Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; BIRMAHER, BORIS; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.
Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated...
Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.
When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…
Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc
Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Hansen, Claus D.; Olsen, Jan BrØdslev
The presentation examines the consequences of childhood abuse on subjective well-being and self-esteem in early adulthood. This period of the lifecycle may often be a vulnerable time, since there are many developmental tasks to be solved from youth to adulthood (Erikson, Levinson, Arnett, Marcia). A biography including childhood abuse must therefore be seen as a psychological burden with negative impact on the developmental challenges. For this reason, the presentation examines the possible links between childhood abuse and subjective well-being and self-esteem. By using information from the West Jutland Cohort Study (n=3,054), it is shown that 2.8% (n=86) of the participants reported having experienced childhood abuse. The results of the study show that those having been abused have significantly lower levels of self-esteem and a higher risk of lower subjective well-being. These results illuminate an unexplored aspect of the connection between childhood and adulthood. Earlier studies have shown an association between childhood abuse and psychological problems and psychiatric diagnoses whereas few studies have examined the potential negative consequences of childhood abuse on more vague – but still important - parameters such as subjective well-being and self-esteem.
Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...
Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...
Lansford, Jennifer E.; DODGE, KENNETH A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.
Prospective longitudinal data from 535 families were used to examine parents’ reports of child physical abuse in the first five years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first five years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls’ substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substanc...
Tenkorang, Eric Y; Obeng Gyimah, Stephen
This study examined the relationship of physical abuse in early childhood and timing of first sexual intercourse among young South Africans aged 14 to 22 in Cape Town. Using the Cape area panel survey and applying log-normal models, time ratios were estimated to show how rapidly or slowly youth experience first sexual intercourse. Results indicated that boys who experienced physical abuse in early childhood had faster timing to first sex. Boys and girls with violent school environments had faster timing to first sex. Race moderated the effects of physical abuse. Compared to Blacks, Coloreds who experienced higher levels of physical abuse in early childhood had faster timing to first sex. Youth with greater knowledge about HIV/AIDS and those with greater risk perception of contracting HIV/AIDS delayed first sex. On the basis of these findings, policy makers are encouraged to consider the early childhood experiences of youth when designing policies toward HIV/AIDS prevention in South Africa. PMID:21812541
Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…
Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others
This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)
Jones, Deborah J.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Trish; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana; Jones, Bobby; Nagin, Daniel; Runyan, Desmond
A robust literature links childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to later substance use and sexual risk behavior; yet, relatively little empirical attention has been devoted to identifying the mechanisms linking CSA to risky behavior among youth, with even less work examining such processes in boys. With the aim of addressing this gap in the literature, the current study examined the indirect effect of childhood sexual abuse (CSA; from age 2 to 12) trajectory group on risky behavior at age 14 (alcohol ...
Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...
Pereira, Paula Sismeiro; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa
Research about intergenerational transmission of spouse abuse produced diverse results assigning different degrees of importance to parental abuse or to child witnessing of interparental violence as risk factors for future intimate partner violence. The present study analyses early experiences of abuse through childhood recollections of physical and emotional abuse and neglect and of witnessing interparental violence. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview specia...
Lia Leão Ciuffo; Janice Machado da Cunha; Benedita Maria Rêgo Deusdará Rodrigues
The present article discuss nursing diagnosis face sexual abuse victim child, considering magnitude problem in health and psychosexual development repercussions. The objective is reflect about nurse action face childhood sexual abuse situations. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, using bibliographic survey about nurse participation in childhood sexual abuse diagnosis. We believe that is necessary to sensitize nurse about detection responsibility of determinants aspects,...
Lenderking, William R; Wold, Cheryl; Mayer, Kenneth H; Goldstein, Robert; Losina, Elena; Seage, George R
Of 327 homosexual and bisexual men participating in an ongoing cohort study pertaining to risk factors for HIV infection who completed a survey regarding history of sexual abuse, 116 (35.5%) reported being sexually abused as children. Those abused were more likely to have more lifetime male partners, to report more childhood stress, to have lied in the past in order to have sex, and to have had unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past 6 months (odds ratio 2.13; 95% confidence interval 1.15–3.95). Sexual abuse remained a significant predictor of unprotected receptive anal intercourse in a logistic model adjusting for potential confounding variables. PMID:9127231
Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students and 60 % of them were female. The mean agewas 19.04±1.28 (17-26 years. The emotional (p=0.025,physical (p=0.004 and sexual (p=0.001 abuse of malestudents were significantly higher than female students.The emotional (p=0.009 and total (p=0.026 abuse ofstudents who had families with lower income levels weresignificantly high. Also the frequency of emotional abusein students with divorced parents was significantly increased(p=0.012.Conclusions: Since child abuse and neglect may beassociated with the stresses of family life, the economicand social stresses of family should be determined andsolution advices to these should be developed. A multidisciplinarymanagement is required to detect, treat andrehabilitate the childhood abuse.Key words: Childhood, university student, sexual abuse
Swogger, Marc T.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.
Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with s...
... 8255). 67 Kaplan, S. L. (1996). Physical abuse of children and adolescents. In S. J. Kaplan (Ed.). Family violence: A clinical and legal guide (pp. 1-35), Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press, Inc 78 ... DiClemente, R. (1993). The effects of child abuse and race on risk-taking in male ...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3 were females while 382 were males (%41.7. As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse and self esteem. As a result of the regression analyses conducted separately, childhood abuse predicted significantly self-esteem, and it has been revealed that just even emotional abuse is major determinant of self-esteem. Result achieved on this issue indicates that students’ self esteem levels decrease as childhood abuse increase.
Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.
Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…
Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese
There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…
Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante
Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…
Keller, Stephanie M.; Zoellner, Lori A.; Feeny, Norah C.
Objective: Therapeutic alliance has been associated with better treatment engagement, better adherence, and less dropout across various treatments and disorders. In treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it may be particularly important to establish a strong early alliance to facilitate treatment adherence. However, factors such as…
Mullen, P E; Martin, J L; Anderson, J C; Romans, S E; Herbison, G P
The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and mental health in adult life was investigated in a random community sample of women. There was a positive correlation between reporting abuse and greater levels of psychopathology on a range of measures. Substance abuse and suicidal behaviour were also more commonly reported by the abused group. Childhood sexual abuse was more frequent in women from disrupted homes as well as in those who had been exposed to inadequate parenting or physical abuse. While elements in the individual's childhood which increased the risks of sexual abuse were also directly associated to higher rates of adult psychopathology, abuse emerged from logistic regression as a direct contributor to adult psychopathology. Severity of abuse reported was related to the degree of adult psychopathology. The overlap between the possible effects of sexual abuse and the effects of the matrix of disadvantage from which it so often emerges were, however, so considerable as to raise doubts about how often, in practice, it operates as an independent causal element. Further, many of those reporting childhood sexual abuse did not show a measurable long-term impairment of their mental health. Abuse correlated with an increased risk for a range of mental health problems, but in most cases its effects could only be understood in relationship to the context from which it emerged. PMID:8306113
Liebenberg, Hermann; Papaikonomou, Maria
The experience of early traumatic exposure, obesity and finally the paradoxical forced behavioural intervention experienced by a small group of five different participants (three women and two men) who underwent bariatric surgery¹ to “cure” a chronic disease such as obesity, were explored and structured around the prominent themes identified by the researchers from the “voices” of the participants. The aim was to arrive at a final “voice” that would reflect collective...
Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.
The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…
Children who learn math fundamentals in preschool and kindergarten have the best chance of later achievement in school--but too often, children don't get the effective early math instruction that makes all the difference. Now there's a core early childhood textbook that helps current and future educators teach the most critical math concepts to…
The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3) were females while 382 were males (%41.7). As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abu...
Noll, Jennie G.
This article reviews evidence for the deleterious effects of childhood sexual abuse on female development in both the acute and long-term phases. Taken in aggregate, there is evidence to suggest a persistent cycle of violence perpetrated against women that begins in childhood in the form of sexual abuse, reemerges later in adolescence and early…
Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula
This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ? 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801
Crowley, M. Sue
Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative reports from a subset (n = 30)…
Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change in attributions for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) over a 6-year period and whether such patterns were related to abuse severity, age, gender, and subsequent symptoms of depression and PTSD. Methodology: One-hundred and sixty children, 8-15 years old, were interviewed within 8…
Meade, Anne, Ed.
Early childhood education Centres of Innovation (COI) were established in 2002 as part of the 10-year plan for early childhood education, "Pathways to the Future/Nga Huarahi Arataki." In COI projects, innovative early childhood teaching teams reflect on and investigate their practices through action research, and share their findings with the…
Fellowes, Janet; Oakley, Grace
"Language, Literacy and Early Childhood Education" is a comprehensive textbook for all students studying literacy and language subjects in early childhood education and primary degrees. Covering an age range from 0 to 8 years the book encompasses the four main early childhood contexts of: the family and community; childcare; the pre-school years,…
It is now widely recognized that early childhood education has paramount significance for the well-being of societies. In this study, the current situation of early childhood education in Turkey is discussed mainly in terms of its perception by the government, the school enrollment rate and the quality of early childhood education programs. The…
Strain, Phillip S.; Sainato, Diane M.
Preventive discipline in early childhood programs is discussed in terms of the importance of establishing class routines and rules, making smooth transitions, helping children learn to work in groups and to work independently, and understanding the definition of a good disciplinarian. (DB)
Kwako, Laura E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children’s attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies ...
De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.
Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…
Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen
There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…
Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…
Etain, Bruno; Mathieu, Flavie; Henry, Chantal; Raust, Aurélie; Roy, Isabelle; Germain, Anne; Leboyer, Marion; Bellivier, Frank
Childhood trauma has been suggested to be involved in the susceptibility to bipolar disorder. However, case-control studies are lacking, and the preferential implication and the dose-effect of different trauma subtypes remain poorly investigated. Two hundred six bipolar patients and 94 controls completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein et al., 1994). The CTQ total score was higher for bipolar patients than for controls. The presence of multiple trauma was significantly more frequent in bipolar patients than in controls (63% vs. 33%). Multiple logistic regression suggested that only emotional abuse was associated with bipolar disorder with a suggestive dose-effect. Clinical practice should include systematic assessment of childhood trauma among bipolar patients with a particular focus on emotional abuse. PMID:20564371
Hotelling, Barbara A.
There is a strong likelihood that at least one participant in any Lamaze childbirth education class has had personal experience with childhood sexual abuse. Using the wisdom of Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators and respected authors in the field of childhood sexual abuse, this column enlightens the childbirth educator in three ways: understanding the incidence of female and male childhood sexual abuse; understanding the effects of sexual, emotional, physical, and verbal abuse on the pregn...
Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.
Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the US. There are few published studies examining the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause PTSD, activate biological stress response systems, and contribute to adverse brain development. This article will critically review the psychiatric problems associated with maltreatment and th...
Boles, Sharon M.; Joshi, Vandana; Grella, Christine; Wellisch, Jean
This study reports on the effects of having a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on treatment outcomes among substance abusing men and women (N = 2,434) in a national, multisite study of drug treatment outcomes. A history of CSA was reported by 27.2% of the women and 9.2% of the men. Controlling for gender, compared to patients without CSA,…
An intensification of interest in early childhood by government, parents, and employers, focuses primarily on the provision of private early childhood education services outside of the home. With a focus on New Zealand, the paper argues that the form of early education now promoted is a particular form of care and education that moves children…
Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.
This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…
Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken
This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…
Full Text Available Patria Rojas2,3, Sunny Kim4, Mario De La Rosa2,3, Frank R Dillon2,3, Theophile Niyonsenga1,31Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 2School of Social Work, 3Center for Research on US Latinos HIV/AIDs and Drug Abuse, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Davis, CA, USAPurpose: Early onset of sexual activity has been linked to later substance abuse. Our study aimed to further describe the associations between Latina mothers’ and daughters’ early sexual activity and adult substance abuse.Methods: A survey was conducted with 92 Latina mother–daughter dyads whose members never experienced sexual abuse. Childhood sexual experience was defined as the occurrence of a consensual sexual encounter at the age of 15 years or younger. Substance abusers were identified by the extent of substance use during the 12 months prior to the interview. Path analysis was used to fit our conceptual models to the data.Main findings: Daughters’ current, adult substance abuse was associated independently with: their own childhood sexual experience (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 and mothers’ current, adult substance abuse (OR = 2.0. Compared with daughters who first experienced sex after the age of 19, the odds of using substances were 17.7 times higher among daughters who had childhood sexual experience and 3.8 times higher among daughters who first experienced sex between the age of 16–19 years. Explicitly, sexual experiences between the ages of 16–19 years were also risk factors for later adult substance abuse. Mothers’ childhood sexual experience (OR = 7.3 was a strong predictor for daughters’ childhood sexual experience.Conclusions: Our study supported a link between mother and daughter childhood sexual experience among Latinas, and indicated it is a correlate of adult substance abuse. Family based substance abuse prevention efforts and future longitudinal studies should consider maternal childhood sexual experience as a potential indication of risk for Latina daughters.Keywords: early sex, child sex, Latina, substance abuse
Afifi, Tracie O.; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Cox, Brian J.; Sareen, Jitender
Objectives: Physical punishment, as a means of disciplining children, may be considered a mild form of childhood adversity. Although many outcomes of physical punishment have been investigated, little attention has been given to the impact of physical punishment on later adult psychopathology. Also, it has been stated that physical punishment by a…
Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.; Tout, Kathryn, Ed.; Halle, Tamara, Ed.
What constitutes quality in early childhood settings, and how can it best be measured with today's widely used tools and promising new approaches? Find authoritative answers in this book, a must-have for high-level administrators and policymakers as more and more states adopt early childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. The most…
Comments on where the early childhood profession stands, where it should go, and how organizations like the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) can move the field ahead. Discusses two strategies early childhood educators can pursue to improve compensation in the next 5 to 10 years: defining quality as an issue of…
Argues that the promulgation of guidelines, used in directing early childhood education and based on universalist assumptions, places racial, ethnic, and linguistic "minority" children and parents at a disadvantage and contributes to the very processes that early childhood educators seek to remedy. It concludes that poor scholastic performance is…
Describes early childhood education reform policies in England based on recent report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Explores implications of these government reform initiatives for early childhood education in the United States. (Contains 39 references.) (PKP)
What, pray tell, might the so-called "dismal science" of economics have to say about public investment in early childhood programs? Quite a bit, as it turns out. This report from the RAND Corporation takes an economic perspective on such investments, and its intent is to provide policymakers with a primer about "how economic analysis can help set agendas for early childhood policy and identify the economics benefits of targeting certain groups for help." Released in May 2008, the 48-page report draws on concepts including human capital theory and monetary "payoffs" from investments in early childhood programs. The report is divided into four chapters, including "Human Capital Theory" and "Implications for Early Childhood Policy". It's quite a compelling read, and it will be of interest to a broad range of persons working in fields such as early childhood development, economics, and public policy.
Grabert, John C.
This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…
Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.
M., Emerenciano; S., Koifman; M.S., Pombo-de-Oliveira.
Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in in [...] fant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months) has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9), E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4), PML/RARA+ve (N = 4), and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2) cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07), OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31) and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96)], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.
Bernzweig, Jane; Ramler, Malia; Alkon, Abbey
Early childhood mental health consultation is a relationship-based intervention that promotes children's social and emotional development. Benefits include improved childhood behaviors, improved staff self-efficacy, and lowered parental stress. Child care center directors are more likely to be satisfied with consultation when they are involved in…
America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011
America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.
Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa M; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age and sex-stratified population survey of Olmsted County, MN residents (n=610), we developed a sexual abuse severity score (SASS). The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included: age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, sever...
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth
Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…
Elzy, Meredith B.
The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…
Liu, Richard T.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Gibb, Brandon E.
Objective: Although past research has documented a link between adverse childhood experiences--particularly childhood emotional (CEA), physical (CPA), and sexual abuse (CSA)--and depression, relatively few studies have examined the unique impact of each of these highly co-occurring abuse types. Moreover, relatively little is known about the…
Examination of 115 women with eating disorders revealed a secondary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. A model involving background features, precipitants, and immediate and long-term psychological consequences is suggested to explain the link to childhood abuse, and implications for…
Beach, Jane; Bertrand, Jane
Policy makers, advocates and experts agree that the current delivery of early childhood development programs is fragmented. Many point to the education system as a better alternative for a more coherent approach that has the necessary infrastructure in place in communities, and is well placed to meet the needs of all young children and their families. In other jurisdictions, early childhood development programs have moved into education. In Canada, provincial and local school authorities are ...
Spann, Marisa N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y.; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Sinha, Rajita; Blumberg, Hilary P.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12–17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with non-perseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with non-perseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction. PMID:21942637
Bounoua, Nadia; Felton, Julia F; Long, Katie; Stadnik, Ryan D; Loya, Jennifer M; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive personality disorder that poses a burden for affected individuals, their family members and society as a whole. Current research suggests that early childhood abuse, including emotional abuse, may be an important predictor of later BPD symptomology. Further, an emerging body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity (AS) may serve as a form of emotional vulnerability and be a key variable in the relation between abuse and the development of BPD symptomatology. This literature has relied on retrospective recall of abuse and AS in adult samples. As a result, there is a dearth of literature examining these variables in adolescence, which is a developmental period in which personality traits begin to emerge. This study explored the impact of AS in the development of BPD symptoms in a group of 277 adolescents. Results suggest a significant indirect effect of emotional abuse on BPD symptoms via AS, after controlling for sex, grade and prior levels of AS (indirect effect?=?0.04, standard error (SE)?=?0.02 (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.001-0.070)). These findings suggest that, among adolescents, AS may serve as an important contributor to the development of BPD symptoms. Implications for interventions and future research are further discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25940514
Rabinovitch, Sara M; Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7-12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history and (marginally) to postbaseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436
Ridley, P J
The competent nurse/therapist treats shame of the adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse. Shame must be identified, validated, and treated. Kaufman's Developmental Theory of Shame and Identity is easily applied to post-sexual-abuse phenomenon. Treatment principles can be incorporated in both individual and group therapy. Nurse/therapists are encouraged to further explore the role of shame in the psychopathology of the adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:8366480
Karakurt, Gunnur; Silver, Kristin E.
The aim of this paper is to understand the effects of childhood sexual abuse on a survivor’s later life. For understanding and treating the emotional distress and interpersonal problems resulting from childhood sexual abuse, attachment theory provides a valuable framework. When this framework is combined with family systems theory, it can help therapists understand the family context where sexual abuse occurs and how this affects health and functioning throughout the lifespan. Case examples...
Navalta, Carryl P; Polcari, Ann; Webster, Danielle M; Boghossian, Ani; Teicher, Martin H
Twenty-six college women with a history of repeated childhood sexual abuse were recruited from the community and compared with 19 healthy female collegiate subjects on neurocognitive measures. Abused subjects showed increased response latency variability and diminished inhibitory capacity during a GO/NO-GO/STOP vigilance task. A strong association was found between duration of abuse and memory impairments. Math Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores were significantly lower in abused subjects when matched against comparison subjects and when compared to their own Verbal SAT scores. Childhood sexual abuse appears to be associated with a constellation of neuropsychological deficiencies even in a group of relatively healthy women. PMID:16525070
Feinauer, Leslie; Hilton, H. Gill; Callahan, Eddy Howard
Surveys an adult female sample of childhood sexual abuse survivors to determine if hardiness was effective in moderating the negative effects of perceived trauma and severity of the sexual abuse and internalized shame on relationship intimacy. Results indicate that perception and severity of abuse, and shame were significantly and negatively…
Katerndahl, David; Burge, Sandra; Kellogg, Nancy
Despite the psychological impact of child sexual abuse, many victims do not acknowledge that their experiences were "abuse." This study sought to identify factors that predict how women label their own experiences of childhood sexual abuse. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a family medicine clinic with adult female patients. Subjects…
Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen
Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...
McElroy, Linda Provus
This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)
Szente, Judit; Hoot, James; Tadesse, Selamawit
This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes…
Bornovalova, Marina A.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret; MCGUE, MATT; Iacono, William
We used a longitudinal twin design to examine the causal association between sexual, emotional, and physical abuse in childhood (before age 18) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits at age 24 using a discordant twin design and biometric modeling. Additionally, we examined the mediating and moderating effects of symptoms of childhood externalizing and internalizing disorders on the link between childhood abuse and BPD traits. Although childhood abuse, BPD traits, and internalizing a...
Soylu, Nusret; Ayaz, Muhammed; Yüksel, Tu?ba
Early marriage and sexual abuse are the two of the most frequent types of childhood abuse. Although early marriage is also a type of sexual abuse, it is associated with different physical, social, and mental outcomes than sexual abuse alone. The purpose of this study was to compare early-married girls and sexually abused girls who were referred for forensic evaluation in Turkey in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics, mental disorder rates, and mental symptom severity. We included 63 adolescent girls for whom a judicial report had been demanded and who were under 15 years old when they were married but were not yet 18 years old during the evaluation (15.51±0.78) and 72 sexually abused adolescent girls between 14 and 18 years old (15.80±1.10) in this study. Following a psychiatric evaluation, the study participants completed the Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). We used the Windows SPSS 16.0 software program to assess the results. At least one psychiatric disorder was determined in 44.4% of the early-married and 77.8% of the sexually abused cases (pPTSD or ASD was observed in 11.1% of the early-married cases and in 54.2% of the sexually abused victims (pabused cases (p=0.006). The CPTS-RI scores of the sexually abused victims were higher than those of the early-married cases (pabused adolescents than in the early-married cases (pabuse in terms of psychiatric disorder rates and the psychiatric symptom severity it causes. PMID:24994572
Karakurt, Gunnur; Silver, Kristin E
The aim of this paper is to understand the effects of childhood sexual abuse on a survivor's later life. For understanding and treating the emotional distress and interpersonal problems resulting from childhood sexual abuse, attachment theory provides a valuable framework. When this framework is combined with family systems theory, it can help therapists understand the family context where sexual abuse occurs and how this affects health and functioning throughout the lifespan. Case examples of female adult sexual abuse survivors are also explored, with insight from the intersection of systems and attachment theories. PMID:24443623
Brennan, David J.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Ross, Michael W.; Welles, Seth L.
Objectives. We examined the prevalence and frequency of childhood sexual abuse and their association with sexual risk among a sample of gay and bisexual men. Methods. Cross-sectional data were collected by survey from randomly selected gay and bisexual men who attended the 1997 and 1998 Minneapolis/St. Paul Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Festivals. Data included demographics, sexual activity, history of childhood sexual abuse, HIV status, history of sexually transmitted infection, use of sex-related drugs (such as crack, cocaine, Ecstasy, amyl nitrate, crystal methamphetamine, and Special K), and history of exchanging sex for payment. Results. childhood sexual abuse was reported by 15.5% of the survey respondents (n = 134). Those who reported experiencing abuse regularly were more likely to (1) be HIV positive, (2) have exchanged sex for payment, and (3) be a current user of sex-related drugs. Neither unsafe sex nor sexually transmitted infections were associated with childhood sexual abuse. Conclusions. These findings show that more than 1 in 7 gay and bisexual men in a non-clinical, festival-based setting were victims of childhood sexual abuse and that childhood sexual abuse was associated with alarmingly high rates of men who were HIV infected and antecedent risk behaviors. PMID:17463386
Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children’s life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1 patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2 cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed.
Minh, Anita; Matheson, Flora I; Daoud, Nihaya; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Pedersen, Cheryl; Borenstein, Heidi; O'Campo, Patricia
Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children's life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1) patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2) cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed. PMID:24169410
Mason, Susan M.; Prescott, Jennifer; Tworoger, Shelley S.; DeVivo, Immaculata; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.
