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If it's red, it's not Vap: how competition among words may benefit early word learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most prominent issues in early cognitive and linguistic development concerns how children figure out meanings of words from hearing them in context, since in many contexts there are multiple words and multiple potential referents for those words. Recent findings concerning on-line sentence comprehension suggest that, within the conversational context, potential referents compete for mappings to words. Three experiments examined whether such competitive processes may play a role in young children's learning of novel adjectives in an artificial word learning task. According to a competitive process view, although young children often mismap adjectives to whole objects rather than the properties of objects, explicitly mentioned familiar words should strongly map to referents consistent with those words and thereby decrease the likelihood of novel words being mismapped to these referents. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the role of the mere mention of familiar words and the role of word order in two year olds' ability to map a novel adjective to a property. Experiment 3 examined these processes in three year olds. The results indicate that lexical competition plays a particularly strong role in helping two year olds map a novel object to a property, whereas syntactic information about form class may also be informative to older children. The results suggest how fundamental processes of lexical competition in on-line word comprehension may give young learners a way to leverage known words in learning new words. PMID:23559688

Yoshida, Hanako; Hanania, Rima

2013-02-01

2

If it’s red, it’s not Vap: how competition among words may benefit early word learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most prominent issues in early cognitive and linguistic development concerns how children figure out meanings of words from hearing them in context, since in many contexts there are multiple words and multiple potential referents for those words. Recent findings concerning on-line sentence comprehension suggest that, within the conversational context, potential referents compete for mappings to words. Three experiments examined whether such competitive processes may play a role in ...

Yoshida, Hanako; Hanania, Rima

2013-01-01

3

Frequency Effects or Context Effects in Second Language Word Learning: What Predicts Early Lexical Production?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines frequency, contextual diversity, and contextual distinctiveness effects in predicting produced versus not-produced frequent nouns and verbs by early second language (L2) learners of English. The study analyzes whether word frequency is the strongest predictor of early L2 word production independent of contextual diversity and…

Crossley, Scott A.; Subtirelu, Nicholas; Salsbury, Tom

2013-01-01

4

Bilingual beginnings to learning words.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the macrostructure level of language milestones, language acquisition follows a nearly identical course whether children grow up with one or with two languages. However, at the microstructure level, experimental research is revealing that the same proclivities and learning mechanisms that support language acquisition unfold somewhat differently in bilingual versus monolingual environments. This paper synthesizes recent findings in the area of early bilingualism by focusing on the question of how bilingual infants come to apply their phonetic sensitivities to word learning, as they must to learn minimal pair words (e.g. 'cat' and 'mat'). To this end, the paper reviews antecedent achievements by bilinguals throughout infancy and early childhood in the following areas: language discrimination and separation, speech perception, phonetic and phonotactic development, word recognition, word learning and aspects of conceptual development that underlie word learning. Special consideration is given to the role of language dominance, and to the unique challenges to language acquisition posed by a bilingual environment. PMID:19933138

Werker, Janet F; Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Fennell, Christopher T

2009-12-27

5

Word-learning performance in beginning readers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation examined word-learning performance in beginning readers. The children learned to read words with regular spelling-sound mappings (e.g., snake) more easily than words with irregular spelling-sound mappings (e.g., sword). In addition, there was an effect of semantics: Children learned to read concrete words (e.g., elbow) more successfully than abstract words (e.g., temper). Trial-by-trial learning indicated that children made greater use of the regularity and semantic properties at later trials as compared with early trials. The influence of cognitive skills (paired associate learning and phonological awareness) on word-learning performance was also examined. Regression analyses revealed that whereas paired associate learning skills accounted for unique variance in the children's learning of both regular and irregular words, phonological awareness accounted for unique variance only in the acquisition of regular words. PMID:18572988

Nilsen, Elizabeth; Bourassa, Derrick

2008-06-01

6

Mechanisms underlying accent accommodation in early word learning: evidence for general expansion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous work reveals that toddlers can accommodate a novel accent after hearing it for only a brief period of time. A common assumption is that children, like adults, cope with nonstandard pronunciations by relying on words they know (e.g. 'this person pronounces sock as sack, therefore by black she meant block'). In this paper, we assess whether toddlers might additionally use a general expansion strategy, whereby they simply accept non-standard pronunciations when variability is expected. We exposed a group of 24-month-old English-learning toddlers to variability in indexical cues (very diverse voices from native English talkers), and another to variability in social cues (very diverse-looking silent actors); neither group was familiarized with the target novel accent. At test, both groups succeeded in recognizing a novel word when spoken in the novel accent. Thus, even when no lexical cues are available, variability can prepare young children for non-standard pronunciations. PMID:25443808

Schmale, Rachel; Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

2014-11-28

7

Learning builds on learning: infants' use of native language sound patterns to learn words.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current research investigated how infants apply prior knowledge of environmental regularities to support new learning. The experiments tested whether infants could exploit experience with native language (English) phonotactic patterns to facilitate associating sounds with meanings during word learning. Infants (14-month-olds) heard fluent speech that contained cues for detecting target words; the target words were embedded in sequences that occur across word boundaries. A separate group heard the target words embedded without word boundary cues. Infants then participated in an object label learning task. With the opportunity to use native language patterns to segment the target words, infants subsequently learned the labels. Without this experience, infants failed. Novice word learners can take advantage of early learning about sounds to scaffold lexical development. PMID:24980741

Graf Estes, Katharine

2014-10-01

8

Do Preschool Children Learn to Read Words from Environmental Prints?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Parents and teachers worldwide believe that a visual environment rich with print can contribute to young children's literacy. Children seem to recognize words in familiar logos at an early age. However, most of previous studies were carried out with alphabetic scripts. Alphabetic letters regularly correspond to phonological segments in a word and provide strong cues about the identity of the whole word. Thus it was not clear whether children can learn to read words by extracting visual word f...

Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Pei; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Su

2014-01-01

9

Word learning under infinite uncertainty  

CERN Document Server

Language learners learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite encountering them in complex environments where infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as their true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which this can happen. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints allowing learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could also be weak.

Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Kenny

2014-01-01

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Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, a...

Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

2010-01-01

11

Learning Color Words Involves Learning a System of Mappings.  

Science.gov (United States)

A longitudinal study examined the role of a mapping system in 2-year olds' learning of color and size words. Results indicated that the children acquired color maps in a characteristic order and showed a different acquisition pattern for size words. Results suggest that learning word associations may promote color-word acquisition; learning color…

Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Smith, Linda B.

1999-01-01

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Word Learning: An ERP Investigation of Word Experience Effects on Recognition and Word Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., "gloaming") in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no…

Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

2010-01-01

13

Bilingual beginnings to learning words  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the macrostructure level of language milestones, language acquisition follows a nearly identical course whether children grow up with one or with two languages. However, at the microstructure level, experimental research is revealing that the same proclivities and learning mechanisms that support language acquisition unfold somewhat differently in bilingual versus monolingual environments. This paper synthesizes recent findings in the area of early bilingualism by focusing on the question ...

Werker, Janet F.; Byers-heinlein, Krista; Fennell, Christopher T.

2009-01-01

14

Relations between Specific and General Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

A one-year longitudinal study was performed to test the hypothesis that children's word-specific learning of regular words is a causal determinate in their understanding and use of simple correspondence rules in reading and spelling. Kindergarten and first-grade children were asked to read and spell real words and matched pseudowords in three…

Davis, Claire; Drouin, Michelle

2010-01-01

15

Ambiguous Words Are Harder to Learn  

Science.gov (United States)

Relatively little is known about the role of ambiguity in adult second-language learning. In this study, native English speakers learned Dutch-English translation pairs that either mapped in a one-to-one fashion (unambiguous items) in that a Dutch word uniquely corresponded to one English word, or mapped in a one-to-many fashion (ambiguous items),…

Degani, Tamar; Tokowicz, Natasha

2010-01-01

16

Noise Hampers Children's Expressive Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To determine the effects of noise and speech style on word learning in typically developing school-age children. Method: Thirty-one participants ages 9;0 (years;months) to 10;11 attempted to learn 2 sets of 8 novel words and their referents. They heard all of the words 13 times each within meaningful narrative discourse. Signal-to-noise…

Riley, Kristine Grohne; McGregor, Karla K.

2012-01-01

17

Context and Repetition in Word Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Young children learn words from a variety of situations, including shared storybook reading. A recent study by Horst et al., (2011 demonstrates that children learned more new words during shared storybook reading if they were read the same stories repeatedly than if they were read different stories that had the same number of target words. The current paper reviews this study and further examines the effect of contextual repetition on children’s word learning in both shared storybook reading and other situations, including fast mapping by mutual exclusivity. The studies reviewed here suggest that the same cognitive mechanisms support word learning in a variety of situations. Both practical considerations for experimental design and directions for future research are discussed.

JessicaSHorst

2013-04-01

18

Learning Words from Reliable and Unreliable Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

Three studies examined whether 3- and 4-year olds would trust a reliable speaker over an unreliable speaker when learning a new word and whether that trust would be reversed, and the word mapping revised, when a trusted speaker later proved unreliable. Study 1 indicated that 3- and 4-year olds trusted a reliable speaker over an unreliable speaker.…

Scofield, Jason; Behrend, Douglas A.

2008-01-01

19

Grounding Word Learning in Space  

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Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects—space binds labels to their referents. We ...

Samuelson, Larissa K.; Smith, Linda B.; Perry, Lynn K.; Spencer, John P.

2011-01-01

20

Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning  

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In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar no...

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Consonant/vowel asymmetry in early word form recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous preferential listening studies suggest that 11-month-olds' early word representations are phonologically detailed, such that minor phonetic variations (i.e., mispronunciations) impair recognition. However, these studies focused on infants' sensitivity to mispronunciations (or omissions) of consonants, which have been proposed to be more important for lexical identity than vowels. Even though a lexically related consonant advantage has been consistently found in French from 14months of age onward, little is known about its developmental onset. The current study asked whether French-learning 11-month-olds exhibit a consonant-vowel asymmetry when recognizing familiar words, which would be reflected in vowel mispronunciations being more tolerated than consonant mispronunciations. In a baseline experiment (Experiment 1), infants preferred listening to familiar words over nonwords, confirming that at 11months of age infants show a familiarity effect rather than a novelty effect. In Experiment 2, which was constructed using the familiar words of Experiment 1, infants preferred listening to one-feature vowel mispronunciations over one-feature consonant mispronunciations. Given the familiarity preference established in Experiment 1, this pattern of results suggests that recognition of early familiar words is more dependent on their consonants than on their vowels. This adds another piece of evidence that, at least in French, consonants already have a privileged role in lexical processing by 11months of age, as claimed by Nespor, Peña, and Mehler (2003). PMID:25544396

Poltrock, Silvana; Nazzi, Thierry

2015-03-01

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75 FR 20830 - Early Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

...to improving early learning outcomes...strategies, professional development...comments on the four early learning topics...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Katy Chapman...comments on the four early learning topics...your name and contact information on...Workforce and Professional...

2010-04-21

23

Statistical word learning at scale: the baby's view is better.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key question in early word learning is how children cope with the uncertainty in natural naming events. One potential mechanism for uncertainty reduction is cross-situational word learning - tracking word/object co-occurrence statistics across naming events. But empirical and computational analyses of cross-situational learning have made strong assumptions about the nature of naming event ambiguity, assumptions that have been challenged by recent analyses of natural naming events. This paper shows that learning from ambiguous natural naming events depends on perspective. Natural naming events from parent-child interactions were recorded from both a third-person tripod-mounted camera and from a head-mounted camera that produced a 'child's-eye' view. Following the human simulation paradigm, adults were asked to learn artificial language labels by integrating across the most ambiguous of these naming events. Significant learning was found only from the child's perspective, pointing to the importance of considering statistical learning from an embodied perspective. PMID:24118720

Yurovsky, Daniel; Smith, Linda B; Yu, Chen

2013-11-01

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Learning Multilingual Word Representations using a Bag-of-Words Autoencoder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent work on learning multilingual word representations usually relies on the use of word-level alignements (e.g. infered with the help of GIZA++) between translated sentences, in order to align the word embeddings in different languages. In this workshop paper, we investigate an autoencoder model for learning multilingual word representations that does without such word-level alignements. The autoencoder is trained to reconstruct the bag-of-word representation of given se...

Lauly, Stanislas; Boulanger, Alex; Larochelle, Hugo

2014-01-01

25

Children Monitor Individuals' Expertise for Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments examined preschoolers' ability to learn novel words using others' expertise about objects' nonobvious properties. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds (n = 24) endorsed individuals' labels for objects based on their differing causal knowledge about those objects. Experiment 2 examined the robustness of this inference and its development.…

Sobel, David M.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.

2010-01-01

26

Phonological Similarity Influences Word Learning in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language  

Science.gov (United States)

Neighborhood density--the number of words that sound similar to a given word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998)--influences word learning in native English-speaking children and adults (Storkel, 2004; Storkel, Armbruster & Hogan, 2006): novel words with many similar sounding English words (i.e., dense neighborhood) are learned more quickly than novel words

Stamer, Melissa K.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

2012-01-01

27

Visual word learning in adults with dyslexia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated word learning in university and college students with a diagnosis of dyslexia and in typically-reading controls. Participants read aloud short (4-letter and longer (7-letter nonwords as quickly as possible. The nonwords were repeated across 10 blocks, using a different random order in each block. Participants returned 7 days later and repeated the experiment. Accuracy was high in both groups. The dyslexics were substantially slower than the controls at reading the nonwords throughout the experiment. They also showed a larger length effect, indicating less effective decoding skills. Learning was demonstrated by faster reading of the nonwords across repeated presentations and by a reduction in the difference in reading speeds between shorter and longer nonwords. The dyslexics required more presentations of the nonwords before the length effect became non-significant, only showing convergence in reaction times between shorter and longer items in the second testing session where controls achieved convergence part-way through the first session. Participants also completed a psychological test battery assessing reading and spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, working memory, nonverbal ability and motor speed. The dyslexics performed at a similar level to the controls on nonverbal ability but significantly less well on all the other measures. Regression analyses found that decoding ability, measured as the speed of reading aloud nonwords when they were presented for the first time, was predicted by a composite of word reading and spelling scores (‘literacy’. Word learning was assessed in terms of the improvement in naming speeds over 10 blocks of training. Learning was predicted by vocabulary and working memory scores, but not by literacy, phonological awareness, nonverbal ability or motor speed. The results show that young dyslexic adults have problems both in pronouncing novel words and in learning new written words.

Andrew Ellis

2014-05-01

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How words can and cannot be learned by observation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three experiments explored how words are learned from hearing them across contexts. Adults watched 40-s videotaped vignettes of parents uttering target words (in sentences) to their infants. Videos were muted except for a beep or nonsense word inserted where each “mystery word” was uttered. Participants were to identify the word. Exp. 1 demonstrated that most (90%) of these natural learning instances are quite uninformative, whereas a small minority (7%) are highly informative, as indexed...

Medina, Tamara Nicol; Snedeker, Jesse; Trueswell, John C.; Gleitman, Lila R.

2011-01-01

29

Value-Added Early Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Elected state leaders often prioritize economic prosperity and competitiveness, which provides an important opportunity too rarely taken for investing in early education. In 2003, Pennsylvania recognized the connection between early education and the economy, and smartly embraced early learning as part of its economic prosperity and…

Dichter, Harriet

2011-01-01

30

An Autoencoder Approach to Learning Bilingual Word Representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cross-language learning allows us to use training data from one language to build models for a different language. Many approaches to bilingual learning require that we have word-level alignment of sentences from parallel corpora. In this work we explore the use of autoencoder-based methods for cross-language learning of vectorial word representations that are aligned between two languages, while not relying on word-level alignments. We show that by simply learning to recons...

P, Sarath Chandar A.; Lauly, Stanislas; Larochelle, Hugo; Khapra, Mitesh M.; Ravindran, Balaraman; Raykar, Vikas; Saha, Amrita

2014-01-01

31

Variables and Values in Children’s Early Word-Combinations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A model of syntactic development proposes that children’s very first word-combinations are already generated via productive rules that express in syntactic form the relation between a predicate word and its semantic argument. An alternative hypothesis is that they learn frozen chunks. In Study 1 we analyzed a large sample of young children’s early two-word sentences comprising of verbs with direct objects. A majority of objects were generated by pronouns but a third of children’s sentences used bare common nouns as objects. We checked parents’ twoword long sentences of verbs with objects and found almost no bare common nouns. Children cannot have copied sentences with bare noun objects from parents’ two-word long sentences as frozen chunks. In Study 2 we raised the possibility that children’s early sentences with bare nouns are rote-learned ‘telegraphic speech’, acquired as unanalyzed frozen chunks from longer input sentences due to perceptual problem to hear the unstressed determiners. To test this explanation, we tested the children’s speech corpus for evidence that they avoid determiners in their word-combinations. The results showed that they do not; in fact they generate very many determiner-common noun combinations as two-word utterances. The findings suggest that children produce their early word-combinations of the core-grammar type by a productive rule that maps the predicate-argument relations of verbs and their semantic arguments to headdependent syntax, and not as frozen word-combinations. Children mostly learn to use indexical expressions such as pronouns to express the variable semantic arguments of verbs as context dependent; they also employ bare common nouns to express specific values of the arguments. The earliest word-combinations demonstrate that children understand that syntax is built on the predicate-argument relations of words and use this insight to produce their early sentences.

Ninio Anat

2014-08-01

32

Similarity and Difference in Learning L2 Word-Form  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored similarity and difference in L2 written word-form learning from a cross-linguistic perspective. This study investigated whether learners' L1 orthographic background, which influences L2 visual word recognition (e.g., Wang et al., 2003), also influences L2 word-form learning, in particular, the sensitivity to phonological and…

Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

2011-01-01

33

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

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Full Text Available ... CDC-TV Learn about CDC-TV Share Compartir Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Source: National ... resolution file Share this Video Embed: What do you think of our videos? Your feedback about CDC-TV and our videos ...

143

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early.  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

CDC recognized the impact of developmental disabilities and invested in a campaign to help parents measure their children's progress by monitoring how they play, learn, speak, and act. .  Created: 9/22/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Division of Human Development and Disability, Child Development Studies Team.   Date Released: 9/23/2008.

2008-09-22

144

Word Specific Training Effects and Simultaneous Absence of Learning Transfer. Analyses of Computerized Reading Instruction for Special Learning Needs  

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Full Text Available This study focused on using intensive computer-based instruction to improve the learning outcomes of five adult functional illiterates who participated in a literacy class at an adult education center. During training sessions, they practiced 32 training words with three different highlighted sublexical onsets for 15 minutes on a daily basis. Results of the study indicated an increase in reading accuracy and fluency. However, only word specific training effects were found (i.e., transfer effects on untrained words could not be shown. Moreover, when compared to a control group of adults without reading problems, participants read more slowly at every measurement point (pre, post, and follow-up tests. Possible interpretations regarding the lack of transfer effects and the poor reading fluency of functional illiterates will be discussed, as well as implications for the literacy training of individuals in adult basic education.

Michael Grosche

2013-09-01

145

Building Machine Learning Based Senti-word Lexicon for Sentiment Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sentiment analysis involves classifying opinions in text into categories like "positive" or "negative". One of approaches used to make sentiment classification is using sentiment lexicon. This paper aims to build a sentiment lexicon which is domain independent. We propose a Machine Learning Based Senti-word Lexicon (MLBSL based on the Amazon data set which contains reviews from different domains. Our proposed MLBSL yields an improvement over previous published manual and automatic-built lexicons like SentiWordNet. We also provide an improvement in calculation method used in reviews sentiment analysis.

Alaa Hamouda

2011-11-01

146

Learning to read new words in individuals with Down syndrome: testing the role of phonological knowledge.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effect of word level phonological knowledge on learning to read new words in Down syndrome compared to typical development. Children were taught to read 12 nonwords, 6 of which were pre-trained on their phonology. The 16 individuals with Down syndrome aged 8-17 years were compared first to a group of 30 typically developing children aged 5-7 years matched for word reading and then to a subgroup of these children matched for decoding. There was a marginally significant effect for individuals with Down syndrome to benefit more from phonological pre-training than typically developing children matched for word reading but when compared to the decoding-matched subgroup, the two groups benefitted equally. We explain these findings in terms of partial decoding attempts being resolved by word level phonological knowledge and conclude that being familiar with the spoken form of a new word may help children when they attempt to read it. This may be particularly important for children with Down syndrome and other groups of children with weak decoding skills. PMID:24582853

Mengoni, Silvana E; Nash, Hannah M; Hulme, Charles

2014-05-01

147

Professional development for the early learning content social studies standards  

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Full Text Available This article describes early childhood educators’ responses to a professional development series aimed at helping them to understand and incorporate early learning standards for social studies. While the primary aim of the professional development was to focus on thesocial studies content standards, the secondary aim was to introduce early childhood educators to culturally relevant pedagogical strategies that take into account the unique learning needs of diverse children, particularly children of colour, English languagelearners and children with special needs. The findings suggest that early childhood educators can benefit from sustained professional development that not only addresses content standards but also helps them to understand how to incorporate the standards into their existing curriculum using developmentally and culturally appropriate pedagogy.

Laurie KATZ

2010-03-01

148

Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early  

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Full Text Available ... Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) Running Time: (4:32) Release Date: 9/22/2008 Early recognition ... Salt Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health Release Date: 4/20/2011 Your Wake-Up Call Release Date: ...

149

Linking Standards and Engaged Learning in the Early Years  

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Early childhood educators are increasingly concerned about the trend toward national standards and national testing. This article addresses issues of assessment in the early years of schooling, prekindergarten through third grade?a period when active, engaged, hands-on learning is most appropriate. Documentation of a kindergarten project on a turtle is presented to show how a science content standard is attained and how evidence is gathered that demonstrates the attainment of those skills in...

Gaye Gronlund; Judy Harris Helm

2000-01-01

150

What can we learn from learning models about sensitivity to letter-order in visual word recognition?  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research on the effects of letter transposition in Indo-European Languages has shown that readers are surprisingly tolerant of these manipulations in a range of tasks. This evidence has motivated the development of new computational models of reading that regard flexibility in positional coding to be a core and universal principle of the reading process. Here we argue that such approach does not capture cross-linguistic differences in transposed-letter effects, nor do they explain them. To address this issue, we investigated how a simple domain-general connectionist architecture performs in tasks such as letter-transposition and letter substitution when it had learned to process words in the context of different linguistic environments. The results show that in spite of of the neurobiological noise involved in registering letter-position in all languages, flexibility and inflexibility in coding letter order is also shaped by the statistical orthographic properties of words in a language, such as the relative prevalence of anagrams. Our learning model also generated novel predictions for targeted empirical research, demonstrating a clear advantage of learning models for studying visual word recognition. PMID:25431521

Lerner, Itamar; Armstrong, Blair C; Frost, Ram

2014-11-01

151

Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words  

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Full Text Available Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi ‘sendoff’, oit (e.g., exploit ‘exploit’, ois (e.g., siamois, ‘siamese’, or oie (e.g., joie ‘joy’. The morphologically complex word exploiter ‘to exploit’, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word’s final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s. Thirty minutes after having read the stories, children’s orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie. Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

SebastienPacton

2013-10-01

152

Simple Semi-supervised Learning for Chinese Word Segmentation and Pos Tagging  

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Full Text Available Strategies of unlabeled data selection are important for semi-supervised learning of natural language processing tasks. To increase the accuracy and diversity of new labeled data, plenty of methods have been proposed, such as ensemble-based self-training, co-training and tri-training methods. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective semi-supervised algorithm for Chinese word segmentation and part-of-speech tagging problem which selects new labeled data agreed by two different approaches: character-based and word-based models. Theoretical and experimental analysis verifies that sentences with same annotation on both models are more accurate than those generated by single models and are suitable for semi-supervised learning as additional data. Experimental results on Chinese Treebank 5.0 demonstrate that our semi-supervised approach is comparable with the best reported semi-supervised approach which employs complex feature engineering.

Xinxin Li

2013-01-01

153

Toddlers learn words in a foreign language: The role of native vocabulary knowledge  

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The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers’ (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English and secondly, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furt...

Koenig, Melissa A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

2012-01-01

154

Building Machine Learning Based Senti-word Lexicon for Sentiment Analysis  

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Sentiment analysis involves classifying opinions in text into categories like "positive" or "negative". One of approaches used to make sentiment classification is using sentiment lexicon. This paper aims to build a sentiment lexicon which is domain independent. We propose a Machine Learning Based Senti-word Lexicon (MLBSL) based on the Amazon data set which contains reviews from different domains. Our proposed MLBSL yields an improvement over previous published manual and ...

Alaa Hamouda; Mahmoud Marei; Mohamed Rohaim

2011-01-01

155

Simple Semi-supervised Learning for Chinese Word Segmentation and Pos Tagging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Strategies of unlabeled data selection are important for semi-supervised learning of natural language processing tasks. To increase the accuracy and diversity of new labeled data, plenty of methods have been proposed, such as ensemble-based self-training, co-training and tri-training methods. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective semi-supervised algorithm for Chinese word segmentation and part-of-speech tagging problem which selects new labeled data agreed by two different approach...

Xinxin Li; Xuan Wang; Muhammad Waqas Anwar

2013-01-01

156

Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy  

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This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

2012-01-01

157

Playing to Learn: A Training Manual for Early Childhood Education.  

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This guide for trainers offers a comprehensive child-centered perspective on training field workers in early childhood education. The theme of the role of play in child growth, development, and learning runs throughout the guide while its form, a series of structured exercises to help trainers handle all aspects of the subject, emphasizes the…

Singh, Asha; Swaminathan, Mina

158

Triggering word learning in children with Language Impairment: the effect of phonotactic probability and neighbourhood density.  

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The effect of phonotactic probability (PP) and neighbourhood density (ND) on triggering word learning was examined in children with Language Impairment (3;04-6;09) and compared to Typically Developing children. Nonwords, varying PP and ND orthogonally, were presented in a story context and their learning tested using a referent identification task. Group comparisons with receptive vocabulary as a covariate found no group differences in overall scores or in the influence of PP or ND. Therefore, there was no evidence of atypical lexical or phonological processing. 'Convergent' PP/ND (High PP/High ND; Low PP/Low ND) was optimal for word learning in both groups. This bias interacted with vocabulary knowledge. 'Divergent' PP/ND word scores (High PP/Low ND; Low PP/High ND) were positively correlated with vocabulary so the 'divergence disadvantage' reduced as vocabulary knowledge grew; an interaction hypothesized to represent developmental changes in lexical-phonological processing linked to the emergence of phonological representations. PMID:24191951

McKean, Cristina; Letts, Carolyn; Howard, David

2014-11-01

159

Learning and consolidation of new spoken words in autism spectrum disorder.  

