in early-years science lessons, which was carried out in an attempt to diagnose the extent to which the teaching practices adopted by early-years educators are successful in supporting young children’s understanding in science. The analysis of didactical activities used a framework that allowed us to discover whether they promoted desired connections between theoretical ideas, evidence and the material ...



Electrophysiological cross-language neighborhood density effects in late and early English-Welsh bilinguals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Behavioral studies with proficient late bilinguals have revealed the existence of orthographic neighborhood density effects across languages when participants read either in their first (L1 or second (L2 language. Words with many cross-language neighbors have been found to elicit more negative event-related potentials (ERPs than words with few cross-language neighbors (Midgley et al., 2008; the effect started earlier, and was larger, for L2 words. Here, 14 late and 14 early English-Welsh bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task on English and Welsh words presented in separate blocks. The pattern of cross-language activation was different for the two groups of bilinguals. In late bilinguals, words with high cross-language neighborhood density elicited more negative ERP amplitudes than words with low cross-language neighborhood density starting around 175 ms after word onset and lasting until 500 ms. This effect interacted with language in the 300-500 ms time window. A more complex pattern of early effects was revealed in early bilinguals and there were no effects in the N400 window. These results suggest that cross-language activation of orthographic neighbors is highly sensitive to the bilinguals’ learning experience of the two languages.




Episodic Representations Support Early Semantic Learning: Evidence from Midazolam Induced Amnesia (United States)

Current controversy exists regarding the role of episodic representations in the formation of long-term semantic memories. Using the drug "midazolam" to induce temporary amnesia we tested participants' memories for newly learned facts in a semantic cue condition or an episodic and semantic cue condition. Following midazolam administration, memory…

Merritt, Paul; Hirshman, Elliot; Zamani, Shane; Hsu, John; Berrigan, Michael



Picture This: Using Photography as a Learning Tool in Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

Typically, classroom photography is used to identify children's cubbies or to capture only special events in school. Rarely is it used as an everyday teaching tool. However, with the increasing affordability and availability of disposable and digital cameras, photography can be readily used in classrooms to facilitate learning. In one preschool…

Byrnes, Julia; Wasik, Barbara A.



How Does Teaching Experience Affect Attitudes towards Literacy Learning in the Early Years? (United States)

Teachers bring a complex array of beliefs and attitudes to the teaching of literacy. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the nature of teacher attitudes towards the learning and teaching of writing in the first year of school and to identify any broad underlying attitudinal dimensions. The secondary aim was to…

Mackenzie, Noella M.; Hemmings, Brian; Kay, Russell



The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading (United States)

Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh



Key word: chromosome. (United States)

The word chromosome has survived for over 100 years, because it succinctly defines what early cytologists were able to see with the most modern instrument of their time, a light microscope. It was introduced in a review that became widely known and was published almost simultaneously in German, English and French (Waldeyer 1888, 1889, 1890a, 1890b). In the late 19th century, these three languages were in strong competition for international status as the idiom of science. At the same time, Greek was also considered as a candidate for a nationalistically neutral language of science, and it seems more than coincidence that the word [Greek letters: see text] matches well the coherent Greek terminology used to describe the cell cycle in mitosis as well as meiosis. Emil Heitz (1935) maintained--in the face of reactionary German efforts to replace the term--that in using "the ineradicable word chromosome we think last of all that it indicates a body, that stains intensely,". Significantly, the key word is no longer restricted to eukaryotes, but has been readily adopted by microbial geneticists (Heidelberg el al. 2000) and acknowledged as defining the elementary unit of genomic partition. PMID:11448037

Zacharias, H



Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation. (United States)

Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the performance of word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject domains. The few existing approaches have foc...

A. Sanfilippo M. Gregory S. Tratz



Motor-Coordination-Dependent Learning, More than Others, Is Impaired in Transgenic Mice Expressing Pseudorabies Virus Immediate-Early Protein IE180  

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The cerebellum in transgenic mice expressing pseudorabies virus immediate-early protein IE180 (TgIE96) was substantially diminished in size, and its histoarchitecture was severely disorganized, resulting in severe ataxia. TgIE96 mice can therefore be used as an experimental model to study the involvement of cerebellar circuits in different learning tasks. The performance of three-month-old TgIE96 mice was studied in various behavioral tests, including associative learning (classical eyeblink ...

Lo?pez-ramos, Juan C.; Tomioka, Yukiko; Morimatsu, Masami; Yamamoto, Sayo; Ozaki, Kinuyo; Ono, Etsuro; Delgado-garci?a, Jose? M.



Early learning influences species assortative mating preferences in Lake Victoria cichlid fish  

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The Lake Victoria ‘species flock’ of cichlids is puzzling because reproductive isolation often occurs in the absence of substantial ecological differences among species. Theory predicts that this cannot evolve with most genetic mechanisms for mate choice. We provide the first evidence that learning, in the form of sexual imprinting, helps maintain reproductive isolation among closely related cichlid species. Using a cross-fostering experiment, we show that young females develop a sexual p...

Verzijden, Machteld N.; Ten Cate, Carel



Perceptual learning, aging, and improved visual performance in early stages of visual processing  

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In the present study, we examined whether perceptual learning methods can be used to improve performance of older individuals. Subjects performed a texture discrimination task in the peripheral visual field and a letter discrimination task in central vision. The SOA threshold was derived by presenting a mask following the stimuli. Older subjects (age greater than 65 years) were either trained for 2 days using near threshold stimuli (experimental group) or were trained with the task with supra...

Andersen, George J.; Ni, Rui; Bower, Jeffrey D.; Watanabe, Takeo



Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation  

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Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.



Constrained word alignment models for statistical machine translation  

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Word alignment is a fundamental and crucial component in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) systems. Despite the enormous progress made in the past two decades, this task remains an active research topic simply because the quality of word alignment is still far from optimal. Most state-of-the-art word alignment models are grounded on statistical learning theory treating word alignment as a general sequence alignment problem, where many linguistically motivated insights are not incorporated...

Ma, Yanjun



Processing of words and pseudo-words in patients with dementia  

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In the thesis we focus on word and pseudo-word processing in patients suffering from dementia of Alzheimer’s type. One of the early problems of patients with dementia is difficulty with naming and word finding, which could suggest a decay of lexical representations. The aim of the thesis is to find out how this decay progresses and to find out at which stage difficulties occur in patients with dementia. We approach this issue by using an acceptability task for words and pseudo-words which v...



