Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.
Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…
Fitzgerald, Monica M; Schneider, Renee A; Salstrom, Seoka; Zinzow, Heidi M; Jackson, Joan; Fossel, Rebecca V
In this study, the authors examined the role of parentification (children assuming adult-like roles in the family) as it relates to family risk (parental psychopathology, parental illness, and domestic violence), child sexual abuse (CSA), and psychosocial adjustment in 499 college women. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of direct, indirect, and mediational pathways through which CSA, family risk, and parentification contributed to later psychosocial maladjustment. Results indicate that CSA and family risk independently and directly predicted higher levels of maladjustment, but only family risk positively predicted parentification in childhood. Parentification was unexpectedly related to less maladjustment. Parentification failed to mediate the relation between early family risk and maladjustment. Findings suggest that family risk factors may contribute to parentification and that parentification is not always related to poorer psychosocial outcomes. Future research should examine the impact of parentification on other aspects of functioning and should assess how individual, familial, and cultural variables (e.g., age, gender, duration, perceived fairness, ethnicity, and family support) moderate the impact of parentification on long-term adjustment. PMID:18410219
Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…
Shearman, J. K.
Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...
Jones, Deborah J.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Patricia; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana; Jones, Bobby; Nagin, Daniel; Runyan, Desmond
A robust literature links childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to later substance use and sexual risk behavior; yet, relatively little empirical attention has been devoted to identifying the mechanisms linking CSA to risky behavior among youth, with even less work examining such processes in boys. With the aim of addressing this gap in the literature, the…
Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes
In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...
Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students and 60 % of them were female. The mean agewas 19.04±1.28 (17-26 years. The emotional (p=0.025,physical (p=0.004 and sexual (p=0.001 abuse of malestudents were significantly higher than female students.The emotional (p=0.009 and total (p=0.026 abuse ofstudents who had families with lower income levels weresignificantly high. Also the frequency of emotional abusein students with divorced parents was significantly increased(p=0.012.Conclusions: Since child abuse and neglect may beassociated with the stresses of family life, the economicand social stresses of family should be determined andsolution advices to these should be developed. A multidisciplinarymanagement is required to detect, treat andrehabilitate the childhood abuse.Key words: Childhood, university student, sexual abuse
Swogger, Marc T.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.
Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with s...
This paper presents information on isolated children and describes a study being undertaken to examine the role of isolation in reported cases of child abuse and neglect. The effects of extreme isolation on language and psychological development are emphasized. The importance of early socialization is seen in relation to normal development.…
Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann
Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…
Herman-Smith, Robert L.
Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…
Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Vivian, Dina; O'Leary, K Daniel
This study sought to examine (a) a mediational model of childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depressive symptoms and (b) the impact of weight-related teasing on rates and correlates of childhood abuse. Charts of 187 extremely obese individuals seeking psychological clearance for bariatric (weight-loss) surgery were retrospectively examined. Among the participants, 61% reported a history of childhood abuse, 30.5% reported adult interpersonal abuse, and 15% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Initially, the relationship between childhood abuse and current depressive symptoms was significant (pintroduction of adult interpersonal abuse as a mediator in the model reduced the magnitude of its significance (Sobel's test p=.01). The associations between childhood abuse and adult interpersonal abuse and between adult interpersonal abuse and depressive symptoms were significant (p<.001 and p=.002, respectively), and the model showed a good fit across multiple indices. Finally, weight-related teasing was a significant moderator in the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse. Bariatric surgery patients report elevated rates of childhood abuse that are comparable to rates in psychiatric populations (e.g., eating disorders, depression), and higher than those in community samples and other medical populations. The relationship between child abuse and depressive symptomatology may be partially explained by the presence of adult interpersonal abuse; additionally, the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse was stronger for those who did not endure weight-related teasing than for those who did. PMID:24412223
Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semiparametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA (2 to 12 y.o.) and HIV/AIDS risk behavior at age 14 (i.e., sexual intercourse & alcohol use). Trajectory analyses revealed a link between a history o...
Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.
This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…
Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante
Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…
Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.
Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…
Recent advances in brain research have provided new evidence that early experience matters and have greatly increased interest in the effects of early childhood interventions on outcomes for children. This paper reviews what is now known about the potential benefits and potential ill effects of early childhood interventions, with particular attention to evidence from the Rand study of early interventions, recent studies of the Head Start programme, and the NICHD study of early child care. The...
Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.
Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…
Prentice, Julia C.; Lu, Michael C.; Lange, Linda; Halfon, Neal
This study examined the association between self-identified childhood sexual abuse and breastfeeding initiation. A nationally representative sample of 2017 parents with children younger than 3 years was surveyed by telephone about child-rearing needs. Respondents were asked to report childhood sexual abuse and breastfeeding practices. Responses of 1220 biological mothers were analyzed. A possible association between self-reported childhood sexual abuse and breastfeeding initiation was investigated through multivariate logistic regression. Seven percent of the respondents reported experiencing childhood sexual abuse. Women who reported childhood sexual abuse were more than twice (adjusted odds ratio = 2.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.14, 5.85; P = .02) as likely to initiate breastfeeding compared with women who did not report childhood sexual abuse. Parenting attitudes and behaviors were compared to consider whether greater concern with parenting is an explanation for this association. In this nationally representative sample, self-identified childhood sexual abuse is associated with an increased likelihood of breastfeeding initiation. PMID:12192956
The two kinds of educational facilities for early childhood in Japan are the kindergarten, established in accordance with the School Education Law, and the day nursery, based upon the Children's Welfare Law. (Author/MB)
... recalled. Some clinicians believe that severe forms of child sexual abuse are especially conducive to negative disturbances of memory ... the conditions under which actual events of childhood abuse can be remembered with ... response impact the memory process; Research to ascertain if some ...
The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3) were females while 382 were males (%41.7). As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abu...