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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by rich heterogeneity in vocabulary knowledge and word knowledge that is not well accounted for by current cognitive theories. This study examines whether individual differences in vocabulary knowledge in ASD might be partly explained by a difficulty with consolidating newly learned spoken words and/or integrating them with existing knowledge. Nineteen boys with ASD and 19 typically developing (TD) boys matched on age and vocabulary knowledge showed similar improvements in recognition and recall of novel words (e.g. 'biscal') 24 hours after training, suggesting an intact ability to consolidate explicit knowledge of new spoken word forms. TD children showed competition effects for existing neighbors (e.g. 'biscuit') after 24 hours, suggesting that the new words had been integrated with existing knowledge over time. In contrast, children with ASD showed immediate competition effects that were not significant after 24 hours, suggesting a qualitative difference in the time course of lexical integration. These results are considered from the perspective of the dual-memory systems framework. PMID:24636285

Henderson, Lisa; Powell, Anna; Gareth Gaskell, M; Norbury, Courtenay

2014-11-01

160

Attention to Maternal Multimodal Naming by 6- to 8-Month-Old Infants and Learning of Word-Object Relations  

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We examined whether mothers' use of temporal synchrony between spoken words and moving objects, and infants' attention to object naming, predict infants' learning of word-object relations. Following 5 min of free play, 24 mothers taught their 6- to 8-month-olds the names of 2 toy objects, "Gow" and "Chi," during a 3-min play episode. Infants were…

Gogate, Lakshmi J.; Bolzani, Laura H.; Betancourt, Eugene A.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Linking Standards and Engaged Learning in the Early Years  

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Full Text Available Early childhood educators are increasingly concerned about the trend toward national standards and national testing. This article addresses issues of assessment in the early years of schooling, prekindergarten through third grade?a period when active, engaged, hands-on learning is most appropriate. Documentation of a kindergarten project on a turtle is presented to show how a science content standard is attained and how evidence is gathered that demonstrates the attainment of those skills inherent in the standard. The article then presents a framework for helping teachers and administrators to think about standards and the documentation of attainment of standards in ways that are compatible with how young children learn. The documentation procedures are especially compatible with approaches to learning that encourage student initiation and interest, such as the Project Approach.

Gaye Gronlund

2000-01-01

162

Interactive Language Learning by Robots: The Transition from Babbling to Word Forms  

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The advent of humanoid robots has enabled a new approach to investigating the acquisition of language, and we report on the development of robots able to acquire rudimentary linguistic skills. Our work focuses on early stages analogous to some characteristics of a human child of about 6 to 14 months, the transition from babbling to first word forms. We investigate one mechanism among many that may contribute to this process, a key factor being the sensitivity of learners to the statistical di...

Lyon, Caroline; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.; Saunders, Joe

2012-01-01

163

E-Learning Content for Early Detection Cervival Cancer  

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Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most commonly type of cancer that strikes women. The rate of deaths caused by this type of cancer is quite high. The mortality rate caused by this cancer can be reduced through early detection program. To support this program, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia is aware of the need for training the health workers in order to do the socialization quickly and evenly to all corners of Indonesia in order to reduce the number of cases of death due to cervical cancer. The aim of this research was to find out the type of online learning content that was suitable and easy for the public and medical personnel to understand on early detection of cervical cancer. The method used British Columbia’s standard for online learning content which mainly focused on four criteria. Moreover, the method that was used by Jeong and Kim to design the content of an instructional approach was also employed. Bloom’s taxonomy theory was followed as the reference theory in designing the online learning material. The result described the information content of the early detection of cervical cancer in form of multimedia in online learning.

Agus PUTRANTO

2013-06-01

164

Word of mouth in social learning: The effects of word of mouth advice in the smartphone market  

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Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this thesis is to examine word of mouth advice and its relationship with product sales and market shares in the context of the smartphone market. The thesis aims to determine the key properties of valuable word of mouth advice from a consumer's perspective and seeks to identify the effects of sources and transmission methods on the valuation of word of mouth advice. Furthermore, the thesis aims to clarify the market wide effects of positive word ...

Head, Mikael

2013-01-01

165

Semi-supervised Phonetic Category Learning: Does Word-level Information Enhance the Efficacy of Distributional Learning?  

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Full Text Available To test whether word-level information facilitates the learning of phonetic categories, 40 adult native English speakers were exposed to a bimodal distribution of vowels embedded in non-words. Half of the subjects received phonetic categories aligned with lexical categories, while the other half received no such cue. It was hypothesized that the subjects exposed to lexically-informative training stimuli that were aligned with the target categories would outperform the control subjects on a perceptual categorization task after training. While the results revealed no such group differences, the data indicated that many subjects used the relevant dimension for categorization before having received any training. Implications regarding experimental design and suggestions for future research based on the results are discussed.

Till Poppels

2014-08-01

166

The Effect of Exposure to the Visual Medium on Learning Pronunciation and Word Stress of L2 Learners  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effect of exposure to the visual medium on learning pronunciation and word stress. Thirty junior high school students participated in this study. They were divided into an experimental and a control group each included 15 students. The participants were given a pretest in order to make sure that they were homogeneous with regard to their pronunciation and word stress. Both groups received instruction on key to phonetic symbols available in the back of their textbooks and on the stress of English words. The participants in the experimental group read the computerized written passages while they had access to the pronunciation of the target words through phonetic symbols of the words. The control group listened to the teacher reading the same passages and repeated after her without having any access to the computer and experimental materials. Finally, the attitudinal questionnaire was given to the participants in experimental group to elicit their attitude towards their practicing technique. The findings revealed that visual medium had significant effect on learning word stress but not pronunciation of target words. Furthermore, using computer as a visual medium increased students’ motivation for both pronunciation and word stress learning.

Zahra Fotovatnia

2013-05-01

167

Developing Home-Based Early Learning Systems in East Yakima and White Center. Better Beginnings  

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In 2006, the Gates Foundation launched the Early Learning Initiative to improve the school readiness of Washington State's children through three main strategies: (1) development of high-quality, community-wide early learning initiatives in two communities; (2) enhancement of statewide systems that support early learning; and (3) support for…

Hallgren, Kristin; Paulsell, Diane; Del Grosso, Patricia

2010-01-01

168

Thai Learners’ English Pronunciation Competence: Lesson Learned from Word Stress Assignment  

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Full Text Available English has been a lingua franca in various domains of communication such as international business, academic conferences, diplomacy, science and technology. As a result, the demands for English skills in all aspects are crucial in response to the importance of English and the impact of globalization. Despite the constant efforts in developing English education in Thailand, a number of studies have shown that the achievement of Thai learners was unsatisfactory. Given the role of English as an international language which is used in almost domain of communication, amongst several factors hindering the success of English language learning, English pronunciation of the Thai learners should be focused. This study has two principle objectives: 1 to examine Thai learners’ knowledge with regard to word stress assignment; and 2 to determine possible factors affecting the Thai learners’ pronunciation competence. To achieve these objectives, 90 Thai learners of English participated in this study. The test consisting of two parts: personal information profile, and 40 selected words systematically taken from two textbooks, was employed to identify these participants’ pronunciation competence. The results showed that most of the participants’ English pronunciation was somewhat limited.  Gender was identified to be the most significant factor contributing to the participants’ test scores, while faculty and years of studying English were not. In light of the results suggested by the three variables, pedagogical suggestions were offered to help improve teaching and learning English pronunciation in general, and in focusing on the importance of teaching word stress in particular.

Attapol Khamkhien

2010-11-01

169

What's the Problem? Meaning Making and Learning to Do Mathematical Word Problems in the Context of Digital Tools  

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The general background of this study is an interest in how digital tools contribute to structuring learning activities. The specific interest is to explore how such tools co-determine students' reasoning when solving word problems in mathematics, and what kind of learning that follows. Theoretically the research takes its point of departure in a…

Lantz-Andersson, Annika; Linderoth, Jonas; Saljo, Roger

2009-01-01

170

The Effects of Word-Learning Biases on Children's Concept of Angle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite evidence that young children are sensitive to differences in angle measure, older students frequently struggle to grasp this important mathematical concept. When making judgments about the size of angles, children often rely on erroneous dimensions such as the length of the angles' sides. The present study tested the possibility that this misconception stems from the whole-object word-learning bias by providing a subset of children with a separate label to refer to the whole angle figure. Thirty preschoolers (M = 4.86 years, SD = .53) were tested with a pretest-training-posttest design. At pretest, children showed evidence of the whole-object misconception. After training, children who were given a novel-word label for the whole object improved significantly more than those trained on the meaning of "angle" alone. PMID:25156505

Gibson, Dominic J; Congdon, Eliza L; Levine, Susan C

2014-08-22

171

The effect of a word processor as an accommodation for students with learning disabilities  

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Full Text Available The effects of writing format (handwritten (HW versus word processor (WP were examined in a sample of college students with and without learning disabilities (LD. All students wrote two essays, one in each format, scored for quality and length. Groups did not differ in age, gender, ethnicity, mathematical calculation, writing fluency, essay length or essay quality. The "interaction hypothesis" was not supported, in that the use of a word processor as a writing accommodation did not provide a differential boost to students with LD. Both groups produced longer essays in the WP versus HW condition. The best predictor of essay quality was essay length regardless of writing format. Most students in each group preferred the WP format. Interestingly, a smaller percentage of students in the LD group (72% than NLD group (91% used the available time for writing.

Larry Lewandowski

2013-02-01

172

Learning Achievement in Solving Word-Based Mathematical Questions through a Computer-Assisted Learning System  

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This study developed a computer-assisted mathematical problem-solving system in the form of a network instruction website to help low-achieving second- and third-graders in mathematics with word-based addition and subtraction questions in Taiwan. According to Polya's problem-solving model, the system is designed to guide these low-achievers…

Huang, Tzu-Hua; Liu, Yuan-Chen; Chang, Hsiu-Chen

2012-01-01

173

Early Prediction of Reading Disability using Machine Learning  

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This paper presents application of machine learning methods on a 356 sample dataset for early prediction of reading disability among first graders. A wide array of classifiers consisting of Support Vector Machines, Decision Trees (CART and C4.5), Linear Discriminant Analysis, k Nearest Neighbor and Naïve Bayes Classifiers were used in this study. Markov Blanket based feature selection algorithms (HITON-PC and HITON-MB) and wrapper based feature selection algorithms (forward, backward, forwar...

Varol, H. Atakan; Mani, Subramani; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas

2009-01-01

174

Current policy issues in early foreign language learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and com...

Janet Enever

2012-01-01

175

Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning  

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Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

Janet Enever

2012-01-01

176

77 FR 58301 - Final Requirements-Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2  

Science.gov (United States)

...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deborah Spitz...by email: RTT.Early.Learning.Challenge...supports for the early education workforce...preparation, professional development (including...education support professionals who possess postsecondary...specialized training in early childhood...

2012-09-20

177

"In Our Own Words": Creating Videos as Teaching and Learning Tools  

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Full Text Available Online videos, particularly those on YouTube, have proliferated on the internet; watching them has become part of our everyday activity. While libraries have often harnessed the power of videos to create their own promotional and informational videos, few have created their own teaching and learning tools beyond screencasting videos. In the summer of 2010, the authors, two librarians at York University, decided to work on a video project which culminated in a series of instructional videos entitled “Learning: In Our Own Words.” The purpose of the video project was twofold: to trace the “real” experience of incoming students and their development of academic literacies skills (research, writing and learning throughout their first year, and to create videos that librarians and other instructors could use as instructional tools to engage students in critical thinking and discussion. This paper outlines the authors’ experience filming the videos, creating a teaching guide, and screening the videos in the classroom. Lessons learned during this initiative are discussed in the hope that more libraries will develop videos as teaching and learning tools.

Norda Majekodunmi

2012-11-01

178

Semantic Searching and Ranking of Documents using Hybrid Learning System and WordNet  

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Full Text Available Semantic searching seeks to improve search accuracy of the search engine by understanding searcher’s intent and the contextual meaning of the terms present in the query to retrieve more relevant results. To find out the semantic similarity between the query terms, WordNet is used as the underlying reference database. Various approaches of Learning to Rank are compared. A new hybrid learning system is introduced which combines learning using Neural Network and Support Vector Machine. As the size of the training set highly affects the performance of the Neural Network, we have used Support Vector Machine to reduce the size of the data set by extracting support vectors that are critical for the learning. The data set containing support vectors is then used for learning a ranking function using Neural Network. The proposed system is compared with RankNet. The experimental results demonstrated very promising performance improvements. For experiments, we have used English-Hindi parallel corpus, Gyannidhi from CDAC. F-measure and Average Interpolated Precision are used for evaluation.

Pooja Arora

2012-06-01

179

Children's Participation Rights in Early Childhood Education and Care: The Case of Early Literacy Learning and Pedagogy  

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This position article argues that educators' knowledge of young children's perspectives on aspects of early learning, including literacy learning, and subsequent interpretations of the ways that these perspectives can inform and shape pedagogy are key to promoting children's participation rights in early childhood education and care. Drawing on…

Dunphy, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

180

IMAGE ANNOTATION BASED ON BAG OF VISUAL WORDS AND OPTIMIZED SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING METHOD  

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Full Text Available This paper proposes a new approach to annotate image. First, in order to precisely model training data, shape context features of each image is represented as a bag of visual words. Then, we specifically design a novel optimized graph-based semi-supervised learning for image annotation, in which we maximize the average weighed distance between the different semantic objects, and minimize the average weighed distance between the same semantic objects. Training data insufficiency and lack of generalization of learning method can be resolved through OGSSL with significantly improved image semantic annotation performance. This approach is compared with several other approaches. The experimental results show that this approach performs more effectively and accurately.

Jun Li

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments  

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Full Text Available This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of the interactional triangle—the children, the adults, and their physical environment—is assessed by means of an observation schedule called the Quality Learning Instrument (QLI. The paper illustrates the design and validation of the instrument with data from a project involving observations of classroom practice in Northern Ireland primary schools and Danish kindergartens. It describes how judgments made using the instrument can be triangulated or “calibrated” against the judgments of experts not connected with the data collection. The article concludes with the argument that the instrument may be successfully used to provide a basis for external quality assessments or as a means for early years teachers to reflect on the environment for learning that they generate in their own classrooms.

Glenda Walsh

2005-01-01

182

The Effect of Exposure to the Visual Medium on Learning Pronunciation and Word Stress of L2 Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the effect of exposure to the visual medium on learning pronunciation and word stress. Thirty junior high school students participated in this study. They were divided into an experimental and a control group each included 15 students. The participants were given a pretest in order to make sure that they were homogeneous with regard to their pronunciation and word stress. Both groups received instruction on key to phonetic symbols available in the back...

Zahra Fotovatnia; Mahboubeh Omidi

2013-01-01

183

It’s More Than Content: Expanding the Conception of Early Learning Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents a case study of standards-based reform in early childhood education to demonstrate how a particular set of early childhood stakeholders—by laterally incorporating a range of developmental domains within their standards—provided a "rhizoanalytic" response to the Bush administration's call for early learning standards in language, early literacy, and mathematics. By incorporating the work of the National Research Council with Wisconsin's Model Early Learning Standards,...

Brown, Christopher P.

2007-01-01

184

The Relationships among Verbal Short-Term Memory, Phonological Awareness, and New Word Learning: Evidence from Typical Development and Down Syndrome  

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This study examined the correlates of new word learning in a sample of 64 typically developing children between 5 and 8 years of age and a group of 22 teenagers and young adults with Down syndrome. Verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness skills were assessed to determine whether learning new words involved accurately representing…

Jarrold, Christopher; Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Stephens, Emma

2009-01-01

185

Debunking the Buzz Words Or Can Hermeneutic Analysis Be Used To Evaluate Pedagogically Based Learning Objects Designed from Constructivist Epistemological Ontologies Defined in XML Metadata?  

Science.gov (United States)

Arguably the biggest "buzz word" of the current year has been "learning or knowledge object". To understand the learning object and why it should be such a highly desirable commodity, it is necessary to unpack not only this concept but more importantly revisit some contributing concepts and constructs (more buzz words) that support the building of…

Stuckey, Bronwyn; Hensman, Jim; Hofmann, Tobias; Dewey, Barbara; Brown, Helen; Cameron, Sonja

186

Bilingual and monolingual children attend to different cues when learning new words  

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Full Text Available The way in which children learn language can vary depending on their language environment. Previous work suggests that bilingual children may be more sensitive to pragmatic cues from a speaker when learning new words than monolingual children are. On the other hand, monolingual children may rely more heavily on object properties than bilingual children do. In this study we manipulate these two sources of information within the same paradigm, using eye gaze as a pragmatic cue and similarity along different dimensions as an object cue. In the crucial condition, object and pragmatic cues were inconsistent with each other. Our results showed that in this ambiguous condition monolingual children attend more to object property cues whereas bilingual children attend more to pragmatic cues. Control conditions showed that monolingual children were sensitive to eye gaze and bilingual children were sensitive to similarity by shape; it was only when the cues were inconsistent that children’s preference for one or the other cue was apparent. Our results suggest that children learn to weigh different cues depending on their relative informativeness in their environment

ElianaColunga

2012-05-01

187

Shakespeare and the Words of Early Modern Physic: Between Academic and Popular Medicine. A Lexicographical Approach to the Plays  

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Full Text Available The article aims at showing how Shakespeare relied on the medical vocabulary shared by his coeval society, which had, for centuries, been witnessing the continuous process of vernacularization of ancient and medieval scientific texts. After outlining the state of early modern medicine, the author presents and discusses the results of her search for relevant medical terms in nine plays by Shakespeare. In order to do this, a wide range of medical treatises has been analysed (either directly or through specific corpora such as Medieval English Medical Texts, MEMT 2005, and Early Modern English Medical Texts, EMEMT 2010, so as to verify the ancestry or the novelty of Shakespearean medical words. In addition to this, the author has also built a corpus of word types derived from seventeenth-century quack doctors’ handbills, with the purpose of creating a word list of medical terms connected to popular rather than university medicine, comparable with the list drawn out of the Shakespearean plays. The results most stressed in the article concern Shakespeare’s use of medical terminology already well known to his contemporary society (thus confuting the Oxfordian thesis about the impossibility for William Shakespeare the actor to master so many medical words and the playwright’s skill in transforming – rather than inventing – old popular terms. The article is accompanied by five tables that collect the results of the various lexicographical searches.

Roberta Mullini

2013-03-01

188

Considering spatial ability in virtual route learning in early aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to broaden our understanding of the construction and early decline of spatial mental representations in route learning, considering the extent to which spatial ability and age-related differences in environment learning interact. The experiment examines spatial mental representation derived from taking a realistic route acquired using virtual environment and compares individuals different in age but with similar spatial ability. A sample of 34 young (20-30 years) and 30 middle-aged (50-60 years) females with good mental rotation ability were chosen. Participants learned a complex route through its presentation in a virtual environment and then performed a series of tasks (landmark recognition, location of landmarks and verification of spatial relations). Results show that the two participant age groups had similar performance in landmark recognition task and in verification of sentences describing direct spatial relations; instead, the middle-aged group showed a poorer performance than younger in their ability to locate landmarks and to judge the truth of indirect spatial sentences. These results first suggest that spatial abilities have to be seriously considered to avoid any confusion with age, as age-related differences are attenuated when individuals are different in age but similar in spatial ability. Second they confirm a specific difficulty of older participants to handle spatial information in a global configuration. PMID:23536003

Gyselinck, Valérie; Meneghetti, Chiara; Bormetti, Monica; Orriols, Eric; Piolino, Pascale; De Beni, Rossana

2013-08-01

189

Word processing with Word  

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This handy textbook covers all you need to know about word processing.Learning Made Simple books give you skills without frills. They are matched to the main qualifications, and written by experienced teachers and authors to make often tricky subjects simple to learn. Every book is designed carefully to provide bite-sized lessons matched to your needs. Learning Made Simple titles provide both a new colorful way to study and a useful adjunct to any training course. Using full color throughout, and written by leading teachers and writers, Learning Made Simple books will help you learn new skills and develop your talents. Whether studying at college, training at work, or reading at home, aiming for a qualification or simply getting up to speed, Learning Made Simple books will give you the advantage of easy, well-organised training materials in a handy volume with two and four-page sections for each topic for ease of use.

Brindley, Keith

2007-01-01

190

The Effect of Incremental Changes in Phonotactic Probability and Neighborhood Density on Word Learning by Preschool Children  

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Purpose: Phonotactic probability or neighborhood density has predominately been defined through the use of gross distinctions (i.e., low vs. high). In the current studies, the authors examined the influence of finer changes in probability (Experiment 1) and density (Experiment 2) on word learning. Method: The authors examined the full range of…

Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Maekawa, Junko; Lee, Su-Yeon

2013-01-01

191

Getting the Bugs out with PESTS: A Mnemonic Approach to Spelling Sight Words for Students with Learning Disabilities  

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Difficulties with spelling can impact students' reading acquisition and writing, having a critical impact on overall literacy development. Students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle with spelling. We describe a case study with three elementary-aged students with LD using a mnemonic approach to spelling sight words. Our approach,…

Howard, Sue; DaDeppo, Lisa M. W.; De La Paz, Susan

2008-01-01

192

Do Children Who Acquire Word Reading without Explicit Phonics Employ Compensatory Learning? Issues of Phonological Recoding, Lexical Orthography, and Fluency  

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Two studies were conducted across three countries to examine samples of beginning readers without systematic explicit phonics who had reached the same level of word reading accuracy as comparison samples with high and moderate explicit phonics. Had they employed any compensatory learning to reach that level? Four hypotheses of compensatory…

Thompson, G. Brian; McKay, Michael F.; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.; Connelly, Vincent; Kaa, Richard T.; Ewing, Jason

2008-01-01

193

Does Early Algebraic Reasoning Differ as a Function of Students' Difficulty with Calculations versus Word Problems?  

Science.gov (United States)

According to national mathematics standards, algebra instruction should begin at kindergarten and continue through elementary school. Most often, teachers address algebra in the elementary grades with problems related to solving equations or understanding functions. With 789 2(nd)- grade students, we administered (a) measures of calculations and word problems in the fall and (b) an assessment of pre-algebraic reasoning, with items that assessed solving equations and functions, in the spring. Based on the calculation and word-problem measures, we placed 148 students into 1 of 4 difficulty status categories: typically performing, calculation difficulty, word-problem difficulty, or difficulty with calculations and word problems. Analyses of variance were conducted on the 148 students; path analytic mediation analyses were conducted on the larger sample of 789 students. Across analyses, results corroborated the finding that word-problem difficulty is more strongly associated with difficulty with pre-algebraic reasoning. As an indicator of later algebra difficulty, word-problem difficulty may be a more useful predictor than calculation difficulty, and students with word-problem difficulty may require a different level of algebraic reasoning intervention than students with calculation difficulty. PMID:25309044

Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Lynn S

2014-08-01

194

Reading with Meaning: The Contributions of Meaning-Related Variables at the Word and Subword Levels to Early Chinese Reading Comprehension  

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This study examined the associations of three levels of meaning acquisition, i.e., whole word (vocabulary), morpheme (morphological awareness), and semantic radical (orthography-semantic awareness) to early Chinese reading comprehension among 164 Hong Kong Chinese primary school students, ages 7 and 8 years old, across 1 year. With time 1 word

Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tong, Xiuli; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Fong, Cathy Y.-C.

2012-01-01

195

Lifelong consequences of early nutritional conditions on learning performance in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term effects of early developmental conditions on physiological and behavioural traits are common in animals. Yet, such lifelong effects of early life conditions on learning skills received relatively less attention, even though they are expected to have strong fitness effects. To test the lifelong impact of the early environment on associative and reversal learning performance, we tested zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in a reversal learning task about five years after they were raised either under low or high quality food treatments in their first month of life. The early nutritional treatment and its respective growth patterns significantly influenced learning performance: Zebra finches who received a high-quality nutrition early in life gained more weight during the treatment period but needed more trials to associate a cue with a reward. The early growth rate during the treatment phase was linked to how fast the birds detected the food at the onset of training in our learning task as well as to their associative learning performance. However, in the reversal learning step of the task testing for behavioural flexibility, no differences with respect to early nutritional treatments or related growth rates were apparent. We show that early life conditions directly affect the approach to our task and learning abilities over an entire lifetime, emphasizing how crucial the early environment is for understanding adult behaviour throughout life. PMID:24480407

Brust, Vera; Krüger, Oliver; Naguib, Marc; Krause, E Tobias

2014-03-01

196

What We Have Learned from the Early LHC Measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

The LHC ``underlying event'' measurements at 900 GeV and 7 TeV are compared with the Tevatron ``underlying event'' measurements from CDF and D0 and with some of the QCD Monte-Carlo model predictions. In addition, the relationship between the modeling of the ``underlying event'' in a hard scattering process and the modeling of the complete inelastic non-diffractive cross section will be examined and some of the new PYTHIA 6.2, PYTHIA 6.4, and PYTHIA 8 tunes which are designed to improve the agreement with the LHC data will be compared and discussed. We have learned a lot about QCD from the early LHC measurements.

Field, Richard

2010-10-01

197

Early Prediction of Reading Disability using Machine Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents application of machine learning methods on a 356 sample dataset for early prediction of reading disability among first graders. A wide array of classifiers consisting of Support Vector Machines, Decision Trees (CART and C4.5), Linear Discriminant Analysis, k Nearest Neighbor and Naïve Bayes Classifiers were used in this study. Markov Blanket based feature selection algorithms (HITON-PC and HITON-MB) and wrapper based feature selection algorithms (forward, backward, forward and backward wrapping algorithm and support vector machine recursive feature elimination) were used to select the most relevant features for classification. The results indicate that an AUC score greater than 0.9 can be achieved using SVM classifiers even with a small set of demographics and screening variables. Moreover, a method for generating expert interpretable decision tree models from the high accuracy SVM models is also presented. PMID:20351938

Varol, H. Atakan; Mani, Subramani; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas

2009-01-01

198

Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Learning of Science in a Methods Course: Examining the Predictive Ability of an Intentional Learning Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the predictive ability of an intentional learning model in the change of preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understanding of lunar phases. Fifty-two preservice early childhood teachers who were enrolled in an early childhood science methods course participated in the study. Results indicated that the use of metacognitive strategies facilitated preservice early childhood teachers' use of deep-level cognitive strategies, which in turn promoted conceptual change. Also, preservice early childhood teachers with high motivational beliefs were more likely to use cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Thus, they were more likely to engage in conceptual change. The results provided evidence that the hypothesized model of intentional learning has a high predictive ability in explaining the change in preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understandings from the pre to post-interviews. Implications for designing a science methods course for preservice early childhood teachers are provided.

Saçkes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

2014-06-01

199

Word Study: A Look at Improving Learning and Retention of Spelling  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to share the effectiveness of the word study program "Words Their Way" (Bear et. al., 2008) to improve spelling retention of first graders in a regular education classroom in the Spring of 2012. After implementing a traditional spelling program and seeing students continuously spell previous spelling words wrong,…

Dew, Tracy

2012-01-01

200

Value of Play as An Early Learning Instrument in Bangladesh Context: A Socio-Cultural Study  

Science.gov (United States)

In early childhood education the dominant discourse of play-based pedagogy is greatly influenced by a western play approach. This paper examines how play is valued as early learning in Bangladesh. It reports on a qualitative study that explored the understandings of four parents and four early childhood educators in semi-rural Bangladesh. Findings…

Chowdhury, Nurun Nahar; Rivalland, Corine

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Machine learning and word sense disambiguation in the biomedical domain: design and evaluation issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD is critical in the biomedical domain for improving the precision of natural language processing (NLP, text mining, and information retrieval systems because ambiguous words negatively impact accurate access to literature containing biomolecular entities, such as genes, proteins, cells, diseases, and other important entities. Automated techniques have been developed that address the WSD problem for a number of text processing situations, but the problem is still a challenging one. Supervised WSD machine learning (ML methods have been applied in the biomedical domain and have shown promising results, but the results typically incorporate a number of confounding factors, and it is problematic to truly understand the effectiveness and generalizability of the methods because these factors interact with each other and affect the final results. Thus, there is a need to explicitly address the factors and to systematically quantify their effects on performance. Results Experiments were designed to measure the effect of "sample size" (i.e. size of the datasets, "sense distribution" (i.e. the distribution of the different meanings of the ambiguous word and "degree of difficulty" (i.e. the measure of the distances between the meanings of the senses of an ambiguous word on the performance of WSD classifiers. Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers were applied to an automatically generated data set containing four ambiguous biomedical abbreviations: BPD, BSA, PCA, and RSV, which were chosen because of varying degrees of differences in their respective senses. Results showed that: 1 increasing the sample size generally reduced the error rate, but this was limited mainly to well-separated senses (i.e. cases where the distances between the senses were large; in difficult cases an unusually large increase in sample size was needed to increase performance slightly, which was impractical, 2 the sense distribution did not have an effect on performance when the senses were separable, 3 when there was a majority sense of over 90%, the WSD classifier was not better than use of the simple majority sense, 4 error rates were proportional to the similarity of senses, and 5 there was no statistical difference between results when using a 5-fold or 10-fold cross-validation method. Other issues that impact performance are also enumerated. Conclusion Several different independent aspects affect performance when using ML techniques for WSD. We found that combining them into one single result obscures understanding of the underlying methods. Although we studied only four abbreviations, we utilized a well-established statistical method that guarantees the results are likely to be generalizable for abbreviations with similar characteristics. The results of our experiments show that in order to understand the performance of these ML methods it is critical that papers report on the baseline performance, the distribution and sample size of the senses in the datasets, and the standard deviation or confidence intervals. In addition, papers should also characterize the difficulty of the WSD task, the WSD situations addressed and not addressed, as well as the ML methods and features used. This should lead to an improved understanding of the generalizablility and the limitations of the methodology.