The emergence of productive speech and language in Spanish-learning paediatric cochlear implant users. (United States)

ABSTRACT It has been proposed that cochlear implant users may develop robust categorical perception skills, but that they show limited precision in perception. This article explores if a parallel contrast is observable in production, and if, despite acquiring typical linguistic representations, their early words are inconsistent. The participants were eight Spanish-learning deaf children implanted before their second birthday. Two studies examined the transition from babbling to words, and the one-word period. Study 1 found that the participants used the same sound types in babbling and in words, indicating that production is guided by stored motor patterns. No clear evidence of inconsistent production was observed. Study 2 found that in the one-word period CI users develop typical prosodic representations, but that their productions are highly unstable. Results are discussed in terms of the role of auditory feedback for the development of productive language skills. PMID:23522084

Moreno-Torres, Ignacio



Bringing Learning to Life: The Reggio Approach to Early Childhood Education. (United States)

Increasingly, the innovative teaching approach of the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, are being adapted to U.S. early childhood settings. This book describes the growth and evolution of the work in the St. Louis Reggio Collaborative over the past 10 years, addressing the fundamental principles of the Reggio approach as they are experienced in…

Cadwell, Louise Boyd


Embedding Research-Based Learning Early in the Undergraduate Geography Curriculum (United States)

This article considers the rationale for embedding research and enquiry skills early in the undergraduate geography curriculum and for making these skills explicit to students. A survey of 52 international geography faculty identified critical thinking, framing research questions, reflectivity and creativity as the most challenging research skills…

Walkington, Helen; Griffin, Amy L.; Keys-Mathews, Lisa; Metoyer, Sandra K.; Miller, Wendy E.; Baker, Richard; France, Derek



Watching, Creating and Achieving: Creative Technologies as a Conduit for Learning in the Early Years (United States)

This paper describes the use of robotics in an Early Years classroom as a tool to aid the development of technological skills in a creative environment rich with literacy and numeracy opportunities. The pilot project illustrates how a three-phase process can result in the development of: (1) emergent literacy and numeracy, (2) digital access for…

McDonald, Susan; Howell, Jennifer



12-Month-Olds' Phonotactic Knowledge Guides Their Word-Object Mappings (United States)

This study examined whether 12-month-olds will accept words that differ phonologically and phonetically from their native language as object labels in an associative learning task. Sixty infants were presented with sets of English word-object (N = 30), Japanese word-object (N = 15), or Czech word-object (N = 15) pairings until they habituated.…

MacKenzie, Heather; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.



An Ecofeminist Perspective on the Influences that Promote and Restrict Three Early Childhood Educators' Inclusion of Open-ended Outdoor Learning  

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The purpose of this qualitative, purposeful, bounded case study was to explore the influences that promoted and restricted three women early childhood educators' inclusion of open-ended outdoor learning in a Head Start center. A continued degradation of nature, along with the predominance of women working in the early childhood workforce, led me to the use of the ecofeminist theory for this study. \tResearch methodology included participant interviews, observations, and a study of the sit...



Localized immediate early gene expression related to the strength of song learning in socially reared zebra finches. (United States)

Recent evidence showed that exposure of tape-tutored zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis) males to the tutor song involves neuronal activation in brain regions outside the conventional 'song control pathways', particularly the caudal part of the neostriatum (NCM) and of the hyperstriatum ventrale (CMHV). Zebra finch males were reared with a live tutor during the sensitive period for song learning. When, as adults, they were re-exposed to the tutor song, the males showed increased expression of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene c-fos, in the NCM and CMHV, compared with expression in two conventional 'song control nuclei', high vocal centre (HVC) and Area X. The strength of the Fos response (which is a reflection of neuronal activation) in the NCM (but not in the other three regions) correlated significantly and positively with the number of song elements that the birds had copied from the tutor song. Thus, socially tutored zebra finch males show localized neural activation in response to tutor song exposure, which correlates with the strength of song learning. PMID:11422458

Bolhuis, J J; Hetebrij, E; Den Boer-Visser, A M; De Groot, J H; Zijlstra, G G



How does Early Child Care affect Child Development? Learning from the Children of German Unification  

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This paper studies the role of early center-based child care (age 0-3) for the development of a wide range of skills. The identification strategy uses historical variation in regional child care offer rates in Germany to address selection into center based care. While differences in parenting style across Germany may be confounding the effect of center based care, our analysis indicates that such differences are largely absent among the generation raising children today. Center-based care imp...



The time course of contextual effects on visual word recognition  

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Full Text Available Sentence comprehension depends on continuous prediction of upcoming words. However, when and how contextual information affects the bottom-up streams of visual word recognition is unknown. This study examined the effects of word frequency and contextual predictability (cloze probability of a target word embedded in the sentence on N1, P200, and N400 components, which are related to various cognitive operations in early visual processing, perceptual decoding, and semantic processing. The data exhibited a significant interaction between predictability and frequency at the anterior N1 component. The predictability effect, in which the low predictability words elicited a more negative N1 than high predictability words, was only observed when reading a high frequency word. A significant predictability effect occurred during the P200 time window, in which the low predictability words elicited a less positive P200 than high predictability words. These data suggest that the contextual information facilitate visual-feature detection and orthographic pre-activation in the early stage of visual word processing. There is also a significant predictability effect on the N400 component; low predictability words elicited a greater N400 than high predictability words, although this effect did not interact with frequency. The temporal dynamics of the manner in which contextual information affects the visual word recognition is discussed. These findings support the interactive account, suggesting that contextual information facilitates visual-feature and orthographic processing in the early stage, and semantic integration in the later stage.




How to Learn Spanish  

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This thesis sums up the basic methods of foreign language learning and analyzes the relationship between English learning and Spanish learning. It expounded the difficulties and focal points of Spanish learning, in order to be helpful to the students who are learning a foreign language, especially Spanish.
Key Words: Spanish, learning methods and strategies
Résumé : L’article présent résume les méthodes fondamentales...

Ren, Qing



Solving Word Problems. Math in Action. Workbook. (United States)

This workbook was designed as an easy-to-read, slower-paced text for students who have learning, reading, and language problems. As one of five workbooks to aid low achievers in problem solving, it focuses on strategies for solving one step and multistep word problems in mathematics. Students use skills learned in the four previous workbooks in…

Echaore, Susan D.; Roderman, Winifred Ho


Early Breast Cancer Precursor Lesions: Lessons Learned from Molecular and Clinical Studies  

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Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), flat epithelial atypia (FEA), and lobular neoplasia (LN) form a group of early precursor lesions that are part of the low-grade pathway in breast cancer development. This concept implies that the neoplastic disease process begins at a stage much earlier than in situ carcinoma. We have performed a review of the published literature for the upgrade risk to ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma in open biopsy after a diagnosis of ADH, FEA, or LN in cor...

Sinn, Hans-peter; Elsawaf, Zeinab; Helmchen, Birgit; Aulmann, Sebastian



Affective learning enhances activity and functional connectivity in early visual cortex  

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This study examined the impact of task-irrelevant affective information on early visual processing regions V1 through V4. Fearful and neutral faces presented with rings of different colors were used as stimuli. During the conditioning phase, fearful faces presented with a certain ring color (e.g., black) were paired with mild electrical stimulation. Neutral faces shown with rings of that color, as well as fearful or neutral faces shown with another ring color (e.g., white), were never paired ...

Damaraju, Eswar; Huang, Yang-ming; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Pessoa, Luiz



Quality Matters! Understanding the Relationship between Quality of Early Childhood Education and Learning Competencies of Children: An Exploratory Study in Tamil Nadu. Research Report. (United States)

Noting that few studies have examined the relationship between quality of early childhood education (ECE) programs in India and the impact of such programs on young children's learning competencies, this study explored the relationship between various components of programs in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and other family and…

M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Madras (India).


