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1

Remembering new words: integrating early memory development into word learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to successfully acquire a new word, young children must learn the correct associations between labels and their referents. For decades, word-learning researchers have explored how young children are able to form these associations. However, in addition to learning label-referent mappings, children must also remember them. Despite the importance of memory processes in forming a stable lexicon, there has been little integration of early memory research into the study of early word learning. After discussing what we know about how young children remember words over time, this paper reviews the infant memory development literature as it relates to early word learning, focusing on changes in retention duration, encoding, consolidation, and retrieval across the first 2?years of life. A third section applies this review to word learning and presents future directions, arguing that the integration of memory processes into the study of word learning will provide researchers with novel, useful insights into how young children acquire new words.

Wojcik EH

2013-01-01

2

Electrophysiological evidence of early word learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Around their first birthday infants begin to talk, yet they comprehend words long before. This study investigated the event-related potentials (ERP) responses of nine-month-olds on basic level picture-word pairings. After a familiarization phase of six picture-word pairings per semantic category, comprehension for novel exemplars was tested in a picture-word matching paradigm. ERPs time-locked to pictures elicited a modulation of the negative central (Nc) component, associated with visual attention and recognition. It was attenuated by category repetition as well as by the type-token ratio of picture context. ERPs time-locked to words in the training phase became more negative with repetition (N300-600), but there was no influence of picture type-token ratio, suggesting that infants have identified the concept of each picture before a word was presented. Results from the test phase provided clear support that infants integrated word meanings with (novel) picture context. Here, infants showed different ERP responses for words that did or did not align with the picture context: a phonological mismatch (N200) and a semantic mismatch (N400). Together, results were informative of visual categorization, word recognition and word-to-world-mappings, all three crucial processes for vocabulary construction.

Junge C; Cutler A; Hagoort P

2012-12-01

3

Foreign language learning, hyperlexia, and early word recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children with hyperlexia read words spontaneously before the age of five, have impaired comprehension on both listening and reading tasks, and have word recognition skill above expectations based on cognitive and linguistic abilities. One student with hyperlexia and another student with higher word recognition than comprehension skills who started to read words at a very early age were followed over several years from the primary grades through high school when both were completing a second-year Spanish course. The purpose of the present study was to examine the foreign language (FL) word recognition, spelling, reading comprehension, writing, speaking, and listening skills of the two students and another high school student without hyperlexia. Results showed that the student without hyperlexia achieved higher scores than the hyperlexic student and the student with above average word recognition skills on most FL proficiency measures. The student with hyperlexia and the student with above average word recognition skills achieved higher scores on the Spanish proficiency tasks that required the exclusive use of phonological (pronunciation) and phonological/orthographic (word recognition, spelling) skills than on Spanish proficiency tasks that required the use of listening comprehension and speaking and writing skills. The findings provide support for the notion that word recognition and spelling in a FL may be modular processes and exist independently of general cognitive and linguistic skills. Results also suggest that students may have stronger FL learning skills in one language component than in other components of language, and that there may be a weak relationship between FL word recognition and oral proficiency in the FL. PMID:20563785

Sparks, R L; Artzer, M

2000-01-01

4

Foreign language learning, hyperlexia, and early word recognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Children with hyperlexia read words spontaneously before the age of five, have impaired comprehension on both listening and reading tasks, and have word recognition skill above expectations based on cognitive and linguistic abilities. One student with hyperlexia and another student with higher word recognition than comprehension skills who started to read words at a very early age were followed over several years from the primary grades through high school when both were completing a second-year Spanish course. The purpose of the present study was to examine the foreign language (FL) word recognition, spelling, reading comprehension, writing, speaking, and listening skills of the two students and another high school student without hyperlexia. Results showed that the student without hyperlexia achieved higher scores than the hyperlexic student and the student with above average word recognition skills on most FL proficiency measures. The student with hyperlexia and the student with above average word recognition skills achieved higher scores on the Spanish proficiency tasks that required the exclusive use of phonological (pronunciation) and phonological/orthographic (word recognition, spelling) skills than on Spanish proficiency tasks that required the use of listening comprehension and speaking and writing skills. The findings provide support for the notion that word recognition and spelling in a FL may be modular processes and exist independently of general cognitive and linguistic skills. Results also suggest that students may have stronger FL learning skills in one language component than in other components of language, and that there may be a weak relationship between FL word recognition and oral proficiency in the FL.

Sparks RL; Artzer M

2000-01-01

5

Foreign Language Learning, Hyperlexia, and Early Word Recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

|A study involving a high-school student with hyperlexia and a student with above average word recognition skills, found they scored higher on Spanish proficiency tasks that required the exclusive use of phonological and phonological/orthographic skills than on Spanish proficiency tasks requiring listening comprehension and speaking and writing…

Sparks, Richard L.; Artzer, Marjorie

2000-01-01

6

Vocalic and consonantal processing biases in early word-learning: Cross-language differences?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Previous research showed that French-learning 16- or 20-month-olds could learn pairs of words that differed by a single consonantal but not vocalic feature. Danish has a richer vowel inventory than French, allowing for 31 phonological vowel contrasts, including vowel length and presence/absence of stod (laryngealization). The purpose of Experiment 1 was to test whether Danish-learning 20-month-olds, in spite of the importance of vowels in Danish phonology, showed a lack of sensitivity to one-feature vocalic differences in lexical learning similar to that of French-learning infants. The experiment made use of the same word-learning task as that used for French 16-month-olds. As opposed to the French-learning infants, the Danish-learning infants successfully learned the vowel pairs indicating sensitivity to small vocalic differences in word-learning. Experiment 2 tested the use of vowels in word-learning in French-learning 20-month-olds using the same task. They failed again. On the other hand, ongoing tests indicate that Danish-learning 20-month-olds, as opposed to French-learning 16- or 20-month-olds, fail to use one-feature consonantal differences in word-learning. These results may suggest that infants develop processing biases in word-learning depending on the sound-structure of their language.

HØjen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

2010-01-01

7

An image is worth a thousand words: why nouns tend to dominate verbs in early word learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nouns are generally easier to learn than verbs (e.g., Bornstein, 2005; Bornstein et al., 2004; Gentner, 1982; Maguire, Hirsh-Pasek, & Golinkoff, 2006). Yet, verbs appear in children's earliest vocabularies, creating a seeming paradox. This paper examines one hypothesis about the difference between noun and verb acquisition. Perhaps the advantage nouns have is not a function of grammatical form class but rather related to a word's imageability. Here, word imageability ratings and form class (nouns and verbs) were correlated with age of acquisition according to the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) (Fenson et al., 1994). CDI age of acquisition was negatively correlated with words' imageability ratings. Further, a word's imageability contributes to the variance of the word's age of acquisition above and beyond form class, suggesting that at the beginning of word learning, imageability might be a driving factor.

McDonough C; Song L; Hirsh-Pasek K; Golinkoff RM; Lannon R

2011-03-01

8

An Image Is Worth a Thousand Words: Why Nouns Tend to Dominate Verbs in Early Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Nouns are generally easier to learn than verbs (e.g. Bornstein, 2005; Bornstein et al., 2004; Gentner, 1982; Maguire, Hirsh-Pasek & Golinkoff, 2006). Yet, verbs appear in children's earliest vocabularies, creating a seeming paradox. This paper examines one hypothesis about the difference between noun and verb acquisition. Perhaps the advantage…

McDonough, Colleen; Song, Lulu; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Lannon, Robert

2011-01-01

9

Word Learning as Bayesian Inference  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present a Bayesian framework for understanding how adults and children learn the meanings of words. The theory explains how learners can generalize meaningfully from just one or a few positive examples of a novel word's referents, by making rational inductive inferences that integrate prior knowledge about plausible word meanings with…

Xu, Fei; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

2007-01-01

10

Learning about sounds contributes to learning about words: effects of prosody and phonotactics on infant word learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research investigates how early learning about native language sound structure affects how infants associate sounds with meanings during word learning. Infants (19-month-olds) were presented with bisyllabic labels with high or low phonotactic probability (i.e., sequences of frequent or infrequent phonemes in English). The labels were produced with the predominant English trochaic (strong/weak) stress pattern or the less common iambic (weak/strong) pattern. Using the habituation-based Switch Task to test label learning, we found that infants readily learned high probability trochaic labels. However, they failed to learn low probability labels, regardless of stress, and failed to learn iambic labels, regardless of phonotactics. Thus, infants required support from both common phoneme sequences and a common stress pattern to map the labels to objects. These findings demonstrate that early word learning is shaped by prior knowledge of native language phonological regularities and provide support for the role of statistical learning in language acquisition.

Graf Estes K; Bowen S

2013-03-01

11

Learning and Consolidation of Novel Spoken Words  

Science.gov (United States)

|Two experiments explored the neural mechanisms underlying the learning and consolidation of novel spoken words. In Experiment 1, participants learned two sets of novel words on successive days. A subsequent recognition test revealed high levels of familiarity for both sets. However, a lexical decision task showed that only novel words learned on…

Davis, Matthew H.; Di Betta, Anna Maria; Macdonald, Mark J. E.; Gaskell, Gareth

2009-01-01

12

Gender Differences in Child Word Learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In prior work with adults, women were found to outperform men on a paired-associates word-learning task, but only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words. The goal of the present work was to examine whether similar gender differences in word learning would be observed in children. In addition to manipulating phonological familiarity, referent familiarity was also manipulated. Children between the ages of 5 and 7 learned phonologically-familiar or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words in association with pictures of familiar referents (animals) or unfamiliar referents (aliens). Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition measure administered immediately after the learning phase. Analyses of retention data revealed stronger phonological and referent familiarity effects in girls than in boys. Moreover, girls outperformed boys only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words and when learning novel words in association with familiar referents. These findings are interpreted to suggest that females are more likely than males to recruit native-language phonological and semantic knowledge during novel word learning.

Kaushanskaya M; Gross M; Buac M

2013-10-01

13

Word learning in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been gaining attention, partly as an example of unusual developmental trajectories related to early neurobiological differences. The present investigation addressed the process of learning new words to explore mechanisms of language delay and impairment. The sample included 21 typically developing toddlers matched on expressive vocabulary with 21 young children with ASD. Two tasks were administered to teach children a new word and were supplemented by cognitive and diagnostic measures. In most analyses, there were no group differences in performance. Children with ASD did not consistently make mapping errors, even in word learning situations that required the use of social information. These findings indicate that some children with ASD, in developmentally appropriate tasks, are able to use information from social interactions to guide word-object mappings. This result has important implications for understanding of how children with ASD learn language.

Luyster R; Lord C

2009-11-01

14

What counts as effective input for word learning?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The talk children hear from their primary caregivers predicts the size of their vocabularies. But children who spend time with multiple individuals also hear talk that others direct to them, as well as talk not directed to them at all. We investigated the effect of linguistic input on vocabulary acquisition in children who routinely spent time with one vs. multiple individuals. For all children, the number of words primary caregivers directed to them at age 2 ; 6 predicted vocabulary size at age 3 ; 6. For children who spent time with multiple individuals, child-directed words from all household members also predicted later vocabulary and accounted for more variance in vocabulary than words from primary caregivers alone. Interestingly, overheard words added no predictive value to the model. These findings suggest that speech directed to children is important for early word learning, even in households where a sizable proportion of input comes from overheard speech.

Shneidman LA; Arroyo ME; Levine SC; Goldin-Meadow S

2013-06-01

15

Learning Probabilistic Models of Word Sense Disambiguation  

CERN Multimedia

This dissertation presents several new methods of supervised and unsupervised learning of word sense disambiguation models. The supervised methods focus on performing model searches through a space of probabilistic models, and the unsupervised methods rely on the use of Gibbs Sampling and the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. In both the supervised and unsupervised case, the Naive Bayesian model is found to perform well. An explanation for this success is presented in terms of learning rates and bias-variance decompositions.

Pedersen, Ted

1998-01-01

16

Learning Words through Multimedia Application : A Study of Implicit Learning in Chinese Words  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  This study explores the relevance of multimedia application in relation to vocabulary acquisition in the classroom of Chinese as a foreign language. The herein depicted application refers to the computer-assisted implicit word-learning, wherein the Danish students built hypertexts to acquire meanings of unknown words aiming to research and to enlarging Chinese vocabulary.  

Zhang, Chun

2007-01-01

17

Learning biases predict a word order universal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How recurrent typological patterns, or universals, emerge from the extensive diversity found across the world's languages constitutes a central question for linguistics and cognitive science. Recent challenges to a fundamental assumption of generative linguistics-that universal properties of the human language acquisition faculty constrain the types of grammatical systems which can occur-suggest the need for new types of empirical evidence connecting typology to biases of learners. Using an artificial language learning paradigm in which adult subjects are exposed to a mix of grammatical systems (similar to a period of linguistic change), we show that learners' biases mirror a word-order universal, first proposed by Joseph Greenberg, which constrains typological patterns of adjective, numeral, and noun ordering. We briefly summarize the results of a probabilistic model of the hypothesized biases and their effect on learning, and discuss the broader implications of the results for current theories of the origins of cross-linguistic word-order preferences.

Culbertson J; Smolensky P; Legendre G

2012-03-01

18

Integrating constraints for learning word-referent mappings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Learning word-referent mappings is complex because the word and its referent tend to co-occur with multiple other words and potential referents. Such complexity has led to proposals for a host of constraints on learning, though how these constraints may interact has not yet been investigated in detail. In this paper, we investigated interactions between word co-occurrence constraints and cross-situational statistics in word learning. Analyses of child-directed speech revealed that when both object-referring and non-referring words occurred in the utterance, referring words were more likely to be preceded by a determiner than when the utterance contained only referring words. In a word learning study containing both referring and non-referring words, learning was facilitated when non-referring words contributed grammatical constraints analogous to determiners. The complexity of multi-word utterances provides an opportunity for co-occurrence constraints to contribute to word-referent mapping, and the learning mechanism is able to integrate these multiple sources of information.

Monaghan P; Mattock K

2012-04-01

19

Concreteness effects in bilingual and monolingual word learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have demonstrated that bilingualism can facilitate novel-word learning. However, the mechanisms behind this bilingual advantage remain unknown. Here, we examined whether bilinguals may be more sensitive to semantic information associated with the novel words. To that end, we manipulated the concreteness of the referent in the word-learning paradigm, since concrete words have been shown to activate the semantic system more robustly than abstract words do. The results revealed that the bilingual advantage was stronger for novel words learned in association with concrete rather than abstract referents. These findings suggest that bilingual advantages for word learning may be rooted, at least in part, in bilinguals' greater sensitivity to semantic information during learning. PMID:22638985

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Rechtzigel, Katrina

2012-10-01

20

Concreteness effects in bilingual and monolingual word learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies have demonstrated that bilingualism can facilitate novel-word learning. However, the mechanisms behind this bilingual advantage remain unknown. Here, we examined whether bilinguals may be more sensitive to semantic information associated with the novel words. To that end, we manipulated the concreteness of the referent in the word-learning paradigm, since concrete words have been shown to activate the semantic system more robustly than abstract words do. The results revealed that the bilingual advantage was stronger for novel words learned in association with concrete rather than abstract referents. These findings suggest that bilingual advantages for word learning may be rooted, at least in part, in bilinguals' greater sensitivity to semantic information during learning.

Kaushanskaya M; Rechtzigel K

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
21

Applying active learning to supervised word sense disambiguation in MEDLINE.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study was to assess whether active learning strategies can be integrated with supervised word sense disambiguation (WSD) methods, thus reducing the number of annotated samples, while keeping or improving the quality of disambiguation models. METHODS: We developed support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to disambiguate 197 ambiguous terms and abbreviations in the MSH WSD collection. Three different uncertainty sampling-based active learning algorithms were implemented with the SVM classifiers and were compared with a passive learner (PL) based on random sampling. For each ambiguous term and each learning algorithm, a learning curve that plots the accuracy computed from the test set as a function of the number of annotated samples used in the model was generated. The area under the learning curve (ALC) was used as the primary metric for evaluation. RESULTS: Our experiments demonstrated that active learners (ALs) significantly outperformed the PL, showing better performance for 177 out of 197 (89.8%) WSD tasks. Further analysis showed that to achieve an average accuracy of 90%, the PL needed 38 annotated samples, while the ALs needed only 24, a 37% reduction in annotation effort. Moreover, we analyzed cases where active learning algorithms did not achieve superior performance and identified three causes: (1) poor models in the early learning stage; (2) easy WSD cases; and (3) difficult WSD cases, which provide useful insight for future improvements. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that integrating active learning strategies with supervised WSD methods could effectively reduce annotation cost and improve the disambiguation models.

Chen Y; Cao H; Mei Q; Zheng K; Xu H

2013-09-01

22

Words and possible words in early language acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to acquire language, infants must extract its building blocks-words-and master the rules governing their legal combinations from speech. These two problems are not independent, however: words also have internal structure. Thus, infants must extract two kinds of information from the same speech input. They must find the actual words of their language. Furthermore, they must identify its possible words, that is, the sequences of sounds that, being morphologically well formed, could be words. Here, we show that infants' sensitivity to possible words appears to be more primitive and fundamental than their ability to find actual words. We expose 12- and 18-month-old infants to an artificial language containing a conflict between statistically coherent and structurally coherent items. We show that 18-month-olds can extract possible words when the familiarization stream contains marks of segmentation, but cannot do so when the stream is continuous. Yet, they can find actual words from a continuous stream by computing statistical relationships among syllables. By contrast, 12-month-olds can find possible words when familiarized with a segmented stream, but seem unable to extract statistically coherent items from a continuous stream that contains minimal conflicts between statistical and structural information. These results suggest that sensitivity to word structure is in place earlier than the ability to analyze distributional information. The ability to compute nontrivial statistical relationships becomes fully effective relatively late in development, when infants have already acquired a considerable amount of linguistic knowledge. Thus, mechanisms for structure extraction that do not rely on extensive sampling of the input are likely to have a much larger role in language acquisition than general-purpose statistical abilities. PMID:24041871

Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L

2013-09-14

23

Unsupervised Learning of Multi-Word Verbs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Collocation is a linguistic phenomenonthat is dicult to dene and harder toexplain; it has been largely overlooked intheeld of computational linguistics dueto its diculty. Although standard techniquesexist fornding collocations, theytend to be rather noisy and suer fromsparse data problems. In this paper, wedemonstrate that by utilising parsed inputto concentrate on one very specictype of collocation|in this case, verbswith particles, a subset of the so-calledmulti-word" verbs|and applying an algorithmto promote those collocationsin which we have more condence, theproblems with statistically learning collocationscan be overcome.

Don Blaheta; Mark Johnson

24

The Perception of Assimilation in Newly Learned Novel Words  

Science.gov (United States)

|The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying perceptual compensation for assimilation in novel words. During training, participants learned canonical versions of novel spoken words (e.g., "decibot") presented in isolation. Following exposure to a second set of novel words the next day, participants carried out a phoneme monitoring…

Snoeren, Natalie D.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Di Betta, Anna Maria

2009-01-01

25

Wordlikeness and word learning in children with hearing loss.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The more a novel word conforms to the phonotactics of the language, the more wordlike it is and the easier it is to learn. It is unknown to what extent children with hearing loss (CHL) take advantage of phonotactic cues to support word learning. AIMS: This study investigated whether CHL had similar sensitivities to wordlikeness during a word-learning task as children with normal hearing (CNH). METHODS & PROCEDURES: Sixteen CHL and 24 CNH participated in a novel word-learning task. Novel words varied by English wordlikeness. Recall was tested using a forced-choice identification task wherein foils for each trial related semantically, lexically or not at all. Receptive vocabulary and working memory were also assessed. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: All children were able to identify high wordlike novel words more accurately than low wordlike novel words. The number of errors on identification of words that were moderate in wordlikeness was inversely correlated to vocabulary size (not working memory) and CHL had smaller vocabularies than CNH. When in error, CHL were more likely than CNH to select a semantically related foil. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: Although they are sensitive to extremes in wordlikeness, compared with their peers with normal hearing, CHL present with subtle differences in word learning. Clinical implications for exploiting wordlikeness in service of word learning assessment and intervention are presented.

Stiles DJ; McGregor KK; Bentler RA

2013-03-01

26

The Birth of Words: Ten-Month-Olds Learn Words through Perceptual Salience  

Science.gov (United States)

A core task in language acquisition is mapping words onto objects, actions, and events. Two studies investigated how children learn to map novel labels onto novel objects. Study 1 investigated whether 10-month-olds use both perceptual and social cues to learn a word. Study 2, a control study, tested whether infants paired the label with a…

Pruden, Shannon M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hennon, Elizabeth A.

2006-01-01

27

Competitive processes in cross-situational word learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cross-situational word learning, like any statistical learning problem, involves tracking the regularities in the environment. However, the information that learners pick up from these regularities is dependent on their learning mechanism. This article investigates the role of one type of mechanism in statistical word learning: competition. Competitive mechanisms would allow learners to find the signal in noisy input and would help to explain the speed with which learners succeed in statistical learning tasks. Because cross-situational word learning provides information at multiple scales-both within and across trials/situations-learners could implement competition at either or both of these scales. A series of four experiments demonstrate that cross-situational learning involves competition at both levels of scale, and that these mechanisms interact to support rapid learning. The impact of both of these mechanisms is considered from the perspective of a process-level understanding of cross-situational learning.

Yurovsky D; Yu C; Smith LB

2013-07-01

28

Phonological similarity influences word learning in adults learning Spanish as a foreign language.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neighborhood density-the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)-influences word-learning in native English speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words with few similar sounding English words (i.e., sparse neighborhood). The present study examined how neighborhood density influences word-learning in native English speaking adults learning Spanish as a foreign language. Students in their third-semester of Spanish language classes learned advanced Spanish words that sounded similar to many known Spanish words (i.e., dense neighborhood) or sounded similar to few known Spanish words (i.e., sparse neighborhood). In three word-learning tasks, performance was better for Spanish words with dense rather than sparse neighborhoods. These results suggest that a similar mechanism may be used to learn new words in a native and a foreign language.

Stamer MK; Vitevitch MS

2012-07-01

29

Sound Symbolic Word Learning in Written Context  

Science.gov (United States)

|Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…

Parault, Susan J.

2006-01-01

30

Interfering neighbours: the impact of novel word learning on the identification of visually similar words.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the impact of visual similarity on written word identification by having participants learn new words (e.g. BANARA) that were neighbours of familiar words that previously had no neighbours (e.g. BANANA). Repeated exposure to these new words made it more difficult to semantically categorize the familiar words. There was some evidence of interference following an initial training phase, and clear evidence of interference the following day (without any additional training); interference was larger still following more training on the second day. These findings lend support to models of reading that include lexical competition as a key process. PMID:15925358

Bowers, Jeffrey S; Davis, Colin J; Hanley, Derek A

2005-05-31

31

Children's early reading vocabulary: description and word frequency lists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: When constructing stimuli for experimental investigations of cognitive processes in early reading development, researchers have to rely on adult or American children's word frequency counts, as no such counts exist for English children. AIM: The present paper introduces a database of children's early reading vocabulary, for use by researchers and teachers. SAMPLE: Texts from 685 books from reading schemes and story books read by 5-7 year-old children were used in the construction of the database. METHOD: All words from the 685 books were typed or scanned into an Oracle database. RESULTS: The resulting up-to-date word frequency list of early print exposure in the UK is available in two forms from a website address given in this paper. This allows access to one list of the words ordered alphabetically and one list of the words ordered by frequency. We also briefly address some fundamental issues underlying early reading vocabulary (e.g., that it is heavily skewed towards low frequencies). Other characteristics of the vocabulary are then discussed. CONCLUSIONS: We hope the word frequency lists will be of use to researchers seeking to control word frequency, and to teachers interested in the vocabulary to which young children are exposed in their reading material.

Stuart M; Dixon M; Masterson J; Gray B

2003-12-01

32

Early word segmentation in infants acquiring Parisian French: task-dependent and dialect-specific aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT Six experiments explored Parisian French-learning infants' ability to segment bisyllabic words from fluent speech. The first goal was to assess whether bisyllabic word segmentation emerges later in infants acquiring European French compared to other languages. The second goal was to determine whether infants learning different dialects of the same language have partly different segmentation abilities, and whether segmenting a non-native dialect has a cost. Infants were tested on standard European or Canadian French stimuli, in the word-passage or passage-word order. Our study first establishes an early onset of segmentation abilities: Parisian infants segment bisyllabic words at age 0;8 in the passage-word order only (revealing a robust order of presentation effect). Second, it shows that there are differences in segmentation abilities across Parisian and Canadian French infants, and that there is a cost for cross-dialect segmentation for Parisian infants. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding word segmentation processes.

Nazzi T; Mersad K; Sundara M; Iakimova G; Polka L

2013-05-01

33

Dexamphetamine enhances explicit new word learning for novel objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Past research suggests that dexamphetamine (Dex) can facilitate learning and memory in healthy individuals and after a neurological lesion. This study investigated the effects of Dex on the learning of names for new objects in young healthy adults (n=37) within an explicit learning paradigm by using a double-blind, placebo-controlled between- subjects design. Participants received 10 mg Dex or a placebo each morning over five consecutive days before viewing 100 novel objects with non-word names plus matched fillers. Compared to the placebo, Dex enhanced both the rate of learning and the retention of the words 1 wk and 1 month later. The improved word learning correlated with baseline attention and memory scores for participants in the Dex group only. No correlations were observed between word-learning success and sustained attention, mood or cardiovascular arousal. It was concluded that the improved explicit word learning may have reflected dexamphetamine-induced changes in short-term memory and/or memory consolidation.

Whiting E; Chenery H; Chalk J; Darnell R; Copland D

2007-12-01

34

Learning to Shift the Polarity of Words for Sentiment Classification  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a machine learning based method of sentiment classification of sentences using word-level polarity. The polarities of words in a sentence are not always the same as that of the sentence, because there can be polarity-shifters such as negation expressions. The proposed method models the polarity-shifters. Our model can be trained in two different ways: word-wise and sentence-wise learning. In sentence-wise learning, the model can be trained so that the prediction of sentence polarities should be accurate. The model can also combined with features used in previous work such as bag-of-words and n-grams. We empirically show that our method improves the performance of sentiment classification of sentences especially when we have only small amount of training data.

Ikeda, Daisuke; Takamura, Hiroya; Okumura, Manabu

35

Eighteen-month-old children learn words in non-ostensive contexts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies have demonstrated that children aged 2;0 can learn new words in a variety of non-ostensive contexts. The current two studies were aimed at seeing if this was also true of children just beginning to learn words at 1;6. In the first study an adult interacted with 48 children. She used a nonce word to announce her intention to find an object ('Let's find the gazzer'), picked up and rejected an object with obvious disappointment, and then gleefully found the target object (using no language). Children learned the new word as well in this condition as in a condition in which the adult found the object immediately. In the second study the adult first played several rounds of a finding game with each of 60 children, in which it was first established that one of several novel objects was always in a very distinctive hiding place (a toy barn). The adult then used a nonce word to announce her intention to find an object ('Let's find the toma') and then proceeded to the barn. In the key condition the barn was mysteriously 'locked'; the child thus never saw the target object after the nonce word was introduced. Children learned the new word as well in this condition as in a condition in which the adult found the object immediately. The results of these two studies suggest that from very early in language acquisition children learn words not through passive, associative processes, but rather through active attempts to understand adult behaviour in a variety of action and discourse contexts.

Tomasello M; Strosberg R; Akhtar N

1996-02-01

36

Word production and the picture-word interference paradigm: the role of learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psycholinguistic experiments conducted with the picture-word interference paradigm are typically preceded by a phase during which participants learn the words they will have to produce in the experiment. In Experiment 1, the pictures (e.g., a frog) were to be named and were presented with a categorically related (e.g., cat) or unrelated distracter (e.g., pen). In the related condition responses were slower relative to the unrelated condition for the participants who had gone through the learning phase. In contrast, participants who had not been previously familiarized with the materials showed facilitation. In Experiment 2 one group of participants, as usual, learned to produce the targets upon presentation of the corresponding pictures (e.g., a frog). The other group learned to produce the same targets upon presentation of unrelated pictures (e.g., a clock). They showed very similar semantic effects. The implications of the findings in the study of word production are discussed. PMID:23099552

Collina, Simona; Tabossi, Patrizia; De Simone, Flavia

2013-10-01

37

Word production and the picture-word interference paradigm: the role of learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Psycholinguistic experiments conducted with the picture-word interference paradigm are typically preceded by a phase during which participants learn the words they will have to produce in the experiment. In Experiment 1, the pictures (e.g., a frog) were to be named and were presented with a categorically related (e.g., cat) or unrelated distracter (e.g., pen). In the related condition responses were slower relative to the unrelated condition for the participants who had gone through the learning phase. In contrast, participants who had not been previously familiarized with the materials showed facilitation. In Experiment 2 one group of participants, as usual, learned to produce the targets upon presentation of the corresponding pictures (e.g., a frog). The other group learned to produce the same targets upon presentation of unrelated pictures (e.g., a clock). They showed very similar semantic effects. The implications of the findings in the study of word production are discussed.

Collina S; Tabossi P; De Simone F

2013-10-01

38

Monolingual, Bilingual, Trilingual: Infants' Language Experience Influences the Development of a Word-Learning Heuristic  

Science.gov (United States)

|How infants learn new words is a fundamental puzzle in language acquisition. To guide their word learning, infants exploit systematic word-learning heuristics that allow them to link new words to likely referents. By 17 months, infants show a tendency to associate a novel noun with a novel object rather than a familiar one, a heuristic known as…

Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Werker, Janet F.

2009-01-01

39

Learning Collocations: Do the Number of Collocates, Position of the Node Word, and Synonymy Affect Learning?  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study investigated the effects of three factors (the number of collocates per node word, the position of the node word, synonymy) on learning collocations. Japanese students studying English as a foreign language learned five sets of 12 target collocations. Each collocation was presented in a single glossed sentence. The number of collocates…

Webb, Stuart; Kagimoto, Eve

2011-01-01

40

Language experience differentiates prefrontal and subcortical activation of the cognitive control network in novel word learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive control mechanisms in adult English speaking monolinguals compared to early sequential Spanish-English bilinguals during the initial stages of novel word learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during a lexico-semantic task after only 2h of exposure to novel German vocabulary flashcards showed that monolinguals activated a broader set of cortical control regions associated with higher-level cognitive processes, including the supplementary motor area (SMA), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the caudate, implicated in cognitive control of language. However, bilinguals recruited a more localized subcortical network that included the putamen, associated more with motor control of language. These results suggest that experience managing multiple languages may differentiate the learning strategy and subsequent neural mechanisms of cognitive control used by bilinguals compared to monolinguals in the early stages of novel word learning. PMID:23194816

Bradley, Kailyn A L; King, Kelly E; Hernandez, Arturo E

2012-11-27

 
 
 
 
41

Separating the influences of prereading skills on early word and nonword reading.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The essential first step for a beginning reader is to learn to match printed forms to phonological representations. For a new word, this is an effortful process where each grapheme must be translated individually (serial decoding). The role of phonological awareness in developing a decoding strategy is well known. We examined whether beginning readers recruit different skills depending on the nature of the words being read (familiar words vs. nonwords). Print knowledge, phoneme and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological short-term memory (STM), nonverbal reasoning, vocabulary, auditory skills, and visual attention were measured in 392 prereaders 4 and 5years of age. Word and nonword reading were measured 9months later. We used structural equation modeling to examine the skills-reading relationship and modeled correlations between our two reading outcomes and among all prereading skills. We found that a broad range of skills were associated with reading outcomes: early print knowledge, phonological STM, phoneme awareness and RAN. Whereas all of these skills were directly predictive of nonword reading, early print knowledge was the only direct predictor of word reading. Our findings suggest that beginning readers draw most heavily on their existing print knowledge to read familiar words.

Shapiro LR; Carroll JM; Solity JE

2013-10-01

42

Separating the influences of prereading skills on early word and nonword reading.  

Science.gov (United States)

The essential first step for a beginning reader is to learn to match printed forms to phonological representations. For a new word, this is an effortful process where each grapheme must be translated individually (serial decoding). The role of phonological awareness in developing a decoding strategy is well known. We examined whether beginning readers recruit different skills depending on the nature of the words being read (familiar words vs. nonwords). Print knowledge, phoneme and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological short-term memory (STM), nonverbal reasoning, vocabulary, auditory skills, and visual attention were measured in 392 prereaders 4 and 5years of age. Word and nonword reading were measured 9months later. We used structural equation modeling to examine the skills-reading relationship and modeled correlations between our two reading outcomes and among all prereading skills. We found that a broad range of skills were associated with reading outcomes: early print knowledge, phonological STM, phoneme awareness and RAN. Whereas all of these skills were directly predictive of nonword reading, early print knowledge was the only direct predictor of word reading. Our findings suggest that beginning readers draw most heavily on their existing print knowledge to read familiar words. PMID:23892335

Shapiro, Laura R; Carroll, Julia M; Solity, Jonathan E

2013-07-27

43

More Than Words: Fast Acquisition and Generalization of Orthographic Regularities During Novel Word Learning in Adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In literates, reading is a fundamental channel for acquiring new vocabulary both in the mother tongue and in foreign languages. By using an artificial language learning task, we examined the acquisition of novel written words and their embedded regularities (an orthographic surface feature and a syllabic feature) in three groups of university students with different exposures (Group 1 saw 2 words once, Group 2 saw 20 words once, Group 3 saw 20 words three times). Recognition memory results for Groups 2 and 3 indicated that adults can learn novel written words even with just a single exposure, albeit repeated exposure improved target detection. A generalization task revealed that even the minimal exposure in Group 1 was enough for acquisition of the two embedded regularities. More exemplars and repeated exposure provided more robust effects for the syllable regularity. Finally, post-test interview showed that repeated exposure was needed to become aware of the regularities. The present results show that adults learn novel written words and their inherent regularities in a fast and effective fashion.

Laine M; Polonyi T; Abari K

2013-07-01

44

Morphological analysis in school-age children: dynamic assessment of a word learning strategy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Morphological analysis is the ability to use knowledge of root words and affixes to determine the meanings of unfamiliar, morphologically complex words. Beginning in the early elementary grades and continuing into the college years, it is a primary strategy that is used to increase one's knowledge of difficult vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to investigate how well school-age children could use morphological analysis to explain word meanings. The study was also designed to examine individual differences in this domain in relation to children's broader literacy skills. METHOD: The ability of 50 typically developing sixth-grade children to explain the meanings of 15 low-frequency morphologically complex words was measured using a dynamic assessment procedure. Children were individually interviewed and were asked to define each word. As needed, varying degrees of adult scaffolding were provided. Children were also assessed for their word knowledge and reading comprehension. RESULTS: Performance on the dynamic assessment task revealed a wide range of skill levels in these children and was positively related to the children's literacy levels. Although some children readily used morphological analysis to explain the meanings of unfamiliar words, others required greater amounts of adult scaffolding to be successful. IMPLICATIONS: Suggestions are offered for ways to employ dynamic assessment to examine children's ability to use morphological analysis as a word learning strategy.

Larsen JA; Nippold MA

2007-07-01

45

Effects of tone training on Cantonese tone-word learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined the effect of improving lexical tone identification abilities on Cantonese tone-word learning. Native English non-musicians received training on Cantonese tones before learning the meanings of words distinguished by these tones. Their results were compared to English non-musicians and musicians who received no tone training. The tone-trainees obtained a similar level of word identification proficiency as musicians by the end of training and were significantly better than non-tone trained non-musicians. These results lend support for phonetic-phonological-lexical continuity in learning because enhancing listeners' perception of lower-level tonal information significantly contributed to success in a higher-level linguistic task.

Cooper A; Wang Y

2013-08-01

46

Unsupervised Learning of Word-Category Guessing Rules  

CERN Multimedia

Words unknown to the lexicon present a substantial problem to part-of-speech tagging. In this paper we present a technique for fully unsupervised statistical acquisition of rules which guess possible parts-of-speech for unknown words. Three complementary sets of word-guessing rules are induced from the lexicon and a raw corpus: prefix morphological rules, suffix morphological rules and ending-guessing rules. The learning was performed on the Brown Corpus data and rule-sets, with a highly competitive performance, were produced and compared with the state-of-the-art.

Mikheev, A

1996-01-01

47

Learning Approaches toward Title Word Selection on Indic Script  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Title is a compact representation of a document which distill the important information from the document. In this paper we studied the selection words as title words by using different learning approachesnamely nearest neighbor approach (NN), Naive Bayes approach with limited-vocabulary (NBL), Naive Bayes approach with full vocabulary (NBF) and by using a term weighing approach (tf-idf). We compare theperformance of these approaches by using F1 metric. We compare the F1 metric results both on English Script and Indic Script ' Telugu'. We concluded the influence of linguistic complexity in the process of Title word selection.

P.Vijayapal Reddy; A.Govardhan

2011-01-01

48

The episodic buffer and learning in early Alzheimer's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of working memory, specifically the episodic buffer, in the learning performance of patients with very mild (n = 18) and mild (n = 12) Alzheimer's disease as compared with healthy older adults (n = 29) was investigated using a series of word-lists that were manipulated (clustered, unclustered) to explore the impact of strategic organizational skills under varying attention conditions (full, divided). Results indicated that the learning performance for all three groups under full attention was better than that under divided attention, but only for the clustered word-lists. Moreover, in contrast to the mild Alzheimer's disease group, both the healthy older controls and the very mild Alzheimer's disease group demonstrated better performance on clustered word-lists than on unclustered lists, suggesting active strategic organizational skills, even at delayed free recall. The overall pattern of results indicates a staging of working-memory impairment in early Alzheimer's disease.

Germano C; Kinsella GJ; Storey E; Ong B; Ames D

2008-08-01

49

The episodic buffer and learning in early Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of working memory, specifically the episodic buffer, in the learning performance of patients with very mild (n = 18) and mild (n = 12) Alzheimer's disease as compared with healthy older adults (n = 29) was investigated using a series of word-lists that were manipulated (clustered, unclustered) to explore the impact of strategic organizational skills under varying attention conditions (full, divided). Results indicated that the learning performance for all three groups under full attention was better than that under divided attention, but only for the clustered word-lists. Moreover, in contrast to the mild Alzheimer's disease group, both the healthy older controls and the very mild Alzheimer's disease group demonstrated better performance on clustered word-lists than on unclustered lists, suggesting active strategic organizational skills, even at delayed free recall. The overall pattern of results indicates a staging of working-memory impairment in early Alzheimer's disease. PMID:18612873

Germano, Carmela; Kinsella, Glynda J; Storey, Elsdon; Ong, Ben; Ames, David

2008-08-01

50

How are pronunciation variants of spoken words recognized? A test of generalization to newly learned words.  