The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…
Children who learn math fundamentals in preschool and kindergarten have the best chance of later achievement in school--but too often, children don't get the effective early math instruction that makes all the difference. Now there's a core early childhood textbook that helps current and future educators teach the most critical math concepts to…
The paper discusses issues of concern to early childhood special educators serving on hospital ethics committees to assist families with seriously ill and handicapped infants in neonatal intensive care units. Issues include infant euthanasia and the right to life, child abuse legislation, and possible effects on families. (Author/JDD)
In my thesis I described childhood sexual abuse and its consequences, with the main focus on later relationships between partners and their sexuality. I have also written about the possible ways of coping with the abuse and the strategies, that a partner can use to help the survivor of sexual abuse. Also, I have tried to present the partner’s way of coping with the abuse. In the empirical part I used qualitative analysis of the semi-structured interview, and attempted to present the whole p...
This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…
Bulik, C M; Sullivan, P F; Rorty, M
In a study of the family environments and psychiatric histories of 35 bulimic women, the authors found that 12 (34.3%) of the 35 women had been sexually abused or had a sister who had been sexually abused. That rate is comparable to estimates from other studies of women with eating disorders and of female psychiatric patients, but is apparently higher than the rate found in the general population. Bulimic women from families in which sexual abuse occurred were more likely than bulimic women with no personal or family history of sexual abuse to have a personal history of major depression, relatives who abused drugs, and a disturbed family environment. The presence of bulimia should alert clinicians to screen for concomitant depression, suicidality, and substance abuse as well as the possibility of severe, if hidden, familial pathology and environmental disruption including sexual abuse, parental psychopathology, and character deficits. PMID:2600064
It is now widely recognized that early childhood education has paramount significance for the well-being of societies. In this study, the current situation of early childhood education in Turkey is discussed mainly in terms of its perception by the government, the school enrollment rate and the quality of early childhood education programs. The…
Female college students reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse (N=175) and not reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse (N=260) were compared on indices of six self-destructive behaviors, including drug use, alcohol abuse, binge eating, self-mutilation, risky sex, and suicidality. The samples were also compared on two measures of dissociation, the Trauma Symptom Checklist dissociation subscale and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The CSA group had significantly higher mean scores on all the indices of self-destructive behavior except self-mutilation (where the mean difference approached significance), and on both measures of dissociation. One or both dissociation measures were related significantly to each index of self-destructive behavior except binge eating. Multiple regression mediation analyses provided support for the hypothesis that dissociation mediates the relationships between CSA and both drug use and alcohol abuse. Dissociation also explained significant variability when added to the regressions of risky sex and suicidality on CSA. PMID:17522001
... A Recovering Man’s Guide to Coping With the Effects of Childhood Abuse Acknowledgments This publication, based on Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons With Child Abuse and Neglect Issues , 36 in the Treatment ...
Makhija, N; Sher, L
Childhood abuse is linked to a variety of maladaptive outcomes that can extend far into adulthood. Two of the most significant are alcohol use disorders and suicidal ideation/behaviour. This article explores the pathway from childhood abuse to suicidal behaviour through the development of alcohol use disorders, and examines the significance of a familial history of alcohol misuse in exacerbating suicidal behaviour in adults who were abused as children. It discusses the implications of this pathway, and describes areas of focus for those who work with child abuse victims and/or patients experiencing alcohol use disorders. Practitioners working with children or adolescents who have experienced or are experiencing abuse should take a preventative approach, identifying and treating those at risk for alcohol misuse and/or suicide. Practitioners working with adults who are already abusing alcohol and/or are suicidal should work with the adult to identify and examine life events such as abuse that may be responsible. By identifying factors that have led to the misuse of alcohol and/or suicidal ideation, adults can obtain appropriate psychotherapy and deal in a more productive and beneficial manner with the pain that underlies their self-destructive impulses. PMID:17449874
Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…
Ross, Colin A.
Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…
Emerenciano, M.; Koifman, S.; Pombo-de-oliveira, M. S.
Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months....
Wells, Tony T.; Vanderlind, W. Michael; Selby, Edward A.; Beevers, Christopher G.
Models of depression vulnerability posit that negative early experiences, such as exposure to childhood abuse (CA), increase vulnerability to depression later in life. Though most victims of CA do not go on to develop depression, the question remains as to whether these individuals retain cognitive “scars” that may contribute to depression vulnerability. The present study examined the relationship between self-reported, retrospective CA cognitive vulnerability to depression in a carefully...
Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.
Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…
Full Text Available Patria Rojas2,3, Sunny Kim4, Mario De La Rosa2,3, Frank R Dillon2,3, Theophile Niyonsenga1,31Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 2School of Social Work, 3Center for Research on US Latinos HIV/AIDs and Drug Abuse, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Davis, CA, USAPurpose: Early onset of sexual activity has been linked to later substance abuse. Our study aimed to further describe the associations between Latina mothers’ and daughters’ early sexual activity and adult substance abuse.Methods: A survey was conducted with 92 Latina mother–daughter dyads whose members never experienced sexual abuse. Childhood sexual experience was defined as the occurrence of a consensual sexual encounter at the age of 15 years or younger. Substance abusers were identified by the extent of substance use during the 12 months prior to the interview. Path analysis was used to fit our conceptual models to the data.Main findings: Daughters’ current, adult substance abuse was associated independently with: their own childhood sexual experience (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 and mothers’ current, adult substance abuse (OR = 2.0. Compared with daughters who first experienced sex after the age of 19, the odds of using substances were 17.7 times higher among daughters who had childhood sexual experience and 3.8 times higher among daughters who first experienced sex between the age of 16–19 years. Explicitly, sexual experiences between the ages of 16–19 years were also risk factors for later adult substance abuse. Mothers’ childhood sexual experience (OR = 7.3 was a strong predictor for daughters’ childhood sexual experience.Conclusions: Our study supported a link between mother and daughter childhood sexual experience among Latinas, and indicated it is a correlate of adult substance abuse. Family based substance abuse prevention efforts and future longitudinal studies should consider maternal childhood sexual experience as a potential indication of risk for Latina daughters.Keywords: early sex, child sex, Latina, substance abuse
Afifi, Tracie O.; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Cox, Brian J.; Sareen, Jitender
Objectives: Physical punishment, as a means of disciplining children, may be considered a mild form of childhood adversity. Although many outcomes of physical punishment have been investigated, little attention has been given to the impact of physical punishment on later adult psychopathology. Also, it has been stated that physical punishment by a…
Full Text Available Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80. The data consisted of the early educators’ stories of their growth towards expertise. The analysis was carried out by the methods of content analysis. As the results, three key competences of the informants were created: 1 contextual knowledge, 2 cooperation and communication knowledge, and 3 pedagogical knowledge. This research shows that the educators’ work has become more and more collegial and it is necessary to expand a notion of individual expertise into the realm of collaborative and socially shared expertise.