Liu Hongfang

2006-07-01

202

Age-Related Benefits of Digital Noise Reduction for Short-Term Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To determine the rate of word learning for children with hearing loss (HL) in quiet and in noise compared to normal-hearing (NH) peers. The effects of digital noise reduction (DNR) were examined for children with HL. Method: Forty-one children with NH and 26 children with HL were grouped by age (8-9 years and 11-12 years). The children…

Pittman, Andrea

2011-01-01

203

77 FR 58359 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2  

Science.gov (United States)

...high-quality plan to develop...implement the activities it proposed...all early learning and development...selected these activities and why the...quality plan for early learning. The narrative...funds for activities such as increasing...of early learning and development...RTT-ELC plan, the...

2012-09-20

204

Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to document early challenges and lessons learned in the solid-state lighting (SSL) market development as part of the DOE’s SSL Program efforts to continually evaluate market progress in this area. This report summarizes early actions taken by DOE and others to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps and identifies issues, challenges, and new lessons that have been learned in the early stages of the SSL market introduction. This study identifies and characterizes12 key lessons that have been distilled from DOE SSL program results.

Sandahl, Linda J.; Cort, Katherine A.; Gordon, Kelly L.

2013-12-31

205

It’s More Than Content: Expanding the Conception of Early Learning Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents a case study of standards-based reform in early childhood education to demonstrate how a particular set of early childhood stakeholders—by laterally incorporating a range of developmental domains within their standards—provided a "rhizoanalytic" response to the Bush administration's call for early learning standards in language, early literacy, and mathematics. By incorporating the work of the National Research Council with Wisconsin's Model Early Learning Standards, the author considers how early childhood stakeholders can construct future political responses that horizontally and vertically align the field of early childhood education. Such a rhizomatic response provides the opportunity to propose politically viable policies that respect the heterogeneity that exists within the field of early childhood education.

Christopher P. Brown

2007-01-01

206

Early Alzheimer Disease Detection by Bag of Visual Words and Hybrid Fusion on Structural Brain MRI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we tackle the problem of recognition of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in structural MRI images using visual similarity. AD yields visible changes in the brain structures. We aim to recognize patient category such as AD, or prodromal stage of the AD called Mild Cognitive impairment (MCI), or normal control subject (NC).We use visual local descriptors and the bag of words approach on the most involved regions in AD (Hippocampus and PosteriorCingulate Cortex ) in MRI images. The Conten...

Ben Ahmed, Olfa; Benois-pineau, Jenny; Chokri Ben, Amar; Allard, Miche?le; Catheline, Gwenaelle

2013-01-01

207

Early results of experiments with responsive open learning environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Responsive open learning environments (ROLEs) are the next generation of personal learning environments (PLEs). While PLEs rely on the simple aggregation of existing content and services mainly using Web 2.0 technologies, ROLEs are transforming lifelong learning by introducing a new infrastructure on a global scale while dealing with existing learning management systems, institutions, and technologies. The requirements engineering process in highly populated test-beds is as important as the t...

Friedrich, M.; Wolpers, M.; Shen, R.; Ullrich, C.; Klamma, R.; Renzel, D.; Richert, A.; Heiden, B. Von

2011-01-01

208

Creating the Conditions for Success with Early Learning Standards: Results from a National Study of State-Level Standards for Children's Learning Prior to Kindergarten  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Historically the field of early care and education has focused on one type of standards?program standards to define requirements for important features of the services children receive. Recently another type of standards has come to the forefront of early care and education policy and practice?early learning standards that define expectations for children's learning and development. This article reports the results of a national study undertaken to collect data on early learning standards a...

Catherine Scott-Little; Sharon Lynn Kagan; Victoria Stebbins Frelow

2003-01-01

209

Fast Mapping Across Time: Memory Processes Support Children’s Retention of Learned Words  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Children’s remarkable ability to map linguistic labels to referents in the world is commonly called fast mapping. The current study examined children’s (N?=?216) and adults’ (N?=?54) retention of fast-mapped words over time (immediately, after a 1-week delay, and after a 1-month delay). The fast mapping literature often characterizes children’s retention of words as consistently high across timescales. However, the current study demonstrates that learners forget word mappings ...

HaleyVlach

2012-01-01

210

Do not forget: Full memory in memory-based learning of word pronunciation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Memory-based learning, keeping full memory of learning material, appears a viable approach to learning NLP tasks, and is often superior in generalisation accuracy to eager learning approaches that abstract from learning material. Here we investigate three partial memory-based learning approaches which remove from memory specific task instance types estimated to be exceptional. The three approaches each implement one heuristic function for estimating exceptionality of instanc...

Bosch, A. Den; Daelemans, W.

1998-01-01

211

The Source of Child Care Center Preschool Learning and Program Standards: Implications for Potential Early Learning Challenge Fund Grantees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proposed federal Early Learning Challenge Fund (ELCF aims to improve the quality of early care and education programs by promoting the integration of more stringent program and early learning standards than are typically found in child care centers. ELCF grantees also must outline their plans for professional development and technical assistance to support these efforts. With the aim of informing potential ELCF grantees, this article reports the results of a statewide survey of 391 child care center directors focusing on the source of their preschool learning expectations and program standards. The majority of surveyed directors report that the state’s child care licensing standards are used. Additional directors report that the state’s prekindergarten program standards or early learning standards serve as their current source. However, other responses indicate that the terms “program standards” and “learning standards” themselves may not even be part of the current child care vocabulary. These results suggest that potential ELCF grantees might be better positioned to help child care centers incorporate stricter program and learning standards if they design varying levels of training and technical assistance based on the variety of child care quality “starting points.”

Debra J. Ackerman

2010-01-01

212

Unfamiliar Orthographic Information and Second Language Word Learning: A Novel Lexicon Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research indicates that knowledge of words' spellings can influence knowledge of the phonological forms of second language (L2) words when the first and second languages use the same orthographic symbols. It is yet unknown whether learners can make similar use of unfamiliar orthographic symbols. In this study we investigate whether native…

Showalter, Catherine E.; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

2013-01-01

213

Specific-Language-Impaired Children's Quick Incidental Learning of Words: The Effect of a Pause.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparison of 2 methods of presenting novel words, either preceded by a pause or in normal prosody, on initial word comprehension of 20 5-year-old children with language impairments (and 2 control groups matched for either age or mean length of utterance) found no effect for presentation method. (Author/DB)

Rice, Mabel L.; And Others

1992-01-01

214

Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

2014-01-01

215

Mapping Novel Labels to Actions: How the Rhythm of Words Guides Infants' Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effect of lexical stress on 16-month-olds' ability to form associations between labels and paths of motion. Disyllabic English nouns tend to have a strong-weak (trochaic) stress pattern, and verbs tend to have a weak-strong (iambic) pattern. We explored whether infants would use word stress information to guide word-action…

Curtin, Suzanne; Campbell, Jennifer; Hufnagle, Dan

2012-01-01

216

Word Segmentation and Phonological Learning in Cross-Language Perception of Fluent Speech  

Science.gov (United States)

Listeners segment words from the continuous speech stream in their native language by using rhythmic structure, phrasal structure, and phonotactics (e.g. Christophe et al, 2003: McQueen, 1998). One challenging aspect of second language acquisition is the extraction of words from fluent speech, possibly because learners apply a native language…

Adams, Tuuli Morrill

2011-01-01

217

Learning to Parse Liaison-Initial Words: An Eye-Tracking Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the processing of resyllabified words by native English speakers at three proficiency levels in French and by native French speakers. In particular, it examines non-native listeners' development of a parsing procedure for recognizing vowel-initial words in the context of liaison, a process that creates a misalignment of the…

Tremblay, Annie

2011-01-01

218

An Evaluation of the Individualized Learning Intervention: A Mentoring Program for Early Childhood Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the results of an evaluation of the Individualized Learning Intervention (ILI), a mentoring program for early childhood educators that is built upon adult self-directed learning experiences and the collaborative support of others. Sixteen Mentor and 16 Protege teachers in Head Start classrooms were selected for participation…

Gallagher, Peggy A.; Abbott-Shim, Martha; VandeWiele, Laura

2011-01-01

219

Contributions of Early Work-Based Learning: A Case Study of First Year Pharmacy Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Generally work-based learning opportunities are only offered to students in their penultimate year of undergraduate study. Little is known about the benefits and shortcomings of such experiential learning for students in the early stages of their undergraduate education. This is a mixed method study investigating first year undergraduate pharmacy…

Ting, Kang Nee; Wong, Kok Thong; Thang, Siew Ming

2009-01-01

220

Letter Name Knowledge and the Ability To Learn To Read by Processing Letter-Phoneme Relations in Words: Evidence from Brazilian Portuguese-Speaking Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates whether Brazilian Portuguese-speaking prereaders who have mastered letter names are capable of processing letter-sound relations to learn to read words in which the letters correspond to phonemes contained in the names of the letters. Suggests they can use their knowledge of the names of the letters to learn to read by processing and…

Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Resende, Selmara Mamede; Rodrigues, Larissa Assuncao

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

2014-01-01

222

Early Learning Standards: Results from a National Survey to Document Trends in State-Level Policies and Practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early learning standards—documents that outline what children should know and be able to do before kindergarten entry—are increasingly common in the United States. Data from a national survey are presented to illustrate trends in how states have developed and implemented early learning standards within the past four years. Results indicate that almost all states have developed early learning standards for prekindergarten-age children, and the number of states that have developed infant-toddler early learning standards has increased markedly. States have used a variety of strategies to support teachers in their use of early learning standards, and a number of states have or are developing monitoring systems to gauge the extent to which programs are using the standards. The authors discuss the implications that trends related to the development and implementation of early learning standards have for early childhood policies and practices, and they discuss areas where further research is needed.

Jana Martella

2007-01-01

223

Audiovisual spoken word training can promote or impede auditory-only perceptual learning: prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants versus normal hearing adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Training with audiovisual (AV) speech has been shown to promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether AV speech promotes auditory-only (AO) perceptual learning in prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants. Participants were assigned to learn associations between spoken disyllabic C(=consonant)V(=vowel)CVC non-sense words and non-sense pictures (fribbles), under AV and then AO (AV-...

Bernstein, Lynne E.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Auer, Edward T.

2014-01-01

224

The subthalamic nucleus modulates the early phase of probabilistic classification learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous models proposed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is critical in the early phase of skill acquisition. We hypothesized that subthalamic deep brain stimulation modulates the learning curve in early classification learning. Thirteen idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (iPD) with subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), 9 medically treated iPD, and 21 age-matched healthy controls were tested with a probabilistic classification task. STN-DBS patients were tested with stimulation OFF and ON, and medically treated patients with medication OFF and ON, respectively. Performance and reaction time were analyzed on the first 100 consecutive trials as early learning phase. Moreover, data were separated for low and high-probability patterns, and more differentiated strategy analyses were used. The major finding was a significant modulation of the learning curve in DBS patients with stimulation ON: although overall learning was similar to healthy controls, only the stimulation ON group showed a transient significant performance dip from trials '41-60' that rapidly recovered. Further analysis indicated that this might be paralleled by a modulation of the learning strategy, particularly on the high-probability patterns. The reaction time was unchanged during the dip. Our study supports that the STN serves as a relay in early classification learning and directs attention toward unacquainted content. The STN might play a role in balancing the short-term success against strategy optimization for improved long-term outcome. PMID:24718493

Weiss, Daniel; Lam, Judith M; Breit, Sorin; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Krüger, Rejko; Luft, Andreas R; Wächter, Tobias

2014-07-01

225

Machine learning and word sense disambiguation in the biomedical domain: design and evaluation issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is critical in the biomedical domain for improving the precision of natural language processing (NLP), text mining, and information retrieval systems because ambiguous words negatively impact accurate access to literature containing biomolecular entities, such as genes, proteins, cells, diseases, and other important entities. Automated techniques have been developed that address the WSD problem for a number of text processin...

Liu Hongfang; Dimova Rositsa; Markatou Marianthi; Xu Hua; Friedman Carol

2006-01-01

226

Taming the Prophets : Astrology, Orthodoxy and the Word of God in Early Modern Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis is to analyse a displacement of the limits between allowable and illicit knowledge in the orthodox, Lutheran discourse of early modern Sweden. Focusing on the debate over astrology, exemplified in the works of Laurentius Paulinus Gothus (1565-1646) and Sigfridus Aronus Forsius (d. 1624), the thesis aims to challenge the view of how the Reformation, regarded as a preliminary stage to the Enlightenment and modern rationalism, contributed to the so-called ‘disenchant...

Kjellgren, Martin

2011-01-01

227

Exploring Partnerships in Early Childhood Teacher Education through Scenario-based Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Belonging to “a family, a cultural group, a neighbourhood and a wider community” (Department of Education,Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR], 2009, p. 7 is integral to children’s early development and learning.Acknowledging families as “children’s first and most influential educators” (DEEWR, 2009, p. 7, DEEWR notes that,“as children participate in everyday life, they develop interests and construct their own identities and understandings ofthe world” (Ibid. So, when children transition from the family context to participate in early education, establishingand maintaining partnerships with families and community members is essential to early childhood pedagogy. TheEarly Years Learning Framework acknowledges, “Belonging is central to being and becoming in that it shapes whochildren are and who they can become” (Ibid.While an important component of education, professional topics such as partnerships can be given less priority inuniversity subjects that focus on curriculum components. To “bridge perceived gaps between subject theory andprofessional practice” (Errington, 2010, p. 17 professional topics can be explored through scenario-based learning.This paper presents findings about the understanding and implementation of partnerships through scenario-basedlearning in a third year, online early childhood education subject, “Early Childhood Education and Care 2”. Theresearch question was, “How can scenario-based learning be implemented to increase students’ understanding andpractice of partnerships?”

Reesa Sorin

2013-01-01

228

Learning from the early adopters: developing the digital practitioner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores how Sharpe and Beetham's Digital Literacies Framework which was derived to model students’ digital literacies, can be applied to lecturers’ digital literacy practices. Data from a small-scale phenomenological study of higher education lecturers who used Web 2.0 in their teaching and learning practices are used to examine if this pyramid model represents their motivations for adopting technology-enhanced learning in their pedagogic practices. The paper argues that whilst Sharpe and Beetham's model has utility in many regards, these lecturers were mainly motivated by the desire to achieve their pedagogic goals rather than by a desire to become a digital practitioner.

Liz Bennett

2014-07-01

229

The Language Learning Motivation of Early Adolescent French Immersion Graduates  

Science.gov (United States)

This interpretive multiple case study examines the motivation to learn a second language among sixth grade students who attended a French immersion school for grades K-5. Parent surveys, student surveys based on Gardner's Attitude/Motivation Test Battery, and individual and group interviews with students were the data sources used to identify…

Wesely, Pamela M.

2009-01-01

230

What Can Graph Theory Tell Us about Word Learning and Lexical Retrieval?  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Graph theory and the new science of networks provide a mathematically rigorous approach to examine the development and organization of complex systems. These tools were applied to the mental lexicon to examine the organization of words in the lexicon and to explore how that structure might influence the acquisition and retrieval of…

Vitevitch, Michael S.

2008-01-01

231

Neural Dynamics of Word Recognition and Recall: Attentional Priming, Learning, and Resonance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data and models about recognition and recall of words and nonwords are unified using a real-time network processing theory. Adaptive resonance theory arose from an analysis of how a language system self-organizes in real time in response to its complex input environment. (Author/LMO)

Grossberg, Stephen; Stone, Gregory

1986-01-01

232

Effects of Explicit Rules in Learning to Spell Open- and Closed-Syllable Words  

Science.gov (United States)

Second graders (N=222; 7.7 years of age) practiced with open- and closed-syllable words in a computer-assisted training program and appropriate spelling rules were either explicitly provided during practice or not. Also, children practiced either with a small set of exemplars or with a large set; the latter condition was expected to promote the…

Hilte, Maartje; Reitsma, Pieter

2011-01-01

233

The Willy Wagtail Tale: Knowledge Management and E-Learning Enriching Multiliteracies in the Early Years  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While our multimedia world, with rapid advances in technologies, now challenges educators to consider new pedagogies that expand cultural and linguistic diversity, the potential for information and communication technologies (ICT) to support literacy learning in the early years remains a seriously under-researched area. There is an urgency to address a range of questions raised by teacher practitioners such as what new literacies will look like in their programs, how ICT can be used to learn ...

Sandra Hesterman

2009-01-01

234

The Role of Embodied Manual Action in Second Language Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has provided evidence that mental imagery and embodied action can facilitate lexical learning in a novel language. However, it is unclear "how" these factors interact--as well as "why" they play a role--in lexical learning. Through a set of four experiments, this research demonstrated that neither mental…

Morett, Laura

2012-01-01

235

[Usefulness of hybrid small group learning and age-mixing method in early exposure learning in 2006 and 2007].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2006 the Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University has introduced an early exposure learning into the first-year curriculum of the 6-year pharmacy education system, with the aim of "understanding of patients," "enhancing motivation to learn pharmacy," and "understanding of the roles of pharmacists in the clinical setting". This program has three approaches: "active learning", "hybrid small group learning (SGL)" and "age-mixing". The 2006 questionnaire survey on this program revealed some disadvantages, including the inability of student facilitators to get the program in perspective, due to their lack of numbers and time assigned to each group. In response to the survey results, steps were taken to rectify these defects. Accordingly, in the 2007 questionnaire survey, the first-year undergraduates, student facilitators and faculty facilitators responded that the program was achieving its aims. In particular, they acknowledged the usefulness of "age-mixing" and "hybrid SGL" as educational approaches fundamental to the 6-year education system. Thus, in 2007 the program became more useful through our efforts to remedy the issues pointed out in 2006, including the low degree of understanding of "age-mixing" among the first-year undergraduates, and poor assignment of student facilitators to each group. The challenges for 2008 include further enhancing motivation of first-year undergraduates regarding SGL and establishment of a method for student facilitator intervention in SGL. Focusing on these challenges, we will continue our efforts to enhance the quality of pharmaceutical education through such approaches as early exposure learning. PMID:19721385

Mizuno, Tomohiro; Taguchi, Tadao; Kato, Hiroshi; Yoshimi, Akira; Yamada, Shinnosuke; Kato, Marina; Yoshimura, Tomoko; Ito, Tatsuo; Noda, Yukihiro

2009-09-01

236

Discovering words in fluent speech: the contribution of two kinds of statistical information.  

Science.gov (United States)

To efficiently segment fluent speech, infants must discover the predominant phonological form of words in the native language. In English, for example, content words typically begin with a stressed syllable. To discover this regularity, infants need to identify a set of words. We propose that statistical learning plays two roles in this process. First, it provides a cue that allows infants to segment words from fluent speech, even without language-specific phonological knowledge. Second, once infants have identified a set of lexical forms, they can learn from the distribution of acoustic features across those word forms. The current experiments demonstrate both processes are available to 5-month-old infants. This demonstration of sensitivity to statistical structure in speech, weighted more heavily than phonological cues to segmentation at an early age, is consistent with theoretical accounts that claim statistical learning plays a role in helping infants to adapt to the structure of their native language from very early in life. PMID:23335903

Thiessen, Erik D; Erickson, Lucy C

2012-01-01

237

Teaching Adults, Revisited: Active Learning for Early Childhood Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

This book follows master educator Elizabeth (Betty) Jones as she teaches an introductory course in early childhood education. She actively engages the students, encouraging them to make decisions, ask questions, and engage in collaborative problem solving--herself modeling the behaviors that should be practiced by adults working with young…

Jones, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

238

Pedagogy: The Silent Partner in Early Years Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper sets out to look critically at the influences on pedagogy in early years education, at the ways in which it is enacted in practice and the pedagogical perspectives held by practitioners. The aim of the paper is to explore the current state of understanding and suggest areas to be included in an agenda for future research. The factors…

Stephen, Christine

2010-01-01

239

New Paths in Early Literacy Teaching and Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Offers ideas for opening up new paths in literacy teaching in early childhood settings. Focuses on the role of phonics in everyday classroom instruction, working with dyslexic children, home reading programs, special concerns about boys' literacy, the impact of inequities in social status in the classroom on children's literacy opportunities, and…

Peterson, Shelley

2003-01-01

240

Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

StephanieMoriceau

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

The Role of Discourse Context in Developing Word Form Representations: A Paradoxical Relation between Reading and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

To acquire representations of printed words, children must attend to the written form of a word and link this form with the word's pronunciation. When words are read in context, they may be read with less attention to these features, and this can lead to poorer word form retention. Two experiments with young children (ages 5-8 years) confirmed…

Landi, Nicole; Perfetti, Charles A.; Bolger, Donald J.; Dunlap, Susan; Foorman, Barbara R.

2006-01-01

242

Community-based early learning in Solomon Islands: cultural and contextual dilemmas influencing program sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Solomon Islands (SI), a small developing nation in the South Pacific, demonstrates an emergent community-based kindergarten model with the potential to promote context and culture relevant early learning and development. SI early childhood education (ECE) particularly rose in prominence with a 2008 national policy enactment requiring all children to attend three years of kindergarten as prerequisite for primary school entry. However, these ECE programs remain severely challenged by fal...

Burton, Lindsay Julia; Evangelou, Maria

2011-01-01

243

Developing Multi-Agency Partnerships for Early Learning: Seven Keys to Success  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ongoing emphasis on early years education in Ontario provided a rich context for this research project, commissioned by The Learning Partnership (TLP), to evaluate a new provincial project called FACES (Family and Community Engagement Strategy). This initiative seeks to extend and enhance community-based, multi-agency partnerships that support young children and their families in successful transitions to school. Interview data from individuals and focus groups suggest re-thinking early c...

Elliott-johns, Susan E.; Ron Wideman; Black, Glenda L.; Maria Cantalini-Williams; Jenny Guibert

2013-01-01

244

Associative asymmetry of compound words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A ??) and backward (?? B) cued recall. This was viewed as arguing against the independent-associations hypothesis and in favor of the hypothesis that associations are remembered as holistic units. Here we test the Holistic Representation hypothesis further by examining cued recall of compound words. If we suppose preexisting words are more unitized than novel associations, the Holistic Representation hypothesis predicts compound words (e.g., ROSE BUD) will have a higher forward-backward correlation than novel compounds (e.g., BRIEF TAX). We report the opposite finding: Compound words, as well as noncompound words, exhibited less associative symmetry than novel compounds. This challenges the Holistic Representation account of associative symmetry. Moreover, preexperimental associates (positional family size) influenced associative symmetry-but asymmetrically: Increasing family size of the last constituent increasing decoupled forward and backward recall, but family size of the 1st constituent had no such effect. In short, highly practiced, meaningful associations exhibit associative asymmetry, suggesting associative symmetry is not diagnostic of holistic representations but, rather, is a characteristic of ad hoc associations. With additional learning, symmetric associations may be replaced by directional, independently modifiable associations as verbal associations become embedded within a rich knowledge structure. PMID:24773284

Caplan, Jeremy B; Boulton, Kathy L; Gagné, Christina L

2014-07-01

245

Spike Timing Dependent Competitive Learning in Recurrent Self Organizing Pulsed Neural Networks Case Study: Phoneme and Word Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity seems to be a capital aspect of the dynamics of neural networks. It is about the physiological modifications of the synapse, which have like consequence a variation of the value of the synaptic weight. The information encoding is based on the precise timing of single spike events that is based on the relative timing of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes, local synapse competitions within a single neuron and global competition via lateral connections. In order to classify temporal sequences, we present in this paper how to use a local hebbian learning, spike-timing dependent plasticity for unsupervised competitive learning, preserving self-organizing maps of spiking neurons. In fact we present three variants of self-organizing maps (SOM with spike-timing dependent Hebbian learning rule, the Leaky Integrators Neurons (LIN, the Spiking_SOM and the recurrent Spiking_SOM (RSSOM models. The case study of the proposed SOM variants is phoneme classification and word recognition in continuous speech and speaker independent.

Tarek Behi

2012-07-01

246

The Role of Single Talker Acoustic Variation in Early Word Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent work has demonstrated that the addition of multiple talkers during habituation improves 14-month-olds' performance in the switch task (Rost & McMurray, 2009). While the authors suggest that this boost in performance is due to the increase in acoustic variability (Rost & McMurray, 2010), it is also possible that there is…

Galle, Marcus E.; Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

2015-01-01

247

False recognition of incidentally learned pictures and words in primary progressive aphasia?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recognition memory was tested in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a language based dementia with relative preservation of memory for at least the first 2 years. The goal of the study was two-fold: (1) to compare true and false recognition rates for words versus pictures in patients with PPA and cognitively intact controls and (2) to determine if the semantic relatedness of distracters-to-targets influences recognition memory performance. Overall, performance of PPA patients wa...

Rogalski, Emily; Blum, Diana; Rademaker, Alfred; Weintraub, Sandra

2006-01-01

248

Effects of classwide peer tutoring on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words for seventh grade students with learning disabilities and/or low achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words and definitions. Participants were 14 seventh grade students at-risk for failure in a general education science course; 3 students had learning disabilities and 2 had a communication disorder. CWPT was conducted daily for 20 minutes during the last period of the school day. Procedures for CWPT were consistent with the Ohio State University CWPT model. Students were engaged in dyadic, reciprocal tutoring. Tutors presented word cards to tutees to identify the word and definition. Tutors praised correct responses and used a correction procedure for incorrect responses. After practicing their vocabulary words, students completed a daily testing procedure and recorded and plotted data. Many of the study's findings are consistent with previous studies using CWPT to teach word identification. Results of this study indicate a functional relationship between CWPT and acquisition of science vocabulary. All students were able to acquire words and definitions. Results for maintenance and generalization varied. When acquisition criterion was changed, maintenance and generalization scores increased for some students, while other students remained consistently high. All students reported that they enjoyed CWPT, and all but student stated it helped them learn science vocabulary.

Nobel, Michele Mcmahon

2005-07-01

249

Beliefs about Language Learning and Their Relationship to the Ability To Integrate Information from Word Parts and Context in Interpreting Novel Kanji Words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the relationship between the strategies second language learners use to interpret unfamiliar words in a target language. English-speaking learners of Japanese completed a beliefs questionnaire and multiple choice Kanji compounds test. Examined how learner beliefs are related to the ability to combine information from word parts and…

Mori, Yoshiko

1999-01-01

250

Studies in Early Infant Learning: Classical Conditioning of the Neonatal Heart Rate  

Science.gov (United States)

In three experiments, it was demonstrated that human newborn heart rate level can be reliably modified through classical conditioning procedures. Findings support the idea that early learning may occur under a variety of conditions and different theories may account for the results. (Author/SB)

Crowell, David H.; And Others

1976-01-01

251

Co-Located Single Display Collaborative Learning for Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The benefits of collaborative learning are well documented. However, most of the research has been done with children beyond the ages of early childhood. This could be due to the common and erroneous belief that young children have not developed the capacity to work collaboratively toward a given aim. In this paper we show how small group…

Gomez, Florencia; Nussbaum, Miguel; Weitz, Juan F.; Lopez, Ximena; Mena, Javiera; Torres, Alex

2013-01-01

252

Critical Issues in Early Second Language Learning: Building for Our Children's Future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articles in this book on early second language learning are presented in 13 categories, with each category containing 4 to 7 papers. The categories include the following: the advantages and disadvantages of FLES (elementary school foreign language programs), FLEX (foreign language exploratory programs), and immersion program models; at what age an…

Met, Myriam, Ed.

