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Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

Evrim Aktepe

2009-08-01

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Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood  

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Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

2009-01-01

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Childhood abuse :pregnancy and childbirth  

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Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...

2011-01-01

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Child Abuse and Neglect: Alternatives for State Legislation. Report No. 6 of the Early Childhood Task Force.  

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Since 1970 the early childhood task force of the Education Commission of the States (ECS) has worked to encourage states to focus attention on the quality of the life of children. As the task force explored the subject of child abuse, it quickly realized the need for: (1) better state programs for the prevention, identification and treatment of…

Fraser, Brian G.

5

A Life History Assessment of Early Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women  

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Life history theory provided a framework for examining the relations among child sexual abuse (CSA), childhood adversity, and patterns of reproductive development and behavior. A community survey that assessed CSA, life history variables (e.g., age of menarche), and social and family background was administered to 623 women (mean age=26.9 years).…

Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer

2005-01-01

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Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behaviour  

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This study tested the hypothesis that adolescent-onset alcohol abuse (AOAA) would both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder on antisocial behaviour in late adolescence and early adulthood. A sample comprising 504 young men and women strategically recruited from the community were grouped using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washing...

Howard, Richard; Finn, Peter; Jose, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer

2011-01-01

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Early Detection of Child Abuse  

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Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

Shearman, J. K.

1987-01-01

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Developmental trajectories of abuse--an hypothesis for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on dorsolateral prefrontal cortical development.  

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The United States has a high rate of child maltreatment, with nearly 12 in 1000 children being victims of abuse or neglect. Child abuse strongly predicts negative life outcomes, especially in areas of emotional and mental health. Abused children are also more likely than their peers to engage in violence and enter the juvenile justice system, as well as to become abusive parents themselves. Research has shown that child abuse and trauma can lead to decreased hippocampal volume, which could be indicative of abnormal hippocampal development. Hippocampal development appears to directly affect the development of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain area responsible for emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal, and general executive function. Therefore, I hypothesize that if child abuse results in abnormal hippocampal development, which leads to abnormal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex development, many of the correlated risk factors of child abuse, such as emotionally-laden parenting and unfavorable cognitive distortions regarding children's behaviors, may be in part caused by underdevelopment or abnormal functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as a function of the individual's own experiences with abuse during childhood. If this hypothesis is supported with future research, more targeted, successful, and cost-effective prevention and treatment protocols could ensue. For instance, programs that have been empirically shown to increase the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, could be effective in decreasing the incidence of intergenerational transfer of abuse. PMID:24075592

Burrus, Caley

2013-11-01

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The nurse face childhood sexual abuse diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article discuss nursing diagnosis face sexual abuse victim child, considering magnitude problem in health and psychosexual development repercussions. The objective is reflect about nurse action face childhood sexual abuse situations. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, using bibliographic survey about nurse participation in childhood sexual abuse diagnosis. We believe that is necessary to sensitize nurse about detection responsibility of determinants aspects, attempting for social, cultural and economical children's family context. The result point to the necessity of an efficient and quality nursing assistance, witch is able to identify and recognize psychosocial indicators, having focus in child protection and damage reduction

Lia Leão Ciuffo

2008-03-01

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The nurse face childhood sexual abuse diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article discuss nursing diagnosis face sexual abuse victim child, considering magnitude problem in health and psychosexual development repercussions. The objective is reflect about nurse action face childhood sexual abuse situations. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, using bibliographic survey about nurse participation in childhood sexual abuse diagnosis. We believe that is necessary to sensitize nurse about detection responsibility of determinants aspects, attempting for social, cultural and economical children's family context. The result point to the necessity of an efficient and quality nursing assistance, witch is able to identify and recognize psychosocial indicators, having focus in child protection and damage reduction.

Lia Leão Ciuffo

2008-04-01

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Childhood Physical Abuse, Childhood Social Support, and Adult Child Abus/span>e Potential.  

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Examines the role of social support in the discrimination of physical child abusers and nonabusers, both with a childhood history of physical child abus/span>e. In contrast to expectations, none of the social support factors distinguished between the abusers and nonabusers. (JPS)

Caliso, John A.; Milner, Joel S.

1994-01-01

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Frequency of childhood abuse in university students  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students and 60 % of them were female. The mean agewas 19.04±1.28 (17-26 years. The emotional (p=0.025,physical (p=0.004 and sexual (p=0.001 abuse of malestudents were significantly higher than female students.The emotional (p=0.009 and total (p=0.026 abuse ofstudents who had families with lower income levels weresignificantly high. Also the frequency of emotional abusein students with divorced parents was significantly increased(p=0.012.Conclusions: Since child abuse and neglect may beassociated with the stresses of family life, the economicand social stresses of family should be determined andsolution advices to these should be developed. A multidisciplinarymanagement is required to detect, treat andrehabilitate the childhood abuse.Key words: Childhood, university student, sexual abuse

Cem Zeren

2012-12-01

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Early Childhood Caries  

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Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

Yumiko Kawashita; Masayasu Kitamura; Toshiyuki Saito

2011-01-01

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Early childhood aggression  

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In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

2006-01-01

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Frequency of childhood abuse in university students  

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Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students...

2012-01-01

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Early Childhood Trauma  

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Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

2010-01-01

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Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3 were females while 382 were males (%41.7. As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse and self esteem. As a result of the regression analyses conducted separately, childhood abuse predicted significantly self-esteem, and it has been revealed that just even emotional abuse is major determinant of self-esteem. Result achieved on this issue indicates that students’ self esteem levels decrease as childhood abuse increase.

Özlem Karaku?

2012-08-01

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Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame  

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Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

2009-01-01

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Childhood abuse and schizotypal personality  

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Introduction There is an increasing body of evidence suggesting an association between early adverse events and an increased prevalence of sub-clinical psychotic phenomena. These 'schizotypal' beliefs and experiences have been associated with a history of trauma, and are also recognised as a risk factor for the transition to psychosis. However, previous studies have not investigated the associations between specific types of adverse event and the distinct dimensions of such phenomen...

Steel, Craig; Marzillier, Sarah; Fearon, Pasco; Ruddle, Anna

2009-01-01

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Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria  

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Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Understanding Factors Associated with Early Therapeutic Alliance in PTSD Treatment: Adherence, Childhood Sexual Abuse History, and Social Support  

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Objective: Therapeutic alliance has been associated with better treatment engagement, better adherence, and less dropout across various treatments and disorders. In treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it may be particularly important to establish a strong early alliance to facilitate treatment adherence. However, factors such as…

Keller, Stephanie M.; Zoellner, Lori A.; Feeny, Norah C.

2010-01-01

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“Complex trauma”: reflections on the effect of early childhood abuse among a small adult group of bariatric patients  

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The experience of early traumatic exposure, obesity and finally the paradoxical forced behavioural intervention experienced by a small group of five different participants (three women and two men) who underwent bariatric surgery¹ to “cure” a chronic disease such as obesity, were explored and structured around the prominent themes identified by the researchers from the “voices” of the participants. The aim was to arrive at a final “voice” that would reflect collective...

Liebenberg, Hermann; Papaikonomou, Maria

2010-01-01

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Associations Between Childhood Trauma, Childhood Sexual Abuse, and Adult Psychological Symptomatology  

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The study explores the association between potentially traumatic childhood events (PTEs), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological symptoms, measured by specific posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), general psychological distress (GPD), interpersonal problems (IP), and emotion regulation problems (ERP). Method. Self- report questionnaires were used to collect data about exposure to childhood PTE (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form; CTQ-SF), current s...

Løken, Per Martin Hvam-malmedal; Reigstad, Henriette Linnea

2012-01-01

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Abuse Characteristics among Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors in Therapy: A Gender Comparison.  

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Abuse characteristics of 48 men from an outpatient treatment program for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse were compared with those of 257 women survivors. Only two major differences were found. Women were significantly more likely to have been sexually abused by a family member. Men were significantly more likely to report having oral sex…

Gold, Steven N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Lucenko, Barbara A.; Swingle, Janine M.; Hughes, Dawn M.

1998-01-01

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The Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire (ARBQ), designed to assess abuse-related beliefs among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Study 1 examined the structure of the scale, and Study 2 evaluated its reliability and validity. Method: One hundred and seventy female…

Ginzburg, Karni; Arnow, Bruce; Hart, Stacey; Gardner, William; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C.; Giese-Davis, Janine; Spiegel, David

2006-01-01

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Childhood physical abuse in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan and Asia, few studies have been done of physical and sexual abuse. This study was aimed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse is associated with anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. Methods We divided 564 consecutive new outpatients at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine of Kyushu University Hospital into two groups: a physically abused group and a non-abused group. Psychological test scores and the prevalence of self-injurious behavior were compared between the two groups. Results A history of childhood physical abuse was reported by patients with depressive disorders(12.7%, anxiety disorders(16.7%, eating disorders (16.3%, pain disorders (10.8%, irritable bowel syndrome (12.5%, and functional dyspepsia(7.5%. In both the patients with depressive disorders and those with anxiety disorders, STAI-I (state anxiety and STAI-II (trait anxiety were higher in the abused group than in the non-abused group (p In the patients with depressive disorders, the abused group was younger than the non-abused group (p Conclusion A history of childhood physical abuse is associated with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. It is important for physicians to consider the history of abuse in the primary care of these patients.

Kubo Chiharu

2008-03-01

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Helping Yourself Heal: A Recovering Woman's Guide to Coping with Childhood Abuse Issues  

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... the childhood abuse. The exception is when the abuser still has access to children and may harm ... people who have been abused as children. Addressing child abus/span>e issues takes time; you’ll need to develop ...

28

Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

2013-01-01

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The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Teenage Pregnancy.  

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Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)

Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo

1997-01-01

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A Coping Model for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

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A group of 149 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse was tested using a causal model that identifies relationships among sexual abuse situation characteristics, the accomplishment of cognitive coping tasks, and long-term effects. Results indicated the model did not fit the data. A revised model is proposed and examined. (JBJ)

Draucker, Claire B.

1995-01-01

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Childhood physical abuse in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms  

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Abstract Background In Japan and Asia, few studies have been done of physical and sexual abuse. This study was aimed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse is associated with anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. Methods We divided 564 consecutive new outpatients at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine of Kyushu University Hospital into two groups: a physically abused group and a non-a...

Handa Masanori; Nukina Hideyuki; Hosoi Masako; Kubo Chiharu

2008-01-01

32

Childhood Emotional Abuse and Attachment Processes in the Dyadic Adjustment of Dating Couples  

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In an effort to improve understanding of the mechanisms that link early maltreatment to later outcomes, this study investigated the mediation effects of adult attachment processes on the association between childhood emotional abuse and later romantic relationships among heterosexual couples. College students and their dating partners (N = 310;…

Riggs, Shelley A.; Cusimano, Angela M.; Benson, Karen M.

2011-01-01

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Trauma and Sexuality: The Effects of Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse on Sexual Identity and Behavior.  

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This book examines the effects of childhood trauma--including sexual abuse--on sexual orientation and behavior. It is directed at helping counselors expand their sensitivity and expertise in a critically important way: by providing a nonjudgmental look at the profound effects of long-standing early abuse on the sexual identities, orientation,…

Chu, James A., Ed.; Bowman, Elizabeth S., Ed.

34

Associations Between Childhood Trauma, Childhood Sexual Abuse, and Adult Psychological Symptomatology  

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The study explores the association between potentially traumatic childhood events (PTEs), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological symptoms, measured by specific posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), general psychological distress (GPD), interpersonal problems (IP), and emotion regulation problems (ERP). Method. Self- report questionnaires were used to collect data about exposure to childhood PTE (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form; CTQ-SF), current symptoms of PTS (Impac...

Løken, Per Martin Hvam-malmedal; Reigstad, Henriette Linnea

2012-01-01

35

Infant and Early Childhood Education and Socialization in Sweden.  

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This paper describes early childhood education programs in Sweden, focusing on their history and development, administration, goals and objectives, admissions policies, structure, expenditures, program of activities, facilities, staffing, daily routine, problems and criticisms. Beginning in 1902, legislation provided for the care of abused and…

Wahab, Zaher

36

Early Childhood Special Educators and the Hospital Ethics Committee.  

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The paper discusses issues of concern to early childhood special educators serving on hospital ethics committees to assist families with seriously ill and handicapped infants in neonatal intensive care units. Issues include infant euthanasia and the right to life, child abuse legislation, and possible effects on families. (Author/JDD)

Lowenthal, Barbara

1989-01-01

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Early Childhood Education: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.  

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This bibliography on early childhood (toddler to about age six) and early childhood education is divided into three main sections: annotations of monographs and selected papers, notes on journal articles, and abstracts of research reports. These are followed by a brief section on nonconventional (usually mixed media) materials on early childhood

Yan, Rose, Comp.

38

Dispersing Waves: Innovation in Early Childhood Education  

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Early childhood education Centres of Innovation (COI) were established in 2002 as part of the 10-year plan for early childhood education, "Pathways to the Future/Nga Huarahi Arataki." In COI projects, innovative early childhood teaching teams reflect on and investigate their practices through action research, and share their findings with the…

Meade, Anne, Ed.

2010-01-01

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Expertise of Early Childhood Educators  

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Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80). The data consisted of the early educators’ stories of their growth towards expertise. The analysis was carried out by the methods of content analysis. As the results, three key competences of the informants were created: 1) ...

Iiris Happo; Kaarina Määttä

2011-01-01

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The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Anorexia Nervosa  

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Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…

Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychosomatic Symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

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Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…

Ross, Colin A.

2005-01-01

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The Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator’s Role in Teaching Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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There is a strong likelihood that at least one participant in any Lamaze childbirth education class has had personal experience with childhood sexual abuse. Using the wisdom of Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators and respected authors in the field of childhood sexual abuse, this column enlightens the childbirth educator in three ways: understanding the incidence of female and male childhood sexual abuse; understanding the effects of sexual, emotional, physical, and verbal abuse on the pregn...

2012-01-01

43

Acute leukemia in early childhood  

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Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months....

Emerenciano, M.; Koifman, S.; Pombo-de-oliveira, M. S.

2007-01-01

44

Shame and Guilt in Men Exposed to Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Investigation  

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This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…

Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken

2012-01-01

45

Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?  

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Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

2010-01-01

46

Intergenerational associations between a consensual childhood sexual experience and adult substance abuse among Latina mothers and daughters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patria Rojas2,3, Sunny Kim4, Mario De La Rosa2,3, Frank R Dillon2,3, Theophile Niyonsenga1,31Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 2School of Social Work, 3Center for Research on US Latinos HIV/AIDs and Drug Abuse, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Davis, CA, USAPurpose: Early onset of sexual activity has been linked to later substance abuse. Our study aimed to further describe the associations between Latina mothers’ and daughters’ early sexual activity and adult substance abuse.Methods: A survey was conducted with 92 Latina mother–daughter dyads whose members never experienced sexual abuse. Childhood sexual experience was defined as the occurrence of a consensual sexual encounter at the age of 15 years or younger. Substance abusers were identified by the extent of substance use during the 12 months prior to the interview. Path analysis was used to fit our conceptual models to the data.Main findings: Daughters’ current, adult substance abuse was associated independently with: their own childhood sexual experience (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 and mothers’ current, adult substance abuse (OR = 2.0. Compared with daughters who first experienced sex after the age of 19, the odds of using substances were 17.7 times higher among daughters who had childhood sexual experience and 3.8 times higher among daughters who first experienced sex between the age of 16–19 years. Explicitly, sexual experiences between the ages of 16–19 years were also risk factors for later adult substance abuse. Mothers’ childhood sexual experience (OR = 7.3 was a strong predictor for daughters’ childhood sexual experience.Conclusions: Our study supported a link between mother and daughter childhood sexual experience among Latinas, and indicated it is a correlate of adult substance abuse. Family based substance abuse prevention efforts and future longitudinal studies should consider maternal childhood sexual experience as a potential indication of risk for Latina daughters.Keywords: early sex, child sex, Latina, substance abuse

Patria Rojas

2010-02-01

47

The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…

Finkelhor, David

2009-01-01

48

Childhood antecedents of antisocial behavior: parental alcoholism and physical abusiveness.  

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Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the independent and interactive effects of paternal alcoholism and physical child abuse on antisocial behavior in young adult men. Men with alcoholic fathers (N = 131) did not report or exhibit more antisocial behavior than comparison subjects (N = 70). Men with physical abuse histories, however, reported more aggressive and antisocial behaviors during a clinical interview and were rated by a clinical interviewer as more likely to act out aggression. Arrest records did not distinguish the groups. There was no evidence that paternal alcoholism and childhood victimization interacted to increase the risk of antisocial behavior. PMID:2399994

Pollock, V E; Briere, J; Schneider, L; Knop, J; Mednick, S A; Goodwin, D W

1990-10-01

49

Early Childhood Services in New Zealand.  

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Describes the types and characteristics of New Zealand early childhood education services. Specific areas addressed include: (1) Te Whaariki, the New Zealand early childhood curriculum; (2) great outdoors as a feature of early education; (3) education and care centers; (4) kindergartens and playcenters; and (5) Te Kohanga Reo, Maori language and…

Oborn, Glennie

2002-01-01

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Childhood physical abuse, aggression, and suicide attempts among criminal offenders  

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Childhood physical abuse (CPA) has numerous short and long-term negative effects. One of the most serious consequences of CPA is an increased risk for suicide attempts. Clarifying the mechanisms by which CPA increases risk for suicidal behavior may enhance preventative interventions. One potential mechanism is a tendency toward aggression. In a sample of 266 criminal offenders, ages 18–62, we examined the relationships among CPA, lifetime aggression, and suicide attempts and tested lifetime...

Swogger, Marc T.; You, Sungeun; Cashman-brown, Sarah; Conner, Kenneth R.

2011-01-01

51

Exploring the Quality of Early Childhood Education in China: Implications for Early Childhood Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The following article introduces an exploratory study that was designed to measure the quality of early childhood education within its ever changing sociocultural context utilizing the Early Childhood Learning Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) in 40 classrooms in Beijing, China. Implications for early childhood teacher education,…

Hu, Bi Ying; Szente, Judit

2009-01-01

52

Psychosocial Resources and Associations Between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Well-being  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Childhood physical abuse is often associated with detrimental physical and psychological consequences in adulthood. Yet, some adults appear to overcome effects of very severe parental physical abuse in childhood. This study considered whether psychosocial resources (i.e., emotional and instrumental support, personal control) explain variability in well-being for adults who experienced childhood physical abuse by their parents. Participants included 2,711 adults aged 25–74 years from the Mid...

Pitzer, Lindsay M.; Fingerman, Karen L.

2010-01-01

53

Prevalence and correlates of childhood sexual abuse in adults consulting for sexual problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in individuals consulting for sexual therapy and to explore the association between a history of childhood sexual abuse and psychological and couple functioning. A sample of 218 adults receiving sex therapy completed questionnaires assessing depressive and anxious symptomatology, as well as dyadic adjustment. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse was high in women (56%) and men (37%), and clients with a history of childhood sexual abuse were more likely to report psychological and relationship problems. Findings should aware clinicians of the need to assess sexual trauma and related outcomes. PMID:24127985

Berthelot, Nicolas; Godbout, Natacha; Hébert, Martine; Goulet, Michel; Bergeron, Sophie

2014-01-01

54

The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

2009-01-01

55

Early Childhood Training Workbook [and Videos].  

Science.gov (United States)

This early childhood training workbook and three accompanying video series provide instruction for early childhood caregivers and teachers in the areas of guidance and discipline, math, and diversity. The video series "Guidance and Discipline" demonstrates the ways in which teachers help children become self disciplined. The three videos in this…

Magna Systems, Inc., Barrington, IL.

56

Pretend Play in the Early Childhood Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…

McEntire, Nancy

2009-01-01

57

Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

Grabert, John C.

2009-01-01

58

Acute leukemia in early childhood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in in [...] fant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months) has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9), E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4), PML/RARA+ve (N = 4), and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2) cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07), OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31) and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96)], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

M., Emerenciano; S., Koifman; M.S., Pombo-de-Oliveira.

59

Acute leukemia in early childhood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

M. Emerenciano

2007-06-01

60

Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

Elzy, Meredith B.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Childhood Abuse, Chronic Pain, and Depression in the National Comorbidity Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The current study examined the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse on reports of pain in men and women (N=1,727). Methods: Data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative sample, were utilized. Childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse were assessed, and pain reports in relation to current…

Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Hernandez, Annya

2007-01-01

62

Sarah's Story: Using Ritual Therapy to Address Psychospiritual Issues in Treating Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an individual's healing from the trauma of childhood sexual abuse through counseling, spiritual growth, and the use of therapeutic ritual. Explores relationships between the psychospiritual issues associated with childhood sexual abuse and commonly designated treatment goals. Claims that addressing psychospiritual issues is crucial in…

Parker, Radha J.; Horton, H. Shelton, Jr.; Watson, Terri

1997-01-01

63

The World Bank's View of Early Childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores World Bank's view of early childhood as an example of the globalization of childhood, arguing that the Bank's policies exacerbate the gap between rich and poor nations and between rich and poor within countries, and affect children's lives adversely. Explores inherent contradictions of policies that draw on traditional Anglo-American…

Penn, Helen

2002-01-01

64

Hardiness as a Moderator of Shame Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys an adult female sample of childhood sexual abuse survivors to determine if hardiness was effective in moderating the negative effects of perceived trauma and severity of the sexual abuse and internalized shame on relationship intimacy. Results indicate that perception and severity of abuse, and shame were significantly and negatively…

Feinauer, Leslie; Hilton, H. Gill; Callahan, Eddy Howard

2003-01-01

65

Internal States Language in the Childhood Recollections of Adolescents with and without Abuse Histories  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the representation of internal states in childhood recollections of male and female adolescents with and without abuse histories. Participants' (N = 71) exposure to spousal violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and 6 years later when they were 12 to 18 years old. At the Year…

Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Johnson, Rebecca; McCloskey, Laura A.

2005-01-01

66

Early childhood programs and the education system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Policy makers, advocates and experts agree that the current delivery of early childhood development programs is fragmented. Many point to the education system as a better alternative for a more coherent approach that has the necessary infrastructure in place in communities, and is well placed to meet the needs of all young children and their families. In other jurisdictions, early childhood development programs have moved into education. In Canada, provincial and local school authorities are ...

Beach, Jane; Bertrand, Jane

2009-01-01

67

Family history of alcohol and drug abuse, childhood trauma, and age of first drug injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Childhood maltreatment may lead to development of future substance use; however the contributions of a family history of substance use is unclear. Objectives: To better understand the relationship between childhood abuse, family history of alcohol and drug abuse, and injecting drug use initiation in a cohort of chronic opioid users. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of long-term and difficult to treat intravenous opiate users of the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) cohort was conducted in two Canadian cities (Vancouver and Montreal). For the analysis, we selected a subsample (n = 87) of the population reported experiencing childhood abuse and completed a 12-month follow up. The sample was 41.4% female and 14.9% First Nations, with a mean age of 38 years. This sample then completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) beside others. Results: Maternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. Paternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood physical abuse. Increased severity of all types of childhood trauma was related to an earlier age of first injection. Conclusions/Importance: Family history of drug and alcohol use is strongly associated with childhood trauma, which may, in turn, lead to an earlier initiation to the dangerous routes of drug injection. PMID:24708431

Taplin, Chris; Saddichha, Sahoo; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael R

2014-08-01

68

Early Childhood Professionals and Inter-Professional Work in Integrated Early Childhood Services in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing body of literature argues that integrated services, where a range of professionals including early childhood professionals work together in teams, offer a potentially highly effective strategy for providing families with access to a range of services in a seamless "joined-up" way. Some have cautioned, however, that early childhood

Wong, Sandie; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances

2012-01-01

69

Role of emotion dysregulation in the relationship between childhood abuse and probable PTSD in a sample of substance abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined associations among childhood abuse, emotion dysregulation, and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within a sample of 93 substance use disorder (SUD) patients in residential treatment. SUD patients with probable PTSD (vs. non-PTSD) reported (a) greater severity of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and (b) significantly higher levels of overall emotion dysregulation and the specific dimensions of difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior when upset, difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors when distressed, limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies, and lack of emotional clarity. Additionally, significant positive associations were found between both childhood physical and emotional (but not sexual) abuse on the one hand and dimensions of emotion dysregulation on the other. Further analyses indicated that difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors when distressed accounted for the associations of both childhood physical and emotional abuse with probable PTSD status. Findings of the present study highlight a potential mechanism underlying the relationships between both childhood emotional and physical abuse and PTSD in SUD patients. PMID:23643388

Weiss, Nicole H; Tull, Matthew T; Lavender, Jason; Gratz, Kim L

2013-11-01

70

Childhood poverty, early motherhood and adult social exclusion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...

Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

1999-01-01

71

Early Childhood in Ethiopia: Initiatives in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes…

Szente, Judit; Hoot, James; Tadesse, Selamawit

2007-01-01

72

Early Childhood Math: Make It Manipulative!  

Science.gov (United States)

Maintains that early childhood teachers should provide young children with creative, stimulating, and manipulative (hands-on) experiences rather than workbook pages in early mathematics programs. Presents reasons and corresponding counterpositions for using workbooks and suggests sample activities which teachers can use to make mathematics more…

Stone, Janet I.

1987-01-01

73

Desarrollo Infantil (Early Childhood Development).  

Science.gov (United States)

The package contains a variety of short pamphlets which provide an overview of postnatal childhood development. The following are the titles: The premature baby; Your child ages 1-3; Your child ages 3-4; Your Children's feet and footwear; Care of your tee...

1969-01-01

74

Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

Bach K

2014-06-01

75

BDNF in late-life depression: effect of SSRI usage and interaction with childhood abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) serum levels are abnormally low in depressed patients as compared to healthy controls and normalize with SSRI treatment. The aim of this study is to examine serum BDNF levels in late-life depression, stratified for SSRI usage, and to explore the relation between BDNF levels and specific depression characteristics as well as between BDNF levels and early and recent life stressors in late-life depression. We assessed serum BDNF levels in 259 depressed patients not using an SSRI, 99 depressed patients using an SSRI and 119 non-depressed controls (age range 60-93 years). Depressive disorders were diagnosed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, version 2.1). Serum BDNF levels were significantly higher in depressed patients who used an SSRI compared to depressed patients not using SSRIs and compared to non-depressed controls, when adjusted for age, sex, life style characteristics, cognitive functioning and somatic comorbidity. Recent life-events, assessed with the List of Threatening Events-Questionnaire, were significantly associated with lower BDNF levels in non-depressed subjects only. Although a summary score of early traumatization (before the age of 16 years) was not associated with serum BDNF levels in any of the three groups, we found an interaction between a history of severe physical abuse and SSRI usage in the depressed group. Interestingly, higher serum levels of BDNF in depressed patients using SSRIs were only found in those patients without a history of severe childhood abuse and not in those with a history of severe childhood abuse. PMID:24703173

van der Meij, Annemarie; Comijs, Hannie C; Dols, Annemieke; Janzing, Joost G E; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

2014-05-01

76

Relation between sexual abuse in childhood and adult depression: case-control study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between sexual abuse in childhood and adult depression in women. DESIGN: Two stage, case detection and case identification design, using the 30-item general health questionnaire and the Beck depression inventory for screening and the affective items relating to current functioning on the schizophrenia and affective disorders schedule to identify depressed cases. Details of sexual abuse in childhood were elicited retrospectively by semistructured interview...

1998-01-01

77

Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

2009-01-01

78

Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Depressed Patients with Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has shown both childhood physical and sexual abuse to be associated with later suicide attempts, although some studies have not supported these findings. However, few studies have investigated differences in physical and sexual abuse histories among single and multiple suicide attempters. The goals of the current study were two-fold: (a)…

Andover, Margaret S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W.