This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child…
Mcgowan, Patrick O.; Sasaki, Aya; D’alessio, Ana C.; Dymov, Sergiy; Labonte?, Benoit; Szyf, Moshe; Turecki, Gustavo; Meaney, Michael J.
Maternal care influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in the rat through epigenetic programming of glucocorticoid receptor expression. In humans, childhood abuse alters HPA stress responses and increases the risk of suicide. We examined epigenetic differences in a neuron-specific glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) promoter between postmortem hippocampus obtained from suicide victims with a history of childhood abuse and those from either suicide victims with no childhood abuse o...
Cumming, Tamara; Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie
Early childhood practice has often been described as complex in both policy documents and research literature; however, less attention has been given to exploring the nature and consequences of complexity in early childhood practice. At a time of intense policy attention in many national contexts, there is the potential for closing down, as well…
Katz, Lilian G.; Ward, Evangeline H.
This booklet contains two essays on ethics for early childhood educators. The first essay discusses the meaning of a code of ethics, the importance of a code of ethics for working with preschool children, ethical conflicts in day care and preschool work, and steps which may be taken to help early childhood workers resolve these conflicts. Ethical…
Walker, Kay, Ed.; And Others
Four issues (1980/81) of Views, an early childhood special education newsletter published by Project Sunrise Outreach in Montana, are collected in the document. Each issue contains one or two feature articles, and sections on early childhood programs, news from the states (Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho), comments from colleagues, research summaries,…
What, pray tell, might the so-called "dismal science" of economics have to say about public investment in early childhood programs? Quite a bit, as it turns out. This report from the RAND Corporation takes an economic perspective on such investments, and its intent is to provide policymakers with a primer about "how economic analysis can help set agendas for early childhood policy and identify the economics benefits of targeting certain groups for help." Released in May 2008, the 48-page report draws on concepts including human capital theory and monetary "payoffs" from investments in early childhood programs. The report is divided into four chapters, including "Human Capital Theory" and "Implications for Early Childhood Policy". It's quite a compelling read, and it will be of interest to a broad range of persons working in fields such as early childhood development, economics, and public policy.
Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.
M., Emerenciano; S., Koifman; M.S., Pombo-de-Oliveira.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in in [...] fant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months) has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9), E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4), PML/RARA+ve (N = 4), and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2) cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07), OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31) and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96)], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.
Banihashemi, Layla; Sheu, Lei K; Midei, Aimee J; Gianaros, Peter J
Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsive circuit. The goal of this study is to examine how childhood emotional and physical abuse relates to adulthood stressor-evoked activity within these visceral brain regions. To evoke acute states of mental stress, participants (n = 155) performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-adapted versions of the multi-source interference task (MSIT) and the Stroop task with simultaneous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Regression analyses revealed that childhood physical abuse correlated positively with stressor-evoked changes in MAP, and negatively with unbiased, a priori extractions of fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent signal change values within the sgACC, BNST, PVN and Amyg (n = 138). Abuse-related changes in the function of visceral neural circuits may reflect neurobiological vulnerability to adverse health outcomes conferred by early adversity. PMID:24847113
Soylu, Nusret; Ayaz, Muhammed; Yüksel, Tu?ba
Early marriage and sexual abuse are the two of the most frequent types of childhood abuse. Although early marriage is also a type of sexual abuse, it is associated with different physical, social, and mental outcomes than sexual abuse alone. The purpose of this study was to compare early-married girls and sexually abused girls who were referred for forensic evaluation in Turkey in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics, mental disorder rates, and mental symptom severity. We included 63 adolescent girls for whom a judicial report had been demanded and who were under 15 years old when they were married but were not yet 18 years old during the evaluation (15.51±0.78) and 72 sexually abused adolescent girls between 14 and 18 years old (15.80±1.10) in this study. Following a psychiatric evaluation, the study participants completed the Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). We used the Windows SPSS 16.0 software program to assess the results. At least one psychiatric disorder was determined in 44.4% of the early-married and 77.8% of the sexually abused cases (padolescents than in the early-married cases (p<0.001). Although early marriage has severe physical, social and mental outcomes, it is not as severe as sexual abuse in terms of psychiatric disorder rates and the psychiatric symptom severity it causes. PMID:24994572
Brenner, Inbal; Ben-Amitay, Galit
It has been proposed that a complexity of personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors is related to sexual revictimization among childhood sexual abuse survivors. In this study, we investigated the relations between attachment dimensions, exposure to accumulated childhood traumas, reaction to childhood sexual abuse disclosure, and adult sexual revictimization. Participants were 60 Israeli women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy percent of the women reported adult sexual revictimization. Revictimization was related to higher attachment anxiety but not to higher attachment avoidance. Revictimization was also related to emotional and physical child abuse but not to emotional and physical child neglect. Revictimization rates were higher among women who had received negative environmental responses following childhood sexual abuse disclosure than among women who had received supportive reactions and those who had not disclosed childhood sexual abuse at all. Findings were significant even after controlling for severity of childhood sexual abuse. The findings emphasize the role of various contextual-interpersonal factors on revictimization vulnerability among the survivors of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:25774414
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth
Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…
Liu, Richard T.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Gibb, Brandon E.