The Role and Practice of Interpersonal Relationships in European Early Education Settings: Sites for Enhancing Social Inclusion, Personal Growth and Learning? (United States)

This study sought to identify and compare the characteristics of the social pedagogic context of cognitive activities in a sample of early education settings in six European countries (England, Finland, Greece, Italy, Spain and Sweden). Previous research concerning the social context within which cognitive/learning activities take place has…

Kutnick, Peter; Brighi, Antonella; Avgitidou, Sofia; Genta, Maria Luisa; Hannikainen, Maritta; Karlsson-Lohmander, Maelis; Ruiz, Rosario Ortega; Rautamies, Erja; Colwell, Jennifer; Tsalagiorgou, Eleni; Mazzanti, Chiara; Nicoletti, Sandra; Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Romera, Eva; Monks, Claire; Lofqvist, Monica



Abelian Primitive Words  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate Abelian primitive words, which are words that are not Abelian powers. We show that unlike classical primitive words, the set of Abelian primitive words is not context-free. We can determine whether a word is Abelian primitive in linear time. Also different from classical primitive words, we find that a word may have more than one Abelian root. We also consider enumeration problems and the relation to the theory of codes.

Domaratzki, Michael



What's in a Word?  

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Words are all around us to the point that their complexity is lost in familiarity. The term “word” itself can ambiguously refer to different linguistic concepts: orthographic words, phonological words, grammatical words, word-forms, lexemes, and to an extent lexical items. While it is hard to come up with exception-less criteria for wordhood, some typical properties are that words are writeable and spellable, consist of morphemes, are syntactic units, carry meaning, and interrelate with...

Henderson, Jennifer A.



Relationship between L1 and L2 Word-Level Reading and Phonological Processing in Adults Learning English as a Second Language (United States)

Word-level reading and phonological processing measures were administered in English and Chinese to adult ESL students whose first language (L1) was Mandarin and whose second language (L2) was English. Instructors also identified students who may be at risk for L2 reading difficulties based on specific identification criteria. L2 phonological…

Harrison, Gina L.; Krol, Lisa



Modality Preference and Word Learning: The Predictive Ability of the Swassing-Barbe Modality Index and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. (United States)

The relationship between modality styles and reading achievement was studied for 51 first graders given 2 subtests of the Swassing-Barbe Modality Index, 2 subtests of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, and 2 tests of nonsense words. There was no significant interaction between modality preference and reading achievement. (SLD)

Kampwirth, Thomas J.; MacKenzie, Karen



Implementation of the learning goals of Russian language teaching in primary schools in the process of organizing a symbolic perception of teachers developed structure of a word  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the issues of realization of cognitive goals training Russian language in elementary school through the organization of a symbolic perception of the» Junior student. Explores new approaches to the study of the composition words at Russian lessons-based awareness of the morpheme as a language sign. This practice contributes to the development rehabilitating abilities of students.

Valentina Hopreninova



Asperger syndrome and "non-verbal learning problems" in a longitudinal perspective: neuropsychological and social adaptive outcome in early adult life. (United States)

Co-existence of Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) has been proposed based on the observation that people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal than performance IQ (VIQ > PIQ by ? 15 points), one of the core features of NLD. In the present study we examined neuropsychological and social adaptive profiles with "non-verbal learning problems" associated with NLD in a group of individuals with AS followed from childhood into early adult life. The group was divided into three subgroups: (i) persistent NLD (P-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) both in childhood and early adulthood occasions, (ii) childhood NLD (CO-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) only at original diagnosis, or (iii) No NLD (VIQ > PIQ) ever (NO-NLD). All three subgroups were followed prospectively from childhood into adolescence and young adult life. One in four to one in five of the whole group of males with AS had P-NLD. The P-NLD subgroup had poorer neuropsychological outcome in early adult life than did those with CO-NLD and those with NO-NLD. There were no unequivocal markers in early childhood that predicted subgroup status in early adult life, but early motor delay and a history of early speech-language problems tended to be associated with P-NLD. PMID:23871410

Hagberg, Bibbi S; Nydén, Agneta; Cederlund, Mats; Gillberg, Christopher



Word Recognition Experiment (United States)

This is the entry page for participating in the Word Recognition Experiment. This study involves a series of word recognition trials in which participants are flashed a word either in the left or in the right hemifield and then identify the presented word. Performance is measured as the minimum presentation display time required for an individual to correctly identify the word.


An Action Research on Deep Word Processing Strategy Instruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For too long a time, how to memorize more words and keep them longer in mind has been a primary and everlasting problem for vocabulary teaching and learning. This study focused on deep processing as a word memorizing strategy in contextualizing, de- and re- contextualizing learning stages. It also examined possible effects of such pedagogy on vocabulary competence and attitude towards word learning. The context of the action research was an 11-week deep word processing strategy instruction program, involving 39 non-English major freshmen. The results showed that teacher’s strategy-based instructional intervention affected the changes both in learners’ vocabulary competence and in teachers’ and learners’ attitude toward word learning. These findings were discussed in terms of some issues deserving more considerations. And accommodations for future study were also made.

Limei Zhang



It's All in a Word History, meaning and the sheer joy of words  

CERN Multimedia

Cross words, crass words, kind words, bad words, first words, rude words, new words, weazel words, teen words, rap words, power words, colour words, Indian words, Brit words, Blairwords, war words, ad words, p-c words, borrowed words, Shakespeare's amazing words, false words, fine words, wine words, American words, name words, last words, even lost for words – this book has them all. Vivian Cook takes us on a series of excursions down the curious byways of word history and meaning, mingling the fare with games, lists, tests, and quotes. Discover the theojollylogical joys of infixation. Find ou

Cook, Vivian



Numerical Capacities as Domain-Specific Predictors beyond Early Mathematics Learning: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

The first aim of the present study was to investigate whether numerical effects (Numerical Distance Effect, Counting Effect and Subitizing Effect) are domain-specific predictors of mathematics development at the end of elementary school by exploring whether they explain additional variance of later mathematics fluency after controlling for the effects of general cognitive skills, focused on nonnumerical aspects. The second aim was to address the same issues but applied to achievement in mathematics curriculum that requires solutions to fluency in calculation. These analyses assess whether the relationship found for fluency are generalized to mathematics content beyond fluency in calculation. As a third aim, the domain specificity of the numerical effects was examined by analyzing whether they contribute to the development of reading skills, such as decoding fluency and reading comprehension, after controlling for general cognitive skills and phonological processing. Basic numerical capacities were evaluated in children of 3rd and 4th grades (n=49). Mathematics and reading achievements were assessed in these children one year later. Results showed that the size of the Subitizing Effect was a significant domain-specific predictor of fluency in calculation and also in curricular mathematics achievement, but not in reading skills, assessed at the end of elementary school. Furthermore, the size of the Counting Effect also predicted fluency in calculation, although this association only approached significance. These findings contrast with proposals that the core numerical competencies measured by enumeration will bear little relationship to mathematics achievement. We conclude that basic numerical capacities constitute domain-specific predictors and that they are not exclusively “start-up” tools for the acquisition of Mathematics; but they continue modulating this learning at the end of elementary school.