Science.gov (United States)

One account of how pronunciation variants of spoken words (center-> "senner" or "sennah") are recognized is that sublexical processes use information about variation in the same phonological environments to recover the intended segments (Gaskell & Marslen-Wilson, 1998). The present study tests the limits of this phonological inference account by examining how listeners process for the first time a pronunciation variant of a newly learned word. Recognition of such a variant should occur as long as it possesses the phonological structure that legitimizes the variation. Experiments 1 and 2 identify a phonological environment that satisfies the conditions necessary for a phonological inference mechanism to be operational. Using a word-learning paradigm, Experiments 3 through 5 show that inference alone is not sufficient for generalization but could facilitate it, and that one condition that leads to generalization is meaningful exposure to the variant in an overheard conversation, demonstrating that lexical processing is necessary for variant recognition. PMID:20161243

Pitt, Mark A

2009-07-01

51

How are pronunciation variants of spoken words recognized? A test of generalization to newly learned words.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One account of how pronunciation variants of spoken words (center-> "senner" or "sennah") are recognized is that sublexical processes use information about variation in the same phonological environments to recover the intended segments (Gaskell & Marslen-Wilson, 1998). The present study tests the limits of this phonological inference account by examining how listeners process for the first time a pronunciation variant of a newly learned word. Recognition of such a variant should occur as long as it possesses the phonological structure that legitimizes the variation. Experiments 1 and 2 identify a phonological environment that satisfies the conditions necessary for a phonological inference mechanism to be operational. Using a word-learning paradigm, Experiments 3 through 5 show that inference alone is not sufficient for generalization but could facilitate it, and that one condition that leads to generalization is meaningful exposure to the variant in an overheard conversation, demonstrating that lexical processing is necessary for variant recognition.

Pitt MA

2009-07-01

52

Modularity in inductively-learned word pronunciation systems  

CERN Multimedia

In leading morpho-phonological theories and state-of-the-art text-to-speech systems it is assumed that word pronunciation cannot be learned or performed without in-between analyses at several abstraction levels (e.g., morphological, graphemic, phonemic, syllabic, and stress levels). We challenge this assumption for the case of English word pronunciation. Using IGTree, an inductive-learning decision-tree algorithms, we train and test three word-pronunciation systems in which the number of abstraction levels (implemented as sequenced modules) is reduced from five, via three, to one. The latter system, classifying letter strings directly as mapping to phonemes with stress markers, yields significantly better generalisation accuracies than the two multi-module systems. Analyses of empirical results indicate that positive utility effects of sequencing modules are outweighed by cascading errors passed on between modules.

Van den Bosch, A; Daelemans, W; Bosch, Antal van den; Weijters, Ton; Daelemans, Walter

1999-01-01

53

Learning Word Clusters from Data Types  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper illustrates a linguistic knowledge acquisitionmodel making use of data types, infinitememory, and an inferential mechanismfor inducing new information from known data.The model is compared with standard stochasticmethods applied to data tokens, and testedon a task of lexico--semantic classification.1 Introduction and BackgroundOf late, considerable interest has been raised bythe use of local syntactic contexts to automaticallyinduce lexico-semantic classes from parsedcorpora (Pereira and Tishby 1992; Pereira etal. 1993; Rooth 1995; Rooth et al. 1999). Thisfamily of approaches takes a pair of words (usuallya verb plus a noun), and a syntactic relationholding between the two in context (usuallythe object), and calculates its token distributionin a training corpus. These counts definethe range of more or less typical syntacticcollocates selected by a verb. The semanticsimilarity between words is then defined interms of substitutability in local contexts (s...

Paolo Allegrini; Simonetta Montemagni; Vito Pirrelli

54

A Learning-Based Approach for Biomedical Word Sense Disambiguation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the biomedical domain, word sense ambiguity is a widely spread problem with bioinformatics research effort devoted to it being not commensurate and allowing for more development. This paper presents and evaluates a learning-based approach for sense disambiguation within the biomedical domain. The...

Al-Mubaid, Hisham; Gungu, Sandeep

55

Enhancing the learning of new words using an errorless learning procedure: Evidence from typical adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two experiments compared the efficacy of errorless and errorful training procedures in the acquisition of novel words in typical adults. One experiment involved learning novel names for novel objects, while a second involved learning obscure English words and their definitions. In both studies the errorless method led to significantly better learning as assessed by an immediate cued recall test. The errorless advantage was characterised by a reduction in extra-experimental intrusion errors and was still present when learning was re-tested 3-4 days after training. In contrast there was no errorless advantage in recognition of word-to-object pairings. Taken together, these results suggest that errorless learning procedures improve retrieval by leading to the creation of better-specified, retrievable representations in long-term memory.

Warmington M; Hitch GJ

2013-06-01

56

Effects of a Word-Learning Training on Children With Cochlear Implants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preschool children with hearing loss who use cochlear implants demonstrate vocabulary delays when compared to their peers without hearing loss. These delays may be a result of deficient word-learning abilities; children with cochlear implants perform more poorly on rapid word-learning tasks than children with normal hearing. This study explored the malleability of rapid word learning of preschoolers with cochlear implants by evaluating the effects of a word-learning training on rapid word learning. A single-subject, multiple probe design across participants measured the impact of the training on children's rapid word-learning performance. Participants included 5 preschool children with cochlear implants who had an expressive lexicon of less than 150 words. An investigator guided children to identify, repeat, and learn about unknown sets of words in 2-weekly sessions across 10 weeks. The probe measure, a rapid word-learning task with a different set of words than those taught during training, was collected in the baseline, training, and maintenance conditions. All participants improved their receptive rapid word-learning performance in the training condition. The functional relation indicates that the receptive rapid word-learning performance of children with cochlear implants is malleable.

Lund E; Schuele CM

2013-08-01

57

Word formation in Early Middle English: Abstract nouns in the linguistic atlas of Early Middle English  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the early 1990s historical word formation, in particular derivation in Early Middle English, has increasingly attracted scholarly interest in the form of more general approaches to productivity and semantics. The present study focuses on the derivational patterns available to speakers and aims...

Gardner, A

58

Failure to learn from feedback underlies word learning difficulties in toddlers at risk for autism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Children's assignment of novel words to nameless objects, over objects whose names they know (mutual exclusivity; ME) has been described as a driving force for vocabulary acquisition. Despite their ability to use ME to fast-map words (Preissler & Carey, 2005), children with autism show impaired language acquisition. We aimed to address this puzzle by building on studies showing that correct referent selection using ME does not lead to word learning unless ostensive feedback is provided on the child's object choice (Horst & Samuelson, 2008). We found that although toddlers aged 2;0 at risk for autism can use ME to choose the correct referent of a word, they do not benefit from feedback for long-term retention of the word-object mapping. Further, their difficulty using feedback is associated with their smaller receptive vocabularies. We propose that difficulties learning from social feedback, not lexical principles, limits vocabulary building during development in children at risk for autism.

Bedford R; Gliga T; Frame K; Hudry K; Chandler S; Johnson MH; Charman T

2013-01-01

59

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Source: National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) Running Time: (4:32) Release Date: 9/22/2008 Early recognition of developmental disabilities ...

60

Neural competition as a developmental process: early hemispheric specialization for word processing delays specialization for face processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is known about the impact of learning to read on early neural development for word processing and its collateral effects on neural development in non-word domains. Here, we examined the effect of early exposure to reading on neural responses to both word and face processing in preschool children with the use of the Event Related Potential (ERP) methodology. We specifically linked children's reading experience (indexed by their sight vocabulary) to two major neural markers: the amplitude differences between the left and right N170 on the bilateral posterior scalp sites and the hemispheric spectrum power differences in the ? band on the same scalp sites. The results showed that the left-lateralization of both the word N170 and the spectrum power in the ? band were significantly positively related to vocabulary. In contrast, vocabulary and the word left-lateralization both had a strong negative direct effect on the face right-lateralization. Also, vocabulary negatively correlated with the right-lateralized face spectrum power in the ? band even after the effects of age and the word spectrum power were partialled out. The present study provides direct evidence regarding the role of reading experience in the neural specialization of word and face processing above and beyond the effect of maturation. The present findings taken together suggest that the neural development of visual word processing competes with that of face processing before the process of neural specialization has been consolidated.

Li S; Lee K; Zhao J; Yang Z; He S; Weng X

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

A learning-based approach for biomedical word sense disambiguation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the biomedical domain, word sense ambiguity is a widely spread problem with bioinformatics research effort devoted to it being not commensurate and allowing for more development. This paper presents and evaluates a learning-based approach for sense disambiguation within the biomedical domain. The main limitation with supervised methods is the need for a corpus of manually disambiguated instances of the ambiguous words. However, the advances in automatic text annotation and tagging techniques with the help of the plethora of knowledge sources like ontologies and text literature in the biomedical domain will help lessen this limitation. The proposed method utilizes the interaction model (mutual information) between the context words and the senses of the target word to induce reliable learning models for sense disambiguation. The method has been evaluated with the benchmark dataset NLM-WSD with various settings and in biomedical entity species disambiguation. The evaluation results showed that the approach is very competitive and outperforms recently reported results of other published techniques.

Al-Mubaid H; Gungu S

2012-01-01

62

Enhancing Students’ Fluency in Writing: Learning to Use Transition Words  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study uses experimental and control group data to investigate whether learning to use transition words results in enhancing students’ fluency in writing. Common sentence connectors, such as moreover, however, thus, etc were chosen in order that students learn the use of transition words in text and improve their writing fluency. 36 first-year university students were placed in an intermediate class: 18 control group students and 18 experimental group students. Over a 12-week period, both groups received equal amounts of writing assignments. During the first half of the period, both groups were given content and form feedback, but the experimental group was given additional marginal comments on the use of sentence connectors. After six weeks, both groups were given identical types of feedback and comments. Fluency was measured by the number of words written and successful connections (SCs). These results were analyzed to determine if there was a significant difference in fluency between the two groups. Findings suggest that writing teachers should teach students the effectiveness of using transition words in EFL writing classes, and this may in part help to improve students’ fluency.

Yoshihito Sugita

2012-01-01

63

Weighting of Vowel Cues Explains Patterns of Word-Object Associative Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has demonstrated that infants under 17 months have difficulty learning novel words in the laboratory when the words differ by only one consonant sound, irrespective of the magnitude of that difference. The current study explored whether 15-month-old infants can learn novel words that differ in only one vowel sound. The rich…

Curtin, Suzanne; Fennell, Christopher; Escudero, Paola

2009-01-01

64

Sound-Symbolism: A Piece in the Puzzle of Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

|Sound-symbolism is the idea that the relationship between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather that there are subsets of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. The present research investigates sound-symbolism as a possible route to the learning of…

Parault, Susan J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

2006-01-01

65

Removing the Snare from the Pair: Using Pictures to Learn Confusing Word Pairs  

Science.gov (United States)

|The extant picture-learning research does not address confusing word pairs that are not concrete (e.g., in and into). In this study, university students viewed 11 timed Web pages containing information on confusing word pairs. Each page addressed one word pair and distinguished the words with examples (example group), examples and rules (rule…

Igo, L. Brent; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Bruning, Roger

2004-01-01

66

Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

|Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

2008-01-01

67

Verbal learning in Alzheimer's disease: cumulative word knowledge gains across learning trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research regarding learning in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients has been mixed. Learning capacity might be better indexed using a score that reflects the interaction between the learning slope and total recall, referred to as the Cumulative Word Learning (CWL) score. We compared a group of AD patients to normal participants using a traditional index of learning and the CWL score that were derived from the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). The HVLT-R is a supra-span, list-learning test containing 12 words from three semantic categories. The results indicated that the sample of AD patients performed within the average range, using the traditional learning z score. Although mild AD patients were not found to differ from controls in the traditional learning z score, a significant difference was noted for the CWL score. The moderate AD patients differed from the normal controls in both learning measures. Furthermore, unlike the traditional learning score, the CWL score was a significant predictor of overall cognitive functioning, as indexed using their Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Thus, the CWL score might be a more sensitive indicator overall of total learning capacity and may be useful in staging Alzheimer's disease because of increased resilience to floor effects. PMID:19691869

Foster, Paul S; Drago, Valeria; Crucian, Gregory P; Rhodes, Robert D; Shenal, Brian V; Heilman, Kenneth M

2009-09-01

68

Verbal learning in Alzheimer's disease: cumulative word knowledge gains across learning trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research regarding learning in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients has been mixed. Learning capacity might be better indexed using a score that reflects the interaction between the learning slope and total recall, referred to as the Cumulative Word Learning (CWL) score. We compared a group of AD patients to normal participants using a traditional index of learning and the CWL score that were derived from the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). The HVLT-R is a supra-span, list-learning test containing 12 words from three semantic categories. The results indicated that the sample of AD patients performed within the average range, using the traditional learning z score. Although mild AD patients were not found to differ from controls in the traditional learning z score, a significant difference was noted for the CWL score. The moderate AD patients differed from the normal controls in both learning measures. Furthermore, unlike the traditional learning score, the CWL score was a significant predictor of overall cognitive functioning, as indexed using their Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Thus, the CWL score might be a more sensitive indicator overall of total learning capacity and may be useful in staging Alzheimer's disease because of increased resilience to floor effects.

Foster PS; Drago V; Crucian GP; Rhodes RD; Shenal BV; Heilman KM

2009-09-01

69

A "bat" is easier to learn than a "tab": effects of relative phonotactic frequency on infant word learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many studies have shown that during the first year of life infants start learning the prosodic, phonetic and phonotactic properties of their native language. In parallel, infants start associating sound sequences with semantic representations. However, the question of how these two processes interact remains largely unknown. The current study explores whether (and when) the relative phonotactic probability of a sound sequence in the native language has an impact on infants' word learning. We exploit the fact that Labial-Coronal (LC) words are more frequent than Coronal-Labial (CL) words in French, and that French-learning infants prefer LC over CL sequences at 10 months of age, to explore the possibility that LC structures might be learned more easily and thus at an earlier age than CL structures. Eye movements of French-learning 14- and 16-month-olds were recorded while they watched animated cartoons in a word learning task. The experiment involved four trials testing LC sequences and four trials testing CL sequences. Our data reveal that 16-month-olds were able to learn the LC and CL words, while14-month-olds were only able to learn the LC words, which are the words with the more frequent phonotactic pattern. The present results provide evidence that infants' knowledge of their native language phonotactic patterns influences their word learning: Words with a frequent phonotactic structure could be acquired at an earlier age than those with a lower probability. Developmental changes are discussed and integrated with previous findings.

Gonzalez-Gomez N; Poltrock S; Nazzi T

2013-01-01

70

A "Bat" Is Easier to Learn than a "Tab": Effects of Relative Phonotactic Frequency on Infant Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have shown that during the first year of life infants start learning the prosodic, phonetic and phonotactic properties of their native language. In parallel, infants start associating sound sequences with semantic representations. However, the question of how these two processes interact remains largely unknown. The current study explores whether (and when) the relative phonotactic probability of a sound sequence in the native language has an impact on infants’ word learning. We exploit the fact that Labial-Coronal (LC) words are more frequent than Coronal-Labial (CL) words in French, and that French-learning infants prefer LC over CL sequences at 10 months of age, to explore the possibility that LC structures might be learned more easily and thus at an earlier age than CL structures. Eye movements of French-learning 14- and 16-month-olds were recorded while they watched animated cartoons in a word learning task. The experiment involved four trials testing LC sequences and four trials testing CL sequences. Our data reveal that 16-month-olds were able to learn the LC and CL words, while14-month-olds were only able to learn the LC words, which are the words with the more frequent phonotactic pattern. The present results provide evidence that infants’ knowledge of their native language phonotactic patterns influences their word learning: Words with a frequent phonotactic structure could be acquired at an earlier age than those with a lower probability. Developmental changes are discussed and integrated with previous findings.

Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Poltrock, Silvana; Nazzi, Thierry

2013-01-01

71

Language bootstrapping: learning word meanings from perception-action association.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We address the problem of bootstrapping language acquisition for an artificial system similarly to what is observed in experiments with human infants. Our method works by associating meanings to words in manipulation tasks, as a robot interacts with objects and listens to verbal descriptions of the interactions. The model is based on an affordance network, i.e., a mapping between robot actions, robot perceptions, and the perceived effects of these actions upon objects. We extend the affordance model to incorporate spoken words, which allows us to ground the verbal symbols to the execution of actions and the perception of the environment. The model takes verbal descriptions of a task as the input and uses temporal co-occurrence to create links between speech utterances and the involved objects, actions, and effects. We show that the robot is able form useful word-to-meaning associations, even without considering grammatical structure in the learning process and in the presence of recognition errors. These word-to-meaning associations are embedded in the robot's own understanding of its actions. Thus, they can be directly used to instruct the robot to perform tasks and also allow to incorporate context in the speech recognition task. We believe that the encouraging results with our approach may afford robots with a capacity to acquire language descriptors in their operation's environment as well as to shed some light as to how this challenging process develops with human infants.

Salvi G; Montesano L; Bernardino A; Santos-Victor J

2012-06-01

72

Language bootstrapping: learning word meanings from perception-action association.  

Science.gov (United States)

We address the problem of bootstrapping language acquisition for an artificial system similarly to what is observed in experiments with human infants. Our method works by associating meanings to words in manipulation tasks, as a robot interacts with objects and listens to verbal descriptions of the interactions. The model is based on an affordance network, i.e., a mapping between robot actions, robot perceptions, and the perceived effects of these actions upon objects. We extend the affordance model to incorporate spoken words, which allows us to ground the verbal symbols to the execution of actions and the perception of the environment. The model takes verbal descriptions of a task as the input and uses temporal co-occurrence to create links between speech utterances and the involved objects, actions, and effects. We show that the robot is able form useful word-to-meaning associations, even without considering grammatical structure in the learning process and in the presence of recognition errors. These word-to-meaning associations are embedded in the robot's own understanding of its actions. Thus, they can be directly used to instruct the robot to perform tasks and also allow to incorporate context in the speech recognition task. We believe that the encouraging results with our approach may afford robots with a capacity to acquire language descriptors in their operation's environment as well as to shed some light as to how this challenging process develops with human infants. PMID:22106152

Salvi, Giampiero; Montesano, Luis; Bernardino, Alexandre; Santos-Victor, José

2011-11-16

73

Preschoolers use emotion in speech to learn new words.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two experiments examined 4- and 5-year-olds' use of vocal affect to learn new words. In Experiment 1 (n = 48), children were presented with two unfamiliar objects, first in their original state and then in an altered state (broken or enhanced). An instruction produced with negative, neutral, or positive affect, directed children to find the referent of a novel word. During the novel noun, eye gaze measures indicated that both 4- and 5-year-olds were more likely to consider an object congruent with vocal affect cues. In Experiment 2, 5-year-olds (n = 15) were asked to extend and generalize their initial mapping to new exemplars. Here, 5-year-olds generalized these newly mapped labels but only when presented with negative vocal affect.

Berman JM; Graham SA; Callaway D; Chambers CG

2013-09-01

74

Word learning processes in children with cochlear implants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine whether 3 aspects of the word learning process-fast mapping, retention, and extension-are problematic for children with cochlear implants (CIs). METHOD: The authors compared responses of 24 children with CIs, 24 age-matched hearing children, and 23 vocabulary-matched hearing children to a novel object noun training episode. Comprehension and production were measured immediately following training (fast mapping) as well as 1 day later (retention). Extension was measured in terms of the ability of the participants to identify new (untrained) exemplars. RESULTS: Compared with their hearing age-mates, children with CIs performed marginally more poorly on fast mapping as measured by the comprehension probe and more poorly on retention as measured by comprehension and production probes. The age-mates improved over the retention interval, but the children with CIs did not. Most of the children with CIs performed similarly to their age-mates on extension, but 2 children underextended, and 5 children failed to understand the task. Compared with younger vocabulary-matched peers, children with CIs did not differ at fast mapping, retention, or extension. CONCLUSIONS: Children with CIs demonstrated deficits in word learning, with retention being especially problematic. Their learning did not differ from that of younger children with similarly sized vocabularies.

Walker EA; McGregor KK

2013-04-01

75

A Comparison between Supervised Learning Algorithms for Word Sense Disambiguation  

CERN Multimedia

This paper describes a set of comparative experiments, including cross-corpus evaluation, between five alternative algorithms for supervised Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD), namely Naive Bayes, Exemplar-based learning, SNoW, Decision Lists, and Boosting. Two main conclusions can be drawn: 1) The LazyBoosting algorithm outperforms the other four state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of accuracy and ability to tune to new domains; 2) The domain dependence of WSD systems seems very strong and suggests that some kind of adaptation or tuning is required for cross-corpus application.

Escudero, G; Rigau, G; Escudero, Gerard; Marquez, Lluis; Rigau, German

2000-01-01

76

Use of the Mutual Exclusivity Assumption by Young Word Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual exclusivity in such indirect word learning has been…

Markman, Ellen M.; Wasow, Judith L.; Hansen, Mikkel B.

2003-01-01

77

Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models.

Comesaña M; Soares AP; Sánchez-Casas R; Lima C

2012-08-01

78

Word learning in adults with second-language experience: effects of phonological and referent familiarity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. METHOD: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: in which phonologically unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults.

Kaushanskaya M; Yoo J; Van Hecke S

2013-04-01

79

Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning.

Hu CF

2013-09-01

80

Task demand influences relationships among sex, clustering strategy, and recall: 16-word versus 9-word list learning tests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We compared the relationships among sex, clustering strategy, and recall across different task demands using the 16-word California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) and the 9-word Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test (PrVLT). BACKGROUND: Women generally score higher than men on verbal memory tasks, possibly because women tend to use semantic clustering. This sex difference has been established via word-list learning tests such as the CVLT-II. METHODS: In a retrospective between-group study, we compared how 2 separate groups of cognitively healthy older adults performed on a longer and a shorter verbal learning test. The group completing the CVLT-II had 36 women and 26 men; the group completing the PrVLT had 27 women and 21 men. RESULTS: Overall, multiple regression analyses revealed that semantic clustering was significantly associated with total recall on both tests' lists (P<0.001). Sex differences in recall and semantic clustering diminished with the shorter PrVLT word list. CONCLUSIONS: Semantic clustering uniquely influenced recall on both the longer and shorter word lists. However, serial clustering and sex influenced recall depending on the length of the word list (ie, the task demand). These findings suggest a complex nonlinear relationship among verbal memory, clustering strategies, and task demand.

Sunderaraman P; Blumen HM; DeMatteo D; Apa ZL; Cosentino S

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Detection of Slang Words in e-Data using semi-Supervised Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposed algorithmic approach deals with finding the sense of a word in an electronic data. Now a day,in different communication mediums like internet, mobile services etc. people use few words, which are slang in nature. This approach detects those abusive words using supervised learning procedure. But in the real life scenario, the slang words are not used in complete word forms always. Most of the times, those words are used in different abbreviated forms like sounds alike forms, taboo morphemes etc. This proposedapproach can detect those abbreviated forms also using semi supervised learning procedure. Using the synset and concept analysis of the text, the probability of a suspicious word to be a slang word is also evaluated

Alok Ranjan Pal; Diganta Saha

2013-01-01

82

Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection.

Burton H; Sinclair RJ; Agato A

2012-02-01

83

Successful Learning of Academic Word List via MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile phones as new addition to information and communication technologies have created new ways to help learners in the process of foreign language learning. Given the importance of academic vocabularies for university students, this study tried to investigate the effectiveness of SMS on Iranian university students’ vocabulary learning and retention. To this end forty five university freshman students with upper intermediate proficiency level were chosen to take part in this study. During 16 weeks of experiment, the participants of the experimental group (N = 28) were taught 320 head words from the Academic Word List (Coxhead, 2000) via SMS. During the same period of time the participants of the control group (N=17) were taught the same words by using dictionary. At the end, both groups were given a vocabulary test from Academic Word List, to see the effect of SMS on their vocabulary learning and the scores of each group were compared employing an independent t-test. The result of the t-test showed both groups had improved in the post- test. Although there was not any significant difference between the groups in the post- test, the result of the delayed post- test showed that SMS had more significant effect on vocabulary retention compared to using dictionary, and the experimental group outperformed the control group. The result of this study can have pedagogical implication for language teachers, in that they can use SMS as a useful way to help their students to retain vocabularies in their long term memory.

Minoo Alemi; Mohammad Reza Anani Sarab; Zahra Lari

2012-01-01

84

Children with Autism Illuminate the Role of Social Intention in Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

To what extent do children with autism (AD) versus typically developing children (TD) rely on attentional and intentional cues to learn words? Four experiments compared 17 AD children (M age = 5.08 years) with 17 language- and 17 mental-age-matched TD children (M ages = 2.57 and 3.12 years, respectively) on nonverbal enactment and word-learning

Parish-Morris, Julia; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

2007-01-01

85

Cross-situational learning of object-word mapping using Neural Modeling Fields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The issue of how children learn the meaning of words is fundamental to developmental psychology. The recent attempts to develop or evolve efficient communication protocols among interacting robots or virtual agents have brought that issue to a central place in more applied research fields, such as computational linguistics and neural networks, as well. An attractive approach to learning an object-word mapping is the so-called cross-situational learning. This learning scenario is based on the intuitive notion that a learner can determine the meaning of a word by finding something in common across all observed uses of that word. Here we show how the deterministic Neural Modeling Fields (NMF) categorization mechanism can be used by the learner as an efficient algorithm to infer the correct object-word mapping. To achieve that we first reduce the original on-line learning problem to a batch learning problem where the inputs to the NMF mechanism are all possible object-word associations that could be inferred from the cross-situational learning scenario. Since many of those associations are incorrect, they are considered as clutter or noise and discarded automatically by a clutter detector model included in our NMF implementation. With these two key ingredients--batch learning and clutter detection--the NMF mechanism was capable to infer perfectly the correct object-word mapping.

Fontanari JF; Tikhanoff V; Cangelosi A; Ilin R; Perlovsky LI

2009-07-01

86

Cross-situational learning of object-word mapping using Neural Modeling Fields.  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue of how children learn the meaning of words is fundamental to developmental psychology. The recent attempts to develop or evolve efficient communication protocols among interacting robots or virtual agents have brought that issue to a central place in more applied research fields, such as computational linguistics and neural networks, as well. An attractive approach to learning an object-word mapping is the so-called cross-situational learning. This learning scenario is based on the intuitive notion that a learner can determine the meaning of a word by finding something in common across all observed uses of that word. Here we show how the deterministic Neural Modeling Fields (NMF) categorization mechanism can be used by the learner as an efficient algorithm to infer the correct object-word mapping. To achieve that we first reduce the original on-line learning problem to a batch learning problem where the inputs to the NMF mechanism are all possible object-word associations that could be inferred from the cross-situational learning scenario. Since many of those associations are incorrect, they are considered as clutter or noise and discarded automatically by a clutter detector model included in our NMF implementation. With these two key ingredients--batch learning and clutter detection--the NMF mechanism was capable to infer perfectly the correct object-word mapping. PMID:19596549

Fontanari, José F; Tikhanoff, Vadim; Cangelosi, Angelo; Ilin, Roman; Perlovsky, Leonid I

2009-07-01

87

Bilingualism and inhibitory control influence statistical learning of novel word forms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the influence of bilingual experience and inhibitory control on the ability to learn a novel language. Using a statistical learning paradigm, participants learned words in two novel languages that were based on the International Morse Code. First, participants listened to a continuous stream of words in a Morse code language to test their ability to segment words from continuous speech. Since Morse code does not overlap in form with natural languages, interference from known languages was minimized. Next, participants listened to another Morse code language composed of new words that conflicted with the first Morse code language. Interference in this second language was high due to conflict between languages and due to the presence of two colliding cues (compressed pauses between words and statistical regularities) that competed to define word boundaries. Results suggest that bilingual experience can improve word learning when interference from other languages is low, while inhibitory control ability can improve word learning when interference from other languages is high. We conclude that the ability to extract novel words from continuous speech is a skill that is affected both by linguistic factors, such as bilingual experience, and by cognitive abilities, such as inhibitory control.

Bartolotti J; Marian V; Schroeder SR; Shook A

2011-01-01

88

Hybrid Approach to Word Sense Disambiguation Combining Supervised and Unsupervised Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we are going to find meaning of words based on distinct situations. Word SenseDisambiguation is used to find meaning of words based on live contexts using supervised and unsupervisedapproaches. Unsupervised approaches use online dictionary for learning, and supervised approaches usemanual learning sets. Hand tagged data are populated which might not be effective and sufficient forlearning procedure. This limitation of informationis main flaw of the supervised approach. Our proposedapproach focuses to overcome the limitation using learning set which is enriched in dynamic waymaintaining new data. Trivial filtering method is utilized to achieve appropriate training data. Weintroduce a mixed methodology having “Modified Lesk” approach and “Bag-of-Words” having enrichedbags using learning methods. Our approach establishes the superiority over individual “Modified Lesk”and “Bag-of-Words” approaches based on experimentation.

Alok Ranjan Pal; Anirban Kundu; Abhay Singh; Raj Shekhar; Kunal Sinha

2013-01-01

89

The Ontogeny of Lexical Networks: Toddlers Encode the Relationships Among Referents When Learning Novel Words.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the semantic relationships among words have long been acknowledged as a crucial component of adult lexical knowledge, the ontogeny of lexical networks remains largely unstudied. To determine whether learners encode relationships among novel words, we trained 2-year-olds on four novel words that referred to four novel objects, which were grouped into two visually similar pairs. Participants then listened to repetitions of word pairs (in the absence of visual referents) that referred to objects that were either similar or dissimilar to each other. Toddlers listened significantly longer to word pairs referring to similar objects, which suggests that their representations of the novel words included knowledge about the similarity of the referents. A second experiment confirmed that toddlers can learn all four distinct words from the training regime, which suggests that the results from Experiment 1 reflected the successful encoding of referents. Together, these results show that toddlers encode the similarities among referents from their earliest exposures to new words.

Wojcik EH; Saffran JR

2013-08-01

90

Semantic categories and contexts of written words affect the early ERP component.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of event-related potentials to examine how semantic categories affect early stages of written word processing in the brain. We used a semantic priming paradigm in which the categories of prime and target words were the same (animate or inanimate). Event-related potentials were recorded while native Japanese participants made semantic-relatedness judgments of word pairs. Semantic category effects were observed approximately 150 ms after the target item was presented. Inanimate words elicited greater positive deflection than animate words, but no significant difference was observed for prime item processing. Source modeling estimated that the observed effects were induced by neural mechanisms occurring in the anterior temporal region, the posterior portion of the inferior temporal region, and the inferior parietal regions in both the hemispheres. Our results suggest that semantic category effects in the early stages of word processing are evoked by multiple cortical regions related to top-down processing of the preceding semantic information.

Hata M; Homae F; Hagiwara H

2013-04-01

91

Learning word meanings during reading: effects of phonological and semantic cues on children with language impairment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phonological and semantic deficits in spoken word learning have been documented in children with language impairment (LI), and cues that address these deficits have been shown to improve their word learning performance. However, the effects of such cues on word learning during reading remain largely unexplored. This study investigated whether (a) control, (b) phonological, (c) semantic, and (d) combined phonological-semantic conditions affected semantic word learning during reading in 9- to 11-year-old children with LI (n =?12) and with typical language (TL, n =?11) from low-income backgrounds. Children were exposed to 20 novel words across these four conditions prior to reading passages containing the novel words. After reading, a dynamic semantic assessment was given, which included oral definitions, contextual clues, and multiple choices. Results indicated that the LI group performed more poorly than the TL group in phonological and combined conditions, but not in the control or semantic conditions. Also, a similar trend for both groups was suggested, with improved performance in the semantic and combined conditions relative to the control and phonological conditions. Clinical implications include a continued need for explicit instruction in semantic properties of novel words to facilitate semantic word learning during reading in children with LI.

Steele SC; Willoughby LM; Mills MT

2013-04-01

92

Propose but verify: fast mapping meets cross-situational word learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report three eyetracking experiments that examine the learning procedure used by adults as they pair novel words and visually presented referents over a sequence of referentially ambiguous trials. Successful learning under such conditions has been argued to be the product of a learning procedure in which participants provisionally pair each novel word with several possible referents and use a statistical-associative learning mechanism to gradually converge on a single mapping across learning instances [e.g., Yu, C., & Smith, L. B. (2007). Rapid word learning under uncertainty via cross-situational statistics. Psychological Science, 18(5), 414-420]. We argue here that successful learning in this setting is instead the product of a one-trial procedure in which a single hypothesized word-referent pairing is retained across learning instances, abandoned only if the subsequent instance fails to confirm the pairing--more a 'fast mapping' procedure than a gradual statistical one. We provide experimental evidence for this propose-but-verify learning procedure via three experiments in which adult participants attempted to learn the meanings of nonce words cross-situationally under varying degrees of referential uncertainty. The findings, using both explicit (referent selection) and implicit (eye movement) measures, show that even in these artificial learning contexts, which are far simpler than those encountered by a language learner in a natural environment, participants do not retain multiple meaning hypotheses across learning instances. As we discuss, these findings challenge 'gradualist' accounts of word learning and are consistent with the known rapid course of vocabulary learning in a first language.

Trueswell JC; Medina TN; Hafri A; Gleitman LR

2013-02-01

93

Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection. PMID:22251836

Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin

2011-12-22

94

Monolingual, bilingual, trilingual: infants' language experience influences the development of a word-learning heuristic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How infants learn new words is a fundamental puzzle in language acquisition. To guide their word learning, infants exploit systematic word-learning heuristics that allow them to link new words to likely referents. By 17 months, infants show a tendency to associate a novel noun with a novel object rather than a familiar one, a heuristic known as disambiguation. Yet, the developmental origins of this heuristic remain unknown. We compared disambiguation in 17- to 18-month-old infants from different language backgrounds to determine whether language experience influences its development, or whether disambiguation instead emerges as a result of maturation or social experience. Monolinguals showed strong use of disambiguation, bilinguals showed marginal use, and trilinguals showed no disambiguation. The number of languages being learned, but not vocabulary size, predicted performance. The results point to a key role for language experience in the development of disambiguation, and help to distinguish among theoretical accounts of its emergence.

Byers-Heinlein K; Werker JF

2009-09-01

95

The impact of iconic gestures on foreign language word learning and its neural substrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocabulary acquisition represents a major challenge in foreign language learning. Research has demonstrated that gestures accompanying speech have an impact on memory for verbal information in the speakers' mother tongue and, as recently shown, also in foreign language learning. However, the neural basis of this effect remains unclear. In a within-subjects design, we compared learning of novel words coupled with iconic and meaningless gestures. Iconic gestures helped learners to significantly better retain the verbal material over time. After the training, participants' brain activity was registered by means of fMRI while performing a word recognition task. Brain activations to words learned with iconic and with meaningless gestures were contrasted. We found activity in the premotor cortices for words encoded with iconic gestures. In contrast, words encoded with meaningless gestures elicited a network associated with cognitive control. These findings suggest that memory performance for newly learned words is not driven by the motor component as such, but by the motor image that matches an underlying representation of the word's semantics. PMID:20645312

Macedonia, Manuela; Müller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D

2010-07-19

96

The impact of iconic gestures on foreign language word learning and its neural substrate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vocabulary acquisition represents a major challenge in foreign language learning. Research has demonstrated that gestures accompanying speech have an impact on memory for verbal information in the speakers' mother tongue and, as recently shown, also in foreign language learning. However, the neural basis of this effect remains unclear. In a within-subjects design, we compared learning of novel words coupled with iconic and meaningless gestures. Iconic gestures helped learners to significantly better retain the verbal material over time. After the training, participants' brain activity was registered by means of fMRI while performing a word recognition task. Brain activations to words learned with iconic and with meaningless gestures were contrasted. We found activity in the premotor cortices for words encoded with iconic gestures. In contrast, words encoded with meaningless gestures elicited a network associated with cognitive control. These findings suggest that memory performance for newly learned words is not driven by the motor component as such, but by the motor image that matches an underlying representation of the word's semantics.

Macedonia M; Müller K; Friederici AD

2011-06-01

97

Gaze Following, Gaze Reading, and Word Learning in Children at Risk for Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated gaze-following abilities as a prerequisite for word learning, in a population expected to manifest a wide range of social and communicative skills--children with a family history of autism. Fifty-three 3-year-olds with or without a family history of autism took part in a televised word-learning task. Using an eye-tracker to…

Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Hudry, Kristelle; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

2012-01-01

98

Domain-specific and domain-general constraints on word and sequence learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relative influences of language-related and memory-related constraints on the learning of novel words and sequences were examined by comparing individual differences in performance of children with and without specific deficits in either language or working memory. Children recalled lists of words in a Hebbian learning protocol in which occasional lists repeated, yielding improved recall over the course of the task on the repeated lists. The task involved presentation of pictures of common nouns followed immediately by equivalent presentations of the spoken names. The same participants also completed a paired-associate learning task involving word-picture and nonword-picture pairs. Hebbian learning was observed for all groups. Domain-general working memory constrained immediate recall, whereas language abilities impacted recall in the auditory modality only. In addition, working memory constrained paired-associate learning generally, whereas language abilities disproportionately impacted novel word learning. Overall, all of the learning tasks were highly correlated with domain-general working memory. The learning of nonwords was additionally related to general intelligence, phonological short-term memory, language abilities, and implicit learning. The results suggest that distinct associations between language- and memory-related mechanisms support learning of familiar and unfamiliar phonological forms and sequences.

Archibald LM; Joanisse MF

2013-02-01

99

Early action and gesture "vocabulary" and its relation with word comprehension and production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data from 492 Italian infants (8-18 months) were collected with the parental questionnaire MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories to describe early actions and gestures (A-G) "vocabulary" and its relation with spoken vocabulary in both comprehension and production. A-G were more strongly correlated with word comprehension than word production. A clear developmental pattern for the different types of A-G was found. These findings are similar to those of different Western languages, indicating a common biological and cultural basis. The analysis of individual A-G and their relations with early words with a related meaning showed interesting similarities between the production of A-G with and without object manipulation and the comprehension and production of corresponding words. Results indicate that the transition from A-G to spoken language is mediated by word comprehension.

Caselli MC; Rinaldi P; Stefanini S; Volterra V

2012-03-01

100

An Empirical Evaluation of Knowledge Sources and Learning Algorithms for Word Sense Disambiguation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we evaluate a varietyof knowledge sources and supervisedlearning algorithms for word sensedisambiguation on SENSEVAL-2 andSENSEVAL-1 data. Our knowledgesources include the part-of-speech ofneighboring words, single words in thesurrounding context, local collocations,and syntactic relations. The learning algorithmsevaluated include Support VectorMachines (SVM), Naive Bayes, AdaBoost,and decision tree algorithms. Wepresent empirical results showing the relativecontribution of the component knowledgesources and the different learningalgorithms. In particular, using all ofthese knowledge sources and SVM (i.e.,a single learning algorithm) achieves accuracyhigher than the best official scoreson both SENSEVAL-2 and SENSEVAL-1test data.

Yoong Keok Lee; Hwee Tou Ng

 
 
 
 
101

Children with ASD can use gaze in support of word recognition and learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle to understand familiar words and learn unfamiliar words. We explored the extent to which these problems reflect deficient use of probabilistic gaze in the extra-linguistic context. METHOD: Thirty children with ASD and 43 with typical development (TD) participated in a spoken word recognition and mapping task. They viewed photographs of a woman behind three objects and simultaneously heard a word. For word recognition, the objects and words were familiar and the woman gazed ahead (neutral), toward the named object (facilitative), or toward an un-named object (contradictory). For word mapping, the objects and words were unfamiliar and only the neutral and facilitative conditions were employed. The children clicked on the named object, registering accuracy and reaction time. RESULTS: Speed of word recognition did not differ between groups but varied with gaze such that responses were fastest in the facilitative condition and slowest in the contradictory condition. Only the ASD group responded slower to low frequency than high-frequency words. Accuracy of word mapping did not differ between groups, but accuracy varied with gaze with higher performance in the facilitative than neutral condition. Both groups scored above single-trial chance levels in the neutral condition by tracking cross-situational information. Only in the ASD group did mapping vary with receptive vocabulary. CONCLUSIONS: Under laboratory conditions, children with ASD can monitor gaze and judge its reliability as a cue to word meaning as well as typical peers. The use of cross-situational statistics to support word learning may be problematic for those who have weak language abilities.