2007-01-01

79

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

2009-01-01

80

Failure to find association between childhood abuse and cognition in first-episode psychosis patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationship between severe childhood abuse and cognitive functions in first-episode psychosis patients and geographically-matched controls. Reports of any abuse were associated with lower scores in the executive function domain in the control group. However, in contrast with our hypothesis, no relationships were found amongst cases. PMID:23764407

Sideli, L; Fisher, H L; Russo, M; Murray, R M; Stilo, S A; Wiffen, B D R; O'Connor, J A; Aurora Falcone, M; Pintore, S M; Ferraro, L; Mule', A; La Barbera, D; Morgan, C; Di Forti, M

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Childhood abuse as a risk factor for suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

A childhood history of sexual or physical abuse is highly prevalent in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and is associated with self-destructive behavior in clinical and nonclinical samples. Viewing BPD as a "high risk" disorder, we asked if childhood abuse was a risk factor for adult suicidal behavior or if it was related to other known risk factors for suicide in BPD. A semistructured Abuse History was obtained in 61 criteria-defined BPD patients, who were characterized by structured interviews and self-reports for Axis I disorders, Suicide History, BPD severity, hopelessness, impulsivity, impulsive-aggression, and antisocial traits. Occurrence and severity of childhood sexual abuse, but not physical abuse, predicted adult suicidal behavior independent of other known risk factors. The odds of a sexually abused patient attempting suicide in adulthood was over 10 times that of a patient who was never sexually abused. Given a history of childhood sexual abuse, the risk of adult suicidal behavior in BPD was increased by antisocial traits, severity of BPD, hopelessness, or comorbid major depressive episode (MDE). PMID:12136678

Soloff, Paul H; Lynch, Kevin G; Kelly, Thomas M

2002-06-01

82

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

2007-01-01

83

The Relationship between Seclusion and Restraint Use and Childhood Abuse among Psychiatric Inpatients  

Science.gov (United States)

Seclusion and restraint (S/R) is a controversial topic in the field of psychiatry, due in part to the high rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse found among psychiatric inpatients. The trauma-informed care perspective suggests that the use of S/R with previously abused inpatients may result in retraumatization due to mental associations…

Hammer, Joseph H.; Springer, Justin; Beck, Niels C.; Menditto, Anthony; Coleman, James

2011-01-01

84

Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…

Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

2009-01-01

85

The Impact of Shame on Health-Related Quality of Life Among HIV-Positive Adults with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Childhood sexual abuse is prevalent among people living with HIV, and the experience of shame is a common consequence of childhood sexual abuse and HIV infection. This study examined the role of shame in health-related quality of life among HIV-positive adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse. Data from 247 HIV-infected adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse were analyzed. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to assess the impact of shame regarding both sexual abus...

2010-01-01

86

Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

2010-01-01

87

Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

2011-01-01

88

Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

2006-01-01

89

Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Breast Cancer: The Role of Childhood Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study investigated relations between reported childhood abuse and recent traumatic stress symptoms in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 330). Methods: As part of a larger ongoing study, patients from eight public and private hospitals were referred by their physicians and completed the Childhood Trauma…

Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Jandorf, Lina; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Amend, Kandace L.; Stoudt, Brett G.; Rini, Christine; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred; Reilly, James J.; Tartter, Paul I.; Feldman, Sheldon M.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

2010-01-01

90

Trauma Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Substance Abuse: Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…

Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David

2004-01-01

91

An Early Childhood Movement Laboratory Model: Kindergym  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood motor activity programs at institutions of higher learning can operate within the tripartite mission of the university while serving a vital function in providing leadership and guidance to educators. This article describes the University of Northern Iowa's Kindergym model. Within this model, curricular areas of games/sports,…

Marston, Rip

2004-01-01

92

Challenges Facing Early Childhood Programs Worldwide  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author presents the challenges faced by early childhood education in 29 countries, according to the World Forum National Representatives and Global Leaders for Young Children. The countries represented in these responses include: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan,…

Neugebauer, Roger

2008-01-01

93

Early Childhood Development in Texas: 1972.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first annual report of the Texas Office of Early Childhood Development surveys public and non-public programs for children. Data, gathered from questionnaires mailed to State agencies and private organizations in Texas, include a description of the service (medical treatment, day care, education), number of children served, requirements for…

Texas State Dept. of Community Affairs, Austin. Office of Early Childhood Development.

94

Early Childhood Trends around the World  

Science.gov (United States)

This article shares the views of the members of the World Forum community regarding early childhood education trends around the world. It summarizes trends from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Denmark, The Netherlands, Italy, Turkey, Nepal, Vietnam, Tajikistan, Hong Kong, Singapore, India, New Zealand, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt,…

Neugebauer, Roger

2007-01-01

95

"Queerying" Gender: Heteronormativity in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores heteronormativity and argues for the "queerying" of gender in early childhood education. The author argues, utilising Butler's theory of performativity and heterosexual matrix, that the construction of gender in young children's lives requires an analysis of the normalising practices in which gendered identities are…

Robinson, Kerry H.

2005-01-01

96

Recent Research in Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document reports on recent research in the United States in the field of early childhood education. The point is made that this research is characterized by conflicting ideologies and rapid change. This conflict revolves around such issues as the relative importance of direct instruction and incidental learning, the emphasis on cognitive…

Butler, Annie L.

97

Early Childhood Teachers' Behavior Intention to Apply Teaching Aids  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aimed to investigate the behavior intention of early childhood teachers to apply teaching aids. The survey method was used to collect data from 281 early childhood teachers currently working at early childhood education institutes. The data was analyzed by t-test, Chi-square analysis, and Pearson coefficient to examine the…

Kuo, Chuen-Tzay

2010-01-01

98

Breaking Bread: Spirituality, Food and Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The spiritual aspect of early childhood education is supported by the early childhood curriculum in Aotearoa New Zealand, "Te Whariki". Research in three different early childhood settings presents new perspectives on the everyday experiences of children in terms of spirituality. Each setting formed a case study that included the voices of…

Bone, Jane

2005-01-01

99

Early Childhood Education: A Study of Twenty-Seven States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Descriptions of 27 state early childhood education programs are presented in this survey conducted to provide information on which to base program development decisions related to early childhood education in West Virginia. The study surveyed the following areas in each state: definition of early childhood education; administrating agency; laws,…

Benish, Jean, Comp.

100

Changing Curriculum for Early Childhood Education in England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines early childhood curriculum in England. Traditional early childhood education in England has been child centered, in contrast to approaches that are subject centered and teacher directed, emphasizing individual children?s interests, free play, firsthand experience, and integrated learning. However, recently, the government introduced a framework for an early years curriculum, redefined the child-centered educational model, and initiated reforms for raising standards. In order to identify the nature of early childhood curriculum in England, this article examines the historical development and philosophical underpinnings of early childhood education, including recent developments. The article then investigates and describes the early childhood curriculum in England today.

Young-Ihm Kwon

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Predicting Long-Term Outcomes for Women Physically Abused in Childhood: Contribution of Abuse Severity versus Family Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Child physical abuse (CPA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for the explanation for heterogeneous outcomes in women with CPA has led to an examination of a range of CPA-related factors, from the severity of CPA incidents to the childhood

Griffin, Margaret L.; Amodeo, Maryann

2010-01-01

102

Associations among childhood abuse and psychopathy facets in male sexual offenders.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the search for causes of psychopathy, the literature historically focuses on biological and temperamental differences. In comparison, this literature overshadows that of psychosocial risk factors for the development of psychopathy, namely childhood maltreatment. The current study examines the association between specific types of maltreatment (i.e., physical, emotional, sexual abuse, neglect) and PCL-R total and facet scores among a sample of 223 adult men convicted of sexual offenses and evaluated for civil commitment. Results indicate that childhood sexual abuse is associated with higher PCL-R total scores and facets tapping a grandiose and manipulative interpersonal style, impulsive-irresponsible lifestyle, and antisocial behavior. Also, childhood physical abuse and neglect are associated with antisocial behavior. Emotional detachment traits of psychopathy (i.e., lack of empathy, shallow affect) are associated with childhood neglect for child molesters, although rapists scored higher on these traits irrespective of neglect history. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22448862

Graham, Nicole; Kimonis, Eva R; Wasserman, Adam L; Kline, Suzonne M

2012-01-01

103

"Learning Stories"--Crossing Borders: Introducing Qualitative Early Childhood Observation Techniques to Early Childhood Practitioners in Saudi Arabia  

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Early childhood education has become a focus of government policy across the world. Part of the present increased interest in early childhood education has been a focus on curriculum frameworks and socio/cultural methods of assessment. Currently, New Zealand has emerged as a world leader in early childhood education, and observation and assessment…

Nyland, Berenice; Alfayez, Shatha

2012-01-01

104

The Politics of Technology in Early Childhood in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Fitting Early Childhood Educators in the ICT Grid  

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This article identifies contemporary issues for educators regarding the integration of new technologies in the early childhood education centre, through critical analysis of discourse associated with the integration of new technologies in early childhood services in Aotearoa/New Zealand. A culture of critique is revealed as an early childhood

Gibbons, Andrew Neil

2006-01-01

105

Prevalence of self-reported childhood abuse in psychosis: a meta-analysis of retrospective studies.  

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There is extensive clinical literature reporting traumatic childhood experiences in patients with psychosis. A quantitative meta-analysis addressing the prevalence of self-reported childhood sexual (CSA), physical (CPA) and emotional abuse (CEA) in psychotic patients has yet to be done. We conducted, a systematic literature search to identify retrospective studies addressing self-reported childhood abuse in patients with DSM/ICD psychosis. Demographic, clinical, and methodological variables were extracted from each publication, or obtained directly from its authors. Quantitative meta-analysis of CSA, CPA, CEA in the sample of patients was performed. Statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed and meta-regressions performed to control for different moderators. Twenty-three studies were retrieved and included a total of 2017 psychotic patients. The prevalence of self-reported CSA, CPA, CEA were respectively of 26%, 39% and 34%. Age, publication year, gender and substance abuse moderated CSA, while age, clinical setting and substance abuse moderated CPA. Results indicated that CEA was moderated by gender and publication year of the study. According to our meta-analysis, psychotic patients have a consistently high self-report of childhood traumatic events which are sexual, physical and emotional in nature. It is our opinion that clinicians should be trained and skilled to carefully investigate childhood abuse in psychosis. PMID:23790604

Bonoldi, Ilaria; Simeone, Ercole; Rocchetti, Matteo; Codjoe, Louisa; Rossi, Giorgio; Gambi, Francesco; Balottin, Umberto; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Politi, Pierluigi; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

2013-11-30

106

Childhood abuse is related to working memory impairment for positive emotion in female university students.  

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Childhood abuse is an important risk factor for depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use later in life. One possible mechanism underlying this association could be deficits in cognitive processing of emotional information. This study tested the impact of distracting emotional information on working memory performance in 21 young women with a history of sexual and physical abuse during childhood/adolescence (mean age = 20.0), and compared their performance to 17 individuals reporting nonabuse-related childhood stress (mean age = 19.6) and a control group of 17 women without a history of childhood stress (mean age = 20.0). During the most difficult distractor condition, working memory accuracy for positive versus neutral incidental emotional stimuli was reduced in women reporting a history of abuse relative to both control groups (with and without nonabuse-related childhood stress). The current results reveal aberrant responses to positive stimuli and are consistent with the notion of persistent influence of childhood abuse on processes critical for emotional well-being and emotion control. PMID:24271026

Cromheeke, Sofie; Herpoel, Laure-Anne; Mueller, Sven C

2014-02-01

107

Finnish Early Childhood Educators and Sustainable Development  

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The aim of this study was to find out what Finnish early childhood educators (n = 145) value on sustainability and how they assess the promotion of sustainability in their daily lives. They also wrote 495 comments about barriers to sustainable lifestyle. The data were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative methods. According to the results, the most important elements of sustainability were (a) supporting of communality (including intergenerational link and trust); (b) social res...

Salonen, Arto O.; Sylvia Tast

2013-01-01

108

Traumagenic Dynamics in Adult Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse vs. Adolescent Male Sex Offenders with Similar Histories.  

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Female childhood sexual abuse survivors and adolescent male sexual offenders with a history of childhood sexual abuse were assessed using the Trauma-Related Beliefs Questionnaire. Results suggested that male sex offenders hold high levels of traumagenic beliefs common in females, especially related to trust and betrayal. (Author)

Edwards, Carla; Hendrix, Rebecca

2001-01-01

109

The Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Heart Disease in Adulthood: Findings from a Representative Community Sample  

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Objectives: Although, the relationship between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease has been documented, very few studies have controlled for many of the known risk factors for heart disease. The objective of the current study, therefore, was to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease while…

Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Frank, John

2010-01-01

110

Abuse in childhood and religious/spiritual status in adulthood among internal medicine outpatients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between abuse in childhood and religiosity/spirituality status in adulthood has been previously studied, but not in a medical sample or with the current study measure. Using a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 317 internal medicine outpatients, we asked participants, "As a child, were you the victim of either physical or sexual abuse?," and assessed religiosity/spirituality status with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp-12). We found that among the cohort with abuse in childhood, seven of twelve scales as well as the overall FACIT-Sp-12 score demonstrated statistically significant differences, with abused participants consistently evidencing lower religiosity/spirituality scores. PMID:22395752

Sansone, Randy A; Kelley, Amy R; Forbis, Jeremy S

2013-12-01

111

Assessing the association between childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual experiences in women with sexual difficulties.  

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Self-report instruments for assessing sexual well-being in women with sexual difficulties have not to date been explicitly validated among women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Given an extensive literature suggesting psychological differences between women with and without a history of CSA, it is possible that sexual well-being has a different meaning for these groups. Without validated scales, it is difficult to evaluate the impact of early sexual trauma on adult sexuality. The present study assessed whether the factor structure of widely used measures of sexual well-being were consistent across women experiencing sexual difficulties, with and without an abuse history, and to estimate effect sizes for the statistical effect of CSA on sexual well-being in this population. A sample of women with and without a history of CSA (N = 238) completed the Female Sexual Function Index and the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women. Structural equation models indicated generally consistent factor structures across groups, suggesting good construct validity. Effect size estimates indicated medium to large (0.53-0.72) effects of CSA on sexual well-being for women with sexual difficulties. These findings support and extend research regarding the potential effects of CSA that may inform treatment for this population. PMID:24948536

Stephenson, Kyle R; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

2014-06-01

112

The impact of childhood abuse on inpatient substance users: Specific links with risky sex, aggression, and emotion dysregulation.  

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Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. PMID:24521524

Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C

2014-05-01

113

Rural–Urban Migration and Experience of Childhood Abuse in the Young Thai Population  

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Evidence suggests that certain migrant populations are at increased risk of abusive behaviors. It is unclear whether this may also apply to Thai rural–urban migrants, who may experience higher levels of psychosocial adversities than the population at large. The study aims to examine the association between migration status and the history of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse among young Thai people in an urban community. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted ...

2011-01-01

114

Parental conceptions of quality in Greek early childhood education.  

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The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers’ parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the aspects of ECE. The same aspects were evaluated with Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) by trained observers. Results suggested...

Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; ?????????????????, ????????; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; ????????????, ??????????; ??????????, ?????????; ???????????, ?????????

2013-01-01

115

Exploring the Multiplicity of Childhood Sexual Abuse with a Focus on Polyincestuous Contexts of Abuse.  

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Explores the prevalence of multiple abusers and polyincest in a clinical sample of 88 adult women. Results suggest the need for further research on the frequency of multiple abusers among victims of sexual abuse, as well as the ways in which family and social contexts serve as collusive environments for the practice of CSA. (Contains 24 references…

Crowley, M. Sue; Seery, Brenda L.

2001-01-01

116

Disentangling possible effects of childhood physical abuse on gray matter changes in violent offenders with psychopathy.  

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Violent offenders with psychopathy present a lifelong pattern of callousness and aggression and fail to benefit from rehabilitation programs. This study presents the first, albeit preliminary, evidence suggesting that some of the structural brain anomalies distinguishing violent offenders with psychopathy may result from physical abuse in childhood. PMID:24361393

Kolla, Nathan J; Gregory, Sarah; Attard, Stephen; Blackwood, Nigel; Hodgins, Sheilagh

2014-02-28

117

Psychogenic Amnesia for Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Sexual Revictimisation in Both Adolescence and Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…

Wager, Nadia

2012-01-01

118

Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse: Prevalence and Correlates among Adolescents Living in Rural Taiwan  

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Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…

Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei

2008-01-01

119

Family Environment in Hispanic College Females with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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This study sought to examine the family environments of a sample of Hispanic women who reported childhood sexual abuse. Eighteen women, taken from a larger college sample, were individually interviewed and administered the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994). Cultural values and the relationship of family characteristics to the…

Kenny, Maureen C.; McEachern, Adriana Garcia

2007-01-01

120

Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Parenting Origins in Patients with Opioid Abuse and Non-Abusers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. "nMethod: The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form; and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. "nResults: Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. The analysis showed that the means for schemas between opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers were different. Chi square test showed that parenting origins were significantly associated with their related schemas. "nConclusion:  The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers were more than non-opioid abusers ; and parenting origins were related to their Corresponding schemas.

Ali Reza Kakavand

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Prevalence and Overlap of Childhood and Adult Physical, Sexual, and Emotional Abuse: A Descriptive Analysis of Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey  

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Abuse is associated with a wide variety of health problems, yet comprehensive population-based data are scant. Existing literature focuses on a single type of abuse, population, or lifestage. Using a racially/ethnically diverse community-based sample, we document the prevalence of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse by lifestage and gender; assess variation in abuse by socio-demographics; establish overlap of abuses; and examine childhood abuse relationships with abuse in adulthood. Prevalence of abuse ranges from 15% to 27%; women report more adulthood emotional abuse and lifetime sexual abuse than men; reports of abuse can vary by race/ethnicity and poverty status, particularly in women; there is overlap between types of abuse; and a history of childhood abuse is associated with a greater risk of abuse as an adult.

Chiu, Gretchen R.; Lutfey, Karen E.; Litman, Heather J.; Link, Carol L.; Hall, Susan A.; McKinlay, John B.

2012-01-01

122

Prevalence and overlap of childhood and adult physical, sexual, and emotional abuse: a descriptive analysis of results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abuse is associated with a wide variety of health problems, yet comprehensive population-based data are scant. Existing literature focuses on a single type of abuse, population, or lifestage. Using a racially/ethnically diverse community-based sample, we document the prevalence of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse by lifestage and gender, assess variation in abuse by sociodemographics; establish overlap of abuses; and examine childhood abuse relationships with abuse in adulthood. Prevalence of abuse ranges from 15% to 27%; women report more adulthood emotional abuse and lifetime sexual abuse than men; reports of abuse can vary by race/ethnicity and poverty status, particularly in women; there is overlap between types of abuse; and a history of childhood abuse is associated with a greater risk of abuse as an adult. PMID:23862305

Chiu, Gretchen R; Lutfey, Karen E; Litman, Heather J; Link, Carol L; Hall, Susan A; McKinlay, John B

2013-01-01

123

Psychopathology and resilience in relation to abuse in childhood among youth first referred to the psychiatrist  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Child abuse may be related to adverse psychological outcomes in adult life. However, little is known about specific clinical, family and resilience profiles of adolescents that have experienced child abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical symptoms, family functioning and resilience characteristics of adolescents with the experience of abuse, first referred to psychiatrists. Methods. The study included 84 young participants (mean age 14.90 ± 3.10, ranging from 11 to 18 years as consecutive first referrals to the Clinic for Children and Youth of the Institute of Mental Health, Belgrade, Serbia. The sample consisted of two groups, based on the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The first group included adolescents with the experience of abuse in childhood (n = 38, 13 males, 25 females, whereas the second, control group, comprised of non-abused adolescents (n = 47, 20 males, 27 females. The presence of abuse was evaluated by the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The study used the following questionnaires: Youth Self-Report (YSR, Adolescent Resilience Attitudes Scale (ARAS, and Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI. Results. Significant differences were found only among females. According to YSR, the abused girls had significantly higher scores on the Delinquent Behavior scale and marginally higher scores on Anxious/ Depressed and Social Problems scales. Analyses of the SFI showed significantly lower family functioning among the girls with the child abuse history for all scales except for the Directive Leadership. The abused girls also showed significantly lower scores on the Insight scale, and marginally lower Initiative scores at the ARAS. Conclusions. These findings may have practical application in the creation of specific preventive and treatment strategies, particularly focused on delinquent tendencies, as well as on enhancing resilience through providing positive environments within families, schools and communities.

Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica

2014-01-01

124

Quick and Easy Adaptations and Accommodations for Early Childhood Students  

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Research-based information is used to support the idea of the use of adaptations and accommodations for early childhood students who have varying disabilities. Multiple adaptations and accommodations are outlined. A step-by-step plan is provided on how to make specific adaptations and accommodations to fit the specific needs of early childhood

Breitfelder, Leisa M.

2008-01-01

125

Early Childhood Teacher Education in Ethiopia: Progress and Emerging Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

This article extends concerns of our National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators (NAECTE) membership beyond the borders of the United States to the continent of Africa. Specifically, it explores the current status of early childhood teacher education in one of the poorest nations of the world--Ethiopia. It includes an analysis of…

Hoot, James; Szente, Judit; Tadesse, Selamawit

2006-01-01

126

Early Childhood Education 83/84. Annual Editions. Sixth Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 59 articles in this sixth edition of "Annual Editions: Early Childhood Education 83/84" are drawn from several professional journals and present a wide variety of points on the philosophical and educational continuum of early childhood education. Divided into four sections, these points focus on the history and care of young children;…

McKee, Judy Spitler, Ed.

127

Rural Ojibwe Mothers' Experiences with Early Childhood Special Education Services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two rural Ojibwe mothers whose young children received early childhood at-risk services were interviewed about their life circumstances and experiences with service delivery. Major interview themes that emerged included positive experiences and successes with early childhood special education services, and rural and cultural obstacles to the…

Aakhus, Belle P.; Hoover, John H.

128

Promoting School and Life Success through Early Childhood Family Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.

Swick, Kevin J.

2009-01-01

129

Mixed-Age Groups in Early Childhood Education. ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

The topic of mixed-age groups in early childhood education is discussed in terms of: (1) advantages of mixed-age classes; (2) social development in mixed-age groups; (3) cognitive development in mixed-age groups; and (4) implications for early childhood education. It is asserted that mixed-age interaction among young children can offer a variety…

Evangelou, Demetra

130

Evaluation of the Quality of Early Childhood Classrooms in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of two types of Turkish early childhood education programs: private and public preschools. Three public and three private preschools in a district of Istanbul were randomly selected. The quality of preschools was assessed using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale developed by Harms et…

Gol-Guven, Mine

2009-01-01

131

Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Teacher Change among Early Childhood Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…

Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia

2010-01-01

132

Emerging Trends and Issues in Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten selected emerging trends in the field of early childhood education are discussed in this conference address: (1) a reevaluation of the view that early childhood education is a panacea; (2) greater emphasis on planned continuity between kindergartens and the primary grades; (3) increased use of multi-age grouping; (4) need for parenthood…

McIntyre, Margaret

133

Learning with Technology for Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes an innovative pilot project at the University of Canberra aimed at providing pre-service early childhood teachers with the skills, confidence and ideological change required to include technology-enhanced learning as part of the early childhood curriculum. The impact of the project was evaluated through participant…

Campbell, Anne; Scotellaro, Grazia

2009-01-01

134

Making the Case for Early Childhood Investments: Three Arguments  

Science.gov (United States)

Tamar Manuelyan Atinc, vice president of The World Bank, introduces a World Bank report, "Investing in Young Children: An Early Childhood Development Guide for Policy Dialogue and Project Preparation". This report, which is a must for inclusion in every advocate's make the case for investing in early childhood services. It defines three arguments…

Neugebauer, Roger

2011-01-01

135

Post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociation, and neuropsychological performance in Latina victims of childhood sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the memory, attention/concentration, and executive functioning of 12 women with histories of child sexual abuse with a control group of 12 women without childhood abuse. Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and various instruments assessing post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation. The child sexual abuse group had lower performance than the control group on long- and short-term visual and verbal memory and presented more limited performance on executive functioning tasks. Functioning in these areas showed a negative correlation with post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative symptoms. These findings suggest that child sexual abuse is associated with memory and executive functioning deficits and supports the idea that people with trauma histories and increased post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation symptoms may have alterations in neuropsychological functioning. PMID:24393090

Rivera-Vélez, Giselle M; González-Viruet, Maribella; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Pérez-Mojica, Deborah

2014-01-01

136

Prospective Association of Childhood Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use and Abuse/Dependence: A Meta-Analytic Review  

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Given the clinical and public health significance of substance disorders and the need to identify their early risk factors, we examined the association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with substance use (e.g., nicotine, alcohol) and abuse/dependence outcomes (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, other). To strengthen a potential causal inference, we meta-analyzed longitudinal studies that prospectively followed children with and without ADHD into adolescence or ...

Lee, Steve S.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flory, Kate; Liu, Rebecca; Glass, Kerrie

2011-01-01

137

Frequency of Six Early Childhood Education Approaches: A 10-Year Content Analysis of Early Childhood Education Journal  

Science.gov (United States)

The frequency of early childhood education approaches spanning 10 years of publications was investigated. A content analysis of publications (N = 492) from "Early Childhood Education Journal" was conducted. From a previous content analysis six approaches or search words were identified: Bank Street, Head Start, High/Scope, Montessori, Reggio…

Walsh, Bridget A.; Petty, Karen

2007-01-01

138

Childhood sexual abuse, distress, and alcohol-related problems: Moderation by drinking to cope.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have found relationships between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and problem alcohol use. However, few studies have explored mechanisms that may explain this relationship. The present study examined whether (a) distress mediated the relationship between CSA and both heavy drinking and alcohol consequences, (b) coping motives for drinking moderated the paths between distress and both heavy drinking and alcohol consequences, and (c) these relationships remained significant after controlling for other forms of abuse/trauma. Three hundred ninety-five undergraduate women completed survey measures of childhood abuse/trauma, alcohol use/consequences, distress, and drinking motives. Data were analyzed using path analyses. Results supported a moderated-mediation model in which distress mediated the relationship between CSA and alcohol consequences, but only among those who endorsed coping motives for drinking. After controlling for other forms of abuse/maltreatment, the moderated-mediated pathway was no longer significant, but there remained a direct path between CSA and alcohol consequences. The present study provides support for tension-reduction models of alcohol use among CSA-exposed women and demonstrates the moderating role of coping motives. The present study also highlights the need for future studies to control for other forms of abuse/trauma and suggests that other mechanisms and contextual variables need to be explored to explain the CSA/alcohol-use pathway. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24955671

Smith, Kathryn Z; Smith, Philip H; Grekin, Emily R

2014-06-01

139

Childhood abuse and vulnerability to depression: Cognitive scars in otherwise healthy young adults.  

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Models of depression vulnerability posit that negative early experiences, such as exposure to childhood abuse (CA), increase vulnerability to depression later in life. Though most victims of CA do not go on to develop depression, the question remains as to whether these individuals retain cognitive 'scars' that may contribute to depression vulnerability. The present study examined the relationship between self-reported, retrospective CA and cognitive vulnerability to depression in a carefully selected sample of young adults without current or past psychopathology. We measured cognitive vulnerability with both a self-report questionnaire, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and a measure of information processing bias, the Scrambled Sentences Test (SST). Self-reported severity of CA was associated with increased cognitive vulnerability to depression on both the DAS and SST. Vulnerability to depression as measured by the SST, but not by the DAS, prospectively predicted increases in depressive symptoms over a 6-month period. Scores on the SST also interacted with CA to predict increases in depressive symptoms. These findings demonstrate the pernicious effects of CA even in those without current or past psychopathology. PMID:24313549

Wells, Tony T; Vanderlind, W Michael; Selby, Edward A; Beevers, Christopher G

2014-08-01

140

The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women  

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This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women  

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A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peri-trauma variable of abuse severity and the post-trauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African American and Latina women with...

Sciolla, Andres; Glover, Dorie A.; Loeb, Tamra B.; Zhang, Muyu; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.

2011-01-01

142

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Relationship Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Community Sample of Women  

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Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been proposed to influence both women’s adult sexual risk behaviors and the quality of their intimate relationships. Among a household sample of women (n = 732), good fit was obtained for a model in which CSA predicted Wave 1 male partner sexual risk and aggression characteristics, resulting in lower relationship satisfaction, and ultimately in higher numbers of Wave 2 sexual partners. The model was generally replicated among women who entered new relationsh...

2005-01-01

143

Long-term Physical Health Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Meta-Analytic Review  

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Objective The purpose of the present article was to systematically review the literature investigating the long-term physical health consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA).?Methods?Literature searches yielded 31 studies comparing individuals with and without a history of CSA on six health outcomes: general health, gastrointestinal (GI) health, gynecologic or reproductive health, pain, cardiopulmonary symptoms, and obesity. Exploratory subgroup analyses were conducted to identify pot...