Reigosa-Crespo, Vivian; Gonzalez-Alemany, Eduardo; Leon, Teresa; Torres, Rosario; Mosquera, Raysil; Valdes-Sosa, Mitchell



Word, Words, Words: Ellul and the Mediocritization of Language (United States)

The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…

Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick



Consonant-Free Words: Evidence from Hebrew Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants (United States)

This paper reports on a rare phenomenon in language development--the production of words without consonants, and thus syllables without an onset. Such words, which are referred as Consonant-free words (CFWs), appeared for a short period in the early speech of hearing impaired Hebrew-speaking children, who produced words consisting of one or two…

Adi-Bensaid, Limor; Tubul-Lavy, Gila



Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Visual presentation of words activates extrastriate regions of the occipital lobes of the brain. When analyzed by positron emission tomography (PET), certain areas in the left, medial extrastriate visual cortex were activated by visually presented pseudowords that obey English spelling rules, as well as by actual words. These areas were not activated by nonsense strings of letters or letter-like forms. Thus visual word form computations are based on learned distinctions between words and nonwords. In addition, during passive presentation of words, but not pseudowords, activation occurred in a left frontal area that is related to semantic processing. These findings support distinctions made in cognitive psychology and computational modeling between high-level visual and semantic computations on single words and describe the anatomy that may underlie these distinctions.

Petersen, S.E.; Fox, P.T.; Snyder, A.Z.; Raichle, M.E. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))



Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Visual presentation of words activates extrastriate regions of the occipital lobes of the brain. When analyzed by positron emission tomography (PET), certain areas in the left, medial extrastriate visual cortex were activated by visually presented pseudowords that obey English spelling rules, as well as by actual words. These areas were not activated by nonsense strings of letters or letter-like forms. Thus visual word form computations are based on learned distinctions between words and nonwords. In addition, during passive presentation of words, but not pseudowords, activation occurred in a left frontal area that is related to semantic processing. These findings support distinctions made in cognitive psychology and computational modeling between high-level visual and semantic computations on single words and describe the anatomy that may underlie these distinctions



Learning for supplying as a motive to be the early adopter of a new energy technology: A study on the adoption of stationary fuel cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By early adopting a new technology, firms may attempt to improve their production efficiency and become further involved in the supply chain of the technology. These two different advantages derived from learning a new technology are identified as motives for adopting the technology. When learning for supplying (LFS) (becoming involved in the supply chain of the new technology) highlighted in this paper is significant enough, potential adopters may still be willing to adopt the new technology, even though learning for using (LFU) (increasing current production efficiency) is not significant. This paper identifies LFS as a motive for early adopters of the new technology. Firms may adopt a new technology for the purpose of learning how to become the suppliers of the relevant parts, materials, or equipment for the new technology. By investigating the adoption decision of a new energy technology (namely, phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC)), our arguments are supported by both observation of early adopters' attributes and a survey of Taiwanese firms' willingness to adopt new technology



Learning to eat vegetables in early life: the role of timing, age and individual eating traits. (United States)

Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n?=?332) aged 4-38 m (18.9±9.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were "learners" (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled "plate-clearers". 16% were considered "non-eaters" eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as "others" (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children. PMID:24878745

Caton, Samantha J; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; Mřller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Eloďse; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M



Learning to Eat Vegetables in Early Life: The Role of Timing, Age and Individual Eating Traits (United States)

Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n?=?332) aged 4–38 m (18.9±9.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were “learners” (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled “plate-clearers”. 16% were considered “non-eaters” eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as “others” (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children.

Caton, Samantha J.; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M.; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; M?ller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Eloise; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M.



How Spencer Made Number: First Uses of the Number Words (United States)

This article describes the development of number concepts between infancy and early childhood. It is based on a diary study that tracked number word use in a child from 12 to 38 months of age. Number words appeared early in the child's vocabulary, but accurate reference to specific numerosities evolved gradually over the entire 27-month period.…

Mix, Kelly S.



Transitional Probability and Word Segmentation  

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This article aims at reviewing the literature in the studies of the relationship between transitional probability and word segmentation in an attempt to emphasize statistical learning as the experience-dependent factor in language acquisition. Transitional probability, the crucial cue of the statistical relationship between syllables, is characterized by its two computation directions: the forward transitional probability and backward transitional probability. Results from the empiri...

Yingying Xie



Word Geology – its Roots and Meanings  

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Full Text Available In the period up to 18th century the meaning of the word geology has substantially changed; from Latin word geologia written by de Bury in the 14th century, through the use of word giologia by Aldrovandi in the beginning of 17th century and to near final definition of word geology that appeared in French Encyclopaedia from 1751.With the help of Internet some other early works not known to the literature of geology history were discovered.Among them are German books where in the title word geology is also present. Works of Zaharius Grapo, JoannesSchnabel and Johann Gregorii can be listed. Short analysis of other German geological works from the second half of the 18th century important for Slovenian territory are briefly presented. Starting from the database of earlier Slovenian publications available on the Internet an analysis of word geology early appearances in Slovene language is presented. First publication of the word root geol- appeared in newspaper Slovenija in year 1849. Amongearly authors Davorin Trstenjak was first using geological information starting in year 1853. Earliest longer textpresented information on geological work in Slovene language was published in the newspaper Novice in year 1853. Based on the available literature and other sources reinterpretation of the meaning of word geology is based in the context of its role in the natural sciences development as well as its historical context.

Mihael Bren?i?



Episturmian words: a survey  

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In this paper, we survey the rich theory of infinite episturmian words which generalize to any finite alphabet, in a rather resembling way, the well-known family of Sturmian words on two letters. After recalling definitions and basic properties, we consider episturmian morphisms that allow for a deeper study of these words. Some properties of factors are described, including factor complexity, palindromes, fractional powers, frequencies, and return words. We also consider lexicographical properties of episturmian words, as well as their connection to the balance property, and related notions such as finite episturmian words, Arnoux-Rauzy sequences, and "episkew words" that generalize the skew words of Morse and Hedlund.

Glen, Amy



Professional WordPress Plugin Development  

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Taking WordPress to the next level with advanced plugin developmentWordPress is used to create self-hosted blogs and sites, and it's fast becoming the most popular content management system (CMS) on the Web. Now you can extend it for personal, corporate and enterprise use with advanced plugins and this professional development guide. Learn how to create plugins using the WordPress plugin API: utilize hooks, store custom settings, craft translation files, secure your plugins, set custom user roles, integrate widgets, work with JavaScript and AJAX, create custom post types. You'll find a practic

Williams, Brad; Tadlock, Justin



Early lexical development in a self-organizing neural network. (United States)

In this paper we present a self-organizing neural network model of early lexical development called DevLex. The network consists of two self-organizing maps (a growing semantic map and a growing phonological map) that are connected via associative links trained by Hebbian learning. The model captures a number of important phenomena that occur in early lexical acquisition by children, as it allows for the representation of a dynamically changing linguistic environment in language learning. In our simulations, DevLex develops topographically organized representations for linguistic categories over time, models lexical confusion as a function of word density and semantic similarity, and shows age-of-acquisition effects in the course of learning a growing lexicon. These results match up with patterns from empirical research on lexical development, and have significant implications for models of language acquisition based on self-organizing neural networks. PMID:15555870

Li, Ping; Farkas, Igor; MacWhinney, Brian



Primitive words and roots of words  

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In the algebraic theory of codes and formal languages, the set $Q$ of all primitive words over some alphabet $\\zi $ has received special interest. With this survey article we give an overview about relevant research to this topic during the last twenty years including own investigations and some new results. In Section 1 after recalling the most important notions from formal language theory we illustrate the connection between coding theory and primitive words by some facts. We define primitive words as words having only a trivial representation as the power of another word. Nonprimitive words (without the empty word) are exactly the periodic words. Every nonempty word is a power of an uniquely determined primitive word which is called the root of the former one. The set of all roots of nonempty words of a language is called the root of the language. The primitive words have interesting combinatorial properties which we consider in Section 2. In Section 3 we investigate the relationship between the set $Q$ of...