McGregor KK; Rost G; Arenas R; Farris-Trimble A; Stiles D

2013-07-01

102

Comparing Explicit and Implicit Learning of Emotional and Non-Emotional Words in Autistic Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Explicit and implicit memories have different cerebral origins and learning approaches. Defective emotional words processing in children with autism may affect the memory allocated to such words. The aim of this study was comparing two types of (explicit and implicit) memories during processing the two types of (emotional and non-emotional) words in autistic children and their healthy counterparts. Materials and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted on 14 autistic children, who had referred to Autism Medical Treatment Center on Tehran, and 14 healthy children in kindergartens and schools across Tehran. For the explicit memory, a list of words was presented to the subjects of our study and they were asked to repeat the words they heard one time immediately and one time with delay. For implicit memory, the subjects were asked to identify the heard words among the presented words. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that the normal children have higher efficiency in explicit and implicit memory than the children with autism (p<0.01). The two-way analysis of memory type and word type showed that the former affects memory significantly (p<0.05) while word type had no significant effect. Conclusion: Autistic children suffer from impaired memory. This defect is higher in implicit memory than in the explicit memory. It is recommended to apply rehabilitation, training, learning approaches and also explicit memory for interventions of autistic children.

Vahid Nejati; Bahareh Barzegar; Elham Faghihi

2013-01-01

103

The Influence of Two Cognitive-Linguistic Variables on Incidental Word Learning in 5-Year-Olds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relation between incidental word learning and two cognitive-linguistic variables-phonological memory and phonological awareness-is not fully understood. Thirty-five typically developing, 5-year-old, preschool children participated in a study examining the association between phonological memory, phonological awareness, and incidental word learning. Children were exposed to target words in a read-aloud story that accompanied a wordless picture book. Target word comprehension was assessed before and after two readings of the story. Phonological awareness predicted incidental word learning but phonological memory did not. The influence of phonological awareness and phonological memory on word learning may be dependent on the demands of the word learning task.

Abel AD; Schuele CM

2013-08-01

104

The Influence of Prosodic Stress Patterns and Semantic Depth on Novel Word Learning in Typically Developing Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prosodic stress patterns and semantic depth on word learning. Twelve preschool-aged children with typically developing speech and language skills participated in a word learning task. Novel words with either a trochaic or iambic prosodic pattern were embedded in one of two learning conditions, either in children's stories (semantically rich) or picture matching games (semantically sparse). Three main analyses were used to measure word learning: comprehension and production probes, phonetic accuracy, and speech motor stability. Results revealed that prosodic frequency and density influence the learnability of novel words, or that there are prosodic neighborhood density effects. The impact of semantic depth on word learning was minimal and likely depends on the amount of experience with the novel words.

Gladfelter A; Goffman L

2013-01-01

105

Differential categorization of words by learning disabled, gifted, and nonexceptional students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research was done to answer whether learning disabled students attend to different word features than nonexceptional and gifted students and whether there is a difference by grade. Word sorts of meaningful and nonsense words were used to estimate differences between 145 first- and fifth-grade learning disabled, nonexceptional, and gifted groups. Analyses indicated that 54 learning disabled students were more likely to provide no response or to give simpler responses than 61 nonexceptional or 30 gifted peers. Older children (n = 78) attended to more and varied word features, were more likely to focus on recognizable meaning, and were more able to use syllables as a tool for sorting than were 67 younger children. Significant differences were noted between grade and exceptionality groups. Implications for practical application and further research are discussed.

Siegel J; Cook R; Gerard J

1995-08-01

106

Differential categorization of words by learning disabled, gifted, and nonexceptional students.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research was done to answer whether learning disabled students attend to different word features than nonexceptional and gifted students and whether there is a difference by grade. Word sorts of meaningful and nonsense words were used to estimate differences between 145 first- and fifth-grade learning disabled, nonexceptional, and gifted groups. Analyses indicated that 54 learning disabled students were more likely to provide no response or to give simpler responses than 61 nonexceptional or 30 gifted peers. Older children (n = 78) attended to more and varied word features, were more likely to focus on recognizable meaning, and were more able to use syllables as a tool for sorting than were 67 younger children. Significant differences were noted between grade and exceptionality groups. Implications for practical application and further research are discussed. PMID:8532464

Siegel, J; Cook, R; Gerard, J

1995-08-01

107

Improving word learning in children using an errorless technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current experiment examined the relative advantage of an errorless learning technique over an errorful one in the acquisition of novel names for unfamiliar objects in typically developing children aged between 7 and 9 years. Errorless learning led to significantly better learning than did errorful learning. Processing speed and vocabulary predicted unique significant variance in errorful learning but not errorless learning, suggesting a possible locus for the errorless advantage. Errorless methods may provide a suitable basis not only for improving language learning but also for improving classroom learning and identifying children who will benefit from this technique.

Warmington M; Hitch GJ; Gathercole SE

2013-03-01

108

English-learning one- to two-year-olds do not show a consonant bias in word learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT Following the proposal that consonants are more involved than vowels in coding the lexicon (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003), an early lexical consonant bias was found from age 1;2 in French but an equal sensitivity to consonants and vowels from 1;0 to 2;0 in English. As different tasks were used in French and English, we sought to clarify this ambiguity by using an interactive word-learning study similar to that used in French, with British-English-learning toddlers aged 1;4 and 1;11. Children were taught two CVC labels differing on either a consonant or vowel and tested on their pairing of a third object named with one of the previously taught labels, or part of them. In concert with previous research on British-English toddlers, our results provided no evidence of a general consonant bias. The language-specific mechanisms explaining the differential status for consonants and vowels in lexical development are discussed.

Floccia C; Nazzi T; Luche CD; Poltrock S; Goslin J

2013-07-01

109

The influence of linguistic and musical experience on Cantonese word learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult non-native speech perception is subject to influence from multiple factors, including linguistic and extralinguistic experience such as musical training. The present research examines how linguistic and musical factors influence non-native word identification and lexical tone perception. Groups of native tone language (Thai) and non-tone language listeners (English), each subdivided into musician and non-musician groups, engaged in Cantonese tone word training. Participants learned to identify words minimally distinguished by five Cantonese tones during training, also completing musical aptitude and phonemic tone identification tasks. First, the findings suggest that either musical experience or a tone language background leads to significantly better non-native word learning proficiency, as compared to those with neither musical training nor tone language experience. Moreover, the combination of tone language and musical experience did not provide an additional advantage for Thai musicians above and beyond either experience alone. Musicianship was found to be more advantageous than a tone language background for tone identification. Finally, tone identification and musical aptitude scores were significantly correlated with word learning success for English but not Thai listeners. These findings point to a dynamic influence of musical and linguistic experience, both at the tone dentification level and at the word learning stage. PMID:22712948

Cooper, Angela; Wang, Yue

2012-06-01

110

The influence of linguistic and musical experience on Cantonese word learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adult non-native speech perception is subject to influence from multiple factors, including linguistic and extralinguistic experience such as musical training. The present research examines how linguistic and musical factors influence non-native word identification and lexical tone perception. Groups of native tone language (Thai) and non-tone language listeners (English), each subdivided into musician and non-musician groups, engaged in Cantonese tone word training. Participants learned to identify words minimally distinguished by five Cantonese tones during training, also completing musical aptitude and phonemic tone identification tasks. First, the findings suggest that either musical experience or a tone language background leads to significantly better non-native word learning proficiency, as compared to those with neither musical training nor tone language experience. Moreover, the combination of tone language and musical experience did not provide an additional advantage for Thai musicians above and beyond either experience alone. Musicianship was found to be more advantageous than a tone language background for tone identification. Finally, tone identification and musical aptitude scores were significantly correlated with word learning success for English but not Thai listeners. These findings point to a dynamic influence of musical and linguistic experience, both at the tone dentification level and at the word learning stage.

Cooper A; Wang Y

2012-06-01

111

Improving Word Learning in Children Using an Errorless Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

|The current experiment examined the relative advantage of an errorless learning technique over an errorful one in the acquisition of novel names for unfamiliar objects in typically developing children aged between 7 and 9 years. Errorless learning led to significantly better learning than did errorful learning. Processing speed and vocabulary…

Warmington, Meesha; Hitch, Graham J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2013-01-01

112

Learning Lexical Properties from Word Usage Patterns: Which Context Words Should be Used?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several recent papers have described how lexical properties of words can becaptured by simple measurements of which other words tend to occur close tothem. At a practical level, word co-occurrence statistics are used to generatehigh dimensional vector space representations and appropriate distancemetrics are defined on those spaces. The resulting co-occurrence vectors havebeen used to account for phenomena ranging from semantic priming tovocabulary acquisition. We have developed a simple and highly efficientsystem for computing useful word co-occurrence statistics, along with anumber of criteria for optimizing and validating the resulting representations.Other workers have advocated various methods for reducing the number ofdimensions in the co-occurrence vectors. Lund & Burgess [10] have suggestedusing only the most variant components; Landauer & Dumais [5] stress that tobe of explanatory value the dimensionality of the co-occurrence vectors mustbe reduced to...

Joseph P. Levy; John A. Bullinaria

113

Early learning shapes the memory networks for arithmetic: evidence from brain potentials in bilinguals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Language and math are intertwined during children's learning of arithmetic concepts, but the importance of language in adult arithmetic processing is less clear. To determine whether early learning plays a critical role in the math-language connection in adults, we tested retrieval of simple multiplication in adult bilinguals who learned arithmetic in only one language. We measured electrophysiological and behavioral responses during correctness judgments for problems presented as digits or as number words in Spanish or English. Problems presented in the language in which participants learned arithmetic elicited larger, more graded, and qualitatively different brain responses than did problems presented in participants' other language, and these responses more closely resembled responses for digits, even when participants' other language was more dominant. These findings suggest that the memory networks for simple multiplication are established when arithmetic concepts are first learned and are independent of language dominance in adulthood.

Salillas E; Wicha NY

2012-07-01

114

Learning Lexical Properties from Word Usage Patterns: Which Context Words Should be Used?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several recent papers have described how lexical properties of words can becaptured by simple measurements of which other words tend to occur close tothem. At a practical level, word co-occurrence statistics are used to generatehigh dimensional vector space representations and appropriate distancemetrics are defined on those spaces. The resulting co-occurrence vectors havebeen used to account for phenomena ranging from semantic priming tovocabulary acquisition. We have developed a simple and highly efficientsystem for computing useful word co-occurrence statistics, along with anumber of criteria for optimizing and validating the resulting representations.Other workers have advocated various methods for reducing the number ofdimensions in the co-occurrence vectors. Lund & Burgess [10] have suggestedusing only the most variant components; Landauer & Dumais [5] stress that tobe of explanatory value the dimensionality of the co-occurrence vectors mustbe reduced to around 300 using singular value decomposition, a procedurerelated to principal components analysis; and Lowe & McDonald [8] haveused a statistical reliability criterion. We have used a simpler framework thatorders and truncates the dimensions according to their word frequency. Herewe compare how the different methods perform for two evaluation criteria andbriefly discuss the consequences of the different methodologies for workwithin cognitive or neural computation.

Joseph P. Levy; John A. Bullinaria

115

Do not forget Full memory in memory-based learning of word pronunciation  

CERN Multimedia

Memory-based learning, keeping full memory of learning material, appears a viable approach to learning NLP tasks, and is often superior in generalisation accuracy to eager learning approaches that abstract from learning material. Here we investigate three partial memory-based learning approaches which remove from memory specific task instance types estimated to be exceptional. The three approaches each implement one heuristic function for estimating exceptionality of instance types: (i) typicality, (ii) class prediction strength, and (iii) friendly-neighbourhood size. Experiments are performed with the memory-based learning algorithm IB1-IG trained on English word pronunciation. We find that removing instance types with low prediction strength (ii) is the only tested method which does not seriously harm generalisation accuracy. We conclude that keeping full memory of types rather than tokens, and excluding minority ambiguities appear to be the only performance-preserving optimisations of memory-based learning...

Van den Bosch, A; Bosch, Antal van den; Daelemans, Walter

1999-01-01

116

Spelling pronunciation and visual preview both facilitate learning to spell irregular words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spelling pronunciations are hypothesized to be helpful in building up relatively stable phonologically underpinned orthographic representations, particularly for learning words with irregular phoneme-grapheme correspondences. In a four-week computer-based training, the efficacy of spelling pronunciations and previewing the spelling patterns on learning to spell loan words in Dutch, originating from French and English, was examined in skilled and less skilled spellers with varying ages. Reading skills were taken into account. Overall, compared to normal pronunciation, spelling pronunciation facilitated the learning of the correct spelling of irregular words, but it appeared to be no more effective than previewing. Differences between training conditions appeared to fade with older spellers. Less skilled young spellers seemed to profit more from visual examination of the word as compared to practice with spelling pronunciations. The findings appear to indicate that spelling pronunciation and allowing a preview can both be effective ways to learn correct spellings of orthographically unpredictable words, irrespective of age or spelling ability. PMID:17849202

Hilte, Maartje; Reitsma, Pieter

2006-12-01

117

Spelling pronunciation and visual preview both facilitate learning to spell irregular words.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spelling pronunciations are hypothesized to be helpful in building up relatively stable phonologically underpinned orthographic representations, particularly for learning words with irregular phoneme-grapheme correspondences. In a four-week computer-based training, the efficacy of spelling pronunciations and previewing the spelling patterns on learning to spell loan words in Dutch, originating from French and English, was examined in skilled and less skilled spellers with varying ages. Reading skills were taken into account. Overall, compared to normal pronunciation, spelling pronunciation facilitated the learning of the correct spelling of irregular words, but it appeared to be no more effective than previewing. Differences between training conditions appeared to fade with older spellers. Less skilled young spellers seemed to profit more from visual examination of the word as compared to practice with spelling pronunciations. The findings appear to indicate that spelling pronunciation and allowing a preview can both be effective ways to learn correct spellings of orthographically unpredictable words, irrespective of age or spelling ability.

Hilte M; Reitsma P

2006-12-01

118

E-Learning System for English Education to emphasize Pronunciation, Word-for-Word Translation and Free Translation  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to get students in engineering courses to acquire a good command of English, a coursework named “English for Engineers” has been offered to senior students in the department of mechanical engineering of Mie University. The authors place much value on the coursework from the viewpoints of acquiring the ability of (1) accurate pronunciations in accordance with phonetic symbols, and (2) a series of translations from a word-for-word translation to a free one. To make the coursework more effective, the authors have developed an e-learning system. The system supports teachers in engineering departments who are normally non-professionals in English education. The results showed that the proposed system is effective for comprehending the importance on the above-mentioned two viewpoints.

Nomura, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Ryota

119

Semantic categories and contexts of written words affect the early ERP component.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of event-related potentials to examine how semantic categories affect early stages of written word processing in the brain. We used a semantic priming paradigm in which the categories of prime and target words were the same (animate or inanimate). Event-related potentials were recorded while native Japanese participants made semantic-relatedness judgments of word pairs. Semantic category effects were observed approximately 150 ms after the target item was presented. Inanimate words elicited greater positive deflection than animate words, but no significant difference was observed for prime item processing. Source modeling estimated that the observed effects were induced by neural mechanisms occurring in the anterior temporal region, the posterior portion of the inferior temporal region, and the inferior parietal regions in both the hemispheres. Our results suggest that semantic category effects in the early stages of word processing are evoked by multiple cortical regions related to top-down processing of the preceding semantic information. PMID:23426108

Hata, Masahiro; Homae, Fumitaka; Hagiwara, Hiroko

2013-04-17

120

Early effects of emotion on word immediate repetition priming: electrophysiological and source localization evidence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The processing of a stimulus benefits from the previous exposure of an identical stimulus, which is known as immediate repetition priming (IRP). Although several experimental manipulations modulate the size of this effect, the influence of affective information is still unclear. In order to explore the temporo-spatial characteristics of the interaction between emotion and IRP, event-related potentials (ERPs) to negative and neutral target words were measured during a lexical decision task in an IRP paradigm. Temporal and spatial versions of principal components analyses were used to detect and quantify those ERP components associated with IRP. A source localization procedure provided information on the neural origin of these components. Behavioural analyses showed that reaction times to repeated negative and neutral words differed from those to unrepeated negative and neutral words, respectively. However, the interaction between repetition and emotion was only marginally significant. In contrast, ERP analyses revealed specific IRP effects for negative words: Repeated negative words elicited reduced P120/enhanced N170 effects and weaker activation suppression in the left inferior frontal gyrus than did unrepeated negative words. These results suggest that a word's negative content captures attention interfering with IRP mechanisms, possibly at an early semantic stage of processing.

Méndez-Bértolo C; Pozo MA; Hinojosa JA

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Early effects of emotion on word immediate repetition priming: electrophysiological and source localization evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The processing of a stimulus benefits from the previous exposure of an identical stimulus, which is known as immediate repetition priming (IRP). Although several experimental manipulations modulate the size of this effect, the influence of affective information is still unclear. In order to explore the temporo-spatial characteristics of the interaction between emotion and IRP, event-related potentials (ERPs) to negative and neutral target words were measured during a lexical decision task in an IRP paradigm. Temporal and spatial versions of principal components analyses were used to detect and quantify those ERP components associated with IRP. A source localization procedure provided information on the neural origin of these components. Behavioural analyses showed that reaction times to repeated negative and neutral words differed from those to unrepeated negative and neutral words, respectively. However, the interaction between repetition and emotion was only marginally significant. In contrast, ERP analyses revealed specific IRP effects for negative words: Repeated negative words elicited reduced P120/enhanced N170 effects and weaker activation suppression in the left inferior frontal gyrus than did unrepeated negative words. These results suggest that a word's negative content captures attention interfering with IRP mechanisms, possibly at an early semantic stage of processing. PMID:21922349

Méndez-Bértolo, Constantino; Pozo, Miguel A; Hinojosa, José A

2011-12-01

122

A bottom-up view of toddler word learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A head camera was used to examine the visual correlates of object name learning by toddlers as they played with novel objects and as the parent spontaneously named those objects. The toddlers' learning of the object names was tested after play, and the visual properties of the head camera images during naming events associated with learned and unlearned object names were analyzed. Naming events associated with learning had a clear visual signature, one in which the visual information itself was clean and visual competition among objects was minimized. Moreover, for learned object names, the visual advantage of the named target over competitors was sustained, both before and after the heard name. The findings are discussed in terms of the visual and cognitive processes that may depend on clean sensory input for learning and also on the sensory-motor, cognitive, and social processes that may create these optimal visual moments for learning.

Pereira AF; Smith LB; Yu C

2013-06-01

123

The Role of Pictures and Gestures as Nonverbal Aids in Preschoolers' Word Learning in a Novel Language  

Science.gov (United States)

|Previous research suggests that presenting redundant nonverbal semantic information in the form of gestures and/or pictures may aid word learning in first and foreign languages. But do nonverbal supports help all learners equally? We address this issue by examining the role of gestures and pictures as nonverbal supports for word learning in a…

Rowe, Meredith L.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Mullan, Bridget E.

2013-01-01

124

What Can We Learn from the Word Writing CAFE?  

Science.gov (United States)

Building on the work of an earlier article ["The Word Writing CAFE: Assessing Student Writing for Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency," Dorothy J. Leal, "Reading Teacher," 59 (4) Dec 2005 (EJ738016)], these authors investigated the use of a simple assessment tool with a different audience to yield similar useful results. (Contains 3 figures and 4…

Bromley, Karen; Vandenberg, Amy; White, Jennifer

2007-01-01

125

WORDS AS “LEXICAL UNITS” IN LEARNING/TEACHING VOCABULARY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the genuine contributions of theoretical linguistics to the interdisciplinary field of applied linguistics is to elucidate the nature of what should be taught and how it should be taught. Traditionally, the input supplied in vocabulary teaching has consisted either of word lists (most often) ...

Moisés Almela; Aquilino Sánchez

126

DESIGNING A MICROCONTROLLER BASED SMART MULTI LANGUAGE LEARNING WORD MASTER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The inconvenience encountered by the native learners in learning Bengali is there is no digital Bengali learning system except computer which is costly and not easy to use for all. In this paper we show a low power microcontroller based Multilanguage learning system to overcome the inconvenience mentioned above. This paper depicts the design procedure and the development of its hardware and software.

Munzur-ul-Mamun,; A.H.M. Zadidul Karim,; Md.Sharif Ullah,; Md.Istiaq Mahbub

2011-01-01

127

Early decomposition in visual word recognition: Dissociating morphology, form, and meaning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decom...

Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

128

Early Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition: Dissociating Morphology, Form, and Meaning  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic…

Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

2008-01-01

129

Visual information constrains early and late stages of spoken-word recognition in sentence context.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Audiovisual speech perception has been frequently studied considering phoneme, syllable and word processing levels. Here, we examined the constraints that visual speech information might exert during the recognition of words embedded in a natural sentence context. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to words that could be either strongly or weakly predictable on the basis of the prior semantic sentential context and, whose initial phoneme varied in the degree of visual saliency from lip movements. When the sentences were presented audio-visually (Experiment 1), words weakly predicted from semantic context elicited a larger long-lasting N400, compared to strongly predictable words. This semantic effect interacted with the degree of visual saliency over a late part of the N400. When comparing audio-visual versus auditory alone presentation (Experiment 2), the typical amplitude-reduction effect over the auditory-evoked N100 response was observed in the audiovisual modality. Interestingly, a specific benefit of high- versus low-visual saliency constraints occurred over the early N100 response and at the late N400 time window, confirming the result of Experiment 1. Taken together, our results indicate that the saliency of visual speech can exert an influence over both auditory processing and word recognition at relatively late stages, and thus suggest strong interactivity between audio-visual integration and other (arguably higher) stages of information processing during natural speech comprehension.

Brunellière A; Sánchez-García C; Ikumi N; Soto-Faraco S

2013-07-01

130

The role of age of acquisition in bilingual word translation: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present research tested the hypothesis that the age at which one's first language (L1) words are learned influences language processing in bilinguals. Prior research on bilingual language processing by Kroll and colleagues has suggested that memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger than memory links between one's second language (L2) word and conceptual representations. We hypothesized that the strengths of memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger for words learned early in life than for words learned later in life. Support for the hypothesis was obtained in bilingual translation experiment with 36 Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants translated L1 words into L2 and L2 words into L1. Half of the L1 words were learned early in childhood (early AoA words), and half were learned later in life (late AoA words). The L2 words were translation equivalents of the L1 words tested; the average age at which L2 words were learned was age 7. Target words were presented either in random order or blocked by semantic category. Translation times were longer when trials were blocked by semantic category (i.e., categorical interference) occurred only when early AoA L1 words were translated into L2. Implications for current models of bilingual memory are discussed.

Bowers JM; Kennison SM

2011-08-01

131

General associative learning shapes the plasticity of the visual word form area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earlier studies identify a region in the left fusiform gyrus that responds selectively to visual words, termed the visual word form area (VWFA). Converging evidence suggests that the VWFA is wired up largely by language experience. Here we asked whether general associative experience without explicit language learning accounts for the selectivity of the VWFA. Specifically, we trained individuals to associate novel stimuli with objects. We found that the blood oxygen level-dependent response of the VWFA to the trained stimuli was significantly higher than that of visually similar but untrained stimuli. No learning effects were found in the face-selective and object-selective regions. Our study illuminates that the plasticity of the VWFA can be shaped by associative learning without language experience. PMID:20179656

Song, Yiying; Bu, Yong; Liu, Jia

2010-03-31

132

General associative learning shapes the plasticity of the visual word form area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Earlier studies identify a region in the left fusiform gyrus that responds selectively to visual words, termed the visual word form area (VWFA). Converging evidence suggests that the VWFA is wired up largely by language experience. Here we asked whether general associative experience without explicit language learning accounts for the selectivity of the VWFA. Specifically, we trained individuals to associate novel stimuli with objects. We found that the blood oxygen level-dependent response of the VWFA to the trained stimuli was significantly higher than that of visually similar but untrained stimuli. No learning effects were found in the face-selective and object-selective regions. Our study illuminates that the plasticity of the VWFA can be shaped by associative learning without language experience.

Song Y; Bu Y; Liu J

2010-03-01

133

Space aliens and nonwords: stimuli for investigating the learning of novel word-meaning pairs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a set of pictorial and auditory stimuli that we have developed for use in word learning tasks in which the participant learns pairings of novel auditory sound patterns (names) with pictorial depictions of novel objects (referents). The pictorial referents are drawings of "space aliens," consisting of images that are variants of 144 different aliens. The auditory names are possible nonwords of English; the stimulus set consists of over 2,500 nonword stimuli recorded in a single voice, with controlled onsets, varying from one to seven syllables in length. The pictorial and nonword stimuli can also serve as independent stimulus sets for purposes other than word learning. The full set of these stimuli may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

Gupta P; Lipinski J; Abbs B; Lin PH; Aktunc E; Ludden D; Martin N; Newman R

2004-11-01

134

Space aliens and nonwords: stimuli for investigating the learning of novel word-meaning pairs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a set of pictorial and auditory stimuli that we have developed for use in word learning tasks in which the participant learns pairings of novel auditory sound patterns (names) with pictorial depictions of novel objects (referents). The pictorial referents are drawings of "space aliens," consisting of images that are variants of 144 different aliens. The auditory names are possible nonwords of English; the stimulus set consists of over 2,500 nonword stimuli recorded in a single voice, with controlled onsets, varying from one to seven syllables in length. The pictorial and nonword stimuli can also serve as independent stimulus sets for purposes other than word learning. The full set of these stimuli may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/. PMID:15641405

Gupta, Prahlad; Lipinski, John; Abbs, Brandon; Lin, Po-Han; Aktunc, Emrah; Ludden, David; Martin, Nadine; Newman, Rochelle

2004-11-01

135

Word of Mouth Learning in the Battle of the Sexes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper we analyze the learning behavior of two populationsengaged in playing a 'Battle of the sexes' game. The players do notknow the payoff function of the game but change their strategy withsome probability if they learn via direct communication with otherplayers about a strategy which currently has a higher payoff than theirown. This learning rule leads to convergence towards one of the purestrategies coordination equilibria if the initial population distributionsare asymmetric. For symmetric initial population distributions, dependingon the players' propensity to adopt new strategies, convergencetowards the mixed strategies equilibrium or periodic and complexbehavior might occur. It is further shown that the introduction ofanticipations leads to the emergence of stable fixed points of the learningprocess, which are no Nash equilibria, via a fold and a transcriticalbifurcation. If the anticipated strategies closely match the actual dynamicswithout anticipations ...

Herbert Dawid

136

Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi “sendoff”), oit (e.g., exploit “exploit”), ois (e.g., siamois, “siamese”), or oie (e.g., joie “joy”). The morphologically complex word exploiter “to exploit”, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument) but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word's final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s). 30 min after having read the stories, children's orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie). Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois) had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

Pacton, Sebastien; Foulin, Jean Noel; Casalis, Severine; Treiman, Rebecca

2013-01-01

137

Building Machine Learning Based Senti-word Lexicon for Sentiment Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sentiment analysis involves classifying opinions in text into categories like "positive" or "negative". One of approaches used to make sentiment classification is using sentiment lexicon. This paper aims to build a sentiment lexicon which is domain independent. We propose a Machine Learning Based Senti-word Lexicon (MLBSL) based on the Amazon data set which contains reviews from different domains. Our proposed MLBSL yields an improvement over previous published manual and automatic-built lexicons like SentiWordNet. We also provide an improvement in calculation method used in reviews sentiment analysis.

Alaa Hamouda; Mahmoud Marei; Mohamed Rohaim

2011-01-01

138

The Development of Political Activists: A Model of Early Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An analysis of panel data reveals the unique importance of early learning to the development of political activism among Americans. A combination of two learning models-- the frequently used crystallization model and the rarely analyzed sensitization model-- is advanced as most appropriate for under...

King, Gary; Merelman, Richard

139

Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

2009-01-01

140

A picture tells 1000 words: learning teamwork in primary care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Teamwork and patient centredness are frequently articulated concepts in medical education, but are not always explicit in the curriculum. In Ireland, recent government policy emphasises the importance of a primary care team approach to health care. We report on an appraisal of a newly introduced community-based student attachment, which focused on teamwork. AIM: To review students' experience of teamwork following a community clinical placement by examining student assignments: essays, poetry, music and art. METHODS: Year-2 graduate-entry students (n = 45) spent 2 weeks with a primary care team. Attachments comprised placements with members of the primary care team, emphasising team dynamics, at the end of which students submitted a representative piece of work, which captured their learning. Essays (n = 22) were analysed using a thematic content analysis. Artwork consisted of painting, collage, photography, poetry and original music (n = 23). These were analysed using Gardner's entry points. RESULTS: Three core themes emerged in both written and visual work: patient centredness; communication; and an improved appreciation of the skills of other health care professionals. Students identified optimal team communication occurring when patient outcomes were prioritised. Metaphors relating to puzzles, hands and inter-connectedness feature strongly. The poems and artwork had a high impact when they were presented to tutors. CONCLUSION: Primary care team placements focus student attention on teamwork and patient centredness. Student artwork shows potential as a tool to evaluate student learning in medical education.

Kelly M; Bennett D; O'Flynn S; Foley T

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of objects, presented on different contextual backgrounds, and were tested on their ability to generalize the labels to new exemplars after a 4-hr delay with or without a nap. The results demonstrated that only children who did not nap were able to generalize learning. These findings have critical implications for the functions of sleep versus wakefulness in generalization, implicating a role for forgetting during wakefulness in generalization.

Werchan DM; Gómez RL

2013-08-01

142

Beyond static assessment of children's receptive vocabulary: the dynamic assessment of word learning (DAWL).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Children's low scores on vocabulary tests are often erroneously interpreted as reflecting poor cognitive and/or language skills. It may be necessary to incorporate the measurement of word-learning ability in estimating children's lexical abilities. AIMS: To explore the reliability and validity of the Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning (DAWL), a new dynamic assessment of receptive vocabulary. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A dynamic assessment (DA) of word learning ability was developed and adopted within a nursery school setting with 15 children aged between 3;07 and 4;03, ten of whom had been referred to speech and language therapy. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: A number of quantitative measures were derived from the DA procedure, including measures of children's ability to identify the targeted items and to generalize to a second exemplar, as well as measures of children's ability to retain the targeted items. Internal, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the DAWL was established as well as correlational measures of concurrent and predictive validity. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: The DAWL was found to provide both quantitative and qualitative information which could be used to improve the accuracy of differential diagnosis and the understanding of processes underlying the child's performance. The latter can be used for the purpose of designing more individualized interventions.

Camilleri B; Botting N

2013-09-01

143

Investigating word learning in fragile X syndrome: a fast-mapping study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fast-mapping paradigms have not been used previously to examine the process of word learning in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), who are likely to have intellectual impairment, language delays, and symptoms of autism. In this study, a fast-mapping task was used to investigate associative word learning in 4- to 10-year-old boys with FXS relative to younger typically developing boys and age-matched boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Task performance exceeded chance levels for all groups; however, boys with FXS outperformed boys with ASD, despite having lower levels of nonverbal cognition. Memory task demands significantly impacted performance only for boys with typical development. For boys with FXS or ASD, fast-mapping uniquely accounted for small but significant variance in concurrent levels of vocabulary comprehension as did chronological age and nonverbal IQ, but not autism severity. Understanding the fast-mapping process has implications for designing interventions to support word learning and language acquisition in these populations.

McDuffie A; Kover ST; Hagerman R; Abbeduto L

2013-07-01

144

The use of online word of mouth opinion in online learning: a questionnaire survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is increasing use of online word of mouth opinion (user feedback) systems for general services but its use in online learning has not been previously investigated. AIM: To understand why users of BMJ Learning provide and read word of mouth feedback, and whether this feedback influences uptake of modules by prospective users. METHOD: Online questionnaire of users of BMJ Learning who had completed online user feedback. RESULT: 109 questionnaires were completed (response rate 25%). The main motivation to contribute was to influence the authors of the module (66%), and 43% stated that they wanted to help other users to make an informed choice. 16% stated that they wanted to develop an online community of learners. The main motivation to read the user feedback was to see if they agreed with the comments (56%). CONCLUSION: Online word of mouth opinion (user feedback) appears to be useful for online learners. There are also system design considerations since the attempt to create an online community of learners that is desired by some users will not be appreciated by others. Further research with a larger number of users is recommended to confirm the findings.

Sandars J; Walsh K

2009-04-01

145

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... screening, emphasizing that screening saves lives. Release Date: 03/15/2012 No Excuses (:60) Learn more about ... screening, emphasizing that screening saves lives. Release Date: 03/15/2012 No hay excusas (:30) Este video ...

146

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Pain Reliever Learn more about the benefits of physical activity and the types and amounts of exercise helpful ... about FINDING A BALANCE through healthy eating and physical activity. Release Date: 07/13/2009 Behind the Scenes: ...

147

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Date: 03/30/2009 A Need To Know African-American men who have sex with other men ... a campaign to help parents measure their children's development by how they play, learn, speak and act. ...

148

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... in a campaign to help parents measure their children's progress by monitoring how they play, learn, speak ... details flu symptoms and emergency warning signs for children and adults. (0:30) Release Date: 03/17/ ...

149

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... salvan vidas. Fecha de publicación: 3/15/2012 Arthritis Pain Reliever Learn more about the benefits of ... and amounts of exercise helpful for people with arthritis. Release Date: 12/12/2011 A Message to ...

150

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... CODE ENDS HERE --> Health Matters Healthy Swimming Is No Accident An expert suggests swimmers with diarrhea should ... and monitors disease. Release Date: 06/06/2012 No Excuses (:30) Learn more about the common misconceptions ...

151

The Effect of Exposure to the Visual Medium on Learning Pronunciation and Word Stress of L2 Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effect of exposure to the visual medium on learning pronunciation and word stress. Thirty junior high school students participated in this study. They were divided into an experimental and a control group each included 15 students. The participants were given a pretest in order to make sure that they were homogeneous with regard to their pronunciation and word stress. Both groups received instruction on key to phonetic symbols available in the back of their textbooks and on the stress of English words. The participants in the experimental group read the computerized written passages while they had access to the pronunciation of the target words through phonetic symbols of the words. The control group listened to the teacher reading the same passages and repeated after her without having any access to the computer and experimental materials. Finally, the attitudinal questionnaire was given to the participants in experimental group to elicit their attitude towards their practicing technique. The findings revealed that visual medium had significant effect on learning word stress but not pronunciation of target words. Furthermore, using computer as a visual medium increased students’ motivation for both pronunciation and word stress learning.

Zahra Fotovatnia; Mahboubeh Omidi

2013-01-01

152

Digital Word Walls and Vocabulary Learning: The Use of iPods to Facilitate Vocabulary Instruction with ESL Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile devices such as iPods can be potentially effective learning tools, especially for advancing the vocabulary development of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate ESL high school students’ knowledge of using iPods for learning vocabulary; and (2) to determine ESL high school students’ achievement differences in vocabulary when exposed to two traditional vocabulary instructional frameworks using word walls versus digital word wall instruction. The study followed a mixed-method design using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The specific strategies used to support vocabulary learning in all three instructional frameworks were based upon the principles of effective vocabulary instruction and factors related to active student engagement. Findings indicate no statistically significant differences between instructional frameworks in word-meaning acquisition. However, students were more engaged in the activities associated with the digital word wall framework, i.e. activities related to developing vocabulary vodcasts.

Lucretia M. Fraga; Janis M. Harmon; Karen D. Wood; Elizabeth Buckelew-Martin

2011-01-01

153

Short-term memory for serial order supports vocabulary development: New evidence from a novel word learning paradigm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although recent studies suggest a strong association between short-term memory (STM) for serial order and lexical development, the precise mechanisms linking the two domains remain to be determined. This study explored the nature of these mechanisms via a microanalysis of performance on serial order STM and novel word learning tasks. In the experiment, 6- and 7-year-old children were administered tasks maximizing STM for either item or serial order information as well as paired-associate learning tasks involving the learning of novel words, visual symbols, or familiar word pair associations. Learning abilities for novel words were specifically predicted by serial order STM abilities. A measure estimating the precision of serial order coding predicted the rate of correct repetitions and the rate of phoneme migration errors during the novel word learning process. In line with recent theoretical accounts, these results suggest that serial order STM supports vocabulary development via ordered and detailed reactivation of the novel phonological sequences that characterize new words.

Majerus S; Boukebza C

2013-12-01

154

Short-term memory for serial order supports vocabulary development: New evidence from a novel word learning paradigm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although recent studies suggest a strong association between short-term memory (STM) for serial order and lexical development, the precise mechanisms linking the two domains remain to be determined. This study explored the nature of these mechanisms via a microanalysis of performance on serial order STM and novel word learning tasks. In the experiment, 6- and 7-year-old children were administered tasks maximizing STM for either item or serial order information as well as paired-associate learning tasks involving the learning of novel words, visual symbols, or familiar word pair associations. Learning abilities for novel words were specifically predicted by serial order STM abilities. A measure estimating the precision of serial order coding predicted the rate of correct repetitions and the rate of phoneme migration errors during the novel word learning process. In line with recent theoretical accounts, these results suggest that serial order STM supports vocabulary development via ordered and detailed reactivation of the novel phonological sequences that characterize new words. PMID:24056204

Majerus, Steve; Boukebza, Claire

2013-09-20

155

Thai Learners’ English Pronunciation Competence: Lesson Learned from Word Stress Assignment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English has been a lingua franca in various domains of communication such as international business, academic conferences, diplomacy, science and technology. As a result, the demands for English skills in all aspects are crucial in response to the importance of English and the impact of globalization. Despite the constant efforts in developing English education in Thailand, a number of studies have shown that the achievement of Thai learners was unsatisfactory. Given the role of English as an international language which is used in almost domain of communication, amongst several factors hindering the success of English language learning, English pronunciation of the Thai learners should be focused. This study has two principle objectives: 1) to examine Thai learners’ knowledge with regard to word stress assignment; and 2) to determine possible factors affecting the Thai learners’ pronunciation competence. To achieve these objectives, 90 Thai learners of English participated in this study. The test consisting of two parts: personal information profile, and 40 selected words systematically taken from two textbooks, was employed to identify these participants’ pronunciation competence. The results showed that most of the participants’ English pronunciation was somewhat limited.  Gender was identified to be the most significant factor contributing to the participants’ test scores, while faculty and years of studying English were not. In light of the results suggested by the three variables, pedagogical suggestions were offered to help improve teaching and learning English pronunciation in general, and in focusing on the importance of teaching word stress in particular.

Attapol Khamkhien

2010-01-01

156

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 2008 Early recognition of developmental disabilities such as autism is key for parents and providers. CDC realized ... Topic www.cdc.gov/actearly www.cdc.gov/autism www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/child What do you ...

157

Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…

Grosse, Susan J.