Irish, Leah; Kobayashi, Ihori; Delahanty, Douglas L.

2010-01-01

144

Males’ Reactions to Participating in Research on Dating Violence Victimization and Childhood Abuse  

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Childhood abuse and dating violence victimization are prevalent and devastating problems. While there has been an abundance of research on these topics in recent years, researchers and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) often struggle with determining whether asking respondents questions on previous violence will result in increased emotional distress or other negative research outcomes. Empirical data is therefore needed that examines the research reactions of individuals who participate in ...

2013-01-01

145

Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction  

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To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (s...

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

2012-01-01

146

Mediating role of childhood abuse and emotion regulation between parental bonding and suicidal behaviour  

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Introduction: Experiences of negative parenting and childhood abuse can have adverse consequences for the child?s development particularly in relation to the ability to regulate emotions effectively. There has been extensive research in this area and attachment theory is pivotal. Problems in regulating emotions can involve not being able to recognise, label or manage internal and external states of mind and behaviour. Therefore research has shown that problems in emotion r...

Amin, Margi

2012-01-01

147

Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates Genetic Influences on Age at First Consensual Sexual Intercourse in Women  

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We examine interactive effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on heritable variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse in a young cohort of 3,350 female and 2,724 male Australian twins. Consistent with hypotheses, genetic influences explained little if any variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse for female twins reporting CSA (CSA+), with shared environment explaining 73%. For female twins reporting no history of CSA (CSA?), 39% of variation in age at first cons...

Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C.; Turkheimer, Eric N.; Emery, Robert E.; Nelson, Elliot; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2008-01-01

148

Men's and Women's Childhood Sexual Abuse and Victimization in Adult Partner Relationships: A Study of Risk Factors  

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Objectives: (1) Document the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical assault, psychological, physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) in a nationally representative sample. (2) Assess the predictive value of CSA and other characteristics of the respondents and their current partners as potential risk factors for…

Daigneault, Isabelle; Hebert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre

2009-01-01

149

The role of early life stress in adult psychiatric disorders: a systematic review according to childhood trauma subtypes.  

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Early life stress (ELS; sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect) has been the focus of numerous studies. It has been associated with the onset and the severity of psychiatric disorders in adults. The objective of this study was to review the literature on ELS associated with psychiatric disorders in adulthood, seeking to identify whether there are independent effects between subtypes of early stress in triggering psychopathology in adults. We reviewed articles from 2001 to 2011 in four databases (PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, and PsycINFO), with the following key words: child abuse, maltreatment, early life stress, psychiatric disorders, mental disease, and psychopathology. Forty-four articles were selected, and most of these articles demonstrate that the subtypes of ELS are associated with several psychiatric disorders, more specifically: physical abuse, sexual abuse, and unspecified neglect with mood disorders and anxiety disorders; emotional abuse with personality disorders and schizophrenia; and physical neglect with personality disorders. Physical neglect had the weakest association between the subtypes. ELS subtypes in childhood and adolescence can predict the development of psychopathology in adults. Scientific evidence shows that ELS triggers, aggravates, maintains, and increases the recurrence of psychiatric disorders. These results demonstrate the importance of a deeper understanding about the unique effects of ELS subtypes, especially for mental health professionals. PMID:24284634

Carr, Clara Passmann; Martins, Camilla Maria Severi; Stingel, Ana Maria; Lemgruber, Vera Braga; Juruena, Mario Francisco

2013-12-01

150

Home visiting and the biology of toxic stress: opportunities to address early childhood adversity.  

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Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors. PMID:24187125

Garner, Andrew S

2013-11-01

151

Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Cognitive Flexibility in Adolescents  

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Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in ad...

2012-01-01

152

Childhood Abuse is Associated with Increased Startle Reactivity in Adulthood  

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Understanding the neurobiological correlates of childhood maltreatment is critical to delineating stress-related psychopathology. The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a subcortical reflex modulated by neural systems implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). ASR is conserved across species and is increased in rodent models of developmental stress. measured acoustic startle response to a 40ms noise probe as well as fear-potentiated startle using electromyographic (EMG) recordings of...

Jovanovic, Tanja; Blanding, Nineequa Q.; Norrholm, Seth D.; Duncan, Erica; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.

2009-01-01

153

Child Maltreatment and Women’s Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Unique Risk Factor  

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This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psycholo...

Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.

2010-01-01

154

Childhood Risk Factors in Substance Abuse Among a Group of Abuser 20-30 Year-Old Group in Tehran  

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Full Text Available Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0. Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who were selected by DSM- IV based semi-structured diagnostic interviews for decrease memory biases in this retrospective cohart study. The patient’s parents also evaluated by DSM- IV based Semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The analysis showed significant relation between: parents control on the siblings, addiction in relatives of pt (except parents, addicted peers and friends, to be affected with the peers and friends and substance use disorder at the ages (20-30y/o. There wasn’t any association between: Disruptive childhood behaviors (under 11y/o, diagnosed medical illness (under 11y/o diagnosed Psychiatric illness (under 6 mo , family size, socio economic state and substance use disorder at the age(20-30y/0 . Finally some childhood and adolescence pathologic factors has association with Substance use disorder at the ages ( 20-30y/5 that these can be used for education all planning , prevention , design high risk group and remedical plans.

A.R. Zahiredin

2004-01-01

155

Finnish Early Childhood Educators and Sustainable Development  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out what Finnish early childhood educators (n = 145 value on sustainability and how they assess the promotion of sustainability in their daily lives. They also wrote 495 comments about barriers to sustainable lifestyle. The data were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative methods. According to the results, the most important elements of sustainability were (a supporting of communality (including intergenerational link and trust; (b social responsibility of the consumer; and (c recycling, composting and taking care of hazardous waste. There was a statistically significant difference between all of the valued elements and the actual implementation of them. The main barriers to sustainable lifestyle were lack of time and information, the higher cost of sustainable choices, and the inconvenience of the sustainable way of life. The tendency to transfer one’s own responsibility to government, to the industry, or to the housing company was identified. A sense of agency is a core skill to be learned on a winding road towards a sustainable society.

Arto O. Salonen

2013-01-01

156

Hypoplasia-associated Severe Early Childhood Caries – A Proposed Definition  

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We propose a new classification of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC): hypoplasia-associated severe early childhood caries (HAS-ECC). This form of caries affects mostly young children living at or below poverty, characterized by structurally damaged primary teeth that are particularly vulnerable to dental caries. These predisposing developmental dental defects are mainly permutations of enamel hypoplasia (EHP). Anthropologists and dental researchers consider EHP an indicator for infant and...

Caufield, P. W.; Li, Y.; Bromage, T. G.

2012-01-01

157

INCLUSIVE EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: TEACHERS AND PARENTS PERCEPTION  

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Full Text Available All areas of education face changes and challenges constantly. Early childhood education is no exception. A recent challenge teachers face in early childhood education is the advent of inclusion. Implementing inclusion in early childhood classrooms creates more diversity among the children. Inclusion of students with various disabilities has caused concern among parents and teachers. There are some concerns that need special attention when including students with disabilities in the early childhood classrooms. Reforming public education to accommodate the needs of special education children placed in regular classrooms is a vital issue .For several years there have been arguments concerning the placement of children with disabilities in the regular classrooms. When inclusion children are placed in the regular classrooms the teachers are required to provide individualized instruction for the inclusion children. This may take away the time the teacher have to spend with the other children. The inclusion of children in regular classrooms have been both positive and negative effects. This means, with respect to all stages of the education system, including early childhood, that all children , regardless of their disability, can attend their local educational setting, and have their learning and development needs met through the provision of high-quality care and education For inclusive early childhood education to be successful, early childhood teachers as well as parents and members of the wider community need to embrace and practice inclusion. Parents of children without disabilities may bring with them attitudes and understandings that can lead to social exclusions, restrictions and disadvantages for all children with disabilities and their family in their early childhood setting and neighbourhood community. In this paper, we tried to highlight the attitudes and understandings of some parents of non-disabled children towards the inclusion and teaching of children with disabilities in regular early childhood settings and the consequences that resulted from the exclusionary and inclusionary constructions that these parents took up to define and understand disability and inclusion. We then offer some ideas and strategies for dialogue that may help early childhood teachers appropriately respond to this issue at own capacity .

PRASHANT THOTE

2013-04-01

158

Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors  

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This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.

2010-01-01

159

Client disclosure and therapist response in psychotherapy with women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.  

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Abstract This study investigated the perceptions of adult clients (N=98; M age=32) with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) of the costs and benefits of disclosure of this material. Significant benefits of disclosing included a sense of relief from sharing bottled-up emotions, and feeling more accepted and understood by one's therapist; significant negative consequences included feeling emotionally overwhelmed, and feeling uncomfortably vulnerable and exposed. Linear regressions indicated that CSA patients who generally disclose more have a greater tendency to experience both positive and negative effects of disclosure about abuse. In addition, a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that higher levels of symptomatology were predictive of higher levels of anxiety related to disclosure in therapy, suggesting that clinicians need to be cautious in encouraging disclosure about CSA with patients with severe pathology. PMID:23906369

Farber, Barry A; Feldman, Sarah; Wright, A Jordan

2014-05-01

160

Early Childhood Teacher Education: The Case of Geometry  

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For early childhood, the domain of geometry and spatial reasoning is an important area of mathematics learning. Unfortunately, geometry and spatial thinking are often ignored or minimized in early education. We build a case for the importance of geometry and spatial thinking, review research on professional development for these teachers, and…

Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Digital, Hybrid, and Multilingual Literacies in Early Childhood  

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This article examines sociocultural research on early literacy development in the digital age. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of informational technology that has fundamentally shifted how we think about language and literacy in the early childhood years. Despite these trends, narrow and reductive views of literacy continue to…

Razfar, Aria; Yang, Eunah

2010-01-01

162

State Certification Requirements for Early Childhood Special Educators  

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The Office of Special Education Programs funded Center to Inform Personnel Preparation Policy and Practice in Early Intervention and Preschool Education conducted a study to obtain current information about state certification requirements for early childhood special educators who work with preschool children with developmental delays and…

Stayton, Vicki D.; Dietrich, Sylvia L.; Smith, Barbara J.; Bruder, Mary Beth; Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Swigart, Ashley

2009-01-01

163

Early childhood intervention: the Portuguese pathway towards inclusion  

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This article describes the Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) system in Portugal and how it evolved since the 80’s until our days, based on a set of principles recommended by research and empirical data. So it describes the characteristics, organization and legislation and implementation of the ECI Portuguese system which pertain to be an inclusive and community resource based early intervention system.

Serrano, Ana Maria; Boavida, Jose?

2011-01-01

164

Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective  

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State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

2011-01-01

165

Prenatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Early Childhood BMI  

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Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of childhood overweight body mass index (BMI). Less is known about the association between prenatal secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and childhood BMI. We followed 292 mother-child dyads from early pregnancy to 3 years of age. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy was quantified using self-report and serum cotinine biomarkers. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between tobacco smoke expo...

2010-01-01

166

Integrating emotional competences in the Early Childhood Education curriculum  

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Full Text Available The current Spanish education legislation has started to highlight the need to work on emotional education since early childhood Education. The Spanish Education Law 2/2006 May 3rd (known as LOE, and all decrees and orders currently regulating the curriculum and teaching in Early Childhood Education include contents and objectives related to the Emotional Intelligence framework developed by Mayer & Salovey (1997. Because all these laws and regulations give teachers autonomy for both designing and programming the curriculum in Early Childhood Education and because important relationships have been established between social and emotional competence and school adaptation, we argue in this paper that the training of future teachers in Early Childhood Education should include the development of emotional intelligence abilities and skills.This article presents an emotional education proposal for its integration in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education (children aged 3 to 6 years old. This proposal is based on Mayer and Salovey’s model (1997 of emotional intelligence. This model is the only one in which emotional abilities are considered cognitive-emotional capacities which can be developed and it matches the general goal of this educational stage and also the general aims and curricular contents included in the abovementioned legislation.

Rocío Guil

2011-10-01

167

Maintenance of Immune Response throughout Childhood following Serogroup C Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Early Childhood ?  

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The objectives of this study were to evaluate the kinetics of antibody decline through childhood in a longitudinal study of a single cohort following serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) vaccine immunization in early childhood and to calculate the proportion of 11 to 13 year olds with protective levels of bactericidal antibody 10 years after immunization. United Kingdom children aged 11 to 13 years in 2010 who had previously taken part in a longitudinal study at the Oxford Vaccine Group had blood...

2011-01-01

168

[Emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology].  

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Trauma comes as a result of the subject's exposure to extremely negative and stressful events, such as natural or human-provoked catastrophes, wars, serious injuries, violent deaths, tortures, terrorist attacks, rapes and other sexual crimes. A child's exposure to traumatic circumstances of this level during the crucial period of self-structuring creates rather difficult conditions for its development. Moreover, if the child does not have the opportunity to elaborate and analyze all these stressful conditions and put them into words, serious consequences, both psychological and somatic, may occur in adult life. Specific factors and child characteristics, namely, the age, the developmental stage within which the trauma occurs, its type (physical or sexual abuse, neglect or traumatic social events), frequency, duration and intensity, have been proved to seriously affect the trauma's consequences. The immediate emotional impact of trauma may include isolation, fear, feeling of weakness or loss of the sense of confidence. Moreover, mood disorders such as depression and withdrawal, negative effects on cognitive ability, language development and academic performance, difficulties in creating a secure link and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also observed. The long-term consequences for the individual's mental health can be expressed through the following: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) combined or not with depression and anxiety disorder, mood disorders, personality disorders, poor control of impulsions, dissociation disorder, psychotic disorder. Finally, apart from the dramatic impact of trauma on the person itself, there is also a high social cost to be paid as a result of the individual's poor adjustment and dysfunction in the community. Early support and intervention in the child's environment may significantly minimize the negative effects of trauma. Beyond the expression of genes, good maternal care as well as psychological support, lead to normal DNA methylation and brain development. Supporting the family and break the silence that frequently covers the traumatic events and feelings, will give the opportunity for the elaboration of all these aspects which could capture and imprison the subject in a dramatic circle of psychopathology. Moreover, the effectiveness of early interventions and child psychotherapy is now a common ground, so we have to use all our clinical instruments (dialogue, symbolic play, drawing, storytelling) in order to help the child and have the best possible result. Finally, concerning clinical practice, the emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology is so frequent that mental health experts should take it into serious account while developing an appropriate clinical treatment for such patients. PMID:22796972

Bouras, G; Lazaratou, E

2012-06-01

169

Cumulative childhood trauma and psychological maladjustment of sexually abused children in Korea: mediating effects of emotion regulation.  

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The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. PMID:24210271

Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja

2014-02-01

170

Antisocial personality disorder in Turkish substance dependent patients and its relationship with anxiety, depression and a history of childhood abuse.  

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The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in treatment-seeking Turkish substance dependent patients and the relationship of ASPD with clinical characteristics were studied. Participants were 132 inpatients with substance dependence according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I), Turkish version. The clinician applied a semi-structured socio-demographic form, SCID-I, SCID-II, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire (CANQ), Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Among the 132 substance dependent patients, 31 (23.5%) had ASPD diagnosis and 56 (42.4%) had no personality disorder or personality traits. Rate of childhood physical abuse, childhood verbal abuse, childhood neglect, suicide attempt history, self-destructive behavior and lifetime major depression were higher among patients with ASPD. Also mean scores of BDI, BAI and MAST were higher among patients with ASPD. The high rate of ASPD found among Turkish substance dependent patients suggests that special attention must be paid to identify ASPD in this group. Findings in this study showed that there is an association between ASPD and childhood abuse, lifetime major depression and severity of substance use. PMID:16910384

Evren, Cuneyt; Kural, Sevil; Erkiran, Murat

2006-01-01

171

Towards Sustainable National Development Through Well Managed Early Childhood Education  

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Full Text Available This paper discusses issues relating to sustainable development and effective management of early childhood education. Thechild is the ‘owner’ of the future. The problems that confront the current generation are complex and serious that cannotbe addressed in the same way they were created. But they can be addressed. The concept of sustainable development is anattempt to shape thought in global systemic perspective as well as secure a future. The future is the children heritagewho must also understand the demands of this challenge. Early childhood education is the key to unlock the understandingrequired to inherit this future and requires effective management. The paper therefore recommends the school building,provision of appropriate instructional and infrastructural facilities; curricula reforms in line with future (economic,political, natural, social, etc demands as well as increased funding to enhance early childhood education.

Nath Abraham

2012-06-01

172

Alternative models for early onset of childhood leukaemia.  

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This paper considers theoretical models for early-onset childhood leukaemia. The major focus of attention is the two-hit mutational model. A simple mathematical representation is used to explore mechanisms which might lead to onset of leukaemia at an unusually early age. Two such mechanisms are considered. The first of these, a germinal or very early embryonic first mutation is shown to imply that multiple independent leukaemic clones are likely to arise sequentially in very young patients. C...

Wheldon, T. E.; Mairs, R. J.; Barrett, A.; Wheldon, E. G.; Gibson, B. E.

1992-01-01

173

Genital abnormalities in early childhood in sexual homicide perpetrators.  

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INTRODUCTION.: The present study investigates the relevance of genital abnormalities (GA) like cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phimosis usually diagnosed in early childhood for the development of psychosexual problems and deficits in a sample of N?=?163 convicted sexual homicide perpetrators. AIMS.: The first aim was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood GA in a sample of sexual homicide perpetrators. The second was to explore differences in the psychosexual development of participants with GA in early childhood compared with those without GA. It was expected that offenders with GA show specific problems in their psychosexual development compared with offenders without GA. METHODS.: The data for the present study were obtained by reanalyzing an existing database derived from a large-scale research project about sexual homicide. Using a predominantly exploratory design we, therefore, divided the total sample into two subgroups (with vs. without indicators of GA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Main outcome measures were the number of sexual homicide perpetrators showing GA in early childhood and the differences of subjects with and without GA with regard to their psychosexual development (i.e., according to sexual deviant interests or sexual dysfunctions). RESULTS.: The prevalence of GA is substantially higher in this sample than epidemiological studies indicated in the normal population. This result provided first support for the importance of GA in the population of sexual homicide perpetrators. Further analyses indicate significant differences between both subgroups: Offenders with GA in early childhood showed indicators for more sexual dysfunctions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) in adulthood and a distinct tendency of more masochistic sexual interests. CONCLUSION.: Even if the exploratory design of the present investigation allows no causal conclusions between GA and sexual homicide offenses, the result provided support for the relevance of early childhood sexual diseases in the assessment (and treatment) of offenders who have committed severe sexual violence. PMID:23347202

Rettenberger, Martin; Hill, Andreas; Dekker, Arne; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

2013-04-01

174

Gender and teacher training in Early Childhood Education studies  

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Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a research study funded by the European Union that aims to improve early childhood teacher training in gender-related topics. Spain has made considerable headway with the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in the political agenda. However, as we point out in this paper, this issue is still not a priority in vocational training for early childhood education. A series of qualitative interviews and a quantitative questionnaire revealed a lack of training, materials and sensitivity, all needed for the introduction of gender and sexual diversity issues.

Alfonso Romero Díaz

2008-12-01

175

Nomadic Research Practices in Early Childhood: Interrupting Racisms and Colonialisms  

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Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.

Veronica Pacini-Ketchabaw

2011-12-01

176

Mediators of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder.  

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A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) increases the risk of suicidal behavior and the lifetime number of suicide attempts in adults with BPD. Despite a strong association, specific variables mediating the relationship between CSA and adult suicidal behavior in BPD have not been identified. This study examined risk factors for suicidal behavior as potential mediators of the relationship between CSA and suicide attempts in 151 men and women with BPD. Diagnostic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors, as well as CSA, and suicidal behaviors, were assessed by standardized interviews or self-rated measures. Psychotic and schizotypal symptoms, and poor social adjustment, were associated with both CSA and suicidal behavior, and partially mediated the relationship between CSA and attempter status. Psychotic and schizotypal symptoms in BPD define a vulnerability to cognitive and perceptual distortions under stress. They increase the likelihood of suicidal behavior in BPD, especially in the absence of mitigating social support. A theoretical model for suicidal behavior in BPD is presented which integrates direct, mediated, and moderated pathways between childhood sexual abuse and temperament, adolescent and adult risk factors, and suicidal behavior. PMID:18540795

Soloff, Paul H; Feske, Ulrike; Fabio, Anthony

2008-06-01

177

Primary Prevention Knowledge of Parents and Teachers of Nursery and Play Group on Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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Full Text Available This research explored child sexual abuse (CSA, knowledge and prevention media among parents of pupils and teachers of nursery schools and playgroup. This research was conducted in qualitative mythology, through in-depth interviews (IDIs, and focus group discussions (FGD. In-depth interview held for 10 nursery school teachers and playgroup teachers. For children aged 0-5 years, FGD was conducted towards 10 parents of nursery School and 12 parents of playgroup. The study explored the following: parents’ and teachers’ knowledge on child sexual abuse prevention. The child sexual abuse prevention messages were provided to the children and topics they discussed and their attitudes towards child sexual abuse prevention education in school. The proposed primary prevention media strategies for parents were speech and posters as well as for nursery and playgroup teachers who understood the CSA impact. Research concluded that parents didn’t understand CSA concepts; media proposed for primary prevention are through dialogue and poster. Nursery, playgroup teachers and parents understood with poster media. Parents and teachers were encouraged to focus on the early prevention by building child sexual abuse knowledgeable community.  

Nnenna Clara Okoroafor

2012-09-01

178

Early Childhood Education in Botswana: A Case of Fragmented “Fits”  

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Full Text Available Scholarly and institutional research on early childhood education is not a new phenomenon, but what is perhaps limited is extant literature that particularly focuses on revisiting current practices and their “dialogue” with the ever-changing environment that prevails especially in an African setting. The practices of providers of early childhood education are either simply “business opportunity seeking” responses to the new consumption patterns of more affluent parent (or guardian or current global trends of child education preparation. There has been a phenomenal increase in the number of early child centres in recent years but with fragmented structures. However whether or not this will reduce possibilities of tensions between the macro and micro aspects of this kind of co-evolution is one of the questions this article seeks to address. It also investigates the fit between the internal structure and processes of early childhood centers and the external environment (national framework, focusing on the challenges and prospects of early childhood education. Buoyed by the Fit/Congruence model of organizational analysis, the paper is based on findings from a content analysis of media reports and desk review of policy documents from purposively selected centres based in Gaborone. The data is analyzed using a combination of the pattern model and analytic comparison methods. In Botswana, one of the observed missing links is the absence of national framework guiding the structure and content of early childhood curriculum and instruction. It concludes that while the approaches used in these centres are relatively not similar they may be complementary particularly to the extent to which they prepare the children for an exclusionary education system in a country whose long-term vision is ironically to achieve an equitable and quality education for all. Institutional initiatives at national level have been limited and unevenly distributed with wide differences in the quality of services and lack of coherence and coordination at micro-level.

Langtone Maunganidze

2014-04-01

179

Resiliency Factors in the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adulthood Sexual Assault in College-Age Women  

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Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy,…

Walsh, Kate; Blaustein, Margaret; Knight, Wanda Grant; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel A.

2007-01-01

180

Emotional Reactivity to Network Stress in Middle and Late Adulthood: The Role of Childhood Parental Emotional Abuse and Support  

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Purpose: This study examined whether recalled childhood parental emotional abuse and support were associated with emotional reactivity to network stress among middle-aged and older adults. Design and Methods: Hypotheses were tested by performing 2-level multilevel modeling analysis on 787 participants aged 33-83 who participated in the Daily…

Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Knight, Bob G.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Is early detection of abused children possible?: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of the identification of abused children  

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BackgroundEarly detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening.MethodsWe searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating di...

2013-01-01

182

In-Home Early Childhood Project. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

To help students in an early-childhood teacher-training program to work directly with parents and young children, an in-home project was established for four months with 19 families in one area of Edmonton, Alberta. In lieu of the regular kindergarten lab, each student was assigned to a family with one or more children of preprimary age. The…

Campbell, Sheila D.; Everett, Lorene M.

183

Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping  

Science.gov (United States)

Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.

2007-01-01

184

Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: Recommendations for Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The following recommendations for "Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)" in Early Childhood Education were the product of an extended international collaboration that was supported by a number of bodies including the Centre for Environment and Sustainability in Gothenburg, the Swedish Ministry of Education and Research, the Swedish National…

Daries, Julie; Engdahl, Ingrid; Otieno, Lorraine; Pramling-Samuelson, Ingrid; Siraj-Blatchford, John; Vallabh, Priya

2009-01-01

185

Identifying Online Preferences and Needs of Early Childhood Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing number of early childhood professionals use the Internet to improve their skills, knowledge, and practice. The Internet may be a practical alternative for providing high-quality, research-based training, information, and resources to these professionals. When designing online materials and Web sites, however, it is important to first…

Weigel, Daniel J.; Weiser, Dana A.; Bales, Diane W.; Moyses, Kendra J.

2012-01-01

186

Open Listening: Creative Evolution in Early Childhood Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

This article sketches out a philosophy and practice of open listening, linking open listening to Bergson's (1998) concept of creative evolution. I draw on examples of small children at play from a variety of sources, including Reggio-Emilia-inspired preschools in Sweden. The article offers a challenge to early childhood educators to listen and to…

Davies, Bronwyn

2011-01-01

187

The zone of proximal development in early childhood education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was focused on the theory of the zone of proximal development in early childhood education. It is a theory developed by a Russian socio-cultural psychologist called Lev Vygotsky. The theory mainly focuses on developmental area of children that is measured between an actually achieved level and one that can be achieved with the help of adults.

2012-01-01

188

Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care: Slovak Republic  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education and care (ECEC) is a topic of increased policy interest in the Slovak Republic where improving quality in the ECEC sector is a subject of growing importance. The OECD has identified five effective policy levers to encourage quality in the sector: 1) quality goals and regulations; 2) curriculum and guidelines; 3)…

Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly

2012-01-01

189

On Track: A Comprehensive System for Early Childhood Intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide presents a comprehensive system of intervention designed to support teachers in early childhood education in inclusive environments and to satisfy federal regulations. The components of the "On Track" program enable teachers to assess an individual child's strengths and needs both at school and at home, to discover family priorities, to…

Neilsen, Shelley; van den Pol, Richard A.; Guidry, Jean; Keeley, Elizabeth; Honzel, Rhonda Alt

190

Workplace Violence in Early Childhood Settings: A Counter Narrative.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that portrayals of early childhood settings as communities of care distinguish them from other education contexts, this paper presents a counter-narrative that focuses on workplace tensions experienced by an Australian preschool teacher. The counter-narrative was informed by informal interviews held 4 times yearly over a period of 7 years…

Sumsion, Jennifer

191

First Chance Outreach. Del Rio First Chance Early Childhood Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to help handicapped children function in regular school programs by the time they enter first grade, the First Chance Early Childhood Program provides precise intervention into the development of children aged 3 to 5 with clearly identified handicapping conditions. Using English and/or Spanish, program staff test and measure the referred…

Hanna, Cornelia B.; Levermann, D.

192

Examining the Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highlights points that guide the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education: the learner is a social being who possesses rights and is an active constructor of knowledge; the instructors' role is one of collaborator and co-learner, guiding and facilitating, as well as researching; and knowledge is socially constructed, encompassing…

Hewett, Valarie Mercilliott

2001-01-01

193

The Construction Site Project: Transforming Early Childhood Teacher Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

The work of Malaguzzi (in Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998; Fraser, 2006) has made the fundamentals of the preschools of Reggio Emilia familiar to many early childhood educators. The article describes an authentic project that enhanced undergraduate and postgraduate participants' understanding of the impact of collaboration, conversation, and…

McNaughton, Kathryn; Krentz, Caroline

2007-01-01

194

The Development of an Early Childhood Teacher Research Collaborative  

Science.gov (United States)

This article investigates young children's understanding of and relationships to their communities and the natural world. Inspired by the pedagogy of Reggio Emilia (Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998) and guided by the concept of documentation as a cycle of inquiry (Gandini & Goldhaber, 2001), a group of early childhood educators from across the…

Goldhaber, Jeanne

2007-01-01

195

Early childhood education and care partnership in Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the study was to describe and find Early Childhood Education and Care partnership (ECEC) in a certain day-care of Finland. The objective of the study was to find answers to two questions: 1) what is ECEC partnership and how does it work in Finland; and 2) what are parents’ opinions and suggestions regarding the ECEC partnership.