Lischke, Gerhard



Recurrent Partial Words  

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Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

Francine Blanchet-Sadri



Assessment for Learning: A Model for the Development of a Child's Self-Competence in the Early Years of Education (United States)

In recent years, policy documents, curricula and other educational initiatives have promoted a pedagogy founded on the concept of independent learning. This is broadly defined as "having the belief in yourself to think through learning activities, problems or challenges, make decisions about your learning and act upon those decisions". The central…

Blandford, Sonia; Knowles, Catherine



Probabilistic Classification Learning with Corrective Feedback Is Selectively Impaired in Early Huntington's Disease--Evidence for the Role of the Striatum in Learning with Feedback (United States)

In general, declarative learning is associated with the activation of the medial temporal lobes (MTL), while the basal ganglia (BG) are considered the substrate for procedural learning. More recently it has been demonstrated the distinction of these systems may not be as absolute as previously thought and that not only the explicit or implicit…

Holl, Anna K.; Wilkinson, Leonora; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Painold, Annamaria; Jahanshahi, Marjan



Internet Marketing with WordPress  

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The book's accompanying Interactive learning environment on gives you an online place to enhance and extend your practical experience through exercises, consolidate your learning and theoretical knowledge with marked quizzes, interaction with your WordPress marketing community, and fun and exciting extras such as challenges and competitions. This book is for people already using WordPress, who want more visitors, better visitors, and to convert more of them into paying customers. No prior marketing experience is required, although a basic understanding of either hosted or se

Mercer, David



From open radical hysterectomy to robot-assisted laparoscopic radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer: aspects of a single institution learning curve  

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We analysed the introduction of the robot-assisted laparoscopic radical hysterectomy in patients with early-stage cervical cancer with respect to patient benefits and surgeon-related aspects of a surgical learning curve. A retrospective review of the first 14 robot-assisted laparoscopic radical hysterectomies and the last 14 open radical hysterectomies in a similar clinical setting with the same surgical team was conducted. Patients were candidates for a laparoscopic sentinel node procedure, ...



Collocation in English Teaching and Learning  

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The purpose of learning a word is to put it in actual use. It is far from being enough to know just the meaning of a word, for we have to take into consideration the immediate context in which a word is used, i.e. the words preceding and following the word in question. Both the grammatical and lexical patterns are critical to the identification of a word in a certain sense. This paper is devoted to the elaboration on the concept of collocation, the importance of collocation and how to learn c...

Manfu Duan; Xiaohui Qin



How Children Block Learning from Ignorant Speakers (United States)

Preschool children typically do not learn words from ignorant or unreliable speakers. Here, we examined the mechanism by which these learning failures occur by modifying the comprehension test procedure that measures word learning. Following lexical training by a knowledgeable or ignorant speaker, 48 preschool-aged children were asked either a…

Sabbagh, Mark A.; Shafman, Dana



PNNL: A Supervised Maximum Entropy Approach to Word Sense Disambiguation  

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In this paper, we described the PNNL Word Sense Disambiguation system as applied to the English All-Word task in Se-mEval 2007. We use a supervised learning approach, employing a large number of features and using Information Gain for dimension reduction. Our Maximum Entropy approach combined with a rich set of features produced results that are significantly better than baseline and are the highest F-score for the fined-grained English All-Words subtask.

Tratz, Stephen C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Posse, Christian; Whitney, Paul D.



Optimization of Word Sense Disambiguation using Clustering in WEKA  

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In the Natural Language Processing (NLP) community, Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) has been described as the task which selects the appropriate meaning (sense) to a given word in a text or discourse where this meaning is distinguishable from other senses potentially attributable to that word. These senses could be seen as the target labels of a classification problem. Clustering and classification are two important techniques of data mining. Classification is a supervised learning problem of...



Effects of nitric oxide release in an area of the chick forebrain which is essential for early learning. (United States)

Extracellular recording techniques were used to study the effects of the nitric oxide releasing agents diethylamine-NO (DEA-NO) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) on synaptic transmission in the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV), a part of the domestic chick forebrain that is essential for some forms of early learning. The field response evoked by local electrical stimulation was recorded in the IMHV in an in vitro slice preparation. DEA-NO (100-200 mgr) significantly depressed the field response in a concentration dependent and reversible manner. However, the depression produced by perfusion with 400 mgr DEA-NO, was not reversed following washout of the drug. With 400 mgr DEA-NO, NO reaches a maximum concentration of 10 mgr at 2 min of perfusion, and then declines slowly. SNAP (400 mgr) produced an effect similar to 400 mgr DEA-NO. Neither the immediate nor the longer-term depressive effect of NO is mediated by activation of guanylyl cyclase because in the presence of both low and high doses of ODQ, a potent and selective inhibitor of NO-stimulated guanylyl cyclase, NO produced the same depression of the field response. There is evidence however that the IMHV possesses c-GMP responsive elements since direct perfusion of 8-Br-cGMP (1 mM) produced a long-term but not an immediate depression. The long-term depression produced by 400 mgr DEA-NO was eliminated in the presence of either a selective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist or an ADP-ribosyltransferase inhibitor. It was also possible to prevent the long-term effect in the presence of tetraethyl ammonium a K(+)-channel blocker. These results suggest that the NO may be acting presynaptically in a synergistic fashion with the adenosine A(1) receptor to depress transmitter release. PMID:10837895

Barcellos, C K; Bradley, P M; Burns, B D; Webb, A C



The Relationship between influencing Factors and the Implementation of Early Intervention Programme: The Possibility of Open Distance Learning  

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Full Text Available In Malaysia, there is a grave concern from various quarters (educators, parents, the public and the Ministry of Education (MOE on the inability of children not acquiring the basic skills (reading, writing and arithmetic. Evidence (Samsilah, Abd Rahman, Sharifah, 2005 showed that there were grade seven students who still could neither read nor write and it was also found that 30 students in the same grade were illiterate (STAR, 1997. Even with intervention programmes, 43.5% of the students reworded failed to acquire the basic skills. One factor identified was teaching effectiveness. Related to this factor is the lack of teachers. Due to the lack of teachers, in some schools, teachers are asked to take on the task of teaching in the intervention programme without proper training, hence, the poor student performance outcome. Yet, there are a number of individuals who would like to be teachers but had no opportunity because of economic reasons or not meeting the requirements post high school for entrance to higher institutions. Therefore, Open Distance Learning (ODL may be the option for these individuals. This may perhaps also solve the woe of the nation’s lacking of teaching staffs. The basic philosophy of ODL promotes ‘inclusion’ and ‘openness’. These two concepts ensure a place and space for all those who were left out from the education mainstream but have the motivation to be corrected a teacher. But, with ODL the academic system will demand a shift in pedagogical paradigm, because ODL entails notably multimedia products and services. Therefore would-be ODL teachers and trainers will be trained via the use of innovative methods and techniques using multi media as the tool of instruction. This study suggests that with instructional innovations perhaps Early Intervention Programme (EIP may have better prospect for success. Other factors in influencing the implementation of the EIP and implications for ODL are also discussed.