253

Investigating Analytic Tools for e-Book Design in Early Literacy Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Toward the goal of better e-book design to support early literacy learning, this study investigates analytic tools for examining design qualities of e-books for young children. Three research-based analytic tools related to e-book design were applied to a mixed genre collection of 50 e-books from popular online sites. Tool performance varied…

Roskos, Kathleen; Brueck, Jeremy; Widman, Sarah

2009-01-01

254

Socio-Economic Status, Parenting Practices and Early Learning at French Kindergartens  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…

Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette

2014-01-01

255

Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

2011-01-01

256

Social Class, Habitus, and Language Learning: The Case of Korean Early Study-Abroad Students  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean…

Shin, Hyunjung

2014-01-01

257

California's Early Learning & Development System: A Review of Funding Streams and Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

California's public early learning and development programs and related services are funded through a range of federal, state and local sources. The purpose and scope of these funding streams vary broadly: some sources are dedicated primarily to serving children, birth to age five, and their families, while others can also be utilized for…

Miller, Kate; Perez, Giannina S.

2010-01-01

258

"Teacher, There's an Elephant in the Room!" An Inquiry Approach to Preschoolers' Early Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Children need sound language and literacy skills to communicate with others and actively participate in a classroom learning community. When an early childhood classroom offers a language- and literacy-rich environment, children have numerous opportunities to practice language and literacy in a social setting. A language-rich classroom includes an…

Kampmann, Jennifer Anne; Bowne, Mary Teresa

2011-01-01

259

The Effects of Word Prediction and Text-to-Speech Technologies on the Narrative Writing Skills of Hispanic Students with Specific Learning Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

A multiple-baseline design across subjects was used to investigate the effects of word prediction and text-to-speech alone and in combination on four narrative composition-writing skills (writing fluency, syntax, spelling accuracy, and overall organization) of six fifth-grade Hispanic boys with specific learning disabilities (SLD). Participants…

Silio, Monica C.; Barbetta, Patricia M.

2010-01-01

260

Word 2013 for dummies  

CERN Document Server

This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

Gookin, Dan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

E-Learning Content for Early Detection Cervival Cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer is the second most commonly type of cancer that strikes women. The rate of deaths caused by this type of cancer is quite high. The mortality rate caused by this cancer can be reduced through early detection program. To support this program, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia is aware of the need for training the health workers in order to do the socialization quickly and evenly to all corners of Indonesia in order to reduce the number of cases of death due to ...

Putranto, Agus; Pardamean, Bens; Dewi, Giovani

2013-01-01

262

Word prediction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

1995-05-01

263

Creating the Conditions for Success with Early Learning Standards: Results from a National Study of State-Level Standards for Children's Learning Prior to Kindergarten  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historically the field of early care and education has focused on one type of standards?program standards to define requirements for important features of the services children receive. Recently another type of standards has come to the forefront of early care and education policy and practice?early learning standards that define expectations for children's learning and development. This article reports the results of a national study undertaken to collect data on early learning standards across the country. Using the position statement on early learning standards recently adopted by the National Association for the Education of Young Children and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education as a framework for analyzing data from the study, this article presents data on which states have early learning standards, how they were developed, and how they are being used. The article suggests that many of the "conditions for success" described in the position statement are being addressed but also outlines several recommendations for improvements in how early learning standards are developed and implemented.

Catherine Scott-Little

2003-01-01

264

Problem-based learning spanning real and virtual words: a case study in Second Life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing use of immersive virtual environments for educational purposes. However, much of this activity is not yet documented in the public domain, or is descriptive rather than analytical. This paper presents a case study in which university students were tasked with building an interactive learning experience using Second Life as a platform. Both problem-based learning and constructionism acted as framing pedagogies for the task, with students working in teams to design and build a learning experience which could potentially meet the needs of a real client in innovative ways which might not be possible in real life. A process account of the experience is provided, which examines how the pedagogies and contexts (real and virtual influence and enhance each other. The use of a virtual environment, combined with problem-based learning and constructionism, subtly changed the nature of the instructor–student relationship, allowed students to explore ‘problematic problems' in a motivating and relevant manner, provided students with greater ownership over their work, and allowed problems to be set which were flexible, but at the same time allowed for ease of assessment.

Judith Good

2008-12-01

265

In Their Own Words: The Lessons We Learn If We Hear.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides quotations from parents and students and offers their perceptions of programs in which the students were enrolled and the professionals dealing with their children. This is followed by five case studies in the form of personal narratives by two students with disabilities (Down Syndrome and emotionally disturbed/learning

Porembski, Corey; Boyko, Erin; DeCiccio, Albert; Haraway, Dana

2002-01-01

266

Desarrollo psíquico temprano y aprendizaje / Early psychological development and learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El aumento de las consultas relacionadas con dificultades de atención, hiperactividad y trastornos de comportamiento constatado en los niños al inicio de la enseñanza primaria (escolaridad propiamente dicha) lleva a los autores a reflexionar sobre la influencia de los acelerados cambios en las socie [...] dades desarrolladas en el desarrollo psíquico y la organización de la personalidad. Se hace énfasis sobre los procesos de latencia (sublimación, control de la motricidad y del paso al acto) como posibilitadores de los aprendizajes escolares y su puesta en marcha en los niños de hoy. Abstract in english The ultimate increased volume of outpatient first consultations related to attention impairment, hyperactivity and conduct disorders in children starting Lower School led the authors to ponder about the influence that high speed changes in developed societies have upon psychological development and [...] personality organization. Emphasis is made on latency processes (sublimation, motor control and acting out) as learning promoters in the school environment of here and now kids.

Fernando, González-Serrano; Xabier, Tapia; Manuel, Hernanz; Francisco, Vaccari.

2012-12-01

267

A Review of School Readiness Practices in the States: Early Learning Guidelines and Assessments. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 1, Issue 3  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the importance of the early childhood years has compelled states to support children's school readiness. This brief provides an overview of states' Early Learning Guidelines (ELGs) and school readiness assessments and outlines the following considerations: (1) School Readiness is more than Academics; (2) Align standards in appropriate…

Daily, Sarah; Burkhauser, Mary; Halle, Tamara

2010-01-01

268

Early comprehension of the Spanish plural.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how linguistic cues map to the environment is crucial for early language comprehension and may provide a way for bootstrapping and learning words. Research has suggested that learning how plural syntax maps to the perceptual environment may show a trajectory in which children first learn surrounding cues (verbs, modifiers) before a full mastery of the noun morpheme alone. The Spanish plural system of simple codas, dominated by one allomorph -s, and with redundant agreement markers, may facilitate early understanding of how plural linguistic cues map to novel referents. Two-year-old Mexican children correctly identified multiple novel object referents when multiple verbal cues in a phrase indicated plurality as well as in instances when the noun morphology in novel nouns was the only indicator of plurality. These results demonstrate Spanish-speaking children's ability to use plural noun inflectional morphology to infer novel word referents which may have implications for their word learning. PMID:24560441

Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Cantrell, Lisa M; Smith, Linda B; Alva Canto, Elda A

2014-11-01

269

Influences of Working Memory and Audibility on Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss  

Science.gov (United States)

As a group, children with hearing loss demonstrate delays in language development relative to their peers with normal hearing. Early intervention has a profound impact on language outcomes in children with hearing loss. Data examining the relationship between degree of hearing loss and language outcomes are variable. Two approaches are used in the…

Stiles, Derek Jason

2010-01-01

270

"In Our Own Words": Creating Videos as Teaching and Learning Tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Online videos, particularly those on YouTube, have proliferated on the internet; watching them has become part of our everyday activity. While libraries have often harnessed the power of videos to create their own promotional and informational videos, few have created their own teaching and learning tools beyond screencasting videos. In the summer of 2010, the authors, two librarians at York University, decided to work on a video project which culminated in a series of instructional videos en...

Norda Majekodunmi; Kent Murnaghan

2012-01-01

271

Chinese and Korean Characters Engage the Same Visual Word Form Area in Proficient Early Chinese-Korean Bilinguals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of recent studies consistently show an area, known as the visual word form area (VWFA), in the left fusiform gyrus that is selectively responsive for visual words in alphabetic scripts as well as in logographic scripts, such as Chinese characters. However, given the large difference between Chinese characters and alphabetic scripts in terms of their orthographic rules, it is not clear at a fine spatial scale, whether Chinese characters engage the same VWFA in the occipito-temporal co...

Bai, Jian E.; Shi, Jinfu; Jiang, Yi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

2011-01-01

272

The Early Reading Screening Instrument: a method for identifying kindergarteners at risk for learning to read.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to provide speech-language pathologists and educators with a method for identifying children at risk for reading failure. The Early Reading Screening Instrument (ERSI) was given to 149 end-of-the-year kindergarten children. Half of the sample was tested 1 year later with standardized reading measures. Total ERSI scores from the kindergarten children strongly correlated with reading skills in first grade. Reading comprehension in first grade was the skill most strongly predicted by the subjects' total ERSI scores. The word recognition and invented spelling subtests of the ERSI were the best variables to be selected as predictors of first grade word analysis, word identification, and passage comprehension skills. A split-half reliability study of the ERSI showed that a shortened form could be used with the same degree of predictive validity. The ERSI or similar tools can be used to assess reading readiness in kindergarten children so that we can promptly begin an intervention to prevent or, at the very least, to diminish risk for reading failure. For screening reading readiness across different languages or cultures, the content of the four ERSI subtests can easily be modified. PMID:15587010

Lombardino, L J; Morris, D; Mercado, L; DeFillipo, F; Sarisky, C; Montgomery, A

1999-01-01

273

Examining the Acquisition of Phonological Word Forms with Computational Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been hypothesized that known words in the lexicon strengthen newly formed representations of novel words, resulting in words with dense neighborhoods being learned more quickly than words with sparse neighborhoods. Tests of this hypothesis in a connectionist network showed that words with dense neighborhoods were learned better than words

Vitevitch, Michael S.; Storkel, Holly L.

2013-01-01

274

Developing Multi-Agency Partnerships for Early Learning: Seven Keys to Success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ongoing emphasis on early years education in Ontario provided a rich context for this research project, commissioned by The Learning Partnership (TLP, to evaluate a new provincial project called FACES (Family and Community Engagement Strategy. This initiative seeks to extend and enhance community-based, multi-agency partnerships that support young children and their families in successful transitions to school. Interview data from individuals and focus groups suggest re-thinking early childhood education practices to include innovative multi-agency, community-based partnerships. "Seven Keys to Success" in building multi-agency partnerships emerged from the data providing direction for educators and policy makers.

Susan E. Elliott-Johns

2013-12-01

275

Developing learning environments which support early algebraic reasoning: a case from a New Zealand primary classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Current reforms in mathematics education advocate the development of mathematical learning communities in which students have opportunities to engage in mathematical discourse and classroom practices which underlie algebraic reasoning. This article specifically addresses the pedagogical actions teachers take which structure student engagement in dialogical discourse and activity which facilitates early algebraic reasoning. Using videotaped recordings of classroom observations, the teacher and researcher collaboratively examined the classroom practices and modified the participatory practices to develop a learning environment which supported early algebraic reasoning. Facilitating change in the classroom environment was a lengthy process which required consistent and ongoing attention initially to the social norms and then to the socio-mathematical norms. Specific pedagogical actions such as the use of specifically designed tasks, materials and representations and a constant press for justification and generalisation were required to support students to link their numerical understandings to algebraic reasoning.

Hunter, Jodie

2014-12-01

276

A neural network for learning the meaning of objects and words from a featural representation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work investigates how complex semantics can be extracted from the statistics of input features, using an attractor neural network. The study is focused on how feature dominance and feature distinctiveness can be naturally coded using Hebbian training, and how similarity among objects can be managed. The model includes a lexical network (which represents word-forms) and a semantic network composed of several areas: each area is topologically organized (similarity) and codes for a different feature. Synapses in the model are created using Hebb rules with different values for pre-synaptic and post-synaptic thresholds, producing patterns of asymmetrical synapses. This work uses a simple taxonomy of schematic objects (i.e., a vector of features), with shared features (to realize categories) and distinctive features (to have individual members) with different frequency of occurrence. The trained network can solve simple object recognition tasks and object naming tasks by maintaining a distinction between categories and their members, and providing a different role for dominant features vs. marginal features. Marginal features are not evoked in memory when thinking of objects, but they facilitate the reconstruction of objects when provided as input. Finally, the topological organization of features allows the recognition of objects with some modified features. PMID:25569782

Ursino, Mauro; Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa

2015-03-01

277

Using Technology in Early Childhood Environments - Facilitating Learning and Child-Family-Community Connections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pedagogy is demonstrated for using technological resources (computer, digital camera, software, and printer) for an early childhood learning environment to create curriculum materials, enhance activities, and promote child-family-community interactions. Developing lesson materials for introducing concepts; virtual trips into the community; and communication with families are integrated into the daily program planning. This approach using technology always supports and does not overshadow the ...

Murphy, Frances L.

2001-01-01

278

Collaborative Writing in a Computer-integrated Classroom for Early Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a collaborative experiment with a special software application supporting the acquisition of initial reading and writing skills embedded in a computer-integrated environment for young children. The NIMIS project has set up three Computer-integrated Classrooms across Europe with appropriate "roomware" environments, i.e. furniture, hardware and software to support early learning. Here, we present a collaborative writing task facilitated by a shared workspace system, that ha...

Tewissen, Frank; Lingnau, Andreas; Hoppe, Ulrich; Mannhaupt, Gerd; Nischk, Daniel

2001-01-01

279

Exploring Partnerships in Early Childhood Teacher Education through Scenario-based Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Belonging to “a family, a cultural group, a neighbourhood and a wider community” (Department of Education,Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR], 2009, p. 7) is integral to children’s early development and learning.Acknowledging families as “children’s first and most influential educators” (DEEWR, 2009, p. 7), DEEWR notes that,“as children participate in everyday life, they develop interests and construct their own identities and understandings ofthe world” (Ibid). So, whe...

Reesa Sorin

2013-01-01

280

The Predictive Nature of Individual Differences in Early Associative Learning and Emerging Social Behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Across the first year of life, infants achieve remarkable success in their ability to interact in the social world. The hierarchical nature of circuit and skill development predicts that the emergence of social behaviors may depend upon an infant's early abilities to detect contingencies, particularly socially-relevant associations. Here, we examined whether individual differences in the rate of associative learning at one month of age is an enduring predictor of social, imitative, and discri...

Reeb-sutherland, Bethany C.; Levitt, Pat; Fox, Nathan A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

?7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: Role in Early Odor Learning Preference in Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of ?7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7) in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased ?7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP), an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented s...

Hellier, Jennifer L.; Arevalo, Nicole L.; Smith, Lynelle; Xiong, Ka-na; Restrepo, Diego

2012-01-01

282

Discovering Words in Fluent Speech: The Contribution of Two Kinds of Statistical Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To efficiently segment fluent speech, infants must discover the predominant phonological form of words in the native language. In English, for example, content words typically begin with a stressed syllable. To discover this regularity, infants need to identify a set of words. We propose that statistical learning plays two roles in this process. First, it provides a cue that allows infants to segment words from fluent speech, even without language-specific phonological knowledge. Second, once infants have identified a set of lexical forms, they can learn from the distribution of acoustic features across those word forms. The current experiments demonstrate both processes are available to 5-month-old infants. This is an earlier age than prior demonstration of sensitivity to statistical structure in speech, and consistent with theoretical accounts that claim statistical learning plays a role in helping infants to adapt to the structure of their native language from very early in life.

ErikDThiessen

2013-01-01

283

Visual working memory gives up attentional control early in learning: ruling out interhemispheric cancellation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current research suggests that we can watch visual working memory surrender the control of attention early in the process of learning to search for a specific object. This inference is based on the observation that the contralateral delay activity (CDA) rapidly decreases in amplitude across trials when subjects search for the same target object. Here, we tested the alternative explanation that the role of visual working memory does not actually decline across learning, but instead lateralized representations accumulate in both hemispheres across trials and wash out the lateralized CDA. We show that the decline in CDA amplitude occurred even when the target objects were consistently lateralized to a single visual hemifield. Our findings demonstrate that reductions in the amplitude of the CDA during learning are not simply due to the dilution of the CDA from interhemispheric cancellation. PMID:24708027

Reinhart, Robert M G; Carlisle, Nancy B; Woodman, Geoffrey F

2014-08-01

284

The effects of using flashcards with reading racetrack to teach letter sounds, sight words, and math facts to elementary students with learning disabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of reading racetrack and flashcards when teaching phonics, sight words, and addition facts. The participants for the sight word and phonics portion of this study were two seven-year-old boys in the second grade. Both participants were diagnosed with a learning disability. The third participant was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by his pediatrician and with a learning disability and traumatic brain injury by his school’s multi-disciplinary team.. The dependent measures were corrects and errors when reading from a first grade level sight word list. Math facts were selected based on a 100 add fact test for the third participant. The study demonstrated that racetracks paired with the flashcard intervention improved the students’ number of corrects for each subject-matter area (phonics, sight words, and math facts. However, the results show that some students had more success with it than others. These outcomes clearly warrant further research.

Rachel ERBEY

2011-07-01

285

Scientific education early in the curriculum using a constructivist approach on learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physicians need to stay up-to-date with new developments in their field of expertise. This expectation has been made explicit by competency-based educational outcomes in the domain of scholar in the Dutch blueprint. There is a great diversity in teaching methods that aim to achieve a better understanding of scientific knowledge. Applying a constructivist approach to learning in acquiring research competencies we wonder how a research-intensive course is evaluated early in the curriculum and what learning gain students perceive. In a collaborative research-intensive course, the class of 300s-year students rated the quality of 150 preselected randomized controlled trials (RCT) using JAMA Users' Guides, and the pharmaceutical advertisements in which they were referenced. Each student rated two RCTs. Data were analyzed to answer a relevant research question. After the course students completed an evaluation survey. We did this in five consecutive years to capture student experience in relation to fostering a scientific mindset (n = 1,500). In addition we studied outcome of this scientific mindset as scientific output (publications) in journals. Survey data indicate that it is feasible to successfully implement a research-intensive course based on a large cohort using a constructivist paradigm early in the curriculum. Students consider it challenging and report high learning gain in several domains. Aggregated data have even led to four publications in journals. Implementing an active learning research experience early in the curriculum can foster student attitudes, provided the level of difficulty correctly matches the learners' prior knowledge. Further research is required to determine how to improve these active research curricula to maximize impact on learners. PMID:23975621

Vereijken, M W C; Kruidering-Hall, M; de Jong, P G M; de Beaufort, A J; Dekker, F W

2013-09-01

286

Early Childhood Studies--Students' Participation in the Development of a Learning Space in a Higher Education Institution  

Science.gov (United States)

The article argues for the participation and involvement of students in developing learning spaces within higher education. In early childhood education there is a strong emphasis upon rights, democracy and planning learning through listening to young children. Taking inspiration from this, the study explores the use of participatory approaches in…

Kanyal, Mallika

2014-01-01

287

Dogs, Bogs, Labs, and Lads: What Phonemic Generalizations Indicate about the Nature of Children's Early Word-Form Representations  

Science.gov (United States)

Whereas young children accept words that differ by only a single phoneme as equivalent labels for novel objects, older children do not (J. F. Werker, C. J. Fennell, K. M. Corcoran, & C. L. Stager, 2002). In these experiments, 106 children were exposed to a training regime that has previously been found to facilitate children's use of phonemic…

Thiessen, Erik D.; Yee, Meagan N.

2010-01-01

288

Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and...

LynneG.Duncan; PascaleColé

2014-01-01

289

Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and...

LynneG.Duncan; PascaleColé

2014-01-01

290

Program Assessment and Development of the Central Regina Early Learning Centre: Final Report. SIDRU Research Report No. 17.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Central Regina Early Learning Centre is a community-based, early intervention program that aims to break the cycle of disadvantage for 3- and 4-year-olds in Regina, Canada. This report documents an evaluation of the program offered by the Centre from 1992 to 1994 and makes proposals for future program development. Chapter 1 of the report…

Cronin, Mary

291

Toward a Model for Early Childhood Environmental Education: Foregrounding, Developing, and Connecting Knowledge through Play-Based Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental education represents a growing area of interest in early childhood education, especially since the inclusion of environmental principles and practices in the Australian Early Years Learning Framework. Traditionally, these two fields of education have been characterized by diverse pedagogical emphases. This article considers how…

Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Susan

2013-01-01

292

Learning to Pronounce First Words in Three Languages: An Investigation of Caregiver and Infant Behavior Using a Computational Model of an Infant  

Science.gov (United States)

Words are made up of speech sounds. Almost all accounts of child speech development assume that children learn the pronunciation of first language (L1) speech sounds by imitation, most claiming that the child performs some kind of auditory matching to the elements of ambient speech. However, there is evidence to support an alternative account and we investigate the non-imitative child behavior and well-attested caregiver behavior that this account posits using Elija, a computational model of an infant. Through unsupervised active learning, Elija began by discovering motor patterns, which produced sounds. In separate interaction experiments, native speakers of English, French and German then played the role of his caregiver. In their first interactions with Elija, they were allowed to respond to his sounds if they felt this was natural. We analyzed the interactions through phonemic transcriptions of the caregivers' utterances and found that they interpreted his output within the framework of their native languages. Their form of response was almost always a reformulation of Elija's utterance into well-formed sounds of L1. Elija retained those motor patterns to which a caregiver responded and formed associations between his motor pattern and the response it provoked. Thus in a second phase of interaction, he was able to parse input utterances in terms of the caregiver responses he had heard previously, and respond using his associated motor patterns. This capacity enabled the caregivers to teach Elija to pronounce some simple words in their native languages, by his serial imitation of the words' component speech sounds. Overall, our results demonstrate that the natural responses and behaviors of human subjects to infant-like vocalizations can take a computational model from a biologically plausible initial state through to word pronunciation. This provides support for an alternative to current auditory matching hypotheses for how children learn to pronounce. PMID:25333740

Howard, Ian S.; Messum, Piers

2014-01-01

293

Critical behavior in a cross-situational lexicon learning scenario  

CERN Document Server

The associationist account for early word-learning is based on the co-occurrence between objects and words. Here we examine the performance of a simple associative learning algorithm for acquiring the referents of words in a cross-situational scenario affected by noise produced by out-of-context words. We find a critical value of the noise parameter $\\gamma_c$ above which learning is impossible. We use finite-size scaling to show that the sharpness of the transition persists across a region of order $\\tau^{-1/2}$ about $\\gamma_c$, where $\\tau$ is the number of learning trials, as well as to obtain the learning error (scaling function) in the critical region. In addition, we show that the distribution of durations of periods when the learning error is zero is a power law with exponent -3/2 at the critical point.

Tilles, P F C; 10.1209/0295-5075/99/60001

2012-01-01

294

Spatial learning deficits without hippocampal neuronal loss in a model of early-onset epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were undertaken to examine the effects recurrent early-life seizures have on the ability of rats to acquire spatial memories in adulthood. A minute quantity of tetanus toxin was injected unilaterally into the hippocampus on postnatal day 10. Within 48 h, rats developed recurrent seizures that persisted for 1 week. Between postnatal days 57 and 61, rats were trained in a Morris water maze. Toxin-injected rats were markedly deficient in learning this task. While these rats showed gradual improvement in escape latencies over 20 trials, their performance always lagged behind that of controls. Poor performance could not be explained by motor impairments or motivational difficulties since swimming speed was similar for the groups. Only eight of 16 toxin-injected animals showed focal interictal spikes in the hippocampus during electroencephalographic recordings. This suggests that learning deficiencies and chronic epilepsy may be independent products of recurrent early-life seizures. A quantitative analysis of hippocampus revealed a significant decrease in neuronal density in stratum pyramidale of experimental rats. However, the differences were largely explained by a concomitant increase in the area of stratum pyramidale. Studies of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and spread of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated tetanus toxin in the hippocampus suggest that the dispersion of cell bodies in stratum pyramidale can neither be explained by a reactive gliosis nor the direct action of the toxin itself. Taken together, we suggest that recurrent seizures beginning in early life can lead to a significant deficiency in spatial learning without ongoing hippocampal synchronized network discharging or a substantial loss of hippocampal pyramidal cells. PMID:11744248

Lee, C L; Hannay, J; Hrachovy, R; Rashid, S; Antalffy, B; Swann, J W

2001-01-01

295

How my now six-year-old daughter learned how to write her name, recognize numbers, read some words and draw: A narrative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I want to share how my now six-year-old daughter learned how to write her name, recognize numbers, read some words and draw. By doing so I hope to offer an alternative to a schooling-centered curriculum that would have us believe that the only way to learn these things is to have an expert train young people to do these things. Methodologically, this paper is a narrative. I also consider this paper to be a political piece of writing. For me writing politically in this paper means, in part, engaging the reader in a dialogue about, on the one hand, trusting and respecting young people’s right to learn what they want, when they want, how they want and, on the other hand, imposing an externally directed curriculum on them. I am arguing in favour of the former.

Dr. Carlo Ricci

2010-11-01

296

Immediate lexical integration of novel word forms.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that familiar words inhibit each other during spoken word recognition. However, we do not know how and under what circumstances newly learned words become integrated with the lexicon in order to engage in this competition. Previous work on word learning has highlighted the importance of offline consolidation (Gaskell & Dumay, 2003) and meaning (Leach & Samuel, 2007) to establish this integration. In two experiments we test the necessity of these factors by examining the inhibition between newly learned items and familiar words immediately after learning. Participants learned a set of nonwords without meanings in active (Experiment 1) or passive (Experiment 2) exposure paradigms. After training, participants performed a visual world paradigm task to assess inhibition from these newly learned items. An analysis of participants' fixations suggested that the newly learned words were able to engage in competition with known words without any consolidation. PMID:25460382

Kapnoula, Efthymia C; Packard, Stephanie; Gupta, Prahlad; McMurray, Bob

2015-01-01

297

Use of the mutual exclusivity assumption by young word learners  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual exclusivity in such indirect word learning has been questioned because: (1) it comes mostly from 2 and 3-year-olds and (2) the findings might be accounted for, not by children avoiding second labels, but by the novel object which creates a lexical gap children are motivated to fill. Three studies addressed these concerns by having only a familiar object visible. Fifteen to seventeen and 18-20-month-olds were selected to straddle the vocabulary spurt. In Study 1, babies saw a familiar object and an opaque bucket as a location to search. Study 2 handed babies the familiar object to play with. Study 3 eliminated an obvious location to search. On the whole, babies at both ages resisted second labels for objects and, with some qualifications, tended to search for a better referent for the novel label. Thus mutual exclusivity is in place before the onset of the naming explosion. The findings demonstrate that lexical constraints enable babies to learn words even under non-optimal conditions-when speakers are not clear and referents are not visible. The results are discussed in relation to an alternative social-pragmatic account. © 2003 Elsevier (USA). All rights reserved.

Markman, Ellen M.; Wasow, Judith L.