2008-01-01

158

The effect of a word processor as an accommodation for students with learning disabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of writing format (handwritten (HW) versus word processor (WP)) were examined in a sample of college students with and without learning disabilities (LD). All students wrote two essays, one in each format, scored for quality and length. Groups did not differ in age, gender, ethnicity, mathematical calculation, writing fluency, essay length or essay quality. The "interaction hypothesis" was not supported, in that the use of a word processor as a writing accommodation did not provide a differential boost to students with LD. Both groups produced longer essays in the WP versus HW condition. The best predictor of essay quality was essay length regardless of writing format. Most students in each group preferred the WP format. Interestingly, a smaller percentage of students in the LD group (72%) than NLD group (91%) used the available time for writing.

Cassie L. Berger; Larry Lewandowski

2013-01-01

159

Brief report: pointing cues facilitate word learning in children with autism spectrum disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reportedly have difficulty associating novel words to an object via the speaker's gaze. It has also been suggested that their performance is related to their gaze duration on the object and improves when the object moves and becomes more salient. However, there is a possibility that they have only relied on the object's movement and have not referenced the speaker's cue (i.e. gaze direction). The current study with children with ASD and typically developing children aged 6-11 years demonstrated that adding another speaker's cue (i.e. pointing) improves the performance of children with ASD. This suggests that additional speaker's cues may help referential word learning in children with ASD.

Akechi H; Kikuchi Y; Tojo Y; Osanai H; Hasegawa T

2013-01-01

160

When Service Learning Meets the Project Approach: Incorporating Service Learning in an Early Childhood Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The researchers described in this case study how Service Learning was incorporated within the context of an early childhood program where the teachers used the Project Approach. The Service Learning project was embedded in an investigation about water and was designed to help tsunami victims in Asia. Participants included two teachers and 12…

Chun, Eul Jung; Hertzog, Nancy B.; Gaffney, Janet S.; Dymond, Stacy K.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Learning word sense disambiguation in biomedical text with difference between training and test distributions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Word Sense Disambiguation methods based on machine learning techniques with lexical features suffer from the discordance between distributions of the training and test documents, due to the diversity of lexical space. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes Support Vector Machines with Example-wise Weights. In this method, the training distribution is matched with the test distribution by weighting training examples according to their similarity to all test data. The experimental results show the distribution change between the training and test data is actually recognised and the proposed method which considers this change in its training phase outperforms ordinary SVMs.

Son JW; Park SB

2012-01-01

162

"In Our Own Words": Creating Videos as Teaching and Learning Tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Online videos, particularly those on YouTube, have proliferated on the internet; watching them has become part of our everyday activity. While libraries have often harnessed the power of videos to create their own promotional and informational videos, few have created their own teaching and learning tools beyond screencasting videos. In the summer of 2010, the authors, two librarians at York University, decided to work on a video project which culminated in a series of instructional videos entitled “Learning: In Our Own Words.” The purpose of the video project was twofold: to trace the “real” experience of incoming students and their development of academic literacies skills (research, writing and learning) throughout their first year, and to create videos that librarians and other instructors could use as instructional tools to engage students in critical thinking and discussion. This paper outlines the authors’ experience filming the videos, creating a teaching guide, and screening the videos in the classroom. Lessons learned during this initiative are discussed in the hope that more libraries will develop videos as teaching and learning tools.

Norda Majekodunmi; Kent Murnaghan

2012-01-01

163

Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the dutch dyslexia programme?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the prereading phase was investigated. The rationale was that intervention studies reveal insights about the weaknesses of the learning mechanisms of FR children. In addition, the studies aimed to gather practical insights to be used in the development of a system of early diagnosis and prevention. Focused on the last period of kindergarten before formal reading instruction starts in Grade 1, intervention methods with comparable samples and designs but differences in delivery mode (use of computer or manual), tutor (semi-professional or parent), location (at school or at home), and additional practices (serial rapid naming or simple word reading) have been executed to test the hypothesis that the incidence and degree of dyslexia can be reduced. The present position paper summarizes the Dutch Dyslexia Programme findings and relates them to findings of other studies. It is discussed that the Dutch studies provide evidence on why prevention of dyslexia is hard to accomplish. It is argued that effective intervention should not only start early but also be adapted to the individual and often long-lasting educational needs of children at risk of reading failure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

van der Leij A

2013-11-01

164

Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the dutch dyslexia programme?  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the prereading phase was investigated. The rationale was that intervention studies reveal insights about the weaknesses of the learning mechanisms of FR children. In addition, the studies aimed to gather practical insights to be used in the development of a system of early diagnosis and prevention. Focused on the last period of kindergarten before formal reading instruction starts in Grade 1, intervention methods with comparable samples and designs but differences in delivery mode (use of computer or manual), tutor (semi-professional or parent), location (at school or at home), and additional practices (serial rapid naming or simple word reading) have been executed to test the hypothesis that the incidence and degree of dyslexia can be reduced. The present position paper summarizes the Dutch Dyslexia Programme findings and relates them to findings of other studies. It is discussed that the Dutch studies provide evidence on why prevention of dyslexia is hard to accomplish. It is argued that effective intervention should not only start early but also be adapted to the individual and often long-lasting educational needs of children at risk of reading failure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24133037

van der Leij, Aryan

2013-11-01

165

E-Learning Content for Early Detection Cervival Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most commonly type of cancer that strikes women. The rate of deaths caused by this type of cancer is quite high. The mortality rate caused by this cancer can be reduced through early detection program. To support this program, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia is aware of the need for training the health workers in order to do the socialization quickly and evenly to all corners of Indonesia in order to reduce the number of cases of death due to cervical cancer. The aim of this research was to find out the type of online learning content that was suitable and easy for the public and medical personnel to understand on early detection of cervical cancer. The method used British Columbia’s standard for online learning content which mainly focused on four criteria. Moreover, the method that was used by Jeong and Kim to design the content of an instructional approach was also employed. Bloom’s taxonomy theory was followed as the reference theory in designing the online learning material. The result described the information content of the early detection of cervical cancer in form of multimedia in online learning.

Giovani DEWI; Bens PARDAMEAN; Agus PUTRANTO

2013-01-01

166

78 FR 38957 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Race to the Top-Early Learning...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Comment Request; Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge Annual Performance Report AGENCY...Collection: Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge Annual Performance Report...Abstract: The Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge program is authorized by...

2013-06-28

167

Getting the Bugs out with PESTS: A Mnemonic Approach to Spelling Sight Words for Students with Learning Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

Difficulties with spelling can impact students' reading acquisition and writing, having a critical impact on overall literacy development. Students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle with spelling. We describe a case study with three elementary-aged students with LD using a mnemonic approach to spelling sight words. Our approach,…

Howard, Sue; DaDeppo, Lisa M. W.; De La Paz, Susan

2008-01-01

168

Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000).

Janet Enever

2012-01-01

169

You Know What It Is: Learning Words through Listening to Hip-Hop  

Science.gov (United States)

Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE) vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free-response definitions to AAE vocabulary items, after which they answered demographic questions as well as questions addressing their social networks, their musical preferences, and their knowledge of popular culture. Results from the survey show a positive association between the number of hip-hop artists listened to and AAE comprehension vocabulary scores. Additionally, participants were more likely to know an AAE vocabulary item if the hip-hop artists they listen to use the word in their song lyrics. Together, these results suggest that young adults can acquire vocabulary through exposure to hip-hop music, a finding relevant for research on vocabulary acquisition, the construction of adolescent and adult identities, and the adoption of lexical innovations.

Chesley, Paula

2011-01-01

170

You know what it is: learning words through listening to hip-hop.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE) vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free-response definitions to AAE vocabulary items, after which they answered demographic questions as well as questions addressing their social networks, their musical preferences, and their knowledge of popular culture. Results from the survey show a positive association between the number of hip-hop artists listened to and AAE comprehension vocabulary scores. Additionally, participants were more likely to know an AAE vocabulary item if the hip-hop artists they listen to use the word in their song lyrics. Together, these results suggest that young adults can acquire vocabulary through exposure to hip-hop music, a finding relevant for research on vocabulary acquisition, the construction of adolescent and adult identities, and the adoption of lexical innovations.

Chesley P

2011-01-01

171

Fast Mapping, Slow Learning: Disambiguation of Novel Word-Object Mappings in Relation to Vocabulary Learning at 18, 24, and 30 Months  

Science.gov (United States)

When hearing a novel name, children tend to select a novel object rather than a familiar one, a bias known as disambiguation. Using online processing measures with 18-, 24-, and 30-month-olds, we investigate how the development of this bias relates to word learning. Children's proportion of looking time to a novel object after hearing a novel name…

Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Borovsky, Arielle; Fernald, Anne

2013-01-01

172

Shakespeare and the Words of Early Modern Physic: Between Academic and Popular Medicine. A Lexicographical Approach to the Plays  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article aims at showing how Shakespeare relied on the medical vocabulary shared by his coeval society, which had, for centuries, been witnessing the continuous process of vernacularization of ancient and medieval scientific texts. After outlining the state of early modern medicine, the author presents and discusses the results of her search for relevant medical terms in nine plays by Shakespeare. In order to do this, a wide range of medical treatises has been analysed (either directly or through specific corpora such as Medieval English Medical Texts, MEMT 2005, and Early Modern English Medical Texts, EMEMT 2010), so as to verify the ancestry or the novelty of Shakespearean medical words. In addition to this, the author has also built a corpus of word types derived from seventeenth-century quack doctors’ handbills, with the purpose of creating a word list of medical terms connected to popular rather than university medicine, comparable with the list drawn out of the Shakespearean plays. The results most stressed in the article concern Shakespeare’s use of medical terminology already well known to his contemporary society (thus confuting the Oxfordian thesis about the impossibility for William Shakespeare the actor to master so many medical words) and the playwright’s skill in transforming – rather than inventing – old popular terms. The article is accompanied by five tables that collect the results of the various lexicographical searches.

Roberta Mullini

2013-01-01

173

Young word learners' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures within the context of ambiguous reference.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early in development, many word-learning phenomena generalize to symbolic gestures. The current study explored whether children avoid lexical overlap in the gestural modality, as they do in the verbal modality, within the context of ambiguous reference. Eighteen-month-olds' interpretations of words and symbolic gestures in a symbol-disambiguation task (Experiment 1) and a symbol-learning task (Experiment 2) were investigated. In Experiment 1 (N = 32), children avoided verbal lexical overlap, mapping novel words to unnamed objects; children failed to display this pattern with symbolic gestures. In Experiment 2 (N = 32), 18-month-olds mapped both novel words and novel symbolic gestures onto their referents. Implications of these findings for the specialized nature of word learning and the development of lexical overlap avoidance are discussed.

Suanda SH; Namy LL

2013-01-01

174

Learning to associate novel words with motor actions: language-induced motor activity following short training.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Action words referring to face, arm or leg actions activate areas along the motor strip that also control the planning and execution of the actions specified by the words. This electroencephalogram (EEG) study aimed to test the learning profile of this language-induced motor activity. Participants were trained to associate novel verbal stimuli to videos of object-oriented hand and arm movements or animated visual images on two consecutive days. Each training session was preceded and followed by a test-session with isolated videos and verbal stimuli. We measured motor-related brain activity (reflected by a desynchronization in the ? frequency bands; 8-12 Hz range) localized at centro-parietal and fronto-central electrodes. We compared activity from viewing the videos to activity resulting from processing the language stimuli only. At centro-parietal electrodes, stable action-related ? suppression was observed during viewing of videos in each test-session of the two days. For processing of verbal stimuli associated with motor actions, a similar pattern of activity was evident only in the second test-session of Day 1. Over the fronto-central regions, ? suppression was observed in the second test-session of Day 2 for the videos and in the second test-session of Day 1 for the verbal stimuli. Whereas the centro-parietal ? suppression can be attributed to motor events actually experienced during training, the fronto-central ? suppression seems to serve as a convergence zone that mediates underspecified motor information. Consequently, sensory-motor reactivations through which concepts are comprehended seem to differ in neural dynamics from those implicated in their acquisition.

Fargier R; Paulignan Y; Boulenger V; Monaghan P; Reboul A; Nazir TA

2012-07-01

175

Acquired affective associations induce emotion effects in word recognition: an ERP study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an evaluative conditioning paradigm. Subsequently, event-related potentials were recorded while participants implicitly processed the learned emotional relevance in a lexical decision paradigm. Emotional and neutral words were presented together with the conditioned pseudowords and a set of new pseudowords. Conditioned and new pseudowords differed in the late positive complex. Emotionally and neutrally conditioned stimuli differed in an early time window (80-120 ms) and in the P300. These results replicate ERP effects known from emotion word recognition and indicate that contextual learning and in particular evaluative conditioning is suitable to establish emotional associations in words, and to explain early ERP effects in emotion word recognition.

Fritsch N; Kuchinke L

2013-01-01

176

Considering spatial ability in virtual route learning in early aging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study is to broaden our understanding of the construction and early decline of spatial mental representations in route learning, considering the extent to which spatial ability and age-related differences in environment learning interact. The experiment examines spatial mental representation derived from taking a realistic route acquired using virtual environment and compares individuals different in age but with similar spatial ability. A sample of 34 young (20-30 years) and 30 middle-aged (50-60 years) females with good mental rotation ability were chosen. Participants learned a complex route through its presentation in a virtual environment and then performed a series of tasks (landmark recognition, location of landmarks and verification of spatial relations). Results show that the two participant age groups had similar performance in landmark recognition task and in verification of sentences describing direct spatial relations; instead, the middle-aged group showed a poorer performance than younger in their ability to locate landmarks and to judge the truth of indirect spatial sentences. These results first suggest that spatial abilities have to be seriously considered to avoid any confusion with age, as age-related differences are attenuated when individuals are different in age but similar in spatial ability. Second they confirm a specific difficulty of older participants to handle spatial information in a global configuration.

Gyselinck V; Meneghetti C; Bormetti M; Orriols E; Piolino P; De Beni R

2013-08-01

177

A Bayesian model of biases in artificial language learning: the case of a word-order universal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this article, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian model of learning in a general type of artificial language-learning experiment in which learners are exposed to a mixture of grammars representing the variation present in real learners' input, particularly at times of language change. The modeling goal is to formalize and quantify hypothesized learning biases. The test case is an experiment (Culbertson, Smolensky, & Legendre, 2012) targeting the learning of word-order patterns in the nominal domain. The model identifies internal biases of the experimental participants, providing evidence that learners impose (possibly arbitrary) properties on the grammars they learn, potentially resulting in the cross-linguistic regularities known as typological universals. Learners exposed to mixtures of artificial grammars tended to shift those mixtures in certain ways rather than others; the model reveals how learners' inferences are systematically affected by specific prior biases. These biases are in line with a typological generalization-Greenberg's Universal 18-which bans a particular word-order pattern relating nouns, adjectives, and numerals.

Culbertson J; Smolensky P

2012-11-01

178

Machine learning and word sense disambiguation in the biomedical domain: design and evaluation issues  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is critical in the biomedical domain for improving the precision of natural language processing (NLP), text mining, and information retrieval systems because ambiguous words negatively impact accurate access to literature containing biomolecular entities, such as genes, proteins, cells, diseases, and other important entities. Automated techniques have been developed that address the WSD problem for a number of text processing situations, but the problem is still a challenging one. Supervised WSD machine learning (ML) methods have been applied in the biomedical domain and have shown promising results, but the results typically incorporate a number of confounding factors, and it is problematic to truly understand the effectiveness and generalizability of the methods because these factors interact with each other and affect the final results. Thus, there is a need to explicitly address the factors and to systematically quantify their effects on performance. Results Experiments were designed to measure the effect of "sample size" (i.e. size of the datasets), "sense distribution" (i.e. the distribution of the different meanings of the ambiguous word) and "degree of difficulty" (i.e. the measure of the distances between the meanings of the senses of an ambiguous word) on the performance of WSD classifiers. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers were applied to an automatically generated data set containing four ambiguous biomedical abbreviations: BPD, BSA, PCA, and RSV, which were chosen because of varying degrees of differences in their respective senses. Results showed that: 1) increasing the sample size generally reduced the error rate, but this was limited mainly to well-separated senses (i.e. cases where the distances between the senses were large); in difficult cases an unusually large increase in sample size was needed to increase performance slightly, which was impractical, 2) the sense distribution did not have an effect on performance when the senses were separable, 3) when there was a majority sense of over 90%, the WSD classifier was not better than use of the simple majority sense, 4) error rates were proportional to the similarity of senses, and 5) there was no statistical difference between results when using a 5-fold or 10-fold cross-validation method. Other issues that impact performance are also enumerated. Conclusion Several different independent aspects affect performance when using ML techniques for WSD. We found that combining them into one single result obscures understanding of the underlying methods. Although we studied only four abbreviations, we utilized a well-established statistical method that guarantees the results are likely to be generalizable for abbreviations with similar characteristics. The results of our experiments show that in order to understand the performance of these ML methods it is critical that papers report on the baseline performance, the distribution and sample size of the senses in the datasets, and the standard deviation or confidence intervals. In addition, papers should also characterize the difficulty of the WSD task, the WSD situations addressed and not addressed, as well as the ML methods and features used. This should lead to an improved understanding of the generalizablility and the limitations of the methodology.

Xu Hua; Markatou Marianthi; Dimova Rositsa; Liu Hongfang; Friedman Carol

2006-01-01

179

You know what it is: learning words through listening to hip-hop.  

Science.gov (United States)

Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE) vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free-response definitions to AAE vocabulary items, after which they answered demographic questions as well as questions addressing their social networks, their musical preferences, and their knowledge of popular culture. Results from the survey show a positive association between the number of hip-hop artists listened to and AAE comprehension vocabulary scores. Additionally, participants were more likely to know an AAE vocabulary item if the hip-hop artists they listen to use the word in their song lyrics. Together, these results suggest that young adults can acquire vocabulary through exposure to hip-hop music, a finding relevant for research on vocabulary acquisition, the construction of adolescent and adult identities, and the adoption of lexical innovations. PMID:22205942

Chesley, Paula

2011-12-21

180

Affective style and early life experiences moderate cortisol's effects on emotional learning  

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Full Text Available Background : Relatively little is known about how lasting qualities of the individual (e.g., traits and/or one's past history) moderate the effects of cortisol on emotional learning. We hypothesized that cortisol would have more pronounced effects on memory formation in individuals who show greater levels of trait negative affect (Trait NA) or who experienced early life separation (ELS). Methods : In Study 1, involving 42 healthy adults (22 women), we examined how Trait NA moderated the effects of cortisol administration (IV-administered 0.1 mg/kg/30 min hydrocortisone; CORT) vs. placebo on memory formation for unpleasant and neutral photographs. In a preliminary study (Study 2), in 18 depressed adults (10 women), we examined how ELS (because of parental divorce or permanent separation) moderated the effects of CORT (15 mg orally administered hydrocortisone) vs. placebo on memory formation for positive and negative words. Results : In Study 1, we found that in women with higher Trait NA, CORT facilitated memory formation. In women with lower levels of Trait NA, CORT had no effects of memory formation. Study 2 revealed that in depressed women with ELS, CORT facilitated memory formation for negative words. Specifically, CORT (vs. placebo) biased memory in a negative direction by an average of 4.2 (SD?=?0.73) words in women with ELS. In depressed women without ELS, CORT had no effect on memory formation. In both studies, 1 & 2, effects were less robust in men or trended in the opposite direction, which may represent true sex differences or may be because of confounding factors, such as differences in cortisol elevations for men vs. women. Conclusions : In summary, our data suggest that lasting qualities of individuals, such as Trait NA or history of early separation, moderate cortisol's effects on emotional memory. Further investigation into how variation in personal traits and past experiences moderate cortisol's effects on emotional cognition is one important step in elucidating why some individuals are more sensitive than others to the detrimental (e.g., negatively biasing) effects of stress on emotional cognition and memory. These data may also inform research regarding the use of corticosteroid receptor ligands in treatment for psychopathology. Individual differences in affective style or past experiences may predict therapeutic response to corticosteroid receptor ligands.

Heather C. Abercrombie; Michelle M. Wirth; Allison L. Jahn; Roxanne M. Hoks

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Short communication : neuromagnetic evidence for early semantic access in word recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnetic brain responses recorded in the human magnetoencephalogram (MEG) distinguished between words with different semantics but carefully matched for frequency and length. Multiple recordings from a single subject showed that 100 ms following stimulus onset, significantly stronger neuromagnetic r...

Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Assadollahi, Ramin; Elbert, Thomas

182

THE DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF DIRECT INSTRUCTION FLASHCARDS AND READING RACETRACKS ON SIGHT WORD ACCURACY FOR THREE ELEMENTARY STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Direct Instruction (DI) flashcards and reading racetrack procedures to improve sight word skills. The participants were three elementary students with learning disabilities enrolled in a special education resource room. A multiple baseline design across participants and sets of first-grade sight words was employed to evaluate the efficacy of DI flashcards and reading racetracks. Two of our three participantsquickly improved their sight words skills during the intervention. One student made less progress in learning sight his words. The reasons that some of our participants did not improve was due to poor school attendance and effect of high stakes testing in general education. However, our participants enjoyed the procedures and looked forward to working on their sight words each session.

Ann Marie Ulring; T. F. McLaughlin; Jennifer Neyman; Theresa Waco

2012-01-01

183

Attitudes and Motivation in Early Foreign Language Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on young foreign language learners’ attitudes andmotivations. An overview is given of the main issues in this researcharea, based on key European studies. Approaches to studying these affective learner characteristics are described. Some attention is devoted to data elicitation techniques and the importance of triangulation. Research findings are presented through overviews of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies carried out in different European settings. The latter are presented in more detail, because their findings seem to be more revealing of the early foreign language learning process. The overall conclusion of this review paper is that young foreign language learners’ attitudes and motivations are not stable learner characteristics but change over time, creating layers of complexity that warrant further research.Suggestions about possible future directions in researching young foreign language learner attitudes and motivations, and the application of its findings are also made.

Jelena Mihaljevi? Djigunovi?

2012-01-01

184

Unfamiliar Orthographic Information and Second Language Word Learning: A Novel Lexicon Study  

Science.gov (United States)

|Recent research indicates that knowledge of words' spellings can influence knowledge of the phonological forms of second language (L2) words when the first and second languages use the same orthographic symbols. It is yet unknown whether learners can make similar use of unfamiliar orthographic symbols. In this study we investigate whether native…

Showalter, Catherine E.; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

2013-01-01

185

Preschool Word Learning during Joint Book Reading: Effect of Adult Questions and Comments  

Science.gov (United States)

Adults naturally comment and pose questions during joint book reading (JBR), a recognized context for vocabulary acquisition. An original story containing 10 nonsense words mapped to novel referents was read to 40 typically developing preschoolers. Children who heard scripted questions and comments identified approximately two more words than…

Ard, Lisa M.; Beverly, Brenda L.

2004-01-01

186

Anterior frontal cortex and the effect of proactive interference in word pair learning--results of Brain-SPECT.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technetium-99m-HMPAO-Brain-SPECT was performed twice in each of 12 right-handed students. The control condition was a standard word pair learning task. In the experimental condition, subjects had to overcome the detrimental effect that older memories exerted on the acquisition of new information (controlling proactive inhibition): they were presented with taxonomically similar words, which could easily be mixed up, and which reappeared in each list, but in different pairings. Results revealed an increase in right anterior frontal flow indices with the experimental condition. These results parallel the observed increase in negative event-related DC potential shifts. UHL et al. [J. cognit. Neurosci. 2, 373, 1990] recorded at frontopolar (Fp3, Fp4) scalp projections, although the extent of modulation was much higher for DC potentials (100%) than it was for SPECT (3%) thus suggesting different sensitivity. PMID:8190247

Uhl, F; Podreka, I; Deecke, L

1994-02-01

187

Anterior frontal cortex and the effect of proactive interference in word pair learning--results of Brain-SPECT.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Technetium-99m-HMPAO-Brain-SPECT was performed twice in each of 12 right-handed students. The control condition was a standard word pair learning task. In the experimental condition, subjects had to overcome the detrimental effect that older memories exerted on the acquisition of new information (controlling proactive inhibition): they were presented with taxonomically similar words, which could easily be mixed up, and which reappeared in each list, but in different pairings. Results revealed an increase in right anterior frontal flow indices with the experimental condition. These results parallel the observed increase in negative event-related DC potential shifts. UHL et al. [J. cognit. Neurosci. 2, 373, 1990] recorded at frontopolar (Fp3, Fp4) scalp projections, although the extent of modulation was much higher for DC potentials (100%) than it was for SPECT (3%) thus suggesting different sensitivity.

Uhl F; Podreka I; Deecke L

1994-02-01

188

The effects of audibility and novel word learning ability on vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: A novel word learning (NWL) paradigm was used to explore underlying phonological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for delayed vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants (CIs). METHODS: One hundred and one children using CIs, 6-12 years old, were tested along with 47 children with normal hearing (NH). Tests of NWL, receptive vocabulary, and speech perception at 2 loudness levels were administered to children with CIs. Those with NH completed the NWL task and a receptive vocabulary test. CI participants with good audibility (GA) versus poor audibility (PA) were compared on all measures. Analysis of variance was used to compare performance across the children with NH and the two groups of children with CIs. Multiple regression analysis was employed to identify independent predictors of vocabulary outcomes. RESULTS: Children with CIs in the GA group scored higher in receptive vocabulary and NWL than children in the PA group, although they did not reach NH levels. CI-aided pure tone threshold and performance on the NWL task predicted independent variance in vocabulary after accounting for other known predictors. DISCUSSION: Acquiring spoken vocabulary is facilitated by GA with a CI and phonological learning and memory skills. Children with CIs did not learn novel words at the same rate or achieve the same receptive vocabulary levels as their NH peers. Maximizing audibility for the perception of speech and direct instruction of new vocabulary may be necessary for children with CIs to reach levels seen in peers with NH.

Davidson LS; Geers AE; Nicholas JG

2013-08-01

189

An Evaluative Checklist for Computer Games Used for Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning and Practice: VocaWord Sample  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the use of games in FL teaching and learning, and to present a vocabulary learning game which can be used as supplementary material in CALL and/or traditional language classes in any language, and to compare it with two other widely used games in FLT. A criteria checklist for CALL systems and more specifically for vocabulary learning software is offered and applied to the evaluation of one game, namely VocaWord. The checklist’s application to the game showed that the weakness of the game is half as much, and the strengths might be twice as much compared to Scrabble and Taboo, which are commercially oriented games widely used by teachers and foreign language learners. These results suggest that VocaWord is a promising game that has the potential to be quite effective. The study underlines the necessity to develop more educational games that can be used in CALL.

Levent Uzun

2009-01-01

190

A Cross-Linguistic Study of Early Word Meaning: Universal Ontology and Linguistic Influence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated whether learning the distinction between substance names and object names is conceptually or linguistically driven, by repeating Soja et al.'s study with English- and Japanese-speaking children. (Japanese does not make the count-mass grammatical distinction proposed to contribute to learning the distinction.) Found evidence for…

Imai, Mutsumi; Gentner, Dedre

1997-01-01

191

Conceptual distance and word learning: Patterns of acquisition in Samoan-English bilingual children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT This study investigated cross-linguistic influence in acquisition of a second lexicon, evaluating Samoan-English sequentially bilingual children (initial mean age 4 ; 9) during their first 18 months of school. Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary tasks evaluated acquisition of four word types: cognates, matched nouns, phrasal nouns and holonyms. Each word type had varying phonological and conceptual difference between Samoan (L1) and English (L2). Results highlighted conceptual distance between L1 and L2 as a key factor in L2 lexical acquisition. The children acquired L2 lexical items earlier if their conceptual representation was similar to that of L1. Words with greater conceptual distance between L1 and L2 emerged more slowly. This suggests that L1 knowledge influences L2 lexical consolidation for sequential bilinguals. Words that require a conceptual shift from L1 take longer to consolidate and strengthen within the L2 lexicon.

Hemsley G; Holm A; Dodd B

2013-09-01

192

Preparing Early Childhood Educators for Global Education: The Implications of Prior Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines the increasing cultural diversity of Australia's education settings and explicates the global education movement and the new Australian Early Years Learning Framework. It discusses the implication of these factors for early childhood education practice and early childhood teacher education. The key research question considered…

Horsley, Mike W.; Bauer, Kathy Anne

2010-01-01

193

Teach Yourself VISUALLY Word 2010  

CERN Multimedia

Learn to use Microsoft Word 2010 the easy, visual way. Word is the most popular application in the Microsoft Office suite, and Word 2010 has some exciting new features. If you learn best when you can see how something is done, you'll find the step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots make it quick and easy to learn this new version of Word. The visual format helps you understand Word's new features, including Web Apps and the revised user interface. Learn to set up and format documents, work with graphics, use Mail Merge, post documents to the Web, and more.: Word 2010 includes sup

Marmel, Elaine

2010-01-01

194

Typing with Purpose: Linking the Word Processing Curriculum to Real World Applications through Service Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Service learning actively engages students in the curriculum through participation in projects that meet a community need. It links the curriculum to the "real world," thus providing an authentic context for learning. Over the past two years, university and high school staff have collaborated to develop, implement, and evaluate a service learning

Dymond, Stacy K.; Neeper, Lance S.; Fones, Dave

2010-01-01

195

Visual field differences in visual word recognition can emerge purely from perceptual learning: evidence from modeling Chinese character pronunciation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Chinese orthography, a dominant character structure exists in which a semantic radical appears on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); a minority opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). As the number of phonetic radical types is much greater than semantic radical types, in SP characters the information is skewed to the right, whereas in PS characters it is skewed to the left. Through training a computational model for SP and PS character recognition that takes into account of the locations in which the characters appear in the visual field during learning, but does not assume any fundamental hemispheric processing difference, we show that visual field differences can emerge as a consequence of the fundamental structural differences in information between SP and PS characters, as opposed to the fundamental processing differences between the two hemispheres. This modeling result is also consistent with behavioral naming performance. This work provides strong evidence that perceptual learning, i.e., the information structure of word stimuli to which the readers have long been exposed, is one of the factors that accounts for hemispheric asymmetry effects in visual word recognition.

Hsiao JH

2011-11-01

196

Visual field differences in visual word recognition can emerge purely from perceptual learning: evidence from modeling Chinese character pronunciation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Chinese orthography, a dominant character structure exists in which a semantic radical appears on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); a minority opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). As the number of phonetic radical types is much greater than semantic radical types, in SP characters the information is skewed to the right, whereas in PS characters it is skewed to the left. Through training a computational model for SP and PS character recognition that takes into account of the locations in which the characters appear in the visual field during learning, but does not assume any fundamental hemispheric processing difference, we show that visual field differences can emerge as a consequence of the fundamental structural differences in information between SP and PS characters, as opposed to the fundamental processing differences between the two hemispheres. This modeling result is also consistent with behavioral naming performance. This work provides strong evidence that perceptual learning, i.e., the information structure of word stimuli to which the readers have long been exposed, is one of the factors that accounts for hemispheric asymmetry effects in visual word recognition. PMID:21620456

Hsiao, Janet Hui-Wen

2011-05-26

197

Spelling performance and semantic understanding of compound words by Greek students with learning disabilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study aimed to investigate the spelling performance and the semantic understanding of compound words by 103 Greek primary school children (first through sixth grade). The experimental group comprised of 25 children with spelling difficulties and compared with a control group of 78 children of typical development. Children were asked to spell and define 20 concrete and abstract compounds. They were also asked to spell 20 different compounds after providing their definitions in terms of their morphological constituents. Main results indicated that concrete compounds were spelled and defined better than abstract ones, but the experimental group performed significantly lower than the control group on both word types. Children with spelling disabilities were able to use less etymological information in defining compound words than their typical classmates, suggesting that they understand less the internal structure of morphologically complex words. These results are compatible with the experimental literature and are discussed in terms of the morphophonemic nature of Greek language as a transparent orthography with a rich morphology.

Tsesmeli SN; Koutselaki D

2013-05-01

198

Learning to Solve Addition and Subtraction Word Problems in English as an Imported Language  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports an intervention phase of a design study aimed to assist second-grade Filipino children in solving addition word problems in English, a language they primarily encounter only in school. With Filipino as the medium of instruction, an out-of-school pedagogical intervention providing linguistic and representational scaffolds was…

Verzosa, Debbie Bautista; Mulligan, Joanne

2013-01-01

199

Learning Words: Children Disregard Some Pragmatic Information that Conflicts with Mutual Exclusivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning process about what the speaker intended? In two…

Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel B.

2006-01-01

200

Effects of classwide peer tutoring on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words for seventh grade students with learning disabilities and/or low achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words and definitions. Participants were 14 seventh grade students at-risk for failure in a general education science course; 3 students had learning disabilities and 2 had a communication disorder. CWPT was conducted daily for 20 minutes during the last period of the school day. Procedures for CWPT were consistent with the Ohio State University CWPT model. Students were engaged in dyadic, reciprocal tutoring. Tutors presented word cards to tutees to identify the word and definition. Tutors praised correct responses and used a correction procedure for incorrect responses. After practicing their vocabulary words, students completed a daily testing procedure and recorded and plotted data. Many of the study's findings are consistent with previous studies using CWPT to teach word identification. Results of this study indicate a functional relationship between CWPT and acquisition of science vocabulary. All students were able to acquire words and definitions. Results for maintenance and generalization varied. When acquisition criterion was changed, maintenance and generalization scores increased for some students, while other students remained consistently high. All students reported that they enjoyed CWPT, and all but student stated it helped them learn science vocabulary.

Nobel, Michele Mcmahon

 
 
 
 
201

Word 2013 for dummies  

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This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

Gookin, Dan

2013-01-01

202

The effect of post-learning presentation of music on long-term word-list retention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Memory consolidation processes occur slowly over time, allowing recently formed memories to be altered soon after acquisition. Although post-learning arousal treatments have been found to modulate memory consolidation, examination of the temporal parameters of these effects in humans has been limited. In the current study, 127 participants learned a neutral word list and were exposed to either a positively or negatively arousing musical piece following delays of 0, 20 or 45min. One-week later, participants completed a long-term memory recognition test, followed by Carver and White's (1994) approach/avoidance personality scales. Retention was significantly enhanced, regardless of valence, when the emotion manipulation occurred at 20min, but not immediately or 45min, post-learning. Further, the 20min interval effect was found to be moderated by high 'drive' approach sensitivity. The selective facilitatory conditions of music identified in the current study (timing and personality) offer valuable insights for future development of more specified memory intervention strategies.

Judde S; Rickard N

2010-07-01

203

Early visual learning induces long-lasting connectivity changes during rest in the human brain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spontaneous fluctuations in resting state activity can change in response to experience-dependent plasticity and learning. Visual learning is fast and can be elicited in an MRI scanner. Here, we showed that a random dot motion coherence task can be learned within one training session. While the task activated primarily visual and parietal brain areas, learning related changes in neural activity were observed in the hippocampus. Crucially, even this rapid learning affected resting state dynamics both immediately after the learning and 24h later. Specifically, the hippocampus changed its coupling with the striatum, in a way that was best explained as a consolidation of early learning related changes. Our findings suggest that long-lasting changes in neuronal coupling are accompanied by changes in resting state activity.

Urner M; Schwarzkopf DS; Friston K; Rees G

2013-08-01

204

"I like It Instead of Maths": How Pupils with Moderate Learning Difficulties in Scottish Primary Special Schools Intuitively Solved Mathematical Word Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study by Lio Moscardini of the University of Strathclyde shows how a group of 24 children in three Scottish primary schools for pupils with moderate learning difficulties responded to word problems following their teachers' introduction to the principles of Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI). CGI is a professional development programme in…

Moscardini, Lio

2010-01-01

205

Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and working with the…

Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

2011-01-01

206

Early Learning Standards: Results from a National Survey to Document Trends in State-Level Policies and Practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early learning standards—documents that outline what children should know and be able to do before kindergarten entry—are increasingly common in the United States. Data from a national survey are presented to illustrate trends in how states have developed and implemented early learning standards within the past four years. Results indicate that almost all states have developed early learning standards for prekindergarten-age children, and the number of states that have developed infant-toddler early learning standards has increased markedly. States have used a variety of strategies to support teachers in their use of early learning standards, and a number of states have or are developing monitoring systems to gauge the extent to which programs are using the standards. The authors discuss the implications that trends related to the development and implementation of early learning standards have for early childhood policies and practices, and they discuss areas where further research is needed.

Catherine Scott-Little; Jim Lesko; Jana Martella; Penny Milburn

2007-01-01

207

Wayfinding with words: spatial learning and navigation using dynamically updated verbal descriptions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work investigates whether large-scale indoor layouts can be learned and navigated non-visually, using verbal descriptions of layout geometry that are updated, e.g. contingent on a participant's location in a building. In previous research, verbal information has been used to facilitate route following, not to support free exploration and wayfinding. Our results with blindfolded-sighted participants demonstrate that accurate learning and wayfinding performance is possible using verbal descriptions and that it is sufficient to describe only local geometric detail. In addition, no differences in learning or navigation performance were observed between the verbal study and a control study using visual input. Verbal learning was also compared to the performance of a random walk model, demonstrating that human search behavior is not based on chance decision-making. However, the model performed more like human participants after adding a constraint that biased it against reversing direction.

Giudice NA; Bakdash JZ; Legge GE

2007-05-01

208

Word prediction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

1995-05-01

209

Positioning the Expert: Word Searches, Expertise, and Learning Opportunities in Peer Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

|The goal of this article is to further our understanding of how learning opportunities are created in interactions. Based on a conversation analysis of peer interactions of foreign language learners, we investigate how the negotiation of expert positions among these learners affects this process. The focus of the analysis is on the relationship…

Reichert, Tetyana; Liebscher, Grit

2012-01-01

210

You Know What It Is: Learning Words through Listening to Hip-Hop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE) vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free...

Chesley, Paula

211

"In Our Own Words": Creating Videos as Teaching and Learning Tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Online videos, particularly those on YouTube, have proliferated on the internet; watching them has become part of our everyday activity. While libraries have often harnessed the power of videos to create their own promotional and informational videos, few have created their own teaching and learning...

Norda Majekodunmi; Kent Murnaghan

212

Problem-based learning spanning real and virtual words: a case study in Second Life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing use of immersive virtual environments for educational purposes. However, much of this activity is not yet documented in the public domain, or is descriptive rather than analytical. This paper presents a case study in which university students were tasked with building an interactive learning experience using Second Life as a platform. Both problem-based learning and constructionism acted as framing pedagogies for the task, with students working in teams to design and build a learning experience which could potentially meet the needs of a real client in innovative ways which might not be possible in real life. A process account of the experience is provided, which examines how the pedagogies and contexts (real and virtual) influence and enhance each other. The use of a virtual environment, combined with problem-based learning and constructionism, subtly changed the nature of the instructor–student relationship, allowed students to explore ‘problematic problems' in a motivating and relevant manner, provided students with greater ownership over their work, and allowed problems to be set which were flexible, but at the same time allowed for ease of assessment.

Judith Good; Katherine Howland; Liz Thackray

2008-01-01

213

Early student outcomes associated with a virtual community for learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Virtual communities represent a new and innovative approach to learning within nursing education. Because this is an emerging trend, little is known about the use of virtual communities and the impact on students and their learning. This article reports the results of a study designed to assess the initial perceived benefits of using a virtual community known as The Neighborhood in a single undergraduate baccalaureate nursing program during the first few years following development. Results showed greater benefits reported among underrepresented minority students and students who expected to receive lower than a course grade of A. In addition, findings suggest the strength of perceived benefits increases over time among all learners. These findings merely scratch the surface of additional work needed in this area.