Rahil Mahyuddin



Embedding Number-Combinations Practice within Word-Problem Tutoring (United States)

Two aspects of mathematics with which students with mathematics learning difficulty (MLD) often struggle are word problems and number-combination skills. This article describes a math program in which students receive instruction on using algebraic equations to represent the underlying problem structure for three word-problem types. Students also…

Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas



Zur Wortbildung in wissenschaftlichen Texten (Word Formation in Scientific Texts) (United States)

Discusses a German frequency list of 1,500 to 2,000 scientific words, which is being developed, and the importance of learning word-building principles. Substantive and adjective suffixes are listed according to frequency, followed by remarks on copulative compounds, with examples and frequency ranking, and, finally, prefixes. (Text is in German.)…

Rogalla, Hanna; Rogalla, Willy



Indicators of Early and Late Processing Reveal the Importance of Within-Trial-Time for Theories of Associative Learning  

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In four human learning experiments (Pavlovian skin conductance, causal learning, speeded classification task), we evaluated several associative learning theories that assume either an elemental (modified unique cue model and Harris’ model) or a configural (Pearce’s configural theory and an extension of it) form of stimulus processing. The experiments used two modified patterning problems (A/B/C+, AB/BC/AC+ vs. ABC-; A+, BC+ vs. ABC-). Pearce’s configural theory successfully predicted al...

Lachnit, Harald; Thorwart, Anna; Schultheis, Holger; Lotz, Anja; Koenig, Stephan; Uengoer, Metin



Bilingual word recognition in a sentence context  

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Full Text Available This article provides an overview of bilingualism research on visual word recognition in isolation and in sentence context. Many studies investigating the processing of words out-of-context have shown that lexical representations from both languages are activated when reading in one language (language-nonselective lexical access. A newly developed research line asks whether language-nonselective access generalizes to word recognition in sentence contexts, providing a language cue and/or semantic constraint information for upcoming words. Recent studies suggest that the language of the preceding words is insufficient to restrict lexical access to words of the target language, even when reading in the native language. Eyetracking studies revealing the time course of word activation further showed that semantic constraint does not restrict language-nonselective access at early reading stages, but there is evidence that it has a relatively late effect. The theoretical implications for theories of bilingual word recognition are discussed in light of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 2002.

EvaVan Assche



The Mechanism of Word Crowding  

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Word reading speed in peripheral vision is slower when words are in close proximity of other words (Chung, 2004). This word crowding effect could arise as a consequence of interaction of low-level letter features between words, or the interaction between high-level holistic representations of words. We evaluated these two hypotheses by examining how word crowding changes for five configurations of flanking words: the control condition — flanking words were oriented upright; scrambled — le...

Yu, Deyue; Akau, Melanie M. U.; Chung, Susana T. L.



Words In Action: Interdisciplinary Approaches To Understanding Word Processing And Storage  

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Almost all levels of language knowledge and processing (from phonology, to syntax and semantics) are known to be affected by knowledge of word structure at varying degrees. A better understanding of the human strategies involved in learning and processing word structure thus lies at the heart of our comprehension of the basic mechanisms serving both language and cognition and is key to addressing some fundamental challenges for the study of the physiology of grammar. On the 12th and 13th of O...

Pirrelli, Vito; Marzi, Claudia



Beyond Transitional Probability Computations: Extracting Word-Like Units when Only Statistical Information Is Available (United States)

Endress and Mehler (2009) reported that when adult subjects are exposed to an unsegmented artificial language composed from trisyllabic words such as ABX, YBC, and AZC, they are unable to distinguish between these words and what they coined as the "phantom-word" ABC in a subsequent test. This suggests that statistical learning generates knowledge…

Perruchet, Pierre; Poulin-Charronnat, Benedicte



How many English Words do the Senior High School Students Acquire per Week?  

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Full Text Available Abstract: The 1984 SMA English curriculum states that SMA graduates are expected to master 4000 words. The curriculum also specifies the topics and then umber of words to be exposed to SMA students for each week (30 words per week. If it is accepted that each semester consists of 15 weeks, and each week the students actually learn 30 different words, then SMA graduates only learn about 2700 different words during their study at senior high school. Therefore, in my opinion the number of 4000 words also includes the words that should have been learnt by the them at SMP, that is, 1500 words according to the updated 1975 SMP English curriculum. However, Nababan (1984 states that we tend to forget about 40% of the words we have learned. If this is accepted, theoretically SMA graduates will only acquire about 2520 of the 4200 words (if the students only learn 2700 and 1500 at SMA and SMP respectively. The figure suggests that on average the students acquire about 14 different words per week during their study at SMP and SMA (2520 words divided by {12 semesters x 15 weeks}.

Ari Nurweni



Word Sense Disambiguation in Information Retrieval  

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Full Text Available The natural language processing has a set of phases that evolves from lexical text analysis to the pragmatic one in which the author’s intentions are shown. The ambiguity problem appears in all of these tasks. Previous works tries to do word sense disambiguation, the process of assign a sense to a word inside a specific context, creating algorithms under a supervised or unsupervised approach, which means that those algorithms use or not an external lexical resource. This paper presents an approximated approach that combines not supervised algorithms by the use of a classifiers set, the result will be a learning algorithm based on unsupervised methods for word sense disambiguation process. It begins with an introduction to word sense disambiguation concepts and then analyzes some unsupervised algorithms in order to extract the best of them, and combines them under a supervised approach making use of some classifiers.

Francis de la C. Fernández REYES



Word spotting with the gamma neural model (United States)

This paper discusses the application of the gamma neural model to word spotting. The gamma model is a dynamic neural model where the conventional tap delay line of the TDNN is replaced by a local recursive memory structure. This model is able to find the best memory depth for a given processing task when the number of taps in the memory is specified. It can also compensate for time warping. In our approach, word spotting is the detection of a signature (the keyword under analysis) in a noisy background (other words of continuous speech). Unlike other approaches, we do not segment the input, and the neural net learns over time how to recognize the patterns associated with a given word. We test two gamma model topologies for their sensitivity to time warping and amplitude variations.

Fancourt, Craig; Euliano, Neil; Principe, Jose C.



Phonological Words and Stuttering on Function Words  

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Stuttering on function words was examined in 51 people who stutter. The people who stutter were subdivided into young (2 to 6 years), middle (6 to 9 years), and older (9 to 12 years) child groups; teenagers (13 to 18 years); and adults (20 to 40 years). As reported by previous researchers, children up to about age 9 stuttered more on function words (pronouns, articles, prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs), whereas older people tended to stutter more on content words (nouns, main verbs...