2003-01-01

298

Early-life events may trigger biochemical pathways for Alzheimer's disease: the "LEARn" model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia among the elderly, manifests mostly late in adult life. However, it is presently unclear when the disease process starts and how long the pathobiochemical processes take to develop. Our goal is to address the timing and nature of triggers that lead to AD. To explain the etiology of AD, we have recently proposed a "Latent Early-life Associated Regulation" (LEARn) model, which postulates a latent expression of specific genes triggered at the developmental stage. This model integrates both the neuropathological features (e.g., amyloid-loaded plaques and tau-laden tangles) and environmental factors (e.g., diet, metal exposure, and hormones) associated with the disease. Environmental agents perturb gene regulation in a long-term fashion, beginning at early developmental stages, but these perturbations do not have pathological results until significantly later in life. The LEARn model operates through the regulatory region (promoter) of the gene and by affecting the methylation status within the promoter of specific genes. PMID:18668339

Lahiri, Debomoy K; Zawia, Nasser H; Greig, Nigel H; Sambamurti, Kumar; Maloney, Bryan

2008-12-01

299

Lost for Words  

Science.gov (United States)

Britain remains well and truly in the slow lane when it comes to learning languages--despite the repeated commitment of politicians to reversing this historical trend. But, as the author proves, even the least able linguist can learn the few words of a foreign language which can make all the difference when traveling abroad. In its recent briefing…

Stanistreet, Paul

2004-01-01

300

Attitude of medical students towards Early Clinical Exposure in learning endocrine physiology  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Different teaching-learning methods have been used in teaching endocrine physiology for the medical students, so as to increase their interest and enhance their learning. This paper describes the pros and cons of the various approaches used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology and goes on to describe the value of adding an Early Clinical Exposure program (ECE to didactic instruction in endocrine physiology, as well as student reactions to it as an alternative approach. Discussion Various methods have been used to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology such as case-stimulated learning, problem-based learning, patient-centred learning and multiple-format sessions. We devised a teaching-learning intervention in endocrine physiology, which comprised of traditional didactic lectures, supplemented with an ECE program consisting of case based lectures and a hospital visit to see patients. A focus group discussion was conducted with the medical students and, based on the themes that emerged from it, a questionnaire was developed and administered to further enquire into the attitude of all the students towards ECE in learning endocrine physiology. The students in their feedback commented that ECE increased their interest for the subject and motivated them to read more. They also felt that ECE enhanced their understanding of endocrine physiology, enabled them to remember the subject better, contributed to their knowledge of the subject and also helped them to integrate their knowledge. Many students said that ECE increased their sensitivity toward patient problems and needs. They expressed a desire and a need for ECE to be continued in teaching endocrine physiology for future groups of students and also be extended for teaching other systems as well. The majority of the students (96.4% in their feedback gave an overall rating of the program as good to excellent on a 5 point Likert scale. Summary The ECE program was introduced as an alternative approach to reinforce didactic instruction in endocrine physiology for the first year medical students. The study demonstrated that students clearly enjoyed the experience and perceived that it was valuable. This method could potentially be used for other basic science topics as well.

Neelakantan Nithya

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Intelligent Guided E-Learning Systems for Early Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

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Full Text Available There is a burgeoning need to consider new ways of providing early educational services for young and often newly diagnosed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and their families. Such children do not respond naturally to linear curricular delivery, normally utilized in inclusive classrooms that predominate public education, but rather need an educational model incorporating intra and interpersonal development skills. In addition, there is an urgent need for the ability of keeping track of and addressing uneven progress in specific areas; characteristic of learners with ASD. It is suggested that a new curricular model be designed that integrates the advantages of e-learning for data management and communication exchange with the inclusion classroom learning. A multi-disciplinary approach to the problem has lead to the proposal of an alternate model using an Intelligent Guided E-Learning System, which can be of benefit to such learners, their parents, and their teachers. This system utilizes a Knowledge Representation model that incorporates the complex multidisciplinary data related with ASD, along with curricular information as well as other Artificial Intelligence techniques that guide the curriculum in a simple and directed, yet evolving, manner such that the complexity increases as the learner with ASD's understanding progresses.

Alma Barranco-Mendoza

2008-08-01

302

Totally Weird and Wonderful Words  

CERN Document Server

Do you know what a snollygoster is? Would you eat something called a muktuk? Do you know anyone who engages in onolatry? Impress your friends and pepper your dinner party conversations with such nuggets as gobemouche, mumpsimus, and cachinnate. You can learn about all of these bizarre and beautiful words and many more in Totally Weird and Wonderful Words. Both witty and entertaining, this new paperback brings together two best-selling compendiums to all words unique and strange, Weird and Wonderful Words and More Weird and Wonderful Words. Offering a potpourri of colorful and fascinating words

McKean, Erin

2006-01-01

303

Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

Kan, Pui Fong

2014-01-01

304

Editorial: E-learning and Knowledge Management in the Early Years: Where Are We and Where Should We Go  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-learning and knowledge management are increasingly accepted as established practices in the field of early childhood education. Living in the age of Web 2.0, young children can learn through experience, application, and conversation in community, physically or virtually, with peers, parents, teachers, and other adults, beyond the classroom and across the media. These concepts are of growing interest in communities of practice and knowledge networks. Although most early childhood educators recognize and practice some kinds of e-learning, most have yet to master the basic theory and practice of knowledge management. What does e-learning mean for young children? How do we apply knowledge management in early childhood setting? These questions are of great importance and a special collection such as this issue will be beneficial to take stock of the ongoing practices as well as to explore future directions in the field. This issue will combine knowledge management and e-learning with early childhood education to provide a valuable arena for the discussion and dissemination of this topic and related studies.

Hui Li

2009-12-01

305

"Learning Stories"--Crossing Borders: Introducing Qualitative Early Childhood Observation Techniques to Early Childhood Practitioners in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education has become a focus of government policy across the world. Part of the present increased interest in early childhood education has been a focus on curriculum frameworks and socio/cultural methods of assessment. Currently, New Zealand has emerged as a world leader in early childhood education, and observation and assessment…

Nyland, Berenice; Alfayez, Shatha

2012-01-01

306

Machine learning framework for early MRI-based Alzheimer's conversion prediction in MCI subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). For the effective treatment of AD, it would be important to identify MCI patients at high risk for conversion to AD. In this study, we present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method for predicting the MCI-to-AD conversion from one to three years before the clinical diagnosis. First, we developed a novel MRI biomarker of MCI-to-AD conversion using semi-supervised learning and then integrated it with age and cognitive measures about the subjects using a supervised learning algorithm resulting in what we call the aggregate biomarker. The novel characteristics of the methods for learning the biomarkers are as follows: 1) We used a semi-supervised learning method (low density separation) for the construction of MRI biomarker as opposed to more typical supervised methods; 2) We performed a feature selection on MRI data from AD subjects and normal controls without using data from MCI subjects via regularized logistic regression; 3) We removed the aging effects from the MRI data before the classifier training to prevent possible confounding between AD and age related atrophies; and 4) We constructed the aggregate biomarker by first learning a separate MRI biomarker and then combining it with age and cognitive measures about the MCI subjects at the baseline by applying a random forest classifier. We experimentally demonstrated the added value of these novel characteristics in predicting the MCI-to-AD conversion on data obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. With the ADNI data, the MRI biomarker achieved a 10-fold cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.7661 in discriminating progressive MCI patients (pMCI) from stable MCI patients (sMCI). Our aggregate biomarker based on MRI data together with baseline cognitive measurements and age achieved a 10-fold cross-validated AUC score of 0.9020 in discriminating pMCI from sMCI. The results presented in this study demonstrate the potential of the suggested approach for early AD diagnosis and an important role of MRI in the MCI-to-AD conversion prediction. However, it is evident based on our results that combining MRI data with cognitive test results improved the accuracy of the MCI-to-AD conversion prediction. PMID:25312773

Moradi, Elaheh; Pepe, Antonietta; Gaser, Christian; Huttunen, Heikki; Tohka, Jussi

2015-01-01

307

Hand-assisted partial nephrectomy with early arterial clamp removal : Impact of the learning curve  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to present the results of hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy according to the margin, ischaemia and complications system; to assess the role of the learning curve; and to compare this approach with other approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 60 consecutive patients were obtained from a prospectively maintained database. The patients were divided into three cohorts (1, 2 and 3), with 20 patients each, according to their surgery dates. RESULTS: The overall margin, ischaemia and complications rate was 90%. The warm ischaemia time was 9.5 min in cohort 1, decreasing to 5 min in cohort 3 (p < 0.0001). The Padua score (p = 0.0287) and tumour size (p = 0.0003) were significantly increased in cohort 3, but loss of kidney function decreased significantly to 3.5% in this cohort. Loss of kidney function of less than 5% was reported for eight (40%), nine (45%) and 14 (70%) patients in cohorts 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.0185). CONCLUSIONS: Hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with early removal of arterial clamps is safe and easy to learn. An expert laparoscopic surgeon can perform hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for complex tumours with a relatively high success rate according to the margin, ischaemia and complications system. Warm ischaemia time could be obtained within 5 min after 40 procedures.

Azawi, Nessn H; Norus, Thomas P

2014-01-01

308

Fast mapping of novel word forms traced neurophysiologically  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human capacity to quickly learn new words, critical for our ability to communicate using language, is well-known from behavioural studies and observations, but its neural underpinnings remain unclear. In this study, we have used event-related potentials to record brain activity to novel spoken word forms as they are being learnt by the human nervous system through passive auditory exposure. We found that the brain response dynamics change dramatically within the short (20 min exposure session: as the subjects become familiarised with the novel word forms, the early (~100 ms fronto-central activity they elicit increases in magnitude and becomes similar to that of known real words. At the same time, acoustically similar real words used as control stimuli show a relatively stable response throughout the recording session; these differences between the stimulus groups are confirmed using both factorial and linear regression analyses. Furthermore, acoustically matched novel non-speech stimuli do not demonstrate similar response increase, suggesting neural specificity of this rapid learning phenomenon to linguistic stimuli. Left-lateralised perisylvian cortical networks appear to be underlying such fast mapping of novel word forms unto the brain’s mental lexicon.

YuryShtyrov

2011-11-01

309

Student Learning of Early Embryonic Development via the Utilization of Research Resources from the Nematode "Caenorhabditis elegans"  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to gain insights into undergraduate students' understanding of early embryonic development, specifically, how well they comprehend the concepts of volume constancy, cell lineages, body plan axes, and temporal and spatial dimensionality in development. To study student learning, a curriculum was developed incorporating…

Lu, Fong-Mei; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Squirrell, Jayne M.; White, John G.; Stewart, James

2008-01-01

310

Indentifying Latent Classes and Testing Their Determinants in Early Adolescents' Use of Computers and Internet for Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to identify latent classes resting on early adolescents' change trajectory patterns in using computers and the Internet for learning and to test the effects of gender, self-control, self-esteem, and game use in South Korea. Latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) was used to identify subpopulations in the Korea…

Heo, Gyun

2013-01-01

311

Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies for First-Grade Readers: A Tool for Preventing Early Reading Failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies for First-Grade Readers, a type of classwide peer tutoring designed specifically to help general-education teachers prevent, or at least reduce, early reading failure. A description of program components, empirical evidence of its effectiveness, and case studies are presented. (Author/CR)

Mathes, Patricia G.; Grek, Marcia L.; Howard, Jill K.; Babyak, Allison E.; Allen, Shelley H.

1999-01-01

312

Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards Alignment with Wisconsin Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

Wisconsin's adoption of the Common Core State Standards provides an excellent opportunity for Wisconsin school districts and communities to define expectations from birth through preparation for college and work. By aligning the existing Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards with the Wisconsin Common Core State Standards, expectations can be…

Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

313

A word of the Empirics: the ancient concept of observation and its recovery in early modern medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genealogy of observation as a philosophical term goes back to the ancient Greek astronomical and medical traditions, and the revival of the concept in the Renaissance also happened in the astronomical and medical context. This essay focuses primarily on the medical genealogy of the concept of observation. In ancient Greek culture, an elaboration of the concept of observation (t?r?sis) first emerged in the Hellenistic age with the medical sect of the Empirics, to be further developed by the ancient Sceptics. Basically unknown in the Middle Ages, the Empirics' conceptualisation of t?r?sis trickled back into Western medicine in the fourteenth century, but its meaning seems to have been fully recovered by European scholars only in the 1560s, concomitantly with the first Latin translation of the works of Sextus Empiricus. As a category originally associated with medical Scepticism, observatio was a new entry in early modern philosophy. Although the term gained wide currency in general scholarly usage in the seventeenth century, its assimilation into standard philosophical language was very slow. In fact, observatio does not even appear as an entry in the philosophical dictionaries until the eighteenth century--with one significant exception, the medical lexica, which featured the lemma, reporting its ancient Empiric definition, as early as 1564. PMID:21466002

Pomata, Gianna

2011-01-01

314

‘A Gigantic Pedagogical Leap’: The Process of Shifts during Three Learning Study Projects in Swedish Early Childhood Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Swedish early childhood education (ECE offers a curriculum-based preschool for children aged one to five, and a preschool class for children aged six years. Activities in these programs have traditionally been based on play and having fun, avoiding structured activities with formal learning objectives. Due to indications that Swedish ECE has failed to use its resources to stimulate children’s learning, the revised ECE curriculum now contains discernible learning objectives. This study analyses the process by which preschool teachers shifted their emphasis when participating in an learning study based on three projects conducted in Swedish ECE practice. In total, 14 preschool teachers, 95 children (2–6-year-olds, and five researchers participated. The objects of learning were: (1 3D geometrical forms (2–3-year-olds, (2 organic decomposition (4–5-year-olds, and (3 the concept ‘twice as” (6-year-olds. The empirical material comprises 278 pre-, post-, and delayed post-tests, twelve planning meetings, and nine teaching activities. The results indicate that, during the projects, the initial focus on mere play expanded to include a focus on the object of learning. Three modes of change were discerned in how (1 the activities were framed, (2 the learning was perceived, and (3 the learning activities were conducted.

Agneta Ljung-Djärf

2014-01-01

315

Early Sound Patterns in the Speech of Two Brazilian Portuguese Speakers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares sound patterns in the speech of two Brazilian-Portuguese speaking children with early production patterns in English-learning children as well as English and Brazilian-Portuguese characteristics. Results emphasize the primacy of production system effects in early acquisition, although even the earliest word forms show evidence of…

Teixeira, Elizabeth Reis; Davis, Barbara L.

2002-01-01

316

Effects of housing condition and early corticosterone treatment on learned features of song in adult male zebra finches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early developmental stress can have long-term physiological and behavioral effects on an animal. Developmental stress and early corticosterone (Cort) exposure affect song quality in many songbirds. Early housing condition can act as a stressor and affect the growth of nestlings and adult song, and improvements in housing condition can reverse adverse effects of early stress exposure in rodents. However, little is known about this effect in songbirds. Therefore, we took a novel approach to investigate if housing condition can modify the effects of early Cort exposure on adult song in male zebra finches. We manipulated early housing conditions to include breeding in large communal flight cages (FC; standard housing condition; with mixed-sex and mix-aged birds) versus individual breeding cages (IBC, one male-female pair with small, IBC-S, or large clutches, IBC-L) in post-hatch Cort treated male birds. We found that Cort treated birds from IBC-S have higher overall song learning scores (between tutor and pupil) than from FC but there is no difference between these groups in the No-Cort treated birds. When examining the effects of Cort within each housing condition, overall song learning scores decreased in Cort treated birds from flight cages but increased in birds from IBC-S compared to controls. Likewise, the total number of syllables and syllable types increased significantly in Cort treated birds from IBC-S, but decreased in FC-reared birds though this effect was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that the effects of early Cort treatment on learned features of song depend on housing condition. PMID:24492024

Shahbazi, Mahin; Jimenez, Pedro; Martinez, Luis A; Carruth, Laura L

2014-03-01

317

Solving Trade Discount Word Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

Coonce, Carol

318

Collaborative Course Development in Early Childhood Special Education through Distance Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Technology is rapidly expanding and changing higher education in multifaceted ways. Although the creation of new models of higher education is revolutionizing the way colleges compete for students, distance education has a long history, with correspondence courses as the earliest examples. Presently, distance learning through multimedia technology and the Internet is the newest solution for delivering instruction to personnel who are unable to travel to on-campus training sites. This article describes the current status of distance education methods for personnel preparation programs in early childhood special education (ECSE. A case study illustrates key design issues and presents the process and resources that assisted in development of a course in Wisconsin. Topics discussed in the case study include course development and content; the course delivery and design process; and the environment, instructional team, format and strategies, support, and evaluation. The article includes a glossary of terms in distance education, information on other ECSE distance education programs, and a list of online resources.

Ann Higgins Hains

1999-01-01

319

Lessons learned from early implementation of the maintenance rule at nine nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the lessons learned from the nine pilot site visits that were performed to review early implementation of the maintenance rule using the draft NRC Maintenance Inspection Procedure. Licensees followed NUMARC 93-01, ''Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' In general, the licensees were thorough in determining which structures, systems, and components (SSCS) were within the scope of the maintenance rule at each site. The use of an expert panel was an appropriate and practical method of determining which SSCs are risk significant. When setting goals, all licensees considered safety but many licensees did not consider operating experience throughout the industry. Although required to do so, licensees were not monitoring at the system or train level the performance or condition for some systems used in standby service but not significant to risk. Most licensees had not established adequate monitoring of structures under the rule. Licensees established reasonable plans for doing periodic evaluations, balancing unavailability and reliability, and assessing the effect of taking equipment out of service for maintenance. However, these plans were not evaluated because they had not been fully implemented at the time of the site visits

320

WordPress for dummies  

CERN Document Server

The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Graphophonological, orthographic and morphological regularities: implicit learning and early impact on reading  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis studies the appearance of graphophonological, orthographic, morphological knowledge and the use of this knowledge in reading. The results show that explicit knowledge of graphophonological consistency comes later, and is preceded by a demonstration of graphophonological sensitivity. From the first grade, this consistency has an influence on the speed and on the precision of reading regular words. This effect is found in the expert reader mainly for pseudo-words. From the first gra...

Rocher, Anne-sophie

2005-01-01

322

Risk of Learning and Behavioral Disorders Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined the association between developmental disorders of learning, attention and behavior and prenatal and early postnatal drinking water exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Informat...

Janulewicz, Patricia A.; White, Roberta F.; Winter, Michael R.; Weinberg, Janice M.; Gallagher, Lisa E.; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas F.; Aschengrau, Ann

2008-01-01

323

Doing More with Less: Verb Learning in Korean-Acquiring 24-Month-Olds  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on early word learning reveals that verbs present a unique challenge. While English-acquiring 24-month-olds can learn novel verbs and extend them to new scenes, they perform better in rich linguistic contexts (when novel verbs appear with lexicalized noun phrases naming the event participants) than in sparser linguistic contexts…

Arunachalam, Sudha; Leddon, Erin M.; Song, Hyun-joo; Lee, Yoonha; Waxman, Sandra R.

2013-01-01

324

Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

2015-03-01

325

Small wins big: analytic pinyin skills promote Chinese word reading.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined invented spelling of pinyin (a phonological coding system for teaching and learning Chinese words) in relation to subsequent Chinese reading development. Among 296 Chinese kindergartners in Beijing, independent invented pinyin spelling was found to be uniquely predictive of Chinese word reading 12 months later, even with Time 1 syllable deletion, phoneme deletion, and letter knowledge, in addition to the autoregressive effects of Time 1 Chinese word reading, statistically controlled. These results underscore the importance of children's early pinyin representations for Chinese reading acquisition, both theoretically and practically. The findings further support the idea of a universal phonological principle and indicate that pinyin is potentially an ideal measure of phonological awareness in Chinese. PMID:20581343

Lin, Dan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Hong; Zhang, Juan; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris

2010-08-01

326

Early Contingency Learning and Child and Teacher Concomitant Social–Emotional Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The value-added benefits of young children’s response-contingent learning were examined in a study of three children (2 females, 1 male with multiple disabilities and profound developmental delays. Contingency learning games were used to increase child operant responding, and both the children’s and their teachers’ concomitant social–emotional behavior associated with operant responding were mapped onto child learning. Results showed that the learning games promoted child learning and that collateral child and teacher behavior were predictably associated with operant responding. The manner in which the findings extend the results from previous research are described.

Melinda Raab

2009-07-01

327

Let’s Replace Words with Pictures: The Role of Pictures and Spatial Intelligence in Learning English Idioms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study attempted to explore the effects of spatial intelligence—one of Gardner’s (1993) eight intelligences—on learning idiomatic expressions through pictures. To this end, 76 Iranian learners of English were assigned to 2 groups: pictorial and non-pictorial. Both groups were comprised of learners with low, moderate, and high levels of spatial intelligence profile. Put differently, there were three subgroups in each group, totaling 6 subgroups. Groups proved to...

Mehdi Solhi Andarab; Afsar Rouhi

2014-01-01

328

Children's perception of foreign-accented words.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acoustic-phonetic realizations of words can vary dramatically depending on a variety of within- and across-talker characteristics such as regional dialect, native language, age, and gender. Robust word learning requires that children are able to recognize words amidst this substantial variability. In the current study, perception of foreign-accented words was assessed in four- to seven-year-old children to test how one form of variability influences word recognition in children. Results demonstrated that children had less accurate word recognition than adults for both native- and foreign-accented words. Both adults and children were less accurate at identifying foreign-accented words compared to native-accented words with children and adults showing similar decrements. For children, age and lexicon size contributed to accurate word recognition. PMID:24423250

Bent, Tessa

2014-11-01

329

Explanations, mechanisms, and developmental models: Why the nativist account of early perceptual learning is not a proper mechanistic model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last several decades a number of studies on perceptual learning in early infancy have suggested that even infants seem to be sensitive to the way objects move and interact in the world. In order to explain the early emergence of infants’ sensitivity to causal patterns in the world some psychologists have proposed that core knowledge of objects and causal relations is innate (Leslie & Keeble 1987, Carey & Spelke, 1994; Keil, 1995; Spelke et al., 1994. The goal of this paper is to examine the nativist developmental model by investigating the criteria that a mechanistic model needs to fulfill if it is to be explanatory. Craver (2006 put forth a number of such criteria and developed a few very useful distinctions between explanation sketches and proper mechanistic explanations. By applying these criteria to the nativist developmental model I aim to show, firstly, that nativists only partially characterize the phenomenon at stake without giving us the details of when and under which conditions perception and attention in early infancy take place. Secondly, nativist start off with a description of the phenomena to be explained (even if it is only a partial description but import into it a particular theory of perception that requires further empirical evidence and further defense on its own. Furthermore, I argue that innate knowledge is a good candidate for a filler term (a term that is used to name the still unknown processes and parts of the mechanism and is likely to become redundant. Recent extensive research on early intermodal perception indicates that the mechanism enabling the perception of regularities and causal patterns in early infancy is grounded in our neurophysiology. However, this mechanism is fairly basic and does not involve highly sophisticated cognitive structures or innate core knowledge. I conclude with a remark that a closer examination of the mechanisms involved in early perceptual learning indicates that the nativism/empiricism debate (as usually construed in developmental literature is wrong headed and should be closed.

Radenovi? Ljiljana

2013-01-01

330

Head First WordPress  

CERN Document Server

Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

Siarto, Jeff

2010-01-01

331

Early literacy learning in the perspective of the child : literacy stories  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

En socio-kulturel tilgang til early literacy skitseres, og der redegøres for, hvordan denne tilgang har inspireret arbejdet med at målrette Carr's mere generelle læringshistorie-tilgang til en mere early literacy fokuseret dokumentationsmetode.

Mellgren, Elisabeth; Jensen, Anders Skriver

2010-01-01

332

Novel second language words and asymmetric lexical access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lexical and phonetic mapping of auditorily confusable L2 nonwords was examined by teaching L2 learners novel words and by later examining their word recognition using an eye-tracking paradigm. During word learning, two groups of highly proficient Dutch learners of English learned 20 English nonwords, of which 10 contained the English contrast /?/-æ/ (a confusable contrast for native Dutch speakers). One group of subjects learned the words by matching their auditory forms to pictured mea...

Escudero, P.; Hayes, R.; Mitterer, H.

2008-01-01

333

Interrogating Social Justice in Early Years Education: How Effectively Do Contemporary Policies and Practices Create Equitable Learning Environments for Indigenous Australian Children?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines some of the contemporary policies and practices in Australian early years education to provide an insight into why social justice is such a critical element in preparing Australia's Indigenous children to engage in learning experiences in ways that will enable them to establish sound foundations for their future learning

Herbert, Jeannie

2013-01-01

334

Role of the plasticity-associated transcription factor zif268 in the early phase of instrumental learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene transcription is essential for learning, but the precise role of transcription factors that control expression of many other genes in specific learning paradigms is yet poorly understood. Zif268 (Krox24/Egr-1) is a transcription factor and an immediate-early gene associated with memory consolidation and reconsolidation, and induced in the striatum after addictive drugs exposure. In contrast, very little is known about its physiological role at early stages of operant learning. We investigated the role of Zif268 in operant conditioning for food. Zif268 expression was increased in all regions of the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens in mice subjected to the first session of operant conditioning. In contrast, Zif268 increase in the dorsomedial caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens core was not detected in yoked mice passively receiving the food reward. This indicates that Zif268 induction in these structures is linked to experiencing or learning contingency, but not to reward delivery. When the task was learned (5 sessions), Zif268 induction disappeared in the nucleus accumbens and decreased in the medial caudate-putamen, whereas it remained high in the lateral caudate-putamen, previously implicated in habit formation. In transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the striatonigral neurons, Zif268 induction occured after the first training session in both GFP-positive and negative neurons indicating an enhanced Zif268 expression in both striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons. Mutant mice lacking Zif268 expression obtained less rewards, but displayed a normal discrimination between reinforced and non-reinforced targets, and an unaltered approach to food delivery box. In addition, their motivation to obtain food rewards, evaluated in a progressive ratio schedule, was blunted. In conclusion, Zif268 participates in the processes underlying performance and motivation to execute food-conditioned instrumental task. PMID:24465372

Maroteaux, Matthieu; Valjent, Emmanuel; Longueville, Sophie; Topilko, Piotr; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Hervé, Denis

2014-01-01

335

The Acquisition of Abstract Words by Young Infants  

Science.gov (United States)

Young infants' learning of words for abstract concepts like "all gone" and "eat," in contrast to their learning of more concrete words like "apple" and "shoe," may follow a relatively protracted developmental course. We examined whether infants know such abstract words. Parents named one of two events shown in side-by-side videos while their…

Bergelson, Elika; Swingley, Daniel

2013-01-01

336

Learning about Early Childhood Education from and with Western European Nations  

Science.gov (United States)

Rebecca New describes a history of selective enthusiasm for Western European ideas about children, the period of childhood, and the potentials of early care and educational services. She further acknowledges the European origins of many features of contemporary early childhood education, including the prevalence of educational toys, the principles…

New, Rebecca S.

2005-01-01

337

Learning, Assessment and Equality in Early Childhood Education (ECE) Settings in England  

Science.gov (United States)

The early childhood sector in England, known as the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS), has been a site of intense policy intervention over the last decade, including the introduction of a statutory assessment of children's development at age five, conducted by teachers. National results from this assessment, the EYFS Profile, show continued…

Bradbury, Alice

2014-01-01

338

Early Fractions Learning of 3rd Grade Students in SD Laboratorium Unesa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fractions varied meanings is one of the causes of difficulties in learning fractions. These students should be given greater opportunities to explore the meaning of fractions before they learn the relationship between fractions and operations on fractions. Although students can shading area represents a fraction, does not mean they really understand the meaning of fractions as a whole. With a realistic approach to mathematics, students are given the contextual issues of equitable distribution...