Kc, Anupama

2010-01-01

196

National Directory of Early Childhood Training Programs in Postsecondary Institutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This directory is a resource guide to early childhood education training programs in postsecondary institutions operating in the United States, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Included in this directory is information on approximately 1,500 universities, two- and four-year colleges, technical institutes, and occupationally oriented…

Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

197

Working on the Impossible: Early Childhood Policies in Namibia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the complexities of aid-giving using the example of early childhood policies in Namibia. It supports a critical view of aid processes and of World Bank endeavours in particular. Using an analysis of the World Bank funded education sector-wide improvement plan (ETSIP) in Namibia and three Namibian local case studies, it shows…

Penn, Helen

2008-01-01

198

Interactive Bulletin Boards in the Early Childhood Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactive bulletin boards for early childhood rooms can often be made with supplies and materials used for other games and activities. This paper tells how it can be done. The project is interactive in that children are involved in decisions about the appearance of the completed board. Additional topics of discussion in this paper include…

Tweedie, Pat

199

The Early Childhood Mentoring Curriculum: A Handbook for Mentors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mentoring programs offer new teachers and providers a practical and supportive way to learn and grow on the job. For experienced teachers and providers, mentoring programs create an opportunity to remain in the field and advance in their profession. This guide is one part of the Early Childhood Mentoring Curriculum designed by the National Center…

Bellm, Dan; And Others

200

Individual Differences in Sibling Teaching in Early and Middle Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Research Findings: Sibling teaching and learning behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of children in early and middle childhood. Study 1 addressed individual differences in teaching/learning and associations with dyadic age, age gap, gender, birth order, and relationship quality in 71 middle-class dyads (firstborns M age = 81.54 months;…

Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The Brain and Early Childhood: Facilitator's Guide [with Videotapes].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in neuroscience have engaged the interest of early childhood educators who believe that the more we know about the brain, the better able we will be to influence learning. This workshop facilitator's guide and set of two videotapes are designed to assist educators, students, caregivers, parents, and those providing services to…

Blum, Holly; D'Arcangelo, Marcia

202

Early Childhood Discipline: A Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…

Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.

2008-01-01

203

Financing Early Childhood Education Programs: State, Federal, and Local Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific…

Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven

2011-01-01

204

Financing the Early Childhood Education System: NAEYC Policy Brief.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the view of the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) regarding financing a system of early childhood education (ECE) in every state and community. Considers how to create a system, why financing is so important, the need to finance ECE programs and infrastructure, and various financing mechanisms. Concludes…

Young Children, 2001

2001-01-01

205

More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina

2008-01-01

206

Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

2012-01-01

207

Technology in Early Childhood Special Education: Access for Rural Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addresses basic considerations for systematic introduction of computer technology in early childhood special education programs, and explores unique computer applications in rural special education. Offers practical suggestions for developing prerequisite computer skills in young children with the aid of toys and switches. (Author/SV)

Lazzari, Andrea M.; Wilds, Mary

1989-01-01

208

Update on Early Childhood Caries since the Surgeon General's Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 2000 Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health (SGROH) included a limited discussion of the condition known as Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Because of its high prevalence, its impact on young children's quality of life and potential for increasing their risk of caries in the permanent dentition, ECC is arguably one of the most serious and costly health conditions among young children.

Tinanoff, Norman; Reisine, Susan

2009-01-01

209

Supporting Early Childhood Practitioners through Relationship-Based, Reflective Supervision  

Science.gov (United States)

Reflective supervision is a relationship-based practice that supports the professional development of early childhood practitioners. Reflective supervision helps practitioners cope with the intense feelings and stress that are generated when working with at-risk children and families. It allows them to focus on the purpose and goals of the program…

Bernstein, Victor J.; Edwards, Renee C.

2012-01-01

210

Being Maori: Culturally Relevant Assessment in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…

Rameka, Lesley Kay

2011-01-01

211

Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah

2010-01-01

212

Analyzing Process Quality of Early Childhood Education with Many Facet Rash Measurement Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality of early childhood education institutions specifically, dimensions of process quality should be evaluated. Purpose of this study is to analyze process quality of early childhood education by using many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM). In this study, data were collected from twelve early childhood education institutions by four…

Basturk, Ramazan; Isikoglu, Nesrin

2008-01-01

213

On-the-Spot Course: Early Childhood Education in Ethiopia (August 2-30, 1993). Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a course on early childhood education methodology and practice that was held at the Ministry of Education in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for 35 Ethiopian early childhood educators and administrators. In addition to presenting developmental profiles of preschool children, the 3-week course addressed philosophies of early childhood

Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

214

An Experimental Test of Parenting Practices as a Mediator of Early Childhood Physical Aggression  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Parenting practices predict early childhood physical aggression. Preventive interventions that alter parenting practices and aggression during early childhood provide the opportunity to test causal models of early childhood psychopathology. Although there have been several informative preventive intervention studies that test mediation…

Brotman, Laurie Miller; O'Neal, Colleen R.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Shrout, Patrick E.

2009-01-01

215

Towards the Emergence of a Critical Ecology of the Early Childhood Profession in New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

A 10-year strategic plan for early childhood education introduced by the New Zealand Ministry of Education in 2002 included policies to create a teacher-led early childhood profession by 2012. This article reviews the provisions of the strategic plan and argues that it emerged from a critical ecology of the early childhood profession with a…

Dalli, Carmen

2010-01-01

216

Early Childhood Development in Kenya: Empowering Young Mothers, Mobilizing a Community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highlights recent early childhood and community development work in rural Kenyan communities. Presents: (1) a brief history and overview of early childhood care and education; (2) examples from the Mwana Mwende community development project; (3) ways in which early childhood development has mobilized the community; and (4) examples of increasing…

Kabiru, Margaret; Njenga, Anne; Swadener, Beth Blue

2003-01-01

217

No Child Misunderstood: Enhancing Early Childhood Teachers' Multicultural Responsiveness to the Social Competence of Diverse Children  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of rapid demographic changes in our society, more children from diverse racial/cultural backgrounds join our early childhood classrooms. The majority of early childhood teachers, on the other hand, are middle-class and of European-decent. This paper provides early childhood teachers with both theoretical and practical understandings…

Han, Heejeong Sophia; Thomas, M. Shelley

2010-01-01

218

Early childhood lead exposure and exceptionality designations for students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The achievement gap continues to be an important educational issue, with disadvantaged groups exhibiting poorer school performance. Recently, literature has shown that even very low levels of early lead exposure affect cognitive and academic performance. As individuals at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum are more likely to be exposed to lead, this exposure may be an important contributor to the achievement gap. In this paper, we explore whether early childhood blood lead levels are...

Miranda, Marie Lynn; Maxson, Pamela; Kim, Dohyeong

2010-01-01

219

A magnetic resonance study of complicated early childhood convulsion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES—The relation between complicated early childhood convulsion (ECC) and adult epilepsy is unclear, although a history of complicated ECC is obtainable in half of adults with epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis. It is not known if the ECC is a marker of pre-existing brain damage or is itself harmful to the developing brain. The objective of the study was to assess the extent of structural brain abnormality present soon after a first complicated early ...

Grunewald, R.; Farrow, T.; Vaughan, P.; Rittey, C.; Mundy, J.

2001-01-01

220

How Aligned Are We? Assessment Procedures and Practices between Early Childhood and Early Intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

Early intervention and early childhood share a unique space in our early years education in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The assessment practices of the two are distinctively different and specific to each discipline. As assessment is a powerful agent for change and responsiveness to learners this article will unpack the reasoning behind these…

Caulcutt, Toia; Paki, Vanessa

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

2001-01-01

222

ADHD, stimulant treatment in childhood and subsequent substance abuse in adulthood - A naturalistic long-term follow-up study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of the study was to estimate the risk of substance use disorder (SUD) and alcohol abuse in adulthood among children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to the background population. Furthermore, to examine whether the age at initiation and duration of stimulant treatment in childhood predicts SUD and alcohol abuse in adulthood. 208 youths with ADHD (183 boys; 25 girls) were followed prospectively. Diagnoses of SUD and alcohol abuse were obtained from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The relative risk (RR) of SUD and alcohol abuse for cases with ADHD, compared to the background population was 7.7 (4.3-13.9) and 5.2 (2.9-9.4), respectively. Female gender, conduct disorder in childhood and older age at initiation of stimulant treatment increased the risk of later SUD and alcohol abuse. Our results warrant increased focus on the possibly increased risk of substance abuse in females with ADHD compared to males with ADHD.

Dalsgaard, Søren; Mortensen, Preben Bo

2014-01-01

223

Twelve Best Practices for Early Childhood Education: Integrating Reggio and Other Inspired Approaches. Early Childhood Education Series  

Science.gov (United States)

In her new book, popular author Ann Lewin-Benham draws on her intimate knowledge and experience with the Reggio Approach to present 12 "best practices" inspired not only by Reggio, but also by play-based and Montessori approaches to early childhood education. These practices are demonstrated, one per chapter, with scenarios from classrooms,…

Lewin-Benham, Ann

2011-01-01

224

Early Childhood Education: Babies Are Everybody's Business  

Science.gov (United States)

A movement is building that favors creating a national network of high-quality early education and care systems that begin at birth. It makes sense. Promoting positive early learning experiences, healthy caregivers, and a connection between families and community resources can reverse rising rates of expulsion, high school dropouts, and the need…

Cox, Kitt

2009-01-01

225

Early childhood education: perceptions, problems and possibilities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis attempts to provide evidence, based in historical and contemporary research, of the importance of early years education, not only in terms of academic achievement, but of social outcomes as well; to examine the perceptions of teachers in relationship to societal influences and the effects of such on the changing educational needs of the child; and to suggest possible elements for high quality programme development in the early years.

Little, Jennifer Leslie

1997-01-01

226

Infâncias em Educação Infantil / Different kinds of childhood in early childhood education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo, por sua natureza teórica, trabalha com noções tais como infâncias, crianças, multidão e experiência, no intuito de pensar uma educação cujas práticas educativas possibilitem o exercício da infância. O artigo refaz um caminho no qual a infância e a criança são percebidas "em sua dimensão [...] singular", de modo a recuperar, no fim do percurso, o caráter plural que as noções de criança e infância encerram. O referencial teórico parte de Deleuze, Guattari, Agamben, entre outros autores, e busca colocar a infância numa temporalidade múltipla, em detrimento da temporalidade fundada em visões da história e da psicologia, que privilegiam etapas e sucessões cronológicas. Ao afirmarmos a infância como atravessada pela experiência, pela inventividade e pelo desarazoamento, propomos pensar uma educação na direção da multidão. Abstract in english This article, in its theoretical nature, discusses notions such as childhood, children, multitude and experience, in order to consider a kind of early childhood education in which educational routine enables the practice of childhood to happen. The article rebuilds a path on which childhood and chil [...] dren are perceived according to a single particular notion. Towards the ending of the analysis, the plural character involved in the notions of child and childhood is considered.The theoretical framework for the analysis was based on the propositions of Deleuze, Guattari and Agamben, among others. Their views place childhood in a multiple temporality rather than in a single temporality which is determined by historical and psychological perspectives both based on chronological and succession levels. By stating that childhood is crossed by experiences, inventiveness and unreasonableness, our proposal is about thinking of a different kind of education, which leans towards the multitude.

Abramowicz, Anete; Levcovitz, Diana; Rodrigues, Tatiane Cosentino.

227

Mothers who killed or attempted to kill their child: life circumstances, childhood abuse, and types of killing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the present study were to examine the life circumstances, childhood abuse, and types of homicidal acts of 48 mothers who killed/attempted to kill their child(ren) under age 12 between 1970-96 in Finland. Data on the mothers'life stresses, psychological problems, and childhood abuse were collected from mental state examination (MSE) reports. The cases were divided into 15 neonaticides and 33 mothers who killed an older child. Childhood abuse was documented in 63% of the mothers' MSE reports. Qualitative analysis identified neonaticides,joint homicide-suicide attempts, impulsive aggression, psychotic acts, postpartum depression, and abusive acts. Nonlinear principal components analysis showed that different variables were related to the neonaticide and non-neonaticide cases. We concluded that despite differences in the psychosocial profiles of neonaticides and other maternal homicidal acts the cycle of violence perspective can be applied to both cases, even though it may not be a sufficient explanation for maternal child killings. PMID:10606431

Haapasalo, J; Petäjä, S

1999-01-01

228

Moderation of Adult Depression by a Polymorphism in the FKBP5 Gene and Childhood Physical Abuse in the General Population  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood maltreatment and depressive disorders have both been associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. The FKBP5 gene codes for a co-chaperone regulating the glucocorticoid-receptor sensitivity. Previous evidence suggests that subjects carrying the TT genotype of the FKBP5 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 have an increased susceptibility to adverse effects of experimental stress. We therefore tested the hypothesis of an interaction of childhood abuse with rs1360780 in predicting adult depression. In all, 2157 Caucasian subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania (German general population) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) was assessed by interview. Genotypes of rs1360780 were taken from the Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0. Significant interaction (p=0.006) of physical abuse with the TT genotype of rs1360780 was found increasing the BDI-II score to 17.4 (95% confidence interval (CI)=12.0–22.9) compared with 10.0 (8.2–11.7) in exposed CC/CT carriers. Likewise, the adjusted odds ratio for MDD in exposed TT carriers was 8.2 (95% CI=1.9–35.0) compared with 1.3 (0.8–2.3) in exposed subjects with CC/CT genotypes. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) analyses confirmed a significant additive interaction effect (RERI=6.8; 95% CI=0.64–33.7; p<0.05). In explorative analyses, the most severe degree of sexual and emotional abuse also yielded significant interaction effects (p<0.05). This study revealed interactions between physical abuse and rs1360780 of the FKBP5 gene, confirming its role in the individual susceptibility to depression. Given the large effect sizes, rs1360780 could be included into prediction models for depression in individuals exposed to childhood abuse.

Appel, Katja; Schwahn, Christian; Mahler, Jessie; Schulz, Andrea; Spitzer, Carsten; Fenske, Kristin; Stender, Jan; Barnow, Sven; John, Ulrich; Teumer, Alexander; Biffar, Reiner; Nauck, Matthias; Volzke, Henry; Freyberger, Harald J; Grabe, Hans J

2011-01-01

229

Visão atual do abuso sexual na infância e adolescência Current view of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e LILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005, aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual.OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, using abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005, in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.

Luci Pfeiffer

2005-11-01

230

Visão atual do abuso sexual na infância e adolescência / Current view of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e L [...] ILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005), aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, u [...] sing abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005), in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.

Luci, Pfeiffer; Edila Pizzato, Salvagni.

231

Democratic experimentation in early childhood education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Qualifications of the early years workforce are a salient predictors of quality and therefore of children’s outcomes. International reports advise that a majority of staff is trained at Bachelor’s levels and rank countries according to this criterion. There is fewer consensus on what this professionalism should be. In a majority of countries, large numbers of professionals are untrained, unqualified and sometimes invisible in the official reports. Many of these unqualified “assistants?...

Vandenbroeck, Michel; Peeters, Jan

2013-01-01

232

Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the efficacy of fluoride varnish (5% NaF, Duraphat®, Colgate) added to caregiver counseling to prevent early childhood caries, we conducted a two-year randomized, dental-examiner-masked clinical trial. Initially, 376 caries-free children, from low-income Chinese or Hispanic San Francisco families, were enrolled (mean age ± standard deviation, 1.8 ± 0.6 yrs). All families received counseling, and children were randomized to the following groups: no fluoride varnish, fluoride va...

Weintraub, J. A.; Ramos-gomez, F.; Jue, B.; Shain, S.; Hoover, C. I.; Featherstone, J. D. B.; Gansky, S. A.

2006-01-01

233

Endowments and Parental Investments in Infancy and Early Childhood  

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This article tests whether parents reinforce or compensate for child endowments. We estimate how the difference in birth weight across siblings impacts specific parental investments: breast-feeding, well-baby visits, immunizations, and preschool attendance. Our results indicate that normal-birthweight children are 5%–11% more likely to receive early childhood parental investments than their low-birth-weight siblings. Moreover, the presence of additional low-birth-weight siblings in the hous...

Datar, Ashlesha; Kilburn, M. Rebecca; Loughran, David S.

2010-01-01

234

Long-term effects of early childhood care and education  

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This paper critically reviews what we know about the long-term effects of parental leave and early childhood education programs. We find only limited evidence that expansions of parental leave durations improved long-run educational or labor market outcomes of the children whose parents were affected by them, perhaps because benefits are hard to measure or confined to sub-groups, or because leave entitlements were sufficiently long, even before recent extensions, to yield most potential benef...

Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

2011-01-01

235

Towards Sustainable National Development Through Well Managed Early Childhood Education  

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This paper discusses issues relating to sustainable development and effective management of early childhood education. The

child is the ‘owner’ of the future. The problems that confront the current generation are complex and serious that cannot

be addressed in the same way they were created. But they can be addressed. The concept of sustainable development is an

attempt to shape thought in global systemic perspective as well a...

Nath Abraham

2012-01-01

236

Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: Recommendations for development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The following recommendations for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Early Childhood Education were the product of an extended international collaboration that was supported by a number of bodies including the Centre for Environment and Sustainability in Gothenburg, the Swedish Ministry of Education and Research, the Swedish National Commission for UNESCO, and the Swedish International Centre for Education for Sustainable Development. The recommendations were formally adopted in N...

Engdahl, Ingrid; Davis, Julie; Ottieno, Lorraine; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Siraj-blatchford, John; Vallabh, Priya

2009-01-01

237

Multicultural Education through Expressive Methods in Early Childhood Education  

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The main motivating reason behind the topic area of this thesis is the growing number of immigrants and immigrant children in Finland. Multiculturalism is a current phenomenon in today’s society and it brings new challenges to early childhood education and care (ECEC). The objective of this thesis was to develop a practical implementation to the work-life part-ner, aiming at bringing multicultural education as a theme closer to the everyday reality by using expressive methods. The project w...

Lopintsova, Olga; Paloniemi, Kati; Wahlroos, Katja

2012-01-01

238

Associations of Early Childhood Manganese and Lead Coexposure with Neurodevelopment  

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Background: Most toxicologic studies focus on a single agent, although this does not reflect real-world scenarios in which humans are exposed to multiple chemicals. Objectives: We prospectively studied manganese–lead interactions in early childhood to examine whether manganese–lead coexposure is associated with neurodevelopmental deficiencies that are more severe than expected based on effects of exposure to each metal alone. Methods: Four hundred fifty-five children were enrolled at birt...

Henn, Birgit Claus; Schnaas, Lourdes; Lamadrid-figueroa, He?ctor; Herna?ndez-avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Te?llez-rojo, Martha Mari?a; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Schwartz, Joel David; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Bellinger, David C.; Wright, Robert O.

2011-01-01

239

The Coffee Crisis, Early Childhood Development, and Conditional Cash Transfers  

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This paper examines the efficacy of three conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs in Honduras, Mexico, and Nicaragua in mitigating the potential negative effects of an income shock caused by falling prices of coffee, an important cash crop to many CCT participants. A theoretical household model is developed that demonstrates both the positive potential of CCTs to mitigate negative shocks effects on early childhood development and the negative potential of CCTs to exacerbate the impacts of a ...

Gitter, Seth R.; Manley, James; Barham, Bradford

2011-01-01

240

A Look at Children's Adjustment to Early Childhood Programs  

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This paper describes a pilot project during which the author visited different early childhood classrooms and used a handheld video camera to record how children adjust to new programs. The objectives were (1) to describe how children adjust to new programs or classes, (2) to sensitize teachers to the issues involved in those adjustments, (3) to collect data using a handheld video camera, and (4) to encourage teachers to view themselves as classroom researchers. Included in the paper are vide...

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Mapping Knowledge: Concept Maps in Early Childhood Education  

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Graphic organizers such as webs, time lines, Venn diagrams, flowcharts, and concept maps are well known and widely used instructional and learning tools. They help teachers and students not only to identify and visually represent their views and knowledge but also to recognize and depict relationships among concepts. This article discusses the use of concept maps in early childhood education. In light of a theory that suggests that information is processed and stored in memory in both linguis...

2006-01-01

242

Cultivable Anaerobic Microbiota of Severe Early Childhood Caries?¶  

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Severe early childhood caries (ECC), while strongly associated with Streptococcus mutans using selective detection (culture, PCR), has also been associated with a widely diverse microbiota using molecular cloning approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiota of severe ECC using anaerobic culture. The microbial composition of dental plaque from 42 severe ECC children was compared with that of 40 caries-free children. Bacterial samples were cultured anaerobically on blood and...

Tanner, A. C. R.; Mathney, J. M. J.; Kent, R. L.; Chalmers, N. I.; Hughes, C. V.; Loo, C. Y.; Pradhan, N.; Kanasi, E.; Hwang, J.; Dahlan, M. A.; Papadopolou, E.; Dewhirst, F. E.

2011-01-01

243

Maternal obesity in pregnancy and respiratory health in early childhood  

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Obesity is associated with systemic inflammation, immunological changes, increased risk of respiratory infections and chronic respiratory illness. Maternal obesity in pregnancy increases the risk of pregnancy complications, caesarean sections and adverse birth outcomes, which have in turn been associated with respiratory illness in children. To our knowledge, the possible influence of maternal obesity in pregnancy on respiratory illness in early childhood beyond the newborn period has not bee...

2009-01-01

244

Quality Support Infrastructure in Early Childhood: Still (Mostly Missing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Support for early care and education among policy makers and the public is at an unprecedented high. As investments in early care and education programs in the United States continue to rise, the issue of quality becomes increasingly critical. This article addresses the need for adequate infrastructure to support high-quality early care and education—a need that was brought to the forefront by James Gallagher and Richard Clifford in their 2000 article in Early Childhood Research & Practice (http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v2n1/gallagher.html. The present article provides an update and emphasizes the critical roles of infrastructure in establishing and enforcing standards, supporting quality, and ensuring quality and accountability. Progress in developing the mechanisms and systems to support and ensure quality in several states is assessed, and the perils of expanding early childhood programs in the absence of such systems are examined. Also discussed are strategies for building capacity and strengthening the various functions of infrastructure in order to successfully support the expansion of universal prekindergarten and other early care and education initiatives. The article emphasizes the importance of being able to demonstrate that these initiatives truly benefit the children who participate in them.

Lenette Azzi-Lessing

2009-01-01

245

Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood  

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Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitn...

Fitzpatrick Caroline; Pagani Linda S; Barnett Tracie A

2012-01-01

246

Cost Study of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program. Technical Report  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2008, the Minnesota Early Learning Foundation created the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program, a pilot program to provide families with scholarships to cover the cost of high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs. Although there is a large body of research about the benefits of preschool specifically and early learning…

Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.

2011-01-01

247

Early Childhood Education and Special Education: How Well Do They Mix? An Examination of Inclusive Practices in Early Childhood Educational Settings in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine and identify the current inclusive practices in early childhood educational settings in Hong Kong, this qualitative study looks at the support and educational services available for young children with special needs in Hong Kong mainstream preschools as well as the characteristics of early childhood educational settings that support…

Zhang, Kaili C.

2011-01-01

248

Association of FKBP5 Polymorphisms and Childhood Abuse With Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Context In addition to trauma exposure, other factors contribute to risk for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Both genetic and environmental factors are contributory, with child abuse providing significant risk liability. Objective To increase understanding of genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interaction in the development of PTSD by gene × environment interactions of child abuse, level of non–child abuse trauma exposure, and genetic polymorphisms at the stress-related gene FKBP5. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional study examining genetic and psychological risk factors in 900 non psychiatric clinic patients (762 included for all genotype studies) with significant levels of childhood abuse as well as non–child abuse trauma using a verbally presented survey combined with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Participants were primarily urban, low-income, black (>95%) men and women seeking care in the general medical care and obstetrics-gynecology clinics of an urban public hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, between 2005 and 2007. Main Outcome Measures Severity of adult PTSD symptomatology, measured with the modified PTSD Symptom Scale, non–child abuse (primarily adult) trauma exposure and child abuse measured using the traumatic events inventory and 8 SNPs spanning the FKBP5 locus. Results Level of child abuse and non–child abuse trauma each separately predicted level of adult PTSD symptomatology (mean [SD], PTSD Symptom Scale for no child abuse, 8.03 [10.48] vs ?2 types of abuse, 20.93 [14.32]; and for no non–child abuse trauma, 3.58 [6.27] vs ?4 types, 16.74 [12.90]; P<.001). Although FKBP5 SNPs did not directly predict PTSD symptom outcome or interact with level of non–child abuse trauma to predict PTSD symptom severity, 4 SNPs in the FKBP5 locus significantly interacted (rs9296158, rs3800373, rs1360780, and rs9470080; minimum P=.0004) with the severity of child abuse to predict level of adult PTSD symptoms after correcting for multiple testing. This gene × environment interaction remained significant when controlling for depression severity scores, age, sex, levels of non–child abuse trauma exposure, and genetic ancestry. This genetic interaction was also paralleled by FKBP5 genotype-dependent and PTSD-dependent effects on glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity, measured by the dexamethasone suppression test. Conclusions Four SNPs of the FKBP5 gene interacted with severity of child abuse as a predictor of adult PTSD symptoms. There were no main effects of the SNPs on PTSD symptoms and no significant genetic interactions with level of non–child abuse trauma as predictor of adult PTSD symptoms, suggesting a potential gene-childhood environment interaction for adult PTSD.

Binder, Elisabeth B.; Bradley, Rebekah G.; Liu, Wei; Epstein, Michael P.; Deveau, Todd C.; Mercer, Kristina B.; Tang, Yilang; Gillespie, Charles F.; Heim, Christine M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Schwartz, Ann C.; Cubells, Joseph F.; Ressler, Kerry J.

2008-01-01

249

Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on inpatient treatment for early sexually abused adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the possible predictors of treatment outcome in early chronically sexually abused adults. The current study aimed to investigate what impact initial levels of dissociation and pre-treatment negative change in interpersonal functioning have on treatment response after 3 months of first-phase trauma inpatient treatment as well as after a period of 1 year the patients returned to their usual lives. Methods: The sample comprised 48 inpatients with childhood sexual abuse histories and mixed trauma-related disorders who were examined at discharge and prospectively followed up for a period of 1 year under naturalistic conditions. Outcome variables were general psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems as measured with the Symptom Check List-Revised (SCL-R and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP Circumplex. Results: The central findings were that pathological dissociation and deterioration in interpersonal functioning prior to admittance predicted general psychiatric symptom levels and interpersonal problems at the end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Pathological dissociation, involving memory and identity problems, alone predicted negative outcome at the end of treatment. The findings at 1-year follow-up indicate that it is not pathological dissociation in isolation that affects outcomes, but rather the interaction between dissociation and change in interpersonal functioning prior to treatment. Conclusion: These findings indicate the need of addressing dissociation and interpersonal problems in treatment planning and favor an integrated treatment approach for complex trauma patients. Future research should investigate whether and how this leads to better outcome, including long-term maintenance of gains after the end of treatment.

Ellen K. K. Jepsen

2013-12-01

250

Delineating selection and mediation effects among childhood personality and environmental risk factors in the development of adolescent substance abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N?=?2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735

Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

2014-07-01

251

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic  

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Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. This study investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from an STD clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men, and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior, including more sexual partners, unprotected sex, and sex trading. Alcohol use for men, and drug use for women, mediated the relation between CSA and the number of partners in the pas...

Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

2006-01-01

252

Disentangling the Complex Association Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Review of Methodological Issues and Approaches*  

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This review describes and evaluates methodological approaches aimed at unraveling the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later misuse of alcohol, which is complicated by the significant overlap between factors that elevate risk for CSA exposure and those that increase risk for problem alcohol use. We critique methods used to distinguish direct effects of CSA events on alcohol-related outcomes from the effects of risk factors frequently present in families in which CSA exposu...

Sartor, Carolyn E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Mccutcheon, Vivia V.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Lynskey, Michael T.

2008-01-01

253

Facilitating disclosure of child sexual abuse victims in the middle childhood : a seven-phase forensic interview protocol  

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Conducting forensic interviews are challenging and the impact of a poorly conducted interview has a detrimental impact on all persons concerned. This study aimed at developing, implementing and evaluating a seven-phase forensic interview protocol for social workers and allied professionals. Twenty girls in the middle childhood, allegedly been sexually abused, were purposively selected in an experimental and comparison group in order to determine if the proposed seven-phase forensic interview ...