Au-yeung, James; Howell, Peter; Pilgrim, Lesley



Signed words in the congenitally deaf evoke typical late lexicosemantic responses with no early visual responses in left superior temporal cortex. (United States)

Congenitally deaf individuals receive little or no auditory input, and when raised by deaf parents, they acquire sign as their native and primary language. We asked two questions regarding how the deaf brain in humans adapts to sensory deprivation: (1) is meaning extracted and integrated from signs using the same classical left hemisphere frontotemporal network used for speech in hearing individuals, and (2) in deafness, is superior temporal cortex encompassing primary and secondary auditory regions reorganized to receive and process visual sensory information at short latencies? Using MEG constrained by individual cortical anatomy obtained with MRI, we examined an early time window associated with sensory processing and a late time window associated with lexicosemantic integration. We found that sign in deaf individuals and speech in hearing individuals activate a highly similar left frontotemporal network (including superior temporal regions surrounding auditory cortex) during lexicosemantic processing, but only speech in hearing individuals activates auditory regions during sensory processing. Thus, neural systems dedicated to processing high-level linguistic information are used for processing language regardless of modality or hearing status, and we do not find evidence for rewiring of afferent connections from visual systems to auditory cortex. PMID:22787055

Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric



Can I Have A Word? (United States)

Just a single word can make all the difference in a poem, an essay, or an entire novel. Educating students of all ages about the importance of words, particularly in creative writing, can be a difficult task. Fortunately, this visually refreshing and well-laid out site created by the Barbican Education group is quite inspiring. The site is divided into four projects including the elements, the human body, the Odyssey, and changing voices. In the elements area, visitors will learn how to create descriptive writing through watching visual presentations and listening to new poems by a variety of authors, including Margot Henderson, Jackie Kay, and Michael Rosen. Also, this section (as with all the other sections) includes classroom activities for teachers. Overall, the site is easy to use and will hopefully serve to inspire a new generation of creative writers.


How many English Words do the Senior High School Students Acquire per Week?  

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Abstract: The 1984 SMA English curriculum states that SMA graduates are expected to master 4000 words. The curriculum also specifies the topics and then umber of words to be exposed to SMA students for each week (30 words per week). If it is accepted that each semester consists of 15 weeks, and each week the students actually learn 30 different words, then SMA graduates only learn about 2700 different words during their study at senior high school. Therefore, in my opinion the number of 4000 ...

Ari Nurweni



Predicting English Word Accent on Morphological Grounds (United States)

Learners of English as a foreign/Second Language (EFL/ESL) can easily learn the correct pronunciation of English words. Linguists have tried to simplify English phonology in general, and English accent in particular, over the past 50 years or so; some scholars have talked about four degrees of primary, secondary, tertiary and weak stress (e.g.,…

Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali



Understanding Word Problems. Math in Action. Workbook. (United States)

This workbook was designed as an easy-to-read, slower-paced text for students who have learning, reading, and language problems. As one of five workbooks to aid low achievers in problem solving, it focuses on understanding what is known and unknown in mathematical problems and how to decide which operations to use to solve problems. Word usage and…

Friedland, Mary; Roderman, Winifred Ho


#The #concept of team-work in the early childhood : #the #correlation between motor and foreign language learning in the early childhood  

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Collaborative teaching is used in many kindergartens, schools, colleges and universities around the world in order to foster learners? enthusiasm, social skills and to promote interdisciplinary learning. In Slovenia the instruction to use this new method started in kindergartens and primary schools and two years ago in the secondary grammar schools around Slovenia. Unfortunately, team-teaching can sometimes be enforced and imposed onto professors with no firm aim or goal previously set. Such...

Oblak, Polona; Vehovar, Matjaz?



Once upon a Time, There Was a Pulchritudinous Princess . . .: The Role of Word Definitions and Multiple Story Contexts in Children's Learning of Difficult Vocabulary (United States)

The close relationship between children's vocabulary size and their later academic success has led researchers to explore how vocabulary development might be promoted during the early school years. We describe a study that explored the effectiveness of naturalistic classroom storytelling as an instrument for teaching new vocabulary to 6- to…

Wilkinson, Kathryn S.; Houston-Price, Carmel



Interactive, Conceptual Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction one Word at a Time  

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Full Text Available Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement. This research study explores the use of interactive, conceptual word walls to support science learning in an ethnically diverse, high-poverty middle school in a large southern state. Unit test scores of 115 sixth grade students were collected and analyzed in order to test whether the percentage of students passing, and the mean test score among students, significantly varied on the basis of whether interactive, conceptual word walls were utilized. Both were found to be significant. Linear regression determined the effects of word walls on the basis of three demographic variables. On the basis of this analysis, the percentage of students passing is expected to increase by 25% and the mean test scores is predicted to increase by 12.56 points when interactive, conceptual word walls are utilized. Qualitative methods were used to analyze student and teacher perceptions. A good, better, best word wall rubric that was used to guide word wall construction and teacher reflection is also presented. Interactive, conceptual word walls are presented as a viable teaching strategy that positively impacts both unit test means and the total number of students passing science tests.

Julie K. Jackson



Jordan's Strategies for Early Childhood Education in a Lifelong Learning Framework. UNESCO Policy Brief on Early Childhood. Number 39, July-August 2007 (United States)

Jordan has been paying increased attention to early childhood education in recent years. In particular, the government allocated unprecedented resources to the sector through its Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) 2003/08. Funded by the World Bank and other donor agencies, ERfKE is designed to revamp the education sector starting…

Kaga, Yoshie



Students’ Achievement and Attitudes Toward Using Traditional Learning, Blended Learning, and Virtual Classes Learning in Teaching and Learning at the University Level  

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Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of the traditional learning, blended learning and virtual classes learning on university students’ achievement and attitudes. 34 male students studying at the English Language Program, Qassim University were divided randomly into three groups, (blended learning, traditional learning, or virtual classes learning. Results indicate that there are significant differences among the instructional approaches in the achievement test scores in favor of blended learning. In addition, the results show significant differences in students’ attitudes in favor of blended learning.Key words: Blended learning; Traditional learning; Virtual classes learning; Saudi students’ achievement; Attitudes; E-learning

Mohammad A. Alseweed



Integrating Multiple Knowledge Sources to Disambiguate Word Sense An Exemplar-Based Approach  

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In this paper, we present a new approach for word sense disambiguation (WSD) using an exemplar-based learning algorithm. This approach integrates a diverse set of knowledge sources to disambiguate word sense, including part of speech of neighboring words, morphological form, the unordered set of surrounding words, local collocations, and verb-object syntactic relation. We tested our WSD program, named {\\sc Lexas}, on both a common data set used in previous work, as well as on a large sense-tagged corpus that we separately constructed. better than the most frequent heuristic on the highly ambiguous words in the large corpus tagged with the refined senses of {\\sc WordNet}.

Ng, H T; Ng, Hwee Tou; Lee, Hian Beng



Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study (United States)

The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars



Neurodevelopmental Low-dose Bisphenol A Exposure Leads to Early Life-stage Hyperactivity and Learning Deficits in Adult Zebrafish  

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Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been implicated in adverse behavior and learning deficits. The mode of action underlying these effects is unclear. The zebrafish model was employed to investigate the neurobehavioral effects of developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. The objectives of this study were to identify whether low-dose, developmental BPA exposure affects larval zebrafish locomotor behavior and whether learning deficits occur in adults exposed during development. Two con...

Saili, Katerine S.; Corvi, Margaret M.; Weber, Daniel N.; Patel, Ami U.; Das, Siba R.; Przybyla, Jennifer; Anderson, Kim A.; Tanguay, Robert L.