Objective Abuse victimization in childhood is associated with a variety of age-related cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Telomeres, which form the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, have been proposed as measures of biological age, and a growing body of research suggests that telomere attrition may help to explain relationships between stress and cardiometabolic degradation. We examined the association between childhood abuse victimization and leukocyte telomere length among 1,135 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). Methods The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001. Telomere length was measured in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes collected between 1996 and 1999. The ratio of telomere repeat copy number to a single gene copy number (T/S) was determined by a modified version of the quantitative real-time PCR telomere assay. Telomere length was log-transformed and corrected for assay variation across batch. We regressed telomere length on childhood abuse exposure variables and covariates using linear regression. Results We observed a reduction in telomere length associated with moderate physical abuse versus no physical abuse, but there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship for increased severity of physical abuse. No associations were noted for sexual abuse. Conclusions We found no evidence of an association between severity of childhood physical or sexual abuse and leukocyte telomere length in the NHSII. PMID:26053088
Murray, J B
In this article, I have reviewed recent research into the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and multiple personality disorder. Evidence that such a relationship exists appears convincing. PMID:8301618
Cortazar, Alejandra; Herreros, Francisca
This article explores the relationship between attachment theory and the early childhood curriculum. During the first years of life children develop early attachment relationships with their primary caregivers. These attachment relationships, either secure or insecure, will shape children's socio-emotional development. In the USA, the predominant…
Zhu, Jiaxiong; Zhang, Jie
Early childhood education in China has gone through a century-long development process and has made great progress in the past two decades. Contemporary early childhood education is becoming diverse in its forms and educational approaches, and is aligning itself with the increasingly open and diversified society. It is clear that early childhood…
Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.
Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…
Vuorisalo, Mari; Rutanen, Niina; Raittila, Raija
This paper examines early childhood education (ECE) by applying and developing relational-spatial perspectives on everyday life in educational institutions for young children. The aim is to investigate the dynamic process of construction of space and to illustrate with selected empirical episodes how this process occurs in ECE. Drawing on authors…
Drawing on research evidence from across the world, this book offers a wide-ranging perspective on the ways in which we understand and study young children. The book summarizes current debates in child development, and looks at different ways of understanding early childhood and the various methods used to gain understanding, featuring: (1)…
Korfmacher, Jon; Green, Beth; Staerkel, Fredi; Peterson, Carla; Cook, Gina; Roggman, Lori; Faldowski, Richard A.; Schiffman, Rachel
This review provides an overview of an important aspect of early childhood home visiting research: understanding how parents are involved in program services and activities. Involvement is defined as the process of the parent connecting with and using the services of a program to the best of the client's and the program's ability. The term…
Prepared for the World Bank, this report provides information on the development of early childhood services (ECS) in New Zealand and funding arrangements for ECS. Following an introductory description of the nation of New Zealand, the report discusses the historical context for the development of ECS. It is noted that the government's ad hoc…
Assesses articles in this special issue on reconceptualizing early childhood education. Maintains articles are based on conception of education in which teachers are not concerned with adopting a canon but with developing sensitivity needed to see children's place in their community and society and to structure classroom activities that encourage…
Anderson, Elizabeth M.
There is tension growing in early childhood education between an emphasis on higher learning standards, teacher-directed activities, and evidence-based instructional methods and maintaining active, dynamic and integrated learning experiences for young children. This short essay highlights the ways in which our existing values and beliefs,…
Cheasty, M.; Clare, A W; Collins, C.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between sexual abuse in childhood and adult depression in women. DESIGN: Two stage, case detection and case identification design, using the 30-item general health questionnaire and the Beck depression inventory for screening and the affective items relating to current functioning on the schizophrenia and affective disorders schedule to identify depressed cases. Details of sexual abuse in childhood were elicited retrospectively by semistructured interview...
Fighting sexual violence against women and children in South Africa is regarded as a priority. The aim of this study is to explore the reasons for the reluctance to disclose sexual abuse by middle childhood children. Some of the factors that were highlighted that cause the reluctance to disclose sexual abuse by middle childhood children were: threats made by the perpetrator, the relationship with the perpetrator, stigmatization and talking about sexual related matters were seen as a taboo. ...
Gomez, Rebecca E.
This article details the findings from a qualitative study that explored the ways individuals who work with early childhood education (ECE) practitioners in professional development settings influenced those practitioners' understandings of early childhood policy and early childhood systems. Defined as individuals who work in the professional…
Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela
This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.
Hammer, Joseph H.; Springer, Justin; Beck, Niels C.; Menditto, Anthony; Coleman, James
Seclusion and restraint (S/R) is a controversial topic in the field of psychiatry, due in part to the high rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse found among psychiatric inpatients. The trauma-informed care perspective suggests that the use of S/R with previously abused inpatients may result in retraumatization due to mental associations…
Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.
335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…
Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Fox, Ashley; Ferro, Carol; Khawaja, Shazia; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.
A qualitative study was conducted with 28 women who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in order to examine (1) the challenges generated by the experience of sexual abuse and related coping strategies, (2) the impact of the HIV diagnosis on their coping strategies, and (3) the links…
Young, Walter C.; And Others
Thirty-seven adult dissociative disorder patients who reported ritual abuse in childhood by satanic cults are described. A clinical syndrome is presented that includes dissociative states with satanic overtones, posttraumatic stress disorder, survivor guilt, unusual fears, and substance abuse. Questions concerning reliability, credibility, and…
Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.
Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…
Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan
This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…
Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.
The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...
Persons, Elizabeth; Kershaw, Trace; SIKKEMA, KATHLEEN J.; Hansen, Nathan B.
Childhood sexual abuse is prevalent among people living with HIV, and the experience of shame is a common consequence of childhood sexual abuse and HIV infection. This study examined the role of shame in health-related quality of life among HIV-positive adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse. Data from 247 HIV-infected adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse were analyzed. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to assess the impact of shame regarding both sexual abus...
Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.; Cashman-brown, Sarah; Caine, Eric D.
Whereas considerable evidence links childhood physical abuse with later perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), research to identify moderators of this relationship will increase our understanding of which victims of childhood abuse are at risk for later IPV. The present study examined dimensions of psychopathy as moderators of the relationship between physical abuse in childhood and perpetration of IPV in a sample of criminal offenders. Results indicated that, among individuals with...
Kuo, Janice R; Khoury, Jennifer E; Metcalfe, Rebecca; Fitzpatrick, Skye; Goodwill, Alasdair
Childhood abuse has been consistently linked with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and recent studies suggest that some forms of childhood abuse might be uniquely related to both BPD and BPD features. In addition, difficulties with emotion regulation have been found to be associated with childhood abuse, BPD, as well as BPD features. The present study examined (1) whether frequency of childhood emotional abuse is uniquely associated with BPD feature severity when controlling for other forms of childhood abuse and (2) whether difficulties with emotion regulation accounts for the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD feature severity. A sample of undergraduates (n=243) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Borderline Symptom List-23. Multiple regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling were conducted. Results indicated that frequency of childhood emotional abuse (and not sexual or physical abuse) was uniquely associated with BPD feature severity. In addition, while there was no direct path between childhood emotional abuse, childhood physical abuse, or childhood sexual abuse and BPD features, there was an indirect relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD features through difficulties with emotion regulation. These findings suggest that, of the different forms of childhood abuse, emotional abuse specifically, may have a developmental role in BPD pathology. Prevention and treatment of BPD pathology might benefit from the provision of emotion regulation strategies. PMID:25192957
Prieto, Maria Dolores; Parra, Joaquin; Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Maria Rosario; Sanchez, Cristina
The aim of this study is to explore creativity in Spanish children during their early years and to explore differences regarding gender and age. We have used a sample of 285 children between five and seven years old. To measure their creativity we used the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). We have used the test of figured expression that…
DeLisi, Matthew; Kosloski, Anna E; Vaughn, Michael G; Caudill, Jonathan W; Trulson, Chad R
The cycle of violence thesis posits that early exposure to maltreatment increases the likelihood of later maladaptive and antisocial behaviors. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) specifically has been shown to increase the likelihood of sexual offending, although less is known about its linkages to other forms of crime. Based on data from 2,520 incarcerated male juvenile offenders from a large southern state, hierarchical logistic regression models suggested that CSA increased the likelihood of later sexual offending nearly sixfold (467% increase). However, CSA was associated with an 83% reduced likelihood of homicide offending and 68% reduced likelihood of serious person/property offending. These findings suggest further support for the cycle of violence where CSA promotes sexual offending but novel findings regarding the linkages between CSA and other forms of crime. PMID:25199390
Delaney, Liam; Doyle, Orla
Research on time preference formation and socioeconomic differences in discounting has received little attention to date. This article examines the extent to which early childhood differences emerge in measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and persistence, all of which are good psychometric analogues to how economists conceptualise discounting. We examine the distribution of these traits measured at age three across parental social class and analyse the extent to which different ...
Kvam, Marit Hoem
Objective: North American studies conclude that deaf children may have a 2-3 times greater risk of sexual abuse than hearing children. No comparative studies are available in the Nordic countries. The present study was initiated to estimate the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among deaf children in Norway, describe the nature of the abuse,…
PRASHANT THOTE; Mathew, L.; Rathoure, D. P. S.
All areas of education face changes and challenges constantly. Early childhood education is no exception. A recent challenge teachers face in early childhood education is the advent of inclusion. Implementing inclusion in early childhood classrooms creates more diversity among the children. Inclusion of students with various disabilities has caused concern among parents and teachers. There are some concerns that need special attention when including students with disabilities in the early chi...
Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen
Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…
Bonoldi, Ilaria; Simeone, Ercole; Rocchetti, Matteo; Codjoe, Louisa; Rossi, Giorgio; Gambi, Francesco; Balottin, Umberto; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Politi, Pierluigi; Fusar-Poli, Paolo
There is extensive clinical literature reporting traumatic childhood experiences in patients with psychosis. A quantitative meta-analysis addressing the prevalence of self-reported childhood sexual (CSA), physical (CPA) and emotional abuse (CEA) in psychotic patients has yet to be done. We conducted, a systematic literature search to identify retrospective studies addressing self-reported childhood abuse in patients with DSM/ICD psychosis. Demographic, clinical, and methodological variables were extracted from each publication, or obtained directly from its authors. Quantitative meta-analysis of CSA, CPA, CEA in the sample of patients was performed. Statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed and meta-regressions performed to control for different moderators. Twenty-three studies were retrieved and included a total of 2017 psychotic patients. The prevalence of self-reported CSA, CPA, CEA were respectively of 26%, 39% and 34%. Age, publication year, gender and substance abuse moderated CSA, while age, clinical setting and substance abuse moderated CPA. Results indicated that CEA was moderated by gender and publication year of the study. According to our meta-analysis, psychotic patients have a consistently high self-report of childhood traumatic events which are sexual, physical and emotional in nature. It is our opinion that clinicians should be trained and skilled to carefully investigate childhood abuse in psychosis. PMID:23790604
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Hooper, Stephen R
The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between a history of dyslexia and childhood physical abuse in a large population-based epidemiological sample. It was hypothesized that the prevalence of dyslexia would be significantly higher in individuals who reported a childhood history of physical abuse in comparison to those who did not report such a history. A secondary analysis examined data from respondents 18 years and older from the Saskatchewan and Manitoba sample of the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). There were 13,640 respondents ages 18 and older. Due to missing data, the final sample size was 13,054 respondents. One third (34.8%) of respondents who reported they had been physically abused during their childhood or adolescence also reported being diagnosed with dyslexia in comparison with 7.2% of those who did not report being physically abused (p dyslexia that was more than 7 times higher (OR = 7.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.42, 11.35]) for those who had reported being physically abused in comparison with their peers who did not report such a history; with additional adjustments for other adverse childhood experiences, these odds decreased only slightly to 6.09 times higher (95% CI = [3.58, 10.35]). Further research is needed to understand the mechanism linking physical abuse and dyslexia. PMID:24981005
Cromheeke, Sofie; Herpoel, Laure-Anne; Mueller, Sven C
Childhood abuse is an important risk factor for depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use later in life. One possible mechanism underlying this association could be deficits in cognitive processing of emotional information. This study tested the impact of distracting emotional information on working memory performance in 21 young women with a history of sexual and physical abuse during childhood/adolescence (mean age = 20.0), and compared their performance to 17 individuals reporting nonabuse-related childhood stress (mean age = 19.6) and a control group of 17 women without a history of childhood stress (mean age = 20.0). During the most difficult distractor condition, working memory accuracy for positive versus neutral incidental emotional stimuli was reduced in women reporting a history of abuse relative to both control groups (with and without nonabuse-related childhood stress). The current results reveal aberrant responses to positive stimuli and are consistent with the notion of persistent influence of childhood abuse on processes critical for emotional well-being and emotion control. PMID:24271026
Cherian, Alice; Kuruvilla, K.
Sexual abuse of children and adolescents is prevalent across all cultures. Sexual abuse often begins in infancy or toddler stage for many children. A Child's developmental level influences the detection and disclosure of sexual abuse. Pre-school children very rarely make verbal disclosures, but may present with behavioural and physical symptoms. Older children may make a conscious decision to reveal the abuse, but often feel that they risk their safety in making a disclosure. This paper repor...
Roberts, Andrea L; Koenen, Karestan C; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise B; Weisskopf, Marc G
Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PTSD symptoms by autistic traits among adult women in a population-based longitudinal cohort, the Nurses' Health Study II (N=1,077). Autistic traits were measured by the 65-item Social Responsiveness Scale. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for childhood sexual and physical/emotional abuse and PTSD symptoms by quintiles of autistic traits. We examined possible mediation of PTSD risk by abuse and trauma type. Women in the highest versus lowest quintile of autistic traits were more likely to have been sexually abused (40.1% versus 26.7%), physically/emotionally abused (23.9% versus 14.3%), mugged (17.1% versus 10.1%), pressured into sexual contact (25.4% versus 15.6%) and have high PTSD symptoms (10.7% versus 4.5%). Odds of PTSD were elevated in women in the top three quintiles of autistic traits compared with the reference group (OR range=1.4 to 1.9). Childhood abuse exposure partly accounted for elevated risk of PTSD in women with autistic traits. We identify for the first time an association between autistic traits, childhood abuse, trauma victimization, and PTSD. Levels of autistic traits that are highly prevalent in the general population are associated with abuse, trauma and PTSD. PMID:25957197
Flint, Alan J.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.
Objective Child abuse appears to increase obesity risk in adulthood, but the mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the association between child abuse victimization and food addiction, a measure of stress-related overeating, in 57,321 adult participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). Design and Methods The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001 and current food addiction in 2009. Food addiction was defined as ?3 clinically significant symptoms on a modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Confounder-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using modified Poisson regression. Results Over eight percent of the sample reported severe physical abuse in childhood, while 5.3% reported severe sexual abuse. Eight percent met the criteria for food addiction. Women with food addiction were 6 units of BMI heavier than women without food addiction. Severe physical and severe sexual abuse were associated with roughly 90% increases in food addiction risk (physical abuse RR=1.92; 95% CI: 1.76, 2.09; sexual abuse RR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.69, 2.05). The RR for combined severe physical abuse and sexual abuse was 2.40 (95% CI: 2.16, 2.67). Conclusions A history of child abuse is strongly associated with food addiction in this population. PMID:23637085
Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; ????????????????, ???????; Gregoriadis, Athanasios,; Tsigilis, Nikolaos,; Zachopoulou, Evridiki,; ???????????, ?????????,; ?????????, ????????; ??????????, ????????
The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers’ parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the aspects of ECE. The same aspects were evaluated with Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) by trained observers. Results suggested t...
Alma Fleet; Catherine Patterson
This paper challenges traditional perspectives of professional development through a reconceptualization of early childhood professional growth. A review of the early childhood professional development literature reveals the problematic nature of the linear perspectives and deficit models of staff development prevalent in the early childhood field. In contrast to these models, the paper proposes alternative perspectives that recognize staff as empowered learners who build their working knowle...
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Frank, John
Objectives: Although, the relationship between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease has been documented, very few studies have controlled for many of the known risk factors for heart disease. The objective of the current study, therefore, was to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease while…
Twaite, James A.; Rodriguez-Srednicki, Ofelia
Two hundred and eighty-four adults from the metropolitan New York area reported on their history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical abuse (CPA), and on the nature of their exposure to the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The respondents also completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Attachment Style…
Follette, Victoria M; La Bash, Heidi A J; Sewell, M Todd
This article presents a behavioral conceptualization of the difficulties associated with adult disclosure in psychotherapy of a history of childhood sexual abuse. Using a contemporary behavioral perspective and a functional analysis of various clinical presentations, we examine the factors that may contribute to nondisclosure of a history of abuse. Traumagenic dynamics are used to frame a discussion of childhood factors that may further influence disclosure of abuse. The construct of stigma is linked to aspects of experiential avoidance, which is considered to be a core mediator of the difficulties associated with a history of abuse. Acceptance and commitment therapy and functional analytic psychotherapy, 2 "third-wave" behavioral treatments, are presented generally with specific discussions of these therapies as they relate to the issue of disclosure. Important therapist factors as well as implications for future investigations are presented. PMID:20373208
Burnett, Jason; Achenbaum, W Andrew; Murphy, Kathleen Pace
Elder abuse is a public health problem growing more pervasive despite being grossly underreported and underdetected. Annually, many vulnerable older adults suffer various forms of abuse threatening their overall health, quality of life, and survival. To better protect our aging population, we must overcome obstacles such as ageism, lack of geriatric health professional training, and low screening practices in clinical settings. Addressing these challenges is not sufficient for eliminating the abuse of older adults, but it is necessary for diminishing the potential for abuse and the associated negative health outcomes. PMID:25439639
This brochure presents indicators and strategies for Minnesota's early childhood system. It was created for the following uses: (1) Focus resources, strategies, and accountability to increase family and child well-being and children's school readiness; (2) Help coordinate activities across state departments, hold government accountable, and…
Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci
The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…
Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly
While the association between abuse in childhood and adverse adult health outcomes is well established, this link is infrequently acknowledged in the general medical literature. This paper has 2 purposes: (1) to provide a broad overview of the research on the long-term effects of child abuse on mental and physical health including some of the potential pathways, and (2) to call for collaborative action among clinicians, psychosocial and biomedical researchers, social service agencies, crimina...
Francis, Melville M; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. This article examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and nonmaltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005) when participants were of age 29.2, 39.5, and 41.2, respectively. At age 41, average BMI of the current sample was 29.97, falling between overweight and obese categories. Meditation analyses were conducted, controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, and self-reported weight. Childhood physical abuse was positively associated with subsequent generalized anxiety, major depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at age 29.2 and higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress predicted higher BMI at age 41.2. In contrast, higher levels of anxiety predicted lower BMI. Coping did not mediate between physical abuse and BMI. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between physical abuse and BMI for women, but not for men. These findings illustrate the complexity of studying the consequences of physical abuse, particularly the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and adult health outcomes. PMID:25648448
Lenderking, William R.; Wold, Cheryl; MAYER, KENNETH H.; Goldstein, Robert; Losina, Elena; Seage, George R
Of 327 homosexual and bisexual men participating in an ongoing cohort study pertaining to risk factors for HIV infection who completed a survey regarding history of sexual abuse, 116 (35.5%) reported being sexually abused as children. Those abused were more likely to have more lifetime male partners, to report more childhood stress, to have lied in the past in order to have sex, and to have had unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past 6 months (odds ratio 2.13; 95% confidence interv...
This paper is based on research carried out with children and adults at early childhood education institutions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The research goals were to identify interactions between adults and children and to rethink pedagogical practice. The theoretical-methodological framework was based on language and culture studies, the sociology of childhood and anthropology. After studying children and adults in different contexts and early childhood education public...
Feinson, Marjorie C; Meir, Adi
Although childhood abuse is an established risk factor for mental health problems in adulthood, there is relatively little empirical evidence concerning intervening factors that may mitigate the risk. One potentially protective factor is religiosity. A unique opportunity to explore religiosity's relevance exists with a community-based sample of adult Jewish women that includes sizable subsamples of both rigorously devout ultra-Orthodox (Haredi) and nonreligious Secular Jews. A global measure of any childhood abuse (ACA) includes sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse. Mental health is assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI distress) and a single item reflecting unresolved anger about the past. Predictors of distress severity are examined with separate hierarchical regressions for each religious observance (RO) group. Despite being located at opposite ends of the religiosity spectrum, several surprising similarities emerge including no significant RO group differences in distress among abuse survivors. Moreover, ACA emerges as the strongest predictor of BSI distress within both groups and regressions explain similar amounts of variance. In contrast, two important differences emerge regarding unresolved anger and any recent abuse (ARA). Anger makes a strong contribution to explaining Haredi distress severity, less so for Secular respondents (6.1% vs. 2.9% respectively) while ARA is significant only for Haredi respondents. These initial findings suggest that abusive traumas in childhood may seriously compromise religiosity's potentially protective role. Broadening the research agenda to focus on resilient survivors would expand our understanding of healing resources-both within and outside of a religious framework. Moreover, a better understanding of unresolved anger would likely enhance interventions with greater potential for mitigating the suffering of those abused in childhood. PMID:25015236
Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte MØlgaard
Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.
This article summarizes the findings of a study that examined instruction in early childhood classrooms where teachers participated in high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development through an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development partnership on literacy practices essential to school success. Comparisons made between…
Harwood, Debra; Klopper, Audrey; Osanyin, Ajike; Vanderlee, Mary-Louise
This article reports on the findings from a small-scale study of early childhood educators' perceptions of their roles, responsibilities and ideas related to professionalism. Twenty-five early childhood educators from Canada (Ontario), Nigeria and South Africa participated in qualitative interviews to address the following questions: (1) In what…
Gallenstein, Nancy L.
Noting that effective teaching models that emphasize critical thinking in mathematics and science are used less often in early childhood classrooms than in those for older students, this book provides early childhood educators with an explanation of teaching models that promote 3- to 8-year-olds critical thinking, problem solving, decision making,…
The main purpose of this study was to investigate early childhood teachers' attitudes toward gender roles and toward discipline. The findings demonstrated that early childhood teachers had a tendency to hold egalitarian attitudes toward gender roles and discipline. In other words, these attitudes were found to be highly correlated. (Contains 4…
Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue
This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…
Izu, Regina Moromizato
The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The…
Hooper, Belinda Bourne
The purpose of this study was to describe experienced practitioners' beliefs about inclusion and their perceptions of what early childhood special education (ECSE) preservice teachers need to know and be able to do to effectively support early childhood inclusion. This study used a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach to describe the…
This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…
Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd
This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…
Morse, Sheila; And Others
This paper presents a case study of a collaboration between the St. Louis (Missouri) Public Schools and Maryville University (Missouri) to develop an early childhood magnet center and professional development school (PDS), the Wilkinson Early Childhood Magnet School. This school serves a diverse population of children from age 3 through second…
Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.
Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…
What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…
Hoot, James; Szente, Judit; Tadesse, Selamawit
This article extends concerns of our National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators (NAECTE) membership beyond the borders of the United States to the continent of Africa. Specifically, it explores the current status of early childhood teacher education in one of the poorest nations of the world--Ethiopia. It includes an analysis of…
Sani, Ruta Bulderis
This bibliometric study assesses literature sources of elementary and early childhood education documents by examining, over a 30-month period, documents entered into the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) data base by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. The document collection is sorted into three…
Chase, Richard; Moore, Christopher; Curry, Rasheeda
The purpose of this report is to identify model strategies used by the Minnesota Early Childhood Initiative to improve the well-being of young children. The Minnesota Early Childhood Initiative is comprised of coalitions of individuals and organizations in over 165 greater Minnesota communities. These coalitions have implemented more than 400…
Hertzog, Nancy B.
There are three practical ways to incorporate the principles of choice into early childhood classrooms: choice of language, choice of time, and choice within the curriculum. Early childhood educators need to reflect upon their instructional practices, document the types of decisions students make every day to foster their own learning, and examine…
Podmore, Valerie N.; Meade, Anne
Noting that research demonstrates that high quality early childhood education (ECE) has long-term benefits for children, this review outlines definitions of quality early childhood education within the context of New Zealand. The focus is mainly on two specific aspects of quality: staff qualifications and indicators of quality. The review notes…
Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia
This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…
Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly
We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…
Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.
Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…
Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.