Objective: Although past research has documented a link between adverse childhood experiences--particularly childhood emotional (CEA), physical (CPA), and sexual abuse (CSA)--and depression, relatively few studies have examined the unique impact of each of these highly co-occurring abuse types. Moreover, relatively little is known about the…
Examination of 115 women with eating disorders revealed a secondary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. A model involving background features, precipitants, and immediate and long-term psychological consequences is suggested to explain the link to childhood abuse, and implications for…
Elzy, Meredith B.
The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…
Parker, Radha J.; Horton, H. Shelton, Jr.; Watson, Terri
Describes an individual's healing from the trauma of childhood sexual abuse through counseling, spiritual growth, and the use of therapeutic ritual. Explores relationships between the psychospiritual issues associated with childhood sexual abuse and commonly designated treatment goals. Claims that addressing psychospiritual issues is crucial in…
America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011
America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.
Karakurt, Gunnur; Silver, Kristin E.
The aim of this paper is to understand the effects of childhood sexual abuse on a survivor’s later life. For understanding and treating the emotional distress and interpersonal problems resulting from childhood sexual abuse, attachment theory provides a valuable framework. When this framework is combined with family systems theory, it can help therapists understand the family context where sexual abuse occurs and how this affects health and functioning throughout the lifespan. Case examples...
This article reviews five large national studies that include significant findings about the effects of early care and intervention on the children of teens. Five large-scale, national early childhood intervention research trials have included teen parents: Early Head Start, Nurse Family Partnership, Parents as Teachers, Healthy Start/Healthy…
Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Johnson, Rebecca; McCloskey, Laura A.
This study examined the representation of internal states in childhood recollections of male and female adolescents with and without abuse histories. Participants' (N = 71) exposure to spousal violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and 6 years later when they were 12 to 18 years old. At the Year…
Katerndahl, David; Burge, Sandra; Kellogg, Nancy
Despite the psychological impact of child sexual abuse, many victims do not acknowledge that their experiences were "abuse." This study sought to identify factors that predict how women label their own experiences of childhood sexual abuse. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a family medicine clinic with adult female patients. Subjects…
Feinauer, Leslie; Hilton, H. Gill; Callahan, Eddy Howard
Surveys an adult female sample of childhood sexual abuse survivors to determine if hardiness was effective in moderating the negative effects of perceived trauma and severity of the sexual abuse and internalized shame on relationship intimacy. Results indicate that perception and severity of abuse, and shame were significantly and negatively…
Kato, Tsuguhiko; Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra
Teachers at the Freeburg Early Childhood Program know that experimentation with physical science is of great interest to young children, and can begin as early as the age of 3. The constructivist teachers at this experimental school at the University of Northern Iowa worked for six years to develop a center-based approach to physical science with…
Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children’s life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1 patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2 cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed.
Cortazar, Alejandra; Herreros, Francisca
This article explores the relationship between attachment theory and the early childhood curriculum. During the first years of life children develop early attachment relationships with their primary caregivers. These attachment relationships, either secure or insecure, will shape children's socio-emotional development. In the USA, the predominant…
The history of early childhood education in Cyprus, from the time of the Ottoman Empire to the present, is reviewed in this paper as the context for reporting on a survey of 1,071 full-time and working Turkish Cypriot mothers regarding the daily difficulties of child rearing. The survey was undertaken to inform policymaking efforts of the…
This paper argues that in daycare centres in France, where children are cared for from four months to age three, the competence of female staff members is usually denied and unvalued vis a vis the expert opinions. The paper highlights empirical research on early childhood and gender, providing pragmatic access to children's languages of desire, a…
McLachlan, Claire; Fleer, Marilyn; Edwards, Susan
"Early Childhood Curriculum" addresses current approaches to curriculum for infants, toddlers and young children, ages birth to eight. It provides a comprehensive introduction to the curriculum issues that student teachers and emerging practitioners will face and equips them with the decision-making tools that will ultimately enhance and promote…
Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann
Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…
The current study examines the utility of self-trauma theory for explaining the long-term impact of childhood psychological abuse on aggression. Specifically, the self-capacities of interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation are tested as mediators of the impact of psychological abuse on various types of aggression in adulthood.…
Young, Walter C.; And Others
Thirty-seven adult dissociative disorder patients who reported ritual abuse in childhood by satanic cults are described. A clinical syndrome is presented that includes dissociative states with satanic overtones, posttraumatic stress disorder, survivor guilt, unusual fears, and substance abuse. Questions concerning reliability, credibility, and…
Macours, Karen; Vakis, Renos
This paper provides unique evidence of the positive consequences of seasonal migration for investments in early childhood development. We analyse migration in a poor shockprone border region in rural Nicaragua where it offers one of the main household income diversification and risk coping strategies. IV estimates show, somewhat surprisingly, that mother's migration has a positive effect on early cognitive development. We attribute these findings to changes in income and to the intrahousehold...
Full Text Available This article examines early childhood curriculum in England. Traditional early childhood education in England has been child centered, in contrast to approaches that are subject centered and teacher directed, emphasizing individual children?s interests, free play, firsthand experience, and integrated learning. However, recently, the government introduced a framework for an early years curriculum, redefined the child-centered educational model, and initiated reforms for raising standards. In order to identify the nature of early childhood curriculum in England, this article examines the historical development and philosophical underpinnings of early childhood education, including recent developments. The article then investigates and describes the early childhood curriculum in England today.
Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.
Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…
Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.
Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion
This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite
Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of ...