L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status (United States)

In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo



"Test" is a Four Letter Word  

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For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word. How many of us associate 'Joy' with 'Test'? Not many. It is hard for most of us to reprogram associations learned at an early age. So what can we do about it (short of hypnotic therapy for software developers)? Well one concept I have used (and still use) is to not call testing 'testing'. Call it something else. Ever wonder why most of the Independent Software Testing groups are called Software Quality Assurance groups? Now you know. Software Quality Assurance is not such a negatively charged phrase, even though Software Quality Assurance is much more than simply testing. It was a real blessing when the concept of Validation and Verification came about for software. Now I define Validation to mean assuring that the product produced does the right thing (usually what the customer wants it to do), and verification means that the product was built the right way (in accordance with some good design principles and practices). So I have deliberately called the System Test Group the Verification and Validation Group, or V&V Group, as a way of avoiding the negative image problem. I remember once having a conversation with a developer colleague who said, in the heat of battle, that it was fine to V&V his code, just don't test it! Once again V&V includes many things besides testing, but it just doesn't sound like an onerous thing to do to software. In my current job, working at a highly regarded national laboratory with world renowned physicists, I have again encountered the negativity about testing software. Except here they don't take kindly to Software Quality Assurance or Software Verification and Validation either. After all, software is just a trivial tool to automate algorithms that implement physics models. Testing, SQA, and V&V take time and get in the way of completing ground breaking science experiments. So I have again had to change the name of software testing to something less negative in the physics world. I found (the hard way) that if I requested more time to do software experimentation, the phys

Pope, G M



Word Hyperbolic Semigroups  

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The study of word hyperbolic groups is a prominent topic in geometric group theory; however word hyperbolic groups are defined by a geometric condition which does not extend naturally to semigroups. We propose a linguistic definition. Roughly speaking a semigroup is word hyperbolic if its multiplication table is a context free language. For groups this definition is equivalent to the original geometric one. We also briefly consider word problems of semigroups.

Duncan, Andrew; Gilman, Robert H.



Lectures on Topology of Words  

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We discuss a topological approach to words introduced by the author. Words on an arbitrary alphabet are approximated by Gauss words and then studied up to natural modifications inspired by the Reidemeister moves on knot diagrams. This leads us to a notion of homotopy for words. We introduce several homotopy invariants of words and give a homotopy classification of words of length five.

Turaev, Vladimir



WORD. A. DAY (United States)

A. WORD. A. DAY. is the Web page for the mailing list A.Word A Day (AWAD), which mails out a vocabulary word and its definition (with occasional commentary) to the subscribers every day. Currently AWAD has over 10,000 subscribers in 53 countries.


Directive words of episturmian words: equivalences and normalization  

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Episturmian morphisms constitute a powerful tool to study episturmian words. Indeed, any episturmian word can be infinitely decomposed over the set of pure episturmian morphisms. Thus, an episturmian word can be defined by one of its morphic decompositions or, equivalently, by a certain directive word. Here we characterize pairs of words directing a common episturmian word. We also propose a way to uniquely define any episturmian word through a normalization of its directive words. As a consequence of these results, we characterize episturmian words having a unique directive word.

Glen, Amy; Richomme, Gwénaël



The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading (United States)

This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy



Parent’s Attitudes and Behavior, the Learning Environment, and Their Influence on Children’s Early Reading Achievement  

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Full Text Available Three different models predict the relationship between parents’ attitudes toward reading, their behavior and the learning environment that they provide, and their influence on the reading performance of their children in first grade. The first model specifies the direct influence of each of the independent variables (attitudes, behavior and learning environment on the dependent variable (reading performance of the child. The second model emphasizes the behavior as mediator between attitudes and reading performance, and also the direct influence of learning environment on performance. In contrast, the third model relates to the influence of attitudes on reading performance, with behavior as a mediator just in a supportive learning environment. In order to examine these models, we investigated a population of fifty first-grade pupils and their parents, measuring these variables with the help of questionnaires, interviews, observations and reading tests. The findings suggest that parents’ supportive attitudes have a significant positive influence on the reading performance of their children in first grade. This conclusion is actually consistent with all three models. The more specific conclusion, however, is that attitudes are partially mediated by parents’ behavior in a supportive learning environment, which partially supports the third model.

Salim Abu-Rabia



Word 2010 Simplified  

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Simply the easiest way yet to get up to speed on Word 2010. Microsoft Word 2010 includes all sorts of new features and functionalities, a redesigned interface, new emphasis on collaboration, and many additional changes. Both users of previous editions and those new to the Office applications will appreciate the clear, visual instruction in this book. With step-by-step instructions and large, full-color screen shots demonstrating dozens of Word 2010 tasks, Word 2010 Simplified gets you up and running faster than you ever thought possible.: Word is the most-used application in Microsoft Office,

Marmel, Elaine



Factored Translation with Unsupervised Word Clusters  

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Unsupervised word clustering algorithms â?? which form word clusters based on a measure of distributional similarity â?? have proven to be useful in providing beneficial features for various natural language processing tasks involving supervised learning. This work explores the utility of such word clusters as factors in statistical machine translation. Although some of the language pairs in this work clearly benefit from the factor augmentation, there is no consistent improvement in translation accuracy across the board. For all language pairs, the word clusters clearly improve translation for some proportion of the sentences in the test set, but has a weak or even detrimental effect on the rest. It is shown that if one could determine whether or not to use a factor when translating a given sentence, rather substantial improvements in precision could be achieved for all of the language pairs evaluated. While such an â??oracleâ?ť method is not identified, evaluations indicate that unsupervised word cluster are mostbeneficial in sentences without unknown words.

Rishøj, Christian; Søgaard, Anders



Early hippocampal cell death, and late learning and memory deficits in rats exposed to the environmental toxin BMAA (?-N-methylamino-L-alanine) during the neonatal period. (United States)

We have reported previously that exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) during the neonatal period causes cognitive impairments in adult rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of neonatal BMAA exposure on learning and memory mechanisms and to identify early morphological changes in the neonatal brain. BMAA was injected subcutaneously in rat pups on postnatal days 9-10. BMAA (50 and 200 mg/kg) caused distinct deficits in spatial learning and memory in adult animals but no morphological changes. No impairment of recognition memory was detected, suggesting that neonatal exposure to BMAA preferentially affects neuronal systems that are important for spatial tasks. Histopathological examination revealed early neuronal cell death as determined by TUNEL staining in the hippocampus 24 h after a high dose (600 mg/kg) of BMAA whereas no changes were observed at lower doses (50 and 200 mg/kg). In addition, there was a low degree of neuronal cell death in the retrosplenial and cingulate cortices, areas that are also important for cognitive function. Taken together, these results indicate that BMAA is a developmental neurotoxin inducing long-term changes in cognitive function. The risk posed by BMAA as a potential human neurotoxin merits further consideration, particularly if the proposed biomagnifications in the food chain are confirmed. PMID:21315110

Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika; Berg, Anna-Lena; Brittebo, Eva B



Do Newly Formed Word Representations Encode Non-Criterial Information? (United States)

Lexical stress is useful for a number of language learning tasks. In particular, it helps infants segment the speech stream and identify phonetic contrasts. Recent work has demonstrated that infants aged 1 ; 0 can learn two novel words differing only in their stress pattern. In the current study, we ask whether infants aged 1 ; 0 store stress…

Curtin, Suzanne