Fouche, A.; Joubert, J. M. C.

2009-01-01

254

PILL series. Management of child abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children deserve a childhood free from abuse, where their basic physical, intellectual, emotional and social needs are met. Child abuse is defined as any act of omission or commission by a parent or guardian that would endanger or impair the child's physical or emotional well-being, or that is judged by a mixture of community values and professionals to be inappropriate. A total of 247 cases of suspected child abuse in Singapore was investigated in 2012. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and physical neglect or emotional abuse accounted for 60%, 30% and 10% of these cases, respectively. Primary care providers play an important role in the early detection and referral of child abuse cases, which enable timely intervention to ensure the well-being of the child and prevent further abuse. Hospitals and other medical centres form the largest source of referrals of suspected child abuse. PMID:24154576

Wong, Pei Ying; How, Choon How; Wong, Peter Choong Yi

2013-10-01

255

Multilevel analysis of air pollution and early childhood neurobehavioral development.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester ? = -0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester ? = -0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age ? = -0.091, se = 0.034). Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC) levels during the second and third trimesters (? = -8.742, se = 3.512). Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age. PMID:24992486

Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Shih-Kuan; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Ho, Wen-Chao; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chen, Pau-Chung

2014-01-01

256

Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10, carbon monoxide (CO, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester ? = ?0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester ? = ?0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age ? = ?0.091, se = 0.034. Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC levels during the second and third trimesters (? = ?8.742, se = 3.512. Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age.

Ching-Chun Lin

2014-07-01

257

Early identification of alcohol abuse: 1. Critical issues and psychosocial indicators for a composite index.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional approaches to the medical management of alcohol-related disorders have met with limited success in altering the prevalence of alcohol abuse. Evidence suggests that identifying early those who drink to excess and intervening with low-cost educational and motivational programs could significantly reduce the prevalence of alcohol-related disabilities. However, physicians must take systematic steps to detect alcohol abuse. Part 1 of this two-part series discusses the need for early id...

Skinner, H. A.; Holt, S.; Israel, Y.

1981-01-01

258

Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ?25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ?30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.

Sidsel H. Karsberg

2012-06-01

259

Connections between early childhood centers and primary school in New Zealand : Reflections and issues  

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This paper discusses the transition for children in New Zealand form their early childhood centres to school on their fifth birthday. It describes the early childhood context in New Zealand and the seamless education system within which it resides. The paper identifies the issues for New Zealand children as they move from early childhood to compulsory schooling and reflects on a recent New Zealand research study where the researchers have been following a group of children from one sector to ...

Duncan, Judith

2006-01-01

260

National Outcome Measures for Early Childhood Development: Development of an Indicator-Based Reporting Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

The Council of Australian Governments released the National Early Childhood Development Strategy, Investing in the Early Years in July 2009 (COAG 2009). One of the key reform priorities in the strategy is to build better information and a solid evidence base, and establishing national outcome measures for early childhood development has been…

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2011

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

What Do Teachers Need? Practitioners' Perspectives on Early Childhood Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the link between teacher training and higher-quality classroom practice, early childhood researchers and professional organizations have placed an increasing emphasis on all early childhood teachers--including those in early care and education (ECE) settings--obtaining a minimum of a Bachelor's degree as part of their professional…

Ackerman, Debra J.

2004-01-01

262

Using Sound in Teaching Reading in Early Childhood Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early childhood is as charming as ever. It is an age of imagination and fantasy. Therefore, it is natural that education at this stage should develop the child’s imagination through literacy materials such as folk-tales, rhymes and songs etc. This paper is therefore intended to enthuse to the psychological view that children’s success in life depends on the preparation they receive when younger. The paper upholds the view that a good preparation of children for life entails giving them the ability to read and write. The importance of literacy is measurable. Literacy is instrumental to the attainment of success of individuals in both career aspirations and quality of life. It is fundamental for learning in school. It impacts on individuals the ability to participate in society and understand important public issues. It also provides foundation upon which skills in the labour industry are built, etc. The paper concludes that literacy, which should start from infancy, could be better taught using the phonics methodology. This is because, in early childhood, education should involve more of playing, singing, clapping, etc, and that is the focal objectives of phonics method. This should be so to support the idea that literacy should not be boring but enjoyable especially as early as infancy, because it is a panacea for achieving life’s goals.

Hanna Onyi Yusuf

2012-07-01

263

Risk factors and consequences of early childhood dyssomnias: New perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dyssomnias are largely under-diagnosed in infants and toddlers. This literature review proposes an integrative model based on empirical data on determinants and consequences of sleep disturbances occurring in early life. This model proposes that parental behaviors that impede the child's autonomy toward sleep periods are primary grounds for the development of dyssomnias, e.g., parental presence until the child falls asleep, and putting an already sleeping child to bed. The model also indicates the serious potential consequences of a modest but chronic loss of sleep in childhood. At least three developmental domains could be directly affected: behavioral/social competence, cognitive performance, and physical condition. Thus, children with short nocturnal sleep duration before age 3.5 years show increased risk of high hyperactivity-impulsivity scores and low cognitive performance at 6 years compared to children who sleep 11 h per night, after controlling for potentially confounding variables. Moreover, persistent short sleep duration in early infancy increased the risk of suffering of obesity at 6 years of age, after controlling for potentially confounding variables. Finally, the importance of allowing the child to sleep at least 10 h per night in early childhood is stressed, as the National Sleep Foundation Poll suggests, for optimal child development. PMID:19185519

Touchette, Evelyne; Petit, Dominique; Tremblay, Richard E; Montplaisir, Jacques Y

2009-10-01

264

The value of early CT in complicated childhood pneumonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)

2002-01-01

265

Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols. PMID:23379783

Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

2014-02-01

266

A Look at Children's Adjustment to Early Childhood Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot project during which the author visited different early childhood classrooms and used a handheld video camera to record how children adjust to new programs. The objectives were (1 to describe how children adjust to new programs or classes, (2 to sensitize teachers to the issues involved in those adjustments, (3 to collect data using a handheld video camera, and (4 to encourage teachers to view themselves as classroom researchers. Included in the paper are video clips, brief descriptions of selected children, and a discussion of issues raised by the children's behavior in the videos, related research, and implications for practice.

Carol R. Keyes

2006-01-01

267

Using Sound in Teaching Reading in Early Childhood Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early childhood is as charming as ever. It is an age of imagination and fantasy. Therefore, it is natural that education at this stage should develop the child’s imagination through literacy materials such as folk-tales, rhymes and songs etc. This paper is therefore intended to enthuse to the psychological view that children’s success in life depends on the preparation they receive when younger. The paper upholds the view that a good preparation of children for life entails giving...

Hanna Onyi Yusuf; Agnes Ovayioza Enesi

2012-01-01

268

Phenomenology of Early Childhood Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the phenomenological features of early childhood onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD; defined as children meeting DSM-IV criteria for OCD with age of onset <8 years). Fifty-eight children (ages 4–8) were included in the sample. OCD and comorbid diagnoses were determined by structured interview, and OCD severity was measured using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Mean age of OCD onset was almost five, and mean age of presentation was...

Garcia, Abbe M.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Himle, Michael B.; Berman, Noah C.; Ogata, Alexandra K.; Ng, Janet; Choate-summers, Molly L.; Leonard, Henrietta

2009-01-01

269

Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Early Childhood: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterium that usually affects immunocompromised patients, causing infections whose signals and symptoms are related to the affected organ. The patient presented in this article was infected when he was 9 months old. Such condition led to certain alterations like dental improperly positioned teeth, retained deciduous teeth, hipodonty of permanent teeth, atrophy of the upper jaw and dental crowding. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to report the case of a patient affected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the early childhood and to describe the dental development disorders as consequence of this fact.

Roberto Braga de CarvalhoVianna

2008-01-01

270

Childhood Morbidity and Health in Early Adulthood: Life course linkages in a high morbidity context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines whether morbidity in early and later childhood is associated with health later in life. I investigate the relationship between five types of childhood morbidity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among Guatemalan adults who experienced high levels of morbidity in childhood. The analysis is based on the Human Capital Study (2002–2004), a recent follow-up of the INCAP Longitudinal Study conducted between 1969 and 1977. I find that most types of childhood morbidity...

Margolis, Rachel

2010-01-01

271

Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... more basic needs like food, shelter, and love. Family violence can affect anyone. It can happen in any ... and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

272

Mapping Knowledge: Concept Maps in Early Childhood Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Graphic organizers such as webs, time lines, Venn diagrams, flowcharts, and concept maps are well known and widely used instructional and learning tools. They help teachers and students not only to identify and visually represent their views and knowledge but also to recognize and depict relationships among concepts. This article discusses the use of concept maps in early childhood education. In light of a theory that suggests that information is processed and stored in memory in both linguistic and visual forms, it is argued that concept maps can be used in early childhood classrooms to help children organize and spatially represent both what they know and what they are thinking. Once children learn how to “read” and make concept maps, teachers can also use them to identify children’s preexisting knowledge or misconceptions as well as use them as an evaluation tool. The article also considers the role of concept maps in teacher planning. Concept maps can help teachers to plan, structure, and sequence the content of their teaching. Finally, the article illustrates some of the issues involved in using concept maps with preschool children and suggests ways of introducing children to the process of constructing their own concept maps.

Maria Birbili

2006-01-01

273

Nurturing Social Experience in Three Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms  

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Full Text Available This study explored the ways in which early childhood special education teachers supported children's social behavior within the context of their preschool classrooms. Data collected for six children through naturalistic classroom observations were coded and analyzed for emergent themes within a qualitative framework. Findings revealed a variety of strategies and behaviors used by early childhood special education teachers and their assistants to respond socially to the children in their classrooms. The data were grouped into five overarching themes: (1 teachers' adaptations to support positive social experiences, (2 positive emotional connections between teachers and students, (3 negative interactions between teachers and students, (4 teachers' promotion of positive social engagement with peers, and (5 teachers' help with conflict resolution. These data present multiple lenses through which to view children's and teachers' social experiences in the classroom, providing the potential for a richer understanding of both what is observed as well as how it actually transpires. The complexity of individual differences and classroom dynamics are discussed, with recommendations for practice and future research.

Susan L. Recchia

2006-01-01

274

Heralding the authoritarian? Orientation toward authority in early childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the research reported here, we examined whether individual differences in authoritarianism have expressions in early childhood. We expected that young children would be more responsive to cues of deviance and status to the extent that their parents endorsed authoritarian values. Using a sample of 43 preschoolers and their parents, we found support for both expectations. Children of parents high in authoritarianism trusted adults who adhered to convention (vs. adults who did not) more than did children of parents low in authoritarianism. Furthermore, compared with children of parents low in authoritarianism, children of parents high in authoritarianism gave greater weight to a status-based "adult = reliable" heuristic in trusting an ambiguously conventional adult. Findings were consistent using two different measures of parents' authoritarian values. These findings demonstrate that children's trust-related behaviors vary reliably with their parents' orientations toward authority and convention, and suggest that individual differences in authoritarianism express themselves well before early adulthood. PMID:24503871

Reifen Tagar, Michal; Federico, Christopher M; Lyons, Kristen E; Ludeke, Steven; Koenig, Melissa A

2014-04-01

275

Infant diet and subcutaneous fat mass in early childhood. The Generation R Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background: Breastfeeding has a protective effect on childhood obesity, but the influences on body composition in early childhood are not known. Objectives: To assess whether the duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding, and the timing of introduction of solid foods are associated with the subcutaneous fat mass in early childhood. Methods: This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 799 children. Peripheral (biceps, triceps) and ...

2011-01-01

276

Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

2012-01-01

277

The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain  

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Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Ch...

2012-01-01

278

Interactions among Attitudes toward Teaching and Personality Constructs in Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purpose of this study was to examine early childhood education teachers' attitudes toward teaching, and their relationship to internal-external locus of control and sociotropy and autonomy orientations. The participants in this study were limited to 180 undergraduate students enrolled in early childhood education in three different…

Bedel, Emine Ferda

2008-01-01

279

Early Childhood Inservice and Preservice Teachers' Perceived Levels of Preparedness to Handle Stress in Their Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports a study that investigated preservice and inservice early childhood teachers' perceived levels of preparedness to handle stress in early childhood and elementary education students. A survey that included vignettes was used to collect data. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and statistically, using one-way ANOVA, "t"-test,…

Onchwari, Jacqueline

2010-01-01

280

Conceptualising the Early Childhood Pedagogue: Policy Approaches and Issues of Professionalism  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite common moves in a number of countries to raise the quality and visibility of early childhood services (for example, through the introduction of curricular frameworks), both professionalisation policies and understandings of the professional role remain distinctly variegated across Europe and beyond. Whereas early childhood systems with…

Oberhuemer, Pamela

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Understanding Children's Feelings: Emotional Literacy in Early Childhood. Research in Practice Series. Volume 11, Number 4  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Research in Practice Series" is published four times each year by Early Childhood Australia. The series aims to provide practical, easy to read, up-to-date information and support to a growing national readership of early childhood workers. The books bring together the best information available on wide-ranging topics and are an ideal…

Sorin, Reesa

2004-01-01

282

Nebraska Policymakers Reach Consensus on Early Childhood Legislation, Based on Recent Scientific Findings. Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

A case study of Nebraska early childhood legislation, passed unanimously in 2005, shows the role of science in effective policymaking. By combining citizen advocacy, skillful work by legislators, and testimony by local experts as well as national scientists, Nebraska succeeded in producing bipartisan consensus on the importance of early childhood

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

2006-01-01

283

Storytelling Dramas as a Community Building Activity in an Early Childhood Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy social-emotional development is promoted by building a safe, secure and respectful environment in an early childhood setting with positive and consistent relationships among adults, children, and their peers. This study explored storytelling dramas as an opportunity to build community within the context of one early childhood classroom.…

Wright, Cheryl; Diener, Marissa L.; Kemp, Jacqueline Lindsay

2013-01-01

284

Assessing the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment among Early Childhood Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment among early childhood educators. Organizational commitment and its established precursor, job satisfaction, have gained relevance because turnover within early childhood education has fluctuated between 25% and 40% for…

Shepherd-Osborne, Tracie

2009-01-01

285

Whose Expertise?: An Analysis of Advice Giving in Early Childhood Parent-Teacher Conferences  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood and early childhood special education programs have a focus on parent-educator partnerships. Parent-teacher conferences are a context for these partnerships, and advice giving is one type of exchange occurring within conferences. Parent-teacher conference advice was investigated through participant interviews and the methodology of…

Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

2011-01-01

286

"On the Shoulders of Giants": Exploring the Traditions of Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses trends in early childhood education rooted in much older traditions, such as the project approach and Reggio Emilia approach, as well as the history of Head Start, and other changes in early childhood programs and services. Considers the need for practitioners to understand the theoretical and ideological foundations of pedagogical…

Spodek, Bernard; Saracho, Olivia N.

2003-01-01

287

On-the-Spot Course: Early Childhood Education in Kenya (July 13-30, 1993). Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a course on early childhood education methodology and practice that was held at Machakos, Kenya, for 28 Kenyan early childhood teachers, social workers, and teacher educators. In addition to presenting developmental profiles of preschool children, the 12-day course addressed language enrichment activities as precursors to…

Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

288

Course on Early Childhood Education (October 5, 1980 - March 5, 1981). Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 5-month program conducted in Israel for persons active in early childhood education is described in this report. The program, designed to present an overall view of early childhood education, was tailored to the experience and background of participants. Lectures were devoted to such topics as child psychology, teaching methods, curriculum…

Mount Carmel International Training Centre for Community Services, Haifa (Israel).

289

Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates  

Science.gov (United States)

Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

2011-01-01

290

Development of an Integrated Computer-Based Assessment System for Early Childhood Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the development of a computer-based assessment system for children in early childhood programs, The Indiana Assessment System of Educational Proficiencies: Early Childhood (IASEP: EC). Skills in five developmental domains (i.e., cognitive, communication, social, sensory motor, and self-help) were selected and content…

Bennett, Deborah E.; Arvidson, Helen H.; Giorgetti, Karen

2004-01-01

291

The Quality of Early Childhood Educators: Children's Interaction in Greek Child Care Centers  

Science.gov (United States)

Though quality in early childhood education and care has attracted last decades enormous research interest there is still not a unanimous agreement about its definition. Yet, almost all definitions attempted include interaction, group size, adult:child ratio and early childhood educators' level of education, as important indices of quality.…

Rentzou, Konstantina; Sakellariou, Maria

2011-01-01

292

An Analysis of Caring Behaviour among Early Childhood Teachers and Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this research project is to analyse the manifestation of caring behaviours in early childhood teachers and students. Thirty-two early childhood education major pre-service teachers served as observers. For data collection they used checklists previously prepared by the classroom instructor and kept a journal with anecdotal…

Nowak-Fabrykowski, K. T.

2012-01-01

293

Tools of Engagement: Status Report on Technology in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, a tidal wave of mobile digital devices and applications (apps) has found its way into the daily lives of early childhood professionals everywhere. It is safe to say that the speed at which new digital devices and apps get into people's hands will not slow down. This article presents a status report on technology in early childhood

Simon, Fran; Donohue, Chip

2011-01-01

294

Reconceptualising Professionalism in Early Childhood Education: Insights from a Study Carried out in Bologna  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the issue of early childhood professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective. In particular the article is concerned with how pre-school teachers conceptualise their professionalism by making sense of the work they carry out on an everyday basis in early childhood institutions. In analysing teachers' perceptions special…

Lazzari, Arianna

2012-01-01

295

Meeting Children Where They Are: Culturally Adapted Models of Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has proven the many benefits of early childhood education and development programs. Although much progress has been made in the last decade, many young children still do not have access to high-quality early childhood education. In many countries where government programs have failed, nongovernmental organizations and community groups…

Modica, Sarah; Ajmera, Maya; Dunning, Victoria

2010-01-01

296

Reading and the Brain: What Early Childhood Educators Need to Know  

Science.gov (United States)

This manuscript focuses on neuroscience research that may have applicability for early childhood educators. Beginning with cautions about the usefulness of neurosciences, we offer reviews of several ideas that can inform the practice of early childhood educators. We begin with the understanding that reading is not innate, meaning that every brain…

Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas

2010-01-01

297

Modeling the Effects of Early Childhood Intervention Variables on Parent and Family Well-Being  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered…

Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Brookfield, Jeffri

2007-01-01

298

Literacy Outcomes of Children with Early Childhood Speech Sound Disorders: Impact of Endophenotypes  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To demonstrate that early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) and later school-age reading, written expression, and spelling skills are influenced by shared endophenotypes that may be in part genetic. Method: Children with SSD and their siblings were assessed at early childhood (ages 4-6 years) and followed at school age (7-12 years).…

Lewis, Barbara A.; Avrich, Allison A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Sucheston, Lara E.; Kuo, Iris; Taylor, H. Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.

2011-01-01

299

Against the Unchallenged Discourse of Homelessness: Examining the Views of Early Childhood Preservice Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated views about children experiencing homelessness held by preservice teachers in an early childhood education program. Thirteen early childhood preservice teachers were actively involved in class discussion, reading, doing class assignments, and visiting homeless shelters as community-based field experience. They were asked to…

Kim, Jinhee

2013-01-01

300

Put “Academic Content” in Early Childhood Education and Early Childhood Teacher Education: A Response to Hyson et al.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Programs of teacher preparation in early childhood education have struggled with a lack of resources in nearly every area. As this and other articles attest, the numbers of potential teachers and teacher educators, particularly among minority candidates, have waned; the types of support (e.g., professional status, additional time for professional development, time and opportunity to conduct action and other types of research are often lost in the name of managing teacher education programs with inadequate numbers of faculty. Financial backing for program maintenance and improvement has been low in many of our two- and four/five-year institutions. In addition, it is my belief that a broad, general focus on the many competing demands inherent in early education and care has contributed to a loss of a systematic focus on critically important content for prospective teachers and children alike. Given the new opportunities and the accountability ahead of us, we have a great deal of work to do. We are hampered by having too few teacher educators well prepared in research and who have sufficient depth of knowledge regarding key content-domain early educational practice. To this challenge, I want to elaborate on a few thoughts and recommendations. First and foremost, I believe that we must return to a clear emphasis on academic content in early childhood—both in our teacher preparation programs and in what we advocate that teachers do in their interactions with young children. Such emphasis can prepare children for success using methods that honor children’s developmental trajectories and cultural contexts. Second, we need to find more focused and strategic ways to work together, building on successful, research-based models already in place. I offer these thoughts on the basis of my own experiences, acknowledging that others may disagree or have far better ideas.

Elaine Surbeck

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting (MECSH trial: design, method and sample description  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Home visiting programs comprising intensive and sustained visits by professionals (usually nurses over the first two years of life show promise in promoting child health and family functioning, and ameliorating disadvantage. Australian evidence of the effectiveness of sustained nurse home visiting in early childhood is limited. This paper describes the method and cohort characteristics of the first Australian study of sustained home visiting commencing antenatally and continuing to child-age two years for at-risk mothers in a disadvantaged community (the Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting trial. Methods and design Mothers reporting risks for poorer parenting outcomes residing in an area of socioeconomic disadvantage were recruited between February 2003 and March 2005. Mothers randomised to the intervention group received a standardised program of nurse home visiting. Interviews and observations covering child, maternal, family and environmental issues were undertaken with mothers antenatally and at 1, 12 and 24 months postpartum. Standardised tests of child development and maternal-child interaction were undertaken at 18 and 30 months postpartum. Information from hospital and community heath records was also obtained. Discussion A total of 338 women were identified and invited to participate, and 208 were recruited to the study. Rates of active follow-up were 86% at 12 months, 74% at 24 months and 63% at 30 months postpartum. Participation in particular data points ranged from 66% at 1 month to 51% at 24 months postpartum. Rates of active follow-up and data point participation were not significantly different for the intervention or comparison group at any data point. Mothers who presented for antenatal care prior to 20 weeks pregnant, those with household income from full-time employment and those who reported being abused themselves as a child were more likely to be retained in the study. The Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting trial will provide Australian evidence of the effectiveness of sustained nurse home visiting for children at risk of poorer health and developmental outcomes. Trial registration ACTRN12608000473369

Anderson Teresa

2008-12-01

302

La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

Argos, Javier

2000-01-01

303

[Early Childhood Intervention - Access to Risk Families and Support through Actors from the Health-care Sector].  

Science.gov (United States)

Interdisciplinary cooperation and networking determine the success of activities for supporting families at risk for early childhood abuse. The integration of the healthcare sector might be important.The medical standard of perinatal care at the University hospital includes information exchange about family risk factors which may contribute to an increased risk of child abuse within the first year of life. As a result, the -pediatrician offered supporting services for the families at the time of the second examination during the official childhood health screening program (U2). A team of family-sponsorship was established and evaluated.In 281 of 1?238 risk-factor questionnaires at least one stress factor was detected and 97 families had high-impact family stress. Families under the supervision of a family midwife or youth services had a significantly higher number of risk factors. The family-sponsorship program was institutionalized and positively evaluated by the families.The time of a hospital delivery is an excellent opportunity for the evaluation of familial risk factors and for the provision of supporting services. To increase the acceptance of such services by the families at risk repeated assessment of risk factors and support offers are required. PMID:25010130

Clauß, D; Deutsch, J; Krol, I; Haase, R; Willard, P; Müller-Bahlke, T; Mauz-Körholz, C; Körholz, D

2014-07-01

304

Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: The rise in the occurrence of childhood obesity during the last decades in many populations indicates an important role of environmental exposures, which may operate very early in life. We aimed to examine the association between bereavement during the first 6 years of life, as a stress indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children. Methods: We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years of life. We compared BMI levels, changes in BMI, and the prevalence of overweight at 7-13 years of age between bereaved and non-bereaved children. Results: Between bereaved children and non-bereaved children, there were no differences in average BMI levels at any age or changes in BMI at 7-13 years of age. Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age. Conclusion: This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn

2012-01-01

305

Early childhood obesity prevention in low-income, urban communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the disproportionately high rates of obesity-related morbidity among low-income, ethnic minority youth, obesity prevention in this population is critical. Prior efforts to curb childhood obesity have had limited public health impact. The present study evaluates an innovative approach to obesity prevention by promoting foundational parenting and child behavioral regulation. This pre-post intervention study evaluated an enhanced version of ParentCorps with 91 families of pre-Kindergarten students in low-income, urban communities. Assessments included tests of knowledge and parent report. Consistent with findings from two randomized controlled trials of ParentCorps, parent knowledge and use of foundational parenting practices increased and child behavior problems decreased. Child nutrition knowledge and physical activity increased and television watching decreased; for boys, sleep problems decreased. Comparable benefits occurred for children at high risk for obesity based on child dysregulation, child overweight, and parent overweight. Results support a "whole child," family-centered approach to health promotion in early childhood. PMID:24702665

Dawson-McClure, Spring; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Theise, Rachelle; Palamar, Joseph J; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Barajas, R Gabriela; Calzada, Esther J

2014-01-01

306

"..., But I Cannot Do Research": Action-Research and Early Childhood Teachers. A Case Study from Greece  

Science.gov (United States)

Although action-research is a well-known research methodology in the field of education, in the case of Greece there are few actions-researches carried out by early childhood teachers. The absence of action-research in early childhood education settings is related to the way many early childhood teachers shape their professional role as well as…

Magos, Kostas

2012-01-01

307

Electrophysiological correlates of attention networks in childhood and early adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention has been related to functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control, which are associated with distinct brain networks. This study aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the development of attention functions during childhood. A total of 46 healthy 4-13-year-old children and 15 adults performed an adapted version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) while brain activation was registered with a high-density EEG system. Performance of the ANT revealed changes in the efficiency of attention networks across ages. While no differences were observed on the alerting score, both orienting and executive attention scores showed a more protracted developmental curve. Further, age-related differences in brain activity were mostly observed in early ERP components. Young children had poorer early processing of warning cues compared to 10-13-year-olds and adults, as shown by an immature auditory-evoked potential complex elicited by warning tones. Also, 4-6-year-olds exhibited a poorer processing of orienting cues as indexed by lack of modulation of the N1. Finally, flanker congruency produced earlier modulation of ERPs amplitude with age. Flanker congruency effects were delayed and more anteriorly distributed for young children, compared to adults who showed a clear modulation of the N2 in fronto-parietal channels. Additionally, interactions among attention networks were examined. Both alerting and orienting conditions modulated the effectiveness of conflict processing by the executive attention network. The Orienting×Executive networks interactions was only observed after about age 7. Results are informative of the neural correlates of the development of attention networks in childhood. PMID:24593898

Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, Concepción; Rosario Rueda, M

2014-05-01

308

Can child temperament be related to early childhood caries?  

Science.gov (United States)

Beyond the biological risk factors of early childhood caries (ECC) is child temperament. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of ECC to different traits of child temperament, directly and indirectly through the nutritional and oral hygiene habits. Through a multi-stage sampling, 373 kindergarten children aged 18-36 months participated in this study. The primary caregivers filled in the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire (ECBQ) and a checklist containing demographic data and the dietary and oral hygiene habits of the children. Children were examined for dental caries. The frequency of ECC was 41.14%. With 18 aspects of a child's temperament under consideration, attentional shifting, fear, frustration, low-intensity pleasure, sadness and shyness were significantly higher in the ECC group. Cuddliness, perceptual sensitivity, positive anticipation and soothability were significantly higher in caries-free children. Attentional shifting (p = 0.02), frustration (p = 0.02) and shyness (p = 0.03) were risk factors and cuddliness (p < 0.001) was a protecting factor for ECC. In the multiple regression model regarding nutritional and oral hygiene habits, easily soothable children were 0.69 times less likely to use sweetened liquids frequently [odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.97, p = 0.03], while sad children were 0.58 times less likely to brush (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.94, p = 0.02). Considering temperament traits along with socioeconomic status, positive anticipation was the most significant determinant of ECC (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.19, p = 0.007). However, considering temperament, socioeconomic measures and child habits among ECC risk factors, the most significant was the initiation of brushing habits (OR 5.41, 95% CI 2.81-12.98, p = 0.002). PMID:24216506

Aminabadi, N A; Ghoreishizadeh, A; Ghoreishizadeh, M; Oskouei, S G; Ghojazadeh, M

2014-01-01

309

[Neurophysiological studies on group A xeroderma pigmentosum in early childhood].  