Kuo, Janice R; Khoury, Jennifer E; Metcalfe, Rebecca; Fitzpatrick, Skye; Goodwill, Alasdair
Childhood abuse has been consistently linked with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and recent studies suggest that some forms of childhood abuse might be uniquely related to both BPD and BPD features. In addition, difficulties with emotion regulation have been found to be associated with childhood abuse, BPD, as well as BPD features. The present study examined (1) whether frequency of childhood emotional abuse is uniquely associated with BPD feature severity when controlling for other forms of childhood abuse and (2) whether difficulties with emotion regulation accounts for the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD feature severity. A sample of undergraduates (n=243) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Borderline Symptom List-23. Multiple regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling were conducted. Results indicated that frequency of childhood emotional abuse (and not sexual or physical abuse) was uniquely associated with BPD feature severity. In addition, while there was no direct path between childhood emotional abuse, childhood physical abuse, or childhood sexual abuse and BPD features, there was an indirect relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD features through difficulties with emotion regulation. These findings suggest that, of the different forms of childhood abuse, emotional abuse specifically, may have a developmental role in BPD pathology. Prevention and treatment of BPD pathology might benefit from the provision of emotion regulation strategies. PMID:25192957
El-Bassel, N; Witte, S S; Wada, T; Gilbert, L; Wallace, J
This study examines the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse by intimate and commercial sexual partners among street-based sex workers and explores correlates of partner abuse by commercial partners using the following factors: sociodemographics, substance abuse, sexual behavior, and physical and sexual childhood abuse. One hundred thirteen street sex workers were recruited from December 1996 through May 1997 while receiving services from the Foundations for Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (FROST'D), a nonprofit organization based in New York City. Partner abuse is a common occurrence among street sex workers. Two of three street prostitutes have experienced lifetime physical or sexual abuse by either an intimate or commercial partner. In addition, one of eight reported physical and sexual abuse by both intimate and commercial partners during her lifetime. Women who were homeless in the last year, those who reported exchanging for drugs and money as their main source of income, used injection drugs in the past year and had sex in crack houses, and who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive were more likely to be report combined physical and sexual abuse. Understanding the relationship between partner violence, victim's substance abuse, and HIV-risk behavior is important for the development of public policies and treatment and prevention strategies to address the constellation of problems that drug-using female street sex workers face. PMID:11177587
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.
Harford, Thomas C; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Grant, Bridget F
The aim of this study is to examine associations among childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse and violence toward self (suicide attempts [SA]) and others (interpersonal aggression [IA]). Data were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Waves 1 and 2 (n=34,653). Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between type of childhood abuse and violence categories, adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of reported childhood abuse was 4.60% for physical abuse, 7.83% for emotional abuse, and 10.20% for sexual abuse. Approximately 18% of adults reported some form of violent behavior, distributed as follows: IA, 13.37%; SA, 2.64%; and SA with IA, 1.85%. After adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and psychiatric disorders, each type of childhood abuse was significantly related to increased risk for each violence category as compared with the no violence category. Furthermore, the odds ratio of childhood physical abuse was significantly higher for SA with IA when compared with IA, and the odds ratio of childhood sexual abuse was significantly higher for SA and SA with IA when compared with IA. Childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse is directly related to the risk for violent behaviors to self and others. Both internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders impact the association between childhood abuse and violence. The inclusion of suicidal behaviors and interpersonal aggression and internalizing/externalizing psychiatric disorders within an integrated conceptual framework will facilitate more effective interventions for long-lasting effects of child abuse. PMID:24656711
Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David
The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. PMID:25012954
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Hooper, Stephen R
The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between a history of dyslexia and childhood physical abuse in a large population-based epidemiological sample. It was hypothesized that the prevalence of dyslexia would be significantly higher in individuals who reported a childhood history of physical abuse in comparison to those who did not report such a history. A secondary analysis examined data from respondents 18 years and older from the Saskatchewan and Manitoba sample of the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). There were 13,640 respondents ages 18 and older. Due to missing data, the final sample size was 13,054 respondents. One third (34.8%) of respondents who reported they had been physically abused during their childhood or adolescence also reported being diagnosed with dyslexia in comparison with 7.2% of those who did not report being physically abused (p < .001). Initial adjustments for sociodemographic variables produced an odds ratio (OR) for dyslexia that was more than 7 times higher (OR = 7.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.42, 11.35]) for those who had reported being physically abused in comparison with their peers who did not report such a history; with additional adjustments for other adverse childhood experiences, these odds decreased only slightly to 6.09 times higher (95% CI = [3.58, 10.35]). Further research is needed to understand the mechanism linking physical abuse and dyslexia. PMID:24981005
Rorty, M; Yager, J; Rossotto, E
We examined the relationship between childhood sexual, physical, psychological, and "multiple" abuse (i.e., abuse in more than one form) and comorbid Axis I and personality psychopathology among women with a lifetime history of bulimia nervosa (BN group; n =s 80) and a control group of noneating-disordered women (n = 40). Subjects were recruited primarily by newspaper advertisement. They participated in structured clinical interviews for diagnosis of Axis I and personality pathology, and they completed child abuse questionnaires in the interview setting. At odds with prediction, child abuse in various forms was not associated with the presence of lifetime comorbid Axis I disorders in general (i.e., 1 or more) or disorder classes in particular (mood, alcohol/substance use, anxiety) among BN subjects, although sexual, psychological, and multiple abuse were associated with the diagnosis of a higher total number of Axis I conditions. A history of psychological and multiple abuse (but not physical or sexual abuse alone) among BN subjects was strongly associated with the presence of personality disorder diagnoses, especially those in the "anxious-fearful" cluster (Cluster C). Finally, we found that when a personality disorder was present in addition to the Axis I conditions in question, significant relationships emerged between abuse and Axis I pathology, particularly for psychological and multiple abuse. In general, control group findings were in accord with BN group findings, indicating that our findings were not specific to eating-disordered women. Our results suggest that childhood abuse, particularly psychological abuse and abuse in multiple forms, increase the likelihood of lifetime comorbid Axis I disorders and personality pathology among bulimic patients. Eating-disordered women with a history of child abuse may thus represent a subgroup of patients requiring especially intensive intervention. PMID:7866412
Houston, Eric; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Caton, Carol L. M.
This study examines the psychological factors linking childhood abuse and HIV/STI outcomes among 190 single homeless women in New York City. Participants were assessed for mental health symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Findings indicate that the relationship between childhood abuse and HIV/STI diagnoses during adulthood is mediated by a combination of PTSD and BPD symptoms. Screening single homeless women who report childhood abus...