Elisabet Ayunika Permata Sari; Dwi Juniati; Sitti Maesuri Patahudin

2012-01-01

339

Learning Mathematics in Two Dimensions: A Review and Look Ahead at Teaching and Learning Early Childhood Mathematics with Children’s Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne & Griffiths, 1991; Haury, 2001; Hellwig, Monroe, & Jacobs, 2000; Hong, 1996; Welchman-Tischler, 1992. We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children’s mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O’Neill, Pearce & Pick, 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004. For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children’s understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (Skoumpourdi & Mpakopoulou, 2011; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen & Van den Boogaard, 2008 and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (Clements et al., 1999; Hannibal, 1999; van Hiele, 1986. We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000, Schiro (1997, Hunsader (2004 and Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012. Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Chard, Baker & Clarke, 2008; Clements & Sarama, 2000 which lead to misconceptions (Inan & Dogan-Temur, 2010; Oberdorf & Taylor-Cox, 1999. Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children’s literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children’s books in mathematics activities and for teacher training.

LuciaM.Flevares

2014-05-01

340

Let’s Replace Words with Pictures: The Role of Pictures and Spatial Intelligence in Learning English Idioms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study attempted to explore the effects of spatial intelligence—one of Gardner’s (1993 eight intelligences—on learning idiomatic expressions through pictures. To this end, 76 Iranian learners of English were assigned to 2 groups: pictorial and non-pictorial. Both groups were comprised of learners with low, moderate, and high levels of spatial intelligence profile. Put differently, there were three subgroups in each group, totaling 6 subgroups. Groups proved to be homogeneous with regard to their understanding of the idioms in focus. During the treatment period, which lasted for 3 months, 2 sessions a week, the pictorial group received idiomatic expressions along with pictures associated with those idioms while the control group received the idioms with no pictures. An omnibus t-test run on the scores obtained from a posttest demonstrated statistically significant difference between the pictorial and non-pictorial groups in understanding the meaning of idiomatic expressions. Fine-grained analyses including 3 separate t-tests showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the lows and between the moderates in the pictorial and non-pictorial groups. The difference between the highs, however, turned out to reach statistical significance. A one-way ANOVA run on the scores of the 3 subgroups of the pictorial reached statistical difference while the one-way ANOVA run on the scores of the 3 subgroups of the non-pictorial group did not show any significant difference. Viewed generally, the results suggest that learners with higher levels of spatial intelligence would be more privileged to benefit from idiomatic expressions presented along with associated pictures.

Mehdi Solhi Andarab

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Aplicabilidade do software Fast Forword na reabilitação dos distúrbios do processamento auditivo: resultados iniciais Applicability of Fast ForWord software to management auditory process disorders: early result  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEMA: novas propostas de reabilitação para crianças com distúrbios do processamento auditivo associadas aos distúrbios de linguagem e de aprendizagem são necessárias para aumentar a eficácia do tratamento fonoaudiológico. Assim, o objetivo foi descrever a aplicabilidade do software Fast ForWord Language (FFWL na reabilitação dos distúrbios de processamento auditivo (DPA em três crianças brasileiras. PROCEDIMENTOS: estas três crianças, na faixa-etária de 9 a 14 anos, foram selecionadas pela avaliação audiológica básica, do processamento auditivo, de linguagem escrita e de consciência fonológica. Estes procedimentos foram utilizados antes e após a realização do treinamento com o software FFWL, que foi aplicado durante 80 minutos por dia, em cinco dias por semana em até oito semanas de treinamento. Foram utilizadas as seguintes estratégias: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification e Phonic Match, envolvendo detecção, discriminação, atenção sustentada e memória auditiva. RESULTADOS: após, em média 30,67 dias de uso do FFW, observou-se adequação em duas crianças do processamento auditivo. Em uma das crianças isso não foi evidenciado mantendo-se com as mesmas alterações na reavaliação do processamento auditivo. Após a terceira semana de estimulação observou-se diminuição do interesse pelas estratégias, o que necessitou uma intervenção mais intensa e criativa dos pesquisadores. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se inferir que o FFW apresenta aplicabilidade para crianças brasileiras com distúrbio do processamento auditivo, entretanto, são necessárias novas pesquisas com uma amostra maior para verificar a eficácia deste software para crianças brasileiras.BACKGROUND: news proposals of rehabilitation for children with auditory processing disorders associated to language and learning disorders are necessary to increase the efficacy of speech and language treatment. So, the purpose was to check the applicability of Fast Forword (FFW software for managing auditory processing disorder (APD in three Brazilian kids. PROCEDURE: these three children, ranging from 9 to 14-year old, were selected in basic auditory evaluation, auditory process evaluation, language evaluation and phonological awareness. These tests applied before and after the training with FFW, ran during 100 minutes a day, five days a week along eight weeks. The following strategies were applied: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification and Phonic Match, involving detection, discrimination, sustained attention and auditory memory. RESULTS: after about 30.67 days using FFW, we noted adequacy in auditory process of two kids. In one of the kids that were not the case, the same alterations showed in the auditory process re-evaluation. After a third week of stimulation a diminution of interest for the strategies was observed, which demanded a more intense and creative intervention of the researchers. CONCLUSION: it is possible to infer that FFW presents applicability for Brazilian kids with auditory process disturbances; however, research with larger samples is necessary in order to check the effectiveness of this software on Brazilian kids.

Sheila Andreoli Balen

2008-12-01

342

Aplicabilidade do software Fast Forword na reabilitação dos distúrbios do processamento auditivo: resultados iniciais / Applicability of Fast ForWord software to management auditory process disorders: early result  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese TEMA: novas propostas de reabilitação para crianças com distúrbios do processamento auditivo associadas aos distúrbios de linguagem e de aprendizagem são necessárias para aumentar a eficácia do tratamento fonoaudiológico. Assim, o objetivo foi descrever a aplicabilidade do software Fast ForWord Lang [...] uage (FFWL) na reabilitação dos distúrbios de processamento auditivo (DPA) em três crianças brasileiras. PROCEDIMENTOS: estas três crianças, na faixa-etária de 9 a 14 anos, foram selecionadas pela avaliação audiológica básica, do processamento auditivo, de linguagem escrita e de consciência fonológica. Estes procedimentos foram utilizados antes e após a realização do treinamento com o software FFWL, que foi aplicado durante 80 minutos por dia, em cinco dias por semana em até oito semanas de treinamento. Foram utilizadas as seguintes estratégias: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification e Phonic Match, envolvendo detecção, discriminação, atenção sustentada e memória auditiva. RESULTADOS: após, em média 30,67 dias de uso do FFW, observou-se adequação em duas crianças do processamento auditivo. Em uma das crianças isso não foi evidenciado mantendo-se com as mesmas alterações na reavaliação do processamento auditivo. Após a terceira semana de estimulação observou-se diminuição do interesse pelas estratégias, o que necessitou uma intervenção mais intensa e criativa dos pesquisadores. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se inferir que o FFW apresenta aplicabilidade para crianças brasileiras com distúrbio do processamento auditivo, entretanto, são necessárias novas pesquisas com uma amostra maior para verificar a eficácia deste software para crianças brasileiras. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: news proposals of rehabilitation for children with auditory processing disorders associated to language and learning disorders are necessary to increase the efficacy of speech and language treatment. So, the purpose was to check the applicability of Fast Forword (FFW) software for managi [...] ng auditory processing disorder (APD) in three Brazilian kids. PROCEDURE: these three children, ranging from 9 to 14-year old, were selected in basic auditory evaluation, auditory process evaluation, language evaluation and phonological awareness. These tests applied before and after the training with FFW, ran during 100 minutes a day, five days a week along eight weeks. The following strategies were applied: Circus sequence, Old Mac Donald's Flying Farm, Phoneme identification and Phonic Match, involving detection, discrimination, sustained attention and auditory memory. RESULTS: after about 30.67 days using FFW, we noted adequacy in auditory process of two kids. In one of the kids that were not the case, the same alterations showed in the auditory process re-evaluation. After a third week of stimulation a diminution of interest for the strategies was observed, which demanded a more intense and creative intervention of the researchers. CONCLUSION: it is possible to infer that FFW presents applicability for Brazilian kids with auditory process disturbances; however, research with larger samples is necessary in order to check the effectiveness of this software on Brazilian kids.

Sheila Andreoli, Balen; Rosiana, Massignani; Raquel, Schillo.

2008-12-01

343

WordPress 3.1  

Science.gov (United States)

Though commonly thought of as a type of blogging application, WordPress is much more than that. Recently, WordPress released a new version of their software that includes helpful new plugins (many created by their dedicated users) and themes. Visitors can use the tutorial on their site to learn about the many uses of WordPress, and they should also look through the "Extend" area to learn about the many different customizable options available here. This version of WordPress is compatible with all operating systems, including those running Linux.

Boren, Ryan; Mullenweg, Matt

2011-01-01

344

Are reading and face processing related? A study of word processing in developmental prosopagnosia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition. In this light, investigating face processing in dyslexia, and reading in prosopagnosia becomes interesting: Do deficits in the two domains dissociate? We present data from 11 people with developmental prosopagnosia, which is a disorder of face processing in people with no known brain injury, and in the context of normal intelligence and other cognitive abilities. The face processing deficits in developmental prosopagnosia appear early in life and seem to be the result of developmental problems that are currently poorly understood. In three experiments, we investigated whether reading performance in this group was abnormal. First, we examined if reading speed was affected by word length in any of the subjects. Secondly, we compared performance with single word and single letter stimuli using RT measures. Third, we measured the word superiority effect in accuracy of word and letter report with brief exposure durations. These data were also analysed using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention1, to extract estimates of perceptual processing speed for words and letters. We find that the group of developmental prosopagnosics perform well within the normal range on all reading tests. In the traditional RT test, they show normal RTs, and no abnormal word length effects. As a group, they also show an RT advantage for short words over single letters, as we have previously found in normal subjects.2 In the word superiority experiment, the group of prosopagnosics show the typical word superiority effect, reflected in better overall accuracy, a lower perceptual threshold, and higher processing speed for words compared to letters. In sum, we find no evidence that reading skills are abnormal in developmental prosopagnosia, a finding that may challenge the recently proposed hypothesis that reading development and face processing abilities are intrinsically linked.

Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K.

345

Risk of learning and behavioral disorders following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined the association between developmental disorders of learning, attention and behavior and prenatal and early postnatal drinking water exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Mothers completed a questionnaire on disorders of attention, learning and behavior in their children and on potential confounding variables. The final cohort consisted of 2086 children. Results of crude and multivariate analyses showed no association between prenatal exposure and receiving tutoring for reading or math, being placed on an Individual Education Plan, or repeating a school grade (adjusted Odds Ratios (OR)=1.0-1.2). There was also no consistent pattern of increased risk for receiving a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Hyperactive Disorder (HD), special class placement for academic or behavioral problems, or lower educational attainment. Modest associations were observed for the latter outcomes only in the low exposure group (e.g., adjusted ORs for ADD were 1.4 and 1.0 for low and high exposure, respectively). (All ORs are based on an unexposed referent group.) Results for postnatal exposure through age five years were similar to those for prenatal exposure. We conclude that prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure is not associated with disorders of attention, learning and behavior identified on the basis of questionnaire responses and at the exposure levels experienced by this population. PMID:18353612

Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Gallagher, Lisa E; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas F; Aschengrau, Ann

2008-01-01

346

Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part II: From Canonical Babbling up to the Appearance of the First Word  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to systematically describe the preverbal development of preterm infants from canonical babbling up to the first word and to compare it with that of healthy full-term infants. In addition, the amount of vocalization between the preterm and full-term groups was compared. The sample consisted of 18 preterm infants with…

Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

2012-01-01

347

Microsoft Word 2010 Digital Classroom  

CERN Document Server

The perfect book-and-video training package for Word 2010! This Word 2010 book-and-video training package-from the same professional training experts who also create many training materials for Adobe Systems-is like having your own personal instructor guiding you through each lesson, but you work at your own pace! The full-color ebook includes 8 lessons that teach you the new features and quirks of Microsoft Word 2010. Each lesson includes step-by-step instructions and lesson files, and provides valuable video tutorials that complement what you're learning and clearly demonstr

Team, Training

2011-01-01

348

Teach yourself visually Word 2013  

CERN Document Server

Get up to speed on the newest version of Word with visual instruction Microsoft Word is the standard for word processing programs, and the newest version offers additional functionality you'll want to use. Get up to speed quickly and easily with the step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots in this popular guide! You'll see how to perform dozens of tasks, including how to set up and format documents and text; work with diagrams, charts, and pictures; use Mail Merge; post documents online; and much more. Easy-to-follow, two-page lessons make learning a snap.Full-

Marmel, Elaine

2013-01-01

349

Words translated in sentence contexts produce repetition priming in visual word comprehension and spoken word production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research with words read in context at encoding showed little if any long-term repetition priming. In Experiment 1, 96 Spanish-English bilinguals translated words in isolation or in sentence contexts at encoding. At test, they translated words or named pictures corresponding to words produced at encoding and control words not previously presented. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were generally smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Repetition priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context. A componential analysis indicated priming from comprehension in context, but only in the less fluent language. Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with auditory presentation of the words and sentences to be translated. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were again smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context, but the componential analysis indicated no detectable priming for auditory comprehension. The results of the two experiments taken together suggest that repetition priming reflects the long-term learning that occurs with comprehension and production exposures to words in the context of natural language. PMID:24867824

Francis, Wendy S; Camacho, Alejandra; Lara, Carolina

2014-10-01

350

Acquisition and Transfer of Empathy by the Parents of Early Adolescents Through Structured Learning Training  

Science.gov (United States)

This study measured the effectiveness of Goldstein's structured learning training (modeling, role playing, and social reinforcement) in teaching parents of adolescents to respond empathically to their children; also measured was the extent to which transfer of training occurs when adolescents participate in training with their parents. Results are…

Guzzetta, Roberta A.

1976-01-01

351

Early Lessons Learned from Extramural School Programs That Offer HPV Vaccine  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: There has been little evaluation of school-located vaccination programs that offer human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in US schools without health centers (ie, extramural programs). This article summarizes lessons learned from such programs. Methods: In July to August 2010, 5 programs were identi?ed. Semistructured, in-depth telephone…

Hayes, Kim A.; Entzel, Pamela; Berger, Wendy; Caskey, Rachel N.; Shlay, Judith C.; Stubbs, Brenda W.; Smith, Jennifer S.; Brewer, Noel T.

2013-01-01

352

How Does Teaching Experience Affect Attitudes towards Literacy Learning in the Early Years?  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers bring a complex array of beliefs and attitudes to the teaching of literacy. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the nature of teacher attitudes towards the learning and teaching of writing in the first year of school and to identify any broad underlying attitudinal dimensions. The secondary aim was to…

Mackenzie, Noella M.; Hemmings, Brian; Kay, Russell

2011-01-01

353

Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp) in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistoche...

Jonathan Soulé; Zsuzsa Penke; Tambudzai Kanhema; Maria Nordheim Alme; Serge Laroche; Bramham, Clive R.

2008-01-01

354

Motor-Coordination-Dependent Learning, More than Others, Is Impaired in Transgenic Mice Expressing Pseudorabies Virus Immediate-Early Protein IE180  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cerebellum in transgenic mice expressing pseudorabies virus immediate-early protein IE180 (TgIE96) was substantially diminished in size, and its histoarchitecture was severely disorganized, resulting in severe ataxia. TgIE96 mice can therefore be used as an experimental model to study the involvement of cerebellar circuits in different learning tasks. The performance of three-month-old TgIE96 mice was studied in various behavioral tests, including associative learning (classical eyeblink ...

Lo?pez-ramos, Juan C.; Tomioka, Yukiko; Morimatsu, Masami; Yamamoto, Sayo; Ozaki, Kinuyo; Ono, Etsuro; Delgado-garci?a, Jose? M.

2010-01-01

355

``The sun is sleeping now'': Early learning about light and shadows  

Science.gov (United States)

To keep intuitive knowledge fluid for an extended time, we wish to encourage young children to examine continuously those intuitive explanations for natural phenomena which later become hard wired, highly resistant to development or change. To assist this we designed a learning package which integrated three extensively researched educational strategies (cooperative learning, informal inquiry and familiar context) for children to explore their notions about the topic light. Children in a kindergarten class were encouraged to share their ideas about shadows and shadow formation with peers, as they took part in explorations of shadow formation inside and outside their classroom. Whole class discussions, small group conversations and final conversations between researcher and small groups provide insights into social and individual construction of knowledge, young children's abilities to be scientific and the social construction of gender.

Segal, Gilda; Cosgrove, Mark

1993-12-01

356

Social Partners : Out with Early Exit - in with lifelong learning and career development?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address the demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society and the contribution of lifelong learning to the needs and potential of older workers is crucial, as the demographic situation already today, and in particular the one to be expected within the next about 40 years, is historically without a precedent. The idea of continuous learning and the need for a meaningful work has been included in the agreements between the working life parties in all the Nordic countries. However, not all people are provided with – or take an advantage of – the possibilities to continue learning relevant to their career development. Studies show that trade unions are in “an especially difficult position” regarding this matter, but also that they should develop clearer strategy in response to demographic change, and communicate it to their members. The OWNsurvey was carried out as a part of the work in the network Older workers in the Nordic countries (OWN) supported by the Nordic Council. The findings showed, on one hand, that while some social partners have started very good work, for many the issues of lifelong learning and opportunities for career development for older workers are not on their agenda. Besides differences between the unions in regards many aspects and within most countries, the findings also revealed systematic differences between the Nordic countries. Targeted policy measures regarding the older workers showed to be in place in Denmark and Norway, while this seems to be least the case in Sweden. Finland and Iceland have been prioritizing general policies. Targeted measures provide strongest, and in many cases much needed support to older workers’ competence and career development. However, even a strong lifelong learning policy seems not alone to guarantee real opportunities for and participation in learning during the latter half of the lifetime job careers, especially if the implementation of these policies is not followed up. On another note, also general policies can provide the necessary support, provided that other policy domains and practice are aligned with them. Overall, there is a need for a more active approach from social partners, in policy and practice, to promote lifelong learning and career development to their senior members during their last 15-20 years in working life. In this issue the social partners can and should play an active role – indeed, a leading role if needed – among the other key actors in society.

Hansen, Leif Emil

2011-01-01

357

Watching, Creating and Achieving: Creative Technologies as a Conduit for Learning in the Early Years  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the use of robotics in an Early Years classroom as a tool to aid the development of technological skills in a creative environment rich with literacy and numeracy opportunities. The pilot project illustrates how a three-phase process can result in the development of: (1) emergent literacy and numeracy, (2) digital access for…

McDonald, Susan; Howell, Jennifer

2012-01-01

358

Master's Programs in Israeli Colleges of Education: A New Learning Opportunity in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of advanced studies for the professional staff working in the field of early childhood education (ECE). Until 2001, Israeli MA programs were controlled exclusively by Israeli universities. The article deals with the development of MEd programs in Israeli colleges of education, using the…

Mevorach, Miriam; Miron, Mordechai

2011-01-01

359

Learning in Australian Early Childhood Education and Care Settings: Changing Professional Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time across Australia, early education and care services are subject to a single, national set of regulations and standards governing the quality of provision. Concurrently, a set of outcomes for all children aged from birth to 5 years and a ranking system to make transparent the performance of programmes have been developed. This…

Tayler, Collette

2012-01-01

360

Children of the Cloth: Flannelboards Are a Great Tool to Help Kids Learn Early Literacy Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

Flannelboards have been a storytime staple for years in school and public libraries. The flannelboard, or feltboard as it often is called, is a great tool to help children build early literacy skills. Reading research tells us that reading aloud is most effective when it is an interactive experience between the reader and the child. Flannelboard…

Arnold, Renea; Colburn, Nell

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Embedding Research-Based Learning Early in the Undergraduate Geography Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers the rationale for embedding research and enquiry skills early in the undergraduate geography curriculum and for making these skills explicit to students. A survey of 52 international geography faculty identified critical thinking, framing research questions, reflectivity and creativity as the most challenging research skills…

Walkington, Helen; Griffin, Amy L.; Keys-Mathews, Lisa; Metoyer, Sandra K.; Miller, Wendy E.; Baker, Richard; France, Derek

2011-01-01

362

Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

2011-01-01

363

The Early Childhood Inclusion Support Program: Incorporating Discrete Skills into Comprehensive Units for Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experimental study examined the Early Childhood Inclusion Support Program (ECIS).The program uses empirically-based procedures to support effective strategies of inclusion in preschool, including training for program collaboration and implementation through direct services to students and through support for teachers, and through…

Klein, Evelyn R.; Geiss, Dana; Kushner, Robin; Hill, Donna

364

Child Development and Learning: ECI-1. Early Childhood Intervention Catalog Module.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first of seven modules on early intervention with young (birth to age 3) handicapped children is designed to provide information on child development to teachers, administrators, and other professionals. A training outline lists objectives and preparation ideas for an inservice session on child development. Activities suggested include…

Evans, Joyce; Bricker, Donna

365

Changing Policy, Changing Culture: Steps toward Early Learning Quality Improvement in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Across Australia a combined government effort is underway to reform early childhood education and care (ECEC) provision. A National Law Bill passed in 2010 heralds a new legal, regulatory and accountability framework that embraces all types ECEC provision. As a result, service providers face rapid change to address a new orientation and higher…

Tayler, Collette

2011-01-01

366

15-month-old infants fast map words but not representational gestures of multimodal labels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated whether 15-month-old infants fast map multimodal labels, and, when given the choice of two modalities, whether they preferentially fast map one better than the other. Sixty 15-month-old infants watched films where an actress repeatedly and ostensively labeled two novel objects using a spoken word along with a representational gesture. In the test phase, infants were assigned to one of three conditions: Word, Word + Gesture, or Gesture. The objects appeared in a shelf next to the experimenter and, depending on the condition, infants were prompted with either a word, a gesture, or a multimodal word-gesture combination. Using an infant eye tracker, we determined whether infants made the correct mappings. Results revealed that only infants in the Word condition had learned the novel object labels. When the representational gesture was presented alone or when the verbal label was accompanied by a representational gesture, infants did not succeed in making the correct mappings. Results reveal that 15-month-old infants do not benefit from multimodal labeling and that they prefer words over representational gestures as object labels in multimodal utterances. Findings put into question the role of multimodal labeling in early language development.

DanielPuccini

2012-04-01

367

Word recognition and phonetic structure acquisition: Possible relations  

Science.gov (United States)

Several accounts of possible relations between the emergence of the mental lexicon and acquisition of native language phonological structure have been propounded. In one view, acquisition of word meanings guides infants' attention toward those contrasts that are linguistically significant in their language. In the opposing view, native language phonological categories may be acquired from statistical patterns of input speech, prior to and independent of learning at the lexical level. Here, a more interactive account will be presented, in which phonological structure is modeled as emerging consequentially from the self-organization of perceptual space underlying word recognition. A key prediction of this model is that early native language phonological categories will be highly context specific. Data bearing on this prediction will be presented which provide clues to the nature of infants' statistical analysis of input.

Morgan, James

2002-05-01

368

Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and passage reading comprehension, and examine whether any such link involves domain-general or reading-specific flexibility. As the only previous support for a predictive relationship between flexibility and early reading comes from studies of reading comprehension in the opaque English orthography, another possibility is that this relationship may be largely orthography-dependent, only coming into play when mappings between representations are complex and polyvalent. To investigate these questions, 60 second-graders learning to read the more transparent French orthography were presented with two multiple classification tasks involving reading-specific cognitive flexibility (based on words) and non-specific flexibility (based on pictures). Reading skills were assessed by word reading, pseudo-word decoding, and passage reading comprehension measures. Flexibility was found to contribute significant unique variance to passage reading comprehension even in the less opaque French orthography. More interestingly, the data also show that flexibility is critical in accounting for one of the core components of reading comprehension, namely, the reading of words in isolation. Finally, the results constrain the debate over whether flexibility has to be reading-specific to be critically involved in reading. PMID:24966842

Colé, Pascale; Duncan, Lynne G; Blaye, Agnès

2014-01-01

369

Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog  

CERN Document Server

Smashing WordPress shows you how to utilize the power of the WordPress platform, and provides a creative spark to help you build WordPress-powered sites that go beyond the obvious. The second edition of Smashing WordPress has been updated for WordPress 3.1+, which includes internal, custom post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to post types, the admin bar, and lots of other useful new features. You will learn the core concepts used to build just about anything in WordPress, resulting in fast deployments and greater design flexib

Hedengren, Thord Daniel

2011-01-01

370

A Written Word Is Worth a Thousand Spoken Words: The Influence of Spelling on Spoken-Word Production  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the role of spelling in phonological variant processing. Participants learned the auditory forms of potential reduced variants of novel French words (e.g., /plur/) and their associations with pictures of novel objects over 4 days. After the fourth day of training, the spelling of each novel word was presented once.…

Burki, Audrey; Spinelli, Elsa; Gaskell, M. Gareth

2012-01-01

371

Who learns in Early Childhood Education? the school teaching how to be a good mother  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article aims at problematizing, through the use of post-structural Gender and Cultural Studies, the relationship between teachers and mothers of Early Childhood Education children. The paper claims that discourses of pedagogy, medicine, and developmental psychology, which are the foundations of teacher education, institute not only teachers and students’ subject positions and identities, but also particular forms of maternity. Though cultural analysis the teachings on maternity, which ...

Letícia Prezzi Fernandes

2010-01-01

372

Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Early Childhood Education: The Reggio Emilia (RE) Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the Reggio-Emila Approach in early childhood education. A Reggioinspired-kindergarten in Kuala Lumpur provided an observable example of this approach in Malaysia. The researcher was granted permission to unobtrusively observe a half-day school session, and to conduct an intensive interview with the school principal. A request to interview students and teachers was denied, as was a request to conduct a focus-group discussion. This paper discusses the...

Firdaus, Amira

2014-01-01

373

Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pol...

Internicola, Antonina I.; Harder, Lawrence D.

2012-01-01

374

The Timing and Teaching of Word Families.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses why word families should be taught. Argues that the timing of such instruction is critical and that teachers can use children's invented spelling to determine what they already know and what they are ready to learn. Offers a developmental perspective to guide teachers in the planning and pacing of word-family instruction. (SR)

Johnston, Francine R.

1999-01-01

375

Implementing an early childhood developmental screening and surveillance program in primary care settings: lessons learned from a project in Illinois.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhancing Developmentally Oriented Primary Care (EDOPC) is a project with a goal to increase the financing and delivery of preventive developmental services for children birth to age 3 years in the state of Illinois. Primary care providers have more opportunities to screen and observe infants and toddlers than any other professional, because they see them up to 13 times in the first 3 years of life for well-child visits. The project focused on using a 1-hour, on-site training for primary care providers and their entire office staff as the method of increasing knowledge, focusing on intent to change practice and implementation of routine early childhood developmental screening. Although many primary care providers routinely use only developmental surveillance in their practices, clinical practice guidelines recommend routine use of standardized developmental screening, using validated developmental screening tools. This article includes lessons learned and recommendations based on clinical practice guidelines and experiences of the team members during implementation of the EDOPC project. Primary care providers are critical to this process because children with developmental disorders have the best long-term outcomes and opportunities for improved family functioning with early detection, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24929846

Berry, Anita D; Garzon, Dawn Lee; Mack, Patricia; Kanwischer, Katelyn Z; Beck, Deborah Guzzo

2014-01-01

376

Statistical learning in reading: variability in irrelevant letters helps children learn phonics skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early reading abilities are widely considered to derive in part from statistical learning of regularities between letters and sounds. Although there is substantial evidence from laboratory work to support this, how it occurs in the classroom setting has not been extensively explored; there are few investigations of how statistics among letters and sounds influence how children actually learn to read or what principles of statistical learning may improve learning. We examined 2 conflicting principles that may apply to learning grapheme-phoneme-correspondence (GPC) regularities for vowels: (a) variability in irrelevant units may help children derive invariant relationships and (b) similarity between words may force children to use a deeper analysis of lexical structure. We trained 224 first-grade students on a small set of GPC regularities for vowels, embedded in words with either high or low consonant similarity, and tested their generalization to novel tasks and words. Variability offered a consistent benefit over similarity for trained and new words in both trained and new tasks. PMID:22924367

Apfelbaum, Keith S; Hazeltine, Eliot; McMurray, Bob

2013-07-01

377

Quality Matters! Understanding the Relationship between Quality of Early Childhood Education and Learning Competencies of Children: An Exploratory Study in Tamil Nadu. Research Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that few studies have examined the relationship between quality of early childhood education (ECE) programs in India and the impact of such programs on young children's learning competencies, this study explored the relationship between various components of programs in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and other family and…

M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Madras (India).