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Neurophysiological studies were performed on 8 patients with group A xeroderma pigmentosum during early childhood. EEG, ABR and NCV were normal during this period. In contrast, various sleep parameters detected by polysomnography showed abnormal findings even in the neurologically normal patient. Decreased % sleep REM was seen in a case, and decreased frequency of REMs were seen in another. Body movements were extremely high or low in frequency in 3 cases in whole night sleep. The distribution of body movements were abnormal; in control subjects, the frequency was higher in SREM and stage 1 than in slow wave sleep; in 7 cases, it was higher in slow wave sleep than in stage 1 or 2, or body movements were extremely frequent. Neurological examination revealed soft signs in various systems in early childhood. All cases except one showed hypotonia. Many cases were slow in learning to walk and the gait was unstable. Speech delay and decreased deep tendon reflexes, especially of patella, were seen in most cases. Since the neural deficits in XP may be related to the DNA repair defect, these findings indicate the possibility that some endogenous compounds distributing all over the nervous system might produce the DNA damages. Because the body movements during sleep are controlled by the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, present data indicate that the basal ganglia might be one of the earliest degenerative systems in the CNS. Recently, some studies have suggested the possibility that oxygen radical mechanisms might be involved in the development of the dopamine neurodegenerative process in Parkinson's disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2175631

Iwakawa, Y; Shimohira, M; Kondo, S; Sato, Y

1990-11-01

310

Dermatoglyphics: A genetic marker of early childhood caries.  

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Background: It is an accepted fact that genetics plays an important role in determination of palmar dermatoglyphic patterns. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, this study was undertaken to explore the possibility of dermatoglyphics as a noninvasive and early predictor of dental caries in children, so as to initiate preventive oral health measures at an early age. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 children aged between 4 and 5 years. The dmfs score was evaluated. The experimental group (Group 1), comprised of 100 children with early childhood caries (ECC) with dmfs >5. The control group (Group 2) comprised of 100 children with dmfs score of 0. Results: An increased frequency of ulnar loops in caries-free children and whorls in children with ECC was observed. Low mean atd angle and low mean. Total ridge count was observed in the ECC group. Conclusion: There is definite variation in dermatoglyphics between the ECC and caries-free group, indicating that dermatoglyphic patterns can be used as a predictive tool for children with ECC. PMID:25001441

Anitha, C; Konde, Sapna; Raj, N Sunil; Kumar, N C; Peethamber, Preetha

2014-01-01

311

Gay-related Development, Early Abuse and Adult Health Outcomes Among Gay Males  

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This study examined relationships between timing of gay-related developmental milestones, early abuse, and emergence of poor health outcomes in adulthood among 1,383 gay/bisexual men in the Urban Men’s Health Study. Latent Profile Analysis grouped participants as developing early, middle or late based on the achievement of four phenomena including age of first awareness of same-sex sexual attractions and disclosure of sexual orientation. Participants who developed early were more likely, co...

Friedman, Mark S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Stall, Ron; Cheong, Jeewon; Wright, Eric R.

2008-01-01

312

Relationship of Pessimistic Attitude with Childhood Abuse among the Female Prisoners of Punjab Prisons  

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Full Text Available The study explores the relationship between the experience of abuse and pessimistic attitude among the female prisoners. This area of research has never been explored in Pakistan. Participants included 400 females both the convicts and under trials from the four Central Prisons of Punjab Prisons. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire. House Tree Person Test was also administered for rapport building. It was hypothesized that female prisoners having the experience of abuse were also having pessimistic attitude towards the life. Findings showed significant co-relation between experience of abuse and pessimistic attitude. Pearson correlation co-efficient was calculated between experience of abuse and pessimisms. In order to further understand the level of abuse; it was divided into emotional, physical and sexual abuse. This study highlighted the need to attend emotional problems of female criminals.

Sarwat Inayat Mirza

2011-12-01

313

Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.  

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Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed. PMID:24070695

Easton, Scott D

2014-02-01

314

Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C  

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Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

2012-01-01

315

MODELING THE EFFECTS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD INTERVENTION VARIABLES ON PARENT AND FAMILY WELL-BEING  

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Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered early intervention practices had direct and indirect positive effects, perceived program control appraisals had direct and indirect positive effects, ...

2007-01-01

316

Critical viewpoint to early childhood education teachers’ well-being at work  

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Full Text Available Early childhood education teachers’ happiness at work reflects in children. Finnish day care system has faced plenty of changes and they can also reflect in well-being at day care. The aim of this article to dissect the state of well-being and thriving at work in Finnish day care centers from early childhood education teachers’ point of view and to discuss how well-being could be promoted. The data comprises group interviews (N=9 collected with memory-work method among North-Finnish early childhood education teachers (N=4. The results revealed that several factors were reported as threatening early childhood education teachers’ well-being. These kinds of factors were, among others, increasing amount of administrative tasks as well as concern about their educational task becoming narrower, the sufficiency of one’s own resources, and how the economic measures for efficiency have started to extend to day care as well. Perceived well-being increases when early childhood education teachers have time to encounter an individual child and concentrate on their basic work, rearing and teaching children. Based on the findings, suggestions how to enhance early childhood education teachers’ well-being are discussed. Promotion of well-being necessitates development actions both at the level of society, day care system and early childhood education teachers’ personal level. In this article, we highlight how organizational structures enhance or hinder well-being.

Outi Ylitapio-Mäntylä

2012-02-01

317

Childhood Sexual Abuse and the Development of Recurrent Major Depression in Chinese Women  

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Background Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? Method Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.19–5.24]). This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58–3.15), genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52–8.15) and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56–23.71). Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11–2.27) and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09–1.80). Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20–1.89) and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02–2.02). Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66–8.22), use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05–3.82) and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20–1.64) were significantly associated with recurrent MD. Conclusions In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD.

Chen, Jing; Cai, Yiyun; Cong, Enzhao; Liu, Ying; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Shi, Shenxun; Flint, Jonathan

2014-01-01

318

Polyarteritis nodosa in childhood: recognition of early dermatologic signs may prevent morbidity.  

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Systemic polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a vasculitis that affects small to medium-size arteries. Onset in childhood is rare and can cause significant morbidity. Often, cutaneous manifestations can provide early clues toward diagnosis. This article describes a case of childhood systemic PAN that presented with fever, a necrotic skin lesion, and oral ulceration. Intestinal perforation complicated this case. Prompt recognition of childhood PAN is important to prevent serious complications. PMID:23937359

Beckum, Kathleen M; Kim, David J; Kelly, David R; Weiser, Peter; Lara, Diego A; Theos, Amy

2014-01-01

319

Maltreatment in early childhood: a scoping review of prevention, detection and treatment  

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Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years. Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on detection, prevention and treatment strategies in different situations of child maltreatment. Sexual abuse was excluded. The search spanned from 2002 to 2012, in English and Spanish. Results. Of 105 articles, 36 met the selection criteria. In prevention, the best evaluated strategies were parenting programs based on cognitive or cognitive-behavioral approach and interactive learning strategies. In detection, only two instruments were identified with optimum specificity and positive predictive value. In treatment, a variety of treatment strategies were identified with favorable effects on behavioral, functional and psycho affective indicators. The population relevance of these interventions is unclear, as the differential effectiveness of these therapeutic approaches. Conclusions. There are many child maltreatment prevention strategies at the individual and family level. The instruments used for detection are not reliable for use at the collective level. Insofar as therapy, not enough evidence was found both in quality and quantity to favor one intervention over another. It is recommended to understand the problem from the public health perspective and to generate multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches.

Luis Lefio Celedón

2013-08-01

320

Childhood Abuse, Nonadherence, and Medical Outcome in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients  

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Objective: The study assessed the relationship between a history of child abuse, nonadherence to medications, and medical outcome in children who had a liver transplant. Method: Abuse history for children and adolescents ages 8 to 21 who underwent a liver transplantation at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York was obtained in interviews in 2002.…

Shemesh, Eyal; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Yehuda, Rachel; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Hutson, Carolyn; Cohen, Judith A.; Briere, John; Gorman, Jack M.; Emre, Sukru

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

PROMOTING CHILDREN’S AGENCY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION  

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Full Text Available Using conversation analysis (CA, this study identifies features of teacher-child interactions that enable opportunities for children’s active participation in early learning environments, specifically, how teachers promote children’s agency in the resolution of their peer disputes. The analysis focuses on two particular episodes of teacher intervention selected from a total of 28 hours of video-recorded observations in two early childhood education settings with three- to five-year-old children. The first demonstrates how a teacher can facilitate the collaborative resolution of a dispute; the second demonstrates how a teacher can respond to a child’s report of conflict by positioning herself as a non-participant. While different strategies were utilized in each of these episodes, redirecting responsibility to the children themselves was found to be the key practice in facilitating children’s agency in these interventions. Knowledge and insights gained through conversation analysis contribute to our understanding of how teachers and children collaboratively achieve opportunities for agency.

Angela MASHFORD-SCOTT

2011-04-01

322

A Survey of Current Shanghai Early Childhood Education through Kindergarten Directors' Self-Assessment  

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This paper reports on the findings of a survey conducted in relation to current Shanghai early childhood education via a self-assessment tool developed by the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI). The investigation results of the most items are consistent with the values which the designer of the self-assessment tool holds. It…

Zhu-Jiaxiong; Zhou-Nianli

2005-01-01

323

Reflecting Caring and Power in Early Childhood Education: Recalling Memories of Educational Practices  

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The aim of this study is to examine how early childhood education teachers recall educational situations concerning caring and power in their childhoods and in their work. The purpose is to study how caring and power are constructed and intertwined in educational practices. The intention is to examine how teachers reflect their work concerning…

Ylitapio-Mantyla, Outi

2013-01-01

324

Not Weaving but Drowning? The Child.com in New Zealand Early Childhood Pedagogies  

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The article critiques the innovative policy documents constructing New Zealand early childhood pedagogies since the advent of the first curriculum "Te Whariki" (1996) and argues that the two most compelling of these reflect the consumerist experiences of childhood today. The acclaim which followed the publication of "Te Whariki" has led to many…

Cederman, Kaye

2008-01-01

325

Early Working Alliance in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment: Predicting Substance Use Frequency and Client Satisfaction  

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Background: The study examined the effect of the early working alliance on outcome in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Methods: A total of 327 clients and 33 therapists participated in the study. Data were collected in southern and western Finland in outpatient treatment units (N = 7). The dependent variables were percentage of days abstinent…

Knuuttila, Vesa; Kuusisto, Katja; Saarnio, Pekka; Nummi, Tapio

2012-01-01

326

Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse: Results from a Large Population-Based Sample of Men and Women  

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Objective: Child maltreatment has been linked to negative adult health outcomes; however, much past research includes only clinical samples of women, focuses exclusively on sexual abuse and/or fails to control for family background and childhood characteristics, both potential confounders. Further research is needed to obtain accurate,…

Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly

2007-01-01

327

Reductions in Traumatic Stress Following a Coping Intervention Were Mediated by Decreases in Avoidant Coping for People Living with HIV/AIDS and Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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Objective: To examine whether (a) Living in the Face of Trauma (LIFT), a group intervention to address coping with HIV and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), significantly reduced traumatic stress over a 1-year follow-up period more than an attention-matched support group comparison intervention; and (b) reductions in avoidant coping over time mediated…

Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ranby, Krista W.; Meade, Christina S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kochman, Arlene

2013-01-01

328

Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents  

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Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

2011-01-01

329

Early childhood predictors of the social competence of adults with autism.  

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Longitudinal research into adult outcomes in autism remains limited. Unlike previous longitudinal examinations of adult outcome in autism, the twenty participants in this study were evaluated across multiple assessments between early childhood (M = 3.9 years) and adulthood (M = 26.6 years). In early childhood, responsiveness to joint attention (RJA), language, and intelligence were assessed. In adulthood, the parents of participants responded to interviews assessing the adaptive functioning, autistic symptomology and global functioning of their children. RJA and early childhood language predicted a composite measure of adult social functioning and independence. Early childhood language skills and intelligence predicted adult adaptive behaviors. RJA predicted adult non-verbal communication, social skills and symptoms. Adaptive behaviors changed with development, but symptoms of autism did not. Additional factors associated with adult outcomes are discussed. PMID:22187106

Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Sepeta, Leigh; Wang, Yueyan; Marshall, Stephanie; Gomez, Lovella; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

2012-02-01

330

Transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo: associação com abuso físico na infância Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders: association with physical abuse in childhood  

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Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Muitos transtornos psiquiátricos, geralmente diagnosticados pela primeira vez na infância, estão associados a maus-tratos, entre eles o abuso físico, causando significativo impacto no desenvolvimento das crianças acometidas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a associação entre um diagnóstico psiquiátrico do grupo dos transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo (TDACD em crianças e a história de abuso físico na infância. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo seccional, crianças de 3 a 12 anos, atendidas em um ambulatório de psiquiatria de um hospital universitário, foram avaliadas por meio do MINI KID (, tendo sido diagnosticadas de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV. A avaliação de abuso físico e de outros eventos traumáticos foi realizada por um questionário específico, o LSC-R ( e inclui diferentes tipos de maus-tratos. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma razão de chance mais alta de exposição freqüente ao abuso físico (p = 0,02 no grupo de crianças diagnosticadas com TDACD. Não se encontrou associação entre transtornos de humor (p = 0,67 e de ansiedade (p = 0,57 com abuso físico. Evidenciou-se uma relação de temporalidade entre o grupo dos TDACD e abuso físico (66,6%. Após ajuste de possíveis fatores de confundimento, meninos demonstraram índices significativamente mais elevados de abuso físico do que meninas (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados documentaram associação entre um diagnóstico do grupo dos TDACD em crianças e abuso físico na infância.BACKGROUND: Many psychiatric disorders diagnosed at the first time in childhood are associated with child abuse, like physical abuse. This disorders cause an important impact on the childhood development. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between children with attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders group (ADDBD and physical abuse in childhood. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the MINI KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents to evaluate children with and without the diagnostic of ADDBD group. Physical abuse was evaluated using the LSC-R (Life Stressor Checklist - Revised and included others child abuses. RESULTS: We found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to physical abuse (p = 0,02 in the ADDBD group than in the group without this diagnostic. No association between mood (p = 0,67 and anxiety (p = 0,57 disorders and physical abuse. We found a temporal association (66,6% between ADDBD group and physical abuse. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found significantly higher odds ratio to the association between boys and physical abuse than did girls (p = 0,001. DISCUSSION: Our findings document an association between ADDBD group and physical abuse in childhood period.

Sheila Abramovitch

2008-01-01

331

Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project  

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Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

Lee, Jessica Y.

2014-01-01

332

Distributional effects of early childhood programs and business incentives and their implications for policy  

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This paper is a draft of Chapter 8 of a planned book, Preschool and Jobs: Human Development as Economic Development, and Vice Versa. This book analyzes early childhood programs' effects on regional economic development. Four early childhood programs are considered: 1) universally accessible preschool for four-year-olds of similar quality to the Chicago Child Parent Center program; 2) the Abecedarian program, which provides disadvantaged children with high-quality child care and preschool from...

2009-01-01

333

How policymakers should deal with the delayed benefits of early childhood programs  

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This chapter is a draft of Chapter 7 of a planned book, Preschool and Jobs: Human Development as Economic Development, and Vice Versa. This book analyzes early childhood programs' effects on regional economic development. Four early childhood programs are considered: 1) universally accessible preschool for four-year-olds of similar quality to the Chicago Child Parent Center program; 2) the Abecedarian program, which provides disadvantaged children with high-quality child care and preschool fr...

2009-01-01

334

Development of a Model for Streamlining Early Childhood Education in Pakistan  

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This article is based on a study aimed at developing a model for streamlining early childhood education (ECE) in Pakistan. The objectives of the study were to analyze the existing status, the existing facilities and practices at ECE level in public and private sector schools. The study was delimited to schools of Lahore Division of Punjab province. The population of the study included public sector schools with the facilities of early childhood education and from private sector schools, City ...

2012-01-01

335

Explaining the birth order effect: The role of prenatal and early childhood investments  

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The critical role of prenatal and early childhood conditions on adult outcomes has been the focus of a rich body of research. In this paper, we examine various pre- and postnatal investments as possible sources behind the birth order effect - significant differences in the educational and labor market outcomes across children of varying birth orders. Taking advantage of a rich set of information on in utero and early childhood conditions in the Children of the NLSY79, we find that, within the...

Lehmann, Jee-yeon K.; Nuevo-chiquero, Ana; Vidal-ferna?ndez, Marian

2012-01-01

336

A Decade of Reflection: Early Childhood Care and Education in Ireland 1996-2006  

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You are welcome to the first seminar in a CSER series intended to consider aspects of early childhood education and care1 [ECEC] from a policy, research and practice perspective and promote discussion and debate. In this introduction to the seminar I want to outline some of the thinking behind the topic for today and present - with limited elaboration - a personal reflection to add to the discussion and debate. In choosing to reflect on the development and impact of early childhood education ...

2006-01-01

337

The significance of parent-practitioner interaction in early childhood education  

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"The article will focus on the parentpractitioner interaction in the context of the educational conversations in a Finnish day care centre. The National Curriculum Guidelines in Finland seek to emphasise a new approach - referred to as early childhood education and care partnership - which involves participation that goes further than co-operation. The journey from co-operation to early childhood education and care partnership requires mutual, continuous and committed interaction in

Karila, Kirsti

2006-01-01

338

TRIAL-BASED FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS AND FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION TRAINING IN AN EARLY CHILDHOOD SETTING  

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Problem behavior is common in early childhood special education classrooms. Functional communication training (FCT; Carr & Durand, 1985) may reduce problem behavior but requires identification of its function. The trial-based functional analysis (FA) is a method that can be used to identify problem behavior function in schools. We conducted trial-based FAs and FCT with 3 children in an early childhood special education setting. All trial-based FAs resulted in identification of behavioral func...

Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Irvin, Jennifer

2012-01-01

339

Early childhood caries (ECC) is still a problem? An epidemiological and aetiological approach  

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The term Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was formulated by the American Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (AAPD, 2008), to describe the presence at least of one decayed, filled or missed tooth in the decidous dentition. Therefore, it is recommended that the term Early Childhood Caries (ECC). This thesis was dived into three papers with these aims: 1. The main objective of the first paper is aimed to describe the prevalence of ECC by reviewing published reports, and secondly to assess the ru...

Congiu, Giovanna

2012-01-01

340

Early Childhood Predictors of the Social Competence of Adults with Autism  

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Longitudinal research into adult outcomes in autism remains limited. Unlike previous longitudinal examinations of adult outcome in autism, the twenty participants in this study were evaluated across multiple assessments between early childhood (M = 3.9 years) and adulthood (M = 26.6 years). In early childhood, responsiveness to joint attention (RJA), language, and intelligence were assessed. In adulthood, the parents of participants responded to interviews assessing the adaptive functio...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Aspectos orofaciais dos maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica Orofacial aspects of childhood abuse and dental negligence  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar os principais aspectos orofaciais dos maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica, contribuindo com a identificação destas vítimas no ambiente odontológico. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados Adolec, MEDLINE, LILACS e BBO. Utilizaram-se como descritores: maus-tratos infantis, manifestações bucais, odontólogos, papel (figurativo e responsabilidade legal. Verificou-se que os maus-tratos infantis acontecem em geral em domicílio e os ferimentos orofaciais decorrentes incluem trauma, queimaduras e lacerações dos tecidos duros e moles, marcas de mordida e hematomas em vários estágios de cura. Pode haver ferimentos que envolvem outras partes do corpo próximas à cavidade bucal, como hematoma periorbital e contusão nasal. Quanto ao abuso sexual, muitas vítimas não apresentam nenhum sinal físico associado; assim, indicadores comportamentais devem ser observados. A imediata identificação e o relato de maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica pelo cirurgião-dentista são essenciais para a proteção das crianças, sendo fundamental uma maior atuação destes profissionais, através do registro e denúncia dos casos suspeitos às agências de proteção à criança.The aim of this paper was to identify the main oral and dental aspects of childhood abuse and dental neglect, contributing to the identification of these victims in a dental office. A bibliographic research was carried out, in ADOLEC, MEDLINE, LILACS and BBO databases. The following key words were used: child abuse, oral manifestations, dentists; role; liability, legal. It was verified that violence against children happens in general at home and the resulting orofacial injuries encompass: injuries, burns and lacerations on soft and hard tissues, bite marks and gradually-healed wounds. It can have wounds in other parts of the body next to the oral cavity, such as periorbital wound and nasal injury. Regarding sexual abuse, many victims do not present any associated physic signs; therefore, behavioral indicators must be observed. The immediate recognition and report of childhood abuse and dental negligence by dental surgeon are essential for children protection. Therefore, it is critical to define more effective action from those professionals, by registration and denunciation of suspect cases to child protection agencies.

Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino Massoni

2010-03-01

342

Maximizing Partnerships with Parents and Pediatricians: The Role of Early Childhood Specialists  

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The early childhood provider, because of the consistent contact over time with infants, toddlers, and their families, is well positioned to observe the nuances of the early caregiving relationship; monitor early child behavior and development; identify deviances; and offer support, guidance, and intervention when families struggle. This…

Shah, Prachi E.

2010-01-01

343

Brain Research and Its Implications for Early Childhood Programs--Applying Research to Our Work.  

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Identifies five key findings of brain research: complex inter-play between genes and environment; early experiences contribute to brain structure and capacities; early interactions affect wiring; brain development is non-linear; and a child's brain is more active than adults'. Discusses implications for early childhood environments, curriculum,…

Schiller, Pam

2001-01-01

344

A pedoprosthetic rehabilitation in patients with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC).  

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Early childhood caries (ECC) is a rapid form of dental caries. ECC is the most common chronic childhood disease that can compromise a child's self-esteem, nutritional intake, oral development and quality of life, subsequently leading to malocclusion and psychological problems. The restoration of severely decayed primary teeth is often a difficult procedure that offers a great challenge to paediatric dentists. The present case series document the clinical management of patients suffering from severe early childhood caries using removable partial prosthesis restoring their masticatory function and aesthestics. The ultimate aim of the treatment was to improve psychological and physiological development leading to better functioning of the stomatognathic system. PMID:23843409

Mishra, Apurva; Pandey, Ramesh; Pandey, Neelisha; Jain, Eesha

2013-01-01

345

Childhood exposure to family violence and attrition in the Navy.  

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In a prospective study of U.S. Navy recruits (n = 5,491), we examined the relationship between childhood exposure to family violence (child physical abuse, child sexual abuse [CSA], and domestic violence) and attrition. Overall, 55% of recruits experienced one or more forms of childhood family violence and 34% of recruits attrited within 4 years after enlistment. Considered separately, each form of childhood violence was significantly associated with attrition. When considered simultaneously, all three types of childhood violence were associated with attrition in men, but only CSA was associated with attrition in women. Men and women who experienced all three types of childhood violence were 303% and 139%, respectively, more likely to attrite than recruits who reported no childhood violence. In analyses examining the timing of attrition, CSA was associated with early attrition, whereas child physical abuse and domestic violence were unrelated to timing of attrition. PMID:15281678

Merrill, Lex L; Stander, Valerie A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Crouch, Julie L; Milner, Joel S

2004-06-01

346

Alcohol Abuse Among U.S. Navy Recruits Who Were Maltreated in Childhood.  

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Aims: To examine relationships between childhood maltreatment and alcohol-related problems among U.S. Navy recruits. Methods: An anonymous sample of 5697 Navy recruits completed a survey regarding their alcohol consumption, alcohol problems (binge drinkin...

C. Thomsen L. Merrill L. Trent V. Stander

2007-01-01

347

Residential PTSD treatment for female veterans with military sexual trauma: does a history of childhood sexual abuse influence outcome?  

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This study examined whether a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) influenced treatment outcome among female veterans with an index trauma of military sexual trauma (MST) receiving residential treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One hundred and ten female veterans, 61 with a history of CSA and 49 without, were compared on pre-treatment demographic and symptom measures, as well as treatment outcome, which were assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), PTSD Checklist-Stressor Specific Version (PCL-S), and Depression Inventory-Second edition (BDI-II). Veterans received cognitive processing therapy (CPT) as the primary trauma-focused treatment. Study findings showed that these two groups did not significantly differ on pre-treatment variables or treatment outcome. Results suggest that CPT delivered in a residential treatment program was effective for female veterans with PTSD related to MST, with and without a history of CSA. PMID:24162758

Walter, Kristen H; Buckley, Amy; Simpson, Jennifer M; Chard, Kathleen M

2014-04-01

348

Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood  

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Reactive attachment disorder is a problem with social interaction that occurs when a child's basic physical and emotional needs ... Reactive attachment disorder is caused by abuse or neglect of an infant's needs for: Emotional bonds with a primary ...

349

[Childhood sexual behavior as an indicator of sexual abuse: professionals' criteria and biases].  

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Some sexual behaviors are related to child sexual abuse experiences, but none unequivocally. Therefore, professionals might use non-empirical-based criteria and be biased when detecting and reporting victims. To check this hypothesis, we presented 974 Spanish and Latin American professionals from different fields (Psychology, Education, Health, Social Services, Justice, and Police Force) with hypothetical situations of child sexual behavior (varying the sex, age and behavior) by using an experimental vignette method based on Factorial Survey. Participants were asked to indicate whether such behaviors are a sign of abuse and whether they would report them. We also measured demographic, academic, professional and attitude factors. According to the analysis, professionals' suspicion of abuse is more affected by personal factors, whereas their reporting intention depends more on situational factors. The main criterion adopted is the type of sexual behavior, with professionals being more likely to suspect and report in response to aggressive sexual behavior and precocious sexual knowledge. Professionals' attitudes to sexuality seem to generate biases, as those who are erotophobic are more likely to suspect abuse. None of the sexual behaviors was seen as evidence of abuse. PMID:22748731

González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

2012-01-01

350

Children's Participation Rights in Early Childhood Education and Care: The Case of Early Literacy Learning and Pedagogy  

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This position article argues that educators' knowledge of young children's perspectives on aspects of early learning, including literacy learning, and subsequent interpretations of the ways that these perspectives can inform and shape pedagogy are key to promoting children's participation rights in early childhood education and care. Drawing on…

Dunphy, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

351

Measuring Satisfaction with Family-Professional Partnership in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Programs in Qatar  

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Family-professional partnership has been considered a recommended practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (EI/ECSE) programs for young children with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The importance of establishing successful partnerships between families and professionals in educational planning has…

Al-Hadad, Nawal Khalil

2010-01-01

352

Dissociation during sex and sexual arousal in women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.  

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Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience dissociative symptoms and sexual difficulties with greater frequency than women without a history of CSA. Current models of sexual dysfunction for sexual abuse survivors suggest that dissociation may mediate the relationship between CSA and sexual arousal difficulties. Dissociation, however, is often conceptualized as a single construct in studies of CSA and not as separate domains as in the dissociation literature. In the present study, women with (CSA, N = 37) and without (NSA, N = 22) a history of CSA recruited from the community were asked to indicate the frequency and intensity of their experience in two dissociation subgroups, derealization and depersonalization, during sex with a partner and in their daily life. Findings showed that, in the NSA group, more depersonalization during sex with a partner was associated with lower sexual arousal functioning. However, for both the NSA and CSA groups, more derealization during sex was associated with higher sexual arousal functioning. No measure of dissociation was significantly associated with sexual responses in the laboratory. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between different forms of dissociation (i.e., derealization and depersonalization) in the study of sexual arousal functioning. In addition, the findings challenge the notion that dissociation is a main predictor of sexual arousal problems in survivors of CSA and suggest that a more nuanced relationship may exist. PMID:24297658

Bird, Elizabeth R; Seehuus, Martin; Clifton, Jessica; Rellini, Alessandra H

2014-07-01

353

Convergence and divergence in reports of maternal support following childhood sexual abuse: prevalence and associations with youth psychosocial adjustment.  