This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…
Holochwost, Steven J.; DeMott, Kerri; Buell, Martha; Yannetta, Kelly; Amsden, Deborah
What incentives can the administrators of early childhood education facilities offer their staff in order to retain them? In light of research identifying low staff turnover as a key component of high quality early childhood education, the answer to this question has ramifications beyond human-resources management. This paper presents the results…
Vaiserman, A M
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic non-communicable disease that is driven by insulin resistance as a result of increasing obesity and decreasing activity levels that occur with increasing age. This disease generally develops after the age of 40, but it is now increasingly diagnosed in children and young adults. Increasing evidence, however, suggests that T2D can originate during early development. It has been repeatedly found that malnutrition during the gestational period can result in intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight, which in combination with postnatal catch-up growth may subsequently lead to the development of T2D. There is ample evidence that T2D may also be programmed by maternal substance abuse (the harmful use of psychoactive substances such as illicit drugs or alcohol) during pregnancy and/or lactation. The research activity in this field is currently mainly focused on the childhood health problems following prenatal exposures to substance abuse. The delayed programming effects on adult-onset disorders, including metabolic syndrome and T2D, however, have been reported only rarely. This review provides animal and human evidence that early-life exposure to substance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, may program not only childhood health outcomes but also life-long metabolic health status, including risk of T2D and related conditions. PMID:26077016
Full Text Available Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for professional practice, and as education of early childhood teachers matters with regard to developmental outcomes of children, knowledge orientations of prospective early childhood teachers attending universities and attending vocational schools are investigated and compared. Knowledge orientations were assessed by means of a questionnaire. After propensity score matching of 402 beginners and 402 graduates, multilevel analyses indicate that scientific orientation at the end of teacher education was higher and subjective orientation was lower than at the beginning. Furthermore, scientific knowledge orientation of BA-students was higher, subjective orientation was lower than of students at professional schools. Implications of these results regarding education of early childhood teachers are discussed.
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…
Kenny, Maureen C.; McEachern, Adriana Garcia
This study sought to examine the family environments of a sample of Hispanic women who reported childhood sexual abuse. Eighteen women, taken from a larger college sample, were individually interviewed and administered the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994). Cultural values and the relationship of family characteristics to the…
Crowley, M. Sue
The study explored types of memory for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a clinical sample of 30 women and identified factors that led some women (n = 24) to report recovered memories. Questionnaires produced three types of memory: always (n = 6), recovered (n = 14), both (n = 10); however, analysis of narrative data also revealed the use of…
Ferraz, Liliana; Portella, Maria J; Vállez, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Subirà, Susana
Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and has been previously associated with suicidal behaviour in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examined the associations between suicidal behaviour and impulsivity-related personality traits, as well as history of childhood sexual abuse, in 76 patients diagnosed with BPD using both the Structured Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) Axis-II diagnoses and the self-personality questionnaire. Impulsivity-related traits were measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). We found that hostility and childhood sexual abuse, but not impulsivity or other temperament traits, significantly predicted the presence, number and severity of previous suicide attempts. Hostility traits and childhood sexual abuse showed an impact on suicide attempts in BPD. Our results support previous findings indicating that high levels of hostility and having suffered sexual abuse during childhood lead to an increased risk for suicidal behaviour in BPD. PMID:23993466
Brown, Michael H.
States that the techniques of mental imagery can help adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse access the inner wisdom necessary to identify, understand, and creatively address issues from the past and develop new and healthier patterns of thinking and behaving. Documents the innovative ways psychosynthesis uses mental imagery with this client…
Levitt, Jill T.; Cloitre, Marylene
Women who have PTSD related to childhood abuse have significant deficits in the areas of emotion regulation and interpersonal skills. These problems are associated with impaired functioning in social, work, and home life. In addition, there is substantial clinical concern that limited emotion-regulation skills puts this population at risk for…
Stovall-McClough, K. Chase; Cloitre, Marylene
The primary objective of this study was to examine unresolved trauma as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview and current psychiatric symptoms, focusing on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation, in a group of adult female childhood abuse survivors. The authors examined psychiatric symptoms and attachment representations in a…
Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.
Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei
Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne; Besser, Avi
The objective of this study was to examine the extent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and posttraumatic growth in young adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse in relation to the identity of the perpetrator. Two hundred and forty-six non-clinical female university students were administered self-report…
Luterek, Jane A.; Harb, Gerlinde C.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Marx, Brian P.
This study investigated whether interpersonal rejection sensitivity serves a mediating role between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and three long-term psychological correlates of CSA in adult female survivors: depressive symptoms, anger suppression, and attenuated emotional expression. Interpersonal rejection sensitivity has been shown to be a risk…
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah
Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…
Larsen, Carly D.; Sandberg, Jonathan G.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy
This study examined the relationship between self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse, romantic relationship quality, possible gender differences, and clinical implications. Three hundred thirty-eight women and 296 men who sought services at a university mental health clinic in the northeast region of the United States completed a…
Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.
The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…
Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)
Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.
Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…
Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A
The aims of this review are (i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, (ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and (iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as "child abuse," "posttraumatic stress," "pregnancy," and "postpartum". Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean?±?SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p?PTSD during pregnancy was 4.1 % in women with no history of physical or sexual abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p?PTSD had over 5-fold odds of having a history of childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:25380784
Etain, Bruno; Mathieu, Flavie; Henry, Chantal; Raust, Aurélie; Roy, Isabelle; Germain, Anne; Leboyer, Marion; Bellivier, Frank
Childhood trauma has been suggested to be involved in the susceptibility to bipolar disorder. However, case-control studies are lacking, and the preferential implication and the dose-effect of different trauma subtypes remain poorly investigated. Two hundred six bipolar patients and 94 controls completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein et al., 1994). The CTQ total score was higher for bipolar patients than for controls. The presence of multiple trauma was significantly more...
Wells, Tony T.; Vanderlind, W. Michael; Selby, Edward A.; Beevers, Christopher G.
Models of depression vulnerability posit that negative early experiences, such as exposure to childhood abuse (CA), increase vulnerability to depression later in life. Though most victims of CA do not go on to develop depression, the question remains as to whether these individuals retain cognitive “scars” that may contribute to depression vulnerability. The present study examined the relationship between self-reported, retrospective CA cognitive vulnerability to depression in a carefully selected sample of young adults without current or past psychopathology. We measured cognitive vulnerability with both a self-report questionnaire, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and a measure of information processing bias, the Scrambled Sentences Test (SST). Self-reported severity of CA was associated with increased cognitive vulnerability to depression on both the DAS and SST. Vulnerability to depression as measured by the SST, but not by the DAS, prospectively predicted increases in depressive symptoms over a 6-month period. Scores on the SST also interacted with CA to predict increases in depressive symptoms. These findings demonstrate the pernicious effects of CA even in those without current or past psychopathology. PMID:24313549
Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Regional Instructional Materials Center for Handicapped Children and Youth.
The information packet contains five abridged readings on early childhood education of handicapped children. Problems encountered in inservice education in childhood education programs are discussed and some proposals for future programs are advanced. Described is a training program which uses an interdisciplinary approach to young handicapped…
Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This paper examines the relationship between childhood exposure to cumulative risk and three indicators of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood (educational attainment, mental health, and criminal behavior) and tests three different models (linear, quadratic, and interaction). Data were collected over several time points from individuals who were part of a prospective cohort design study that matched children with documented cases of abuse and/or neglect with children without such histories and followed them into adulthood. Hierarchical multiple regressions compared linear and quadratic models and then examined potential moderating effects of child abuse/neglect and gender. Exposure to a greater number of childhood risk factors was significantly related to fewer years of education, more anxiety and depression symptomatology, and more criminal arrests in adulthood. The relationship between cumulative risk and years of education demonstrated a curvilinear pattern, whereas the relationship between cumulative risk and both mental health and criminal arrests was linear. Child abuse/neglect did not moderate these relationships, although there were direct effects for both child abuse/neglect and gender on criminal arrests, with more arrests for abused/neglected individuals than controls and more for males than females. Gender interacted with cumulative risk to impact educational attainment and criminal behavior, suggesting that interventions may be more effective if tailored differently for males and females. Interventions may need to be multifaceted and designed to address these different domains of functioning. PMID:25196178
Global childhood as a concept privileges western ideals of how young children experience growing up, how adults educate them, and how priorities are set for them. Ways of knowing and doing early childhood are backed by Euro-American knowledge, international conventions and scientific evidence which gives a semblance of the truths for intervening…
Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.
In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…
Iranna Koppal, Pushpa; Sakri, Mohan Ravishankar; Akkareddy, Basavaprabhu; Hinduja, Dharam M.; Gangolli, Raviraj Annayya; Patil, Basanagouda C.
Aim: Evaluate the coexistence of iron deficiency and early childhood caries.Evaluate whether iron deficiency can be considered as a risk marker for early childhood caries.Estimate the incidence of iron deficiency in children with early childhood caries.To evaluate and compare the iron status of children with and without severe early childhood caries.
Garner, Andrew S
Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors. PMID:24187125
Hobcraft, J; Kiernan, K
Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the current political agenda. The key new issue that this research addresses is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? Subsidiary questions relate to the magnitude of these associations, the particular levels of childhood poverty that prove most critical, and whether, as often assumed, only teenage mothers are subsequently disadvantaged, or are those who have their first birth in their early twenties similarly disadvantaged? The source of data for this study is the National Child Development Study. We examine outcomes at age 33 for several domains of adult social exclusion: welfare, socio-economic, physical health, emotional well-being and demographic behaviour. We control for a wide range of childhood factors: poverty; social class of origin and of father; mother's and father's school leaving age; family structure; housing tenure; mother's and father's interest in education; personality attributes; performance on educational tests; and contact with the police by age 16. There are clear associations for the adult outcomes with age at first birth, even after controlling for childhood poverty and the other childhood background factors. Moreover, we demonstrate that the widest gulf in adult outcomes occurs for those who enter motherhood early (before age 23), though further reinforced by teenage motherhood for most adult outcomes. We also show that any experience of childhood poverty is clearly associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood, with reinforcement for higher levels of childhood poverty for a few outcomes. PMID:11578006
Affine, Tigist Abera
This study was focused on the theory of the zone of proximal development in early childhood education. It is a theory developed by a Russian socio-cultural psychologist called Lev Vygotsky. The theory mainly focuses on developmental area of children that is measured between an actually achieved level and one that can be achieved with the help of adults. The thesis was part of VKK Metro project that worked on developing early childhood pedagogies in the Helsinki Metropolitan areas of Finl...
Deering, Rebecca; Mellor, David
The limited findings on the impact of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children are often contradictory, particularly in relation to males. In this exploratory qualitative study, a sample of nine men and five women who reported that they had been sexually abused by women in their childhood were recruited from the general community. They…
Resick, Patricia A; Suvak, Michael K; Wells, Stephanie Y
This study examined the effect of child sexual or physical abuse on brief cognitive-behavioral therapy treatments with adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We analyzed secondary data from two randomized controlled trials (Resick, Nishith, Weaver, Astin, & Feuer, 2002; Resick et al., 2008) that included women with PTSD who did or did not have child sexual abuse (CSA) or child physical abuse (CPA) histories to determine whether childhood abuse impacted dropout rate or reduction in PTSD symptoms. In Study 1, presence, duration, or severity of CSA was not associated with dropout; however, frequency of CSA significantly predicted dropout (OR = 1.23). A significant CPA Severity × Treatment Group interaction emerged such that CPA severity was associated with greater dropout for prolonged exposure (PE; OR = 1.45), but not cognitive processing therapy (CPT; OR = 0.90). Study 2 found no differences in dropout. Study 1, comparing CPT and PE among women who experienced at least 1 rape found no differences in outcome based on childhood abuse history (rp (2) s = .000-.009). Study 2, a dismantling study of CPT with women seeking treatment for adult or child sexual or physical abuse found that for those with no childhood abuse, CPT-C, the cognitive-only version of CPT, had an advantage, whereas both forms of CPT worked best for those with higher frequency of childhood abuse; the effect size was small. PMID:25322885
Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…
Arto O. Salonen
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out what Finnish early childhood educators (n = 145 value on sustainability and how they assess the promotion of sustainability in their daily lives. They also wrote 495 comments about barriers to sustainable lifestyle. The data were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative methods. According to the results, the most important elements of sustainability were (a supporting of communality (including intergenerational link and trust; (b social responsibility of the consumer; and (c recycling, composting and taking care of hazardous waste. There was a statistically significant difference between all of the valued elements and the actual implementation of them. The main barriers to sustainable lifestyle were lack of time and information, the higher cost of sustainable choices, and the inconvenience of the sustainable way of life. The tendency to transfer one’s own responsibility to government, to the industry, or to the housing company was identified. A sense of agency is a core skill to be learned on a winding road towards a sustainable society.
van der Kolk, B A; Fisler, R E
Secure attachments with caregivers play a critical role in helping children develop a capacity to modulate physiological arousal. Loss of ability to regulate the intensity of feelings and impulses is possibly the most far-reaching effect of trauma and neglect. It has been shown that most abused and neglected children develop disorganized attachment patterns. The inability to modulate emotions gives rise to a range of behaviors that are best understood as attempts at self-regulation. These include aggression against others, self-destructive behavior, eating disorders, and substance abuse. The capacity to regulate internal states affects both self-definition and one's attitude toward one's surroundings. Abused children often fail to develop the capacity to express specific and differentiated emotions: Their difficulty putting feelings into words interferes with flexible response strategies and promotes acting out. Usually, these behaviors coexist, which further complicates diagnosis and treatment. Affective dysregulation can be mitigated by safe attachments, secure meaning schemes, and pharmacological interventions that enhance the predictability of somatic responses to stress. The ability to create symbolic representations of terrifying experiences promotes taming of terror and desomatization of traumatic memories. PMID:7519094
Full Text Available This paper challenges traditional perspectives of professional development through a reconceptualization of early childhood professional growth. A review of the early childhood professional development literature reveals the problematic nature of the linear perspectives and deficit models of staff development prevalent in the early childhood field. In contrast to these models, the paper proposes alternative perspectives that recognize staff as empowered learners who build their working knowledge through spirals of engagement with many aspects of early childhood philosophy and practice over time. To illustrate the challenges to the dominant professional development paradigm, the paper discusses the professional development components of an Australian study of early childhood centers that began with off-site researcher-led inservice workshops and was followed by on-site staff-led discussion. The study involved approximately 75 staff members from 12 early childhood centers who participated in collaborative rethinking of approaches to planning and working with young children and their families. This approach to professional development was sustained by ongoing support of the researchers as critical friends who facilitated staff engagement through a sense of personal and professional agency. The approaches explored in this paper propose a constructivist view of professional growth that acknowledges the unique contribution of the personal professional knowledge of individuals and the importance of the orientation of individuals both to their work and to new ideas.
Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Sitta, Rémi; Gueguen, Alice; Cyr, Diane; Lert, France
The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardised interviews were conduct...
Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C.; Turkheimer, Eric N.; Emery, Robert E.; Nelson, Elliot; Bucholz, Kathleen. K.; MADDEN, PAMELA A.F.; Martin, Nicholas G
We examine interactive effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on heritable variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse in a young cohort of 3,350 female and 2,724 male Australian twins. Consistent with hypotheses, genetic influences explained little if any variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse for female twins reporting CSA (CSA+), with shared environment explaining 73%. For female twins reporting no history of CSA (CSA?), 39% of variation in age at first consen...
Robinaugh, Donald John; Mcnally, Richard J.
Theorists have posited that regarding a trauma as central to one's identity leads to greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. To test this hypothesis, we administered the Centrality of Events Scale (CES) to women reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse (N = 102). The CES scores were correlated with PTSD symptom severity, depression severity, and self-esteem. In addition, we conducted a principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate factors underlying the CES. The P...
Introduction: Experiences of negative parenting and childhood abuse can have adverse consequences for the child?s development particularly in relation to the ability to regulate emotions effectively. There has been extensive research in this area and attachment theory is pivotal. Problems in regulating emotions can involve not being able to recognise, label or manage internal and external states of mind and behaviour. Therefore research has shown that problems in emotion r...
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Classen, Catherine C.
Childhood sexual abuse is prevalent among women and it has been linked to a number of problems affecting women's health and functioning including women's parenting practices. Another body of literature has linked specific maternal parenting practices to daughters’ HIV risk, including mother-daughter sex communication, monitoring/knowledge about daughters’ activities, mother-daughter relationship quality, attitudes towards sex, and modeling of sexual values. This paper reviews and links th...
Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Cyr, Diane; Gueguen, Alice; Lert, France
Objectives: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by comparing indigenous Kanak to non-Kanak women in…
Spann, Marisa N; MAYES, LINDA C.; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y.; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M.; SINHA, RAJITA; Blumberg, Hilary P.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in ad...
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.
This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psycholo...
Full Text Available Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0. Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who were selected by DSM- IV based semi-structured diagnostic interviews for decrease memory biases in this retrospective cohart study. The patient’s parents also evaluated by DSM- IV based Semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The analysis showed significant relation between: parents control on the siblings, addiction in relatives of pt (except parents, addicted peers and friends, to be affected with the peers and friends and substance use disorder at the ages (20-30y/o. There wasn’t any association between: Disruptive childhood behaviors (under 11y/o, diagnosed medical illness (under 11y/o diagnosed Psychiatric illness (under 6 mo , family size, socio economic state and substance use disorder at the age(20-30y/0 . Finally some childhood and adolescence pathologic factors has association with Substance use disorder at the ages ( 20-30y/5 that these can be used for education all planning , prevention , design high risk group and remedical plans.
Full Text Available All areas of education face changes and challenges constantly. Early childhood education is no exception. A recent challenge teachers face in early childhood education is the advent of inclusion. Implementing inclusion in early childhood classrooms creates more diversity among the children. Inclusion of students with various disabilities has caused concern among parents and teachers. There are some concerns that need special attention when including students with disabilities in the early childhood classrooms. Reforming public education to accommodate the needs of special education children placed in regular classrooms is a vital issue .For several years there have been arguments concerning the placement of children with disabilities in the regular classrooms. When inclusion children are placed in the regular classrooms the teachers are required to provide individualized instruction for the inclusion children. This may take away the time the teacher have to spend with the other children. The inclusion of children in regular classrooms have been both positive and negative effects. This means, with respect to all stages of the education system, including early childhood, that all children , regardless of their disability, can attend their local educational setting, and have their learning and development needs met through the provision of high-quality care and education For inclusive early childhood education to be successful, early childhood teachers as well as parents and members of the wider community need to embrace and practice inclusion. Parents of children without disabilities may bring with them attitudes and understandings that can lead to social exclusions, restrictions and disadvantages for all children with disabilities and their family in their early childhood setting and neighbourhood community. In this paper, we tried to highlight the attitudes and understandings of some parents of non-disabled children towards the inclusion and teaching of children with disabilities in regular early childhood settings and the consequences that resulted from the exclusionary and inclusionary constructions that these parents took up to define and understand disability and inclusion. We then offer some ideas and strategies for dialogue that may help early childhood teachers appropriately respond to this issue at own capacity .
Full Text Available A day care center is not just any place where children can spend their day while parents are at work. How to ensure that children have good childhood experiences and how to support their positive development from the very beginning of their educational career? In this study, we introduce the concept of love-based leadership and discuss its role and implementation in early education. Love-based leadership in early education is a method that renews teachers’ professional skills. The Finnish early childhood education system offers favorable premises for love-based leadership in early education. The method should also be included in the curriculum of future early childhood education teachers.
Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M
Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320
Describes and analyzes some of the literacy events and practices taking place in selected multilingual early childhood classrooms in Cape Town, South Africa. Discusses the views and understanding teachers hold about reading and writing in early childhood, and the methods used for teaching children from different language and sociocultural…
Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia
Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses on the challenges of…
Rosen, L N; Martin, L
The long-term psychological effects of four different types of childhood maltreatment were examined among 1,072 male and 305 female soldiers on active duty in the United States Army. The predictor variables included four subscales from the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)-(1) physical-emotional abuse, (2) sexual abuse, (3) emotional neglect, and (4) physical neglect. An additional sexual abuse variable based on the four screening questions developed by Finkelhor, Hotaling, Lewis, and Smith (1990) was also included. Outcome was measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory and a dissociation scale developed by Briere and Runtz (1988). MANOVAs were conducted for each outcome measure. Physical-emotional abuse contributed to most of the effects. However, sexual abuse contributed additional significant effects to all of the subscales. In general, males and females showed similar outcomes, but certain gender differences were noted. PMID:8985606
Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne
The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1.5 perpetrators. A quarter of the women had been subjected to violence in connection with the sexual abuse. The likelihood of violence having occurred rose significantly if there was more than one perpetrator and/or if penetration had been part of the sexual abuse. Violence was less common if the perpetrator was a brother. The women suffered from a broad spectrum of psychiatric symptoms and illnesses. More than half of the women had previously received psychiatric treatment. Compared to a random sample of the general female population, these women were less advantaged with regards to education, financial circumstances and cohabitation. The results emphasize the importance of offering comprehensive social and psychiatric intervention to help reducing the problems following CSA in women.
Razfar, Aria; Yang, Eunah
This article examines sociocultural research on early literacy development in the digital age. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of informational technology that has fundamentally shifted how we think about language and literacy in the early childhood years. Despite these trends, narrow and reductive views of literacy continue to…
Serrano, Ana Maria; Boavida, Jose?
This article describes the Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) system in Portugal and how it evolved since the 80’s until our days, based on a set of principles recommended by research and empirical data. So it describes the characteristics, organization and legislation and implementation of the ECI Portuguese system which pertain to be an inclusive and community resource based early intervention system.
The ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign provides ready access to a wide array of information resources in the areas of child development, the education and care of children from birth through early adolescence, the teaching of young children, and parenting and family life.
Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.
State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…
O'Dougherty Wright, Margaret; Fopma-Loy, Joan; Oberle, Katherine
This article reviews past research on the parenting characteristics of childhood sexual abuse survivors and presents the results of a qualitative study exploring the women's perspectives on mothering as a survivor. Grounded theory was used in the collection and analysis of the data. Data sources included the narrative responses of 79 women (mean age = 38.2 years) and in-depth interviews of a purposive sample of 15 women (mean age = 39 years). They had an average of 2.2 children, ranging in age from 5 months to young adulthood. The theoretical model identified through analysis of data using the constant comparison method was entitled "The Hard Work of Mothering as a Survivor." Processes emerged that described the ways participants managed the work of mothering in light of memories of the abuse and attempts to heal from this earlier trauma. The conditions for committing to the work included becoming aware of and accepting the reality of the abuse and how it affected one's life, and taking on the hard work of developing a mothering self. This included expanding awareness, developing and evaluating a personal model of mothering, navigating typical and abuse salient parenting challenges, mothering through the pain of recovery, and battling for balance. The findings highlighted the dynamic, multifaceted nature of recovery and resilience for these mothers and the need for an increased focus on parenting in counseling with childhood sexual abuse survivors. Provision of anticipatory guidance regarding commonly experienced stressors at varying stages of the child's development and the mother's stage of recovery and methods for coping with these challenges, would benefit these mothers and promote parenting competence. Specific implications for psychotherapy and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22559129
Full Text Available The current Spanish education legislation has started to highlight the need to work on emotional education since early childhood Education. The Spanish Education Law 2/2006 May 3rd (known as LOE, and all decrees and orders currently regulating the curriculum and teaching in Early Childhood Education include contents and objectives related to the Emotional Intelligence framework developed by Mayer & Salovey (1997. Because all these laws and regulations give teachers autonomy for both designing and programming the curriculum in Early Childhood Education and because important relationships have been established between social and emotional competence and school adaptation, we argue in this paper that the training of future teachers in Early Childhood Education should include the development of emotional intelligence abilities and skills.This article presents an emotional education proposal for its integration in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education (children aged 3 to 6 years old. This proposal is based on Mayer and Salovey’s model (1997 of emotional intelligence. This model is the only one in which emotional abilities are considered cognitive-emotional capacities which can be developed and it matches the general goal of this educational stage and also the general aims and curricular contents included in the abovementioned legislation.