378

Affective learning enhances activity and functional connectivity in early visual cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the impact of task-irrelevant affective information on early visual processing regions V1 through V4. Fearful and neutral faces presented with rings of different colors were used as stimuli. During the conditioning phase, fearful faces presented with a certain ring color (e.g., black) were paired with mild electrical stimulation. Neutral faces shown with rings of that color, as well as fearful or neutral faces shown with another ring color (e.g., white), were never paired ...

Damaraju, Eswar; Huang, Yang-ming; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Pessoa, Luiz

2009-01-01

379

Development of PI3K inhibitors: lessons learned from early clinical trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has an important role in cell metabolism, growth, migration, survival and angiogenesis. Drug development aimed at targetable genetic aberrations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been fomented by observations that alterations in this pathway induce tumour formation and that inappropriate PI3K signalling is a frequent occurrence in human cancer. Many of the agents developed have been evaluated in early stage clinical trials. This Review focuses on early clinical and translational data related to inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, as these data will likely guide the further clinical development of such agents. We review data from those trials, delineating the safety profile of the agents--whether observed sequelae could be mechanism-based or off-target effects--and drug efficacy. We describe predictive biomarkers explored in clinical trials and preclinical mechanisms of resistance. We also discuss key unresolved translational questions related to the clinical development of inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and propose designs for biomarker-driven trials to address those issues. PMID:23400000

Rodon, Jordi; Dienstmann, Rodrigo; Serra, Violeta; Tabernero, Josep

2013-03-01

380

Common complications of deep lamellar keratoplasty in the early phase of the learning curve  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mohamed HosnyOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate and record the common complications that face surgeons when they perform their first few series of deep lamellar keratoplasty and measures to avoid these.Setting: Dar El Oyoun Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.Methods: Retrospective study of the first 40 eyes of 40 patients carried out by two corneal surgeons working in the same center. All patients were planned to undergo a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the big bubble technique. Twelve patients suffered from keratoconus while 28 patients had anterior corneal pathologies. Recorded complications were classified as either intraoperative or postoperative.Results: Perforation of Descemet's membrane was the most common intraoperative complication. It occurred in nine eyes (22.5%: five eyes (12.5% had microperforations while four eyes (10% had macroperforations, three eyes (7.5% had central perforations, and six eyes (15% had peripheral perforations. Other complications included incomplete separation of Descemet's membrane and remnants of peripheral stromal tissue. Postoperative complications included double anterior chamber which occurred in four eyes (10% and Descemet's membrane corrugations. Postoperative astigmatism ranged from 1.25 to 4.5 diopters with a mean of 2.86 diopters in the whole series, but in the six cases with identified residual stroma in the periphery of the host bed, the astigmatism ranged from 2.75 to 4.5 diopters with a mean of 3.62 diopters.Conclusion: Deep lamellar keratoplasty is sensitive to procedural details. Learning the common complications and how to avoid them helps novice surgeons to learn the procedure faster.Keywords: deep lamellar keratoplasty, complications, big bubble technique

Hosny M

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Common complications of deep lamellar keratoplasty in the early phase of the learning curve  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To evaluate and record the common complications that face surgeons when they perform their first few series of deep lamellar keratoplasty and measures to avoid these. Setting: Dar El Oyoun Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Methods: Retrospective study of the first 40 eyes of 40 patients carried out by two corneal surgeons working in the same center. All patients were planned to undergo a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the big bubble technique. Twelve patients suffered from keratoconus while 28 patients had anterior corneal pathologies. Recorded complications were classified as either intraoperative or postoperative. Results: Perforation of Descemet’s membrane was the most common intraoperative complication. It occurred in nine eyes (22.5%): five eyes (12.5%) had microperforations while four eyes (10%) had macroperforations, three eyes (7.5%) had central perforations, and six eyes (15%) had peripheral perforations. Other complications included incomplete separation of Descemet’s membrane and remnants of peripheral stromal tissue. Postoperative complications included double anterior chamber which occurred in four eyes (10%) and Descemet’s membrane corrugations. Postoperative astigmatism ranged from 1.25 to 4.5 diopters with a mean of 2.86 diopters in the whole series, but in the six cases with identified residual stroma in the periphery of the host bed, the astigmatism ranged from 2.75 to 4.5 diopters with a mean of 3.62 diopters. Conclusion: Deep lamellar keratoplasty is sensitive to procedural details. Learning the common complications and how to avoid them helps novice surgeons to learn the procedure faster. PMID:21750612

Hosny, Mohamed

2011-01-01

382

[Specific learning disabilities and psychopathological aspects: the importance of early diagnosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The case of a couple of monozygotic twins, for whom the diagnosis of Specific Learning Disabilities was made when they were 14.5 years old, even if reading and writing difficulties had been present since the beginning of primary school, is described. The consultation had been required due to difficulties in relating with same age boys, with social withdrawal and depressive traits, leaving in second place school difficulties; clinical suspect has led to extend the evaluation to include the neuropsychological aspects and so to reach the diagnosis. The differences in terms of adaptive modalities facing the discomfort, probably based on temperament differences, and neuropsychological disorder (low grade dyslexia for one twin, dis-orthography and low-to-medium grade dyslexia for the other one) are discussed. The acquired awareness of being intelligent has permitted the boys to look back in a new way to the school failures they had collected through years; namely, understanding that their difficulties reflected a specific neuropsychological deficit has permitted to reconsider their own past history with a consequent modification of the ''beliefs'' about their abilities. This all has led as a consequence to an increase of life quality (with an improved school and relational adaptation), without cancelling but instead supporting the research of on individuality based on temperament differences. This was possible in spite of the evident delay in reaching the diagnosis and the consequent accumulation of frustration and inadequacy experiences for many years; it's therefore demonstrated the importance of a global evaluation of patients with anamnesis of difficulties in learning to read and write, also in order to treat the possible psychopathological aspects of the clinical picture, which can be the result of a sense of helplessness. PMID:17519874

Chiappedi, M; Zoppello, M; Rossi, R; Scarabello, E M; Piazza, F

2007-06-01

383

Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

2006-06-04

384

Electrophysiological cross-language neighborhood density effects in late and early English-Welsh bilinguals  

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Full Text Available Behavioral studies with proficient late bilinguals have revealed the existence of orthographic neighborhood density effects across languages when participants read either in their first (L1 or second (L2 language. Words with many cross-language neighbors have been found to elicit more negative event-related potentials (ERPs than words with few cross-language neighbors (Midgley et al., 2008; the effect started earlier, and was larger, for L2 words. Here, 14 late and 14 early English-Welsh bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task on English and Welsh words presented in separate blocks. The pattern of cross-language activation was different for the two groups of bilinguals. In late bilinguals, words with high cross-language neighborhood density elicited more negative ERP amplitudes than words with low cross-language neighborhood density starting around 175 ms after word onset and lasting until 500 ms. This effect interacted with language in the 300-500 ms time window. A more complex pattern of early effects was revealed in early bilinguals and there were no effects in the N400 window. These results suggest that cross-language activation of orthographic neighbors is highly sensitive to the bilinguals’ learning experience of the two languages.

GiordanaGrossi

2012-10-01

385

E-Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

E-Learning or Edutainment Learning, the word has several meanings, E-Learning can best be defined as the science of learning without using paper printed instructional material. The concept is new, dynamic and robust approach towards learning and is gaining more and more popularity, as the Subject Matter Experts (SME) are using several tools to create E-Learning modules for the learners. Numerous top institutions and distance learning universities have started degree and di...

Sumit Goyal

2013-01-01

386

Learning for supplying as a motive to be the early adopter of a new energy technology: A study on the adoption of stationary fuel cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By early adopting a new technology, firms may attempt to improve their production efficiency and become further involved in the supply chain of the technology. These two different advantages derived from learning a new technology are identified as motives for adopting the technology. When learning for supplying (LFS) (becoming involved in the supply chain of the new technology) highlighted in this paper is significant enough, potential adopters may still be willing to adopt the new technology, even though learning for using (LFU) (increasing current production efficiency) is not significant. This paper identifies LFS as a motive for early adopters of the new technology. Firms may adopt a new technology for the purpose of learning how to become the suppliers of the relevant parts, materials, or equipment for the new technology. By investigating the adoption decision of a new energy technology (namely, phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC)), our arguments are supported by both observation of early adopters' attributes and a survey of Taiwanese firms' willingness to adopt new technology

387

The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh

2012-01-01

388

Audiovisual Spoken Word Training can Promote or Impede Auditory-only Perceptual Learning: Results from Prelingually Deafened Adults with Late-Acquired Cochlear Implants and Normal-Hearing Adults  

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Full Text Available Training with audiovisual (AO speech can promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. Pre-/perilingually deafened adults rely on visual speech even when they also use a cochlear implant. This study investigated whether visual speech promotes auditory perceptual learning in these cochlear implant users. In Experiment 1, 28 prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants were assigned to learn paired associations between spoken disyllabic C(=consonantV(=vowelCVC nonsense words and nonsense pictures (fribbles, under AV and then under auditory-only (AO (or counter-balanced AO then AV training conditions. After training on each list of paired-associates (PA, testing was carried out AO. Across AV and AO training, AO PA test scores improved as did identification of consonants in untrained CVCVC stimuli. However, whenever PA training was carried out with AV stimuli, AO test scores were steeply reduced. Experiment 2 repeated the experiment with 43 normal-hearing adults. Their AO tests scores did not drop following AV PA training and even increased relative to scores following AO training. Normal-hearing participants' consonant identification scores improved also but with a pattern that contrasted with cochlear implant users’: Normal hearing adults were most accurate for medial consonants, and in contrast cochlear implant users were most accurate for initial consonants. The results are interpreted within a multisensory reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that perceptual tasks are carried out whenever possible based on immediate high-level perception without scrutiny of lower-level features. The theory implies that, based on their bias towards visual speech, cochlear implant participants learned the PAs with greater reliance on vision to the detriment of auditory perceptual learning. Normal-hearing participants' learning took advantage of the concurrence between auditory and visual speech.

LynneEBernstein

2014-08-01

389

Hydrological cycle during the early Eocene: What can we learn from leaf waxes?  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how rapid warming modified global precipitation patterns during periods of global warming is essential to forecasting the impact of future climate change. The early Eocene (~55-52 Ma) represents a period of peak warmth for the past 65 million years with global temperatures ~10 degrees C warmer than present. This period is also known for at least three, greenhouse gas-induced episodes of rapid global warming (hyperthermals: PETM; ~55 Ma, ETM-2; ~53.7 Ma and ETM-3; 52.8 Ma), often considered extreme analogues to modern climate change. Hyperthermals are also characterized by negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE), which reflect the input of isotopically light carbon responsible for observed temperature increases. A novel proxy used for hydrological reconstructions uses the hydrogen isotopic composition of compound-specific biomarkers preserved in the sedimentary record. For terrestrial leaf-wax lipids (e.g., n-alkanes), the hydrogen isotopic composition primarily reflects the isotopic composition of meteoric waters, which is dependent on distance of vapor transport, number of rainout events, precipitation amount, and evapotranspiration. Isotopic compositions of PETM n-alkanes (?Dalkanes) recovered from the Arctic Ocean show a substantial deuterium (D)-enrichment at the onset of the CIE which was argued to potentially reflect reduced rainout in the mid-latitudes, resulting in increased precipitation in the Arctic (Pagani et al., 2006). D-depleted values of n-alkanes during peak warmth of the PETM suggest either modification of local precipitation or a global change in the fraction of rainout. In this study, we evaluate the veracity of previous conclusions by compiling existing ?Dalkanes records (including from Mar-2X, Venezuela; Tawanui, New Zealand; Wilkes Land, Antarctica; and the Lomonsov Ridge, Arctic) with new records from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and marginal marine sections (including Cicogna, Italy; Giraffe Core, Canadian High Arctic). To determine the background state of the hydrological cycle in a warmer world, we measured early Eocene ?Dalkanes at these sites. This compilation was then compared against results from the isotope-coupled National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model v3.0 (CCSM) global climate model, with Eocene boundary conditions and two different pCO2 levels (2240 and 4480 ppm). Preliminary analyses suggest that the model is able to simulate the equator-pole trends in precipitation ?D. However, predicted values are offset from the n-alkane data by up to 40‰. To study changes in the hydrological cycle with rapid warming, we analyze n-alkane ?D and ?13C values for the PETM and ETM-2. Leads and lags between the carbon and hydrogen isotopic records help constrain the timing and type of hydrological shifts with respect to carbon input. Preliminary results from the ETM-2 recovered from the Arctic indicate similar hydrological changes during both hyperthermals. A pre-event increase in ?D values (of 60‰ during the PETM and 25‰ during ETM-2) is observed, followed by a decrease in ?D (~10-15‰ for both the events) during the peak of the CIE. A significant pre-PETM D-enrichment at mid-latitudes is not evident, however, more negative ?D values during the CIE is observed in some sites. The reasons for these isotopic shifts and their implication for the local and global water cycles will be discussed.

Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.; Huber, M.

2012-12-01

390

Visual Word Recognition of Multisyllabic Words  

Science.gov (United States)

The visual word recognition literature has been dominated by the study of "monosyllabic" words in factorial experiments, computational models, and megastudies. However, it is not yet clear whether the behavioral effects reported for monosyllabic words generalize reliably to "multisyllabic" words. Hierarchical regression techniques were used to…

Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.

2009-01-01

391

Brief Report: Are Children with Autism Proficient Word Learners?  

Science.gov (United States)

Many approaches to word learning argue for the importance of joint attention and other social-pragmatic abilities. This study explored word learning in children with autism (CWA), by examining it in ostensive and non-ostensive contexts, tested through both comprehension and elicited production. Novel nouns were taught to 17 CWA and 13 children…

Franken, Tessa E.; Lewis, Charlie; Malone, Stephanie A.

2010-01-01

392

Transitional Probability and Word Segmentation  

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Full Text Available This article aims at reviewing the literature in the studies of the relationship between transitional probability and word segmentation in an attempt to emphasize statistical learning as the experience-dependent factor in language acquisition. Transitional probability, the crucial cue of the statistical relationship between syllables, is characterized by its two computation directions: the forward transitional probability and backward transitional probability. Results from the empirical research on artificial languages and natural languages are also discussed to prove the effectiveness and defectiveness of transitional probability in word segmentation.

Yingying Xie

2012-11-01

393

Class Matters: 12-Month-Olds' Word-Object Associations Privilege Content over Function Words  

Science.gov (United States)

A fundamental step in learning words is the development of an association between a sound pattern and an element in the environment. Here we explore the nature of this associative ability in 12-month-olds, examining whether it is constrained to privilege particular word forms over others. Forty-eight infants were presented with sets of novel…

MacKenzie, Heather; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

2012-01-01

394

Prediction of Learning and Comprehension when Adolescents Read Multiple Texts: The Roles of Word-Level Processing, Strategic Approach, and Reading Motivation  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-five Norwegian 10th graders used the software Read&Answer 2.0 (Vidal-Abarca et al., 2011) to read five different texts presenting conflicting views on the controversial scientific issue of sun exposure and health. Participants were administered a multiple-choice topic-knowledge measure before and after reading, a word recognition task, and a…

Braten, Ivar; Ferguson, Leila E.; Anmarkrud, Oistein; Stromso, Helge I.

2013-01-01

395

Implementation of the learning goals of Russian language teaching in primary schools in the process of organizing a symbolic perception of teachers developed structure of a word  

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Full Text Available The article considers the issues of realization of cognitive goals training Russian language in elementary school through the organization of a symbolic perception of the» Junior student. Explores new approaches to the study of the composition words at Russian lessons-based awareness of the morpheme as a language sign. This practice contributes to the development rehabilitating abilities of students.

Valentina Hopreninova

2014-04-01

396

False memories of emotional and neutral words.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to investigate the direction and the extent to which emotional valence in semantic word lists influences the formation of false memories (FM). The experimental paradigm consisted of 1) a study phase (learning of neutral and negative lists of words semantically associated to a non-presented critical lure (CL), 2) a free recall phase, and 3) a recognition phase. Participants had to indicate whether the displayed item was "new" (new item or non-studied CL) or "old" (studied list item). CL associated with negative word lists elicited significantly more FM than CL associated with neutral word lists. This finding is in contrast to previous work showing that emotional words elicit fewer FM than neutral words. The results of our study also suggest that valence is capable of influencing emotional memory in terms of encoding and retrieval processes. PMID:18413909

El Sharkawy, Jennifer; Groth, Katarina; Vetter, Céline; Beraldi, Anna; Fast, Kristina

2008-01-01

397

What's in a Word?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Words are all around us to the point that their complexity is lost in familiarity. The term “word” itself can ambiguously refer to different linguistic concepts: orthographic words, phonological words, grammatical words, word-forms, lexemes, and to an extent lexical items. While it is hard to come up with exception-less criteria for wordhood, some typical properties are that words are writeable and spellable, consist of morphemes, are syntactic units, carry meaning, and interrelate with...

Henderson, Jennifer A.

2007-01-01

398

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Learning to Read: Print Tuning in Beginning Readers Related to Word-Reading Fluency and Semantics but Not Phonology  

Science.gov (United States)

During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role…

Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K.; Jost, Lea B.; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs

2015-01-01

399

Segmentation of vowel-initial words is facilitated by function words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the first year of life, infants learn to segment words from fluent speech. Previous research has shown that infants at 0;7·5 can segment consonant-initial words, yet the ability to segment vowel-initial words does not emerge until the age of 1;1-1;4 (0;11 in some restricted cases). In five experiments, we show that infants aged 0;11 but not 0;8 are able to segment vowel-initial words that immediately follow the function word the [ði], while ruling out a bottom-up, phonotactic account of these results. Thus, function words facilitate the segmentation of vowel-initial words that appear sentence-medially for infants aged 0;11. PMID:25158755

Kim, Yun Jung; Sundara, Megha

2014-08-27

400

Early nutritional stress impairs development of a song-control brain region in both male and female juvenile song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at the onset of song learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Birdsong is a sexually selected trait and is often viewed as an indicator of male quality. The developmental stress hypothesis proposes a model by which song could be an indicator; the time during early development, when birds learn complex songs and/or local variants of song, is of rapid development and nutritional stress. Birds that cope best with this stress may better learn to produce the most effective songs. The developmental stress hypothesis predicts that early food restriction should impair development of song-control brain regions at the onset of song learning. We examined the effect of food restriction on song-control brain regions in fledgling (both sexes, 23–26 days old) song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Food restriction selectively reduced HVC volume in both sexes. In addition, sex differences were evident in all three song-control regions. This study lends further support to a growing body of literature documenting a variety of behavioural, physiological and neural detriments in several songbird species resulting from early developmental stress. PMID:16959649

MacDonald, Ian F; Kempster, Bethany; Zanette, Liana; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Word Vectorization Using Relations among Words for Neural Network  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we propose a new vectorization method for a new generation of computational intelligence including neural networks and natural language processing. In recent years, various techniques of word vectorization have been proposed, many of which rely on the preparation of dictionaries. However, these techniques don't consider the symbol grounding problem for unknown types of data, which is one of the most fundamental issues on artificial intelligence. In order to avoid the symbol-grounding problem, pattern processing based methods, such as neural networks, are often used in various studies on self-directive systems and algorithms, and the merit of neural network is not exception in the natural language processing. The proposed method is a converter from one word input to one real-valued vector, whose algorithm is inspired by neural network architecture. The merits of the method are as follows: (1) the method requires no specific knowledge of linguistics e.g. word classes or grammatical one; (2) the method is a sequence learning technique and it can learn additional knowledge. The experiment showed the efficiency of word vectorization in terms of similarity measurement.

Hotta, Hajime; Kittaka, Masanobu; Hagiwara, Masafumi

402

How to Learn Spanish  

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This thesis sums up the basic methods of foreign language learning and analyzes the relationship between English learning and Spanish learning. It expounded the difficulties and focal points of Spanish learning, in order to be helpful to the students who are learning a foreign language, especially Spanish.
Key Words: Spanish, learning methods and strategies
Résumé : L’article présent résume les m&eac...

Ren, Qing

2007-01-01

403

Math word problems for dummies  

CERN Document Server

Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

Sterling, Mary Jane

2008-01-01

404

Probabilistic Classification Learning with Corrective Feedback Is Selectively Impaired in Early Huntington's Disease--Evidence for the Role of the Striatum in Learning with Feedback  

Science.gov (United States)

In general, declarative learning is associated with the activation of the medial temporal lobes (MTL), while the basal ganglia (BG) are considered the substrate for procedural learning. More recently it has been demonstrated the distinction of these systems may not be as absolute as previously thought and that not only the explicit or implicit…

Holl, Anna K.; Wilkinson, Leonora; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Painold, Annamaria; Jahanshahi, Marjan

2012-01-01

405

An Action Research on Deep Word Processing Strategy Instruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For too long a time, how to memorize more words and keep them longer in mind has been a primary and everlasting problem for vocabulary teaching and learning. This study focused on deep processing as a word memorizing strategy in contextualizing, de- and re- contextualizing learning stages. It also examined possible effects of such pedagogy on vocabulary competence and attitude towards word learning. The context of the action research was an 11-week deep word processing strategy instruction program, involving 39 non-English major freshmen. The results showed that teacher’s strategy-based instructional intervention affected the changes both in learners’ vocabulary competence and in teachers’ and learners’ attitude toward word learning. These findings were discussed in terms of some issues deserving more considerations. And accommodations for future study were also made.

Limei Zhang

2010-02-01

406

Primitive words and roots of words  

CERN Document Server

In the algebraic theory of codes and formal languages, the set $Q$ of all primitive words over some alphabet $\\zi $ has received special interest. With this survey article we give an overview about relevant research to this topic during the last twenty years including own investigations and some new results. In Section 1 after recalling the most important notions from formal language theory we illustrate the connection between coding theory and primitive words by some facts. We define primitive words as words having only a trivial representation as the power of another word. Nonprimitive words (without the empty word) are exactly the periodic words. Every nonempty word is a power of an uniquely determined primitive word which is called the root of the former one. The set of all roots of nonempty words of a language is called the root of the language. The primitive words have interesting combinatorial properties which we consider in Section 2. In Section 3 we investigate the relationship between the set $Q$ of...

Lischke, Gerhard

2011-01-01

407

Re-Envisioning the Role of Universities in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Community Partnerships for 21st-Century Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite contrasting views on the overlap of early childhood education and teacher education, opportunities abound for expanding the role of early childhood educators in broader teacher education discourse. University-based early childhood education and kindergarten-through-grade-12 teacher education share purposes, philosophies, and resources that…

Kennedy, Adam S.; Heineke, Amy

2014-01-01

408

Using Early Standardized Language Measures to Predict Later Language and Early Reading Outcomes in Children at High Risk for Language-Learning Impairments  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to examine the profiles of children with a family history (FH+) of language-learning impairments (LLI) and a control group of children with no reported family history of LLI (FH-) and identify which language constructs (receptive or expressive) and which ages (2 or 3 years) are related to expressive and receptive language…

Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia; Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April

2009-01-01

409

The effects of character transposition within and across words in Chinese reading.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the lack of spaces between words in Chinese text, Chinese readers must parse these characters into words using their word knowledge. In this situation, are the characters belonging to a single word or to different words understood via different character-order encoding processes? In this study, we explored the effects of word boundaries in Chinese text on character-order encoding. We used four-character words (the one-word condition) and two two-character words (the two-word condition) as our targets. We embedded the target words into sentences and then manipulated the previews of the words using the boundary paradigm. The preview was identical to the target word (identity condition), had the two middle characters of the target word transposed (TC condition), or had two middle characters that were different from those in the target word (SC condition). Fixation durations on the target word in the TC condition were much longer than those in the identity condition for the two-word condition, but they were not significantly different for the one-word condition. Furthermore, for the one-word condition, gaze durations were longer in the SC than in the TC condition, whereas for the two-word condition, the difference between the TC and SC conditions was not significant. Word boundaries were found to affect the character-order encoding in Chinese reading, further suggesting the early occurrence of word segmentation. PMID:25139264

Gu, Junjuan; Li, Xingshan

2015-01-01

410

Indicators of Early and Late Processing Reveal the Importance of Within-Trial-Time for Theories of Associative Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In four human learning experiments (Pavlovian skin conductance, causal learning, speeded classification task), we evaluated several associative learning theories that assume either an elemental (modified unique cue model and Harris’ model) or a configural (Pearce’s configural theory and an extension of it) form of stimulus processing. The experiments used two modified patterning problems (A/B/C+, AB/BC/AC+ vs. ABC-; A+, BC+ vs. ABC-). Pearce’s configural theory successfully predicted al...

Lachnit, Harald; Thorwart, Anna; Schultheis, Holger; Lotz, Anja; Koenig, Stephan; Uengoer, Metin

2013-01-01

411

Word Geology – its Roots and Meanings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the period up to 18th century the meaning of the word geology has substantially changed; from Latin word geologia written by de Bury in the 14th century, through the use of word giologia by Aldrovandi in the beginning of 17th century and to near final definition of word geology that appeared in French Encyclopaedia from 1751.With the help of Internet some other early works not known to the literature of geology history were discovered.Among them are German books where in the title word geology is also present. Works of Zaharius Grapo, JoannesSchnabel and Johann Gregorii can be listed. Short analysis of other German geological works from the second half of the 18th century important for Slovenian territory are briefly presented. Starting from the database of earlier Slovenian publications available on the Internet an analysis of word geology early appearances in Slovene language is presented. First publication of the word root geol- appeared in newspaper Slovenija in year 1849. Amongearly authors Davorin Trstenjak was first using geological information starting in year 1853. Earliest longer textpresented information on geological work in Slovene language was published in the newspaper Novice in year 1853. Based on the available literature and other sources reinterpretation of the meaning of word geology is based in the context of its role in the natural sciences development as well as its historical context.

Mihael Bren?i?