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Frank, John
Objectives: Although, the relationship between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease has been documented, very few studies have controlled for many of the known risk factors for heart disease. The objective of the current study, therefore, was to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease while…
Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C
Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. PMID:24521524
Liu, Richard T; Choi, Jimmy Y; Boland, Elaine M; Mastin, Becky M; Alloy, Lauren B
According to the stress generation hypothesis (Hammen, 1991), depressed and depression-prone individuals experience higher rates of negative life events influenced by their own behaviors and characteristics (i.e., dependent events), which in part may account for the often recurrent nature of depression. Relatively little is known about the interrelation between stress generation predictors, and distal risk factors for this phenomenon. This study examined whether childhood emotional, sexual, and physical abuse, each uniquely predicted negative dependent events in individuals with a history of depression. The role of negative inferential styles as a potential mediator was also assessed. A sample of 66 adults with a history of depression completed self-report measures of childhood abuse history and negative inferential styles at baseline. The "contextual threat" method was used to assess the occurrence of negative life events over a 4-month prospective follow-up period. Childhood emotional abuse, but not sexual or physical abuse, prospectively predicted greater stress generation. Negative inferential styles mediated this relation. These findings suggest that targeting negative cognitive styles in clinical settings, especially in patients with a history of childhood emotional abuse, may be important for reducing the occurrence of negative life events, thereby possibly decreasing risk for depression recurrence. PMID:23273609
Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.
Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component hypotheses were that (a) maladaptive traits would increase risk for inattention/hyperactivity, (b) inattention/hyperactivity would increase risk for disrupti...
Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Abas, Melanie; Harpham, Trudy; Prince, Martin
Evidence suggests that certain migrant populations are at increased risk of abusive behaviors. It is unclear whether this may also apply to Thai rural–urban migrants, who may experience higher levels of psychosocial adversities than the population at large. The study aims to examine the association between migration status and the history of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse among young Thai people in an urban community. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted ...
Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly
While the association between abuse in childhood and adverse adult health outcomes is well established, this link is infrequently acknowledged in the general medical literature. This paper has 2 purposes: (1) to provide a broad overview of the research on the long-term effects of child abuse on mental and physical health including some of the potential pathways, and (2) to call for collaborative action among clinicians, psychosocial and biomedical researchers, social service agencies, crimina...
Wiley, Colby P.; Wedeking, Travis; Galindo, Addy M.
This article reviews the Conners Early Childhood (Conners EC; Conners, 2009), a behavior and development rating scale intended to assess children in early childhood, specifically defined as ages 2 to 6 years. Using multiple informants across multiple settings, the Conners EC is administered for the purpose of early identification of disorders or…
Shonkoff, Jack P., Ed.; Phillips, Deborah A., Ed.
The Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development reviewed an extensive, multi-disciplinary, and complex body of research covering the period from before birth to entry into Kindergarten to generate an integrated science of early childhood development and the role of early experiences. The result of the committee's review,…
Burland, J A
Clinical data suggest that Kernberg's description of splitting as a defense mechanism is useful in conceptualizing the psychological consequences of abuse in childhood in certain patients. The splitting in these patients is similar to his description of splitting in borderline patients in that it compartmentalizes and sequesters certain overwhelming and painful ego states accompanying negative introjects of the betraying primary object and the betrayed self. These sequestered introjects, furthermore, act as automatons, generating behaviors that arbitrarily re-enact their content even though the patient remains consciously unaware of their historical meaning. Another consequence of the sequestration of these traumatic introjects is that their affects retain their initial power and primitive quality, unmodulated by the usual homogenizing process that is a part of the synthesis of part-object introjects into whole-object introjects; the sequestration, therefore, often painful in itself, must nevertheless be rigidly maintained lest traumatic anxiety in the face of overwhelming affects be re-experienced. Shengold calls the sequence of events that results in this brittle but stubborn painful constriction of the personality "soul murder." He borrowed the phrase from Freud who used it to refer to what Schreber had suffered at the hands of his sadistic father. That phrase--"soul murder"--may sound melodramatic, but it powerfully conveys what these patients communicate of their experience of themselves. As with Kernberg's patients, the defensive splitting serves to protect the positive introjects. These patients fear their negative introjects, even more than they feel uncomfortable about the split. They fear their desperate rage will destroy their love objects, and leave them feeling abandoned and hating themselves. As one of my patients put it: "I fear that my destructive anger will leave me all alone in a sea of rubble of my own making." In the transference, he feared destroying me and our positive bond. In these cases it would seem that the turning to splitting occurred at a later age than it does with Kernberg's borderline patients. His proposition is that the developmentally normal "splitting," related to the undifferentiation of the infantile ego, persists as a defensive splitting, perhaps as a consequence of a consistently derailed mother-child dialogue; whereas in my patients it would seem that the normal developmental splitting had waned as ego differentiation proceeded, but that in the face of overwhelming traumata at perhaps 3 or 4 years of age, the primitive defense was invoked regressively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7877900
Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte MØlgaard
Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Grabell, Adam S; Knight, Raymond A
Findings in the sexual aggression literature on the link between childhood sexual abuse and future sexual coercion have been inconsistent. In adult sexual offenders, studies have found that the relation of sexual abuse to sexual coercion is mediated by sexually related deviant cognitions, but this mediation is not found when replicated on juvenile sexual offenders. In this study it is hypothesized that this link will be found in juvenile sexual offenders when their sexual abuse history is stratified into discrete developmental epochs. It is further hypothesized that the age range of 3 to 7 years, when children rapidly acquire inhibition and cognitive flexibility skills, will be the most potent predictor. A sample of 193 juvenile sexual offenders is used to examine whether sexual abuse specifically in this discrete period, as opposed to other periods, predicts subsequent sexual fantasy. The results confirm that sexual abuse correlates with later adolescent sexual fantasy only during the 3- to 7-year epoch. PMID:19351968
Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi
The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus. PMID:21790468
Gibb, Brandon E.; McGeary, John E.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Miller, Ivan W.
There is growing evidence that a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the impact of negative life events (e.g., childhood abuse) on the development of depression. However, it is unclear whether the gene x environment interaction predicts suicide attempts specifically. In addition, previous studies have not…
van Gerko, K.; Hughes, M.L.; Hamill, M.; Waller, G.