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H
Current frameworks for understanding the link between early adverse childhood experiences and later negative life outcomes, including psychopathology, focus on the mediating negative impact on brain and biological systems in the developing child resulting broadly from stress and trauma. Although this approach is useful, we argue that the framework could be functionally extended by distinguishing the effects of two different types of abnormal input, both deviations from the expectable environment in early childhood. Specifically, we review the consequences of inadequate input (eg, neglect/deprivation) and harmful input (eg, abuse/trauma) on brain and biological development. We then review evidence on the differential links between each type of abnormal input to four selected domains of psychopathology (indiscriminate social behavior, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct problems), and consider potential mechanisms for inadequate and harmful input to lead to these outcomes. We conclude that the careful consideration of the type of deviation from the expected environment, while acknowledging the practical difficulties in assessing this, is likely to lead to clearer understanding of the mechanism of risk for psychopathology, and that tailored approaches to prevention and intervention may be informed by considering the unique consequences of inadequate and harmful input when experienced in early childhood. PMID:24998622
Niederhofer, H; Kucan, S; Hackenberg, B; Huber, M; Gasteiger, W
We report on the case of a 4-year old child suffering for the past six months from a lingering psychotic development. Several months of outpatient observation did not permit a clear differential diagnosis of either childhood autism or an early psychosis. During a one-week inpatient stay at our hospital recurring productive-psychotic episodes were observed that finally led to the exclusion of the diagnosis of "childhood autism" (ICD-10 F 84.0 (Dilling et al., 1993)) and to the diagnosis of "other disintegrative childhood disorder" (ICD-10: F 84.3 (Dilling et al., 1993)). PMID:11876084
Anderson, L N; Chen, Y; Omand, J A; Birken, C S; Parkin, P C; To, T; Maguire, J L
The association between vitamin D and wheezing in early childhood is unclear. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D exposure, during both pregnancy and childhood, and early childhood wheezing. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the associations between vitamin D exposures and asthma and wheezing severity. We conducted a cohort study of children (0-5 years) recruited from 2008 to 2013 through the TARGet Kids! primary-care research network. Vitamin D exposures included maternal vitamin D supplement use during pregnancy, child vitamin D supplementation and children's 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The outcomes measured were parent-reported childhood wheezing, diagnosed asthma and wheezing severity. Vitamin D supplement and wheezing data were available for 2478 children, and blood samples were available for 1275 children. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, birth weight, outdoor play, breastfeeding duration, daycare status, parental smoking and family history of asthma. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy was associated with lower odds of childhood wheezing (aOR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.46-0.93). In early childhood, neither 25(OH)D (aOR per 10 nmol/l=1.01; 95% CI: 0.96-1.06) nor vitamin D supplementation (aOR=1.00; 95% CI: 0.81-1.23) was associated with wheezing. No significant associations were observed with diagnosed asthma or wheezing severity. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy was associated with reduced odds of wheezing, but child vitamin D supplementation and childhood 25(OH)D were not associated with reduced wheezing. The timing of exposure may be important in understanding the association between vitamin D and childhood wheezing. PMID:25885931
Sitnick, Stephanie; SHAW, DANIEL S.; Hyde, Luke
This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using str...
Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen
Most poor children achieve less, exhibit more problem behaviors and are less healthy than children reared in more affluent families. We look beyond correlations such as these to a recent set of studies that attempt to assess the causal impact of childhood poverty on adult well-being. We pay particular attention to the potentially harmful effects…
...LAUNCH, and the Department of Education's Race to the Top (RTT...in early childhood service systems, as well as with other early childhood experts and leaders in the field, to align its early childhood systems-building activities...
Full Text Available Effective mathematics provision is a central goal within Early Childhood Education. However, the choices that teachers make within Centers and new entrant classrooms are influenced by deeper understandings about the kinds of arrangements that allow young students to enhance their learning. This paper explores similarities and differences with respect to the practices and processes in Early Childhood Centers and in new entrant classrooms. Drawing in Foucauldian concepts, the analysis reports that practices and processes were at odds across the two sectors. The challenge is to offer young learners a more seamless mathematical experience.
Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.
This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…
Choi, Hyunjung; Klein, Carolin; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Hoon-Jin
With the participation of 46 prostituted women in Korea, this study investigates the relationship between prostitution experiences, a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS). Prostituted women showed higher levels of PTSD and DESNOS symptoms compared to a control group. Women who had experienced both CSA by a significant other and prostitution showed the highest levels of traumatic stress. However, posttraumatic reexperiencing and avoidance and identity, relational, and affect regulation problems were significant for prostitution experiences even when the effects of CSA were controlled. PMID:19515944
Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht
This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who subsequently began specialized group psychotherapy for CSA sequellae. Clinical interview and questionnaires (Present Sexual Function, Sexual and Body Satisfaction, Symptom Check List 90-R) were used for data collection in a cross sectional study design. Non-parametric analysis, linear and logistic regression analysis were applied. Of the women, 63% were unsatisfied with their current sexual life, 39% felt uncomfortable with physical endearments and 71% were unsatisfied with their body. Only 82% had an active sexual life and, of these, 73% reported at least one sexual problem, 48% orgasmic problems and 45% dyspareunia. The occurrence of sexual problems was significantly correlated to childhood physical violence, current psychological distress, flashbacks in sexual situations and discomfort with physical endearment. The prevalence of sexual pain disorders were also positively correlated to “no adult support” in childhood. The present study finds that psychiatric patients in terms of women with a history of intrafamilial CSA have wide-ranging sexual problems. It is crucial to screen for sexual problems and address them during treatment.
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Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.
This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…
Thaler, Lea; Gauvin, Lise; Joober, Ridha; Groleau, Patricia; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Ambalavanan, Amirthagowri; Israel, Mimi; Wilson, Samantha; Steiger, Howard
DNA methylation allows for the environmental regulation of gene expression and is believed to link environmental stressors to such mental-illness phenotypes as eating disorders. Numerous studies have shown an association between bulimia nervosa (BN) and variations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF has also been linked to borderline personality disorder (BPD) and to such traits as reward dependence. We examined the extent to which BDNF methylation corresponded to bulimic or normal-eater status, and also to the presence of comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) and childhood abuse. Our sample consisted of 64 women with BN and 32 normal-eater (NE) control women. Participants were assessed for eating-disorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, and childhood trauma, and then they were required to provide blood samples for methylation analyses. We observed a significant site×group (BN vs. NE) interaction indicating that women with BN showed increases in methylation at specific regions of the BDNF promoter. Furthermore, examining effects of childhood abuse and BPD, we observed significant site×group interactions such that groups composed of individuals with childhood abuse or BPD had particularly high levels of methylation at selected CpG sites. Our findings suggest that BN, especially when co-occurring with childhood abuse or BPD, is associated with a propensity towards elevated methylation at specific BDNF promoter region sites. These findings imply that hypermethylation of the BDNF gene may be related to eating disorder status, developmental stress exposure, and comorbid psychopathology. PMID:24801751
Vijaykumar R. Londhe
Full Text Available Worldwide, more than 200 million children aged under five do not reach their full developmental potential due to the absence of early childhood care programmes. Education is the mainstay of a development of a human being. Childhood education lays foundation of the child leading to awareness of child rights and empowerment. The awareness about child rights is even more necessary in lieu of various crimes being committed against children. Qualitative school education should not merely confine to text books and theory, it should encompass social and societal issues touching upon the child rights. The utility of primary child education shall go a long way in achieving child rights. This article dwells on role of early childhood education in achieving child rights.
Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Cyr, Diane; Gue?guen, Alice; Lert, France
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by comparing indigenous Kanak to non-Kanak women in New Caledonia. METHODS: Data come from a population survey on violence against women and health. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2002-2003...
Full Text Available Scholarly and institutional research on early childhood education is not a new phenomenon, but what is perhaps limited is extant literature that particularly focuses on revisiting current practices and their “dialogue” with the ever-changing environment that prevails especially in an African setting. The practices of providers of early childhood education are either simply “business opportunity seeking” responses to the new consumption patterns of more affluent parent (or guardian or current global trends of child education preparation. There has been a phenomenal increase in the number of early child centres in recent years but with fragmented structures. However whether or not this will reduce possibilities of tensions between the macro and micro aspects of this kind of co-evolution is one of the questions this article seeks to address. It also investigates the fit between the internal structure and processes of early childhood centers and the external environment (national framework, focusing on the challenges and prospects of early childhood education. Buoyed by the Fit/Congruence model of organizational analysis, the paper is based on findings from a content analysis of media reports and desk review of policy documents from purposively selected centres based in Gaborone. The data is analyzed using a combination of the pattern model and analytic comparison methods. In Botswana, one of the observed missing links is the absence of national framework guiding the structure and content of early childhood curriculum and instruction. It concludes that while the approaches used in these centres are relatively not similar they may be complementary particularly to the extent to which they prepare the children for an exclusionary education system in a country whose long-term vision is ironically to achieve an equitable and quality education for all. Institutional initiatives at national level have been limited and unevenly distributed with wide differences in the quality of services and lack of coherence and coordination at micro-level.
Chen, Dezhi; Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Li, Kejian
Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight…
Dehouske, Ellen J.
This article examines the concept of an early childhood teacher learning, in stages, a new method for integrating the arts into the early childhood curriculum. An early childhood graduate course, Aesthetics as Learning, is the learning ground. In this course, the graduate students discover the "Adult Within," the "Child Within," the "Teacher…
Virmani, Elita Farine Amini
The goal of this study was to examine the effect of early childhood mental health consultation on teacher sensitivity over time, taking into account specific characteristics of early childhood mental health consultation that contribute to change in teacher sensitivity. One-hundred and forty-one early childhood teachers, serving economically…
Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).
This report describes a course on early childhood education methodology and practice that was held at the Ministry of Education in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for 35 Ethiopian early childhood educators and administrators. In addition to presenting developmental profiles of preschool children, the 3-week course addressed philosophies of early childhood…
Pianta, Robert C.
This report draws from decades of experience using observation in early childhood education, which has implications for administrative decisions, evaluation practices, and policymaking in K-12. Early childhood education has long embraced the value of observing classrooms and teacher-child interactions. In early childhood education the features of…
Hunzai, Zohra Nisar
This article focuses on the status of teacher education and early childhood education in Pakistan. The paper analyzes planning issues in early childhood teacher education by examining education policies and existing practices in early childhood teacher education in Pakistan. Initiatives taken at public and private levels in Pakistan are also…
New Zealand has an internationally unique approach to early childhood education, which includes a bicultural early childhood curriculum, a robust infrastructure of organisation and management overseen by the New Zealand Ministry of Education, and a growing reputation for innovation in early childhood teaching and learning. This paper examines how…
Basturk, Ramazan; Isikoglu, Nesrin
Quality of early childhood education institutions specifically, dimensions of process quality should be evaluated. Purpose of this study is to analyze process quality of early childhood education by using many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM). In this study, data were collected from twelve early childhood education institutions by four…
Heikka, Johanna; Hujala, Eeva
This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education (ECE) context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how ECE stakeholders, e.g. teachers, ECE centre directors and administrative ECE leaders in municipalities perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus…
Bernstein, Victor J.; Edwards, Renee C.
Reflective supervision is a relationship-based practice that supports the professional development of early childhood practitioners. Reflective supervision helps practitioners cope with the intense feelings and stress that are generated when working with at-risk children and families. It allows them to focus on the purpose and goals of the program…
Medication for the treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increased tremendously in Iceland during the last decade and the country has now the highest prescription rates for methylphenidate in the world. This study examines Icelandic early childhood teachers' experiences and perspectives of children with behavioural…
This article explores early childhood professionalism in the Republic of Serbia. The concept of professionalism in this context is examined in light of current international debates about professionalism. More specifically, how the use of specific nomenclature, the existence of multi-professional teams of practitioners and state-regulated but…
This article sketches out a philosophy and practice of open listening, linking open listening to Bergson's (1998) concept of creative evolution. I draw on examples of small children at play from a variety of sources, including Reggio-Emilia-inspired preschools in Sweden. The article offers a challenge to early childhood educators to listen and to…
Mudiappa, Michael; Kluczniok, Katharina
Studies show the important role of the home learning environment in early childhood for later school success. This article focuses on a particular aspect of the home learning environment: visits to cultural learning places (e.g. museums) as a component of the quality of the home learning environment. Therefore the educational concept of…
As early childhood educators who participated in the discussion of optimal scene management involving children and families in the event of a radiological/nuclear event, the authors would suggest consideration be given to the formal preparation for evacuation of educators and families and how to ensure that families are provided factual and updated information. (authors)
Prochner, Larry; Hwang, Yeonwook
This article explores isolation in early childhood education settings in the context of historical and current theories of punishment. The authors conclude that although isolation was reinterpreted in the 20th century in relation to changing theories of learning, teaching and child development, its earlier meanings have endured. (Contains 2 notes.)
Gibbons, Andrew N.
This paper examines curriculum debates, particularly those that influence an understanding of the nature and purpose of curriculum, in providing teacher education and in influencing teaching practice. The work of Martin Heidegger provides a framework for questioning the early childhood teacher education curriculum. Central to this analysis are…
Portugal, Maria Gabriela; Aveleira, Ana Paula
This article presents a reflective report on a project aiming to strengthen educators and improve early childhood education in Guinea-Bissau--one of the poorest countries on the African continent, where preschool teachers have no training and have to face several ongoing difficulties. Helping these Guinea-Bissau teachers to focus on curriculum…
Dahle, Karen Bowen; Gargiulo, Richard M.
The psychiatric community has only recognized Asperger Disorder (AD) as a distinct syndrome since 1994. Therefore, for most early childhood educators, AD is still a new diagnosis. The majority of the children with AD are being educated in the general education classroom although it's not uncommon to see specialized placements. Unfortunately, due…
Uyanik, Ozgun; Inal, Gozde; Calisandemir, Fatma; Can-Yasar, Munevver; Kandir, Adalet
Creativity is innately brought with secret power which can emerge at any time throughout life and be enhanced if fostered. Properly designed art activities serve as a potential for emergence and the enhancement of children's creativities in their early childhood educations. Those children who cannot express their emotions through oral language or…
Chen, Jing; Pisani, Lauren; White, Sheida; Soroui, Jaleh
This study uses data from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy to identify relationships between parents' demographic/socioeconomic backgrounds and their self-reported frequencies of engaging in early childhood education activities. It also examines race/ethnicity-related disparities in the frequency of reading to children and using…
Barrera, Maru; O'connor, Kathleen; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Spencer, Lynlee; Nicholas, David; Jovcevska, Vesna; Tallet, Susan; Schneiderman, Gerald
This study comprehensively explored parental bereavement and adjustment at 6 months post-loss due to childhood cancer. Interviews were conducted with 18 mothers and 13 fathers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed based on qualitative methodology. A model describing early parental bereavement and adaptation emerged with 3 domains:…
Kremenitzer, Janet Pickard
A current interest in education is the growing awareness that the development of social and emotional skills in children is critical for the foundation of academic knowledge in the classroom. The early childhood educator is in a position to be a powerful nurturer of the social emotional development in young children. It is important, therefore, to…
Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios
The aim of the present study is to provide information and suggest ways to improve and evaluate metacognition in early childhood. Metacognition is important to learning and knowledge transfer and preparing students to become lifelong learners is a main aim of schooling. The engagement of young students in metacognitive thinking is considered…
The computer has now become a recognized tool in the education of young children and when used appropriately can reinforce their learning experiences. This paper reviews specific features (relating to pedagogic design, software content and user-interface design) of early childhood educational software and discusses issues in favor of its…
Plaisance, Eric; Rayna, Sylvie
In this article, the authors propose to examine the question of the French early childhood schooling in terms of the socialization processes. The authors start by presenting briefly the main characteristics of the French nursery school. They then discuss socialization processes through sociological perspectives on historical and anthropological…
Katz, Lilian G.
Notes the strong drive toward the professionalization of teaching and working in preschool settings. Applies features of a profession to the current state of the art of early childhood education. Discusses eight characteristics of a profession: social necessity; altruism; autonomy; a code of ethics; distance from clients; standards of practice;…
Asserts that 3- to 6-year-olds are capable of types of thinking previously thought possible only by older children and that they readily understand content organized into stories. Offers suggestions for providing a storytelling foundation in Montessori early childhood classrooms, including a "random words" challenge and use of abstract paintings…
Hunzai, Zohra Nisar
Despite the enormous demand for early childhood education care and education, it remains a privilege for young children in most of the world's nine high population countries, known as the E-9 group (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan), according to a report published by UNESCO (2003). The World…
Hatch, J. Amos
Identifies and discusses several reasons why the proliferation of standards for early childhood education is harmful to children and teachers: Pressure on children and teachers, narrowing of experience, accountability as punishment, teacher deprofessionalization, performance over learning, individual devaluation, corporate mentality. (Contains 34…
Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy
This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…
Costello, Patrick J. M.
The central aim of this paper is to undertake a critical review of arguments which propose that chess should be taught in schools and other educational settings. In particular, I offer an answer to the question: "Should chess be taught in early childhood?" Many claims have been made about the educational benefits of chess instruction. In…
Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.
As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…
Tinanoff, Norman; Reisine, Susan
The 2000 Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health (SGROH) included a limited discussion of the condition known as Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Because of its high prevalence, its impact on young children's quality of life and potential for increasing their risk of caries in the permanent dentition, ECC is arguably one of the most serious and costly health conditions among young children.
Gomez, Grace Felix
The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…
Taylor, Affrica; Giugni, Miriam
"Common worlds" is a conceptual framework developed to reconceptualise inclusion in early childhood communities. Common worlds take account of children's relations with all the others in their worlds--including the more-than-human others. The ethics and politics of living together in these common worlds is the central concern of this article. The…
Ho, Dora Choi Wa
This article aims to identify leadership roles for quality in early childhood programmes in the local settings of a sample of Hong Kong preschools. Two schools were selected for the study, both of which were rated as excellent in the quality assurance inspections of a local education authority. Effective leadership was explored from the multiple…
Feingold, Jeffrey; And Others
The bilingual Early Childhood Centers Program was established in three public and four non-public schools ln District 14 (Brooklyn, New York) as a response to the needs of children in grades K-2 with limited English proficiency. Participants were from Spanish or Yiddish dominant homes. The curriculum offered instruction in English as a Second…
Riojas-Cortez, Mari; Alanis, Iliana; Flores, Belinda Bustos
Professional development, which results in sustained transformative change, requires that teachers engage in critical reflection regarding teaching practices. In this study, a group of five bilingual and generalist early childhood teachers engaged in a journey in which they elected to try to reconstruct their beliefs and practices about teaching…
Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven
The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific…
Christian, Linda Garris
Working with families is one of the most important aspects of being an early childhood professional, yet it is an area in which many educators have received little preparation (Nieto 2004). Teachers spend hours learning about child development, developmentally appropriate practices, health and safety, playgrounds, and play. At times it seems that…
Fukkink, Ruben G.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.
An experimental study showed that a video feedback intervention improved the interaction skills of early childhood education and care teachers. The teachers who had received the Video Interaction Guidance training appeared more stimulating in their behavior, were more sensitive and more verbally stimulating than teachers from the control group.…
Basford, Jo; Bath, Caroline
Assessment and the documentation of learning is an international issue in early childhood education (ECE) and has increasingly become a way for governments to exercise direct control over the practitioners working with young children. This paper details recent statutory guidance about assessment and documentation for English ECE settings and…
The article discusses the inclusion of technology resources in early childhood music education. Successful technology inclusion in music for young children depends on the physical, mental, and social readiness of each individual child. Learning providers involved with young children should constantly review the child's capabilities and …
Rameka, Lesley Kay
Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…
This paper will illustrate how philosophical and pedagogical boundaries that are defined by diverse cultures and ideologies might be navigated in the practical implementation of an early childhood curriculum in postcolonial urban India. Findings from a qualitative naturalistic inquiry indicated that a complex, multifaceted curriculum shaped by…
Breunig, Gretchen Stahr; Bellm, Dan
Mentoring programs offer experienced caregivers and directors new encouragement to remain in the field by helping them learn to share their skills with others and grow in the profession. This report is the result of an information-gathering process among mentoring programs for early childhood educators in the United States. Following an…
Kissel, Brian; Mraz, Maryann; Algozzine, Bob; Stover, Katie
In recent years, literacy coaches have emerged as an integral part of a school's literacy team. Although current research on literacy coaching examines the work of coaches at the elementary and middle/secondary school levels, little research exists on the roles and perspectives of early childhood literacy coaches. This study sought to fill that…
Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina
Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…
Benenson, Joyce F.; Koulnazarian, Manouchak
This study tested the hypothesis that sex differences in help-seeking, which have been obtained consistently with adults and adolescents, would appear in early childhood. To this end, 32 girls and 32 boys aged 3 and 6 years from lower and upper-middle socio-economic class schools were asked to perform four tasks (drawing an animal, building a…
In this article, the author addresses intra-actions that take place among humans and non-human others--the physical world, the materials--in early childhood education's everyday practices. Her object of study is the clock. Specifically, she provides an example of what it might mean to account for the intra-activity of the material-discursive…
Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin
Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…
Drives to increase the number of early childhood education and care places in England have relied on a mixed economy of providers. Yet this is not a free market as policy makers have sought to create a discursive truth of an entrepreneurial provider in order to secure their initial pump priming investment. However, there remain sustainability…
Infants and young children spend as much as 50 hours per week in child care and preschool centers. Although approximately 13 million children, or 65% of all U.S. children, spend a portion of each day in early childhood education (ECE) facilities, little information is available a...
Kaufman, Michael J.; Kaufman, Sherelyn R.; Nelson, Elizabeth C.
The most productive way to reform education would be to invest in effective early childhood education programs. Such an investment would produce remarkable educational, social, and economic benefits. It would also transcend the current divisive debates about education reform by uniting advocates with different perspectives on issues of funding,…
Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.
In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…
Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.
This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…
Goldstein, Lisa S.
Building on the feminist notion of an ethic of care and drawing from psychology and women's studies, this book analyzes the experiences of two primary teachers as they create a vision of early childhood education centered around loving relationships. Chapter 1 of the book, "Why Love?" introduces the idea of teaching with love, including a detailed…
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Arend, Lauren E.
Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…
Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.
Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…
Marcus, Bradley J; Collins, Kim A
Childhood panhypopituitarism may be acquired or congenital. Children with panhypopituitarism can present clinically with diabetes, growth failure, decreased bone density, and morbid obesity. In the forensic setting without the proper history, it can be misdiagnosed as child abuse or neglect. We report a case of a 3-year-old black girl who was admitted to the emergency room with apnea and subsequently died. While at the emergency department, it was discovered that the child had a fractured left hip and was severely growth retarded for age. The coroner wanted to rule out child abuse and/or neglect and requested an autopsy based on the physical findings identified by hospital staff. Significant findings at autopsy included small for age (15th percentile for age), hypoplastic brain/pituitary gland/adrenal gland/thyroid gland, abnormally formed skull with an occipital protuberance, a fractured left hip with decreased bone density, and central adiposity. Subsequent to the autopsy, it was discovered that at 6 weeks of age the child suffered from group B streptococci meningitis that resulted in panhypopituitarism. The panhypopituitarism then resulted in seizure activity, diabetes insipidus, and growth retardation. The authors hope this case report and review of the literature will assist investigators, pathologists, and clinicians in making a distinction between neglect or inflicted injury of child abuse and panhypopituitarism that can present with similar signs and symptoms. PMID:15322473
Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.
Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…
Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Knight, Bob G.
Purpose: This study examined whether recalled childhood parental emotional abuse and support were associated with emotional reactivity to network stress among middle-aged and older adults. Design and Methods: Hypotheses were tested by performing 2-level multilevel modeling analysis on 787 participants aged 33-83 who participated in the Daily…
Young, M. Scott; Harford, Kelli-Lee; Kinder, Bill; Savell, Jodi K.
A large body of research has documented the harmful effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on adult mental health among females, but less work has examined this issue among males. This study examined whether gender moderated the relationship between CSA and adult mental health among a mixed-gender sample of 406 undergraduates. A Pearson…
Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko
Objective: To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV…
Cloitre, Marylene; Miranda, Regina; Stovall-McClough, K. Chase; Han, Hyemee
This study sought to determine the relative contribution of problems in emotion regulation and interpersonal functioning compared to PTSD symptoms in predicting functional impairment among women with childhood abuse histories. One hundred sixty-four treatment-seeking women completed measures of emotion regulation, interpersonal problems, PTSD…
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…
Anete, Abramowicz; Diana, Levcovitz; Tatiane Cosentino, Rodrigues.