Giddens JF; Shuster G; Roehrig N

2010-06-01

214

Early student outcomes associated with a virtual community for learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virtual communities represent a new and innovative approach to learning within nursing education. Because this is an emerging trend, little is known about the use of virtual communities and the impact on students and their learning. This article reports the results of a study designed to assess the initial perceived benefits of using a virtual community known as The Neighborhood in a single undergraduate baccalaureate nursing program during the first few years following development. Results showed greater benefits reported among underrepresented minority students and students who expected to receive lower than a course grade of A. In addition, findings suggest the strength of perceived benefits increases over time among all learners. These findings merely scratch the surface of additional work needed in this area. PMID:20210288

Giddens, Jean Foret; Shuster, Geoff; Roehrig, Nicole

2010-06-03

215

Improved maze learning through early music exposure in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rats were exposed in utero plus 60 days post-partum to either complex music (Mozart Sonata (k. 448)), minimalist music (a Philip Glass composition), white noise or silence, and were then tested for five days, three trials per day, in a multiple T-maze. By Day 3, the rats exposed to the Mozart work completed the maze more rapidly and with fewer errors than the rats assigned to the other groups. The difference increased in magnitude through Day 5. This suggests that repeated exposure to complex music induces improved spatial-temporal learning in rats, resembling results found in humans. Taken together with studies of enrichment-induced neural plasticity, these results suggest a similar neurophysiological mechanism for the effects of music on spatial learning in rats and humans.

Rauscher FH; Robinson KD; Jens JJ

1998-07-01

216

77 FR 58359 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2  

Science.gov (United States)

...Accountable Programs; (C) Promoting Early Learning and Development Outcomes for Children; (D) A Great Early Childhood Education Workforce; and (E) Measuring Outcomes and Progress. The first two of these reform areas, (A) and...

2012-09-20

217

Clinical imprinting: the impact of early clinical learning on career long professional development in nursing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The literature recognises a relationship between clinical experience and a successful undergraduate experience in nursing; however what constitutes an effective approach remains the subject of debate, particularly in relation to first year of learning. There is evidence from a biological standpoint that early experience impacts on the behavioural development of animals, described by Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) as 'imprinting'. The concept of imprinting has resonance for nursing. In this article the importance of 'getting it right at the beginning' is explored and what, if anything, Lorenz's theory tells us about the impact of early clinical learning on subsequent professional development.

Andrew N

2013-05-01

218

Investigating Learning Space with Photography in Early Childhood Education: A Participatory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary research in early childhood education turned from adult-centered orientations to investigations based on children’s views, involved in data collection as competent research informants. Within this context, a variety of creative methodological frames and tools infused specific research. The present contribution discusses and exemplifies one of the innovative research tools in early education research, namely photography, through a small-scale qualitative study conducted with preschoolers as main data collectors. The study focuses on children’s perceptions of their learning space, in its very material understanding, in an attempt to challenge at the same time anthropocentric tendencies in early education research. Data are discussed mainly against the methodological framework, but discussions also emphasize materiality and material surroundings as sources and determinants of early learning experiences. Photographs produced by preschoolers as research participants illustrate their balanced orientation towards human and material determinants of their learning processes: although instructed to take photos of their learning space, final data included a large percentage of photos with human figures as central points of interest (either early education professionals or peers). These results are consistent with findings of similar studies, as well as participants’ preference for outdoor settings and indoor objects with aesthetic value.

Nicoleta Laura POPA; Liliana STAN

2013-01-01

219

Predictive information processing is a fundamental learning mechanism present in early development: evidence from infants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evidence is presented that predictive coding is fundamental to brain function and present in early infancy. Indeed, mismatch responses to unexpected auditory stimuli are among the earliest robust cortical event-related potential responses, and have been measured in young infants in response to many types of deviation, including in pitch, timing, and melodic pattern. Furthermore, mismatch responses change quickly with specific experience, suggesting that predictive coding reflects a powerful, early-developing learning mechanism.

Trainor LJ

2012-02-01

220

Predictive information processing is a fundamental learning mechanism present in early development: evidence from infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence is presented that predictive coding is fundamental to brain function and present in early infancy. Indeed, mismatch responses to unexpected auditory stimuli are among the earliest robust cortical event-related potential responses, and have been measured in young infants in response to many types of deviation, including in pitch, timing, and melodic pattern. Furthermore, mismatch responses change quickly with specific experience, suggesting that predictive coding reflects a powerful, early-developing learning mechanism. PMID:22226901

Trainor, Laurel J

2012-01-06

 
 
 
 
221

The effects of using flashcards with reading racetrack to teach letter sounds, sight words, and math facts to elementary students with learning disabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of reading racetrack and flashcards when teaching phonics, sight words, and addition facts. The participants for the sight word and phonics portion of this study were two seven-year-old boys in the second grade. Both participants were diagnosed with a learning disability. The third participant was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by his pediatrician and with a learning disability and traumatic brain injury by his school’s multi-disciplinary team.. The dependent measures were corrects and errors when reading from a first grade level sight word list. Math facts were selected based on a 100 add fact test for the third participant. The study demonstrated that racetracks paired with the flashcard intervention improved the students’ number of corrects for each subject-matter area (phonics, sight words, and math facts). However, the results show that some students had more success with it than others. These outcomes clearly warrant further research.

Rachel ERBEY; T. F. MCLAUGHLIN; K. Mark DERBY; Mary EVERSON

2011-01-01

222

Age of word acquisition effects in treatment of children with phonological delays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of the age of acquisition (AoA) of words were examined in the clinical treatment of 10 preschool children with phonological delays. Using a single-subject multiple-baseline experimental design, children were enrolled in one of four conditions that varied the AoA of the treated words (early vs. late acquired) relative to their corresponding word frequency (high vs. low frequency). Phonological generalization to treated and untreated sounds in error served as the dependent variable. Results showed that late acquired words induced greater generalization, with an effect size four times greater than early acquired words, whereas the effects of word frequency were minimized. Results are discussed relative to hypotheses about the role of AoA in language acquisition and the relevance of this variable for phonological learning.

Gierut JA; Morrisette ML

2012-01-01

223

Brain activations underlying different patterns of performance improvement during early motor skill learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/INTRODUCTION: Motor learning plays a central role in daily life and in neurorehabilitation. Several forms of motor learning have been described, among which motor skill learning, i.e. reaching a superior level of performance (a skill) through a shift of the speed/accuracy trade-off. During the first stage of learning a visuomotor skill, we observed differential patterns of evolution of the speed/accuracy trade-off in normal subjects. Half of the subjects rapidly achieved successful motor skill learning with an early shift of the speed/accuracy trade-off leading to a superior level of performance (shift pattern). The other subjects attained only minimal global improvement due to a converse evolution of speed and accuracy (i.e. a respect of the speed/accuracy trade-off: fit pattern). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to explore the neural substrates underlying these differential patterns during the first stage of motor skill learning in normal subjects. METHODS: Twenty right-handed normal subjects performed an implicit visuomotor learning task with their non-dominant hand. The task ("circuit game") consisted in learning to navigate a pointer along a circuit as quickly and accurately as possible using a fMRI-compatible mouse. Velocity, accuracy, and performance indexes were used to characterise the motor learning pattern (shift/fit) and to perform fMRI correlation analysis in order to find the neural substrate associated with the shift and fit patterns during early motor skill learning. RESULTS: Nine subjects showed a fit pattern (fitters), and eleven, a shift pattern ("shifters"). fMRI analyses at whole group level (ANOVA) and at sub-group level demonstrated that the supplementary motor area (SMA) was more activated in "shifters" than in the "fitters" groups and that the BOLD activation within the SMA correlated significantly with the on-line shift of the speed/accuracy trade-off in the "shifters" group. CONCLUSION: Despite identical instructions and experimental conditions, during the first stage of motor skill learning normal subjects spontaneously adopted different patterns that can be differentiated based on distinct fMRI activation patterns. In this implicit visuomotor task, the SMA proper was the key area underlying the achievement of early successful motor skill learning, i.e. on-line shift of the speed/accuracy trade-off.

Lefebvre S; Dricot L; Gradkowski W; Laloux P; Vandermeeren Y

2012-08-01

224

The Willy Wagtail Tale: Knowledge Management and E-Learning Enriching Multiliteracies in the Early Years  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While our multimedia world, with rapid advances in technologies, now challenges educators to consider new pedagogies that expand cultural and linguistic diversity, the potential for information and communication technologies (ICT) to support literacy learning in the early years remains a seriously under-researched area. There is an urgency to address a range of questions raised by teacher practitioners such as what new literacies will look like in their programs, how ICT can be used to learn in new ways, and which pedagogies of multiliteracies are relevant for early childhood education. This paper explores these questions in relation to knowledge management initiatives and e-learning opportunities. The Willy Wagtail Tale presents a case study of how knowledge management and e-learning is socially constructed to enrich multiliteracies experiences in the early years. The study occurred in a small Western Australian school committed to the Reggio Emilia teaching approach. Implications for educational research are that multiliteracies experiences occur inadvertently through children’s play, are integral to The Hundred Languages of Children, and are dramatically enriched through social constructivist knowledge management and child-centered e-learning.

Sandra Hesterman

2009-01-01

225

Research on the Integrated Performance Assessment in an Early Foreign Language Learning Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the implementation of the Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA) in an Early Foreign Language Learning program. The goal of this research was to examine the performance of grade 4 and 5 students of Spanish on the IPA. Performance across the three communicative tasks is described and modifications to IPA procedures based on…

Davin, Kristin; Troyan, Francis J.; Donato, Richard; Hellman, Ashley

2011-01-01

226

Co-Located Single Display Collaborative Learning for Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The benefits of collaborative learning are well documented. However, most of the research has been done with children beyond the ages of early childhood. This could be due to the common and erroneous belief that young children have not developed the capacity to work collaboratively toward a given aim. In this paper we show how small group…

Gomez, Florencia; Nussbaum, Miguel; Weitz, Juan F.; Lopez, Ximena; Mena, Javiera; Torres, Alex

2013-01-01

227

"Teacher, There's an Elephant in the Room!" An Inquiry Approach to Preschoolers' Early Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Children need sound language and literacy skills to communicate with others and actively participate in a classroom learning community. When an early childhood classroom offers a language- and literacy-rich environment, children have numerous opportunities to practice language and literacy in a social setting. A language-rich classroom includes an…

Kampmann, Jennifer Anne; Bowne, Mary Teresa

2011-01-01

228

How 'love' and 'hate' differ from 'sleep': Using combined electro/magnetoencephalographic data to reveal the sources of early cortical responses to emotional words.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Emotional words-as symbols for biologically relevant concepts-are preferentially processed in brain regions including the visual cortex, frontal and parietal regions, and a corticolimbic circuit including the amygdala. Some of the brain structures found in functional magnetic resonance imaging are not readily apparent in electro- and magnetoencephalographic (EEG; MEG) measures. By means of a combined EEG/MEG source localization procedure to fully exploit the available information, we sought to reduce these discrepancies and gain a better understanding of spatiotemporal brain dynamics underlying emotional-word processing. Eighteen participants read high-arousing positive and negative, and low-arousing neutral nouns, while EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Combined current-density reconstructions (L2-minimum norm least squares) for two early emotion-sensitive time intervals, the P1 (80-120 ms) and the early posterior negativity (EPN, 200-300 ms), were computed using realistic individual head models with a cortical constraint. The P1 time window uncovered an emotion effect peaking in the left middle temporal gyrus. In the EPN time window, processing of emotional words was associated with enhanced activity encompassing parietal and occipital areas, and posterior limbic structures. We suggest that lexical access, being underway within 100 ms, is speeded and/or favored for emotional words, possibly on the basis of an "emotional tagging" of the word form during acquisition. This gives rise to their differential processing in the EPN time window. The EPN, as an index of natural selective attention, appears to reflect an elaborate interplay of distributed structures, related to cognitive functions, such as memory, attention, and evaluation of emotional stimuli. Hum Brain Mapp, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Keuper K; Zwanzger P; Nordt M; Eden A; Laeger I; Zwitserlood P; Kissler J; Junghöfer M; Dobel C

2012-12-01

229

Desarrollo psíquico temprano y aprendizaje/ Early psychological development and learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El aumento de las consultas relacionadas con dificultades de atención, hiperactividad y trastornos de comportamiento constatado en los niños al inicio de la enseñanza primaria (escolaridad propiamente dicha) lleva a los autores a reflexionar sobre la influencia de los acelerados cambios en las sociedades desarrolladas en el desarrollo psíquico y la organización de la personalidad. Se hace énfasis sobre los procesos de latencia (sublimación, control de la motricidad (more) y del paso al acto) como posibilitadores de los aprendizajes escolares y su puesta en marcha en los niños de hoy. Abstract in english The ultimate increased volume of outpatient first consultations related to attention impairment, hyperactivity and conduct disorders in children starting Lower School led the authors to ponder about the influence that high speed changes in developed societies have upon psychological development and personality organization. Emphasis is made on latency processes (sublimation, motor control and acting out) as learning promoters in the school environment of here and now kids.

González-Serrano, Fernando; Tapia, Xabier; Hernanz, Manuel; Vaccari, Francisco

2012-12-01

230

Early morphological processing is morphosemantic and not simply morpho-orthographic: A violation of form-then-meaning accounts of word recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have suggested that a word’s orthographic form must be processed before its meaning becomes available. Some interpret the (null) finding of equal facilitation after semantically transparent and opaque morphologically related primes in early stages of morphological processing as consistent with this view. Recent literature suggests that morphological facilitation tends to be greater after transparent than after opaque primes, however. To determine whether the degree of semantic transparency influences parsing into a stem and a suffix (morphological decomposition) in the forward masked priming variant of the lexical decision paradigm, we compared patterns of facilitation between semantically transparent (e.g., coolant–cool) and opaque (e.g., rampant–ramp) prime–target pairs. Form properties of the stem (frequency, neighborhood size, and prime–target letter overlap), as well as related–unrelated and transparent–opaque affixes, were matched. Morphological facilitation was significantly greater for semantically transparent pairs than for opaque pairs. Ratings of prime–target relatedness predicted the magnitude of facilitation. The results limit the scope of form-then-meaning models of word recognition and demonstrate that semantic similarity can influence even early stages of morphological processing.

Feldman, Laurie Beth; O'Connor, Patrick A.; del Prado Martin, Fermin Moscoso

2010-01-01

231

Functional asymmetries in early learning during right, left, and bimanual performance in right-handed subjects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To elucidate differences in activity and connectivity during early learning due to the performing hand. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty right-handed subjects were recruited. The neural correlates of explicit visuospatial learning executed with the right, the left hand, and bimanually were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Connectivity analyses were carried out using the psychophysiological interactions model, considering right and left anterior putamen as index regions. RESULTS: A common neural network was found for the three tasks during learning. Main activity increases were located in posterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, anterior putamen, and cerebellum (IV-V), whereas activity decrements were observed in prefrontal regions. However, the left hand task showed a greater recruitment of left hippocampal areas when compared with the other tasks. In addition, enhanced connectivity between the right anterior putamen and motor cortical and cerebellar regions was found for the left hand when compared with the right hand task. CONCLUSION: An additional recruitment of brain regions and increased striato-cortical and striato-cerebellar functional connections is needed when early learning is performed with the nondominant hand. In addition, access to brain resources during learning may be directed by the dominant hand in the bimanual task.

Aznárez-Sanado M; Fernández-Seara MA; Loayza FR; Pastor MA

2013-03-01

232

Effects of early bilingualism on learning phonological regularities in a new language.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drawing on structural sensitivity theory, the current study investigated monolingual and bilingual children's ability to learn how phonemes combine to form acceptable syllables in a new language. A total of 186 monolingual and bilingual kindergarteners, first graders, and second graders in Taiwan participated in the study. Bilingual children, regardless of whether they actively used a second language at home or simply had exposure to it, showed an advantage over their monolingual peers in learning the phonological patterns in the new language. The study provides empirical support for structural sensitivity theory and calls for the need to reconceptualize the effects of early bilingualism.

Kuo LJ; Anderson RC

2012-03-01

233

The Right Word Making Sense of the Words that Confuse  

CERN Document Server

'Affect' or 'effect'? 'Right', 'write' or 'rite'? English can certainly be a confusing language, whether you're a native speaker or learning it as a second language. 'The Right Word' is the essential reference to help people master its subtleties and avoid making mistakes. Divided into three sections, it first examines homophones - those tricky words that sound the same but are spelled differently - then looks at words that often confuse before providing a list of commonly misspelled words.

Morrison, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

234

Patterns of Variation: A Way to Support and Challenge Early Childhood Learning?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose in this article is to elaborate on how the use of patterns of variation designed by variation theory can challenge and develop the early childhood education (ECE) practice. The analysis is based on six learning study (LS) projects conducted in Swedish ECE. A LS is a systematical, theoretical based development of teacher professionalism, often in close cooperation with researchers. The projects included 17 teachers, 140 children and 7 researchers. The video documented empirical material consists of 16 analysis meetings, 14 interventions and 407 pre-, post-, and delayed posttests. Each project is a concrete example of the use of patterns of variation to increase early childhood learning. In all cases a tendency of qualitative changes in children’s ways of discerning the object of learning could be noticed. The purpose is to search for how this can be understood from a variation theoretical perspective. The main focus is on changed ways of performing the interventions to search for how patterns of variation were used to create and capture the learning situations throughout the projects. One of our findings is that we have seen that it takes more than one intervention for the teachers to capture which aspects of the object of learning are critical in the targeted group, but as the iterative process allows them to try out the design more than once, they manage to find them. The second finding is that the teachers changed focus from taken for granted assumptions of each child to focusing on their own design to facilitate the child’s learning. Finally, the aspect supposed to be discerned has to vary against an invariant background to be discerned by the children, and to separate the principle from the representation is needed to be able to generalize their new knowledge.

Agneta Ljung-Djärf; Mona Holmqvist Olander Brante; Eva Wennås Brante

2013-01-01

235

Enhancing Early Child Care Quality and Learning for Toddlers at Risk: The Responsive Early Childhood Program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Landry SH; Zucker TA; Taylor HB; Swank PR; Williams JM; Assel M; Crawford A; Huang W; Clancy-Menchetti J; Lonigan CJ; Phillips BM; Eisenberg N; Spinrad TL; de Villiers J; de Villiers P; Barnes M; Starkey P; Klein A

2013-06-01

236

Age-related changes in learning across early childhood: A new imitation task.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Imitation plays a critical role in social and cognitive development, but the social learning mechanisms contributing to the development of imitation are not well understood. We developed a new imitation task designed to examine social learning mechanisms across the early childhood period. The new task involves assembly of abstract-shaped puzzle pieces in an arbitrary sequence on a magnet board. Additionally, we introduce a new scoring system that extends traditional goal-directed imitation scoring to include measures of both children's success at copying gestures (sliding the puzzle pieces) and goals (connecting the puzzle pieces). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated an age-invariant baseline from 1.5 to 3.5 years of age, accompanied by age-related changes in success at copying goals and gestures from a live demonstrator. In Experiment 2, we applied our new task to learning following a video demonstration. Imitation performance in the video demonstration group lagged behind that of the live demonstration group, showing a protracted video deficit effect. Across both experiments, children were more likely to copy gestures at earlier ages, suggesting mimicry, and only later copy both goals and gestures, suggesting imitation. Taken together, the findings suggest that different social learning strategies may predominate in imitation learning dependent upon the degree of object affordance, task novelty, and task complexity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol.

Dickerson K; Gerhardstein P; Zack E; Barr R

2012-07-01

237

Age-related changes in learning across early childhood: A new imitation task.  

Science.gov (United States)

Imitation plays a critical role in social and cognitive development, but the social learning mechanisms contributing to the development of imitation are not well understood. We developed a new imitation task designed to examine social learning mechanisms across the early childhood period. The new task involves assembly of abstract-shaped puzzle pieces in an arbitrary sequence on a magnet board. Additionally, we introduce a new scoring system that extends traditional goal-directed imitation scoring to include measures of both children's success at copying gestures (sliding the puzzle pieces) and goals (connecting the puzzle pieces). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated an age-invariant baseline from 1.5 to 3.5 years of age, accompanied by age-related changes in success at copying goals and gestures from a live demonstrator. In Experiment 2, we applied our new task to learning following a video demonstration. Imitation performance in the video demonstration group lagged behind that of the live demonstration group, showing a protracted video deficit effect. Across both experiments, children were more likely to copy gestures at earlier ages, suggesting mimicry, and only later copy both goals and gestures, suggesting imitation. Taken together, the findings suggest that different social learning strategies may predominate in imitation learning dependent upon the degree of object affordance, task novelty, and task complexity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 55: 719-732, 2013. PMID:22786801

Dickerson, Kelly; Gerhardstein, Peter; Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

2012-07-11

238

Scientific education early in the curriculum using a constructivist approach on learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Physicians need to stay up-to-date with new developments in their field of expertise. This expectation has been made explicit by competency-based educational outcomes in the domain of scholar in the Dutch blueprint. There is a great diversity in teaching methods that aim to achieve a better understanding of scientific knowledge. Applying a constructivist approach to learning in acquiring research competencies we wonder how a research-intensive course is evaluated early in the curriculum and what learning gain students perceive. In a collaborative research-intensive course, the class of 300s-year students rated the quality of 150 preselected randomized controlled trials (RCT) using JAMA Users' Guides, and the pharmaceutical advertisements in which they were referenced. Each student rated two RCTs. Data were analyzed to answer a relevant research question. After the course students completed an evaluation survey. We did this in five consecutive years to capture student experience in relation to fostering a scientific mindset (n = 1,500). In addition we studied outcome of this scientific mindset as scientific output (publications) in journals. Survey data indicate that it is feasible to successfully implement a research-intensive course based on a large cohort using a constructivist paradigm early in the curriculum. Students consider it challenging and report high learning gain in several domains. Aggregated data have even led to four publications in journals. Implementing an active learning research experience early in the curriculum can foster student attitudes, provided the level of difficulty correctly matches the learners' prior knowledge. Further research is required to determine how to improve these active research curricula to maximize impact on learners.

Vereijken MW; Kruidering-Hall M; de Jong PG; de Beaufort AJ; Dekker FW

2013-08-01

239

Neural stages of spoken, written, and signed word processing in beginning second language learners  

Science.gov (United States)

We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine how sensory modality, language type, and language proficiency interact during two fundamental stages of word processing: (1) an early word encoding stage, and (2) a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL) performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2) instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language.

Leonard, Matthew K.; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Halgren, Eric

2013-01-01

240

Neural stages of spoken, written, and signed word processing in beginning second language learners.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

WE COMBINED MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY (MEG) AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) TO EXAMINE HOW SENSORY MODALITY, LANGUAGE TYPE, AND LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY INTERACT DURING TWO FUNDAMENTAL STAGES OF WORD PROCESSING: (1) an early word encoding stage, and (2) a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL) performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2) instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language.

Leonard MK; Ferjan Ramirez N; Torres C; Hatrak M; Mayberry RI; Halgren E

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Editorial: E-learning and knowledge management in the early years: Where are we and where should we go  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

E-learning and knowledge management are increasingly accepted as established practices in the field of early childhood education. Living in the age of Web 2.0, young children can learn through experience, application, and conversation in community, physically or virtually, with peers, parents, teach...

Li, H; Masters, J

242

Learning curve and early clinical outcomes for a robotic surgery novice performing robotic single site cholecystectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A rapid training protocol has been developed for robotic surgery novices to learn robotic single-incision techniques. This study assesses the learning curve and early clinical results for a robotic surgery novice starting single-site cholecystectomy. METHODS: A chart review was performed on the surgeon's first 55 patients to undergo this procedure. RESULTS: Average patient age was 46.01?±?4.25 (range 21-86) years and BMI was 26.57?±?4.25 (range 19.4-36.6) kg/m(2) . The mean port placement with docking time was 11.34?±?3.74 (range 7-23) min. Mean console time was 28.74?±?11.04 (range 15-66) min. Average total OR time was 61.84?±?14.66 (range 40-105) min. All procedures were successfully completed without conversion or added ports. Complications included several minor procedural gall bladder perforations and miscellaneous postoperative symptomatic complaints. CONCLUSION: Robotic single site cholecystectomy can be safely performed by a robotic novice within a minimal learning curve and have early clinical results that are comparable to the published data of robotic experts. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Angus AA; Sahi SL; McIntosh BB

2013-09-01

243

Clustering words  

CERN Document Server

We characterize words which cluster under the Burrows-Wheeler transform as those words $w$ such that $ww$ occurs in a trajectory of an interval exchange transformation, and build examples of clustering words.

Ferenczi, Sébastien

2012-01-01

244

Signal Words  

Science.gov (United States)

1 SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC is a cooperative agreement between Oregon State University and the U.S. Environmental ... the position of the U.S. EPA. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product ...

245

PLAYING WITH WORDS: A STUDY ON WORD ASSOCIATION RESPONSES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Word association is one of the major subjects studied in linguistics, psychology and psycholinguistics. According to Richards et al. (1985) word association is a way in which words come to be associated with each other and which influence the learning and remembering of words. The aim of this study is to investigate word associations of elementary and advanced level EFL learners through a 20-item Word Association Test in order to see whether there are differences or similarities between the results of the students in these groups. The results of the study suggested that EFL learners try to use a wide range of word association techniques and the proficiency level of the students have partial effect on their use of word associations.

?lknur ?ST?FÇ?

2010-01-01

246

Toward a Model for Early Childhood Environmental Education: Foregrounding, Developing, and Connecting Knowledge through Play-Based Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental education represents a growing area of interest in early childhood education, especially since the inclusion of environmental principles and practices in the Australian Early Years Learning Framework. Traditionally, these two fields of education have been characterized by diverse pedagogical emphases. This article considers how…

Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Susan

2013-01-01

247

Toward a Model for Early Childhood Environmental Education: Foregrounding, Developing, and Connecting Knowledge through Play-Based Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

|Environmental education represents a growing area of interest in early childhood education, especially since the inclusion of environmental principles and practices in the Australian Early Years Learning Framework. Traditionally, these two fields of education have been characterized by diverse pedagogical emphases. This article considers how…

Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Susan

2013-01-01

248

Family-School Connections, Early Learning, and Socioeconomic Inequality in the US  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Policy interest in parental involvement in the U.S. has rapidly grown, necessitating a deeper understanding of how families and schools can partner to promote learning and reduce performance disparities in this country. Matching multidisciplinary theory with growth curve analyses of American children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal StudyKindergarten Cohort, this study found that familyschool engagement (in which school personnel and parents reached out to each other) and familyschool symmetry (in which parents and teachers constructed parallel learning environments) were associated with greater reading gains during the primary grades. Socioeconomically disadvantaged children appeared more at risk from one-sided engagement, and their more advantaged peers appeared to benefit more from symmetry.

Robert Crosnoe

2012-01-01

249

WordPress Bible  

CERN Multimedia

Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

Brazell, Aaron

2011-01-01

250

Lexical retrieval stages of momentarily inaccessible foreign language words Lexical retrieval stages of momentarily inaccessible foreign language words  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The acquisition of foreign language (FL) vocabulary involves two aspects: (1) learning to recognize a word’s meaning, and (2) becoming able to retrieve or produce the word’s form in speech production. The second aspect usually takes more time and practice to be developed. While learners may have no problem understanding a FL word’s meaning, they frequently are unable to recall the word when necessary. The acquisition of foreign language (FL) vocabulary involves two aspects: (1) learning to recognize a word’s meaning, and (2) becoming able to retrieve or produce the word’s form in speech production. The second aspect usually takes more time and practice to be developed. While learners may have no problem understanding a FL word’s meaning, they frequently are unable to recall the word when necessary.

Peter Ecke; Merril F. Garrett

2008-01-01

251

Learning curve for laparoscopic staging of early and locally advanced cervical and endometrial cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic staging is rapidly evolving as an important surgical approach in the field of gynecology oncology. However, the specific learning curve associated with this approach remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the learning curve for laparoscopic staging of uterine cancers. METHODS: A series of 28 consecutive laparoscopic hysterectomies with or without pelvic and/or para-aortic lymph node sampling for the treatment of early and locally advanced endometrial or cervical cancer were performed between July 2008 and January 2011. The analyses of the learning curves of the institution were performed for 20 patients who had undergone pelvic lymphadenectomy and/or para-aortal lymph node sampling. The learning curve period has also been compared with the last 26 patients who received laparotomy staging ("open" group) due to the same diagnosis and by the same surgical team. To assess the short- and long-term outcomes, we used validated questionnaires to record the clinical and follow-up results, any complaints or subjective reports from the patients, and details of their quality of life. All data were collected prospectively in a database and reviewed retrospectively. The learning was evaluated using the cumulative sum (CUSUM) method. RESULTS: The CUSUM learning curve consisted of two distinct phases: phase 1 (the initial 9 cases) and phase 2 (the subsequent cases) which presented the mastery phase, with the operative time of 397.7 ± 63.5 versus 300.6 ± 19.4 min (p < 0.0001). The significance of the difference between the two phases and "open" group changed in terms of number of lymph nodes retrieved, intra-operative blood loss and hospital stay. The conversion rate of phase 1 was higher than phase 2 [2 (22.2 %) respectively 1 (9 %)]. CONCLUSIONS: This series confirms previous study findings concerning the feasibility and the safety of laparoscopic staging and provides information for surgeons in single centers considering adopting an endoscopic strategy to monitor the different aspects of outcomes during the implementation process for internal benchmarking. The operative outcome of laparoscopic staging intervention improves with experience. The data reported in this article suggest that after a learning curve of 9 patients, a relevant improvement at least regarding the duration of the operation can be achieved for experienced surgeons who start performing laparoscopic staging of uterine cancers. However, due to the limited number of patients as well as number of para-aortic lymph node sampling procedures, further studies are required for firm conclusions to be drawn.

Tahmasbi Rad M; Wallwiener M; Rom J; Sohn C; Eichbaum M

2013-09-01

252

Intelligent Guided E-Learning Systems for Early Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a burgeoning need to consider new ways of providing early educational services for young and often newly diagnosed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their families. Such children do not respond naturally to linear curricular delivery, normally utilized in inclusive classrooms that predominate public education, but rather need an educational model incorporating intra and interpersonal development skills. In addition, there is an urgent need for the ability of keeping track of and addressing uneven progress in specific areas; characteristic of learners with ASD. It is suggested that a new curricular model be designed that integrates the advantages of e-learning for data management and communication exchange with the inclusion classroom learning. A multi-disciplinary approach to the problem has lead to the proposal of an alternate model using an Intelligent Guided E-Learning System, which can be of benefit to such learners, their parents, and their teachers. This system utilizes a Knowledge Representation model that incorporates the complex multidisciplinary data related with ASD, along with curricular information as well as other Artificial Intelligence techniques that guide the curriculum in a simple and directed, yet evolving, manner such that the complexity increases as the learner with ASD's understanding progresses.

Alma Barranco-Mendoza; E. Christina Belcher; Kenneth A. Pudlas; Deryck R. Persaud

2008-01-01

253

An improved method of early diagnosis of smoking-induced respiratory changes using machine learning algorithms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic classifier to increase the accuracy of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) for diagnosing early respiratory abnormalities in smoking patients. The data consisted of FOT parameters obtained from 56 volunteers, 28 healthy and 28 smokers with low tobacco consumption. Many supervised learning techniques were investigated, including logistic linear classifiers, k nearest neighbor (KNN), neural networks and support vector machines (SVM). To evaluate performance, the ROC curve of the most accurate parameter was established as baseline. To determine the best input features and classifier parameters, we used genetic algorithms and a 10-fold cross-validation using the average area under the ROC curve (AUC). In the first experiment, the original FOT parameters were used as input. We observed a significant improvement in accuracy (KNN=0.89 and SVM=0.87) compared with the baseline (0.77). The second experiment performed a feature selection on the original FOT parameters. This selection did not cause any significant improvement in accuracy, but it was useful in identifying more adequate FOT parameters. In the third experiment, we performed a feature selection on the cross products of the FOT parameters. This selection resulted in a further increase in AUC (KNN=SVM=0.91), which allows for high diagnostic accuracy. In conclusion, machine learning classifiers can help identify early smoking-induced respiratory alterations. The use of FOT cross products and the search for the best features and classifier parameters can markedly improve the performance of machine learning classifiers.

Amaral JL; Lopes AJ; Jansen JM; Faria AC; Melo PL

2013-08-01

254

Bootstrapping word order in prelexical infants: a Japanese-Italian cross-linguistic study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Learning word order is one of the earliest feats infants accomplish during language acquisition [Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.]. Two theories have been proposed to account for this fact. Constructivist/lexicalist theories [Tomasello, M. (2000). Do young children have adult syntactic competence? Cognition, 74(3), 209-253.] argue that word order is learned separately for each lexical item or construction. Generativist theories [Chomsky, N. (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.], on the other hand, claim that word order is an abstract and general property, determined from the input independently of individual words. Here, we show that eight-month-old Japanese and Italian infants have opposite order preferences in an artificial grammar experiment, mirroring the opposite word orders of their respective native languages. This suggests that infants possess some representation of word order prelexically, arguing for the generativist view. We propose a frequency-based bootstrapping mechanism to account for our results, arguing that infants might build this representation by tracking the order of functors and content words, identified through their different frequency distributions. We investigate frequency and word order patterns in infant-directed Japanese and Italian corpora to support this claim.

Gervain J; Nespor M; Mazuka R; Horie R; Mehler J

2008-08-01

255

Specialization for written words over objects in the visual cortex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) is part of the left ventral visual stream that underlies the invariant identification of visual words. It remains debated whether this region is truly selective for words relative to common objects; why this particular part of the visual system is reproducibly engaged in reading; and whether reading expertise also relies on perceptual learning within earlier visual areas. In this fMRI study we matched written words and line-drawings of objects in luminance, contour length and number of features. We then compared them to control images made by scrambling procedures that kept local features intact. Greater responses to written words than to objects were found not only in the VWFA, but also in areas V1/V2 and V3v/V4. Furthermore, by contrasting stimuli reduced either to line junctions (vertices) or to line midsegments, we showed that the VWFA partially overlaps with regions of ventral visual cortex particularly sensitive to the presence of line junctions that are useful for object recognition. Our results indicate that preferential processing of written words can be observed at multiple levels of the visual system. It is possible that responses in early visual areas might be due to some remaining differences between words and controls not eliminated in the present stimuli. However, our results concur with recent comparisons of literates and illiterates and suggest that these early visual activations reflect the effects of perceptual learning under pressure for fast, parallel processing that is more prominent in reading than other visual cognitive processes.

Szwed M; Dehaene S; Kleinschmidt A; Eger E; Valabrègue R; Amadon A; Cohen L

2011-05-01

256

The revised 'Early Learning in Medicine' curriculum at the University of Otago--focusing on students, patients, and community.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes recent changes to years 2 and 3 of undergraduate medical education at the University of Otago, now termed 'Early Learning in Medicine'. These changes focus on learning that is contextually relevant, student centred, horizontally and vertically integrated, and community based. Three new programmes have been introduced to the course; Integrated Cases, Clinical Skills, and Healthcare in the Community. Innovative teaching and learning activities have been implemented to prepare students for a greater level of interaction with patients, carers, health professionals, and community organisations. This curriculum also aims to increase the relevance of their theoretical learning within and across years, and foster an early appreciation of professional responsibilities. Challenges to facilitating this direction are described and framed by an evolutionary approach that builds upon the strong features of the previous course. PMID:19448775

Perez, David; Rudland, Joy R; Wilson, Hamish; Roberton, Gayle; Gerrard, David; Wheatley, Antony

2009-04-03

257

The revised 'Early Learning in Medicine' curriculum at the University of Otago--focusing on students, patients, and community.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes recent changes to years 2 and 3 of undergraduate medical education at the University of Otago, now termed 'Early Learning in Medicine'. These changes focus on learning that is contextually relevant, student centred, horizontally and vertically integrated, and community based. Three new programmes have been introduced to the course; Integrated Cases, Clinical Skills, and Healthcare in the Community. Innovative teaching and learning activities have been implemented to prepare students for a greater level of interaction with patients, carers, health professionals, and community organisations. This curriculum also aims to increase the relevance of their theoretical learning within and across years, and foster an early appreciation of professional responsibilities. Challenges to facilitating this direction are described and framed by an evolutionary approach that builds upon the strong features of the previous course.

Perez D; Rudland JR; Wilson H; Roberton G; Gerrard D; Wheatley A

2009-04-01

258

Is Banara Really a Word?  

Science.gov (United States)

Bowers, Davis, and Hanley (Bowers, J. S., Davis, C. J., & Hanley, D. A. (2005). "Interfering neighbours: The impact of novel word learning on the identification of visually similar words." "Cognition," 97(3), B45-B54) reported that if participants were trained to type nonwords such as "banara", subsequent semantic categorization responses to…

Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth; Witzel, Naoko

2009-01-01

259

Is banara really a word?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bowers, Davis, and Hanley (Bowers, J. S., Davis, C. J., & Hanley, D. A. (2005). Interfering neighbours: The impact of novel word learning on the identification of visually similar words. Cognition, 97(3), B45-B54) reported that if participants were trained to type nonwords such as banara, subsequent semantic categorization responses to similar words such as banana were delayed. This was taken as direct experimental support for a process of lexical competition during word recognition. This interpretation assumes that banara has been lexicalized, which predicts that masked form priming for items such as banara-banana should be reduced or eliminated. An experiment is reported showing that the trained novel words produced the same amount of priming as untrained nonwords on both the first and the second day of training, suggesting that the interference observed by Bowers et al was not due to word-on-word competition.

Qiao X; Forster K; Witzel N

2009-11-01

260

Editorial: E-learning and Knowledge Management in the Early Years: Where Are We and Where Should We Go  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-learning and knowledge management are increasingly accepted as established practices in the field of early childhood education. Living in the age of Web 2.0, young children can learn through experience, application, and conversation in community, physically or virtually, with peers, parents, teachers, and other adults, beyond the classroom and across the media. These concepts are of growing interest in communities of practice and knowledge networks. Although most early childhood educators recognize and practice some kinds of e-learning, most have yet to master the basic theory and practice of knowledge management. What does e-learning mean for young children? How do we apply knowledge management in early childhood setting? These questions are of great importance and a special collection such as this issue will be beneficial to take stock of the ongoing practices as well as to explore future directions in the field. This issue will combine knowledge management and e-learning with early childhood education to provide a valuable arena for the discussion and dissemination of this topic and related studies.

Hui Li; Jennifer Masters

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Defining Middle English and Early Modern English medical words and phrases in the headwords of Dictionary of Medical Vocabulary in English, 1375-1550: Presented at Subject Lexicography session  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper I would present at the conference deals with the problems encountered in the defining of Middle English and Early Modern English medical words and phrases. The lexemes discussed are among the headwords in my Dictionary of Medical Vocabulary in English, 1375-1550, a long-term proje...