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This study examined the convergence and divergence in mothers' and children's reports of maternal support following disclosures of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). One hundred and twenty mothers and their children (ages 7-17 years) reported on two aspects of support following CSA disclosures: mothers' belief in the child's disclosure and parent-child discussion of the abuse incident. Whereas 62% of mothers' and children's reports on mothers' belief of the disclosure positively converged (i.e., both reported that mothers "completely believed" the child's disclosure), 37% of mothers' and children's reports diverged, and the remaining 1% negatively converged (i.e., both reported that the mother only believed the child "somewhat"). Positively convergent responses were associated with youths' lower risk for tobacco and illicit drug use. Forty-four percent of mothers' and children's reports on whether details of the CSA were discussed positively converged (i.e., both reported that details were discussed), 33% diverged, and 23% negatively converged (i.e., both reported that details were not discussed). Relative to other patterns of reporting, negatively convergent responses were associated with higher levels of trauma symptoms. Findings have implications for identifying high-risk mother-child dyads based on patterns of informant reporting following CSA. PMID:24456741

Bick, Johanna; Zajac, Kristyn; Ralston, M Elizabeth; Smith, Daniel

2014-03-01

354

MODELING THE EFFECTS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD INTERVENTION VARIABLES ON PARENT AND FAMILY WELL-BEING  

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Full Text Available Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered early intervention practices had direct and indirect positive effects, perceived program control appraisals had direct and indirect positive effects, and early intervention program service intensity had direct negative effects on either or both self-efficacy beliefs and parent and family well-being. Findings are discussed in terms of the benefits and limitations of different features of early childhood intervention and the use of SEM for program evaluation.

Carl J. DUNST

2007-09-01

355

Jordan's Strategies for Early Childhood Education in a Lifelong Learning Framework. UNESCO Policy Brief on Early Childhood. Number 39, July-August 2007  

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Jordan has been paying increased attention to early childhood education in recent years. In particular, the government allocated unprecedented resources to the sector through its Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) 2003/08. Funded by the World Bank and other donor agencies, ERfKE is designed to revamp the education sector starting…

Kaga, Yoshie

2007-01-01

356

The training of early childhood teachers through research with children: an orientation for the reflection on the early childhood teachers training.  

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In this article, we present some reflections on great challenges that are currently placed to the training of early childhood teachers and teachers in general. In order to do so, we shall use the theoretical referentials which use the principle of reflection on practice as the strutucturing axis of the training and that defend that research can frame and guide that reflection.

Pedro, A.; Libo?rio, O.

2008-01-01

357

Emergent Literacy in Early Childhood Education: Course on Emergent Literacy in Early Childhood Education (Haifa, Israel, October 25-December 20, 1992).  

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The purpose of a 1992 course on emergent literacy in early childhood education was to formulate a shared definition of literacy; create awareness of the developmental process involved; test previous assumptions, methods, and techniques in the light of new knowledge; and develop pedagogic approaches and curricula relevant to the existing conditions…

Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

358

Influence of social environment on caries prevalence in early childhood  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Early childhood caries (ECC is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. Objective. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Ba?ka area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. Methods. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and ?2 (p<0.05 test, as well as interdependence of ECC and single characteristics that could be a predictor of the disease by the logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 30.5%. The highest disease frequency was found in children of male sex (35.1%, out of kindergardens (54.2%, in the third and the next born child in the family (46.9% and in part-time employed mothers (47.2% who had only elementary education (59.3% and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1% of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%. Conclusion. The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.

Tušek Ivan

2011-01-01

359

Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients  

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Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse, childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction, and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

Darryl W. Etter

2013-08-01

360

Association between early childhood exposure to malaria and children’s pre-school development: evidence from the Zambia early childhood development project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite major progress made over the past 10?years, malaria remains one of the primary causes of ill health in developing countries in general, and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Whilst a large literature has documented the frequency and severity of malaria infections for children under-five years, relatively little evidence is available regarding the impact of early childhood malaria exposure on subsequent child development. Methods The objective of the study was to assess the associations between early childhood exposure to malaria and pre-school development. Child assessment data for 1,410 children in 70 clusters collected through the 2010 Zambian Early Childhood Development Project was linked with malaria parasite prevalence data from the 2006 Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey. Linear and logistic models were used to estimate the effect of early childhood exposure to malaria on anthropometric outcomes as well as on a range of cognitive and behavioural development measures. Results No statistically significant associations were found between parasite exposure and children’s height and weight. Exposure to the malaria parasite was, however, associated with lower ability to cope with cognitive tasks administered by interviewers (z-score difference ?1.11, 95% CI ?2.43–0.20, as well as decreased overall socio-emotional development as assessed by parents (z-score difference ?1.55, 95% CI ?3.13–0.02. No associations were found between malaria exposure and receptive vocabulary or fine-motor skills. Conclusions The results presented in this paper suggest potentially large developmental consequences of early childhood exposure to malaria. Continued efforts to lower the burden of malaria will not only reduce under-five mortality, but may also have positive returns in terms of the long-term well-being of exposed cohorts.

Fink Günther

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide-Related Behaviors  

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Child sexual abuse and suicide-related behaviors are associated, but it remains unclear if the strength of this association differs in boys and girls. In a systematic review of this association in children and youth, we identified 16 relevant studies, all cross-sectional surveys of students. The association is stronger in boys specific to suicide…

Rhodes, Anne E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Tonmyr, Lil; Wekerle, Christine; Goodman, Deborah; Leslie, Bruce; Mironova, Polina; Bethell, Jennifer; Manion, Ian

2011-01-01

362

The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Onset of Bulimia Nervosa.  

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This study compared 72 young adult women identified as suffering from bulimia nervosa with 72 matched controls. Bulimic women reported higher rates of sexual abuse after the age of 12 with an adult relative as the perpetrator, reported dissociative experiences as more common, and reported more negative and unusual mealtime experiences. (Author/JDD)

Miller, Debra A. F.; And Others

1993-01-01

363

The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Health Practices of Homeless Adolescents  

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This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…

Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin

2006-01-01

364

Women Healing Women: Time-Limited, Psychoeducational Group Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors.  

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Describes a time-limited, psychoeducational group in its 16th consecutive year of providing a safe and supportive milieu that breaks down isolation while helping women understand the impact of abuse on their lives and empowering them to alter their victim identity. Cognitive, affective, and expressive arts approaches are used to address aspects of…

Sweig, Terri L.

2000-01-01

365

Psychometric Properties of the Early Trauma Inventory–Self Report  

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Childhood trauma is an important public health problem, but there are limitations in our ability to measure childhood abuse. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report instrument for the assessment of childhood trauma that is valid but simple to administer. A total of 288 subjects with and without trauma and psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Early Trauma Inventory– Self Report (ETI-SR), an instrument for the assessment of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, as well...

Bremner, J. Douglas; Bolus, Roger; Mayer, Emeran A.

2007-01-01

366

Analysis of the Developmental Functioning of Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Populations in Oregon. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-078  

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This study reports on the developmental functioning levels of children from birth through age 2 in early intervention services and children ages 3-5 in early childhood special education services at the time of entry into services, using data from the Oregon Early Childhood Assessment System. The assessment system contains data on the assessed…

Nave, Gary; Nishioka, Vicki; Burke, Arthur

2009-01-01

367

The Role of Youth Problem Behaviors in the Path From Child Abuse and Neglect to Prostitution: A Prospective Examination  

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Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines five potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages 0–11) with cases processed during 1967–1971 were matched with non-abused, non-neglected children and followed into young adulthood. Data are fr...

Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

2010-01-01

368

Academic language in early childhood interactions : a longitudinal study of 3- to 6-year-old Dutch monolingual children  

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This study examines academic language in early childhood. It covers children’s exposure to academic language in early childhood, children’s early production of academic language, the development of academic language proficiency and the co-construction of academic language by children and adults.

Henrichs, L. F.

2010-01-01

369

Ideas of early childhood and their interface with policy and practice in early years work in Scotland  

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Assumptions are made by policy makers, service planners and providers that their aspirations for early childhood are shared by professionals, parents and children. Policy makers consistently use words such as holistic, integration, partnership and collaboration to describe the ways they wish early years practitioners to engage with children and families. In order to explore these assumptions and expectations this thesis utilises data from early years settings themselves (focus ...

Martin, Carolyn Douglas

2013-01-01

370

Relations between Early Childhood Care Arrangements and College Students' Psychosocial Development and Academic Performance.  

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Examined associations between early substitute care and White middle-class college students' psychosocial development and academic performance. No day care in infancy followed by full-time day care at ages two and four was best predictor of above-average high school academic achievement; part-time care throughout infancy and early childhood was…

Ispa, Jean M.; And Others

1990-01-01

371

Views of Effective Early Childhood Educators Regarding Systemic Constraints that Affect Their Teaching.  

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Examined 10 early childhood teachers' views regarding curricular trends for young children, their teaching practices, and systemic constraints affecting their teaching. Teachers were identified as advocates, resistors, or traditionalists. Systemic constraints identified included early academics, reading wars, and standardized testing. Teachers…

Adcock, Simrall Garber; Patton, Mary Martin

2001-01-01

372

Integrating Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation with the Pyramid Model. Issue Brief  

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A growing number of states and communities are implementing the Pyramid Model in early care and education settings, and in many of these places there are also early childhood mental health consultation (ECMHC) programs operating. This policy brief provides an overview of ECMHC, how it can support the implementation of the Pyramid Model and the…

Perry, Deborah F.; Kaufmann, Roxane K.

2009-01-01

373

Professionalising the Early Childhood Workforce in England: Work in Progress or Missed Opportunity?  

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This article considers policies and strategies employed to professionalise the early childhood workforce in England since the Labour government took office in 1997. The term "professionalisation" is associated here with moves towards creating a graduate early years workforce, which could have implications for training, pay and employment…

Lloyd, Eva; Hallet, Elaine

2010-01-01

374

Creating, Constructing, and Cultivating Professional Development within a Reggio-Inspired Early Childhood Education Program  

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The study examined the professional development system of an early childhood education program which was influenced by the Reggio Emilia Approach to early learning. This multi-site program thrived within low-income, inner-city communities of Chicago. Literature connected to the program's historical context of the Settlement House and the Reggio…

Haigh, Karen M.

2009-01-01

375

Uncovering a Relational Epistemology of Ethical Dilemmas in Early Childhood Education.  

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This paper discusses ethical dilemmas in early childhood education as identified by 26 kindergarten and early elementary school teachers. Ethical dilemmas are investigated in the theoretical framework of virtue epistemology. The method used in the study is a relational reading of teachers' narratives. Interpretive accounts are created to allow…

Tirri, Kirsi; Husu, Jukka

376

Promising Findings on Preschoolers' Emergent Literacy and School Readiness in Arts-Integrated Early Childhood Settings  

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An approach to early childhood education that integrates visual and performing arts throughout the preschool curriculum--"Art as a Way of Learning"--was implemented in a program (Promoting and Supporting Early Literacy through the Arts) designed to improve the emergent literacy and school readiness of at-risk young children in community-based…

Phillips, Roger D.; Gorton, Rebecca L.; Pinciotti, Patricia; Sachdev, Anuradha

2010-01-01

377

A Conceptual Framework for Developing the Curriculum and Delivery of Technology Education in Early Childhood  

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The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the analysis of the Early Childhood Education (ECE) curriculum in six countries involved in the UPDATE-project, and on that basis, propose a conceptual foundation for technology education in ECE that aims to enhance gender sensitive technology education in the continuum from early years to…

Turja, Leena; Endepohls-Ulpe, Martina; Chatoney, Marjolaine

2009-01-01

378

The Dawn of a New Era: Investing in Early Childhood Helps America Recover and Grow  

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Early childhood funding is expected through various federal programs including Early Head Start, Head Start, Child Care and Development Funds, Title I, IDEA, and other education, health, and housing resources. This article presents three concrete recommendations for states and communities to consider. These include: (1) develop stronger…

Lombardi, Joan

2009-01-01

379

Gestational age and cognitive ability in early childhood : a population-based cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent studies suggest that children born at late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation) and early term (37-38 weeks) may have poorer developmental outcomes than children born at full term (39-41 weeks). We examined how gestational age is related to cognitive ability in early childhood using the U.K. Millennium Cohort Study.

Poulsen, Gry; Wolke, Dieter

2013-01-01

380

Early Childhood Education in Swaziland and Brunei Darussalam: Goals, Achievements and Challenges  

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Early childhood care and education is an important stage in preparing children for primary schooling. Research indicates that participation in this phase has beneficial effects on later schooling particularly at the primary school level. Early diagnosis of special educational needs and intervention are essential in this stage if a child is to…

Mundia, Lawrence

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Titiro Whakamuri, Hoki Whakamua: Respectful Integration of Maori Perspectives within Early Childhood Environmental Education  

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The early years are a foundational time for the establishment of dispositions for learning. This paper draws on a recent study in Aotearoa (New Zealand) to illustrate ways educators have been implementing programs, within mainstream early childhood care and education settings, that inclusively offer Maori perspectives on caring for ourselves,…

Ritchie, Jenny

2012-01-01

382

Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?  

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Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research. PMID:23824981

Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John

2014-04-01

383

Childhood Characteristics of Adolescent Inpatients with Early-Onset and Adolescent-Onset Disruptive Behavior  

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Childhood characteristics are associated with life-course-persistent antisocial behavior in epidemiological studies in general population samples. The present study examines this association in an inpatient sample. The purpose is to identify easily measurable childhood characteristics that may guide choice of treatment for adolescent psychiatric inpatients with severe disruptive behavior. Patients (N?=?203) were divided into two groups with either early-onset (EO) or adolescent-onset (AO)...

Boer, Sjoukje B. B.; Oort, Floortje V. A.; Donker, Marianne C. H.; Verheij, Fop; Boon, Albert E.

2012-01-01

384

A Partial Test of the Transtheoretical Model in Therapy with Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

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Tested the application of the transtheoretical model to therapy with adults who were sexually molested in childhood. Results based on 83 adults currently in therapy who were assessed concerning their current stages of change lends some support to the applicability of the transtheoretical model to this population. (RJM)

Koraleski, Stephanie F.; Larson, Lisa M.

1997-01-01

385

Catch-up growth occurs after diarrhea in early childhood.  

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Diarrhea and linear growth faltering continue to burden low-income countries and are among the most important contributors to poor health during early childhood. Diarrhea is thought to adversely affect linear growth, but catch-up growth can occur if no additional insults are experienced. We sought to characterize catch-up growth in relation to diarrhea burden in a multisite dataset of 1007 children. Using longitudinal anthropometry and diarrheal surveillance data from 7 cohort studies in 4 countries, we examined the relation between diarrhea prevalence and growth in 3- to 6-mo periods using linear mixed-effect models. Growth during each period was calculated as a function of age using linear splines. We incorporated the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in both current and previous periods into the model. Diarrhea during the current period was associated with slower linear and ponderal growth. Faster (catch-up) growth in length was observed in children with no diarrhea in age groups immediately after an age group in which diarrhea was experienced [age group >6-12 mo: 0.03 mm/mo for each percentage diarrhea prevalence in the previous period (95% CI: 0.007, 0.06) relative to 11.3 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >12-18 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) relative to 8.9 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >18-24 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.003, 0.09) relative to 7.9 mm/mo mean growth rate]. The associations were stronger in boys than in girls when separate models were run. Similar results were observed when weight was the outcome variable. When diarrheal episodes are followed by diarrhea-free periods in the first 2 y of life, catch-up growth is observed that may allow children to regain their original trajectories. The finding of a greater effect of diarrhea on linear growth in boys than in girls was unexpected and requires additional study. Diarrhea burdens are high throughout the first 2 y of life in these study sites, therefore reducing the likelihood of catch-up growth. Extending diarrhea-free periods may increase the likelihood of catch-up growth and decrease the prevalence of stunting. PMID:24699805

Richard, Stephanie A; Black, Robert E; Gilman, Robert H; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Lanata, Claudio F; Mølbak, Kåre; Rasmussen, Zeba A; Sack, R Bradley; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Checkley, William

2014-06-01

386

Another Look at Sexual Abuse Prevention for Young Children: A Revised Prevention Program.  

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Describes the revision of "Let's Talk about Touching," a child sexual abuse prevention program widely used in early childhood and kindergarten programs in British Columbia since 1986. Describes the program as comprised of a manual providing information about sexual abuse, information on the teacher's role, detailed lesson plans, family information…

Swanson, Susan; Sippel, Jan

2001-01-01

387

Mendelian Randomisation Study of Childhood BMI and Early Menarche  

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To infer the causal association between childhood BMI and age at menarche, we performed a mendelian randomisation analysis using twelve established “BMI-increasing” genetic variants as an instrumental variable (IV) for higher BMI. In 8,156 women of European descent from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, height was measured at age 39–77 years; age at menarche was self-recalled, as was body weight at age 20 years, and BMI at 20 was calculated as a proxy for childhood BMI. DNA was genotyped for twe...

Mumby, Hannah S.; Elks, Cathy E.; Li, Shengxu; Sharp, Stephen J.; Khaw, Kay-tee; Luben, Robert N.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ong, Ken K.

2011-01-01

388

Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior among a Sample of Adults Living with HIV Infection and a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior. Predictor variables included DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of PTSD and Dissociative ...

Hansen, Nathan B.; Brown, Lauren J.; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

2012-01-01

389

Men’s pathways to risky sexual behavior: Role of co-occurring childhood sexual abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression histories  

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Recent reports of sexually transmitted infection-rate increases among men indicate the need for renewed study of male sexual risk behavior to aid development of updated and novel risk reduction interventions. Men who have childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories consistently report frequent sexual risk behavior. The objective of this sturdy is to explore whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are moderators and/or mediators of the association between CSA and sexual risk in ...

2005-01-01

390

Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients  

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Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social suppor...

Etter, Darryl W.; Gauthier, Justin R.; Elizabeth McDade-Montez; Marylene Cloitre; Carlson, Eve B.

2013-01-01

391

Who Cares about Caring in Early Childhood Teacher Education Programs?  

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The ability to care for oneself, near and distant others, animals, plants, human-made objects, and even ideas is an antidote for violence in its many forms as experienced in childhood as well as adulthood. This article makes a case for facilitating the development of the ability to care as children develop. The authors emphasize the importance of…

McNamee, Abigail; Mercurio, Mia; Peloso, Jeanne M.

2007-01-01

392

The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption  

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Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.

Romero-Martinez, Angel; Lila, Marisol; Catala-Minana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K.; Moya-Albiol, Luis

2013-01-01

393

Socioeconomic Status and Trajectory of Overweight from Birth to Mid-Childhood: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort  

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Objective Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007; n?4,950), we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI)>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO Childhood Growth Standard reference mean; henceforth, “overweight/obesity”) according to age, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity using generalized estimating equation models. Results The association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity varied significantly by race/ethnicity, but not by sex. Overweight/obesity was significantly associated with socioeconomic status among whites, Hispanics and Asians; the adjusted odds of overweight/obesity began to diverge according to SES after the first 9 months of life. By approximately 4 years, children with the highest SES had a significantly lower odds of overweight/obesity. SES was not significantly related to overweight/obesity among African Americans and American Indians during early childhood. Conclusions Few studies have assessed the associations between SES and overweight/obesity within racial/ethnic groups in the US. We find that in contemporary, US-born children, SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity among more racial/ethnic groups (whites, Hispanics, and Asians) than previously reported.

Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Dieckmann, Marlowe Gates; Gottlieb, Laura; Chow, Jessica; Fernald, Lia C. H.

2014-01-01

394

Early childhood language memory in the speech perception of international adoptees.  

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It is as yet unclear whether the benefits of early linguistic experiences can be maintained without at least some minimal continued exposure to the language. This study compared 12 adults adopted from Korea to the US as young children (all but one prior to age one year) to 13 participants who had no prior exposure to Korean to examine whether relearning can aid in accessing early childhood language memory. All 25 participants were recruited and tested during the second week of first-semester college Korean language classes. They completed a language background questionnaire and interview, a childhood slang task and a Korean phoneme identification task. Results revealed an advantage for adoptee participants in identifying some Korean phonemes, suggesting that some components of early childhood language memory can remain intact despite many years of disuse, and that relearning a language can help in accessing such a memory. PMID:19951452

Oh, Janet S; Au, Terry Kit-Fong; Jun, Sun-Ah

2010-11-01

395

Longitudinal associations between infections and atopic disorders across childhood and dysregulated adrenocortical functioning in early adolescence.  

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The present study sought to determine if exposure to common childhood medical problems (i.e., infections and atopic disorders [e.g., allergies, asthma]) may dysregulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Longitudinal data from 96 youth were used to examine this possibility. Medical records were drawn from government databases indicating the frequency of visits to healthcare facilities for infections and atopic disorders from infancy to early adolescence. During early adolescence, participants provided salivary cortisol samples from awakening until bedtime over 2 consecutive days. Individuals with a history of increased number visits for infections across childhood displayed elevated levels of cortisol at awakening whereas individuals with childhood histories of visits for atopic disorders displayed blunted diurnal cortisol slopes. These findings build on previous research documenting associations between infections and atopic disorders and cortisol by identifying longitudinal linkages from early health problems to later HPA axis functioning. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 56: 897-907, 2014. PMID:24037638

Ruttle, Paula L; Serbin, Lisa A; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Stack, Dale M; Schwartzman, Alex E

2014-07-01

396

An evaluation of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD criteria in a sample of adult survivors of childhood institutional abuse  

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Full Text Available Background : The WHO recently launched the proposal for the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11 that also includes two diagnoses related to traumatic stress. In contrast to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5, ICD-11 will probably, in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, also define a new diagnosis termed “complex posttraumatic stress disorder” (CPTSD. Objective : We aimed to apply the proposed ICD-11 criteria for PTSD and CPTSD and to compare their prevalence to the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases [10th revision] PTSD prevalence. In addition, we compiled a list of symptoms for CPTSD based on subthreshold PTSD so as to include a wider group of individuals. Methods : To evaluate the appropriateness of the WHO ICD-11 proposal compared to the criteria of ICD-10, we applied the newly introduced criteria for PTSD and CPTSD deriving from the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI scales, to a sample of adult survivors (N=229 of childhood institutional abuse. We evaluated the construct validity of CPTSD using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Results : More individuals fulfilled the criteria for PTSD according to ICD-10 (52.8% than the ICD-11 proposal (17% for PTSD only; 38.4% if combined with complex PTSD. The new version of PTSD neutralized the gender effects. The prevalence of CPTSD was 21.4%, and women had a significantly higher rate of CPTSD than men (40.4 and 15.8%, respectively. Those survivors who were diagnosed with CPTSD experienced institutional abuse for a longer time. CFA showed a strong model fit. Conclusion : CPTSD is a highly relevant classification for individuals with complex trauma history, but surprisingly, effects of gender were apparent. Further research should thus address gender effects.

Matthias Knefel

2013-12-01

397

Association of Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse with Cancer-Related Well-Being in Women  

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Abstract Background Limited evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) may be associated with poorer cancer outcomes. We hypothesized that timing and type of IPV as well as childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may negatively affect depression, perceived stress, and cancer-related well-being. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of women diagnosed with either breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer in the prior 12 months included in the Kentucky Cancer Registry. Consenting women were interviewed by phone (n=553). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to determine the association between IPV (37% lifetime prevalence) and type, timing, and the range of correlated cancer-related well-being indicators, adjusting for confounding factors. Results IPV (p=0.002) and CSA (p=0.03) were associated with the six correlated well-being indicators. Specifically, lifetime and current IPV were associated with lower Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer (FACT-B) (p=0.006) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being Scale (FACIT-SP) (p=0.03) scores, higher perceived stress at diagnosis (p=0.006), and depressive symptom scores at diagnosis (p<0.0001), whereas CSA was associated with lower FACT-B (p=0.02), increased number of comorbid conditions (p=0.03), and higher current stress levels (p=0.04). Current and past IPV, as well as psychologic abuse, were associated with poorer well-being among women with a recent cancer diagnosis. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that both IPV and CSA negatively influence cancer-related well-being indicators. These data suggest that identification of lifetime IPV and other stressors may provide information that healthcare providers can use to best support and potentially improve the well-being of female cancer patients.

Follingstad, Diane; Garcia, Lisandra S.; Williams, Corrine M.; Crawford, Tim N.; Bush, Heather M.

2012-01-01

398

Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs  

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In light of the current policy context, early childhood educators are being asked to have a complex understanding of child development and early education issues and provide rich, meaningful educational experiences for all children and families in their care. Accountability for outcomes is high, and resources for professional support are limited. As such, the early education field needs well-conducted empirical studies on which to base professional development practices. In this paper, we off...

Sheridan, Susan M.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Marvin, Christine A.; Knoche, Lisa L.

2009-01-01

399

Social inclusion and respect for diversity. A framework for early childhood programs  

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This paper outlines the current landscape affecting Early Childhood policy and practice. The importance of Social Inclusion (SI) and Respect for Diversity (RfD) is analysed within a global perspective. Several premises regarding SI and RfD are examined, including: diversity and discrimination as global realities affecting all children; the mounting evidence of the development of ethnic identities and prejudice from an early age; the contribution of Early Years interventions to social cohesion...

Hayden, J.; Odena, O.

2007-01-01

400

Developmentally Appropriate Technology in Early Childhood (DATEC in Botswana: In-Service Teachers’ Perspectives  

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Full Text Available Developmentally Appropriate Technology in Early Childhood (DATEC aims to identify themost appropriate applications of Information and Communication Technology to support thedevelopment of children under eight years of age. Botswana has a unique spread ofpopulation density and deep-rooted socio-cultural values. There is a need to address thecompatibility of these aspects with the application of Information and CommunicationTechnology in the proposed Early Childhood Education programmes throughout Botswana.The researcher felt that the views of the in-service teachers, (who are now students of theBachelor of Education Programme in the University of Botswana and have specialized inEarly Childhood Education, would be a valuable input towards an appropriate EarlyChildhood Education curriculum. Hence, a study was proposed to assess the views of theteachers, regarding DATEC in Botswana. Forty (40 fourth year students (Level 400 ofBachelor of Education (Primary Programme of University of Botswana, who specialised inearly years and have a good exposure to Information and Communication Technologyconstituted the sample. Their views were obtained from a semi-structured questionnaire.Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used for analysis of data. The findings ofthe study showed that the respondents strongly believed that an integration of Informationand Communication Technology with the Early Childhood Education curriculum isnecessary to enhance an overall development of young children. Computers with relevantresources were thought to be the best Information and Communication Technologyapplications in Early Childhood Education for a developmentally appropriate programmethat would provide educational concepts, problem solving skills and creativity. However,they emphasised the need to make the technology socio-culturally compatible to citizens ofBotswana (Batswana to facilitate developmentally appropriate education of young children.The study concluded with a few recommendations.

Kabita BOSE

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
401

Childhood in a Changing Society: Power, Autonomy, Early Years Education. Abstracts (Keynote Lectures, Symposia, Posters) European Conference on the Quality of Early Childhood Education (7th, Munich, Germany, September 3-6, 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

This compendium contains the abstracts of the keynote lectures, symposia, and posters for the 7th European Conference on the Quality of Early Childhood Education. The topic of the conference was Childhood in a Changing Society--Power, Autonomy, and Early Years Education. The first section of the collection consists of abstracts of keynote…

European Early Childhood Education Research Association.

402

Reliability of self-reported childhood physical abuse by adults and factors predictive of inconsistent reporting  

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Little is known about the reliability of self-reported child physical abuse (CPA) or CPA reporting practices. We estimated reliability and prevalence of self-reported CPA, and identified factors predictive of inconsistent CPA reporting among 2,256 participants using surveys administered in 1995 and 2000. Reliability of CPA was fair to moderate (K=0.41). Using a positive report from either survey, the prevalence of moderate (61.8%) and severe (12.0%) CPA was higher than at either survey alone....

Mckinney, Christy M.; Harris, T. Robert; Caetano, Raul

2009-01-01

403

Impact of Childhood Abuse History on Psychological Symptoms among Male and Female Soldiers in the U.S. Army.  

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The psychological effects of physical-emotional abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect were examined among 1,072 male and 305 female soldiers. Results found the females were three times more likely to have been sexually or both physically and sexually abused and that physical-emotional abuse contributed to most of the…

Rosen, Leora N.; Martin, Lee

1996-01-01

404

Weaknesses and strenghts in assessing early childhood programmes: an assessment of an early childhood spanish trilingual priogramme in two- to three- year- old children  

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This article gives an account of the results from an assessment of an early childhood education programme, conducted over the course of two academic years (1999–2000 and 2000–2001), in a centre in northeastern Spain. The purpose of the assessment was to discover how a particular educational programme contributed to the short?term competency levels of children aged from two to three years old. The programme’s curriculum encompassed different areas of development, including physical exe...