Full Text Available Este artigo, por sua natureza teórica, trabalha com noções tais como infâncias, crianças, multidão e experiência, no intuito de pensar uma educação cujas práticas educativas possibilitem o exercício da infância. O artigo refaz um caminho no qual a infância e a criança são percebidas "em sua dimensão [...] singular", de modo a recuperar, no fim do percurso, o caráter plural que as noções de criança e infância encerram. O referencial teórico parte de Deleuze, Guattari, Agamben, entre outros autores, e busca colocar a infância numa temporalidade múltipla, em detrimento da temporalidade fundada em visões da história e da psicologia, que privilegiam etapas e sucessões cronológicas. Ao afirmarmos a infância como atravessada pela experiência, pela inventividade e pelo desarazoamento, propomos pensar uma educação na direção da multidão. Abstract in english This article, in its theoretical nature, discusses notions such as childhood, children, multitude and experience, in order to consider a kind of early childhood education in which educational routine enables the practice of childhood to happen. The article rebuilds a path on which childhood and chil [...] dren are perceived according to a single particular notion. Towards the ending of the analysis, the plural character involved in the notions of child and childhood is considered.The theoretical framework for the analysis was based on the propositions of Deleuze, Guattari and Agamben, among others. Their views place childhood in a multiple temporality rather than in a single temporality which is determined by historical and psychological perspectives both based on chronological and succession levels. By stating that childhood is crossed by experiences, inventiveness and unreasonableness, our proposal is about thinking of a different kind of education, which leans towards the multitude.
Musliner, Katherine L; Singer, Jonathan B
The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of emotional support from friends and parents at two time points (adolescence and adulthood) on adult depression in a nationally representative sample of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and examine whether the associations were moderated by the identity of the perpetrator (parent/caregiver vs. not). Data were taken from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study sample included 1,238 Add Health participants with a history of CSA and an equivalently sized comparison group of individuals with no history of CSA. Parental support was measured using four items from each wave that assessed the warmth of participants' relationships with their parents and their satisfaction with those relationships. Friend support in adolescence was measured using participants' perceptions of how much their friends cared about them and in adulthood using participants' self-reported number of close friends. Depression was measured using a 10-item subscale of the CES-D. Logistic regressions showed that support from friends and parents in adulthood were significantly associated with lower odds of adult depression in CSA survivors who reported non-parent/caregiver abuse. Among survivors of parent/caregiver abuse, emotional support was not significantly associated with adult depression regardless of when or by whom it was provided. In conclusion, emotional support in adulthood from friends and parents is associated with reduced odds of adult depression in CSA survivors, but only in cases where the abuse was perpetrated by someone other than a parent or caregiver. PMID:24630442
Sigurdardottir, Sigrun; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur; Bender, Sóley S
Previous studies indicate that childhood sexual abuse can have extensive and serious consequences. The aim of this research was to do a qualitative study of the consequences of childhood sexual abuse for Icelandic men's health and well-being. Phenomenology was the methodological approach of the study. Totally 14 interviews were conducted, two per individual, and analysed based on the Vancouver School of Phenomenology. The main results of the study showed that the men describe deep and almost unbearable suffering, affecting their entire life, of which there is no alleviation in sight. The men have lived in repressed silence most of their lives and have come close to taking their own lives. What stopped them from committing suicide was revealing to others what happened to them which set them free in a way. The men experienced fear- or rage-based shock at the time of the trauma and most of them endured the attack by dissociation, disconnecting psyche and body and have difficulties reconnecting. They had extremely difficult childhoods, living with indisposition, bullying, learning difficulties and behavioural problems. Some have, from a young age, numbed themselves with alcohol and elicit drugs. They have suffered psychologically and physically and have had relational and sexual intimacy problems. The consequences of the abuse surfaced either immediately after the shock or many years later and developed into complex post-traumatic stress disorder. Because of perceived societal prejudice, it was hard for the men to seek help. This shows the great need for professionals to be alert to the possible consequences of childhood sexual abuse in their practice to reverse the damaging consequences on their health and well-being. We conclude that living in repressed silence after a trauma, like childhood sexual abuse, can be dangerous for the health, well-being and indeed the very life of the survivor. PMID:22462731
Dalsgaard, SØren; Mortensen, Preben Bo
The purpose of the study was to estimate the risk of substance use disorder (SUD) and alcohol abuse in adulthood among children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to the background population. Furthermore, to examine whether the age at initiation and duration of stimulant treatment in childhood predicts SUD and alcohol abuse in adulthood. 208 youths with ADHD (183 boys; 25 girls) were followed prospectively. Diagnoses of SUD and alcohol abuse were obtained from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The relative risk (RR) of SUD and alcohol abuse for cases with ADHD, compared to the background population was 7.7 (4.3-13.9) and 5.2 (2.9-9.4), respectively. Female gender, conduct disorder in childhood and older age at initiation of stimulant treatment increased the risk of later SUD and alcohol abuse. Our results warrant increased focus on the possibly increased risk of substance abuse in females with ADHD compared to males with ADHD.
Bradley, Barbara A.; Jones, Jennifer
To achieve academically, young children need a strong foundation in literacy. Alphabet knowledge is one aspect of early literacy. This article presents the importance of and the components of alphabet knowledge. An exploratory study in which prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers read aloud three different alphabet books to their students in a…
David, T.; Goouch, K.; Jago, M.
Adopts a cross-cultural approach to understand contexts in which young children become familiar with literacy. Notes that early years practitioners in Singapore, Australia, France, and England responded to questionnaires, were observed in action and interviewed. Finds that learning experiences practitioners provided for children were influenced by…
Bailhache, Marion; Leroy, Vale?riane; Pillet, Pascal; Salmi, Louis-rachid
BackgroundEarly detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening.MethodsWe searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accuracy ...
Engstrom, Malitta; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa
Traumatic experiences and their biopsychosocial sequelae present complex challenges in substance use treatment. For women with substance use problems, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence exposure (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and overall psychological distress are often co-occurring concerns. To address gaps in knowledge and to strengthen practice regarding these critical issues in substance use treatment, we drew upon cross-sectional and longitudinal data from baseline and 12-month interviews with a random sample of 416 women in methadone treatment to examine relationships between CSA characteristics, particularly the presence of force and involvement of family, IPV, and mental health concerns. Although CSA involving force and family was not associated with IPV as hypothesized, it was associated with increased risk of PTSD and overall psychological distress. The multivariate findings underscore the psychological vulnerabilities associated with CSA involving force and family and suggest that drug use and financial circumstances may be important targets to reduce IPV risk. PMID:22444420
Fryda, Candice M; Hulme, Polly A
One prevention strategy for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves educational programs delivered to children in the school environment. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to determine the state of the science on school-based CSA prevention programs. The authors extracted data from 26 articles that fit inclusion criteria to answer research questions on types of programs, methods used to evaluate programs, and program success. Analysis of the extracted data led to the identification of seven categories of teaching learning content. Delivery methods included films, plays, discussion, and role play. Most authors used an untreated or placebo control group pretest/posttest design for evaluation. According to the child outcome measures chosen, the majority of programs were successful. The review also found school nurses rarely involved in these programs. Although not a traditional aspect of their responsibilities, information from this review can help school nurses implement a school-based CSA prevention program. PMID:25092721
Maneta, Eleni; Cohen, Shiri; Schulz, Marc; Waldinger, Robert J
Research linking childhood physical abuse (CPA) and adult intimate partner aggression (IPA) has focused on individuals without sufficient attention to couple processes. In this study, 109 couples reported on histories of CPA, IPA, and anger expression. Actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to examine links between CPA and revictimization and perpetration of IPA, with anger suppression as a potential mediator. Women's CPA histories were associated with more physical aggression towards and more revictimization by partners. Men's CPA histories were only associated at the trend level with their revictimization. Anger suppression fully mediated the link between women's CPA and both revictimization and perpetration of IPA. Findings suggest that women with CPA histories are more prone to suppress anger, which leaves them at greater risk for revictimization and perpetration of IPA. PMID:22852434
In our research we formulated the hypothesis that children create different meanings at theirdrawings through pictures of art and that these meanings are more original when the stimulusis a picture of art that belongs to the abstract art. The research was conducted with 28children aged 4.5 to 6.5 attending two early childhood classes in Volos, Greece. Our studyinvolved asking children to study paintings and create opportunities for them to express theirideas through drawings. In their drawing...
Engdahl, Ingrid; Davis, Julie; Ottieno, Lorraine; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Siraj-Blatchford, John; Vallabh, Priya
The following recommendations for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Early Childhood Education were the product of an extended international collaboration that was supported by a number of bodies including the Centre for Environment and Sustainability in Gothenburg, the Swedish Ministry of Education and Research, the Swedish National Commission for UNESCO, and the Swedish International Centre for Education for Sustainable Development. The recommendations were formally adopted in N...
Lopintsova, Olga; Paloniemi, Kati; Wahlroos, Katja
The main motivating reason behind the topic area of this thesis is the growing number of immigrants and immigrant children in Finland. Multiculturalism is a current phenomenon in today’s society and it brings new challenges to early childhood education and care (ECEC). The objective of this thesis was to develop a practical implementation to the work-life part-ner, aiming at bringing multicultural education as a theme closer to the everyday reality by using expressive methods. The project w...
Henn, Birgit Claus; Schnaas, Lourdes; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Schwartz, Joel David; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; BELLINGER, DAVID C.; Wright, Robert O
Background: Most toxicologic studies focus on a single agent, although this does not reflect real-world scenarios in which humans are exposed to multiple chemicals. Objectives: We prospectively studied manganese–lead interactions in early childhood to examine whether manganese–lead coexposure is associated with neurodevelopmental deficiencies that are more severe than expected based on effects of exposure to each metal alone. Methods: Four hundred fifty-five children were enrolled at birth in...
Graphic organizers such as webs, time lines, Venn diagrams, flowcharts, and concept maps are well known and widely used instructional and learning tools. They help teachers and students not only to identify and visually represent their views and knowledge but also to recognize and depict relationships among concepts. This article discusses the use of concept maps in early childhood education. In light of a theory that suggests that information is processed and stored in memory in both linguis...
Katz, Lilian G.
Noting that working with early childhood colleagues in other countries can be enlightening and enriching, this paper offers seven insights gained from the experience: (1) "What It Feels Like To Be a Teacher" discusses observations of student and teacher behavior and attitudes in classrooms in China, a Caribbean island, and India; (2) "Similarities across Countries" notes that teachers? roles may be more powerful determinants of their ideas, ideals, ideologies, concerns, and beliefs than are ...
Gormley, William T
This paper examines the relationship between scientific research and public policy. After explaining why the simple conversion of research into public law is unlikely, several factors are identified that can promote the use of research by public officials. Examples of use and non-use are cited from early childhood education, where empirical evidence on program effects is relatively strong. Some specific suggestions are offered for improving the connection between science and public policy. PMID:21852491
Full Text Available Support for early care and education among policy makers and the public is at an unprecedented high. As investments in early care and education programs in the United States continue to rise, the issue of quality becomes increasingly critical. This article addresses the need for adequate infrastructure to support high-quality early care and education—a need that was brought to the forefront by James Gallagher and Richard Clifford in their 2000 article in Early Childhood Research & Practice (http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v2n1/gallagher.html. The present article provides an update and emphasizes the critical roles of infrastructure in establishing and enforcing standards, supporting quality, and ensuring quality and accountability. Progress in developing the mechanisms and systems to support and ensure quality in several states is assessed, and the perils of expanding early childhood programs in the absence of such systems are examined. Also discussed are strategies for building capacity and strengthening the various functions of infrastructure in order to successfully support the expansion of universal prekindergarten and other early care and education initiatives. The article emphasizes the importance of being able to demonstrate that these initiatives truly benefit the children who participate in them.
Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.
Bachar, Eytan; Canetti, Laura; Hadar, Hilit; Baruch, Julia; Dor, Yehuda; Freedman, Sara
The aim of the present study is to determine whether narcissistic vulnerability can aid in clarifying the debate regarding the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adulthood adjustment to traumatic events. 157 survivors (mean age = 31.1, SD = 10.9) of a traumatic event (war activities and road and work accidents) were assessed 1 week, 1, and 4 months following the event. Of the 157 participants, 15 reported experiencing CSA, and 26 reported experiencing childhood physical abuse (CPA). In the first-week assessment, patients were administered the Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale (NVS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In the follow-up assessments, subjects were interviewed on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Narcissistic vulnerability was found, both in 1- and 4-month follow-ups, to increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CSA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their adult life, when exposed to other additional trauma. Narcissistic vulnerability, in both follow-ups, did not increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CPA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their life when exposed to other additional trauma. The NVS predicted the development of PTSD symptoms in the whole sample, both in the 1- and 4-month follow-ups, above and beyond the prediction of the BDI. In other words, narcissistic vulnerability can add additional information above and beyond general negative emotionality. In conclusion, it is recommended to take into consideration the interplay between CSA and the individual's narcissistic vulnerability when assessing the long term effects of CSA such as acute or chronic PTSD. PMID:25410429
Godleski, Stephanie A; Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M; Hart, Emily J; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J
The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bidirectional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3 to 5 years old) were investigated in an integrated model. The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the United States. Using observations, research assistant report, and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659
Zhang, Kaili C.
To examine and identify the current inclusive practices in early childhood educational settings in Hong Kong, this qualitative study looks at the support and educational services available for young children with special needs in Hong Kong mainstream preschools as well as the characteristics of early childhood educational settings that support…
Pardo, Marcela; Woodrow, Christine
This article problematises emerging tensions in Chile, in relation to the discourses of early childhood teachers and public policies aimed at improving the quality of early childhood education. The aim of the analysis is to contribute to developing more nuanced understandings of these tensions, through the analytical lenses provided by the…
Nuttall, Joce; Edwards, Susan; Mantilla, Ana; Grieshaber, Sue; Wood, Elizabeth
Digital technologies are increasingly accepted as a viable aspect of early childhood curriculum. However, teacher uptake of digital technologies in early childhood education and their use with young children in play-based approaches to learning have not been strong. Traditional approaches to the problem of teacher uptake of digital technologies in…
Villagrá, Patricia; Fernández, Paula; García-Vega, Elena; González-Menéndez, Ana
The study aims to determine the rate of dual diagnosis (DD), examine the most common mental disorders, and determine whether a history of childhood sexual/physical abuse (CSA/CPA) is associated with this phenomenon. One-hundred and eighty inmates from a Spanish prison were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Addiction Severity Index-6. The data showed that 46.8% of the males and 65.1% of the females had a substance use disorder. With regard to CPA, similar percentages were found in both genders. Nevertheless, rates of CSA were highest in females. Logistic regression analysis was performed by gender. CPA was predictor of DD for males, and CSA was predictor of DD for females, showing the greatest weight. In addition, in both cases, the number of drugs of abuse was an adequate predictor. We can state that these forms of maltreatment are risk factors for the development of a broad range of psychopathological problems. PMID:24285834
Haapasalo, J; Petäjä, S
The objectives of the present study were to examine the life circumstances, childhood abuse, and types of homicidal acts of 48 mothers who killed/attempted to kill their child(ren) under age 12 between 1970-96 in Finland. Data on the mothers'life stresses, psychological problems, and childhood abuse were collected from mental state examination (MSE) reports. The cases were divided into 15 neonaticides and 33 mothers who killed an older child. Childhood abuse was documented in 63% of the mothers' MSE reports. Qualitative analysis identified neonaticides,joint homicide-suicide attempts, impulsive aggression, psychotic acts, postpartum depression, and abusive acts. Nonlinear principal components analysis showed that different variables were related to the neonaticide and non-neonaticide cases. We concluded that despite differences in the psychosocial profiles of neonaticides and other maternal homicidal acts the cycle of violence perspective can be applied to both cases, even though it may not be a sufficient explanation for maternal child killings. PMID:10606431
Harner, Holly M
Although the mechanism by which early victimization, specifically sexual abuse, increases the risk of adolescent pregnancy is unclear, a relationship between previous victimization and adolescent pregnancy has been demonstrated. While partnering with an older man may initially offer the means necessary to escape a neglectful or violent family of origin, this protection be accompanied by an imbalance of power and control. Both adolescent mothers partnered with adult men and adolescent mothers partnered with male peers reported sexual abuse perpetrated by family members, family friends, strangers, and peers. Policies developed to protect young people from victimization, including mandatory reporting and statutory rape laws, should be evaluated for their consistent application to all children, regardless of age, race, gender, or pregnancy status. PMID:16149725
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e LILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005, aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual.OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, using abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005, in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.
Luci, Pfeiffer; Edila Pizzato, Salvagni.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e L [...] ILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005), aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, u [...] sing abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005), in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.
Reisner, Sari L.; Falb, Kathryn L; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Grasso, Chris; Bradford, Judith
This study examined disparities in lifetime substance misuse by sexual orientation among 2,653 patients engaged in care at an urban community health center in Boston, MA, as well as the potential mediating roles of childhood abuse
Birken, Catherine S.; Lebovic, Gerald; Anderson, Laura N.; McCrindle, Brian W.; Mamdani, Muhammad; Kandasamy, Sharmilaa; Khovratovich, Marina; Parkin, Patricia C.; Maguire, Jonathon L.
Vitamin D is associated with established cardiovascular risk factors such as low density lipoprotein (LDL) in adults. It is unknown whether these associations are present in early childhood. To determine whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is associated with serum non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol during early childhood we conducted a cross-sectional study of children aged 1 to 5 years. Healthy children were recruited through the TARGet Kids! practice based research network from 2008-2011 (n=1,961). The associations between 25(OH)D and non-fasting non-HDL cholesterol (the primary endpoint), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, were evaluated using multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, skin pigmentation, milk intake, vitamin D supplementation, season, body mass index, outdoor play, and screen time. Each 10 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D was associated with a decrease in non-HDL cholesterol concentration of -0.89 mg/dl (95% CI: -1.16,-0.50), total cholesterol of -1.08 mg/dl (95%CI: -1.49,-0.70), and triglycerides of -2.34 mg/dl (95%CI: -3.23,-1.45). The associations between 25(OH)D and LDL and HDL were not statistically significant. 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with circulating lipids in early childhood, suggesting that vitamin D exposure in early life may be an early modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26176958
The 0-3 diagnostic classification of infant mental health, on the basis of DSM-IV-R, describes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a pattern of symptoms that may be shown by children who have experienced a single traumatic event, a series of connected traumatic events, or chronic, enduring stress situations. This definition, related to young children, needs the consideration of several factors to understand the child's symptoms, organize the diagnostic process, and realize clinical interventions. In this sense, the clinician must appreciate the classification criteria of PTSD in early childhood in the context of the child's age, temperament, and developmental level. This report presents a review of the research in the domain of the PTSD in early childhood with particular attention to the developmental considerations to define critical diagnostic criteria, specifically organized on the child characteristics, competences, and needs. Along this line, it will describe two proposed modifications of the diagnostic classification in childhood: the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Alternative Algorithm (PTSD-AA) and the definition of developmental trauma disorder (DTD). PMID:24371512
Full Text Available The 0–3 diagnostic classification of infant mental health, on the basis of DSM-IV-R, describes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as a pattern of symptoms that may be shown by children who have experienced a single traumatic event, a series of connected traumatic events, or chronic, enduring stress situations. This definition, related to young children, needs the consideration of several factors to understand the child's symptoms, organize the diagnostic process, and realize clinical interventions. In this sense, the clinician must appreciate the classification criteria of PTSD in early childhood in the context of the child's age, temperament, and developmental level. This report presents a review of the research in the domain of the PTSD in early childhood with particular attention to the developmental considerations to define critical diagnostic criteria, specifically organized on the child characteristics, competences, and needs. Along this line, it will describe two proposed modifications of the diagnostic classification in childhood: the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Alternative Algorithm (PTSD-AA and the definition of developmental trauma disorder (DTD.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online
Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie
The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…
Banducci, Anne N.; Gomes, Melissa; Macpherson, Laura; Lejuez, C. W.; Potenza, Marc N.; Gelernter, Joel; Amstadter, Ananda B.
Childhood emotional abuse (CEA) is a pervasive problem associated with negative sequelae such as elevated depressive symptoms. Key stress-related genes, such as the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, interact with childhood abuse to produce elevated depressive symptoms in older adolescent girls, but not in older adolescent boys. To date, studies have not examined this relationship as a function of CEA specifically or among younger adolescents. To extend prior work, we examined the effects of the 5-HTTLPR...
Werner, M J; Joffe, A; Graham, A V
All health care professionals with clinical responsibility for the care of children and adolescents must be able to recognize, as early as possible, associated health problems or concerns in children of substance-abusing parents, and to be able to assist these children and families in seeking treatment and promoting health. Health care providers can have a tremendous influence on families of substance-abusing parents because of their understanding of family dynamics and their close long-standing relationship with the family. Information about family alcohol and other drug use should be obtained as part of routine history-taking and when there are indications of family dysfunction, child behavior or emotional problems, school difficulties, and recurring episodes of apparent accidental trauma, and in the setting of recurrent or multiple vague somatic complaints by the child or adolescent. In many instances, family problems with alcohol or drug use are not blatant; rather, their identification requires a deliberate and skilled screening effort. Combining the principles of anticipatory guidance, screening, and early identification, with the acknowledgment that families should be included in the process, leads to a clear conclusion that screening for children affected by parental substance abuse must occur at all ages across infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Health care providers need to be trained in the identification and management of children and youth exposed to parental addiction. Such training must begin during undergraduate education in the health professions and be reinforced by role-modeling among health professions faculty as well as practicing providers. PMID:10224197
Full Text Available To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10, carbon monoxide (CO, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester ? = ?0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester ? = ?0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age ? = ?0.091, se = 0.034. Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC levels during the second and third trimesters (? = ?8.742, se = 3.512. Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age.
Kambalimath Halaswamy; Dixit Uma; Thyagi Parimala
Aims and Objectives: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a multi-factorial disease and has numerous biological, psychological, and behavioral risk factors. In this study, we have attempted to study psychological stress as a risk factor for early childhood caries by investigating and comparing the response of event-related stress on salivary cortisol level in children with ECC and those without ECC and also compared the adaptability to various dental procedures in children with early childhood ca...
Quinones, Gloria; Ridgway, Avis
The focus of this study is to investigate early childhood students' discourses of play-based curriculum. In this paper we focus on how students made implicit and explicit links to the Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework (VEYLDF). Twenty-six early childhood students had volunteered their de-identified play and pedagogy…
Spokas, Megan; Wenzel, Amy; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; Aaron T Beck
The current study examined the manner in which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history relates to risk factors for suicidal behavior among recent suicide attempters (n = 166). Men who recently attempted suicide and endorsed a CSA history had higher scores on measures of hopelessness and suicide ideation than men without a CSA history. Men with a CSA history were also more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts and meet diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline p...
Walker-williams, Hayley Janay
The high prevalence of sexual abuse suffered by women as children is well documented, both internationally and in South Africa. The life outcomes of women who had experienced childhood sexual abuse are generally reported as adverse, yet some of these survivors manage to overcome the abusive relationship and experience positive changes in themselves and their lives. Emerging trauma literature thus supports a philosophical shift from a pathogenic to a autogenic paradigm in which the focus is on...
Hanna Onyi Yusuf
Full Text Available Early childhood is as charming as ever. It is an age of imagination and fantasy. Therefore, it is natural that education at this stage should develop the child’s imagination through literacy materials such as folk-tales, rhymes and songs etc. This paper is therefore intended to enthuse to the psychological view that children’s success in life depends on the preparation they receive when younger. The paper upholds the view that a good preparation of children for life entails giving them the ability to read and write. The importance of literacy is measurable. Literacy is instrumental to the attainment of success of individuals in both career aspirations and quality of life. It is fundamental for learning in school. It impacts on individuals the ability to participate in society and understand important public issues. It also provides foundation upon which skills in the labour industry are built, etc. The paper concludes that literacy, which should start from infancy, could be better taught using the phonics methodology. This is because, in early childhood, education should involve more of playing, singing, clapping, etc, and that is the focal objectives of phonics method. This should be so to support the idea that literacy should not be boring but enjoyable especially as early as infancy, because it is a panacea for achieving life’s goals.
Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In cofected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)
Tan Kendrick, A.P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Ling, Ho [Department of Paediatric Medicine, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Subramaniam, Ramnath; Joseph, Vijeyakaran T. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore)
Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)
Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N?=?2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735
Background: only few reports of effects of radiotherapy in childhood on the dental apparatus are available in the literature. The basis for early loss of teeth appears to be a reduction of the root surface area after radiation exposure. These effects in the periodontium are a consequence of combined radiochemotherapy usually applied for treatment of childhood neoplasia. Chemotherapy alone also results in changes of periodontal development. Case report: a 33-year-old patient is reported, who, at the age of 11 years, received high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy of neuroaxis and cranium for acute lymphatic leukemia with relapse. The patient consulted the Implant Section of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery because of severe dental changes and tooth loss despite adequate dental care and oral hygiene. Radiation doses given to the superior maxilla and mandible at the age of 11 were estimated to be in the range of 8-25 Gy. Conclusion: intense, life-long dental care and follow-up of patients cured from malignant disease in childhood must hence be postulated in order to minimize dental treatment sequelae by supportive measures, but also to initiate timely adequate dental and prosthetic management. (orig.)
Hanna Onyi Yusuf; Agnes Ovayioza Enesi
Early childhood is as charming as ever. It is an age of imagination and fantasy. Therefore, it is natural that education at this stage should develop the child’s imagination through literacy materials such as folk-tales, rhymes and songs etc. This paper is therefore intended to enthuse to the psychological view that children’s success in life depends on the preparation they receive when younger. The paper upholds the view that a good preparation of children for life entails giving...
Sidsel H. Karsberg
Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ?25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ?30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.
Antal, Holly M.; Range, Lillian M.
To see if writing about former abuse reduced depression, somatic, and sleep complaints, 664 undergraduates were screened for past physical or sexual abuse. Of those abused, 88 consenting students were randomly assigned to no-writing control or writing (20 minutes on 4 different days) about abuse or trivial topics. All completed pre-, post-, and…
Green, Robin John; Samy, Gamal; Miqdady, Mohamad Saleh; Salah, Mohamed; Sleiman, Rola; Abdelrahman, Hatim Mohamed Ahmed; Al Haddad, Fatima; Reda, Mona M; Lewis, Humphrey; Ekanem, Emmanuel E; Vandenplas, Yvan
Eating behaviour disorder during early childhood is a common pediatric problem. Many terminologies have been used interchangeably to describe this condition, hindering implementation of therapy and confusing a common problem. The definition suggests an eating behaviour which has consequences for family harmony and growth. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not cover the entire spectrum seen by pediatricians. Publications are substantive but level of evidence is most of the time low. This purpose of this review is to clarify terminology of eating behaviour problems during early childhood; including benign picky eating, limited diets, sensory food aversion, selective eating, food avoidance emotional disorder, pervasive refusal syndrome, tactile defensiveness, functional dysphagia, neophobia and toddler anorexia. This tool is proposed only to ease the clinical management for child care providers. Diagnostic criteria are set and management tools are suggested. The role of dietary counselling and, where necessary, behavioural therapy is clarified. It is hoped that the condition will make its way into mainstream pediatrics to allow these children, and their families, to receive the help they deserve. PMID:25866727
Nichols, Sara R; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David B; Wakschlag, Lauren S
Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal: abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (3-5 years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N?=?1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50 % of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed. PMID:25425187
Full Text Available Graphic organizers such as webs, time lines, Venn diagrams, flowcharts, and concept maps are well known and widely used instructional and learning tools. They help teachers and students not only to identify and visually represent their views and knowledge but also to recognize and depict relationships among concepts. This article discusses the use of concept maps in early childhood education. In light of a theory that suggests that information is processed and stored in memory in both linguistic and visual forms, it is argued that concept maps can be used in early childhood classrooms to help children organize and spatially represent both what they know and what they are thinking. Once children learn how to “read” and make concept maps, teachers can also use them to identify children’s preexisting knowledge or misconceptions as well as use them as an evaluation tool. The article also considers the role of concept maps in teacher planning. Concept maps can help teachers to plan, structure, and sequence the content of their teaching. Finally, the article illustrates some of the issues involved in using concept maps with preschool children and suggests ways of introducing children to the process of constructing their own concept maps.
Susan L. Recchia
Full Text Available This study explored the ways in which early childhood special education teachers supported children's social behavior within the context of their preschool classrooms. Data collected for six children through naturalistic classroom observations were coded and analyzed for emergent themes within a qualitative framework. Findings revealed a variety of strategies and behaviors used by early childhood special education teachers and their assistants to respond socially to the children in their classrooms. The data were grouped into five overarching themes: (1 teachers' adaptations to support positive social experiences, (2 positive emotional connections between teachers and students, (3 negative interactions between teachers and students, (4 teachers' promotion of positive social engagement with peers, and (5 teachers' help with conflict resolution. These data present multiple lenses through which to view children's and teachers' social experiences in the classroom, providing the potential for a richer understanding of both what is observed as well as how it actually transpires. The complexity of individual differences and classroom dynamics are discussed, with recommendations for practice and future research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.
Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A
Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols. PMID:23379783
This pilot study compared the efficacy of a forgiveness intervention with a fibromyalgia (FM) health intervention on women with FM who have experienced emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, and emotional or physical neglect, in childhood by one of their parents. Eleven women with FM between the ages of 21 and 68 were randomized to the forgiveness intervention (n = 5) or the FM health intervention (n = 6), and completed the once-weekly individualized program for 24 weeks. The participants completed measures assessing forgiveness, overall FM health, depression, anger, anxiety, self-esteem, and coping strategies at the pretest, the posttest, and the 12-week follow-up test. They also completed the forgiveness intervention and FM health intervention final tests at the posttest, which assessed their knowledge on forgiveness and FM health. The forgiveness intervention participants had greater improvements in forgiveness (p forgiveness (p = .018) and state anger (p = .027) from the pretest to the follow-up test than the FM health intervention participants. Moreover, the forgiveness intervention participants scored higher on the forgiveness final test than the FM health intervention participants (p forgiveness intervention participants (p forgiveness intervention was potentially helpful in improving forgiveness and overall FM health, and in decreasing state anger of this particular sample of women with FM. PMID:25914886
Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica L.; TACKETT, JENNIFER L.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly comorbid with other childhood disorders, and there are striking sex differences in this comorbidity, particularly during early childhood. For example, boys with ADHD are more likely to exhibit comorbid disruptive behavior and neurodevelopmental disorders, compared to girls, during early childhood. Yet, explanations for these well-established sex differences remain in short supply. The current study evaluated the novel hypothesis that p...
Anita, Padmanabhanunni; David, Edwards.
Full Text Available This is a systematic case study of the assessment and treatment of Anna (43), a woman presenting with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a drug-facilitated sexual assault that occurred over twenty years earlier. She was also diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder. Treatment with co [...] gnitive therapy for PTSD and social phobia was supplemented by imagery rescripting (IR) of memories of childhood trauma within a schema therapy approach. The study documents how her intrusive memories of the rape were potentiated by early maladaptive schemas that developed in response to abusive and neglectful parenting. Within a broader narrative, three examples of IR are described which show how, as an emotion-focused intervention, this approach discloses deeper memories and emotional states that are distressing and traumatic and allows them to be transformed through a healing process that is organic and displays what Bohart and Tallman (2010) call "self-organizing wisdom."
Flores, Belinda Bustos; Riojas-Cortez, Mari
With the increase of Latino preschoolers, it is pressing that early childhood teachers are prepared to create a high quality environment in which all children can succeed. Using the frameworks of cultural responsiveness and classroom management, we developed the Early Childhood Ecology Scale (ECES) as an observational and reflective tool to…
Han, Heejeong Sophia; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Thomas, M. Shelley
In order to explore early childhood educators' cultural competence through a lens of racial identity development theory, a case study was conducted with four White Kindergarten teachers. Participants were surveyed and interviewed to understand their racial identity development as well as perspectives of teaching culturally diverse early childhood…
Andang'o, Elizabeth A.
This paper examines pedagogy in early childhood music education and the resultant learning experiences in music for children in Kenyan preschools. Two important principles proposed for the synchronisation of teaching and learning in early childhood music education are cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. These terms are…
Roberts, Joanne Erwick; And Others
Examination of 55 socioeconomically disadvantaged children found no significant relationship between otitis media in early childhood and number of common phonological processes or consonants in error used during preschool years. However, otitis media in early childhood was associated with total number of phonological processes used by children…
Cheung, Rebecca Hun Ping; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching
The study aimed to uncover the conceptions of creativity among early childhood teachers in Hong Kong. The sample comprised 563 early childhood teachers. Factor analysis supported the multidimensional hypothesis of teachers' conceptions of creativity. Five dimensions were found: novelty, product, problem solving, cognitive processes and personal…
Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-ieng; Chen, Yuewen; Li, Kejian
This study aims to examine the views of 176 expert practitioners on the relevance and feasibility of applying the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS), which is developed based on the Chinese version of Harms, Clifford, and Cryer's (2005) world renowned Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-revised (ECERS-R). The CECERS…
Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David
This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…
Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia
This paper examines contemporary issues in early childhood teacher education in Sweden. The aim of the study was to explore dimensions of the construct of preschool teachers' competence as reported by 810 students enrolled in early childhood teacher education at 15 Swedish universities. The results showed that students' definitions of…
Horm, Diane M.; Hyson, Marilou; Winton, Pamela J.
It is essential that a solid research base be established to provide a foundation that will enable the field of early childhood teacher education to examine whether, for whom, and in what ways teacher education matters. The purpose of this article is to review several important domains in early childhood teacher education to illustrate the…
Baecher, Laura; Jewkes, Abigail M.
Preparing early childhood educators to support effective instruction of English language learners (ELLs) is an important dimension of teacher preparation programs, yet often difficult to enact. This article reports on a collaboration between early childhood education (ECE) faculty and teachers of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL)…
The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment among early childhood educators. Organizational commitment and its established precursor, job satisfaction, have gained relevance because turnover within early childhood education has fluctuated between 25% and 40% for…
Doyle, Orla; Logue, Caitriona; McNamara, Kelly A.
This study examined the factors associated with childcare staff members' readiness to implement quality standards in early childhood settings in Ireland. To coincide with a new government policy that provides every three-year-old child with access to a free preschool year, a framework designed to improve the quality of early childhood care and…
Perry, Gail, Ed.; Henderson, Barbara, Ed.; Meier, Daniel R., Ed.
Through "teacher research", teachers engage in the systematic study of their own practice to answer questions they have about teaching and learning, and their own effectiveness. This book explores what teacher research in the early childhood setting looks like, why it is important to the field of early childhood education, and how teacher…
Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer
This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers' cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) "Adv Exp Soc Psychol" 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of the values…
Althouse, Rosemary; Johnson, Margaret H.; Mitchell, Sharon T.
Based on the view that young children will benefit from having art experiences as an integrated part of the curriculum and based on a 3-year study conducted with 5 early childhood teachers, this book presents information on the theory, research, and practice of art in early childhood education. Chapter 1 begins with a description of the…
Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari
Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…
Jalongo, Mary Renck
Notes that obesity is the primary reason for peer rejection in America; examines effects of obesity on wellness, self-esteem, peer relationships, and social status of children/families and early childhood teachers. Suggests that early childhood educators: (1) educate all stakeholders about nutrition and body size issues; (2) speak out against…
Bers, Marina Umaschi; Seddighin, Safoura; Sullivan, Amanda
Prior work has shown that early childhood educators demonstrate a lack of knowledge and understanding about technology and engineering, and about developmentally appropriate pedagogical approaches to bring those disciplines into the classrooms. This paper reports a study in which 32 early childhood educators participated in an intensive three-day…
Wright, Paul M.; Stork, Steve
Although the importance of physical development as an integrated part of early childhood education is well understood, many early childhood teachers lack the specific background and training in this area. To fill this gap, this article presents a framework of recommended practices and a corresponding assessment tool. The Head Start Body Start…
The Early Childhood Career Opportunities (ECCO) Program is a 21-week program of intensive training that provides limited-English-proficient Hispanic, Indian, and Pakistani adult students with the required skills for entry-level positions in the child care field. Courses in early childhood focus on child growth and development, introduction to…
Connolly, Mary; Dotson, Margaret
An action research project was conducted at Ohio's Sinclair Community College to review and revise the early childhood teacher education curriculum. First, a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process was undertaken. Over 800 tasks from 8 validated task lists obtained from early childhood education (ECE) programs at other community colleges…
Liu, Yan; Pan, Yue-Juan
Compared with the former policies on early childhood education, the policies recently issued in mainland China clearly defined early childhood education as an integral part of education and social public welfare and stipulated the responsibilities of the government in its development, shifting the developmental orientation to promoting social…
Friedman-Krauss, Allison; Barnett, W. Steven
The potential health benefits of early childhood education programs are quite large, especially for children living in poverty. In this report, authors Allison Friedman-Krauss and Steve Barnett set out the evidence regarding the short and long term health benefits to children from early childhood education programs, identify the features of…
Considerable interest has emerged in policy frameworks to sustain and encourage democratic participation and responsive pedagogy in early childhood education. Using findings from an evaluation of New Zealand's strategic plan for early childhood education, this article highlights ways in which policy initiatives interacted to support such…
Early childhood education in Australia is currently undergoing a period of change and renewal. Times of change offer opportunities to revisit the perspectives of the past, to respond to current choices and challenges, and explore future opportunities within the national provision of early childhood care and education. Such opportunities also exist…
Erdiller, Z. B.; Dogan, Ö.
The purpose of this study is to examine the level of teacher stress experienced by Turkish early childhood education teachers working in public and private preschools serving children from three to six years of age. The participants of the study include 1119 early childhood education teachers gathered through simple random sampling. The data are…
Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram
The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…
Grace, Donna J.; Ku'ulei Serna, Alethea
This study provides a brief overview of the history of early childhood education and care for Native Hawaiian children in Hawai'i. Data sources include a literature review, examination of archival documents, and interviews with a sample of Native Hawaiian parents and community members. We trace the emergence of outside-the-home early childhood…
Frabutt, James M.; Waldron, Rachel
Early childhood is a critically formative stage of human development and the educational experiences of children at this young age impact their cognitive, social, emotional, and physical competencies. In the U.S., early childhood education has grown dramatically since the 1960s, both in federal and state dollars invested and in terms of overall…
Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Suzy
In recent years discussions surrounding early childhood curriculum has focused on the movement from developmental to sociocultural theory. A further area worthy of investigation involves the role of content in early childhood education, specifically the relationship between content, context and pedagogy. The paper draws on teacher vignettes to…
The technological knowledge the children bring with them into early childhood settings is not well documented or understood. This article discusses the technological knowledge and understanding of the nature of technology present within children's collaborative play in two New Zealand early childhood settings. The children incorporated a wide…
Gerde, Hope K.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Wasik, Barbara A.
Researchers and practitioners have become increasingly interested in how early childhood programs prepare young children for science. Due to a number of factors, including educators' low self-efficacy for teaching science and lack of educational resources, many early childhood classrooms do not offer high-quality science experiences for young…
Wong, Sandie; Turner, Kay
Social inclusion discourses have been powerful in informing early childhood policy contexts, both internationally and in Australia (the context of the current study) for the past decade or so. But little research has examined the productive aspects of social inclusion discourses particularly within early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy…
Full Text Available Programs of teacher preparation in early childhood education have struggled with a lack of resources in nearly every area. As this and other articles attest, the numbers of potential teachers and teacher educators, particularly among minority candidates, have waned; the types of support (e.g., professional status, additional time for professional development, time and opportunity to conduct action and other types of research are often lost in the name of managing teacher education programs with inadequate numbers of faculty. Financial backing for program maintenance and improvement has been low in many of our two- and four/five-year institutions. In addition, it is my belief that a broad, general focus on the many competing demands inherent in early education and care has contributed to a loss of a systematic focus on critically important content for prospective teachers and children alike. Given the new opportunities and the accountability ahead of us, we have a great deal of work to do. We are hampered by having too few teacher educators well prepared in research and who have sufficient depth of knowledge regarding key content-domain early educational practice. To this challenge, I want to elaborate on a few thoughts and recommendations. First and foremost, I believe that we must return to a clear emphasis on academic content in early childhood—both in our teacher preparation programs and in what we advocate that teachers do in their interactions with young children. Such emphasis can prepare children for success using methods that honor children’s developmental trajectories and cultural contexts. Second, we need to find more focused and strategic ways to work together, building on successful, research-based models already in place. I offer these thoughts on the basis of my own experiences, acknowledging that others may disagree or have far better ideas.
La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.
Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)
Li, Jiong; Olsen, JØrn
Objective: The rise in the occurrence of childhood obesity during the last decades in many populations indicates an important role of environmental exposures, which may operate very early in life. We aimed to examine the association between bereavement during the first 6 years of life, as a stress indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children. Methods: We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years of life. We compared BMI levels, changes in BMI, and the prevalence of overweight at 7-13 years of age between bereaved and non-bereaved children. Results: Between bereaved children and non-bereaved children, there were no differences in average BMI levels at any age or changes in BMI at 7-13 years of age. Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age. Conclusion: This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Dawson-McClure, Spring; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Theise, Rachelle; Palamar, Joseph J; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Barajas, R Gabriela; Calzada, Esther J
Given the disproportionately high rates of obesity-related morbidity among low-income, ethnic minority youth, obesity prevention in this population is critical. Prior efforts to curb childhood obesity have had limited public health impact. The present study evaluates an innovative approach to obesity prevention by promoting foundational parenting and child behavioral regulation. This pre-post intervention study evaluated an enhanced version of ParentCorps with 91 families of pre-Kindergarten students in low-income, urban communities. Assessments included tests of knowledge and parent report. Consistent with findings from two randomized controlled trials of ParentCorps, parent knowledge and use of foundational parenting practices increased and child behavior problems decreased. Child nutrition knowledge and physical activity increased and television watching decreased; for boys, sleep problems decreased. Comparable benefits occurred for children at high risk for obesity based on child dysregulation, child overweight, and parent overweight. Results support a "whole child," family-centered approach to health promotion in early childhood. PMID:24702665
Full Text Available Abstract Background Home visiting programs comprising intensive and sustained visits by professionals (usually nurses over the first two years of life show promise in promoting child health and family functioning, and ameliorating disadvantage. Australian evidence of the effectiveness of sustained nurse home visiting in early childhood is limited. This paper describes the method and cohort characteristics of the first Australian study of sustained home visiting commencing antenatally and continuing to child-age two years for at-risk mothers in a disadvantaged community (the Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting trial. Methods and design Mothers reporting risks for poorer parenting outcomes residing in an area of socioeconomic disadvantage were recruited between February 2003 and March 2005. Mothers randomised to the intervention group received a standardised program of nurse home visiting. Interviews and observations covering child, maternal, family and environmental issues were undertaken with mothers antenatally and at 1, 12 and 24 months postpartum. Standardised tests of child development and maternal-child interaction were undertaken at 18 and 30 months postpartum. Information from hospital and community heath records was also obtained. Discussion A total of 338 women were identified and invited to participate, and 208 were recruited to the study. Rates of active follow-up were 86% at 12 months, 74% at 24 months and 63% at 30 months postpartum. Participation in particular data points ranged from 66% at 1 month to 51% at 24 months postpartum. Rates of active follow-up and data point participation were not significantly different for the intervention or comparison group at any data point. Mothers who presented for antenatal care prior to 20 weeks pregnant, those with household income from full-time employment and those who reported being abused themselves as a child were more likely to be retained in the study. The Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting trial will provide Australian evidence of the effectiveness of sustained nurse home visiting for children at risk of poorer health and developmental outcomes. Trial registration ACTRN12608000473369
Kemp, Lynn; Harris, Elizabeth; McMahon, Catherine; Matthey, Stephen; Vimpani, Graham; Anderson, Teresa; Schmied, Virginia
Background Home visiting programs comprising intensive and sustained visits by professionals (usually nurses) over the first two years of life show promise in promoting child health and family functioning, and ameliorating disadvantage. Australian evidence of the effectiveness of sustained nurse home visiting in early childhood is limited. This paper describes the method and cohort characteristics of the first Australian study of sustained home visiting commencing antenatally and continuing to child-age two years for at-risk mothers in a disadvantaged community (the Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting trial). Methods and design Mothers reporting risks for poorer parenting outcomes residing in an area of socioeconomic disadvantage were recruited between February 2003 and March 2005. Mothers randomised to the intervention group received a standardised program of nurse home visiting. Interviews and observations covering child, maternal, family and environmental issues were undertaken with mothers antenatally and at 1, 12 and 24 months postpartum. Standardised tests of child development and maternal-child interaction were undertaken at 18 and 30 months postpartum. Information from hospital and community heath records was also obtained. Discussion A total of 338 women were identified and invited to participate, and 208 were recruited to the study. Rates of active follow-up were 86% at 12 months, 74% at 24 months and 63% at 30 months postpartum. Participation in particular data points ranged from 66% at 1 month to 51% at 24 months postpartum. Rates of active follow-up and data point participation were not significantly different for the intervention or comparison group at any data point. Mothers who presented for antenatal care prior to 20 weeks pregnant, those with household income from full-time employment and those who reported being abused themselves as a child were more likely to be retained in the study. The Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting trial will provide Australian evidence of the effectiveness of sustained nurse home visiting for children at risk of poorer health and developmental outcomes. Trial registration ACTRN12608000473369 PMID:19113994
Rudant, Jérémie; Lightfoot, Tracy; Urayama, Kevin Y; Petridou, Eleni; Dockerty, John D; Magnani, Corrado; Milne, Elizabeth; Spector, Logan G; Ashton, Lesley J; Dessypris, Nikolaos; Kang, Alice Y; Miller, Margaret; Rondelli, Roberto; Simpson, Jill; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Orsi, Laurent; Roman, Eve; Metayer, Catherine; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline
The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several proxies of early stimulation of the immune system, that is, day-care center attendance, birth order, maternally reported common infections in infancy, and breastfeeding, were investigated by using data from 11 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980-2010). The sample included 7,399 ALL cases and 11,181 controls aged 2-14 years. The data were collected by questionnaires administered to the parents. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Day-care center attendance in the first year of life was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.84), with a marked inverse trend with earlier age at start (P < 0.0001). An inverse association was also observed with breastfeeding duration of 6 months or more (odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.94). No significant relationship with a history of common infections in infancy was observed even though the odds ratio was less than 1 for more than 3 infections. The findings of this large pooled analysis reinforce the hypothesis that day-care center attendance in infancy and prolonged breastfeeding are associated with a decreased risk of ALL. PMID:25731888
Lee, Joon Sun; Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Preston, Michael D.
The most pressing need in early childhood mathematics education in the United States is to improve early childhood teacher preparation. A Web-based video system, "Video Interactions for Teaching and Learning (VITAL)", is a novel and effective approach for teacher preparation integrated into early childhood mathematics education courses. With…
Kennedy, Adam S.; Heineke, Amy
Despite contrasting views on the overlap of early childhood education and teacher education, opportunities abound for expanding the role of early childhood educators in broader teacher education discourse. University-based early childhood education and kindergarten-through-grade-12 teacher education share purposes, philosophies, and resources that…
The article focuses on the Vygotskian approach to high quality early childhood education in light of the challenges facing early childhood educators in Russia and in the West. One of these challenges is the constant pressure to start teaching academic skills at a progressively younger age at the expense of traditional early childhood activities.…
The transition from education to work is a challenge for early childhood teachers. In this study, competence self-ratings of 348 German early childhood teachers were investigated one year before, at the end of and four months after early childhood teacher education at universities and vocational schools. Perceived competence was assessed by means…
Lubeck, Sally; Schaack, Diana
Maintains that "Beyond Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care" is the most far-reaching exploration to date of the implications of postmodern thinking for early childhood education. Notes that the book's great strength is its careful construction of an alternative way of thinking about early childhood and its institutions, and about viable…
Young Children, 2011
Early childhood education college students are very busy people. They take required general education and early childhood curriculum courses, and they complete prepracticum and field experiences in a variety of early childhood settings. There has been an increase in the number of students who work during the day and go to school in the evening, as…
H. Elif DA?LIO?LU
Full Text Available Creativity is a talent that has existed since the day man was created and exists in every human being. Creative thinking is a force. When the studies on creativity are examined, it can be seen that they are usually on who we are as creative individuals, what we do and what product we create in the end, so far. From the perspective of development, the development of creativity in other areas of development are different but closely related to each area of development is to be seen. To support creativity, the child’s development should be taken as a whole and game playing, which is the most significant task for the child, and imitation, one of the most important methods of learning, should be used. In this article, especially to improve the creativity of children in early childhood characteristics of creative people, creative abilities and creative utilization of mobile games should be emphasized.