Norri, Juhani

262

Early maternal deprivation affects dentate gyrus structure and emotional learning in adult female rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE: Stress elicits functional and structural changes in the hippocampus. Early life stress is one of the major risk factors for stress-related pathologies like depression. Patients suffering from depression show a reduced hippocampal volume, and in women, this occurs more often when depression is preceded by childhood trauma. However, the underlying mechanisms that account for a reduced hippocampal volume are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of maternal absence on structure and function of the hippocampus in female offspring. METHODS: We studied whether 24 h of maternal deprivation (MD) on postnatal day 3 altered adult neurogenesis, individual neuronal morphology and dentate gyrus (DG) structure in young adult female rats. In addition, functional alterations were addressed by studying synaptic plasticity in vitro, and spatial as well as emotional learning was tested. RESULTS: Adult females that were subjected to MD revealed significant reductions in DG granule cell number and density. In addition, DG neurons were altered in their dendritic arrangement. No effects on the rate of adult neurogenesis were found. Furthermore, MD did not alter synaptic plasticity in vitro, neither under normal nor high-stress conditions. In addition, spatial learning and contextual fear conditioning were comparable between control and MD animals. However, MD animals showed an improved amygdala-dependent fear memory. CONCLUSION: Although early life stress exposure did not impair hippocampus-dependent functioning in female offspring, it irreversibly affected DG structure by reducing cell numbers. This may be relevant for the reduced hippocampal volume observed in depression and the increased vulnerability of women to develop depression.

Oomen CA; Soeters H; Audureau N; Vermunt L; van Hasselt FN; Manders EM; Joëls M; Krugers H; Lucassen PJ

2011-03-01

263

Constraints on the Meanings of Words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between their second and fifth years, young children learn approximately 15 new words a day. For every word the child hears, he or she must choose the correct referent out of an infinite set of candidates. An important problem for developmental psychologists is to understand the principles that limit the child's hypotheses about word meanings. A…

Soja, N.; And Others

264

Learning a "New Language"--The Objective Approach to Early Literacy in English  

Science.gov (United States)

|Published research shows that English speakers gain literacy skills up to the 7-year level more effectively when taught using a language experience approach rather than a word reading approach (reading common words plus phonic reading). It is suggested that this is because of the almost unique nature of English phonology, that is the…

Ashbrook, John

2010-01-01

265

Early Sound Patterns in the Speech of Two Brazilian Portuguese Speakers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares sound patterns in the speech of two Brazilian-Portuguese speaking children with early production patterns in English-learning children as well as English and Brazilian-Portuguese characteristics. Results emphasize the primacy of production system effects in early acquisition, although even the earliest word forms show evidence of…

Teixeira, Elizabeth Reis; Davis, Barbara L.

2002-01-01

266

Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards Alignment with Wisconsin Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

Wisconsin's adoption of the Common Core State Standards provides an excellent opportunity for Wisconsin school districts and communities to define expectations from birth through preparation for college and work. By aligning the existing Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards with the Wisconsin Common Core State Standards, expectations can be…

Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

267

Australian Children with Special Health Care Needs: Social-Emotional and Learning Competencies in the Early Years  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationship between special health care needs and social-emotional and learning competence in the early years, reporting on two waves of data from the Kindergarten Cohort of "Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children" (LSAC). Six hundred and fifty children were identified through the…

Whiteford, Chrystal; Walker, Sue; Berthelsen, Donna

2013-01-01

268

Student Learning of Early Embryonic Development via the Utilization of Research Resources from the Nematode "Caenorhabditis elegans"  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to gain insights into undergraduate students' understanding of early embryonic development, specifically, how well they comprehend the concepts of volume constancy, cell lineages, body plan axes, and temporal and spatial dimensionality in development. To study student learning, a curriculum was developed incorporating…

Lu, Fong-Mei; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Squirrell, Jayne M.; White, John G.; Stewart, James

2008-01-01

269

Children's Learning and Developmental Potential: Examining the Theoretical Informants of Early Childhood Curricula from the Educator's Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

The early childhood curriculum is informed by a complicated array of developmental and learning theories. In recent times these theories have been most readily articulated in approaches to curriculum planning emerging from the Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) guidelines and the project work in Reggio Emilia. Drawing on a common…

Edwards, Suzy

2005-01-01

270

Applied Explanatory Style, Self-Esteem, and Early-Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: An Informational Website for Helping Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 2.6 million students are diagnosed with a learning disability (LD) in the United States. There are many negative psychological and psychosocial consequences that can be attributed to having a LD, including a decrease in self- esteem. Low self-esteem has been shown to be liked to depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety. Early

Saks, Brian C.

2010-01-01

271

Australian Children with Special Health Care Needs: Social-Emotional and Learning Competencies in the Early Years  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study examined the relationship between special health care needs and social-emotional and learning competence in the early years, reporting on two waves of data from the Kindergarten Cohort of "Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children" (LSAC). Six hundred and fifty children were identified through the…

Whiteford, Chrystal; Walker, Sue; Berthelsen, Donna

2013-01-01

272

Authentic early experience in Medical Education: a socio-cultural analysis identifying important variables in learning interactions within workplaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the question 'what are the variables influencing social interactions and learning during Authentic Early Experience (AEE)?' AEE is a complex educational intervention for new medical students. Following critique of the existing literature, multiple qualitative methods were used to create a study framework conceptually orientated to a socio-cultural perspective. Study participants were recruited from three groups at one UK medical school: students, workplace supervisors, and medical school faculty. A series of intersecting spectra identified in the data describe dyadic variables that make explicit the parameters within which social interactions are conducted in this setting. Four of the spectra describe social processes related to being in workplaces and developing the ability to manage interactions during authentic early experiences. These are: (1) legitimacy expressed through invited participation or exclusion; (2) finding a role-a spectrum from student identity to doctor mindset; (3) personal perspectives and discomfort in transition from lay to medical; and, (4) taking responsibility for 'risk'-moving from aversion to management through graded progression of responsibility. Four further spectra describe educational consequences of social interactions. These spectra identify how the reality of learning is shaped through social interactions and are (1) generic-specific objectives, (2) parallel-integrated-learning, (3) context specific-transferable learning and (4) performing or simulating-reality. Attention to these variables is important if educators are to maximise constructive learning from AEE. Application of each of the spectra could assist workplace supervisors to maximise the positive learning potential of specific workplaces. PMID:23212811

Yardley, Sarah; Brosnan, Caragh; Richardson, Jane; Hays, Richard

2012-12-01

273

Authentic early experience in Medical Education: a socio-cultural analysis identifying important variables in learning interactions within workplaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper addresses the question 'what are the variables influencing social interactions and learning during Authentic Early Experience (AEE)?' AEE is a complex educational intervention for new medical students. Following critique of the existing literature, multiple qualitative methods were used to create a study framework conceptually orientated to a socio-cultural perspective. Study participants were recruited from three groups at one UK medical school: students, workplace supervisors, and medical school faculty. A series of intersecting spectra identified in the data describe dyadic variables that make explicit the parameters within which social interactions are conducted in this setting. Four of the spectra describe social processes related to being in workplaces and developing the ability to manage interactions during authentic early experiences. These are: (1) legitimacy expressed through invited participation or exclusion; (2) finding a role-a spectrum from student identity to doctor mindset; (3) personal perspectives and discomfort in transition from lay to medical; and, (4) taking responsibility for 'risk'-moving from aversion to management through graded progression of responsibility. Four further spectra describe educational consequences of social interactions. These spectra identify how the reality of learning is shaped through social interactions and are (1) generic-specific objectives, (2) parallel-integrated-learning, (3) context specific-transferable learning and (4) performing or simulating-reality. Attention to these variables is important if educators are to maximise constructive learning from AEE. Application of each of the spectra could assist workplace supervisors to maximise the positive learning potential of specific workplaces.

Yardley S; Brosnan C; Richardson J; Hays R

2012-12-01

274

The Computation of Word Associations:  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is shown that basic language processes suchas the production of free word associations andthe generation of synonyms can be simulatedusing statistical models that analyze the distributionof words in large text corpora. Accordingto the law of association by contiguity, theacquisition of word associations can be explainedby Hebbian learning. The free word associationsas produced by subjects on presentationof single stimulus words can thus be predictedby applying first-order statistics to thefrequencies of word co-occurrences as observedin texts. The generation of synonyms can alsobe conducted on co-occurrence data but requiressecond-order statistics. The reason is thatsynonyms rarely occur together but appear insimilar lexical neighborhoods. Both approachesare systematically compared and are validatedon empirical data. It turns out that for bothtasks the performance of the statistical system iscomparable to the performance of human subjects.

275

WordEdge® A Career Mobility Guide to High Speed Dictionary-Based Electronic Learning and Testing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As Thomas Kuhn taught us, misery loves innovation even more than company. Small wonder our recession worriers — and who isn’t one these days, directly or indirectly? — are desperately looking for new and practical ways to increase their job mobility. Statistically considered, since most unskilled jobs are already filled, jobseekers from shrinking fields of employment are being advised to broaden their search to include entry level jobs in new high tech fields that are either stable or expanding, e.g., health care.Let’s grant that each high tech field has its own hands-on skills. But it’s also true that each field, e.g., plumbing, has its own high tech vocabulary which each candidate for employment is expected to know or learn, including correct pronunciation, very much like an aspiring restaurant server learning the complete menu by heart. Hence the desirability of acquiring preliminary mastery of an employment field’s high tech vocabulary well in ADVANCE of the first interview, not in a panicky last minute cram session. Until recently, the only way we could acquire a preliminary mastery of, say, health care terms was to take a course (inconvenient and expensive) or to study a specific-field booklet (usually limited inscope). Today, however, our current partnership between print dictionaries and their electronic versions gives any job candidate quick access to an amazingly efficient learning tool for masteringa wide range of high tech vocabularies in current use. Here’s the why and how of our dictionary-based learning and testing route.

Robert Oliphant

2009-01-01

276

Words as invitations to form categories: evidence from 12- to 13-month-old infants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent research has documented specific linkages between language and conceptual organization in the developing child. However, most of the evidence for these linkages derives from children who have made significant linguistic and conceptual advances. We therefore focus on the emergence of one particular linkage--the noun-category linkage--in infants at the early stages of lexical acquisition. We propose that when infants embark upon the process of lexical acquisition, they are initially biased to interpret a word applied to an object as referring to that object and to other members of its kind. We further propose that this initial expectation will become increasingly specific over development, as infants begin to distinguish among the grammatical categories as they are marked in their native language and assign them more specific types of meaning. To test this hypothesis, we conducted three experiments using a modified novelty-preference paradigm to reveal whether and how novel words influence object categorization in 12- to 13-month old infants. The data reveal that a linkage between words and object categories emerges early enough to serve as a guide in infants' efforts to map words to meanings. Both nouns and adjectives focused infants' attention on object categories, particularly at the superordinate level. Further, infants' progress in early word learning was associated with their appreciation of this linkage between words and object categories. These results are interpreted within a developmental and cross-linguistic account of the emergence of linkages between linguistic and conceptual organization.

Waxman SR; Markow DB

1995-12-01

277

Words in discourse: a dialectical approach to the acquisition of meaning and use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Word learning by young children is viewed as a problem of deriving meaning from the use of forms in discourse contexts. Uses of causal and temporal terms in private speech by a child studied longitudinally from 1;9 to 3;0 are analysed from this perspective. Evidence is presented that words are first constrained to uses in specific discourse contexts, and later used more flexibly and with greater control over the semantics of the terms. Derivation of meaning from discourse is described as a dialectical process, and as such it is claimed to be more consistent with the full range of observational data, and with theories of word learning applicable to older children and adults, than other current theories of lexical acquisition in early childhood.

Levy E; Nelson K

1994-06-01

278

The role of words in cognitive tasks: what, when, and how?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current review focuses on how exposure to linguistic input, and count nouns in particular, affect performance on various cognitive tasks, including individuation, categorization and category learning, and inductive inference. We review two theoretical accounts of effects of words. Proponents of one account argue that words have top-down effects on cognitive tasks, and, as such, function as supervisory signals. Proponents of the other account suggest that early in development, words, just like any other perceptual feature, are first and foremost part of the stimulus input and influence cognitive tasks in a bottom-up, non-supervisory fashion. We then review evidence supporting each account. We conclude that, although much research is needed, there is a large body of evidence indicating that words start out like other perceptual features and become supervisory signals in the course of development.

Robinson CW; Best CA; Deng WS; Sloutsky VM

2012-01-01

279

Assessment and stability of early learning abilities in preterm and full-term infants across the first two years of life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infants born preterm have increased risk for learning disabilities yet we lack assessments to successfully detect these disabilities in early life. We followed 23 full-term and 29 preterm infants from birth through 24 months to assess for differences in and stability of learning abilities across time. Measures included the Bayley-III cognitive subscale, the mobile paradigm assessment, and a means-end learning assessment. Preterm infants had poorer performance on measures of cognition and learning across the first two years of life. Learning performance at 3-4 months was consistent with learning performance at 12-24 months of age. At 3-4 months, the mobile paradigm had better sensitivity and predictive values for predicting 24-month cognitive delays on the Bayley-III than did the Bayley-III itself. At 12-18 months, the means-end learning assessment had better sensitivity than the Bayley-III for identifying 24-month cognitive delays on the Bayley-III. The results suggest that: (1) infants born preterm may demonstrate learning differences as early as the first few months of life, (2) learning differences identified in the first months of life are likely to persist throughout the second year of life, and (3) learning assessments that measure how infants and toddlers use their typical behaviors to problem-solve to control external events may be more effective than traditional standardized assessment tools for detecting early learning delays.

Lobo MA; Galloway JC

2013-05-01

280

Learning Pronunciation Rules  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a technique for learning pronunciation rules based on the Version Space algorithm. In particular,we describe how to learn pronunciation rules for a representative subset of the English graphemes. Wepresent a learning procedure called LEP-G.1 (learning to pronounce English graphemes) that learns Englishpronunciation rules from examples in the form of word-pronunciation pairs. With our approach, we cantranslate not only English words in dictionaries, but also new words such as tuple, pixel, and deque whichare not found in dictionaries. An experiment where LEP-G.1 learned pronunciation rules for 12 graphemesstrongly suggests that learning the other possible 52 graphemes in English is feasible.

English Graphemes; Howard J. Hamilton

 
 
 
 
281

Early Contingency Learning and Child and Teacher Concomitant Social–Emotional Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The value-added benefits of young children’s response-contingent learning were examined in a study of three children (2 females, 1 male) with multiple disabilities and profound developmental delays. Contingency learning games were used to increase child operant responding, and both the children’s and their teachers’ concomitant social–emotional behavior associated with operant responding were mapped onto child learning. Results showed that the learning games promoted child learning and that collateral child and teacher behavior were predictably associated with operant responding. The manner in which the findings extend the results from previous research are described.

Melinda Raab; Carl J. Dunst; Linda L. Wilson; Cindy Parkey

2009-01-01

282

Lexical retrieval stages of momentarily inaccessible foreign language words1 Lexical retrieval stages of momentarily inaccessible foreign language words1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The acquisition of foreign language (FL) vocabulary involves two aspects: (1) learning to recognize a word’s meaning, and (2) becoming able to retrieve or produce the word’s form in speech production. The second aspect usually takes more time and practice to be developed. While learners may have no problem understanding a FL word’s meaning, they frequently are unable to recall the word when necessary. Probably the most frustrating form of word retrieval failures is the so-called tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon: Sometimes we look for a certain word or phrase which we feel we know but at the time cannot find and articulate it. The acquisition of foreign language (FL) vocabulary involves two aspects: (1) learning to recognize a word’s meaning, and (2) becoming able to retrieve or produce the word’s form in speech production. The second aspect usually takes more time and practice to be developed. While learners may have no problem understanding a FL word’s meaning, they frequently are unable to recall the word when necessary. Probably the most frustrating form of word retrieval failures is the so-called tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon: Sometimes we look for a certain word or phrase which we feel we know but at the time cannot find and articulate it.

Peter Ecke; Merrill F. Garrett

2008-01-01

283

Teach yourself visually Word 2013  

CERN Document Server

Get up to speed on the newest version of Word with visual instruction Microsoft Word is the standard for word processing programs, and the newest version offers additional functionality you'll want to use. Get up to speed quickly and easily with the step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots in this popular guide! You'll see how to perform dozens of tasks, including how to set up and format documents and text; work with diagrams, charts, and pictures; use Mail Merge; post documents online; and much more. Easy-to-follow, two-page lessons make learning a snap.Full-

Marmel, Elaine

2013-01-01

284

Microsoft Word 2010 Digital Classroom  

CERN Multimedia

The perfect book-and-video training package for Word 2010! This Word 2010 book-and-video training package-from the same professional training experts who also create many training materials for Adobe Systems-is like having your own personal instructor guiding you through each lesson, but you work at your own pace! The full-color ebook includes 8 lessons that teach you the new features and quirks of Microsoft Word 2010. Each lesson includes step-by-step instructions and lesson files, and provides valuable video tutorials that complement what you're learning and clearly demonstr

Team, Training

2011-01-01

285

Bootstrapping word alignment via word packing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce a simple method to pack words for statistical word alignment. Our goal is to simplify the task of automatic word alignment by packing several consecutive words together when we believe they correspond to a single word in the opposite language. This is done using the word aligner itself,...

Ma, Yanjun; Stroppa, Nicolas; Way, Andy

286

Historical education in Portugal: learning goals in the early years of schooling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Learning Outcomes Project for K-Basic Schooling recently carried out in Portugal intended to produce a set of learning outcomes for each curriculum subject matter or area. It has aimed to provide a set of useful tools to the teaching process, thus promoting student achievement. With respect to the History Learning Outcomes, their team got inspiration in relevant empirical studies on situated historical cognition grounded on recent epistemological perspectives concerning history. Under this framework, this paper discusses some of the “History Learning Outcomes” for K-Cycle 1 (3-10 year-olders), seen as significant in the light of historical thinking and consciousness.

Isabel Barca; Gloria Solé

2012-01-01

287

76 FR 53563 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

...Priority--Sustaining Program Effects in the Early Elementary Grades. The Departments are particularly interested...Assessment that informs instruction and services in the early elementary grades and that-- (a) Is aligned with the...

2011-08-26

288

A Mobile-Device-Supported Peer-Assisted Learning System for Collaborative Early EFL Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Collaborative learning methods which emphasize peer interaction have been widely applied to increase the intensity and effectiveness of EFL reading programs. However, simply grouping students heterogeneously and assigning them group goals does not guarantee that effective collaborative learning will ensue. The present research includes two…

Lan, Yu-Ju; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

2007-01-01

289

MATLAB in Early Undergraduate Mathematics: An Investigation into the Effects of Scientific Software on Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an investigation into the effects of introducing scientific software into the learning experience of a large and diverse first year university mathematics class on attitudes and learning. Confirms the affective potential of this kind of technology. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/ASK)

Cretchley, Patricia; Harman, Chris; Ellerton, Nerida; Fogarty, Gerard

2000-01-01

290

Movement and Learning in the Early Years: Supporting Dyspraxia (DCD) and Other Difficulties  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is written to support parents and practitioners who wish to understand movement and how it contributes to all aspects of learning--intellectual, social and emotional, as well as the movement/motor aspect itself. Moreover, as there is a huge increase in the number of children with movement learning difficulties (Keen, 2001), that is…

Macintrye, Christine; McVitty, Kim

2004-01-01

291

Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog  

CERN Multimedia

Smashing WordPress shows you how to utilize the power of the WordPress platform, and provides a creative spark to help you build WordPress-powered sites that go beyond the obvious. The second edition of Smashing WordPress has been updated for WordPress 3.1+, which includes internal, custom post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to build just about anything in WordPress, resulting in fast deployments and greater design flexib

Hedengren, Thord Daniel

2011-01-01

292

The early bee catches the flower - circadian rhythmicity influences learning performance in honey bees, Apis mellifera  

Science.gov (United States)

Circadian rhythmicity plays an important role for many aspects of honey bees’ lives. However, the question whether it also affects learning and memory remained unanswered. To address this question, we studied the effect of circadian timing on olfactory learning and memory in honey bees Apis mellifera using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex paradigm. Bees were differentially conditioned to odours and tested for their odour learning at four different “Zeitgeber” time points. We show that learning behaviour is influenced by circadian timing. Honey bees perform best in the morning compared to the other times of day. Additionally, we found influences of the light condition bees were trained at on the olfactory learning. This circadian-mediated learning is independent from feeding times bees were entrained to, indicating an inherited and not acquired mechanism. We hypothesise that a co-evolutionary mechanism between the honey bee as a pollinator and plants might be the driving force for the evolution of the time-dependent learning abilities of bees. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00265-010-1026-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Lehmann, Marina; Gustav, David

2010-01-01

293

Smell, learn and live: the role of chemical alarm cues in predator learning during early life history in a marine fish.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The speed with which individuals can learn to identify and react appropriately to predation threats when transitioning to new life history stages and habitats will influence their survival. This study investigated the role of chemical alarm cues in both anti-predator responses and predator identification during a transitional period in a newly settled coral reef damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. Individuals were tested for changes in seven behavioural traits in response to conspecific and heterospecific skin extracts. Additionally, we tested whether fish could learn to associate a previously novel chemical cue (i.e. simulated predator scent) with danger, after previously being exposed to a paired cue combining the conspecific skin extract with the novel scent. Fish exposed to conspecific skin extracts were found to significantly decreased their feeding rate whilst those exposed to heterospecific and control cues showed no change. Individuals were also able to associate a previously novel scent with danger after only a single previous exposure to the paired conspecific skin extract/novel scent cue. Our results indicate that chemical alarm cues play a large role in both threat detection and learned predator recognition during the early post-settlement period in coral reef fishes.

Holmes TH; McCormick MI

2010-03-01

294

Smell, learn and live: the role of chemical alarm cues in predator learning during early life history in a marine fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

The speed with which individuals can learn to identify and react appropriately to predation threats when transitioning to new life history stages and habitats will influence their survival. This study investigated the role of chemical alarm cues in both anti-predator responses and predator identification during a transitional period in a newly settled coral reef damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. Individuals were tested for changes in seven behavioural traits in response to conspecific and heterospecific skin extracts. Additionally, we tested whether fish could learn to associate a previously novel chemical cue (i.e. simulated predator scent) with danger, after previously being exposed to a paired cue combining the conspecific skin extract with the novel scent. Fish exposed to conspecific skin extracts were found to significantly decreased their feeding rate whilst those exposed to heterospecific and control cues showed no change. Individuals were also able to associate a previously novel scent with danger after only a single previous exposure to the paired conspecific skin extract/novel scent cue. Our results indicate that chemical alarm cues play a large role in both threat detection and learned predator recognition during the early post-settlement period in coral reef fishes. PMID:20117187

Holmes, Thomas H; McCormick, Mark I

2010-02-01

295

Text Classification Using WordNet Hypernyms  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes experiments in MachineLearning for text classification using a newrepresentation of text based on WordNethypemyms. Six binary classification tasks ofvarying difficulty are defined, and the Rippersystem is used to produce discrimination rulesfor each task using the new hypernym densityrepresentation. Rules are also produced with thecommonly used bag-of-words representation,incorporating no knowledge from WordNet.

Sam Scott

296

Dark and light rearing during early postnatal life impairs spatial learning of rats in Morris water maze  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In early postnatal life, sensory-driven processes deeply affect structure and function of sensory cortices. Because some visual signals pass from visual cortex to the hippocampal formation, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of change in visual experience on rat’s spatial learning and memory. This experimental study was carried out on 30 Wistar male rats (45 days old) which were randomly distributed into 3 groups; the CO (Control group) was in 12 light/12 dark cycle through birth to the end of the study, the LR (Light Reared) group was in complete lightness and the DR (Dark Reared) group was in complete darkness (n=10 for each). Using MWM (Morris Water Maze), the animals learned to find a hidden platform for 4 trials per day during 5 days. After removing the platform, spatial memory was tested at day 5 in one trial (probe trial). Our results indicated that in the learning stage, the CO rats spent less time and distance to find the hidden platform than the other groups. There was no difference between all groups in probe trial. Change in visual experience impairs spatial learning of rats in Morris water maze and their spatial memory formation is not influenced.

Sayyed Alireza Talaei Zavareh; Saeideh Davari, Mahmoud Salami

2010-01-01

297

Learning Sequences  

CERN Multimedia

We describe the algorithms used by the ALEKS computer learning system for manipulating combinatorial descriptions of human learners' states of knowledge, generating all states that are possible according to a description of a learning space in terms of a partial order, and using Bayesian statistics to determine the most likely state of a student. As we describe, a representation of a knowledge space using learning sequences (basic words of an antimatroid) allows more general learning spaces to be implemented with similar algorithmic complexity. We show how to define a learning space from a set of learning sequences, find a set of learning sequences that concisely represents a given learning space, generate all states of a learning space represented in this way, and integrate this state generation procedure into a knowledge assessment algorithm. We also describe some related theoretical results concerning projections of learning spaces, decomposition and dimension of learning spaces, and algebraic representati...

Eppstein, David

2008-01-01

298

Color Word Acquisition: Conceptual or Linguistic Challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study investigated children's difficulty in learning color words and attempted to determine whether the difficulty was perceptual, conceptual, or linguistic. The subjects were 24 two-year-olds, half with knowledge of color words and half without, and a similar control group. The experimental subjects were given conceptual and comprehension tasks…

Soja, Nancy N.

299

Reading Coaching for Math Word Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

|"Math is language, too," Phyllis and David Whitin (2000) remind everyone in their informative book about reading and writing in the mathematics classroom. This means that students in elementary school math classes are learning two distinct, yet related languages--one of numbers, the other of words. These languages of numbers and words are…

Edwards, Sharon A.; Maloy, Robert W.; Anderson, Gordon

2009-01-01

300

A MOBILE-DEVICE-SUPPORTED PEER-ASSISTED LEARNING SYSTEM FOR COLLABORATIVE EARLY EFL READING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Collaborative learning methods which emphasize peer interaction have been widely applied to increase the intensity and effectiveness of EFL reading programs. However, simply grouping students heterogeneously and assigning them group goals does not guarantee that effective collaborative learning will ensue. The present research includes two studies. In Study One, the weaknesses of collaborative learning in a traditional EFL setting were observed. Then, in Study Two, a mobile-device-supported peer-assisted learning (MPAL) system was developed for the purpose of addressing the identified weaknesses. Two classes of twenty-six third grade students participated in the present research to examine the unique contribution of MPAL to collaborative EFL reading activities. The collaborative behavior of elementary EFL learners was videotaped and analyzed. Detailed analysis of the videotaped behavior indicated that MPAL helped improve collaboration in elementary school level EFL learners and promotes their reading motivation.

Yu-Ju Lan; Yao-ting Sung; Kuo-En Chang

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

A Classification Approach to Word Prediction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The eventual goal of a language model is to accuratelypredict the value of a missing word given itscontext. We present an approach to word predictionthat is based on learning a representation for eachword as a function of words and linguistics predicatesin its context. This approach raises a fewnew questions that we address. First, in order tolearn good word representations it is necessary touse an expressive representation of the context. Wepresent a way that uses external knowledge to generateexpressive context representations, along with alearning method capable of handling the large numberof features generated this way that can, potentially,contribute to each prediction. Second, sincethe number of words "competing" for each predictionis large, there is a need to "focus the attention"on a smaller subset of these. We exhibit the contributionof a "focus of attention" mechanism to theperformance of the word predictor. Finally, we describea large scale experimental study in which theapproach presented is shown to yield significant improvementsin word prediction tasks.

Yair Even-zohar; Dan Roth

302

Vocabulary teaching strategies and conceptual representations of words in L2 in children: evidence with novice learners.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 149-174] or a direct route from the L2 word [Altarriba, J., & Mathis, K. M. (1997). Conceptual and lexical development in second language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 550-568; Finkbeiner, M., & Nicol, J. (2003). Semantic category effects in second language word learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 369-383]. The main goal of this paper is to study, in a child population, whether the creation of conceptual representations for L2 words is possible, even after only one session of learning of the L2 vocabulary. Furthermore, we do so by examining the efficacy of two different L2 learning methods: L2-L1 association learning vs. L2-picture association learning. A translation recognition task was employed to test whether there was a difference between a semantically related pair and an unrelated pair across conditions (i.e., a semantic interference effect). Results showed a significant semantic interference effect-a conceptual effect-in children after just one vocabulary learning session. Importantly, the L2-picture method produced a greater semantic interference effect than the L2-L1 method. The implications of these findings for models of bilingual memory are examined.

Comesaña M; Perea M; Piñeiro A; Fraga I

2009-09-01

303

Aplicabilidade do software Fast Forword na reabilitação dos distúrbios do processamento auditivo: resultados iniciais Applicability of Fast ForWord software to management auditory process disorders: early result  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEMA: novas propostas de reabilitação para crianças com distúrbios do processamento auditivo associadas aos distúrbios de linguagem e de aprendizagem são necessárias para aumentar a eficácia do tratamento fonoaudiológico. Assim, o objetivo foi descrever a aplicabilidade do software Fast ForWord Language (FFWL) na reabilitação dos distúrbios de processamento auditivo (DPA) em três crianças brasileiras. PROCEDIMENTOS: estas três crianças, na faixa-etária de 9 a 14 anos, foram selecionadas pela avaliação audiológica básica, do processamento auditivo, de linguagem escrita e de consciência fonológica. Estes procedimentos foram utilizados antes e após a realização do treinamento com o software FFWL, que foi aplicado durante 80 minutos por dia, em cinco dias por semana em até oito semanas de treinamento. Foram utilizadas as seguintes estratégias: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification e Phonic Match, envolvendo detecção, discriminação, atenção sustentada e memória auditiva. RESULTADOS: após, em média 30,67 dias de uso do FFW, observou-se adequação em duas crianças do processamento auditivo. Em uma das crianças isso não foi evidenciado mantendo-se com as mesmas alterações na reavaliação do processamento auditivo. Após a terceira semana de estimulação observou-se diminuição do interesse pelas estratégias, o que necessitou uma intervenção mais intensa e criativa dos pesquisadores. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se inferir que o FFW apresenta aplicabilidade para crianças brasileiras com distúrbio do processamento auditivo, entretanto, são necessárias novas pesquisas com uma amostra maior para verificar a eficácia deste software para crianças brasileiras.BACKGROUND: news proposals of rehabilitation for children with auditory processing disorders associated to language and learning disorders are necessary to increase the efficacy of speech and language treatment. So, the purpose was to check the applicability of Fast Forword (FFW) software for managing auditory processing disorder (APD) in three Brazilian kids. PROCEDURE: these three children, ranging from 9 to 14-year old, were selected in basic auditory evaluation, auditory process evaluation, language evaluation and phonological awareness. These tests applied before and after the training with FFW, ran during 100 minutes a day, five days a week along eight weeks. The following strategies were applied: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification and Phonic Match, involving detection, discrimination, sustained attention and auditory memory. RESULTS: after about 30.67 days using FFW, we noted adequacy in auditory process of two kids. In one of the kids that were not the case, the same alterations showed in the auditory process re-evaluation. After a third week of stimulation a diminution of interest for the strategies was observed, which demanded a more intense and creative intervention of the researchers. CONCLUSION: it is possible to infer that FFW presents applicability for Brazilian kids with auditory process disturbances; however, research with larger samples is necessary in order to check the effectiveness of this software on Brazilian kids.

Sheila Andreoli Balen; Rosiana Massignani; Raquel Schillo

2008-01-01

304

Early College High Schools: Lessons Learned in the College Science Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Gates Foundation has given more than US$100 million to establish approximately 160 early college high schools (ECHSs) across the nation. The ECHS goal, to send traditionally low-performing students to college early and graduate them with 2 years of college credit, has been widely recognized for its constructive potential. However, not all…

Alaie, Adrienne

2011-01-01

305

From Early Attachment to Engagement With Learning in School: The Role of Self-Regulation and Persistence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents theoretical arguments and supporting empirical evidence suggesting that attachment experiences in early life may be important in the later development of self-regulation and conscientious behavior. Analyses of data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2005; N = 1,149) were conducted to test the association between attachment, measured at 15 and 36 months, and 3 measures of self-regulation (social self-control rated by teachers, task persistence as measured by observers in a series of lab tasks, and a continuous performance test) between Grades 1 and 5. Mediational analyses were also conducted to test whether self-regulation mediates the effect of attachment on children's engagement with learning in the classroom, as measured by direct observation. The results confirmed the hypothesis that attachment would be related to later self-regulation, but only for social self-control, and attentional impulsivity, not task persistence. Furthermore, social self-control at Grade 1 mediated the effect of attachment (at both 15 and 36 months) on school engagement at Grade 5, even when Grade 1 school engagement was statistically controlled. The discussion focuses on the potential importance of early attachment experiences for the development and maintenance of conscientiousness across the lifespan. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Drake K; Belsky J; Fearon RM

2013-05-01

306

Modified Oral Input and the Acquisition of Word Meanings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studied the relationship between modified oral input and the acquisition of word meanings by Japanese high school students. Results include a strong relationship between comprehension and word meaning acquisition was only evident in a test replicating learning format; and rate of word acquisition was faster with the premodified input. (54…

Ellis, Rod

1995-01-01

307

Young children's fast mapping and generalization of words, facts, and pictograms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To test general and specific processes of symbol learning, 4- and 5-year-old children learned three kinds of abstract associates for novel objects: words, facts, and pictograms. To test fast mapping (i.e., one-trial learning) and subsequent learning, comprehension was tested after each of four exposures. Production was also tested, as was children's tendency to generalize learned items to new objects in the same taxon. To test for a bias toward mutually exclusive associations, children learned either one-to-one or many-to-many mappings. In Experiment 1, children learned words, facts (with or without incidental novel words), or pictograms. In Experiment 2, children learned words or pictograms. In both of these experiments, children learned words slower than facts and pictograms. Pictograms and facts were generalized more systematically than words, but only in Experiment 1. Children learned one-to-one mappings faster only in Experiment 2, when cognitive load was increased. In Experiment 3, 3- and 4-year-olds were taught facts (with novel words), words, and pictograms. Children learned facts faster than words; however, they remembered all items equally well a week later. The results suggest that word learning follows non-specialized memory and associative learning processes.

Deák GO; Toney AJ

2013-06-01

308

Bringing Words to Life Robust Vocabulary Instruction  

CERN Multimedia

Exciting and engaging vocabulary instruction can set students on the path to a lifelong fascination with words. This book provides a research-based framework and practical strategies for vocabulary development with children from the earliest grades through high school. The authors emphasize instruction that offers rich information about words and their uses and enhances students' language comprehension and production. Teachers are guided in selecting words for instruction; developing student-friendly explanations of new words; creating meaningful learning activities; and getting students invol

Beck, Isabel

2002-01-01

309

Preoperative factors affecting postoperative early quality of life during the learning curve of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the preoperative factors related to early quality of life (QoL) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) during the surgeon's learning curve. METHODS: The medical records of 82 patients with a follow-up period of at least 3 months who were treated with HoLEP during the time of a surgeon's learning curve were analyzed retrospectively. We divided the patients into two groups on the basis of the QoL component of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) 3 months after HoLEP: the high QoL group (IPSS/QoL?3) and the low QoL group (IPSS/QoL?4). Preoperative factors in each group were compared, including prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, history of acute urinary retention (AUR), urgency incontinence, IPSS, and urodynamic parameters. Detrusor underactivity was defined as a bladder contractility index less than 100 on urodynamic study. RESULTS: A total of 61 patients (74.3%) had a high QoL, whereas 21 (25.7%) had a low QoL. A history of AUR, detrusor pressure on maximal flow (PdetQmax), bladder outlet obstruction grade, bladder contractility index, and detrusor underactivity were associated with postoperative QoL in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, a history of AUR and PdetQmax were independent factors affecting postoperative QoL. CONCLUSIONS: A history of AUR and bladder contractility affect early QoL, and preoperative urodynamic study plays an important role in the proper selection of patients during the HoLEP learning curve.

Cho KJ; Kim HS; Koh JS; Han SB; Kim SH; Kim HW; Cho SY; Kim JC

2013-06-01

310

Preoperative Factors Affecting Postoperative Early Quality of Life During the Learning Curve of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the preoperative factors related to early quality of life (QoL) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) during the surgeon's learning curve. Methods The medical records of 82 patients with a follow-up period of at least 3 months who were treated with HoLEP during the time of a surgeon's learning curve were analyzed retrospectively. We divided the patients into two groups on the basis of the QoL component of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) 3 months after HoLEP: the high QoL group (IPSS/QoL?3) and the low QoL group (IPSS/QoL?4). Preoperative factors in each group were compared, including prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, history of acute urinary retention (AUR), urgency incontinence, IPSS, and urodynamic parameters. Detrusor underactivity was defined as a bladder contractility index less than 100 on urodynamic study. Results A total of 61 patients (74.3%) had a high QoL, whereas 21 (25.7%) had a low QoL. A history of AUR, detrusor pressure on maximal flow (PdetQmax), bladder outlet obstruction grade, bladder contractility index, and detrusor underactivity were associated with postoperative QoL in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, a history of AUR and PdetQmax were independent factors affecting postoperative QoL. Conclusions A history of AUR and bladder contractility affect early QoL, and preoperative urodynamic study plays an important role in the proper selection of patients during the HoLEP learning curve.

Cho, Kang Jun; Kim, Hyo Sin; Koh, Jun Sung; Han, Seung Bum; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Cho, Su Yeon

2013-01-01

311

Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

2006-06-04

312

Implementation and Evaluation of an Early Foreign Language Learning Project in Kindergarten  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of present paper was twofold. Firstly, it aimed at outlining the rationale for and the process of introducing an English language learning intervention to kindergarten children in a playful and supportive environment. It focused on developing children's oral skills through participating in creative child-appropriate activities and…

Griva, Eleni; Sivropoulou, Rena

2009-01-01

313

Social Skills in the Early Years: Supporting Social and Behavioural Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this book is to provide information and guidance about providing for children's social and behavioural learning. The book can be used in a variety of ways depending on the situation and previous experience of the reader. It is arranged in six chapters with a related training session at the end of each chapter. The intended audience…

Mathieson, Kathy

2005-01-01

314

Working Memory and Phonological Awareness as Predictors of Progress towards Early Learning Goals at School Entry  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates whether working memory skills of children are related to teacher ratings of their progress towards learning goals at the time of school entry, at 4 or 5 years of age. A sample of 194 children was tested on measures of working memory, phonological awareness, and non-verbal ability, in addition to the school-based baseline…

Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Adams, Anne-Marie; Willis, Catherine; Eaglen, Rachel; Lamont, Emily

2005-01-01

315

Effects of Early Bilingualism on Learning Phonological Regularities in a New Language  

Science.gov (United States)

|Drawing on structural sensitivity theory, the current study investigated monolingual and bilingual children's ability to learn how phonemes combine to form acceptable syllables in a new language. A total of 186 monolingual and bilingual kindergarteners, first graders, and second graders in Taiwan participated in the study. Bilingual children,…

Kuo, Li-Jen; Anderson, Richard C.

2012-01-01

316

Learning Self-Direction in a Social and Experiential Context [and] Invited Reaction: An Adult Educator Responds [and] Final Word: Rebuttal to Anne Percival's Invited Reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Vann reviews research on how adults learn self-direction and delineates a cognitive-behaviorist learning model. Percival critiques the article and presents an alternate view to which Vann provides a rejoinder. (SK)|

Vann, Barry A.; Percival, Anne

1996-01-01

317

A Classification Approach to Word Prediction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The eventual goal of a language model is to accurately predict the value of a missingword given its context. We present an approach to word prediction that is based onlearning a representation for each word as a function of words and linguistics predicatesin its context. This approach raises a few new questions that we address. First, inorder to learn a good representation for a word it is necessary to use an expressiverepresentation of the context. We present a way to use external knowledge to dothat, along with a learning method capable of handling the large number of featuresthat can potentially contribute to each prediction. Second, since the number of wordscompeting" for each prediction is large, there is a need to focus the attention"on a smaller subset of these. We exhibit the contribution of a focus of attention"mechanism to the performance of the word predictor. Finally, we describe a large scaleexperimental study for in which the approach presented is...