Objective:: This study assessed links between reported childhood sexual abuse and a range of eating behaviors and attitudes, among a large sample of eating-disordered women. It tested the hypothesis that there will be links to bulimic behaviors and body dissatisfaction, rather than restriction. Method:: The sample consisted of 299 women, meeting…
Kia-Keating, Maryam; Sorsoli, Lynn; Grossman, Frances K.
Male survivors of childhood sexual abuse face challenges resolving sexual victimization experiences with the ideals of masculinity, often experiencing intimacy problems, emotional discomfort, alienation, and anger. Little attention has been paid to how male survivors learn to develop long-term connections, disclose emotions in relationship…
Luterek, Jane A.; Harb, Gerlinde C.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Marx, Brian P.
This study investigated whether interpersonal rejection sensitivity serves a mediating role between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and three long-term psychological correlates of CSA in adult female survivors: depressive symptoms, anger suppression, and attenuated emotional expression. Interpersonal rejection sensitivity has been shown to be a risk…
Kenny, Maureen C.; McEachern, Adriana Garcia
This study sought to examine the family environments of a sample of Hispanic women who reported childhood sexual abuse. Eighteen women, taken from a larger college sample, were individually interviewed and administered the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994). Cultural values and the relationship of family characteristics to the…
Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.
The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…
Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Sitta, Rémi; Gueguen, Alice; Cyr, Diane; Lert, France
The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardised interviews were conducted in 2002-2003, among women aged 18-54 years drawn from the electoral rolls. Childhood sexual abuse before 15 years of age was reported by 11.6% of respondents. Nearly all the perpetrators (96%) were known to the victims (63% being a close relative). The rate of frequent binge drinking amongst the women within the last 12 months was 34%. After controlling for social and demographic factors, an independent association was found between childhood sexual abuse and current binge drinking. This study is the first to analyse the contribution of childhood sexual abuse to the likelihood of later heavy alcohol use in an indigenous population in the South Pacific. The findings call for improving and giving priority to care for children who are victims of violence to prevent long-term health consequences and to develop prevention programs aimed at alcohol-related behaviour in women, while taking into account simultaneous individual and collective factors. PMID:19217196
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah
Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…
Leu, Jennifer Chau-Ying
The author examines early childhood music education in Taiwan through Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Factors in the microsystem level that influenced the musical development of children included adult perception of children, child-adult interactions, Taiwanese family structure, and the existing early childhood education system. The…
Small group instruction is important yet it is one of the most underused strategies in early childhood classrooms. This paper presents guidelines based on research-based best practices for using small groups in early childhood. In addition, the benefits of small group instruction for both children and teachers are described. Specific suggestions…
Sani, Ruta Bulderis
This bibliometric study assesses literature sources of elementary and early childhood education documents by examining, over a 30-month period, documents entered into the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) data base by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. The document collection is sorted into three…
Texas State Dept. of Community Affairs, Austin. Office of Early Childhood Development.
This report is a compilation of several regional forums held in Texas (Longview, McAllen, El Paso, Dallas, Lubbock, Houston, and Austin) by the Office of Early Childhood Development (OECD) concerning the needs and problems of young children. The report is divided into five sections: an introduction to the early childhood development planning…
Thao, Dang Phuong; Boyd, Wendy Anne
Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to…
Fayez, Merfat; Dababneh, Kholoud; Jumiaan, Ibrahim
This study was conducted during a period of national educational reforms in Jordan to investigate Jordanian preservice early childhood teachers' attitudes toward inclusion and the adequacy of their current preparation for implementing inclusion. The study also sought to identify the perceived concerns of preservice early childhood teachers about…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.
This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…
Obradovic, Jelena; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Yates, Tuppett M.; Carlson, Eilzabeth A.; Egeland, Byron
This study represents a developmentally informed, empirically validated examination of competence across multiple domains (Social, Cognitive, Emotional well-being), gender and age (early childhood, middle childhood, early adolescence, middle adolescence). Competence indicators were created and the structure of these domains was tested using…
Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia
This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…
The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood special education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was conducted in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood special education in Taiwan could be summarized…
This book offers practical and effective strategies for stress management for both early childhood staff and the children in their care. Here, the author uncovers valuable insights into the causes of stress and outlines a range of activities to counteract it. Early childhood practitioners know that theirs is both a stressful and rewarding…
The main purpose of this study was to investigate early childhood teachers' attitudes toward gender roles and toward discipline. The findings demonstrated that early childhood teachers had a tendency to hold egalitarian attitudes toward gender roles and discipline. In other words, these attitudes were found to be highly correlated. (Contains 4…
Harwood, Debra; Klopper, Audrey; Osanyin, Ajike; Vanderlee, Mary-Louise
This article reports on the findings from a small-scale study of early childhood educators' perceptions of their roles, responsibilities and ideas related to professionalism. Twenty-five early childhood educators from Canada (Ontario), Nigeria and South Africa participated in qualitative interviews to address the following questions: (1) In what…
This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…
Adamson, Peter C. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)
Etain, Bruno; Mathieu, Flavie; Henry, Chantal; Raust, Aure?lie; Roy, Isabelle; Germain, Anne; Leboyer, Marion; Bellivier, Frank
Childhood trauma has been suggested to be involved in the susceptibility to bipolar disorder. However, case-control studies are lacking, and the preferential implication and the dose-effect of different trauma subtypes remain poorly investigated. Two hundred six bipolar patients and 94 controls completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein et al., 1994). The CTQ total score was higher for bipolar patients than for controls. The presence of multiple trauma was significantly more...
Chiu, Gretchen R.; Lutfey, Karen E.; Litman, Heather J.; Link, Carol L.; Hall, Susan A.; Mckinlay, John B.
Abuse is associated with a wide variety of health problems, yet comprehensive population-based data are scant. Existing literature focuses on a single type of abuse, population, or lifestage. Using a racially/ethnically diverse community-based sample, we document the prevalence of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse by lifestage and gender; assess variation in abuse by socio-demographics; establish overlap of abuses; and examine childhood abuse relationships with abuse in adulthood. Prevale...