Full Text Available In our research we formulated the hypothesis that children create different meanings at theirdrawings through pictures of art and that these meanings are more original when the stimulusis a picture of art that belongs to the abstract art. The research was conducted with 28children aged 4.5 to 6.5 attending two early childhood classes in Volos, Greece. Our studyinvolved asking children to study paintings and create opportunities for them to express theirideas through drawings. In their drawings, children in a way try to imitate the way that thepicture of art is designed, but at the same time they are creative by thinking of new ideas andways of doing things. The tools used were three pictures of art. The purpose of the study wasto use these particular works of art as an opportunity for each young child to express hiscreativity within the school setting.
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Clauß, D; Deutsch, J; Krol, I; Haase, R; Willard, P; Müller-Bahlke, T; Mauz-Körholz, C; Körholz, D
Interdisciplinary cooperation and networking determine the success of activities for supporting families at risk for early childhood abuse. The integration of the healthcare sector might be important.The medical standard of perinatal care at the University hospital includes information exchange about family risk factors which may contribute to an increased risk of child abuse within the first year of life. As a result, the -pediatrician offered supporting services for the families at the time of the second examination during the official childhood health screening program (U2). A team of family-sponsorship was established and evaluated.In 281 of 1238 risk-factor questionnaires at least one stress factor was detected and 97 families had high-impact family stress. Families under the supervision of a family midwife or youth services had a significantly higher number of risk factors. The family-sponsorship program was institutionalized and positively evaluated by the families.The time of a hospital delivery is an excellent opportunity for the evaluation of familial risk factors and for the provision of supporting services. To increase the acceptance of such services by the families at risk repeated assessment of risk factors and support offers are required. PMID:25010130
Bonuck, Karen A.; Hyden, Christel; Ury, Guenn; Barnett, Josephine; Ashkinaze, Hannah; Briggs, Rahil D.
Behavioral insomnias of childhood (BIC) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) disorders cause disrupted and/or inefficient sleep. Left untreated in early childhood, both conditions increase the risk of compromised development, particularly in the areas of behavior, cognition, and growth. This systematic review determined whether and how current…
... directed at people just because of their race, religion, abilities, gender, or sexual orientation. Continue Recognizing Abuse ... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ...
Stephen D. Green; Rick Peterson; Jocelyn R. Lewis
The early childhood years serve as an essential foundation for subsequent literacy development. Despite the increased attention given to children's early literacy development, gaps remain in our understanding of what is actually taking place in child care programs across the nation. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to assess the extent to which early childhood educators engage children in literacy-building activities, and (2) to identify educator or programmatic characteristics asso...
Heidt, Jennifer M; Marx, Brian P; Forsyth, John P
The present study examined tonic immobility (TI) in victims of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Female undergraduates (n=39) and female psychiatric inpatients (n=41) who experienced CSA completed a series of questionnaires assessing aspects of their victimization history, psychological functioning, and TI symptoms. Over fifty-two percent of all participants reported TI in response to CSA. Episodes of CSA involving attempted or completed penile/vaginal penetration were more likely to be associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing TI, and report of TI was associated with greater current psychological impairment. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:16005703
Hayes, Cheryl D.; Flynn, Margaret J.; Stebbins, Helene
Ensuring that children enter school ready to learn is now a well-established national goal. Dramatic changes over the past three decades in U.S. families and the economy, as well as emerging research on the importance of early brain development, have increased the demand for public investments in early childhood supports and services, especially…
Zhang, Liang; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Berg, Joel H.; Seibel, Eric J.
There is currently a need for a safe and effective way to detect and diagnose early childhood caries. We have developed a multimodal optical clinical prototype for testing in vivo. The device can be used to quickly image and screen for any signs of demineralized enamel by obtaining high-resolution and highcontrast surface images using a 405-nm laser as the illumination source, as well as obtaining autofluorescence and bacterial fluorescence images. Then, when a suspicious region is located, the device can perform dual laser fluorescence spectroscopy using 405-nm and 532-nm laser excitation which is used to compute an autofluorescence ratio. This ratio can be used to quantitatively diagnose enamel health. The device is tested on four in vivo test subjects as well as 17 extracted teeth with clinically diagnosed carious lesions. The device was able to provide detailed images which served to screen for suspected early caries. The autofluorescence ratios obtained from the extracted teeth were able to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy enamel. Therefore, the clinical prototype demonstrates feasibility in screening for and in quantitatively diagnosing healthy from demineralized enamel.
Carrillo, Bladimir; Iglesias, Wilman J; Trujillo, Juan C
The Growth and Development Monitoring Programme is a longstanding early childhood social intervention in Colombia. The programme's goal is the prevention and early identification of problems affecting children's health and nutrition. To achieve this aim, the programme's basic strategy is to educate parents about the overall health care of infants. The objective of this study is to measure the impact of this programme on children's nutrition and health status and maternal child-care practices. To address potential selection bias, we employ quasi-experimental techniques. This article uses data from the Demographic Health Survey of 2010. The evidence suggests that the programme improved immunization status and the likelihood of health care for acute respiratory infection or fever. As expected, the programme has a greater impact on children from among the poorest people in the country. In the most advanced regions and for the beneficiaries of private health care, the effects of the programme have tended to be negligible. In this sense, our central policy recommendation is to optimize the programme for the poorest households in the country. PMID:25237133
Lange, Nancy E.; Celedón, Juan C.; Forno, Erick; Ly, Ngoc P.; Onderdonk, Andrew; Bry, Lynn; Delaney, Mary L.; DuBois, Andrea M.; Gold, Diane R.; Weiss, Scott T.; Litonjua, Augusto A.
Background Increasing evidence links altered intestinal flora in infancy to eczema and asthma. No studies have investigated the influence of maternal intestinal flora on wheezing and eczema in early childhood. Objective To investigate the link between maternal intestinal flora during pregnancy and development of wheeze and eczema in infancy. Methods Sixty pregnant women from the Boston area gave stool samples during the third trimester of their pregnancy and answered questions during pregnancy about their own health, and about their children’s health when the child was 2 and 6 months of age. Quantitative culture was performed on stool samples and measured in log10colony-forming units(CFU)/gram stool. Primary outcomes included infant wheeze and eczema in the first 6 months of life. Atopic wheeze, defined as wheeze and eczema, was analyzed as a secondary outcome. Results In multivariate models adjusted for breastfeeding, daycare attendance and maternal atopy, higher counts of maternal total aerobes (TA) and enterococci (E) were associated with increased risk of infant wheeze (TA: OR 2.32 for 1 log increase in CFU/g stool [95% CI 1.22, 4.42]; E: OR 1.57 [95% CI 1.06, 2.31]). No organisms were associated with either eczema or atopic wheeze. Conclusions & Clinical Relevance In our cohort, higher maternal total aerobes and enterococci were related to increased risk of infant wheeze. Maternal intestinal flora may be an important environmental exposure in early immune system development. PMID:22909161
Rachel Yehuda; Siever, Larry J.; Vincent Passarelli; Flory, Janine D.
Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on di...
Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Lall, Debra I. K.; De Jaeger, Amy E.
We examined individual differences in shame responding in early childhood and predictive relations with shame proneness in middle childhood. Child shame responding, parental shaming, and child temperamental inhibition were assessed at Time 1 (n = 225, aged 3-4 years), shame responding was reassessed at Time 2 (n = 199, aged 5-7 years), and shame…
Garvis, Susanne; Pendergast, Donna
In 2009, the Australian Government introduced the Get Up and Grow (Commonwealth Government, 2009) guidelines for healthy eating and exercise in early childhood as one element of a range of initiatives aiming to curb childhood obesity, a problem affecting an increasing proportion of Australia children. Included in the policy recommendations are…
Luis Lefio Celedón
Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years. Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on detection, prevention and treatment strategies in different situations of child maltreatment. Sexual abuse was excluded. The search spanned from 2002 to 2012, in English and Spanish. Results. Of 105 articles, 36 met the selection criteria. In prevention, the best evaluated strategies were parenting programs based on cognitive or cognitive-behavioral approach and interactive learning strategies. In detection, only two instruments were identified with optimum specificity and positive predictive value. In treatment, a variety of treatment strategies were identified with favorable effects on behavioral, functional and psycho affective indicators. The population relevance of these interventions is unclear, as the differential effectiveness of these therapeutic approaches. Conclusions. There are many child maltreatment prevention strategies at the individual and family level. The instruments used for detection are not reliable for use at the collective level. Insofar as therapy, not enough evidence was found both in quality and quantity to favor one intervention over another. It is recommended to understand the problem from the public health perspective and to generate multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches.
Patria Rojas; Sunny Kim; Mario De La Rosa; et al, ...
Patria Rojas2,3, Sunny Kim4, Mario De La Rosa2,3, Frank R Dillon2,3, Theophile Niyonsenga1,31Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 2School of Social Work, 3Center for Research on US Latinos HIV/AIDs and Drug Abuse, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Davis, CA, USAPurpose: Early onset of sexual activity has been linked to later substance abuse. Our study aimed to further describe the associations be...
Bell, Kathryn M; Higgins, Lorrin
The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person's ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk. PMID:25893570
Pulverman, Carey S; Lorenz, Tierney A; Meston, Cindy M
An expressive writing treatment was recently reported to reduce depressive symptoms and improve sexual function and satisfaction in a sample of female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (Meston, Lorenz, & Stephenson, 2013). We conducted a linguistic analysis of this data to determine whether pre- to posttreatment changes in participants' language use were associated with the improvements in sexuality and depression. Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), a program that counts the use of word categories within a text, was used to evaluate the impact of several word categories, previously associated with changes in mental health (Frattaroli, 2006), and shown to differ between childhood sexual abuse survivors and nonabused women (Lorenz & Meston, 2012), on treatment outcomes. A reduction in the use of the word "I" and an increase in positive emotion words were associated with decreased depression symptoms. A reduction in the use of "I" and negative emotion words were associated with improvement in sexual function and sexual satisfaction. The findings suggest that, because language may serve as an implicit measure of depression and sexual health, monitoring language changes during treatment may provide a reliable indicator of treatment response free of the biases of traditional self-report assessments. PMID:25793593
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK of early childhood teachers in Taiwan. Quantitative Data was collected from a sample of 335 in-service early childhood teachers in Taiwan. The instrument was translated and adapted from Schmidt et al. (2009 TPACK survey instrument with added items to fit the early educational context in Taiwan. Data analysis methods included descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and MANOVA. Findings from the study were summarized as follows: (a The development of early childhood teachers‘ pedagogical knowledge (PK, content knowledge (CK and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK were the best among the seven knowledge sub domains in TPACK.(bThe number of years of teaching experience was significantly positively correlated with early childhood teachers‘ pedagogical knowledge (PK, content knowledge (CK and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK. Besides, early childhood teachers with over ten years of teaching experience had better self-assessed pedagogical knowledge (PK, content knowledge (CK and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK than those teachers with less than ten years of teaching experience. (c A significant positive correlation was found between pedagogical knowledge (PK, and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK and age; however, a significant negative correlation existed with technology knowledge (TK and age. Older early childhood teachers‘ self-assessed pedagogical knowledge (PK was better than younger teachers while the young early childhood teachers had a better self-assessed technology knowledge (TK (d Early childhood teachers with a frequency of using information technology above 20 hours a week had better self-assessed technology knowledge (TK and technological content knowledge (TCK than those with a frequency under 5 hours a week Recommendations were also provided based on the findings from this study.
Reisner, Sari L; Falb, Kathryn L; Wagenen, Aimee Van; Grasso, Chris; Bradford, Judith
This study examined disparities in lifetime substance misuse by sexual orientation among 2,653 patients engaged in care at an urban community health center in Boston, MA, as well as the potential mediating roles of childhood abuse intimate partner violence (IPV). Violence indicators were highly associated with substance misuse, as was identifying as a sexual minority compared to heterosexual. CA and IPV experiences partly explained disparities in substance abuse by sexual orientation with differences seen by sex. Clinicians should assess history of CA and IPV among sexual minorities presenting with a history of substance abuse disorders. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:23368669
Friedman, Mark S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Stall, Ron; Cheong, Jeewon; Wright, Eric R.
This study examined relationships between timing of gay-related developmental milestones, early abuse, and emergence of poor health outcomes in adulthood among 1,383 gay/bisexual men in the Urban Men’s Health Study. Latent Profile Analysis grouped participants as developing early, middle or late based on the achievement of four phenomena including age of first awareness of same-sex sexual attractions and disclosure of sexual orientation. Participants who developed early were more likely, comp...
Firlik, Russell J.
Discusses four similarities between early childhood education systems in Oxfordshire, England and Reggio Emilia, Italy. Similarities between the two school systems include an integrated curriculum; (mixed) age grouping and school organization; the teacher's role; and the pedagogical underpinnings. (BB)
...evaluation will provide an assessment of: (a) The effect of early childhood home visiting programs on outcomes...Act (such as maternal and child health status, school readiness, and domestic violence, among others); (b) the effectiveness...
...evaluation will provide an assessment of: (a) The effect of early childhood home visiting programs on outcomes...Act (such as maternal and child health status, school readiness, and domestic violence, among others); (b) the effectiveness...
...evaluation will provide an assessment of: (a) The effect of early childhood home visiting programs on outcomes...e.g., maternal and child health status, school readiness, and domestic violence); (b) the effectiveness of such programs...
...evaluation will provide an assessment of: (a) The effect of early childhood home visiting programs on outcomes...Act (such as maternal and child health status, school readiness, and domestic violence, among others); (b) the effectiveness...
Khan, Alaptagin; McCormack, Hannah C.; Bolger, Elizabeth A.; McGreenery, Cynthia E.; Vitaliano, Gordana; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H.
Background: The adverse childhood experience (ACE) study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age. Methods: 560 (223M/337F) young adults (18–25?years) were recruited from the community without regard to diagnosis and balanced to have equal exposure to 0–4 plus types of maltreatment. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure Scale assessed severity of exposure to 10 types of maltreatment across each year of childhood. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and current symptoms were evaluated by SCID, interview, and self-report. Predictive analytics assessed importance of exposure at each age and evaluated whether exposure at one or two ages was a more important predictor than number, severity, or duration of maltreatment across childhood. Results: The most important predictors of lifetime history of MDD were non-verbal emotional abuse in males and peer emotional abuse (EA) in females at 14?years of age, and these were more important predictors across models than number of types of maltreatment (males: t9?=?16.39, p?Suicidal ideation was predicted, in part, by NVEA and peer EA at age 14, but most importantly by parental verbal abuse at age 5 in males and sexual abuse at age 18 in females. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for sensitive exposure periods when maltreatment maximally impacts risk for depression, and provides an alternative interpretation of the ACE study results. These findings fit with emerging neuroimaging evidence for regional sensitivity periods. The presence of sensitive exposure periods has important implications for prevention, preemption, and treatment of MDD. PMID:25870565
Cutler, Susan E.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Depression is nearly twice as prevalent in women as men. Reviews research suggesting that child sexual abuse, also more common for women than for men, can account for a significant portion of the differences in depression rates for men and women and discusses how such abuse affects men and women differently. (CJS)
Chandler, Kelle P.; And Others
This study investigated family characteristics as risk factors for sexual abuse by examining the family environments of both abused and nonabused young adults as assessed by the Family Environment Scale. Participants were college students (N=230) at a major southeastern university. A total of 105 students reported sexual experiences which occurred…
Shemesh, Eyal; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Yehuda, Rachel; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Hutson, Carolyn; Cohen, Judith A.; Briere, John; Gorman, Jack M.; Emre, Sukru
Objective: The study assessed the relationship between a history of child abuse, nonadherence to medications, and medical outcome in children who had a liver transplant. Method: Abuse history for children and adolescents ages 8 to 21 who underwent a liver transplantation at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York was obtained in interviews in 2002.…
Developmentally Appropriate Technology in Early Childhood (DATEC) aims to identify themost appropriate applications of Information and Communication Technology to support thedevelopment of children under eight years of age. Botswana has a unique spread ofpopulation density and deep-rooted socio-cultural values. There is a need to address thecompatibility of these aspects with the application of Information and CommunicationTechnology in the proposed Early Childhood Education programmes throug...
Lehmann, Jee-Yeon K.; Nuevo-Chiquero, Ana; Vidal-Fernández, Marian
The critical role of prenatal and early childhood conditions on adult outcomes has been the focus of a rich body of research. In this paper, we examine various pre- and postnatal investments as possible sources behind the birth order effect - significant differences in the educational and labor market outcomes across children of varying birth orders. Taking advantage of a rich set of information on in utero and early childhood conditions in the Children of the NLSY79, we find that, within the...
Folque, Maria Da Assunc?a?o
The Movimento da Escola Moderna (MEM) - Modern school movement concerns all levels of education. It is the result of the cooperative work of teachers in Portugal over the course of thirty years. Sérgio Niza is one of its founders and educational leaders. This paper will discuss the formative aims proposed by the MEM Early Childhood Model and the philosophical foundations of practices applied to early childhood classrooms, and highlights how Vygotsky’s theory of development and lea...
Carba, Delia B.; Tan, Vivencia L.; Adair, Linda S.
Most studies on childhood health and human capital in developing countries examine how early childhood linear growth relates to later human productivity as reflected in schooling success. Work status is another important human capital outcome related to early child health. This study examines the relationship of linear growth restriction at two years of age to work status in young adults who have, for the most part completed their schooling and further explores whether this relationship diffe...
Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants were 481 women attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic (66% African American) who completed a computerized survey as well as behavioral simulations assessing condom application and sexual assertiveness skills. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for CSA and CSA was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. In multiple mediator models, the TD constructs mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners whereas the IMB constructs mediated the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. In addition, the TD constructs better mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners; the TD and IMB constructs did not differ in their ability to mediate the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. Sexual risk reduction interventions for women who were sexually abused should target not only the constructs from health behavior models (e.g., motivation and skills to reduce sexual risk), but also constructs that are specific to sexual abuse (e.g., traumatic sexualization and guilt). PMID:22282323
Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships. PMID:23194141
Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel
Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories—the preferred form of narrative assessment—currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.
Lilian G. Katz
Full Text Available Noting that working with early childhood colleagues in other countries can be enlightening and enriching, this paper offers seven insights gained from the experience: (1 "What It Feels Like To Be a Teacher" discusses observations of student and teacher behavior and attitudes in classrooms in China, a Caribbean island, and India; (2 "Similarities across Countries" notes that teachers? roles may be more powerful determinants of their ideas, ideals, ideologies, concerns, and beliefs than are the larger political, social, and cultural contexts in which they work; (3 "Problems with Comparative Studies" discusses the difficulties inherent in comparing educational provisions and effectiveness across countries; (4 "The Spread of Ideas across Borders" discusses the influence of the British Infant School approach in the 1960s and 1970s, the influence of the innovative province-wide reform work of British Columbia, Canada, in the 1980s, and most recently the influence of the Reggio Emilia approach; (5 "Issues Unique to the U.S." explores interests that appear of concern only in the United States, such as the development of self-esteem in children; (6 "Self-criticism in the U.S." discusses one American habit ? self-deprecation; and (7 "U.S. Leadership in Anti-bias and Multicultural Awareness" notes that the United States deserves a great deal of credit for leadership in addressing anti-bias and multicultural issues.
Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren
Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…
Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sakelliadis, Emmanouil I; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Goutas, Nikolaos; Sergentanis, Ioannis N; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Papadodima, StavroulaA
This study attempts to assess childhood maltreatment in prison through a hierarchical approach. The hierarchical approach principally aims to disentangle the independent effects of childhood maltreatment upon psychiatric morbidity/personality traits, if any, from the burden that the adverse family conditions have already imposed to the mental health of the maltreated individual-prisoner. To this direction, a conceptual framework with five hierarchical levels was constructed, namely: immutable demographic factors; family conditions; childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, neglect and sexual abuse); personality traits, habits and psychiatric morbidity; prison-related variables. A self-administered, anonymous set (battery) of questionnaires was administered to 173 male prisoners in the Chalkida prison, Greece; 26% of prisoners disclosed childhood maltreatment. Psychiatric condition in the family, parental alcoholism and parental divorce correlated with childhood maltreatment. After adjustment for immutable demographic factors and family conditions, childhood maltreatment was associated with aggression (both in terms of Lifetime History of Aggression and Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire scores), illicit substance use, personal history of psychiatric condition, current smoking, impulsivity and alcohol abuse. In conclusion, childhood maltreatment represents a pivotal, determining factor in the life course of male prisoners. Delinquents seem to suffer from long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment in terms of numerous mental health aspects. PMID:25468626
Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly
Objective: Child maltreatment has been linked to negative adult health outcomes; however, much past research includes only clinical samples of women, focuses exclusively on sexual abuse and/or fails to control for family background and childhood characteristics, both potential confounders. Further research is needed to obtain accurate,…
Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.
This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…
Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ranby, Krista W.; Meade, Christina S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kochman, Arlene
Objective: To examine whether (a) Living in the Face of Trauma (LIFT), a group intervention to address coping with HIV and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), significantly reduced traumatic stress over a 1-year follow-up period more than an attention-matched support group comparison intervention; and (b) reductions in avoidant coping over time mediated…
Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela
This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…
Rook, Graham A W; Lowry, Christopher A; Raison, Charles L
The immune system influences brain development and function. Hygiene and other early childhood influences impact the subsequent function of the immune system during adulthood, with consequences for vulnerability to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Inflammatory events during pregnancy can act directly to cause developmental problems in the central nervous system (CNS) that have been implicated in schizophrenia and autism. The immune system also acts indirectly by "farming" the intestinal microbiota, which then influences brain development and function via the multiple pathways that constitute the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota also regulates the immune system. Regulation of the immune system is crucial because inflammatory states in pregnancy need to be limited, and throughout life inflammation needs to be terminated completely when not required; for example, persistently raised levels of background inflammation during adulthood (in the presence or absence of a clinically apparent inflammatory stimulus) correlate with an increased risk of depression. A number of factors in the perinatal period, notably immigration from rural low-income to rich developed settings, caesarean delivery, breastfeeding and antibiotic abuse have profound effects on the microbiota and on immunoregulation during early life that persist into adulthood. Many aspects of the modern western environment deprive the infant of the immunoregulatory organisms with which humans co-evolved, while encouraging exposure to non-immunoregulatory organisms, associated with more recently evolved "crowd" infections. Finally, there are complex interactions between perinatal psychosocial stressors, the microbiota, and the immune system that have significant additional effects on both physical and psychiatric wellbeing in subsequent adulthood. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:24732404
Zachrisson, Henrik D; Dearing, Eric
The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and internalizing problems (from ages 18 to 36 months), particularly for lower income children. For internalizing problems, ECEC buffered the effect of income-to-needs changes. These findings lend further support to the potential benefits of ECEC for children from lower income families. PMID:25345342
Al-Hadad, Nawal Khalil
Family-professional partnership has been considered a recommended practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (EI/ECSE) programs for young children with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The importance of establishing successful partnerships between families and professionals in educational planning has…
Carl J. DUNST
Full Text Available Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered early intervention practices had direct and indirect positive effects, perceived program control appraisals had direct and indirect positive effects, and early intervention program service intensity had direct negative effects on either or both self-efficacy beliefs and parent and family well-being. Findings are discussed in terms of the benefits and limitations of different features of early childhood intervention and the use of SEM for program evaluation.
Knuuttila, Vesa; Kuusisto, Katja; Saarnio, Pekka; Nummi, Tapio
Background: The study examined the effect of the early working alliance on outcome in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Methods: A total of 327 clients and 33 therapists participated in the study. Data were collected in southern and western Finland in outpatient treatment units (N = 7). The dependent variables were percentage of days abstinent…
Marshal, Michael P.; Stall, Ron; Cheong, JeeWon; Wright, Eric R.