318

Models of visual word recognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reading is a complex process that draws on a remarkable number of diverse perceptual and cognitive processes. In this review, I provide an overview of computational models of reading, focussing on models of visual word recognition-how we recognise individual words. Early computational models had 'toy' lexicons, could simulate only a narrow range of phenomena, and frequently had fundamental limitations, such as being able to handle only four-letter words. The most recent models can use realistic lexicons, can simulate data from a range of tasks, and can process words of different lengths. These models are the driving force behind much of the empirical work on reading. I discuss how the data have guided model development and, importantly, I also provide guidelines to help interpret and evaluate the contribution the models make to our understanding of how we read.

Norris D

2013-10-01

319

Coordination changes in the early stages of learning to cascade juggle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The experiment was setup to examine the coordination changes in assembling the movement form of 3-ball cascade juggling. Eight adult participants learned to juggle over 4 weeks of practice. Juggling scores were recorded at each session and performance was videotaped at eight selected sessions for purposes of movement analysis. Once the basic spatial and temporal constraints on cascade juggling were satisfied, and the figure-8 juggling mode was established, temporal modulations of the relative motions of the hands were emphasized. All participants learned to juggle and the increase over practice in the number of consecutive balls caught was best fit with a power law. The non-proportional rate of performance increment was consistent with the qualitative changes in the form of the hand and ball movement kinematics that occurred over practice.

Haibach PS; Daniels GL; Newell KM

2004-09-01

320

Social Partners : Out with Early Exit - in with lifelong learning and career development?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address the demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society and the contribution of lifelong learning to the needs and potential of older workers is crucial, as the demographic situation already today, and in particular the one to be expected within the next about 40 years, is historically without a precedent. The idea of continuous learning and the need for a meaningful work has been included in the agreements between the working life parties in all the Nordic countries. However, not all people are provided with – or take an advantage of – the possibilities to continue learning relevant to their career development. Studies show that trade unions are in “an especially difficult position” regarding this matter, but also that they should develop clearer strategy in response to demographic change, and communicate it to their members. The OWNsurvey was carried out as a part of the work in the network Older workers in the Nordic countries (OWN) supported by the Nordic Council. The findings showed, on one hand, that while some social partners have started very good work, for many the issues of lifelong learning and opportunities for career development for older workers are not on their agenda. Besides differences between the unions in regards many aspects and within most countries, the findings also revealed systematic differences between the Nordic countries. Targeted policy measures regarding the older workers showed to be in place in Denmark and Norway, while this seems to be least the case in Sweden. Finland and Iceland have been prioritizing general policies. Targeted measures provide strongest, and in many cases much needed support to older workers’ competence and career development. However, even a strong lifelong learning policy seems not alone to guarantee real opportunities for and participation in learning during the latter half of the lifetime job careers, especially if the implementation of these policies is not followed up. On another note, also general policies can provide the necessary support, provided that other policy domains and practice are aligned with them. Overall, there is a need for a more active approach from social partners, in policy and practice, to promote lifelong learning and career development to their senior members during their last 15-20 years in working life. In this issue the social partners can and should play an active role – indeed, a leading role if needed – among the other key actors in society.

Hansen, Leif Emil

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

A Classification Approach to Word Prediction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The eventual goal of a language model is to accuratelypredict the value of a missing word given itscontext. We present an approach to word predictionthat is based on learning a representation for eachword as a function of words and linguistics predicatesin its context. This approach raises a fewnew questions that we address. First, in order tolearn good word representations it is necessary touse an expressive representation of the context. Wepresent a way that uses external knowledge to generateexpressive context representations, along with alearning method capable of handling the large numberof features generated this way that can, potentially,contribute to each prediction. Second, sincethe number of words competing" for each predictionis large, there is a need to focus the attention"on a smaller subset of these. We exhibit the contributionof a focus of attention" mechanism to theperformance of the word predictor. Finally, we describea large scale experimental st...

Yair Even-zohar; Dan Roth

322

Factored Translation with Unsupervised Word Clusters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Unsupervised word clustering algorithms — which form word clusters based on a measure of distributional similarity — have proven to be useful in providing beneficial features for various natural language processing tasks involving supervised learning. This work explores the utility of such word clusters as factors in statistical machine translation. Although some of the language pairs in this work clearly benefit from the factor augmentation, there is no consistent improvement in translation accuracy across the board. For all language pairs, the word clusters clearly improve translation for some proportion of the sentences in the test set, but has a weak or even detrimental effect on the rest. It is shown that if one could determine whether or not to use a factor when translating a given sentence, rather substantial improvements in precision could be achieved for all of the language pairs evaluated. While such an “oracle” method is not identified, evaluations indicate that unsupervised word cluster are mostbeneficial in sentences without unknown words.

RishØj, Christian; SØgaard, Anders

2011-01-01

323

Prosody cues word order in 7-month-old bilingual infants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A central problem in language acquisition is how children effortlessly acquire the grammar of their native language even though speech provides no direct information about underlying structure. This learning problem is even more challenging for dual language learners, yet bilingual infants master their mother tongues as efficiently as monolinguals do. Here we ask how bilingual infants succeed, investigating the particularly challenging task of learning two languages with conflicting word orders (English: eat an apple versus Japanese: ringo-wo taberu 'apple.acc eat'). We show that 7-month-old bilinguals use the characteristic prosodic cues (pitch and duration) associated with different word orders to solve this problem. Thus, the complexity of bilingual acquisition is countered by bilinguals' ability to exploit relevant cues. Moreover, the finding that perceptually available cues like prosody can bootstrap grammatical structure adds to our understanding of how and why infants acquire grammar so early and effortlessly.

Gervain J; Werker JF

2013-01-01

324

Transitional Probability and Word Segmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims at reviewing the literature in the studies of the relationship between transitional probability and word segmentation in an attempt to emphasize statistical learning as the experience-dependent factor in language acquisition. Transitional probability, the crucial cue of the statistical relationship between syllables, is characterized by its two computation directions: the forward transitional probability and backward transitional probability. Results from the empirical research on artificial languages and natural languages are also discussed to prove the effectiveness and defectiveness of transitional probability in word segmentation.

Yingying Xie

2012-01-01

325

Memory for words and drawings in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A list-learning paradigm was used to study learning and memory of verbal and figurative material in children with right versus left-sided hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Thirty-one children with right (n = 18), or left (n = 13) congenital hemiplegia were compared with normal controls (n = 19). All children had normal intelligence (IQ > 80), and were attending standard schools. The inclusion criteria for the two hemiplegic groups were; no epilepsy, no hearing or visual impairments, and a mild to moderate hemiparesis. The aim of this study was to explore material-specific (words and drawings) differences in the acquisition, recall and serial position effects in children with an early unilateral brain lesion. The left-hemisphere impaired (i.e. right hemiplegia) group showed impaired acquisition for drawings, as compared with the normal controls. There was also a material-specific difference in the serial position effect for all three groups. Learning of words followed the primacy principle, whereas the learning of drawings followed the recency principle. There were no group-differences in delayed-recall (i.e. long-term memory) for either words or drawings. The results are discussed in terms of acquisition and retention of verbal and figurative materials in relation to lesion side and size.

Carlsson G

1997-12-01

326

Memory for words and drawings in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A list-learning paradigm was used to study learning and memory of verbal and figurative material in children with right versus left-sided hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Thirty-one children with right (n = 18), or left (n = 13) congenital hemiplegia were compared with normal controls (n = 19). All children had normal intelligence (IQ > 80), and were attending standard schools. The inclusion criteria for the two hemiplegic groups were; no epilepsy, no hearing or visual impairments, and a mild to moderate hemiparesis. The aim of this study was to explore material-specific (words and drawings) differences in the acquisition, recall and serial position effects in children with an early unilateral brain lesion. The left-hemisphere impaired (i.e. right hemiplegia) group showed impaired acquisition for drawings, as compared with the normal controls. There was also a material-specific difference in the serial position effect for all three groups. Learning of words followed the primacy principle, whereas the learning of drawings followed the recency principle. There were no group-differences in delayed-recall (i.e. long-term memory) for either words or drawings. The results are discussed in terms of acquisition and retention of verbal and figurative materials in relation to lesion side and size. PMID:9449193

Carlsson, G

1997-12-01

327

Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

|The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

2011-01-01

328

Master's Programs in Israeli Colleges of Education: A New Learning Opportunity in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of advanced studies for the professional staff working in the field of early childhood education (ECE). Until 2001, Israeli MA programs were controlled exclusively by Israeli universities. The article deals with the development of MEd programs in Israeli colleges of education, using the…

Mevorach, Miriam; Miron, Mordechai

2011-01-01

329

Professional Learning and Action Research: Early Career Teachers Reflect on Their Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Three early career primary school teachers shared their perceptions of changes in their teaching of mathematics 8-18 months after their participation in an action research project. Comparing data collected throughout the lifetime of the project with analyses of participants' reflections written in response to three open-ended questions posed…

Scott, Anne; Clarkson, Philip; McDonough, Andrea

2012-01-01

330

Decreased recall of primacy words predicts cognitive decline.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the cognitive changes associated with Alzheimer's disease is a diminution of the primacy effect, i.e., the tendency toward better recall of items studied early on a list compared with the rest. We examined whether learning and recall of primacy words predicted subsequent cognitive decline in 204 elderly subjects who were non-demented and cognitively intact when first examined. Our results show that poorer primacy performance in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed recall trials, but not in immediate recall trials, is an effective predictor of subsequent decline in general cognitive function. This pattern of performance can be interpreted as evidence that failure to consolidate primacy items is a marker of cognitive decline. PMID:23299182

Bruno, Davide; Reiss, Philip T; Petkova, Eva; Sidtis, John J; Pomara, Nunzio

2013-01-07

331

Decreased recall of primacy words predicts cognitive decline.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the cognitive changes associated with Alzheimer's disease is a diminution of the primacy effect, i.e., the tendency toward better recall of items studied early on a list compared with the rest. We examined whether learning and recall of primacy words predicted subsequent cognitive decline in 204 elderly subjects who were non-demented and cognitively intact when first examined. Our results show that poorer primacy performance in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed recall trials, but not in immediate recall trials, is an effective predictor of subsequent decline in general cognitive function. This pattern of performance can be interpreted as evidence that failure to consolidate primacy items is a marker of cognitive decline.

Bruno D; Reiss PT; Petkova E; Sidtis JJ; Pomara N

2013-03-01

332

'Learn the signs. Act early': a campaign to help every child reach his or her full potential.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the application of a social marketing approach to increase the early identification and treatment of autism and other developmental disorders. STUDY DESIGN: The intervention used formative research, behaviour change theory and traditional social marketing techniques to develop a campaign targeting parents, healthcare professionals and early educators to increase awareness of autism and other developmental delays, and to prompt action if a developmental delay was suspected. METHOD: Using social marketing principles, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention applied baseline research with the target audiences to understand the barriers and motivators to behaviour change, which included a lack of knowledge and resources (barriers), along with a willingness to learn and do more (motivators). Focus group testing of potential campaign concepts led to one particular approach and accompanying images, which together increased perceived severity of the problem and encouraged taking action. The audience research also helped to shape the marketing mix (product, price, place and promotion). RESULTS: Three-year follow-up research in this case study indicates a significant change in parent target behaviours, particularly among parents aware of the campaign, and substantially more healthcare professionals believe that they have the resources to educate parents about monitoring their child's cognitive, social and physical development. Qualitative results from early educators and childcare professional associations have been positive about products developed for daycare settings. CONCLUSION: The application of social marketing principles, behavior change theory and audience research was an effective approach to changing behaviours in this case. Understanding what the target audiences want and need, looking beyond parents to engage healthcare professionals and early educators, and engaging many strategic partners to extend the reach of the message helped campaign planners to develop a campaign that resonated with the target audiences and, importantly, moved them towards action.

Daniel KL; Prue C; Taylor MK; Thomas J; Scales M

2009-09-01

333

Estimating the Effectiveness and Feasibility of a Game-based Project for Early Foreign Language Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper outlines the rationale for and the purpose of designing and implementing a project aiming to make very young EFL learners develop their language skills through their involvement in interactive psychomotor activities. The project, which is a part of a broader longitudinal project having introduced EFL in the first primary school grade, was implemented in two 2nd grade Greek classrooms with a total of 44 seven year old children. Multisensory teaching was followed through the use of a combination of activities: classroom creative activities included memory and word games, drawings, constructions, role-play games, pantomime as well as songs. In the gym, children participated in physical activities such as races, chases and hopscotch as well as dance and music activities, with the aim to improve their oral communicative skills and creativity. In order to examine the effectiveness and feasibility of the project, an evaluation study was conducted by using a pre- and post- language test and journals kept by the teachers. It was evident that the project had a positive effect on developing very young learners’ language skills, and on enhancing their motivation to participate in psychomotor activities.

Eleni Griva; Klio Semoglou

2012-01-01

334

Identification of alcohol by smell among young children: an objective measure of early learning in the home.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Familiarity with alcoholic beverages was assessed by means of a modified version of Jahoda and Cramond's 'Recognition of Smells' task (Jahoda, G. and Cramond, J. (1972) Children and Alcohol, HMSO, London). Two hundred and thirty-eight Scottish and English children aged 5.5-6.5, 7.5-8.5 and 9.5-10.5 years participated. When verbal identification was aided by pictorial cues, almost 95% of the sample identified at least one of the alcoholic beverages. Moreover, alcoholic beverages were identified significantly more often than non-alcoholic substances. The results highlight the early age at which awareness of alcohol begins, and emphasise the importance of children's home-based learning experiences in the development of alcohol cognitions. Both have important implications for alcohol education.

Fossey E

1993-12-01

335

World of Learning, Sociability and City  in early Eighteenth Century France  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this last paper, I wish to present the research project I am currently working on, which is about the connection between the world of learning and scholars and the emergence of urban identities in Europe in the first half of the 18th century. To speak in broader terms, what I would like to grasp is how the circulation of knowledge shaped the making of the great cultural metropolises in the period between the 17th and the 18th century, mainly in a few sites : Paris, Lyon, London, Edinburgh,...

Stéphane Van Damme

2007-01-01

336

Second language learning difficulties in chinese children with dyslexia: What are the reading-related cognitive skills that contribute to english and chinese word reading?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children-28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (R...

Chung, KKH; Ho, CSH

337

Sleep Deprivation During Early-Adult Development Results in Long-Lasting Learning Deficits in Adult Drosophila  

Science.gov (United States)

Study Objectives: Multiple lines of evidence indicate that sleep is important for the developing brain, although little is known about which cellular and molecular pathways are affected. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the early adult life of Drosophila, which is associated with high amounts of sleep and critical periods of brain plasticity, could be used as a model to identify developmental processes that require sleep. Subjects: Wild type Canton-S Drosophila melanogaster. Design; Intervention: Flies were sleep deprived on their first full day of adult life and allowed to recover undisturbed for at least 3 days. The animals were then tested for short-term memory and response-inhibition using aversive phototaxis suppression (APS). Components of dopamine signaling were further evaluated using mRNA profiling, immunohistochemistry, and pharmacological treatments. Measurements and Results: Flies exposed to acute sleep deprivation on their first day of life showed impairments in short-term memory and response inhibition that persisted for at least 6 days. These impairments in adult performance were reversed by dopamine agonists, suggesting that the deficits were a consequence of reduced dopamine signaling. However, sleep deprivation did not impact dopaminergic neurons as measured by their number or by the levels of dopamine, pale (tyrosine hydroxylase), dopadecarboxylase, and the Dopamine transporter. However, dopamine pathways were impacted as measured by increased transcript levels of the dopamine receptors D2R and dDA1. Importantly, blocking signaling through the dDA1 receptor in animals that were sleep deprived during their critical developmental window prevented subsequent adult learning impairments. Conclusions: These data indicate that sleep plays an important and phylogenetically conserved role in the developing brain. Citation: Seugnet L; Suzuki Y; Donlea JM; Gottschalk L; Shaw PJ. Sleep deprivation during early-adult development results in long-lasting learning deficits in adult drosophila. SLEEP 2011;34(2):137-146.

Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Donlea, Jeff M.; Gottschalk, Laura; Shaw, Paul J.

2011-01-01

338

Syntactic Processing of Unknown Words  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for processing sentences which contain unknown words, i. e. words forwhich no lexical entry exists, is presented. There are three different stages ofprocessing:1. The sentence with the unknown word is parsed. There are no specialrequirements for the parsing algorithm, but the lexical lookup procedure needs tobe modified.2. Based on the syntactic structure of the parse, information about the unknownword can be extracted.3. The information obtained in step 2 may be too fully specified for a lexical entry.Therefore a filter is applied to it to create a new lexical entry.An application of the method is illustrated with examples from CategorialUnification Grammar. The problem of using the extracted information for lexicalknowledge acquisition is discussed.Keywords: Parsing, Lexicon, Learning- 1 -1 On the need for processing unknown wordsWithin the past few years, the importance of comprehensive lexical resources for natural-languageprocessing systems has been recognized. Yet it is clear that the lexicon cannot be complete because newwords can be created and proper names cannot be exhaustively listed in the lexicon. Moreover, for manyapplications, the size of the lexicon is limited by the size of the available memory. Therefore, robustapproaches for processing unknown words are needed.(Gust, Ludewig 1989) discuss several approaches for extending the lexicon when an unknown word isencountered: These include word formation rules for analyzing compounds, interactive user input andaccess to machine-readable (conventional) dictionaries.The method presented in this paper allows the automatic extraction of syntactic information aboutunknown words. A system with this capacity can be a useful tool in the automatic or machine-aidedcreation of lexi...

Gregor Erbach; Universitt Des Saarlandes; Lehrstuhl Fr Computerlinguistik; Im Stadtwald

339

The Early Science Teaching and Learning: Integral vs. Module Approach [In Bulgarian  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The early science education seems to be a strong trend in the contemporary school. It is expected it will stimulate and keep the interest of youth to the development of science and technology. Such education could be designed either on the integral approach or on the module one. The present paper gives preference to the integral approach while the attempt to introduce such education in Bulgaria is based on the module principle

B.V. Toshev

2007-01-01

340

Distributing Event Information by Simulating Word-of-Mouth Exchanges  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Word-of-mouth is a persuasive but error-prone and unreliable modeof communicating personally relevant event information in a universityenvironment. In this paper we present a design, early prototype, and the resultsof preliminary usability tests for Augmented Word-of-mouth Exchange (AWE),a portable system that models and enhances word-of-mouth communications.

Elaine Huang; Michael Terry; Elizabeth Mynatt; Kent Lyons; Alan Chen

 
 
 
 
341

Global technology learning and national policy-An incentive scheme for governments to assume the high cost of early deployment exemplified by Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper it is argued that technology learning may be both a barrier and an incentive for technology change in the national energy system. The possibility to realize an ambitious global emission reduction scenario is enhanced by coordinated action between countries in national policy implementation. An indicator for coordinated action is suggested. Targeted measures to increase deployment of nascent energy technologies and increasing energy efficiency in a small open economy like Norway are examined. The measures are evaluated against a set of baselines with different levels of spillover of technology learning from the global market. It is found that implementation of technology subsidies increase the national contribution to early deployment independent of the level of spillover. In a special case with no spillover for offshore floating wind power and endogenous technology learning substantial subsidy or a learning rate of 20% is required. Combining the high learning rate and a national subsidy increases the contribution to early deployment. Enhanced building code on the other hand may reduce Norway's contribution to early deployment, and thus the realization of a global emission reduction scenario, unless sufficient electricity export capacity is assured.

2010-01-01

342

Assessing self-regulated learning in early childhood education: Difficulties, needs, and prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-regulated learning is one of the main processes being investigated today within developmental and educational psychology; however, the research has come up against a number of challenges for which no satisfactory response has been found, and which are impeding progress in the field. These challenges are two-fold: one part is methodological, as the process of self-regulation must be evaluated at the very moment in which it occurs, and the other part is developmental, as these processes have not been fully assessed in children under the age of 6 years. This article gives a broad overview of these challenges, as well as prospects for future solutions which are beginning to take shape. PMID:20423633

de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Lozano Díaz, Antonia

2010-05-01

343

Assessing self-regulated learning in early childhood education: Difficulties, needs, and prospects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Self-regulated learning is one of the main processes being investigated today within developmental and educational psychology; however, the research has come up against a number of challenges for which no satisfactory response has been found, and which are impeding progress in the field. These challenges are two-fold: one part is methodological, as the process of self-regulation must be evaluated at the very moment in which it occurs, and the other part is developmental, as these processes have not been fully assessed in children under the age of 6 years. This article gives a broad overview of these challenges, as well as prospects for future solutions which are beginning to take shape.

de la Fuente Arias J; Lozano Díaz A

2010-05-01

344

[Gogi (word-meaning) aphasia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gogi (word meaning) aphasia is an aphasic syndrome originally described by Tsuneo Imura in 1943. According to Imura, this syndrome is characterized by 4 symptoms: (1) difficulty in comprehending the meaning of a word despite perfect perception of the sound of the word; (2) presence of word amnesia and verbal paraphasia; (3) preservation of the ability to repeat spoken words; and (4) characteristic disturbances in reading and writing, in which Kana (Japanese syllabogram) can be correctly read and written, but Kanji (Japanese logogram) is read and transcribed in a peculiar way without comprehension, resulting in strange paragraphia. Gogi aphasia occupies a unique seat in the category of transcortical sensory aphasia. While the latter is grossly defined as fluent sensory aphasia with good repetition and without any specification about the linguistic level of deficit, the former is defined more specifically as fluent sensory aphasia with the deficit limited to the level of words. The characteristic Kana-Kanji dissociation aids in the diagnosis of this syndrome. Recently, it has been repeatedly confirmed that the temporal lobe type of Pick disease (known as semantic dementia in recent English literature) often presents the clinical picture of Gogi aphasia in its early course. Many Japanese physicians have contributed to the elucidation of this clinicopathological correlation. This is mainly because many neurologists and psychiatrists in Japan have long been familiar with the concept of Gogi aphasia and the nosology of Pick disease.

Yamadori A

2011-08-01

345

First words and first memories.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was systematically later, by several months, than the age of acquisition of the word to which it was associated. This was the case for earlier and later acquired words, for all word types, and for younger as well as older adults. It is suggested that this systematic lag reflects the formation of conceptual knowledge that is abstracted from details represented in early episodic memories. It is not until such knowledge is formed that a word cue and the conceptual knowledge in long-term to which it corresponds, can be used to access specific episodic memories. The implications of this for understanding childhood amnesia and for theories of the development of autobiographical memory are considered.

Morrison CM; Conway MA

2010-07-01

346

Are people with mild cognitive impairment aware of the benefits of errorless learning?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been described as a memory deficit in the absence of other cognitive dysfunction. It can be thought of as a pre-clinical dementia. Memory impairment in this group is not as severe as in early dementia and thus learning is still possible. We were interested to see if errorless learning, a widely used rehabilitation technique, was of benefit to people with MCI. Since it has been shown that successful rehabilitation is somewhat contingent on awareness of function, we were also interested to see if people with MCI were aware of the benefits of errorless learning. The present study employed an errorless learning procedure on 16 people with MCI and 16 older adult controls to learn two lists of 10 words in errorless and errorful learning conditions. We adopted a metacognitive approach measuring people's memory monitoring through judgements of learning (JOLs) a prediction of future memory performance. The results revealed errorless learning is an effective memory rehabilitation tool for people with MCI, with significant increases in recall performance for both groups relative to errorful learning. Most interestingly participants were aware of the benefits of errorless learning in their JOLs. MCI participants and controls both had significantly higher JOLs for words studied under errorless learning conditions. The learning performance in MCI and theories of metacognitive awareness are discussed.

Akhtar S; Moulin CJ; Bowie PC

2006-06-01

347

Asperger syndrome and "non-verbal learning problems" in a longitudinal perspective: Neuropsychological and social adaptive outcome in early adult life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Co-existence of Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) has been proposed based on the observation that people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal than performance IQ (VIQ>PIQ by ?15 points), one of the core features of NLD. In the present study we examined neuropsychological and social adaptive profiles with "non-verbal learning problems" associated with NLD in a group of individuals with AS followed from childhood into early adult life. The group was divided into three subgroups: (i) persistent NLD (P-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ>PIQ) both in childhood and early adulthood occasions, (ii) childhood NLD (CO-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ>PIQ) only at original diagnosis, or (iii) No NLD (VIQ>PIQ) ever (NO-NLD). All three subgroups were followed prospectively from childhood into adolescence and young adult life. One in four to one in five of the whole group of males with AS had P-NLD. The P-NLD subgroup had poorer neuropsychological outcome in early adult life than did those with CO-NLD and those with NO-NLD. There were no unequivocal markers in early childhood that predicted subgroup status in early adult life, but early motor delay and a history of early speech-language problems tended to be associated with P-NLD.

Hagberg BS; Nydén A; Cederlund M; Gillberg C

2013-07-01

348

Language development in internationally adopted children: a special case of early second language learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The French language development of children adopted (n=24) from China was compared with that of control children matched for socioeconomic status, sex, and age. The children were assessed at 50 months of age, on average, and 16 months later. The initial assessment revealed that the 2 groups did not differ with respect to socioemotional adjustment or intellectual abilities. However, the adopted children's expressive language skills were significantly lower than those of the nonadopted children at both assessments. The receptive language skills were also significantly weaker for the adopted children at the second assessment. The results are discussed in terms of possible early age-of-acquisition effects that might affect adopted children's ability to acquire a second first language.

Gauthier K; Genesee F

2011-05-01

349

Effects of early visual and complex stimulation on learning, brain biochemistry, and electrophysiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A complex stimulation regimen (visual, auditory, and somesthetic-kinesthetic with forced movements, 30 times for 30 min each within 14 days) increased significantly the amplitudes of visual cortical evoked potentials (EPs) in adult rats if applied during the second postnatal fortnight. The EP increase after stimulation during the first 14 days after birth was not significant. Visual stimulation alone was compared with complex stimulation (visual plus forced movements) during the 2nd postnatal fortnight. More specific local changes in the visual cortex were revealed in brain biochemistry (lower DNA concentration, more RNA and protein per cell) and cortical electrogenesis (enhanced visual EPs) after visual stimulation alone, whereas complex stimulation induced more diffuse changes and rather profoundly influenced higher nervous functions (viz., memory retrieval - improved 24-h). Involvement of both specific and nonspecific mechanisms in the aftereffects of early stimulation is indicated.

Myslivecek J; Stípek S

1979-07-01

350

American Journeys: Eyewitness Accounts of Early American Exploration and Settlement: A Digital Library and Learning Center  

Science.gov (United States)

With over 18,000 pages of eyewitness accounts of North American exploration, the American Journeys Digital Library and Learning Center is the result of a collaboration between the U.S. Institute of Museum & Library Services and by private donors. Much of the work was done at the Wisconsin Historical Society in Madison, Wisconsin, and visitors with an interest in digital projects and their creation and management will want to review the section that details how the website was built. Visitors with a limited amount of time will want to peruse the highlights section, which offers a number of noteworthy historical accounts, including the first encounter of Europeans with the Grand Canyon and the arrival of Captain James Cook in Hawaii. The resource section for educators is well-developed and includes suggestions on integrating documents into lesson plans, information on interpreting documents, and addressing sensitive content. As might be expected, the complete contents of the digital library may be searched in any number of ways, including by topic, author name, document type, and by keyword or full text.

2003-01-01

351

Early lessons learned from extramural school programs that offer HPV vaccine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There has been little evaluation of school-located vaccination programs that offer human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in US schools without health centers (ie, extramural programs). This article summarizes lessons learned from such programs. METHODS: In July to August 2010, 5 programs were identified. Semistructured, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with program representatives about practical aspects of planning and implementation, including configuration and effectiveness. RESULTS: Most programs offered HPV vaccine as part of a broader effort to increase uptake of adolescent vaccines. Respondents stressed the importance of building partnerships with local school systems throughout all aspects of the planning and implementation phases. All programs offered HPV vaccine at no cost to students. Most did not have a mechanism to bill private insurance, and some found Medicaid reimbursements to be a challenge. Programs achieved modest rates of initiation of the 3-dose HPV vaccine series (median 10%); however, among those who initiated the series, completion rates were high (median 78%). HPV vaccine uptake was lowest for a program that offered only HPV vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Extramural programs may increase uptake of vaccines and decrease absenteeism due to noncompliance with vaccine requirements for school entry. Until extramural programs in the US receive better access to billing private insurers and Medicaid, sustainability of these programs relies on grant funding. Better integration of extramural school-located vaccine programs with existing local healthcare and other programs at schools is an area for growth.

Hayes KA; Entzel P; Berger W; Caskey RN; Shlay JC; Stubbs BW; Smith JS; Brewer NT

2013-02-01

352

It's All in a Word History, meaning and the sheer joy of words  

CERN Document Server

Cross words, crass words, kind words, bad words, first words, rude words, new words, weazel words, teen words, rap words, power words, colour words, Indian words, Brit words, Blairwords, war words, ad words, p-c words, borrowed words, Shakespeare's amazing words, false words, fine words, wine words, American words, name words, last words, even lost for words – this book has them all. Vivian Cook takes us on a series of excursions down the curious byways of word history and meaning, mingling the fare with games, lists, tests, and quotes. Discover the theojollylogical joys of infixation. Find ou

Cook, Vivian

2010-01-01

353

Does early reading failure decrease children's reading motivation?  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure in learning to read. Second, they evaluated whether increasing the word reading ability of 15 at-risk children would lead to gains in their motivation to read. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest marked differences in both motivation and reading practice between skilled and unskilled readers. However, bolstering at-risk children's word reading ability did not yield evidence of a causal relationship between early reading failure and decreased motivation to engage in reading activities. Instead, hierarchical regression analyses indicate a covarying relationship among early reading failure, poor motivation, and avoidance of reading. PMID:18768772

Morgan, Paul L; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Cordray, David S; Fuchs, Lynn S

354

Does early reading failure decrease children's reading motivation?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure in learning to read. Second, they evaluated whether increasing the word reading ability of 15 at-risk children would lead to gains in their motivation to read. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest marked differences in both motivation and reading practice between skilled and unskilled readers. However, bolstering at-risk children's word reading ability did not yield evidence of a causal relationship between early reading failure and decreased motivation to engage in reading activities. Instead, hierarchical regression analyses indicate a covarying relationship among early reading failure, poor motivation, and avoidance of reading.

Morgan PL; Fuchs D; Compton DL; Cordray DS; Fuchs LS

2008-09-01

355

Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Visual presentation of words activates extrastriate regions of the occipital lobes of the brain. When analyzed by positron emission tomography (PET), certain areas in the left, medial extrastriate visual cortex were activated by visually presented pseudowords that obey English spelling rules, as well as by actual words. These areas were not activated by nonsense strings of letters or letter-like forms. Thus visual word form computations are based on learned distinctions between words and nonwords. In addition, during passive presentation of words, but not pseudowords, activation occurred in a left frontal area that is related to semantic processing. These findings support distinctions made in cognitive psychology and computational modeling between high-level visual and semantic computations on single words and describe the anatomy that may underlie these distinctions.

Petersen, S.E.; Fox, P.T.; Snyder, A.Z.; Raichle, M.E. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

1990-08-31

356

Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Visual presentation of words activates extrastriate regions of the occipital lobes of the brain. When analyzed by positron emission tomography (PET), certain areas in the left, medial extrastriate visual cortex were activated by visually presented pseudowords that obey English spelling rules, as well as by actual words. These areas were not activated by nonsense strings of letters or letter-like forms. Thus visual word form computations are based on learned distinctions between words and nonwords. In addition, during passive presentation of words, but not pseudowords, activation occurred in a left frontal area that is related to semantic processing. These findings support distinctions made in cognitive psychology and computational modeling between high-level visual and semantic computations on single words and describe the anatomy that may underlie these distinctions

1990-08-31

357

Primitive words and roots of words  

CERN Multimedia

In the algebraic theory of codes and formal languages, the set $Q$ of all primitive words over some alphabet $\\zi $ has received special interest. With this survey article we give an overview about relevant research to this topic during the last twenty years including own investigations and some new results. In Section 1 after recalling the most important notions from formal language theory we illustrate the connection between coding theory and primitive words by some facts. We define primitive words as words having only a trivial representation as the power of another word. Nonprimitive words (without the empty word) are exactly the periodic words. Every nonempty word is a power of an uniquely determined primitive word which is called the root of the former one. The set of all roots of nonempty words of a language is called the root of the language. The primitive words have interesting combinatorial properties which we consider in Section 2. In Section 3 we investigate the relationship between the set $Q$ of...

Lischke, Gerhard

2011-01-01

358

Early polysynaptic potentiation recorded in the dentate gyrus during an associative learning task.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report, we investigated the electrophysiological dynamics of the neuronal circuit including the dentate gyrus during an associative task. A group of rats was trained to discriminate between a patterned electrical stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract, used as an artificial cue associated with a water reward, and a natural odor associated with a light flash. Polysynaptic field potential responses, evoked by a single electrical stimulation of the same lateral olfactory tract electrode, were recorded in the molecular layer of the ipsilateral dentate gyrus prior to and just after each training session. An increase in this response was observed when a significant discrimination of the two cues began. A positive correlation was found between the change in the polysynaptic potentiation and behavioral performances. The onset latency of the potentiated polysynaptic response was 35-45 ms. When a group of naive animals was pseudoconditioned, no change in field potential was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesized dynamic activation of the dentate gyrus early in the making of association, allowing gradual storage of associative information in a defined set of synapses. Moreover, the onset latency of the potentiated response suggests the existence of reactivating hippocampal loops during the processing of associative information. PMID:10579207

Chaillan, F A; Truchet, B; Roman, F S; Soumireu-Mourat, B

1999-01-01

359

Machine learning classification procedure for selecting SNPs in genomic selection: application to early mortality in broilers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In genome-wide association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), typically thousands of SNPs are genotyped, whereas the number of phenotypes for which there is genomic information may be smaller. Atwo-step SNP (feature) selection method was developed, which consisted of filtering (using information gain), and wrapping (using naïve Bayesian classification). This was based on discretization of the continuous phenotypic values. The method was applied to chick early mortality rates (0-14 days of age) on progeny from 201 sires in a commercial broiler line, with the goal of identifying SNPs (over 5000) related to progeny mortality. Sires were clustered into two groups, low and high, according to two arbitrarily chosen mortality rate thresholds. By varying these thresholds, 11 different "case-control" samples were formed, and the SNP selection procedure was applied to each sample. To compare the 11 sets of chosen SNPs, predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS)from a linear model was used. Naive Bayesian classification accuracy was improved over the case without feature selection (from 50% to 90%). Seventeen SNPs in the best case-control group (with smallest PRESS) accounted for 31% of the variance among sire family mortality rates. PMID:18817329

Long, N; Gianola, D; Rosa, G J M; Weigel, K A; Avendano, S

2008-01-01

360

Learning for supplying as a motive to be the early adopter of a new energy technology: A study on the adoption of stationary fuel cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By early adopting a new technology, firms may attempt to improve their production efficiency and become further involved in the supply chain of the technology. These two different advantages derived from learning a new technology are identified as motives for adopting the technology. When learning for supplying (LFS) (becoming involved in the supply chain of the new technology) highlighted in this paper is significant enough, potential adopters may still be willing to adopt the new technology, even though learning for using (LFU) (increasing current production efficiency) is not significant. This paper identifies LFS as a motive for early adopters of the new technology. Firms may adopt a new technology for the purpose of learning how to become the suppliers of the relevant parts, materials, or equipment for the new technology. By investigating the adoption decision of a new energy technology (namely, phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC)), our arguments are supported by both observation of early adopters' attributes and a survey of Taiwanese firms' willingness to adopt new technology.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Flexible word meaning in embodied agents  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning the meanings of words requires coping with referential uncertainty - a learner hearing a novel word cannot be sure which aspects or properties of the referred object or event comprise the meaning of the word. Data from developmental psychology suggest that human learners grasp the important aspects of many novel words after just a few exposures, a phenomenon known as fast mapping. Traditionally, word learning is viewed as a mapping task, in which the learner has to map a set of forms onto a set of pre-existing concepts. We criticise this approach and argue instead for a flexible nature of the coupling between form and meanings as a solution to the problem of referential uncertainty. We implemented and tested the model in populations of humanoid robots that play situated language games about objects in their shared environment. Results show that the model can handle an exponential increase in uncertainty and allows scaling towards very large meaning spaces, while retaining the ability to grasp an operational meaning almost instantly for a great number of words. In addition, the model captures some aspects of the flexibility of form-meaning associations found in human languages. Meanings of words can shift between being very specific (names) and general (e.g. 'small'). We show that this specificity is biased not by the model itself but by the distribution of object properties in the world.

Wellens, Peter; Loetzsch, Martin; Steels, Luc

2008-06-01

362

Impaired Word Recognition in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Age of Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of word production in patients with Alzheimer's disease have identified the age of acquisition of words as an important predictor of retention or loss, with early acquired words remaining accessible for longer than later acquired words. If, as proposed by current theories, effects of age of acquisition reflect the involvement of semantic…

Cuetos, Fernando; Herrera, Elena; Ellis, Andrew W.

2010-01-01

363

Clinical trial implementation and recruitment: lessons learned from the early closure of a randomized clinical trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The NHLBI-sponsored Sickle Cell Disease Clinical Research Network (SCDCRN) conducted a multi-center, acute intervention randomized clinical trial of two methods of Patient Controlled Analgesia for acute pain. This trial was terminated early due to low enrollment. We analyzed the perceived barriers and recruitment difficulties as reported by the coordinators and principal investigators. METHODS: Participating sites completed a missed eligibility log of subjects admitted in pain crisis throughout the study and a survey at the end of the trial. The survey covered site-specific factors, policies, and procedures in study implementation, recruitment strategies, and eligibility factors. The New England Research Institutes (NERI) collected de-identified surveys from 31 respondents at 29 of 31 participating sites. RESULTS: From December 2009 to June 2010, 1116 patient encounters for SCD and pain occurred at participating institutions: 38 subjects were enrolled (14 pediatric and 24 adults) and 34 completed the trial, below the projected 278 subjects. Fourteen sites enrolled subjects and seventeen did not. Recruitment barriers included insufficient staff, subject ineligibility or in too much pain to consent, competing protocols, and concerns regarding pain control. Recruitment methods were referrals from urgent care, SCD clinics and in house databases. No use of media or outside physicians was reported. CONCLUSION: We identified multiple barriers to patient accrual including short duration of enrollment period, protocol design, complex dosing schedule, requirement for staff availability during week-end and after hours, multiple departments' involvement, protocol acceptance, eligibility criteria, competing protocols, and limited staff. Each of these areas should be targeted for intervention in order to plan and conduct successful future clinical trials.