Rivas-borrell, S.; Sobrino-morra?s, A?; Peralta, F.

2008-01-01

405

Validations of the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) Validação da versão brasileira do Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS)  

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This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). A total of 247 children aged 2 to 5 years and their parents/guardians participated in this study. A clinical oral examination was performed and the parents/guardians completed the ECOHIS questionnaire. Within a period of four-weeks, 20% of the participants repeated the ECOHIS questionnaire. Construct validity was determined using Spearman's rank correlati...

Paulo Antônio Martins-Júnior; Joana Ramos-Jorge; Saul Martins Paiva; Leandro Silva Marques; Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge

2012-01-01

406

How Policymakers Should Deal with the Delayed Benefits of Early Childhood Programs. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 09-150  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter is a draft of Chapter 7 of a planned book, "Preschool and Jobs: Human Development as Economic Development, and Vice Versa." This book analyzes early childhood programs' effects on regional economic development. Four early childhood programs are considered: (1) universally accessible preschool for four-year-olds of similar quality to…

Bartik, Timothy J.

2009-01-01

407

Why Relationships Matter: Parent and Early Childhood Teacher Perspectives about the Provisions Afforded by Young Children's Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the perspectives of early childhood teachers and parents regarding the importance of provisions afforded by child-teacher and peer relationships in early childhood centres. Participants were 200 parents and 71 teachers of children aged 0-5 years who responded to an online survey containing a series of relationship function…

Degotardi, Sheila; Sweller, Naomi; Pearson, Emma

2013-01-01

408

The Struggle for Early Childhood Curricula: A Comparison of the English Foundation Stage Curriculum, "Te Whariki" and Reggio Emilia.  

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Focuses upon the way visions for early childhood are expressed through curricula in England, New Zealand, and Reggio Emilia in Italy. Includes curricular examples illustrating how growing pressure from vocational and instrumental influences affect progressive and socioculturally inspired early childhood curricula. Reveals how curricula and…

Soler, Janet; Miller, Linda

2003-01-01

409

An Examination of Early Childhood Teacher Education in Four West African Nations: Ghana, Mali, Senegal, and the Gambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines opportunities and challenges in early childhood teacher education in Ghana, Mali, Senegal, and the Gambia. It reviews socioeconomic and political issues, current and emerging policies for early childhood and primary education, teacher preparation strategies, and examples of successful programs. Information was collected during…

Pagano, Alicia I.

410

Health implications of dietary intake in infancy and early childhood  

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Introduction: Swedish children are the healthiest in Europe. Through regular visits to well-baby clinics, infants and young children are checked and parents given information and advice on diet and other relevant matters for their child. For a long time, adequate nutrition during infancy and childhood has been focused on encouraging proper nutrition, preventing malnutrition and deficiency states, and obtaining optimal growth. Today, malnutrition and deficiency states in infants and children a...

O?hlund, Inger

2008-01-01

411

Childhood Ataxia with Cerebral Hypomyelination Syndrome: a Variant of Patient with Early Childhood Onset Related to EIF2B3 Mutation. A Case Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome is an autosomal recessive transmitted leukodystrophy characterised by early childhood onset and acute deterioration following febrile illnesses or head trauma. We describe the case of a child with early onset of CACH syndrome. He presented with cerebellar ataxia beginning around two years of age with mild mental retardation. MRI showed diffuse white matter signal changes with thinning of the corpus callosum. PMID:24028880

Perfetto, F; Stoppino, L P; Calì, A; Milillo, P; Grilli, G; Vinci, R; Macarini, L

2012-03-01

412

Personalidad limítrofe, somatización, trauma y violencia infantil: un estudio empírico Borderline Personality, Somatization, Childhood Trauma and Abuse: an Empirical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La somatización, el trauma y el abuso infantil son comunes y generan un uso excesivo de los servicios de salud. Este trabajo intenta estudiar la relación entre trauma psíquico infantil, somatización y personalidad limítrofe, en una población de mujeres hospitalizadas en dos hospitales de la Región Metropolitana. Se aplicó como tamizaje el cuestionario de Marshall para trauma a 159 mujeres (60 del Hospital Parroquial de San Bernardo y 99 del Hospital del Salvador hospitalizadas en distintos servicios clínicos, y a los quintiles extremos de puntaje en esta escala (64 pacientes se les aplicó la escala de somatización del CIDI 2.1 de la OMS y la escala de trastorno límite SCID II de la Asociación Psiquiátrica Americana. De las 159 pacientes encuestadas sólo 54 (34% no presentaban ningún antecedente de experiencia traumática durante la niñez, el 63,1% referían al menos un suceso traumático, un 40,1% al menos dos, y un 22,9% tres o más acontecimientos traumáticos. La experiencia traumática más frecuentemente recordada fue la separación traumática de alguno de los padres (34%, seguida de castigos físicos (27%. En 8,8% hubo secuela física secundaria al acontecimiento traumático. Un 7% de los 64 pacientes cumplieron los criterios diagnósticos del DSM-IV para trastorno límite de personalidad. El 66% cumplió con los criterios para trastorno de somatización, siendo las cefaleas el síntoma más frecuente. Se encontró, finalmente, una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre frecuencia de trauma y el trastorno de somatización.Somatization, childhood trauma and abuse are common, and exert great pressure on health services. This article studies the correlation between backgrounds of psychological childhood trauma, somatization, and borderline personality disorders among female inpatients in two facilities in Santiago, Chile. A trauma scale was used to screen 159 treated women (60 from San Bernardo Hospital and 99 from El Salvador Hospital in different clinical units. The two quintiles with the highest scores were administered the CIDI 2.1 somatization scale and the SCID II borderline scale. Among the 159 cases, 34% reported no childhood traumatic experiences, 63.1% reported at least one event, 40.1% at least two events, and 22.9% recalled three or more traumatic experiences. The most frequently recalled event was traumatic separation from a parent (34%, followed by physical punishment (27%. Physical injuries were sustained in 8.8% of the cases as a result of the event. Seven percent of the cases met DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder, and 66% for somatization disorder. Headache was the most commonly symptom. We found a significant correlation between the frequency of trauma and somatization disorder.

Ramón Florenzano

2002-10-01

413

Early Childhood Education as Risky Business: Going Beyond What’s  

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Full Text Available Much has been learned about the possibilities of early childhood education from nations that have long invested in high-quality early care and educational programs. These new understandings are now being used by U.S. early childhood advocates to help parents, policy makers, and others better understand children's vast learning potentials, to acknowledge the deep intellectual work of teachers, and to recognize the rights of parents to help determine the essential features of a challenging and beneficial early childhood curriculum. What is less well acknowledged are cross-cultural insights into the potentials of a "risk-rich" curriculum, one in which both adults and children explore new topics and unfamiliar terrains, including those traditionally identified as developmentally inappropriate and beyond the reach of young children. In this article, the potentials of a "risk-rich" curriculum are explored using examples from the cross-cultural research literature as well as two classrooms of young children—one of 3- and 4-year-olds, the others from a kindergarten class. Teachers' reflections on what they learned about themselves and the children they teach are presented as they reveal untapped potentials of early childhood settings as sites for new discoveries and new relationships.

Rebecca S. New

2005-01-01

414

Desire to dissociate: implications for problematic drinking in college students with childhood or adolescent sexual abuse exposure.  

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Alcohol use to replace inadequate dissociative capabilities, or chemical dissociation, has been linked to college students with childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA). Insofar as CASA-exposed persons experience a restricted range of dissociative capabilities, what remains relatively unclear is whether some desire to achieve greater dissociative experiences. Nonclinical levels of dissociative tendencies have positively predicted alcohol-related blackouts in CASA-exposed students, and dissociation mediated the relations between CASA and intoxication frequency. Although alcohol (similar to dissociation) can reduce physiological and psychological responses to stress, alcohol consumption may be prompted by a desire to dissociate rather than inadequate dissociative tendencies alone. To investigate this interpretation of the chemical dissociation phenomenon, researchers examined the mediating potential of dissociative tendencies using the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) as well as the desire to dissociate concept (ie, a modified version of the DES-II) on the relations between CASA exposure and problematic alcohol use in college students (N = 298). Results indicated that dissociation scores did not replicate previous mediation findings whereas desire to dissociate scores fully mediated CASA exposure and problematic alcohol use. Implications of the results are discussed including possible reasons why prior mediation results were not replicated as well as links to experiential avoidance. PMID:22494227

Klanecky, Alicia; McChargue, Dennis E; Bruggeman, Lindsay

2012-01-01

415

PTSD and marital satisfaction in military service members: examining the simultaneous roles of childhood sexual abuse and combat exposure.  

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Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is relatively common and is associated with a multitude of negative outcomes in adulthood, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and lower marital satisfaction. However, CSA has been understudied in military samples. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contributions of CSA and combat exposure to PTSD and marital satisfaction. Two hundred eighteen National Guard/Reserve veterans who deployed overseas between 2001 and 2008 completed self-report measures of CSA, marital satisfaction, combat exposure, and PTSD symptom severity. Data were analyzed using linear regression and path analysis to evaluate a comprehensive model including all variables. CSA accounted for unique variance in PTSD symptom severity independent of combat exposure. CSA also had a negative direct association with marital satisfaction, independent of combat exposure and PTSD symptom severity. In contrast, combat exposure had only a negative indirect association with marital satisfaction via PTSD when all variables were examined simultaneously. CSA accounted for unique variance in both PTSD symptom severity and marital satisfaction in this sample of combat veterans. Clinically, results suggest that assessment and treatment of CSA is indicated for military veterans suffering from PTSD. Further, treatment of CSA may improve marital satisfaction, which may positively affect psychological functioning in the veteran. PMID:23790507

Miller, Adam B; Schaefer, Karen E; Renshaw, Keith D; Blais, Rebecca K

2013-11-01

416

Psychiatric comorbidity differences between women with history of childhood sexual abuse who are methadone-maintained former opiate addicts and non-addicts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following our finding of high rates of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) among methadone maintained (MMT) former opiate addict women with a history of childhood sexual abuse, we compared 68 MMT sexually abused women to 48 women from a Sexual Abuse Treatment Center (SATC) without a history of opiate addiction, for clinical-OCD (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale), dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), complex-post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress - Non-Other Specify), sexual PTSD (the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) and trauma events history (Life Event Inventory). MMT patients were treated for longer periods and were older and less educated. Clinical OCD was more prevalent among the MMT patients (66.2% vs. 30.4%, respectively), while complex-PTSD and high dissociation score (DES?30) were more prevalent among the non-addicts (46.9% vs. 19.1%, and 57.1% vs. 11.8% respectively). The high rate of OCD among sexually abused MMT women was not found in women who are sexually abused non-addicts. As dissociation was rare among the MMT group, it may just be that the opioids (either as street-drugs or as MMT) serve as an external coping mechanism when the access to the internal one is not possible. Future study about OCD and dissociation before entry to MMT are needed. PMID:24908543

Peles, Einat; Adelson, Miriam; Seligman, Zivya; Bloch, Miki; Potik, David; Schreiber, Shaul

2014-09-30

417

Hemispheric differences in the processing of words learned early versus later in childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The research investigated whether there are hemispheric differences in processing for words acquired early in childhood (early AoA) and words acquired later in childhood (late AoA). We hypothesized that because of recent evidence suggesting that there is a right hemisphere dominance in early childhood, early AoA words would be represented in the right hemisphere, and late AoA words would be represented in the left hemisphere. This hypothesis differs from an early view that late AoA words would be represented in the left hemisphere, and early AoA words would be represented in both hemispheres (Gazzaniga, 1974). We report two experiments using the divided visual field (DVF) technique. The results showed that there was a right visual field (RVF)/left hemisphere (LH) advantage only for late AoA words. For early AoA words, there was a left visual field (LVF)/right hemisphere advantage (RH). Implications for theories of hemispheric differences in word processing are discussed. PMID:24837653

Bowers, J Michael; Bradley, Kristopher I; Kennison, Shelia M

2013-01-01

418

Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: A Case Study of Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Large numbers of young children spend significant amounts of time in early childhood educational settings. Concerns about the quality of this experience have increased substantially in recent years. Further, as social inequalities in Australia continue to grow the gap between disadvantage and advantage widens despite overall levels of increased…

Ishimine, Karin

2011-01-01

419

Ideas about Child Rearing among Jamaican Mothers and Early Childhood Education Teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveyed teachers and mothers from early-childhood-education programs in Jamaica about child rearing. Found that teachers accorded more importance to fostering inquisitiveness and less to rule-conformity than mothers, and were less likely to think they should be privy to children's private thoughts (intrusiveness). Mothers and teachers with less…

Morrison, Johnetta W.; Ispa, Jean M.; Milner, Valentine

1998-01-01

420

Teacher Inquiries into Gay and Lesbian Families in Early Childhood Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Gay and lesbian issues are often silenced in teacher education programs. Such silencing has serious consequences for teachers who feel unprepared to discuss such issues in their classrooms. Challenging the silence regarding gay and lesbian issues that often permeates early childhood classrooms, we share a teacher's critical inquiry into teaching…

Souto-Manning, Mariana; Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Understanding Early Childhood Student Teachers' Acceptance and Use of Interactive Whiteboard  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand early childhood student teachers' self-reported acceptance and use of interactive whiteboard (IWB), by employing the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) as the research framework. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 112 student teachers enrolled in science-related…

Wong, Kung-Teck; Russo, Sharon; McDowall, Janet

2013-01-01

422

Paths to Equity: Cultural, Linguistic and Racial Diversity in Canadian Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childcare centers in Canada's largest cities frequently have children with family languages other than English or French and who are of diverse racial and cultural backgrounds. This three-part study focused on cultural diversity in early childhood education (ECE) settings in Toronto (Ontario), Vancouver (British Columbia), and Montreal (Quebec).…

Bernhard, Judith K.; Lefebvre, Marie Louise; Chud, Gyda; Lange, Rika

423

"Include Me Too! Human Diversity in Early Childhood," edited by Kenise Murphy Kilbride. Book Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews Kilbride's book on diversity and its consequences for young children, families, and caregivers; meeting children's needs; and practicing diversity in and shaping the future of early childhood education. Notes that the book's strengths include its standardized and consistent chapter format, its substance, and comprehensive scope. Suggests…

Chud, Gyda

1998-01-01

424

The Transition between the Phenotypes of Prader-Willi Syndrome during Infancy and Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder historically characterized by two phenotypic stages. The early phenotype in infants is associated with hypotonia, poor suck, and failure to thrive. In later childhood, PWS is associated with intellectual disability, hyperphagia, as well as growth and sex hormone deficiency. Little is known…

Butler, Jill V.; Whittington, Joyce E.; Holland, Anthony J.; McAllister, Catherine J.; Goldstone, Anthony P

2010-01-01

425

Mind-Mindedness in Infant Child-Care: Associations with Early Childhood Practitioner Sensitivity and Stimulation  

Science.gov (United States)

The significance of mind-mindedness, or the tendency of adults to ascribe mental states and processes when describing and interpreting children's behavior, is well established in home contexts. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and pedagogical implications of the mind-mindedness of 24 early childhood practitioners working…

Degotardi, Sheila; Sweller, Naomi

2012-01-01

426

Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Infancy Interact to Predict Executive Functioning in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

The relation of observed emotional reactivity and regulation in infancy to executive function in early childhood was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children from predominantly low-income and rural communities. Children participated in a fear eliciting task at ages 7, 15, and 24 months and completed an executive function…

Ursache, Alexandra; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia; Voegtline, Kristin

2013-01-01

427

Avoiding Recolonisation in Early Childhood: Promoting Local Values as Mediators in the Spread of Globalisation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article seeks to draw attention to ways in which culturally based values and practices can and should influence implementation of globalised approaches to early childhood education and care across diverse contexts. Recent discussions have drawn attention to complexities associated with assimilation of globalised notions across diverse…

Pearson, Emma

2011-01-01

428

Bringing Learning to Life: The Reggio Approach to Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasingly, the innovative teaching approach of the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, are being adapted to U.S. early childhood settings. This book describes the growth and evolution of the work in the St. Louis Reggio Collaborative over the past 10 years, addressing the fundamental principles of the Reggio approach as they are experienced in…

Cadwell, Louise Boyd

429

The Characteristics of the Role of Early Childhood Education Mentors in Jordan  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to explore empirically how far the roles adopted by the mentors of early childhood education students teaching in Jordan coincide with a model of roles suggested in the literature of teacher training. This study is an attempt to draw from the literature as many views about the role of the mentor as possible and then to attempt to…

Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Basheer, Akram A.; Qablan, Ahmad M.

2008-01-01

430

The Flexible Learning System: A Program for Early Childhood Staff Development. Project Documentary.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is a description of the Flexible Learning System (FLS) project as viewed from the three major work phases of development, research and implementation. The Flexibile Learning System (FLS) began as an outgrowth of the Far West Laboratory's several years of investment in research and development of a Responsive Model of Early Childhood

Tanaka, Masako N.; And Others

431

New Possibilities in Thinking, Speaking and Doing: Early Childhood Teachers' Professional Identity Constructions and Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

The early childhood sector has in recent times engaged in processes of professionalisation. The expectations associated with engagement in professional relationships is one element of such processes. Another element is an expectation of ethical practice. The paper considers how particular representations of relationships and representations of…

Thomas, Louise

2012-01-01

432

"Making Lemonade from Lemons:" Early Childhood Teacher Educators' Programmatic Responses to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes how early childhood teacher education faculty at one university responded in the aftermath of hurricanes Katrina and Rita and used the disaster to enhance their undergraduate and graduate programs. They explain how they modeled developmentally appropriate practices while responding to community needs. Four companion articles…

DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Burts, Diane C.; Buchanan, Teresa K.; Aghayan, Carol; Benedict, Joan

2007-01-01

433

Rigidity in Gender-Typed Behaviors in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study of Ethnic Minority Children  

Science.gov (United States)

A key prediction of cognitive theories of gender development concerns developmental trajectories in the relative strength or rigidity of gender typing. To examine these trajectories in early childhood, 229 children (African American, Mexican American, and Dominican American) were followed annually from age 3 to 5 years, and gender-stereotypical…

Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Shrout, Patrick E.

2013-01-01

434

Stranger in a Strange Land: An Early Childhood Educator on the School Board  

Science.gov (United States)

The author discusses bringing her perspective as an early childhood educator and developmentalist to her policy-making position as a Board member of the Pasadena Unified School District. Noting that the higher education standards adopted in many states as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 have impacted kindergarten programs and…

Cooper, Renatta M.

2008-01-01

435

New Policy Conclusions from Starting Strong II: An Update on the OECD Early Childhood Policy Reviews  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the start of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) thematic review of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Policy in 1998, some 20 countries across the world have been involved in the project. Recently the OECD has had a very successful launch of the report from the second round--Starting Strong II. This…

Bennett, John

2006-01-01

436

Comparison of Early Childhood Education (Preschool Education) in Turkey and OECD Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, it was aimed to evaluate how the difference the early childhood education in Turkey and OECD countries. The outstanding point evaluated by the teachers about the difference between the education in Turkey and that in OECD countries and the conditions needing to be improved was the compare of age groups benefiting from the services…

Ozgan, Habib

2010-01-01

437

Vicissitudes of Children's Mathematical Knowledge: Implications of Developmental Research for Early Childhood Mathematics Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Hachey's (2013) article celebrates a revolution that is taking place in early childhood mathematics education, fueled in part by developmental research demonstrating the mathematical capabilities of young children. At the same time, Hachey notes that the mathematics revolution she describes is not yet complete. In this commentary, the author…

Sophian, Catherine

2013-01-01

438

Introducing the Cycle of Inquiry System: A Reflective Inquiry Practice for Early Childhood Teacher Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cycle of Inquiry (COI) is a tool for emergent curriculum planning and for professional development of early childhood teachers and teacher education students. The COI includes a sequence of five organizational forms connecting analysis of documentation data with intentional planning for long-term emergent inquiry inspired by the Reggio Emilia…

Broderick, Jane Tingle; Hong, Seong Bock

2011-01-01

439

Application of the Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Science Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the relevance of the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education for science knowledge and content standards for the preK-12 student population. The article includes: (1) a summary of key concepts; (2) a description of the science curriculum standards for K-3 in the United States; and (3) an example of an in-depth…

Stegelin, Dolores A.

2003-01-01

440

A Validation of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in Finnish and Estonian Kindergartens  

Science.gov (United States)

Research Findings: The aim of the study was to examine the applicability and psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM; D. J. Stipek & P. Byler, 2005) outside the United States. The ECCOM was used to observe 83 kindergarten teachers (49 in Finland and 34 in Estonia) in classroom situations. Self-ratings…

Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Pakarinen, Eija; Trossmann, Kaili; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Siekkinen, Martti; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Readings in Early Childhood Education 77/78. Annual Editions Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an illustrated collection of 77 articles from journals, popular magazines and other sources, intended for use by early childhood education classes. The articles, representing many points of view, are authored by experts in psychiatry, psychology, pediatrics, educational research, anthropology, toy design, state and public school…

McKee, Judy Spitler, Ed.

442

Course on Early Childhood Education, September 22-December 22, 1982. Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The topics and issues brought forth in this report are the result of a 3-month training course on early childhood education that included lectures, discussions, and field visits. Nineteen participants representing 11 countries lived together for 3 months during 1982, exchanging views and ideas. A list of program participants, staff, and sponsors…

Mount Carmel International Training Centre for Community Development, Haifa (Israel).

443

Science Education in Early Childhood (March 9-April 18, 1997). Report on Course.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is a report on a 6-week course on science education in early childhood programs. Attending the conference in Israel were 30 participants representing 21 countries from Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Caribbean. Teaching methods included lectures, workshops, small group activities, professional study visits, and a re-entry workshop to…

Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

444

Early Childhood Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3869  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable evidence that young children in many developing countries suffer from profound deficits in nutrition, health, fine and gross motor skills, cognitive development, and socio-emotional development. Early childhood development (ECD) outcomes are important markers of the welfare of children. In addition, the deleterious effects of…

Schady, Norbert

2006-01-01

445

Survey of Students Enrolled in Early Childhood Education, Fall 1995. Volume XXIV, Number 12.  

Science.gov (United States)

In fall 1995, William Rainey Harper College in Illinois conducted a survey of students in the Early Childhood Education program to determine their background and goals and the services that they used at the college. Questionnaires were distributed to students during classes, resulting in 218 completed surveys. Study findings included the…

Lucas, John A.; Mohan, Meenakshi

446

Education for Sustainable Development in Early Childhood Education in Spain. Evolution, Trends and Proposals  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyses how the sustainability culture has evolved in the early childhood education setting within the Spanish education system with official documents and the sustainability training received by teachers who intervene in this stage of education since these teachers' degrees have been adapted to the European Higher Education…

Agut, M. Pilar Martínez; Ull, M. Angeles; Minguet, Pilar Aznar

2014-01-01

447

Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

2012-01-01

448

The Voices of Single Parent Mothers Who Are Homeless: Implications for Early Childhood Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

Single parent mothers who are homeless have distinct ideas about how to resolve their situations. This study explored the voices of single parent mothers who are homeless and attempted to articulate their major concerns and ideas as well as offering ideas to early childhood professionals related to these insights. The voices of these mothers are…

Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald

2010-01-01

449

Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy for ICT Integration in Science Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Although research on the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) with science instruction has identified significant benefits to students and teachers, K-12 teachers tend to underutilize ICT in their science instruction. This study used a quasi-experimental design to measure preservice early childhood teachers' attitudes…

Worch, Eric A.; Li, Lan; Herman, Terry L.

2012-01-01

450

El Curriculo Creativo, para Educacion Preescolar. Tercera Edicion (The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood. Third Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

This Spanish-language teaching guide provides early childhood teachers with a philosophy and guidelines for teaching that address children's social, emotional, cognitive, and physical development. The guide describes a curriculum that offers teachers guidance, support, and freedom to be creative and responsive with children, and provides children,…

Dodge, Diane Trister; Colker, Laura J.

451

Icelandic Parents' Views on the National Policy on Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable change has taken place in Icelandic early childhood education during the past few decades. Preschool, from being geared primarily towards children with evident social needs, has become all but universal. The aim of this study was to shed light on Icelandic parents' views on their children's preschool education and to examine how their…

Einarsdottir, Johanna

2010-01-01

452

Executive Function in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested the longitudinal measurement invariance and developmental changes of a newly developed battery of executive function (EF) tasks for use in early childhood. The battery was administered in the Family Life Project--a prospective longitudinal study (N = 1,292) of families who were oversampled from low-income and African American…

Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

2012-01-01

453

Contributions of Modern Measurement Theory to Measuring Executive Function in Early Childhood: An Empirical Demonstration  

Science.gov (United States)

This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from…

Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

2011-01-01

454

From STEM to STEAM: How Early Childhood Educators Can Apply Fred Rogers' Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

For many in early childhood education, STEAM is a new term. It began in this decade as STEM, an acronym for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. These curriculum areas have become a major focus in education because of the concern that the United States is falling behind in scientific innovation. With a new and familiar addition to the…

Sharapan, Hedda

2012-01-01

455

Using Child Preferences to Increase Play across Interest Centers in Inclusive Early Childhood Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Naturalistic teaching methods are often used to facilitate explicit child-directed instruction within early childhood environments. They are designed to promote opportunities for instruction within the context of daily routines. The teacher's role is to design the environment and select materials, activities, and routines that will promote…

DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Vagianos, Laura

2009-01-01

456

Preparing Early Childhood Teachers for Multicultural Classrooms. FPG Snapshot. Number 58. September 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

Today's early childhood classrooms reflect the nation's changing cultural mosaic. With each new school year, teachers likely will encounter more and more children from backgrounds different from their own. The changing face of the American classroom reflects the progressive integration of race, religion, physical ability, and language.…

FPG Child Development Institute, 2009

2009-01-01

457

Changing Views on Cognition in Early Childhood: Putting Some Sacred Cows out to Pasture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores cognitive development in early childhood education and examines four kinds of prevailing misconceptions in the light of recent evidence: (1) infants and very young children are limited to sensorimotor cognition; (2) young children's cognition is animistic; (3) young children's thought is egocentric; and (4) young children can think only…

Catherwood, Di

1994-01-01

458

Promoting Communities of Practice and Parallel Process in Early Childhood Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

On the job experiences such as collaborative teacher meetings can shape how early childhood educators grow professionally and how schools can develop communities of practice. However, the effect of conversations during teacher meetings on teacher practice is not fully understood. This yearlong qualitative case study examined the relationship…

Kuh, Lisa Porter

2012-01-01

459

The Contribution of School-Family Cooperation on Effective Classroom Management in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to determine the level of the contribution of school-family cooperation on effective classroom management in early childhood education, and what should be desired contribution according to views of parents and teachers. The data was collected qualitatively through semi-structured interview forms in downtown Gaziantep during the…

Savas, Ahmet Cezmi

2012-01-01

460

Basic Concepts in Early Childhood Educational Standards: A 50-State Review  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of basic concepts in early childhood educational standards is explored across all 50 US states. Concept inclusion in state standards is described in terms of the representation of the universe of basic concepts, representation of concept categories, the depth and breadth of individual concept inclusion, and unique examples.…

Bracken, Bruce A.; Crawford, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
461

Everyone Is Doing It! Managing Social Media in the Early Childhood Ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

Everyone's doing it: Tweeting, "friending," blogging, linking, texting, and otherwise zipping around all over the social media landscape. Social media has become more than just a pastime. It is officially now another important communication medium early childhood educators use to establish and enhance meaningful relationships with parents,…

Simon, Fran

2011-01-01

462

American Indian and Alaska Native Early Childhood Health, Development, and Education Assessment Research. ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

This digest reports on the very limited research that has focused specifically on early childhood issues in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) health, development, and education. Extant research focuses primarily on infant mortality, birth weight and growth, obesity, and hearing and speech. Beginning in 1985, a longitudinal study called the…

Hammer, Patricia Cahape; Demmert, William G., Jr.

463

Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and behavioural problems from late childhood into early adolescence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Study objective: This study investigates whether neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage may contribute to child behavioural and emotional problems, beyond the effects of parental socioeconomic status. It also examines the influence of neighbourhood disadvantage on changes in the frequency of behavioural problems from late childhood into early adolescence.

Schneiders, J.; Drukker, M.; Ende, J.; Verhulst, F.; Os, J.; Nicolson, N.

2003-01-01