This study examined relationships between timing of gay-related developmental milestones, early abuse, and emergence of poor health outcomes in adulthood among 1,383 gay/bisexual men in the Urban Men’s Health Study. Latent Profile Analysis grouped participants as developing early, middle or late based on the achievement of four phenomena including age of first awareness of same-sex sexual attractions and disclosure of sexual orientation. Participants who developed early were more likely, compared to others, to experience forced sex and gay-related harassment before adulthood. They were more likely to be HIV seropositive and experience gay-related victimization, partner abuse and depression during adulthood. Early forced-sex, gay-related harassment and physical abuse were associated with several negative health outcomes in adulthood including HIV infection, partner abuse, and depression. This analysis suggests that the experience of homophobic attacks against young gay/bisexual male youth helps to explain heightened rates of serious health problems among adult gay men. PMID:17990094
Thurlow, Martha L.; And Others
Relevant policy issues for early childhood special education (ECSE) programs to consider in the areas of exit decision making and follow-up procedures are identified in this report. These issues were generated through extensive naturalistic case studies of four ECSE programs located in urban, suburban, and rural communities and were selected to…
Jordan has been paying increased attention to early childhood education in recent years. In particular, the government allocated unprecedented resources to the sector through its Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) 2003/08. Funded by the World Bank and other donor agencies, ERfKE is designed to revamp the education sector starting…
Transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo: associação com abuso físico na infância / Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders: association with physical abuse in childhood
Sheila, Abramovitch; Maria Claudia, Maia; Elie, Cheniaux.
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Muitos transtornos psiquiátricos, geralmente diagnosticados pela primeira vez na infância, estão associados a maus-tratos, entre eles o abuso físico, causando significativo impacto no desenvolvimento das crianças acometidas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a associação entre um diagnóstico psiquiátrico [...] do grupo dos transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo (TDACD) em crianças e a história de abuso físico na infância. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo seccional, crianças de 3 a 12 anos, atendidas em um ambulatório de psiquiatria de um hospital universitário, foram avaliadas por meio do MINI KID (), tendo sido diagnosticadas de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV. A avaliação de abuso físico e de outros eventos traumáticos foi realizada por um questionário específico, o LSC-R () e inclui diferentes tipos de maus-tratos. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma razão de chance mais alta de exposição freqüente ao abuso físico (p = 0,02) no grupo de crianças diagnosticadas com TDACD. Não se encontrou associação entre transtornos de humor (p = 0,67) e de ansiedade (p = 0,57) com abuso físico. Evidenciou-se uma relação de temporalidade entre o grupo dos TDACD e abuso físico (66,6%). Após ajuste de possíveis fatores de confundimento, meninos demonstraram índices significativamente mais elevados de abuso físico do que meninas (p = 0,001). CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados documentaram associação entre um diagnóstico do grupo dos TDACD em crianças e abuso físico na infância. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Many psychiatric disorders diagnosed at the first time in childhood are associated with child abuse, like physical abuse. This disorders cause an important impact on the childhood development. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between children with attention-deficit and disrupti [...] ve behavior disorders group (ADDBD) and physical abuse in childhood. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the MINI KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents) to evaluate children with and without the diagnostic of ADDBD group. Physical abuse was evaluated using the LSC-R (Life Stressor Checklist - Revised) and included others child abuses. RESULTS: We found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to physical abuse (p = 0,02) in the ADDBD group than in the group without this diagnostic. No association between mood (p = 0,67) and anxiety (p = 0,57) disorders and physical abuse. We found a temporal association (66,6%) between ADDBD group and physical abuse. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found significantly higher odds ratio to the association between boys and physical abuse than did girls (p = 0,001). DISCUSSION: Our findings document an association between ADDBD group and physical abuse in childhood period.
Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino Massoni
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar os principais aspectos orofaciais dos maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica, contribuindo com a identificação destas vítimas no ambiente odontológico. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados Adolec, MEDLINE, LILACS e BBO. Utilizaram-se como descritores: maus-tratos infantis, manifestações bucais, odontólogos, papel (figurativo e responsabilidade legal. Verificou-se que os maus-tratos infantis acontecem em geral em domicílio e os ferimentos orofaciais decorrentes incluem trauma, queimaduras e lacerações dos tecidos duros e moles, marcas de mordida e hematomas em vários estágios de cura. Pode haver ferimentos que envolvem outras partes do corpo próximas à cavidade bucal, como hematoma periorbital e contusão nasal. Quanto ao abuso sexual, muitas vítimas não apresentam nenhum sinal físico associado; assim, indicadores comportamentais devem ser observados. A imediata identificação e o relato de maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica pelo cirurgião-dentista são essenciais para a proteção das crianças, sendo fundamental uma maior atuação destes profissionais, através do registro e denúncia dos casos suspeitos às agências de proteção à criança.The aim of this paper was to identify the main oral and dental aspects of childhood abuse and dental neglect, contributing to the identification of these victims in a dental office. A bibliographic research was carried out, in ADOLEC, MEDLINE, LILACS and BBO databases. The following key words were used: child abuse, oral manifestations, dentists; role; liability, legal. It was verified that violence against children happens in general at home and the resulting orofacial injuries encompass: injuries, burns and lacerations on soft and hard tissues, bite marks and gradually-healed wounds. It can have wounds in other parts of the body next to the oral cavity, such as periorbital wound and nasal injury. Regarding sexual abuse, many victims do not present any associated physic signs; therefore, behavioral indicators must be observed. The immediate recognition and report of childhood abuse and dental negligence by dental surgeon are essential for children protection. Therefore, it is critical to define more effective action from those professionals, by registration and denunciation of suspect cases to child protection agencies.
Full Text Available Introduction. Early childhood caries (ECC is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. Objective. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Ba?ka area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. Methods. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and ?2 (p<0.05 test, as well as interdependence of ECC and single characteristics that could be a predictor of the disease by the logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 30.5%. The highest disease frequency was found in children of male sex (35.1%, out of kindergardens (54.2%, in the third and the next born child in the family (46.9% and in part-time employed mothers (47.2% who had only elementary education (59.3% and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1% of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%. Conclusion. The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.
Ng, Rm; Bhugra, D.; Mcmanus, F.; Fennell, M.
Childhood maltreatment of various types has been associated with onset of depression in adults. Previous epidemiological studies in Asian countries have confirmed a high level of childhood maltreatment, especially physical maltreatment. Yet, depression appears to be less prevalent in Asian countries than in western cultures. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of a Chinese cultural factor, namely filial piety, against clinical depression. The study also aimed to examine the ...
Moore, Mary Ruth; Campos, David
The year 2010 is the 238th anniversary of Friedrich Froebel's birth, yet his spirit and philosophy of teaching are alive in the hearts and minds of 14 Texas early childhood teachers. In 2006, teacher education students at the University of the Incarnate Word (UIW), San Antonio, were inspired by Froebel, the founder of early kindergartens. Wanting…
Brown, Sally; Souto-Manning, Mariana; Laman, Tasha Tropp
In this article, three educators share case studies describing racial biases and segregationist practices in early schooling. The authors draw upon critical race theory as a lens and employ critical discourse analysis to uncover classed and raced biases within and across three early childhood contexts. While the cases are situated in specific…
Linder, Sandra M.; Powers-Costello, Beth; Stegelin, Dolores A.
Mathematics education is a critical part of the curriculum for students worldwide. The foundation for understanding mathematical concepts related to number sense begins early in life, and early childhood classrooms can provide the seeds for mathematical skills that will be needed later in life. In this article, the authors make a case for…
Palmer, Susan B.; Summers, Jean Ann; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Maude, Susan P.; Stroup-Rentier, Vera; Wu, Hsiang-Yi; Peck, Nancy F.; Zheng, Yuzhu; Weigel, Cindy J.; Chu, Szu-Yin; McGrath, Greg S.; Haines, Shana J.
This article introduces the Early Childhood Foundations Model for Self-Determination and provides a rationale for the need to consider the foundations of self-determination behavior that begin early in life. This model is based on the premise that young children with disabilities benefit from a collaborative partnership between important adults in…
Despite claims about the significance of early childhood education in improving later outcomes in an individual's life, this stage of development has not received sufficient attention by education systems across the world. Until recently, early education or preschool education did not come under the purview of the formal education system in most…
Ng'asike, John T.
Western conceptions of child development and the models of early education they engender predominantly shape services for young children in the first eight years of life all over Africa. This chapter brings a reconceptualist perspective to the critique of Kenya's continuing failure to ground early childhood programs and services in local…
Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Puig, Victoria I.; Evenson, Tara L.; Beresford, Madeleine
There are many resources that describe high-quality inclusive practices in early education as well as the necessary competencies for early-childhood practitioners working in inclusive settings. Yet, despite important initiatives in the field, a discrepancy between research and practice remains. In an effort to narrow this research-to-practice gap…
DeVore, Simone; Russell, Karen
In this case study, a co-operative inquiry process was used to facilitate the expansion of inclusive early childhood education and care practices in a rural community in the Midwest. A university and a community researcher first engaged in interviews and site visits, during which they learned how a three-member inclusion team of early care and…
The early years are a foundational time for the establishment of dispositions for learning. This paper draws on a recent study in Aotearoa (New Zealand) to illustrate ways educators have been implementing programs, within mainstream early childhood care and education settings, that inclusively offer Maori perspectives on caring for ourselves,…
Cherrington, Sue; Thornton, Kate
Professional learning communities are receiving increasing attention within the schooling sector but empirical research into their development and use within early childhood education contexts is rare. This paper reports initial findings of an exploratory study into the development of professional learning communities in New Zealand's early…
Dietze, Beverlie; Kashin, Diane
Using technology with children in play-based early learning programs creates questions for some within the Early Childhood Education (ECE) community. This paper presents how two faculty who teach in ECE-related degree programs integrated educational technology into their teaching pedagogy as a way to model to their students how it can be used to…
Ovsk Xe, Eva Ko X. D.; Eva Billstedt; Asa Ellefsen; Hanna Kampmann; Carina Gillberg, I.; Rannvá Biskupstø; Guðrið Andorsdóttir; Tormóður Stóra; Helen Minnis; Christopher Gillberg
Childhood autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been regarded as one of the most stable diagnostic categories applied to young children with psychiatric/developmental disorders. The stability over time of a diagnosis of ASD is theoretically interesting and important for various diagnostic and clinical reasons. We studied the diagnostic stability of ASD from childhood to early adulthood in the Faroe Islands: a total school age population sample (8–17-year-olds) was screened and diagno...
Len?ová Erika; Pikhart Hynek; Broukal Zden?k
Abstract Background Despite the decline in childhood caries prevalence, seen particularly in 1980s, in recent years there have been reports that the declining trend has stopped or even reversed in some countries. The aim of the study was to analyse data from previous epidemiological studies on early childhood caries in the Czech Republic, conduct a secondary analysis of trend in dental caries prevalence, and discuss issues related to national oral health surveillance. Methods Since the 1990s,...
Chu, Doris C
A number of studies indicate that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has a negative impact on later psychological well-being. It is well documented that experiences of CSA are associated with depression, self-destructiveness, and subsequent substance abuse or alcohol consumption. Compared with women who experienced no such sexual abuse in childhood, women who were victims of sexual abuse in childhood were more likely to be depressed and use drugs or consume alcohol in later life. Analyzing data of 1,569 females derived from the "Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women," this study examines whether the strain caused by sexual victimization leads to a higher level of subsequent marijuana use and whether religiosity moderates the negative effects of CSA. It was found that CSA was associated with an increased level of marijuana use in high school. However, more proximate sexual victimization (victimization in college) seemed to override the impact of CSA on subsequent marijuana use. Religiosity was found to moderate the effect of CSA on marijuana use in high school. Religiosity was negatively associated with marijuana use in high school as well as the second and fourth collegiate years. Policy implications and promising directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21685223
Brown, Courtney M; Girio-Herrera, Erin L; Sherman, Susan N; Kahn, Robert S; Copeland, Kristen A
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians promote early childhood education (ECE). However, pediatricians have met resistance from low-income parents when providing anticipatory guidance on some topics outside the realm of physical health. Parents' views on discussing ECE with the pediatrician have not been studied. We sought to understand low-income parents' experiences and attitudes with regard to discussing ECE with the pediatrician and to identify opportunities for pediatrician input. We conducted 27 in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with parents of 3- and 4-year-old patients (100% Medicaid, 78% African American) at an urban primary care center. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed for themes by a multidisciplinary team. Most low-income parents in our study reported they primarily sought ECE advice from family and friends but were open to talking about ECE with the pediatrician. They considered their children's individual behavior and development to be important factors in ECE decisions and appreciated pediatricians' advice about developmental readiness for ECE. Participants' decisions about ECE were often driven by fears that their children would be abused or neglected. Many viewed 3 years as the age at which children had sufficient language skills to report mistreatment and could be safely enrolled in ECE. Participants were generally accepting of discussions about ECE during well child visits. There may be opportunity for the pediatrician to frame ECE discussions in the context of development, behavior, and safety and to promote high-quality ECE at an earlier age. PMID:23324946
Full Text Available Despite the strong empirical support for the effectiveness of exposure-based treatments in ameliorating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, improvement of treatment is wanted given relatively high dropout rates and challenges of treating patients with high comorbidity and treatment-interfering stressors. The purpose of the current paper is to introduce an intensive exposure treatment program, illustrated by four case descriptions of PTSD patients, who suffered multiple (sexual traumas in childhood, had high levels of comorbidity and psychosocial stressors, and failed to improve during “regular” trauma-focused treatment programs. The program consisted of psychoeducation, prolonged imaginal exposure, exposure in vivo, exposure by drawings combined with narrative reconstructing, and writing assignments about central trauma-related cognitions. The treatment included 5 working days with individual sessions (in total 30 h of treatment provided by a team of four therapists. The PTSD symptoms of all patients decreased substantially and the effect sizes were large (Cohen's d resp. 1.5 [pre–post], 2.4 [pre-FU1 month], and 2.3 [pre-FU3 months]. Also, none of the patients showed symptom worsening or dropped out. The evaluation of these four pilot cases suggests that it is possible to intensify exposure treatment, even for multiple traumatized PTSD patients with high comorbidity. We concluded that the first results of this new, intensive exposure program for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse are promising.
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines 5 potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages…
Reardon, W; Hughes, H. E.; Green, S. H.; Lloyd Woolley, V; Harper, P S
Myopathic involvement of the perianal musculature is one of the less well recognised features of myotonic dystrophy in children and may present with physical signs suggestive of sexual abuse. Details of six children with myotonic dystrophy are presented to emphasise the importance of considering an underlying myopathic condition in the differential diagnosis of anal laxity.
Ray, Kelle Chandler; And Others
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that families of victims of child sexual abuse would evidence the cohesion versus conflict factor on the Family Environment Scale (FES), but would also display a second expressiveness versus control factor that would not be found in nonvictim families. Female college students (N=92) who had been…
Sweig, Terri L.
Describes a time-limited, psychoeducational group in its 16th consecutive year of providing a safe and supportive milieu that breaks down isolation while helping women understand the impact of abuse on their lives and empowering them to alter their victim identity. Cognitive, affective, and expressive arts approaches are used to address aspects of…
Orbke, Samantha; Smith, Heather L.
Roughly one third of children subjected to abusive environments grow into healthy and capable adults, demonstrating remarkable resiliency, despite risks for developing maladaptive self-structures and destructive behaviors (Werner, "American Journal of Orthopsychiatry" 59:72-81 1989; Kendall-Tackett "et al.", "Psychological Bulletin" 113:164-180…
Gaensbauer, Theodore J; Jordan, Leslie
Information on the long-term effects of early trauma and how such effects are manifested in treatment was obtained through interviews with thirty analysts who had treated an adult patient with a circumscribed trauma in the first four years of life. Childhood traumas fell into four categories: medical/accidental; separation/loss; witnessing a traumatic event; and physical/sexual abuse. Traumatic carryover was recorded in terms of explicit memories, implicit memories (somatic reliving, traumatic dreams, affective memories, behavioral reenactments, and transference phenomena), and global carryover effects (generalized traumatic affective states, defensive styles, patterns of object relating, and developmental disruptions). Linkages between the early trauma and adult symptomatology could be posited in almost every case, yet the clinical data supporting such linkages was often fragmented and ambiguous. Elements of patients' traumas appeared to be dispersed along variable avenues of expression and did not appear amenable to holistic, regressive reworking in treatment. The data did not support linear models of traumatic carryover or the idea that early traumatic experiences will be directly accessible in the course of an analysis. Factors that we believe help explain why traumatic aftereffects in our sample were so heterogeneous and difficult to track over the long term are discussed. PMID:19625455
Curtis S. Dunkel
Full Text Available Previous research shows that perceived intelligence judgments significantly correlate with measured intelligence scores. The present study investigated the developmental trajectory of the association between perceived intelligence and measured intelligence. Using the Block and Block longitudinal dataset, we examined the relationship between a single rating of “high intellectual ability” made in early childhood by targets’ preschool teachers with future intellectual ability and scholastic outcome measures, including IQ scores, grade-point average, SAT scores, and educational attainment. Even when controlling for variables including attractiveness, parental education levels, the General Factor of Personality, and socioeconomic status, correlations between early childhood intelligence perceptions and later intellectual measures were significant, large, and robust. Results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms and cues in early childhood that may reveal future intellectual abilities.
Zhang, Kaili Chen
The main purpose of this research was to explore early childhood education teachers', principals', and parents' perceptions of the role of spirituality in the lives of children with special needs, and how educators and schools can support the spiritual development of these children. Three preschools, the Buddhist, Christian, and Waldorf schools, were purposefully selected on the basis that each of them reflects a philosophy that includes the spiritual. Three themes emerged from the data analysis: (a) the influence of the schools' religion and/or spiritual orientations on inclusion; (b) support provided for the spiritual development of children with special needs; and (c) the role of spirituality in the lives of children with special needs. By drawing attention to and offering a preliminary study on early childhood inclusion and spirituality, I hope to encourage more scholars and educators to engage with research and debate on this important yet under-studied dimension of early childhood education. PMID:23999975
Maria Luiza Rodrigues Flores
Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the recent events held at the field of public policies on early childhood education, systematizing the marks of construction of this right in terms of its newly established legal system and analyzing such actions from a perspective critical and reflective. The historical review of facts and laws are considered in their socio-historical contexts, showing the formation of children as subjects of rights, the trajectory of the recent history of the right to early childhood education, and some current perspectives for the realization of a Children’s education whith social quality. The study demonstrated that rights have been obtained from large-scale mobilization of social movements, especially considering the participation of Movement Interforuns Child Education in Brazil – MIEIB. It was demonstrated that in light of new legislation in the area, social movements need to continue mobilized in defense of Early Childhood Education.
WILSON, HELEN W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines five potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages 0–11) with cases processed during 1967–1971 were matched with non-abused, non-neglected children and followed into young adulthood. Data are fr...
Essex, Marilyn J.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Burk, Linnea R.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Woodward, Hermi R.; Kupfer, David J.
Background: Many childhood psychiatric problems are transient. Consequently, screening procedures to accurately identify children with problems unlikely to remit and thus, in need of intervention, are of major public health concern. This study aimed to develop a universal school-based screening procedure based on the answers to three questions:…
Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel
This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…
Wallinga, Charlotte; Coleman, Mick; Bales, Diane
Dramatic improvements have been made in the lives of children over the last century. Even so, many health and safety challenges remain unresolved. For example, unintentional injuries claim the lives of more children each year than any other cause of death. In addition, a panel of pediatricians reported that the incidence of childhood obesity…
Culpin, Iryna; Heron, Jon; Araya, Ricardo; Joinson, Carol
Absence of the biological father in early childhood has been linked to depressive symptoms in mid-adolescent girls. Earlier studies have linked father absence to early timing of menarche, and early menarche is a risk factor for increased depressive symptoms in adolescence. No studies, however, have examined whether the association between father absence and depressive symptoms may be explained by the early onset of menarche. This study investigated whether age at menarche mediates the association between father absence in early childhood (birth to 5 years) and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls aged 14 years. The study sample comprised 7056 girls from a large UK birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) who provided data on age at onset of menarche and depressive symptoms assessed using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire at 14 years. Mothers provided data on father absence from the birth of the study child up to 10 years. Using structural equation modelling, we found that 15 % of the total estimated association between father absence in early childhood and depressive symptoms at 14 years was explained by early age at menarche. In addition to the mediated effect, father absence was linked to an 11 % increase in depressive symptoms in adolescence. The findings suggest that early age at menarche is one of the pathways linking early childhood father absence and depressive symptoms in mid-adolescent girls. Preventive strategies could be targeting young girls at risk for depressive symptoms as a function of stressful family factors (e.g., biological father absence) and earlier menarche. PMID:25411127
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA and low (LA. HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio, and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy. Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.
Chika, Satoko; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Johnson, Susan L; Branen, Laurel J; Fletcher, Janice W
For obesity prevention planning in early childhood programs, attitudes and actions of staff related to communicating with parents about young children's eating and weight need to be assessed. Early childhood program teachers (n = 271) working with children aged 3 to 5 years were surveyed by mail. Factor analysis provided patterns of response for multi-item questions. Respondents reported different levels of agreement and comfort regarding communicating concerns to parents about their child's weight and eating versus observations about the child's daily eating. Feelings about parent communication varied (worried, hesitant, responsible, and willing). Findings suggest opportunities for communication between program staff and parents. PMID:21881416
Ostrov, Jamie M; Guzzo, Jamie L
A short-term longitudinal study during early childhood (N = 96; M = 42.80; SD = 7.57) investigated the concurrent and prospective association between prosocial behavior and social dominance. Time-intensive school-based focal child sampling with continuous recording observations of prosocial behavior to peers were conducted and teacher-reports of social dominance were collected. The study documents significant prospective links between prosocial behavior to peers and increases in social dominance over time. Social dominance was not associated with changes in prosocial behavior. The findings extend past empirical work in early childhood and future directions are discussed. PMID:25825996
Joanne, Phyfer; Lorenzo, Wakefield.
Full Text Available Violence and violent crime are significant social problems in South Africa. Yet currently these problems are only addressed as or after they occur, with the state and civil society missing valuable opportunities to prevent violence before it happens. This article focuses on the intersection between [...] early childhood development services and primary violence prevention interventions. It encourages a developmental approach to violence prevention by promoting healthy physical and social development and preventing direct and indirect exposure to violence during early childhood. The article outlines the extent to which this approach is currently reflected in South Africa's policy framework and proposes areas of intervention based on local and international literature.
Koskivaara, Eija; Pihlaja, Päivi
Increasing number of governmental organizations have transformed material on their web sites as a way of providing users with information about their products and services. In this paper, we apply Yang et al (2005) instrument for analyzing municipal early childhood education (ECE) web sites in Finland. The objective of the study was to find out the quality of ECE web portals as well as to give hints to improve their value from users' point of view. In general the five dimensions, usability, usefulness of content, adequacy of information, accessibility, and interaction, of the Yang et al model seems to be applicable also in the early childhood education environment.
Roberts, Greg; Bryant, Diane
This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, to (a) estimate mathematics achievement trends through 5th grade in the population of students who are English-language proficient by the end of kindergarten, (b) compare trends across primary language groups within this English-language proficient…
Pedro, A.; Libo?rio, O.
In this article, we present some reflections on great challenges that are currently placed to the training of early childhood teachers and teachers in general. In order to do so, we shall use the theoretical referentials which use the principle of reflection on practice as the strutucturing axis of the training and that defend that research can frame and guide that reflection. The great challenges of education enunciated by Morin, by the humanistic focus that they have, gather some consens...
Kim, Hae Kyoung; Kemple, Kristen M.
This study examines early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about the importance of music in early childhood and explores factors influencing those beliefs. The study found that preservice teachers in this study held relatively strong beliefs about the importance of music, including aesthetic, quality-of-life, and social-emotional benefits.…
Laman, Tasha Tropp; Miller, Erin T.; Lopez-Robertson, Julia
This qualitative study examines what early childhood preservice teachers enrolled in a field-based literacy methods course deemed relevant regarding teaching, literacy, and learning. This study is based on postcourse interviews with 7 early childhood preservice teachers. Findings suggest that "contextualized field experiences" facilitate…
Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram; Klibthong, Sunanta
The purpose of this qualitative study is to make the case for organizing teaching and learning in early childhood around the concept of inclusion rather than transmission of pedagogy through fear and domination. The study explored final-year early childhood pre-service teachers' curriculum planning and evaluation processes, professional education…