2011-12-01

412

Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision.  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses, prisms, and colored lenses and filters are effective direct or indirect treatments for learning disabilities. There is no valid evidence that children who participate in vision therapy are more responsive to educational instruction than children who do not participate. PMID:21357342

Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology

2011-03-01

413

Evaluation of a computer-assisted errorless learning-based memory training program for patients with early Alzheimer’s disease in Hong Kong: a pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grace Y Lee,1 Calvin CK Yip,2 Edwin CS Yu,3 David WK Man4 1Occupational Therapy Department, Kwai Chung Hospital, 2CY Functional Recovery Services, 3Psychogeriatric Team, Kwai Chung Hospital, 4Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China Background: Improving the situation in older adults with cognitive decline and evidence of cognitive rehabilitation is considered crucial in long-term care of the elderly. The objective of this study was to implement a computerized errorless learning-based memory training program (CELP for persons with early Alzheimer’s disease, and to compare the training outcomes of a CELP group with those of a therapist-led errorless learning program (TELP group and a waiting-list control group. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with a single-blind research design was used in the study. Chinese patients with early Alzheimer’s disease screened by the Clinical Dementia Rating (score of 1 were recruited. The subjects were randomly assigned to CELP (n = 6, TELP (n = 6, and waiting-list control (n = 7 groups. Evaluation of subjects before and after testing, and at three-month follow-up was achieved using primary outcomes on the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination, Chinese Dementia Rating Scale, Hong Kong List Learning Test, and the Brief Assessment of Prospective Memory-Short Form. Secondary outcomes were the Modified Barthel Index, Hong Kong Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form. The data were analyzed using Friedman's test for time effect and the Kruskal-Wallis test for treatment effect. Results: Positive treatment effects on cognition were found in two errorless learning-based memory groups (ie, computer-assisted and therapist-led. Remarkable changes were shown in cognitive function for subjects receiving CELP and emotional/daily functions in those receiving TELP. Conclusion: Positive changes in the cognitive function of Chinese patients with early Alzheimer's disease were initially found after errorless training through CELP. Further enhancement of the training program is recommended. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, memory training, errorless learning, computerized, early dementia

Lee GY

2013-06-01

414

Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Visual presentation of words activates extrastriate regions of the occipital lobes of the brain. When analyzed by positron emission tomography (PET), certain areas in the left, medial extrastriate visual cortex were activated by visually presented pseudowords that obey English spelling rules, as well as by actual words. These areas were not activated by nonsense strings of letters or letter-like forms. Thus visual word form computations are based on learned distinctions between words and nonwords. In addition, during passive presentation of words, but not pseudowords, activation occurred in a left frontal area that is related to semantic processing. These findings support distinctions made in cognitive psychology and computational modeling between high-level visual and semantic computations on single words and describe the anatomy that may underlie these distinctions

415

Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to assess possible sparse effects on gene expression. Learning about objects increased the density of granule cells expressing Arc, and to a lesser extent Narp, specifically in the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus, while Zif268 expression was elevated across both blades. Thus, object-place recognition triggers rapid, blade-specific upregulation of plasticity-associated immediate early genes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of dentate gyrus homogenates demonstrated concomitant upregulation of three postsynaptic density proteins (Arc, PSD-95, and α-CaMKII with key roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory.

Clive R. Bramham

2009-01-01

416

Of Primary Interest: Using Brain-Based Teaching Strategies to Create Supportive Early Childhood Environments that Address Learning Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors remind teachers that standards are not intended to fence in creative teachers or become obstacles for learners with special needs. To help teachers optimize learning for all children, they review brained-based research findings such as the importance of safe environments, the effect of emotions on learning, the use of multisensory…

Schiller, Pam; Willis, Clarissa

2008-01-01

417

Jordan's Strategies for Early Childhood Education in a Lifelong Learning Framework. UNESCO Policy Brief on Early Childhood. Number 39, July-August 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

Jordan has been paying increased attention to early childhood education in recent years. In particular, the government allocated unprecedented resources to the sector through its Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) 2003/08. Funded by the World Bank and other donor agencies, ERfKE is designed to revamp the education sector starting…

Kaga, Yoshie

2007-01-01

418

"Until the Cows Came Home": Issues for Early Intervention Activities? Parental Perspectives on the Early Years Learning of Their Children with Down Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports the views of parents of children with Down syndrome in the United Kingdom, and those of a parent-researcher, who have recently been or are currently involved in early intervention programmes. It reports on a series of semi-structured interviews with nine parents of eight children with Down syndrome and the reflective…

Rix, Jonathan; Paige-Smith, Alice; Jones, Helen

2008-01-01

419

Impaired Word Recognition in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Age of Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of word production in patients with Alzheimer's disease have identified the age of acquisition of words as an important predictor of retention or loss, with early acquired words remaining accessible for longer than later acquired words. If, as proposed by current theories, effects of age of acquisition reflect the involvement of semantic…

Cuetos, Fernando; Herrera, Elena; Ellis, Andrew W.

2010-01-01

420

It's All in a Word History, meaning and the sheer joy of words  

CERN Document Server

Cross words, crass words, kind words, bad words, first words, rude words, new words, weazel words, teen words, rap words, power words, colour words, Indian words, Brit words, Blairwords, war words, ad words, p-c words, borrowed words, Shakespeare's amazing words, false words, fine words, wine words, American words, name words, last words, even lost for words – this book has them all. Vivian Cook takes us on a series of excursions down the curious byways of word history and meaning, mingling the fare with games, lists, tests, and quotes. Discover the theojollylogical joys of infixation. Find ou

Cook, Vivian

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Flexible word meaning in embodied agents  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning the meanings of words requires coping with referential uncertainty - a learner hearing a novel word cannot be sure which aspects or properties of the referred object or event comprise the meaning of the word. Data from developmental psychology suggest that human learners grasp the important aspects of many novel words after just a few exposures, a phenomenon known as fast mapping. Traditionally, word learning is viewed as a mapping task, in which the learner has to map a set of forms onto a set of pre-existing concepts. We criticise this approach and argue instead for a flexible nature of the coupling between form and meanings as a solution to the problem of referential uncertainty. We implemented and tested the model in populations of humanoid robots that play situated language games about objects in their shared environment. Results show that the model can handle an exponential increase in uncertainty and allows scaling towards very large meaning spaces, while retaining the ability to grasp an operational meaning almost instantly for a great number of words. In addition, the model captures some aspects of the flexibility of form-meaning associations found in human languages. Meanings of words can shift between being very specific (names) and general (e.g. 'small'). We show that this specificity is biased not by the model itself but by the distribution of object properties in the world.

Wellens, Peter; Loetzsch, Martin; Steels, Luc

2008-06-01

422

Deja Vu All over Again: Re-Revisiting the Conceptual Status of Early Word Learning: Comment on Smith and Samuelson (2006)  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors assert that L. B. Smith and L. Samuelson's (2006; see record EJ750228) most recent critique of A. E. Booth, S. R. Waxman, and Y. T. Huang's (2005; see record EJ684979) work missed its mark, deflecting attention from the important theoretical difference between the two sets of authors' positions and focusing instead on imagined…

Booth, Amy E.; Waxman, Sandra R.

2006-01-01

423

Internet Marketing with WordPress  

CERN Document Server

The book's accompanying Interactive learning environment on siteprebuilder.com gives you an online place to enhance and extend your practical experience through exercises, consolidate your learning and theoretical knowledge with marked quizzes, interaction with your WordPress marketing community, and fun and exciting extras such as challenges and competitions. This book is for people already using WordPress, who want more visitors, better visitors, and to convert more of them into paying customers. No prior marketing experience is required, although a basic understanding of either hosted or se

Mercer, David

2011-01-01

424

Informative Words and Discreteness  

CERN Document Server

There are certain families of words and word sequences (words in the generators of a two-generator group) that arise frequently in the Teichm{\\"u}ller theory of hyperbolic three-manifolds and Kleinian and Fuchsian groups and in the discreteness problem for two generator matrix groups. We survey some of the families of such words and sequences: the semigroup of so called {\\sl good} words of Gehring-Martin, the so called {\\sl killer} words of Gabai-Meyerhoff-NThurston, the Farey words of Keen-Series and Minsky, the discreteness-algorithm Fibonacci sequences of Gilman-Jiang and {\\sl parabolic dust} words. We survey connections between the families and establish a new connection between good words and Farey words.

Gilman, J

2007-01-01

425

Collaboration and Consultation in Preschool to Promote Early Literacy for Children: Lessons Learned from the CSS Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Collaboration and consultation in early childhood settings is essential in supporting early literacy development; however, building partnerships can be difficult. In this article, we describe a large-scale project entitled Children's School Success (Odom et al., 2003) as a context from which to discuss collaboration and consultation related…

Friesen, Amber; Butera, Gretchen; Kang, Jean; Horn, Eva; Lieber, Joan; Palmer, Susan

2014-01-01

426

Phonological Words and Stuttering on Function Words  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stuttering on function words was examined in 51 people who stutter. The people who stutter were subdivided into young (2 to 6 years), middle (6 to 9 years), and older (9 to 12 years) child groups; teenagers (13 to 18 years); and adults (20 to 40 years). As reported by previous researchers, children up to about age 9 stuttered more on function words (pronouns, articles, prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs), whereas older people tended to stutter more on content words (nouns, main verbs...

Au-yeung, James; Howell, Peter; Pilgrim, Lesley

1998-01-01

427

Picturing words? Sensorimotor cortex activation for printed words in child and adult readers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning to read involves associating abstract visual shapes with familiar meanings. Embodiment theories suggest that word meaning is at least partially represented in distributed sensorimotor networks in the brain (Barsalou, 2008; Pulvermueller, 2013). We explored how reading comprehension develops by tracking when and how printed words start activating these "semantic" sensorimotor representations as children learn to read. Adults and children aged 7-10years showed clear category-specific cortical specialization for tool versus animal pictures during a one-back categorisation task. Thus, sensorimotor representations for these categories were in place at all ages. However, co-activation of these same brain regions by the visual objects' written names was only present in adults, even though all children could read and comprehend all presented words, showed adult-like task performance, and older children were proficient readers. It thus takes years of training and expert reading skill before spontaneous processing of printed words' sensorimotor meanings develops in childhood. PMID:25463817

Dekker, Tessa M; Mareschal, Denis; Johnson, Mark H; Sereno, Martin I

2014-10-29

428

PNNL: A Supervised Maximum Entropy Approach to Word Sense Disambiguation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we described the PNNL Word Sense Disambiguation system as applied to the English All-Word task in Se-mEval 2007. We use a supervised learning approach, employing a large number of features and using Information Gain for dimension reduction. Our Maximum Entropy approach combined with a rich set of features produced results that are significantly better than baseline and are the highest F-score for the fined-grained English All-Words subtask.

Tratz, Stephen C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Posse, Christian; Whitney, Paul D.

2007-06-23

429

Tailoring Word Embeddings for Bilexical Predictions: An Experimental Comparison  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the problem of inducing word embeddings that are tailored for a particular bilexical relation. Our learning algorithm takes an existing lexical vector space and compresses it such that the resulting word embeddings are good predictors for a target bilexical relation. In experiments we show that task-specific embeddings can benefit both the quality and efficiency in lexical prediction tasks.

Madhyastha, Pranava Swaroop; Carreras, Xavier; Quattoni, Ariadna

2014-01-01

430

Find the Picture of Eight Turtles: A Link between Children's Counting and Their Knowledge of Number Word Semantics  

Science.gov (United States)

An essential part of understanding number words (e.g., "eight") is understanding that all number words refer to the dimension of experience we call numerosity. Knowledge of this general principle may be separable from knowledge of individual number word meanings. That is, children may learn the meanings of at least a few individual number words

Slusser, Emily B.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

2011-01-01

431

Word Sense Disambiguation in Information Retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The natural language processing has a set of phases that evolves from lexical text analysis to the pragmatic one in which the author’s intentions are shown. The ambiguity problem appears in all of these tasks. Previous works tries to do word sense disambiguation, the process of assign a sense to a word inside a specific context, creating algorithms under a supervised or unsupervised approach, which means that those algorithms use or not an external lexical resource. This paper presents an approximated approach that combines not supervised algorithms by the use of a classifiers set, the result will be a learning algorithm based on unsupervised methods for word sense disambiguation process. It begins with an introduction to word sense disambiguation concepts and then analyzes some unsupervised algorithms in order to extract the best of them, and combines them under a supervised approach making use of some classifiers.

Francis de la C. Fernández REYES

2009-11-01

432

How Is It that Learning Mathematics in the Early Years Can Become So Difficult? A Post-Structuralist Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

New times demand new interpretations of what it means to be numerate in a global world. Policy and curriculum documents uphold notions of capable young learners, actively engaged in investigative learning processes that will carry them on to competent and confident participation in the social and economic world of tomorrow. However, as the author…

Klein, Mary

2007-01-01

433

Reframing Early Childhood Leadership  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework" (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009)…

Stamopoulos, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

434

Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal...

SachikoKinoshita; DennisNorris

2012-01-01

435

Approximate number word knowledge before the cardinal principle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximate number word knowledge-understanding the relation between the count words and the approximate magnitudes of sets-is a critical piece of knowledge that predicts later math achievement. However, researchers disagree about when children first show evidence of approximate number word knowledge-before, or only after, they have learned the cardinal principle. In two studies, children who had not yet learned the cardinal principle (subset-knowers) produced sets in response to number words (verbal comprehension task) and produced number words in response to set sizes (verbal production task). As evidence of approximate number word knowledge, we examined whether children's numerical responses increased with increasing numerosity of the stimulus. In Study 1, subset-knowers (ages 3.0-4.2years) showed approximate number word knowledge above their knower-level on both tasks, but this effect did not extend to numbers above 4. In Study 2, we collected data from a broader age range of subset-knowers (ages 3.1-5.6years). In this sample, children showed approximate number word knowledge on the verbal production task even when only examining set sizes above 4. Across studies, children's age predicted approximate number word knowledge (above 4) on the verbal production task when controlling for their knower-level, study (1 or 2), and parents' education, none of which predicted approximation ability. Thus, children can develop approximate knowledge of number words up to 10 before learning the cardinal principle. Furthermore, approximate number word knowledge increases with age and might not be closely related to the development of exact number word knowledge. PMID:25462030

Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Spaepen, Elizabet; Levine, Susan C

2015-02-01

436

High-Quality School-Based Pre-K Can Boost Early Learning for Children with Special Needs  

Science.gov (United States)

This article assesses the effects of Tulsa, Oklahoma's school-based prekindergarten program on the school readiness of children with special needs using a regression discontinuity design. Participation in the pre-K program was associated with significant gains for children with special needs in early literacy scores, but not in math scores. These…

Phillips, Deborah A.; Meloy, Mary E.

2012-01-01

437

Beyond modeling abstractions: learning nouns over developmental time in atypical populations and individuals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Connectionist models that capture developmental change over time have much to offer in the field of language development research. Several models in the literature have made good contact with developmental data, effectively captured behavioral tasks, and accurately represented linguistic input available to young children. However, fewer models of language development have truly captured the process of developmental change over time. In this review paper, we discuss several prominent connectionist models of early word learning, focusing on semantic development, as well as our recent work modeling the emergence of word learning biases in different populations. We also discuss the potential of these kinds of models to capture children's language development at the individual level. We argue that a modeling approach that truly captures change over time has the potential to inform theory, guide research, and lead to innovations in early language intervention. PMID:24324450

Sims, Clare E; Schilling, Savannah M; Colunga, Eliana

2013-01-01

438

Beyond modeling abstractions: Learning nouns over developmental time in atypical populations and individuals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Connectionist models that capture developmental change over time have much to offer in the field of language development research. Several models in the literature have made good contact with developmental data, effectively captured behavioral tasks, and accurately represented linguistic input available to young children. However, fewer models of language development have truly captured the process of developmental change over time. In this review paper, we discuss several prominent connectionist models of early word learning, focusing on semantic development, as well as our recent work modeling the emergence of word learning biases in different populations. We also discuss the potential of these kinds of models to capture children’s language development at the individual level. We argue that a modeling approach that truly captures change over time has the potential to inform theory, guide research, and lead to innovations in early language intervention.

ElianaColunga

2013-11-01

439

How many English Words do the Senior High School Students Acquire per Week?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The 1984 SMA English curriculum states that SMA graduates are expected to master 4000 words. The curriculum also specifies the topics and then umber of words to be exposed to SMA students for each week (30 words per week. If it is accepted that each semester consists of 15 weeks, and each week the students actually learn 30 different words, then SMA graduates only learn about 2700 different words during their study at senior high school. Therefore, in my opinion the number of 4000 words also includes the words that should have been learnt by the them at SMP, that is, 1500 words according to the updated 1975 SMP English curriculum. However, Nababan (1984 states that we tend to forget about 40% of the words we have learned. If this is accepted, theoretically SMA graduates will only acquire about 2520 of the 4200 words (if the students only learn 2700 and 1500 at SMA and SMP respectively. The figure suggests that on average the students acquire about 14 different words per week during their study at SMP and SMA (2520 words divided by {12 semesters x 15 weeks}.

Ari Nurweni

1997-01-01

440

Polysemy and the Taxonomic Constraint: Children's Representation of Words That Label Multiple Kinds  

Science.gov (United States)

How do children resolve the problem of indeterminacy when learning a new word? By one account, children adopt a "taxonomic assumption" and expect the word to denote only members of a particular taxonomic category. According to one version of this constraint, young children should represent polysemous words that label multiple kinds--for…

Srinivasan, Mahesh; Snedeker, Jesse

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Integration of Information from Context and Word Elements In Interpreting Novel Kanji Compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Finds that English-speaking students learning Japanese were most likely to obtain correct answers when interpreting novel kanji compounds (words consisting of two or more Chinese characters) when both words in isolation and contextual clues were available. Shows that morphological analysis is an independent strategy from guessing word meanings…

Mori, Yoshiko; Nagy, William

1999-01-01

442

Interactive, Conceptual Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction one Word at a Time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement. This research study explores the use of interactive, conceptual word walls to support science learning in an ethnically diverse, high-poverty middle school in a large southern state. Unit test scores of 115 sixth grade students were collected and analyzed in order to test whether the percentage of students passing, and the mean test score among students, significantly varied on the basis of whether interactive, conceptual word walls were utilized. Both were found to be significant. Linear regression determined the effects of word walls on the basis of three demographic variables. On the basis of this analysis, the percentage of students passing is expected to increase by 25% and the mean test scores is predicted to increase by 12.56 points when interactive, conceptual word walls are utilized. Qualitative methods were used to analyze student and teacher perceptions. A good, better, best word wall rubric that was used to guide word wall construction and teacher reflection is also presented. Interactive, conceptual word walls are presented as a viable teaching strategy that positively impacts both unit test means and the total number of students passing science tests.

Julie K. Jackson

2013-11-01

443

Students’ Achievement and Attitudes Toward Using Traditional Learning, Blended Learning, and Virtual Classes Learning in Teaching and Learning at the University Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of the traditional learning, blended learning and virtual classes learning on university students’ achievement and attitudes. 34 male students studying at the English Language Program, Qassim University were divided randomly into three groups, (blended learning, traditional learning, or virtual classes learning. Results indicate that there are significant differences among the instructional approaches in the achievement test scores in favor of blended learning. In addition, the results show significant differences in students’ attitudes in favor of blended learning.Key words: Blended learning; Traditional learning; Virtual classes learning; Saudi students’ achievement; Attitudes; E-learning

Mohammad A. Alseweed

2013-02-01

444

How many English Words do the Senior High School Students Acquire per Week?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: The 1984 SMA English curriculum states that SMA graduates are expected to master 4000 words. The curriculum also specifies the topics and then umber of words to be exposed to SMA students for each week (30 words per week). If it is accepted that each semester consists of 15 weeks, and each week the students actually learn 30 different words, then SMA graduates only learn about 2700 different words during their study at senior high school. Therefore, in my opinion the number of 4000 ...

Ari Nurweni

1997-01-01

445

Word meanings evolve to selectively preserve distinctions on salient dimensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Words refer to objects in the world, but this correspondence is not one-to-one: Each word has a range of referents that share features on some dimensions but differ on others. This property of language is called underspecification. Parts of the lexicon have characteristic patterns of underspecification; for example, artifact nouns tend to specify shape, but not color, whereas substance nouns specify material but not shape. These regularities in the lexicon enable learners to generalize new words appropriately. How does the lexicon come to have these helpful regularities? We test the hypothesis that systematic backgrounding of some dimensions during learning and use causes language to gradually change, over repeated episodes of transmission, to produce a lexicon with strong patterns of underspecification across these less salient dimensions. This offers a cultural evolutionary mechanism linking individual word learning and generalization to the origin of regularities in the lexicon that help learners generalize words appropriately. PMID:25066300

Silvey, Catriona; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

2015-01-01

446

MODELLING OF ALPHA-ACID CONTENT EARLY PREDICTION BY HOPS (Humulus lupulus L.) WITH MACHINE LEARNING MODELS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are vital for the brewing industry, as they contribute significantly to the organoleptic qualities of beer, including taste and flavor. Bitter substances in hops (alpha-acids) are already many years one of the most important quality parameters and the market value of the hop products in all producing countries. Early forecasts of alpha-acid contents in hop cones of the Slovenian varieties are therefore vital for both the hop growers, as well as for the merchants with...

Pavlovic?, Viljem

2011-01-01

447

Building an Automated Problem List Based on Natural Language Processing: Lessons Learned in the Early Phase of Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Detailed problem lists that comply with JCAHO requirements are important components of electronic health records. Besides improving continuity of care electronic problem lists could serve as foundation infrastructure for clinical trial recruitment, research, biosurveillance and billing informatics modules. However, physicians rarely maintain problem lists. Our team is building a system using MetaMap and UMLS to automatically populate the problem list. We report our early results evaluating th...

Solti, Imre; Aaronson, Barry; Fletcher, Grant; Solti, Magdolna; Gennari, John H.; Cooper, Melissa; Payne, Thomas

2008-01-01

448

Sleep deprivation during early-adult development results in long-lasting learning deficits in adult Drosophila.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Multiple lines of evidence indicate that sleep is important for the developing brain, although little is known about which cellular and molecular pathways are affected. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the early adult life of Drosophila, which is associated with high amounts of sleep and critical periods of brain plasticity, could be used as a model to identify developmental processes that require sleep. SUBJECTS: Wild type Canton-S Drosophila melanogaste...

Seugnet, L.; Suzuki, Y.; Donlea, Jm; Gottschalk, L.; Shaw, Pj

2011-01-01

449

Baboons Learn to Read  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to recognize strings of letters as words, also known as orthographic processing, is a key component of reading. The ability to develop this skill has commonly been attributed to prior acquisition of a spoken language, but Grainger et al. argue that linguistic ability may instead be related to simple object recognition. To test this, Grainger and colleagues studied orthographic processing in a group of captive but freely ranging baboons, who learned to read and distinguish real English words from non-words with remarkable accuracy. These results suggest that a basic ability to recognize words does not require complex linguistic understanding.

Jonathan Grainger (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Stephane Dufau (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Marie Montant (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Johannes C. Ziegler (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;); Joel Fagot (CNRS and Aix-Marseille University Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive;Brain and Language Research Institute ;)

2012-04-13

450

Intervención temprana de la lectoescritura en sujetos con dificultades de aprendizaje / Early intervention of the reading and the writing in children with learning disabilities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio es analizar los efectos de un programa de intervención psicoeducativa del lenguaje escrito en edades tempranas en sujetos con riesgo de presentar dificultades de aprendizaje. La finalidad de dicho programa es priorizar y sistematizar la lectoescritura y fomentar sistemáti [...] camente el conocimiento fonológico, el desarrollo fonológico, semántico y morfosintáctico en el currículo escolar. La muestra está formada por 56 alumnos de habla castellana, pertenecientes a zonas socioculturales medias y con riesgo de dificultades de aprendizaje, es decir sujetos sin discapacidades físicas, psíquicas y/o sensoriales y con un rendimiento académico, lenguaje oral, lenguaje escrito y razonamiento matemático bajo (inferior al percentil 25) en edades tempranas. El diseño es longitudinal de medidas repetidas, con cuatro fases de evaluación y tres de intervención, dos variables de estudio (RL, RE) y dos grupos de sujetos (GI, GNI). Los sujetos son evaluados desde que comienzan el 3er curso de Educación Infantil (cinco años) hasta que terminan el 2o curso de Educación Primaria (siete años). Los resultados obtenidos indican mejores puntuaciones en lectura y en escritura a lo largo de todas las evaluaciones y un avance significativamente. Abstract in english The goal of this study is to analyze the effects of the implementation of a program of psycho-educational intervention of reading and writing in early ages in children with risk of learning disabilities. The program emphasized psycholinguistic development and gave priority to reading and writing act [...] ivities in the school curriculum. The sample consisted of 56 children, of Spanish language, from a middle socio-cultural area, with average intelligence and at risk of learning disabilities. That is individuals without physical, psychological or sensory handicaps and with a low academic achievement, oral and written language, and low mathematical reasoning (lower than the percentile 25) in the early ages. The design is longitudinal of repeated measures, with four phases of evaluation and three of intervention, two variables of study (R, W) and two groups of participants (IG, NIG). The children are evaluated since they begin Preschool (five years) until they finish 2nd course of Primary Education (seven years). The results indicate better scores in reading and writing throughout all the evaluations and a significantly greater advance in the IG. These results suggest the long term effectiveness of the early, systematic and planned intervention of written mayor en el GI. Estos resultados demuestran la eficacia a largo plazo de la intervención temprana, sistemática y planificada del lenguaje escrito a través de componentes psicolingüísticos en sujetos con riesgo de dificultades de aprendizaje.

Ma José, González Valenzuela; Isaías, Martín Ruiz; Myriam, Delgado Ríos.

2011-01-01

451

Discovering Words in Fluent Speech: The Contribution of Two Kinds of Statistical Information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To efficiently segment fluent speech, infants must discover the predominant phonological form of words in the native language. In English, for example, content words typically begin with a stressed syllable. To discover this regularity, infants need to identify a set of words. We propose that statistical learning plays two roles in this process. First, it provides a cue that allows infants to segment words from fluent speech, even without language-specific phonological knowledge. Second, once...

ErikDThiessen

2013-01-01

452

Effects of delayed constructed-response identity matching on spelling of dictated words.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied the effects of delayed constructed-response identity matching on spelling with 6 first graders with histories of school failure. After training, the children learned to spell words to dictation and their cursive writing improved. These results replicate studies showing that delayed constructed-response matching establishes spelling. For 2 children, spelling of generalization words--words formed by recombining the syllables of training words--also improved. These results extend stud...

Hanna, Elenice S.; Souza, Deisy G.; Rose, Julio C.; Fonseca, Mo?nica

2004-01-01

453

Word Sense Disambiguation by Web Mining for Word Co-occurrence Probabilities  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes the National Research Council (NRC) Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) system, as applied to the English Lexical Sample (ELS) task in Senseval-3. The NRC system approaches WSD as a classical supervised machine learning problem, using familiar tools such as the Weka machine learning software and Brill's rule-based part-of-speech tagger. Head words are represented as feature vectors with several hundred features. Approximately half of the features are syntactic and the other half are semantic. The main novelty in the system is the method for generating the semantic features, based on word \\hbox{co-occurrence} probabilities. The probabilities are estimated using the Waterloo MultiText System with a corpus of about one terabyte of unlabeled text, collected by a web crawler.

Turney, P D

2004-01-01

454

Word 2010 Bible  

CERN Document Server

In-depth guidance on Word 2010 from a Microsoft MVP. Microsoft Word 2010 arrives with many changes and improvements, and this comprehensive guide from Microsoft MVP Herb Tyson is your expert, one-stop resource for it all. Master Word's new features such as a new interface and customized Ribbon, major new productivity-boosting collaboration tools, how to publish directly to blogs, how to work with XML, and much more. Follow step-by-step instructions and best practices, avoid pitfalls, discover practical workarounds, and get the very most out of your new Word 2010 with this packed guide. Coverag

Tyson, Herb

2010-01-01

455

Rankers over Infinite Words  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the four fragments FO2, the intersection of Sigma2 and FO2, the intersection of Pi2 and FO2, and Delta2 of first-order logic FO[<] over finite and infinite words. For all four fragments, we give characterizations in terms of rankers. In particular, we generalize the notion of a ranker to infinite words in two possible ways. Both extensions are natural in the sense that over finite words, they coincide with classical rankers and over infinite words, they both have...

Dartois, Luc; Kufleitner, Manfred; Lauser, Alexander

2010-01-01

456

Task-dependent masked priming effects in visual word recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and nonwords do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris & Kinoshita, 2008, and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access.

SachikoKinoshita

2012-06-01

457