Peters-Lawrence MH; Bell MC; Hsu LL; Osunkwo I; Seaman P; Blackwood M; Guillaume E; Bellevue R; Krishnamurti L; Smith WR; Dampier CD; Minniti CP

2012-03-01

364

Influence of Word Meaning on the Acquisition of a Reading Vocabulary in Second-Grade Children. Reading Research Report No. 25.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the acquisition of a reading vocabulary for abstract and concrete words in 62 second-grade children. Words had been learned as part of a basal reader program or as part of outside reading. Word recognition speed and reading accuracy were examined for abstract and concrete words using lexical decision and word naming tasks. Results…

McFalls, Elisabeth L.; And Others

365

Producing and recognizing words with two pronunciation variants: evidence from novel schwa words.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the lexical representations and psycholinguistic mechanisms underlying the production and recognition of novel words with two pronunciation variants in French. Participants first learned novel schwa words (e.g., /??nyk/), which varied in their alternating status (i.e., whether these words were learned with one or two variants) and, for alternating words, in the frequency of their variants. They were then tested in picture-naming (free or induced) and recognition memory tasks (i.e., deciding whether spoken items were learned during the experiment or not). Results for free naming show an influence of variant frequency on responses, more frequent variants being produced more often. Moreover, our data show an effect of the alternating status of the novel words on naming latencies, with longer latencies for alternating than for nonalternating novel words. These induced naming results suggest that both variants are stored as lexical entries and compete during the lexeme selection process. Results for recognition show an effect of variant frequency on reaction times and no effect of variant type (i.e., schwa versus reduced variant). Taken together, our findings suggest that participants both comprehend and produce novel French schwa words using two lexical representations, one for each variant.

Bürki A; Frauenfelder UH

2012-01-01

366

Producing and recognizing words with two pronunciation variants: evidence from novel schwa words.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the lexical representations and psycholinguistic mechanisms underlying the production and recognition of novel words with two pronunciation variants in French. Participants first learned novel schwa words (e.g., /??nyk/), which varied in their alternating status (i.e., whether these words were learned with one or two variants) and, for alternating words, in the frequency of their variants. They were then tested in picture-naming (free or induced) and recognition memory tasks (i.e., deciding whether spoken items were learned during the experiment or not). Results for free naming show an influence of variant frequency on responses, more frequent variants being produced more often. Moreover, our data show an effect of the alternating status of the novel words on naming latencies, with longer latencies for alternating than for nonalternating novel words. These induced naming results suggest that both variants are stored as lexical entries and compete during the lexeme selection process. Results for recognition show an effect of variant frequency on reaction times and no effect of variant type (i.e., schwa versus reduced variant). Taken together, our findings suggest that participants both comprehend and produce novel French schwa words using two lexical representations, one for each variant. PMID:22348434

Bürki, Audrey; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H

2012-02-21

367

Internet Marketing with WordPress  

CERN Document Server

The book's accompanying Interactive learning environment on siteprebuilder.com gives you an online place to enhance and extend your practical experience through exercises, consolidate your learning and theoretical knowledge with marked quizzes, interaction with your WordPress marketing community, and fun and exciting extras such as challenges and competitions. This book is for people already using WordPress, who want more visitors, better visitors, and to convert more of them into paying customers. No prior marketing experience is required, although a basic understanding of either hosted or se

Mercer, David

2011-01-01

368

Novel word lexicalization and the prime lexicality effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in which less priming is obtained due to form similarity when the prime is a word. In the first experiment, subjects were taught the meanings of novel words that were neighbors of real words, but no PLE was observed; that is, equally strong form priming was obtained for both trained and untrained novel primes. In the second experiment, 4 training sessions were spread over 4 weeks, and under these conditions, a clear PLE was obtained in the final session. It is concluded that lexicalization requires multiple training sessions. Possible explanations of the PLE are discussed.

Qiao X; Forster KI

2013-07-01

369

Probabilistic Classification Learning with Corrective Feedback Is Selectively Impaired in Early Huntington's Disease--Evidence for the Role of the Striatum in Learning with Feedback  

Science.gov (United States)

|In general, declarative learning is associated with the activation of the medial temporal lobes (MTL), while the basal ganglia (BG) are considered the substrate for procedural learning. More recently it has been demonstrated the distinction of these systems may not be as absolute as previously thought and that not only the explicit or implicit…

Holl, Anna K.; Wilkinson, Leonora; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Painold, Annamaria; Jahanshahi, Marjan

2012-01-01

370

[Long-term effect of a cognitive intervention on learning and participation in a significant leisure activity in early dementia of Alzheimer type: a case study].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Decreased ability to accomplish significant leisure activities often occurs in early stages of dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT). As a long term effect, it may eventually affect the quality of life of the patient as well as that of the caregiver's. In a previous study, a woman with early DAT (77 years old, MMSE: 24/30) improved her participation in 2 leisure activities (listening to music and praying in a group) following the learning of a few tasks (e.g. using a radio cassette, remembering the significance of an pre-programmed ring) as a result of a cognitive intervention. The present study presents the long term effect of this intervention on the retention of the learned tasks and on spontaneous participation in both leisure activities of her daily living. Measures of tasks' learning and spontaneous participation in activities have been obtained through direct observation (ex: ability to use the tasks learned without assistance) and telephone conversations with the caregiver. The measures were taken 9 to 15 months post-intervention. Nine months after the end of the intervention, the participant could no longer use the radio cassette, but was able to remember the significance of the pre-programmed ring. Similarly, she stopped listening to music, but still attended her prayer group. The intervention appears to maintain participation in a leisure activity for several months in a patient with early DAT, in spite of expected functional decline. This functional impact can be achieved through retention of specific learned tasks as well as by strong external cues (daily pre-programmed ring), and can increase the quality of life for patients with DAT.

Provencher V; Bier N; Audet T; Gagnon L

2009-06-01

371

Distributional learning of appearance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opportunities for associationist learning of word meaning, where a word is heard or read contemperaneously with information being available on its meaning, are considered too infrequent to account for the rate of language acquisition in children. It has been suggested that additional learning could occur in a distributional mode, where information is gleaned from the distributional statistics (word co-occurrence etc.) of natural language. Such statistics are relevant to meaning because of the Distributional Principle that 'words of similar meaning tend to occur in similar contexts'. Computational systems, such as Latent Semantic Analysis, have substantiated the viability of distributional learning of word meaning, by showing that semantic similarities between words can be accurately estimated from analysis of the distributional statistics of a natural language corpus. We consider whether appearance similarities can also be learnt in a distributional mode. As grounds for such a mode we advance the Appearance Hypothesis that 'words with referents of similar appearance tend to occur in similar contexts'. We assess the viability of such learning by looking at the performance of a computer system that interpolates, on the basis of distributional and appearance similarity, from words that it has been explicitly taught the appearance of, in order to identify and name objects that it has not been taught about. Our experiment tests with a set of 660 simple concrete noun words. Appearance information on words is modelled using sets of images of examples of the word. Distributional similarity is computed from a standard natural language corpus. Our computation results support the viability of distributional learning of appearance. PMID:23460927

Griffin, Lewis D; Wahab, M Husni; Newell, Andrew J

2013-02-27

372

PNNL: A Supervised Maximum Entropy Approach to Word Sense Disambiguation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we described the PNNL Word Sense Disambiguation system as applied to the English All-Word task in Se-mEval 2007. We use a supervised learning approach, employing a large number of features and using Information Gain for dimension reduction. Our Maximum Entropy approach combined with a rich set of features produced results that are significantly better than baseline and are the highest F-score for the fined-grained English All-Words subtask.

Tratz, Stephen C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Posse, Christian; Whitney, Paul D.

2007-06-23

373

Zipfian Frequency Distributions Facilitate Word Segmentation in Context  

Science.gov (United States)

|Word frequencies in natural language follow a highly skewed Zipfian distribution, but the consequences of this distribution for language acquisition are only beginning to be understood. Typically, learning experiments that are meant to simulate language acquisition use uniform word frequency distributions. We examine the effects of Zipfian…

Kurumada, Chigusa; Meylan, Stephan C.; Frank, Michael C.

2013-01-01

374

Identifying infants at high risk of peanut allergy: the Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) screening study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy (PA) is rare in countries in which peanuts are introduced early into infants' diets. Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) is an interventional study aiming to assess whether PA can be prevented by oral tolerance induction. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize a population screened for the risk of PA. METHODS: Subjects screened for the LEAP interventional trial comprise the LEAP screening study cohort. Infants were aged 4 to 10 months and passed a prescreening questionnaire. RESULTS: This analysis includes 834 infants (mean age, 7.8 months). They were split into the following: group I, patients with mild eczema and no egg allergy (n = 118); group II, patients with severe eczema, egg allergy, or both but 0-mm peanut skin prick test (SPT) wheal responses (n = 542); group III, patients with severe eczema, egg allergy, or both and 1- to 4-mm peanut wheal responses (n = 98); and group IV, patients with greater than 4-mm peanut wheal responses (n = 76). Unexpectedly, many (17%) in group II had peanut-specific IgE sensitization (? 0.35 kU/L); 56% of group III were similarly sensitized. In contrast, none of the patients in group I and 91% of those in group IV had peanut-specific IgE sensitization. Sensitization on skin testing to peanut (SPT response of 1-4 mm vs 0 mm) was associated with egg allergy and severe eczema (odds ratio [OR], 2.31 [95% CI, 1.39-3.86] and 2.47 [95% CI, 1.14-5.34], respectively). Similar associations were observed with specific IgE sensitization. Black race was associated with a significantly higher risk of peanut-specific IgE sensitization (OR, 5.30 [95% CI, 2.85-9.86]). Paradoxically, for a given specific IgE level, black race was protective against cutaneous sensitization (OR, 0.15 [95% CI, 0.04-0.61]). CONCLUSION: Egg allergy, severe eczema, or both appear to be useful criteria for identifying high-risk infants with an intermediate level of peanut sensitization for entry into a PA prevention study. The relationship between specific IgE level and SPT sensitization needs to be considered within the context of race.

Du Toit G; Roberts G; Sayre PH; Plaut M; Bahnson HT; Mitchell H; Radulovic S; Chan S; Fox A; Turcanu V; Lack G

2013-01-01

375

Zipfian frequency distributions facilitate word segmentation in context.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Word frequencies in natural language follow a highly skewed Zipfian distribution, but the consequences of this distribution for language acquisition are only beginning to be understood. Typically, learning experiments that are meant to simulate language acquisition use uniform word frequency distributions. We examine the effects of Zipfian distributions using two artificial language paradigms-a standard forced-choice task and a new orthographic segmentation task in which participants click on the boundaries between words in contexts. Our data show that learners can identify word forms robustly across widely varying frequency distributions. In addition, although performance in recognizing individual words is predicted best by their frequency, a Zipfian distribution facilitates word segmentation in context: the presence of high-frequency words creates more chances for learners to apply their knowledge in processing new sentences. We find that computational models that implement "chunking" are more effective than "transition finding" models at reproducing this pattern of performance.

Kurumada C; Meylan SC; Frank MC

2013-06-01

376

Subliminal Words Activate Semantic Categories (Not Automated Motor Responses)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Semantic priming by visually masked, unidentifiable ("subliminal") words occursrobustly when the words appearing as masked primes have been classified earlier inpractice as visible targets. It has been argued (Damian, 2001) that practice enablesrobust subliminal priming by automatizing learned associations between words andthe specific motor responses used to classify them. Two experiments demonstratedthat, instead, the associations formed inpractice that underlie subliminal priming arebetween words and semantic categories. Visible words classified as "pleasant" or"unpleasant" in practice with one set of response key assignments functioned lateras subliminal primes with appropriate valence, even when associations of keys withvalences were reversed before the test. This result shows that subliminal priminginvolves unconscious categorization of the prime, rather than just the automaticactivation of a practiced stimulus-response mapping.2 Subliminal Words Activate CategoriesSubliminal Words Activate SemanticCategories (Not Automated Motor Responses)It is well established that recent experience with a word facilitates itsprocessing on next occurence. This repetition priming effect has lately becomegermane in the interpretation of unconscious, or subliminal, semantic priming, inwhich classification of a visible target word is affected by the category (congruentor incongruent) of an immediately preceding, visually masked, unidentifiable("subliminal") prime word. Evidence accumulated over the last several yearsindicates that the effectiveness of subliminal words as primes is highly dependentupon recent practice classifying those words in visible form. From this evidence,four conclusions are warranted:First, in studies that used subliminal primes that ...

Richard Abrams; Anthony Greenwald

377

The Relationship between influencing Factors and the Implementation of Early Intervention Programme: The Possibility of Open Distance Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Malaysia, there is a grave concern from various quarters (educators, parents, the public and the Ministry of Education (MOE) on the inability of children not acquiring the basic skills (reading, writing and arithmetic). Evidence (Samsilah, Abd Rahman, Sharifah, 2005) showed that there were grade seven students who still could neither read nor write and it was also found that 30 students in the same grade were illiterate (STAR, 1997). Even with intervention programmes, 43.5% of the students reworded failed to acquire the basic skills. One factor identified was teaching effectiveness. Related to this factor is the lack of teachers. Due to the lack of teachers, in some schools, teachers are asked to take on the task of teaching in the intervention programme without proper training, hence, the poor student performance outcome. Yet, there are a number of individuals who would like to be teachers but had no opportunity because of economic reasons or not meeting the requirements post high school for entrance to higher institutions. Therefore, Open Distance Learning (ODL) may be the option for these individuals. This may perhaps also solve the woe of the nation’s lacking of teaching staffs. The basic philosophy of ODL promotes ‘inclusion’ and ‘openness’. These two concepts ensure a place and space for all those who were left out from the education mainstream but have the motivation to be corrected a teacher. But, with ODL the academic system will demand a shift in pedagogical paradigm, because ODL entails notably multimedia products and services. Therefore would-be ODL teachers and trainers will be trained via the use of innovative methods and techniques using multi media as the tool of instruction. This study suggests that with instructional innovations perhaps Early Intervention Programme (EIP) may have better prospect for success. Other factors in influencing the implementation of the EIP and implications for ODL are also discussed.

Rahil Mahyuddin

2012-01-01

378

Concreteness and word production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two experiments are reported that investigated the effect of concreteness on the ability to generate words to fit sentence contexts. When participants attempted to retrieve words from dictionary definitions in experiment 1, abstract words were associated with more omissions and more alternates than were concrete words. These findings are consistent with the view that the semantic-lexical weights in the word production system are weaker for abstract than for concrete words. We found no evidence that greater competition from semantic neighbors was an additional reason why abstract words were harder to produce. Participants also reported more positive tip-of-the-tongue states (TOTs) when attempting to produce abstract words from their definitions, consistent with more phonological retrieval problems for abstract than for concrete words. In experiment 2, participants attempted to generate words to fit into a sentence that described a specific event. The difference between the numbers of abstract and concrete words recalled was significantly smaller in the event condition than in the definition condition, and evidence no longer emerged of greater phonological retrieval failure for abstract words. Overall, the results are consistent with the view that the semantic-lexical weights, but not the lexical-phonological weights, are weaker for abstract than for concrete words in the word production system.

Hanley JR; Hunt RP; Steed DA; Jackman S

2013-04-01

379

Bilingual word recognition in a sentence context.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article provides an overview of bilingualism research on visual word recognition in isolation and in sentence context. Many studies investigating the processing of words out-of-context have shown that lexical representations from both languages are activated when reading in one language (language-non-selective lexical access). A newly developed research line asks whether language-non-selective access generalizes to word recognition in sentence contexts, providing a language cue and/or semantic constraint information for upcoming words. Recent studies suggest that the language of the preceding words is insufficient to restrict lexical access to words of the target language, even when reading in the native language. Eye tracking studies revealing the time course of word activation further showed that semantic constraint does not restrict language-non-selective access at early reading stages, but there is evidence that it has a relatively late effect. The theoretical implications for theories of bilingual word recognition are discussed in light of the Bilingual Interactive Activation+ model (Dijkstra and van Heuven, 2002).

Assche EV; Duyck W; Hartsuiker RJ

2012-01-01

380

Bilingual Word Recognition in a Sentence Context  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of bilingualism research on visual word recognition in isolation and in sentence context. Many studies investigating the processing of words out-of-context have shown that lexical representations from both languages are activated when reading in one language (language-non-selective lexical access). A newly developed research line asks whether language-non-selective access generalizes to word recognition in sentence contexts, providing a language cue and/or semantic constraint information for upcoming words. Recent studies suggest that the language of the preceding words is insufficient to restrict lexical access to words of the target language, even when reading in the native language. Eye tracking studies revealing the time course of word activation further showed that semantic constraint does not restrict language-non-selective access at early reading stages, but there is evidence that it has a relatively late effect. The theoretical implications for theories of bilingual word recognition are discussed in light of the Bilingual Interactive Activation+ model (Dijkstra and van Heuven, 2002).

Assche, Eva Van; Duyck, Wouter; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Professional WordPress  

CERN Multimedia

An in-depth look at the internals of the WordPress system.As the most popular blogging and content management platform available today, WordPress is a powerful tool. This exciting book goes beyond the basics and delves into the heart of the WordPress system, offering overviews of the functional aspects of WordPress as well as plug-in and theme development. What is covered in this book?: WordPress as a Content Management System; Hosting Options; Installing WordPress Files; Database Configuration; Dashboard Widgets; Customizing the Dashboard; Creating and Managing Content; Categorizing Your Cont

Stern, Hal; Williams, Brad

2010-01-01

382

Panorama de los estudios sobre aprendizaje de palabras en el habla de los niños de los doce meses a los cuatro años de edad Overview of the studies about word learning in the speech of children from two months to four years of age  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esta es una revisión de estudios empíricos sobre el aprendizaje de nuevas palabras en niños que comienzan a hablar. Se destacan tres grandes momentos en estos estudios. En el momento inicial, en la década de 1970, los estudios están sujetos al estudio del significado en distintos tipos de palabras. En el segundo momento (década de 1980) se estudia la relación entre el uso de nuevas palabras y expresiones verbales, y el desarrollo de conocimientos distintos al lenguaje. En el último momento (desde 1990 hasta la actualidad) hay un despliegue de perspectivas conceptuales y de dispositivos experimentales en este campo de estudio. Es importante revisar en la investigación posterior algunos temas descuidados aún: el uso de palabras en oraciones, las definiciones precisas de las categorías gramaticales para clasificar palabras y las relaciones del aprendizaje de nuevas palabras con el resto del desarrollo del lenguaje en el niño.This is a review of empirical studies on word learning in children who are beginning to speak. The studies are distributed in three phases. The first phase, in the 1970’s, researchers studied the meaning in different kinds of words. In the second phase (1980’s) the relationship between new words, verbal expressions and the development of distinct recognitions of language were studied. By the third phase (1990s to date) there is a boom in new conceptual perspectives and experimental devices in this field of study. It is important to review in previous research some areas that were looked over such as: the use of words in sentences, more accurate definitions for grammatical categories used to classify words, and the relationship between new word learning and others aspects of a child’s language development.

Nicolás Arias; Barbarita Morales

2007-01-01

383

[The early expressive vocabulary size in simultaneous bilingual growing-up infants - a diagnostic relevant criterion?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilingual young children's early expres-sive vocabulary size and its composition (as one domain of the language development) should be examined to find out whether children with a risk for delayed language development may be identified in this way.30 bilingual kindergarten infants from Berlin (with simultaneous language acquisition; second language German) and 30 monolingual German infants from the greater areas of Stuttgart and Heidelberg were pair matched (mean chronological age 22.5 [SD 3.1] months; min 16; max 26). The German expressive vocabulary checklist Elternfragebogen zur Wort-schatzentwicklung im frühen Kindesalter (ELAN; Bockmann & Kiese-Himmel, 2006) was filled out by all parents. In addition, parents of bilingual infants completed the adaption of the German vocabulary checklist Sprachbeurteilung durch Eltern (SBE-2-KT; v. Suchodoletz & Sachse, 2008) for the second mother tongue.The monolinguals' word sum in the ELAN (145.7; SD 75.8) differed significantly (p=0.001) from the bilinguals' word sum (78.3; SD 78.9 words). In contrast, bilinguals did not significantly differ in their overall expressive vocabulary size (ELAN+SBE-2-KT: 101.2; SD 77.0 words) from their monolingual counterparts (ELAN).Because bilinguals had a similar sized overall early vocabulary (both languages) like monolingual German-learning infants, the diagnostic criterion to identify late talkers with 24 months of age (less than 50 German words and no word combinations) should not be applied to bilingually infants with simultaneously double language acquisition. PMID:23292966

Kiese-Himmel, C; Sellner, L; Bockmann, A-K

2013-01-04

384

[The Early Expressive Vocabulary Size in Simultaneous Bilingual Growing-Up Infants - A Diagnostic Relevant Criterion?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bilingual young children's early expres-sive vocabulary size and its composition (as one domain of the language development) should be examined to find out whether children with a risk for delayed language development may be identified in this way.30 bilingual kindergarten infants from Berlin (with simultaneous language acquisition; second language German) and 30 monolingual German infants from the greater areas of Stuttgart and Heidelberg were pair matched (mean chronological age 22.5 [SD 3.1] months; min 16; max 26). The German expressive vocabulary checklist Elternfragebogen zur Wort-schatzentwicklung im frühen Kindesalter (ELAN; Bockmann & Kiese-Himmel, 2006) was filled out by all parents. In addition, parents of bilingual infants completed the adaption of the German vocabulary checklist Sprachbeurteilung durch Eltern (SBE-2-KT; v. Suchodoletz & Sachse, 2008) for the second mother tongue.The monolinguals' word sum in the ELAN (145.7; SD 75.8) differed significantly (p=0.001) from the bilinguals' word sum (78.3; SD 78.9 words). In contrast, bilinguals did not significantly differ in their overall expressive vocabulary size (ELAN+SBE-2-KT: 101.2; SD 77.0 words) from their monolingual counterparts (ELAN).Because bilinguals had a similar sized overall early vocabulary (both languages) like monolingual German-learning infants, the diagnostic criterion to identify late talkers with 24 months of age (less than 50 German words and no word combinations) should not be applied to bilingually infants with simultaneously double language acquisition.

Kiese-Himmel C; Sellner L; Bockmann AK

2013-01-01

385

Boosting Applied to Word Sense Disambiguation  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper Schapire and Singer's AdaBoost.MH boosting algorithm is applied to the Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) problem. Initial experiments on a set of 15 selected polysemous words show that the boosting approach surpasses Naive Bayes and Exemplar-based approaches, which represent state-of-the-art accuracy on supervised WSD. In order to make boosting practical for a real learning domain of thousands of words, several ways of accelerating the algorithm by reducing the feature space are studied. The best variant, which we call LazyBoosting, is tested on the largest sense-tagged corpus available containing 192,800 examples of the 191 most frequent and ambiguous English words. Again, boosting compares favourably to the other benchmark algorithms.

Escudero, G; Rigau, G; Escudero, Gerard; Marquez, Lluis; Rigau, German

2000-01-01

386

Word Sense Disambiguation in Information Retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The natural language processing has a set of phases that evolves from lexical text analysis to the pragmatic one in which the author’s intentions are shown. The ambiguity problem appears in all of these tasks. Previous works tries to do word sense disambiguation, the process of assign a sense to a word inside a specific context, creating algorithms under a supervised or unsupervised approach, which means that those algorithms use or not an external lexical resource. This paper presents an approximated approach that combines not supervised algorithms by the use of a classifiers set, the result will be a learning algorithm based on unsupervised methods for word sense disambiguation process. It begins with an introduction to word sense disambiguation concepts and then analyzes some unsupervised algorithms in order to extract the best of them, and combines them under a supervised approach making use of some classifiers.

Francis de la C. Fernández REYES; Exiquio C. Pérez LEYVA; Rogelio Lau FERNáNDEZ

2009-01-01

387

Evaluation of a computer-assisted errorless learning-based memory training program for patients with early Alzheimer's disease in Hong Kong: a pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Improving the situation in older adults with cognitive decline and evidence of cognitive rehabilitation is considered crucial in long-term care of the elderly. The objective of this study was to implement a computerized errorless learning-based memory training program (CELP) for persons with early Alzheimer's disease, and to compare the training outcomes of a CELP group with those of a therapist-led errorless learning program (TELP) group and a waiting-list control group. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with a single-blind research design was used in the study. Chinese patients with early Alzheimer's disease screened by the Clinical Dementia Rating (score of 1) were recruited. The subjects were randomly assigned to CELP (n = 6), TELP (n = 6), and waiting-list control (n = 7) groups. Evaluation of subjects before and after testing, and at three-month follow-up was achieved using primary outcomes on the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination, Chinese Dementia Rating Scale, Hong Kong List Learning Test, and the Brief Assessment of Prospective Memory-Short Form. Secondary outcomes were the Modified Barthel Index, Hong Kong Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form. The data were analyzed using Friedman's test for time effect and the Kruskal-Wallis test for treatment effect. RESULTS: Positive treatment effects on cognition were found in two errorless learning-based memory groups (ie, computer-assisted and therapist-led). Remarkable changes were shown in cognitive function for subjects receiving CELP and emotional/daily functions in those receiving TELP. CONCLUSION: Positive changes in the cognitive function of Chinese patients with early Alzheimer's disease were initially found after errorless training through CELP. Further enhancement of the training program is recommended.

Lee GY; Yip CC; Yu EC; Man DW

2013-01-01

388

Evaluation of a computer-assisted errorless learning-based memory training program for patients with early Alzheimer's disease in Hong Kong: a pilot study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Improving the situation in older adults with cognitive decline and evidence of cognitive rehabilitation is considered crucial in long-term care of the elderly. The objective of this study was to implement a computerized errorless learning-based memory training program (CELP) for persons with early Alzheimer’s disease, and to compare the training outcomes of a CELP group with those of a therapist-led errorless learning program (TELP) group and a waiting-list control group. Methods A randomized controlled trial with a single-blind research design was used in the study. Chinese patients with early Alzheimer’s disease screened by the Clinical Dementia Rating (score of 1) were recruited. The subjects were randomly assigned to CELP (n = 6), TELP (n = 6), and waiting-list control (n = 7) groups. Evaluation of subjects before and after testing, and at three-month follow-up was achieved using primary outcomes on the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination, Chinese Dementia Rating Scale, Hong Kong List Learning Test, and the Brief Assessment of Prospective Memory-Short Form. Secondary outcomes were the Modified Barthel Index, Hong Kong Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form. The data were analyzed using Friedman’s test for time effect and the Kruskal-Wallis test for treatment effect. Results Positive treatment effects on cognition were found in two errorless learning-based memory groups (ie, computer-assisted and therapist-led). Remarkable changes were shown in cognitive function for subjects receiving CELP and emotional/daily functions in those receiving TELP. Conclusion Positive changes in the cognitive function of Chinese patients with early Alzheimer’s disease were initially found after errorless training through CELP. Further enhancement of the training program is recommended.

Lee, Grace Y; Yip, Calvin CK; Yu, Edwin CS; Man, David WK

2013-01-01

389

L’apprentissage des mots : présentation d’un dispositif basé sur le jugement sémantique Learning words: Presentation of a method based on semantic judgement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’apprentissage d’un vocabulaire anglais adéquat reste un défi pour beaucoup d’apprenants, qui disposent rarement d’un support leur permettant d’aborder cette tâche de manière systématique. Avec comme point de départ une tâche de jugement sémantique, accompagnée de phrases contextes, quatre expériences ont été conduites, l’objectif étant de déterminer des caractéristiques d’un tel support. Les deux premières expériences examinent l’efficacité de la tâche de jugement sémantique en tant qu’outil d’apprentissage, la troisième se penche sur le rôle de la traduction, la quatrième fait intervenir des images et un cadre narratif. Les résultats obtenus permettent d’envisager de tester le dispositif en situation réelle, tout en continuant de soumettre certains paramètres, tels que l’effet du cadre narratif ou le rajout d’une présentation auditive, à de nouvelles expériences.The learning of an adequate English vocabulary remains a challenge for many learners, who rarely have material with which to approach the task systematically. With a view to determining some characteristics of such material, four experiments were carried out, taking a semantic judgement task, accompanied by context sentences, as a starting point. The first two experiments looked at the effectiveness of the semantic judgment task as a learning tool, the third is concerned with the role of translation, and the fourth includes pictures and a narrative framework. The results allow us to envisage testing the instrument in a real learning situation, whilst continuing to examine certain parameters in experimental conditions. Among these are the effect of the narrative framework or the addition of an auditory presentation.

Peter Prince

2012-01-01

390

#The #concept of team-work in the early childhood : #the #correlation between motor and foreign language learning in the early childhood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Collaborative teaching is used in many kindergartens, schools, colleges and universities around the world in order to foster learners? enthusiasm, social skills and to promote interdisciplinary learning. In Slovenia the instruction to use this new method started in kindergartens and primary schools ...

Oblak, Polona; Vehovar, Matjaž

391

How many English Words do the Senior High School Students Acquire per Week?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The 1984 SMA English curriculum states that SMA graduates are expected to master 4000 words. The curriculum also specifies the topics and then umber of words to be exposed to SMA students for each week (30 words per week). If it is accepted that each semester consists of 15 weeks, and each week the students actually learn 30 different words, then SMA graduates only learn about 2700 different words during their study at senior high school. Therefore, in my opinion the number of 4000 words also includes the words that should have been learnt by the them at SMP, that is, 1500 words according to the updated 1975 SMP English curriculum. However, Nababan (1984) states that we tend to forget about 40% of the words we have learned. If this is accepted, theoretically SMA graduates will only acquire about 2520 of the 4200 words (if the students only learn 2700 and 1500 at SMA and SMP respectively). The figure suggests that on average the students acquire about 14 different words per week during their study at SMP and SMA (2520 words divided by {12 semesters x 15 weeks}).

Ari Nurweni

1997-01-01

392

Automatic Word Sense Discrimination  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents context-group discrimination, a disambiguation algorithm based on clustering. Senses are interpreted as groups (or clusters) of similar contexts of the ambiguous word. Words, contexts, and senses are represented in Word Space, a high-dimensional, real-valued space in which closeness corresponds to semantic similarity. Similarity in Word Space is based on second-order co-occurrence: two tokens (or contexts) of the ambiguous word are assigned to the same sense cluster if the words they co-occur with in turn occur with similar words in a training corpus. The algorithm is automatic and unsupervised in both training and application: senses are induced from a corpus without labeled training insta,nces or other external knowledge sources. The paper demonstrates good performance of context-group discrimination for a sample of natural and artificial ambiguous words

Hinrich Schtitze

393

Automatic Word Sense Discrimination  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents context-group discrimination, a disambiguation algorithm based on clustering. Senses are interpreted as groups (or clusters) of similar contexts of the ambiguous word. Words, contexts and senses are represented in Word Space, a high-dimensional real-valued space in which closeness corresponds to semantic similarity. Similarity in Word Space is based on second-order co-occurrence: two tokens (or contexts) of the ambiguous word are assigned to the same sense cluster if the words they co-occur with in turn occur with similar words in a training corpus. The algorithm is automatic and unsupervised in both training and application: senses are induced from a corpus without labeled training instances or other external knowledge sources. The paper demonstrates good performance of context-group discrimination for a sample of natural and artificial ambiguous words.

Hinrich Schutze

394

Making Words Stick  

Science.gov (United States)

Anchoring new words in multiple contexts, teachers can make vocabulary meaningful and memorable. The forms of vocabulary instruction is presented so that the misidentification between words and their meanings can be avoided.

Juel, Connie; Deffes, Rebecca

2004-01-01

395

Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp) in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to assess possible sparse effects on gene expression. Learning about objects increased the density of granule cells expressing Arc, and to a lesser extent Narp, specifically in the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus, while Zif268 expression was elevated across both blades. Thus, object-place recognition triggers rapid, blade-specific upregulation of plasticity-associated immediate early genes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of dentate gyrus homogenates demonstrated concomitant upregulation of three postsynaptic density proteins (Arc, PSD-95, and α-CaMKII) with key roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory.

Jonathan Soulé; Zsuzsa Penke; Tambudzai Kanhema; Maria Nordheim Alme; Serge Laroche; Clive R. Bramham

2009-01-01

396

Baboons Learn to Read  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to recognize strings of letters as words, also known as orthographic processing, is a key component of reading. The ability to develop this skill has commonly been attributed to prior acquisition of a spoken language, but Grainger et al. argue that linguistic ability may instead be related to simple object recognition. To test this, Grainger and colleagues studied orthographic processing in a group of captive but freely ranging baboons, who learned to read and distinguish real English words from non-words with remarkable accuracy. These results suggest that a basic ability to recognize words does not require complex linguistic understanding.

Jonathan Grainger (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Stephane Dufau (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Marie Montant (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Johannes C. Ziegler (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Joel Fagot (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;)

2012-04-13

397

Retrieval-induced forgetting of words with negative emotionality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Retrieval of a memory can cause forgetting of other related memories. This phenomenon is known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). Previous studies have shown the results with respect to RIF of negative words were mixed, suggesting that it should be reconsidered. We used a stem-cued recall test to re-examine whether RIF occurs for negative words. A total of 30 undergraduate university students (11 male, 19 female) aged 19-22 years (M = 19.83, SD = 0.75) learned target words with neutral and negative emotionality. They then engaged in retrieval practice for half of the neutral and half of the negative targets by completing a word-fragment recall test. Finally a stem-cued recall test encompassing all studied targets was administered. The results of this test revealed that retrieval practice of neutral words caused forgetting of unpractised neutral words, but retrieval practice of negative words did not induce forgetting of unpractised negative words. We attribute the absence of RIF for negative words to baseline deflation or to integration, which were both generated by the inter-relationships between negative words. Further study is needed to clarify which factor, baseline deflation or integration, mainly influences the lack of RIF of negative words.

Kobayashi M; Tanno Y

2013-04-01

398

"Test" is a Four Letter Word  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word. How many of us associate 'Joy' with 'Test'? Not many. It is hard for most of us to reprogram associations learned at an early age. So what can we do about it (short of hypnotic therapy for software developers)? Well one concept I have used (and still use) is to not call testing 'testing'. Call it something else. Ever wonder why most of the Independent Software Testing groups are called Software Quality Assurance groups? Now you know. Software Quality Assurance is not such a negatively charged phrase, even though Software Quality Assurance is much more than simply testing. It was a real blessing when the concept of Validation and Verification came about for software. Now I define Validation to mean assuring that the product produced does the right thing (usually what the customer wants it to do), and verification means that the product was built the right way (in accordance with some good design principles and practices). So I have deliberately called the System Test Group the Verification and Validation Group, or V&V Group, as a way of avoiding the negative image problem. I remember once having a conversation with a developer colleague who said, in the heat of battle, that it was fine to V&V his code, just don't test it! Once again V&V includes many things besides testing, but it just doesn't sound like an onerous thing to do to software. In my current job, working at a highly regarded national laboratory with world renowned physicists, I have again encountered the negativity about testing software. Except here they don't take kindly to Software Quality Assurance or Software Verification and Validation either. After all, software is just a trivial tool to automate algorithms that implement physics models. Testing, SQA, and V&V take time and get in the way of completing ground breaking science experiments. So I have again had to change the name of software testing to something less negative in the physics world. I found (the hard way) that if I requested more time to do software experimentation, the phys

Pope, G M

2005-05-03

399

Students’ Achievement and Attitudes Toward Using Traditional Learning, Blended Learning, and Virtual Classes Learning in Teaching and Learning at the University Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of the traditional learning, blended learning and virtual classes learning on university students’ achievement and attitudes. 34 male students studying at the English Language Program, Qassim University were divided randomly into three groups, (blended learning, traditional learning, or virtual classes learning). Results indicate that there are significant differences among the instructional approaches in the achievement test scores in favor of blended learning. In addition, the results show significant differences in students’ attitudes in favor of blended learning.Key words: Blended learning; Traditional learning; Virtual classes learning; Saudi students’ achievement; Attitudes; E-learning

Mohammad A. Alseweed

2013-01-01

400

Word 2010 Simplified  

CERN Multimedia

Simply the easiest way yet to get up to speed on Word 2010. Microsoft Word 2010 includes all sorts of new features and functionalities, a redesigned interface, new emphasis on collaboration, and many additional changes. Both users of previous editions and those new to the Office applications will appreciate the clear, visual instruction in this book. With step-by-step instructions and large, full-color screen shots demonstrating dozens of Word 2010 tasks, Word 2010 Simplified gets you up and running faster than you ever thought possible.: Word is the most-used application in Microsoft Office,

Marmel, Elaine

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

A comparison of early learning curves for complex bimanual coordination with open, laparoscopic, and flexible endoscopic instrumentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study takes an initial step towards understanding the learning process of flexible endoscopic surgery. Bimanual coordination learning curves were contrasted between three different surgical paradigms. We hypothesized that use of an open or laparoscopic paradigm would result in better performance and a shorter learning process (reaching a learning plateau earlier) than an endoscopic paradigm. METHODS: Our model required seven subjects to perform identical bimanual coordination tasks with three different tools (a dual-channel endoscope with graspers, laparoscopic Maryland graspers, and straight hemostats for open surgery). The task required subjects to coordinate two instruments in order to perform a series of standardized maneuvers. Performance was measured by movement speed and accuracy. The learning process was broken down into three distinct phases: the practice phase, the short-term retention phase, and the long-term retention phase. The learning curves of four surgical novices for 33 tasks with each device were compared with the performance of three surgeons. RESULTS: Overall performance speed was significantly faster using open or laparoscopic tools than endoscopy for all groups (open 13 ± 1 s; lap 28 ± 3 s; endo 202 ± 82 s; P < 0.001). The difference between open and laparoscopy was not significant (P = 0.149). There was no significant difference (P = 0.434) in accuracy (number of ring drops) between any of the devices. Novices performed significantly slower than the expert in the endoscopy task (P = 0.010). Their performance improved with practice (P = 0.005) but they failed to reach the level of the expert after the practice phase (novices: 202.3 ± 23.4 s versus expert: 89.0 ± 34 s, P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Bimanual coordination tasks have shortest performance time and are easiest to learn using an open surgery paradigm. Performance times and the learning process take longer for the laparoscopic paradigm and significantly longer for the endoscopic paradigm.

Spaun GO; Zheng B; Martinec DV; Arnold BN; Swanström LL

2010-09-01

402

High stimulus variability in nonnative speech learning supports formation of abstract categories: evidence from Japanese geminates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports effects of a high-variability training procedure on nonnative learning of a Japanese geminate-singleton fricative contrast. Thirty native speakers of Dutch took part in a 5-day training procedure in which they identified geminate and singleton variants of the Japanese fricative /s/. Participants were trained with either many repetitions of a limited set of words recorded by a single speaker (low-variability training) or with fewer repetitions of a more variable set of words recorded by multiple speakers (high-variability training). Both types of training enhanced identification of speech but not of nonspeech materials, indicating that learning was domain specific. High-variability training led to superior performance in identification but not in discrimination tests, and supported better generalization of learning as shown by transfer from the trained fricatives to the identification of untrained stops and affricates. Variability thus helps nonnative listeners to form abstract categories rather than to enhance early acoustic analysis.

Sadakata M; McQueen JM

2013-08-01

403

L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo

2009-01-01

404

Vowel Categorization during Word Recognition in Bilingual Toddlers  

Science.gov (United States)

Toddlers' and preschoolers' knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the…

Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria; Bosch, Laura

2009-01-01

405

Hong Kong Student Teachers' Beliefs about Children's Learning: Influences of a Cross-Cultural Early Childhood Teaching Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-one in-service early childhood students participated in a teaching practicum in Australia as part of the final year of a Bachelor of Arts in Hong Kong. Students spent two weeks visiting a university and early childhood settings in Australia. The university based component of the program included workshops and discussions with lecturing…

Brownlee, Joanne; Chak, Amy