This article examines early childhood curriculum in England. Traditional early childhood education in England has been child centered, in contrast to approaches that are subject centered and teacher directed, emphasizing individual children?s interests, free play, firsthand experience, and integrated learning. However, recently, the government introduced a framework for an early years curriculum, redefined the child-centered educational model, and initiated reforms for raising standards. In ...
Smith, Kathryn Z; Smith, Philip H; Grekin, Emily R
Previous studies have found relationships between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and problem alcohol use. However, few studies have explored mechanisms that may explain this relationship. The present study examined whether (a) distress mediated the relationship between CSA and both heavy drinking and alcohol consequences, (b) coping motives for drinking moderated the paths between distress and both heavy drinking and alcohol consequences, and (c) these relationships remained significant after controlling for other forms of abuse/trauma. Three hundred ninety-five undergraduate women completed survey measures of childhood abuse/trauma, alcohol use/consequences, distress, and drinking motives. Data were analyzed using path analyses. Results supported a moderated-mediation model in which distress mediated the relationship between CSA and alcohol consequences, but only among those who endorsed coping motives for drinking. After controlling for other forms of abuse/maltreatment, the moderated-mediated pathway was no longer significant, but there remained a direct path between CSA and alcohol consequences. The present study provides support for tension-reduction models of alcohol use among CSA-exposed women and demonstrates the moderating role of coping motives. The present study also highlights the need for future studies to control for other forms of abuse/trauma and suggests that other mechanisms and contextual variables need to be explored to explain the CSA/alcohol-use pathway. PMID:24955671
Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This paper examines the relationship between childhood exposure to cumulative risk and three indicators of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood (educational attainment, mental health, and criminal behavior) and tests three different models (linear, quadratic, and interaction). Data were collected over several time points from individuals who were part of a prospective cohort design study that matched children with documented cases of abuse and/or neglect with children without such histories and followed them into adulthood. Hierarchical multiple regressions compared linear and quadratic models and then examined potential moderating effects of child abuse/neglect and gender. Exposure to a greater number of childhood risk factors was significantly related to fewer years of education, more anxiety and depression symptomatology, and more criminal arrests in adulthood. The relationship between cumulative risk and years of education demonstrated a curvilinear pattern, whereas the relationship between cumulative risk and both mental health and criminal arrests was linear. Child abuse/neglect did not moderate these relationships, although there were direct effects for both child abuse/neglect and gender on criminal arrests, with more arrests for abused/neglected individuals than controls and more for males than females. Gender interacted with cumulative risk to impact educational attainment and criminal behavior, suggesting that interventions may be more effective if tailored differently for males and females. Interventions may need to be multifaceted and designed to address these different domains of functioning. PMID:25196178
Wells, Tony T.; Vanderlind, W. Michael; Selby, Edward A.; Beevers, Christopher G.
Models of depression vulnerability posit that negative early experiences, such as exposure to childhood abuse (CA), increase vulnerability to depression later in life. Though most victims of CA do not go on to develop depression, the question remains as to whether these individuals retain cognitive “scars” that may contribute to depression vulnerability. The present study examined the relationship between self-reported, retrospective CA cognitive vulnerability to depression in a carefully selected sample of young adults without current or past psychopathology. We measured cognitive vulnerability with both a self-report questionnaire, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and a measure of information processing bias, the Scrambled Sentences Test (SST). Self-reported severity of CA was associated with increased cognitive vulnerability to depression on both the DAS and SST. Vulnerability to depression as measured by the SST, but not by the DAS, prospectively predicted increases in depressive symptoms over a 6-month period. Scores on the SST also interacted with CA to predict increases in depressive symptoms. These findings demonstrate the pernicious effects of CA even in those without current or past psychopathology. PMID:24313549
Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.
In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…
Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel
We asked 1004 undergraduates to estimate both the probability that they would enter therapy and the probability that they experienced but could not remember incidents of potentially life threatening childhood traumas or physical and sexual abuse. We found a linear relation between the expectation of entering therapy and the belief that one had, but cannot now remember, childhood trauma and abuse. Thus, individuals who are prone to seek psychotherapy are also prone to accept a suggested memory...
Garner, Andrew S
Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors. PMID:24187125
Deering, Rebecca; Mellor, David
The limited findings on the impact of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children are often contradictory, particularly in relation to males. In this exploratory qualitative study, a sample of nine men and five women who reported that they had been sexually abused by women in their childhood were recruited from the general community. They…
Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.
A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)
Cong, E.; Shao, C.; Chen, J.; Wu, W.; Shang, X.; Wang, Z.; Liu, Y.; Gao, C.; Wu, J.; Deng, H.; Liu, J.; Sang, W.; Liu, G.; Rong, H.; Gan, Z.
BACKGROUND: Studies in Western countries have repeatedly shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in China? METHOD: Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at person...
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Classen, Catherine C.
Childhood sexual abuse is prevalent among women and it has been linked to a number of problems affecting women's health and functioning including women's parenting practices. Another body of literature has linked specific maternal parenting practices to daughters’ HIV risk, including mother-daughter sex communication, monitoring/knowledge about daughters’ activities, mother-daughter relationship quality, attitudes towards sex, and modeling of sexual values. This paper reviews and links th...
Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Sitta, Re?mi; Gueguen, Alice; Cyr, Diane; Lert, France
The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardised interviews were conduct...
Matta Oshima, Karen M.; Jonson-reid, Melissa; Seay, Kristen D.
Research on childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has focused on adult revictimization and outcomes. This article examines the rate of child maltreatment revictimization among male and female children reported to child protective services for CSA and whether revictimization impacts outcomes. Using longitudinal administrative data, Cox regressions were used to examine relationships between initial report of CSA, maltreatment revictimization, and adolescent outcomes among children from poor and non-poor...
Navin, Sally L.; Sears, Susan J.
This article reviews current practices, both nationwide and in Ohio, regarding family involvement in early childhood career education. Also discussed are the parents' planning and advisory role and participant role; several recommendations are offered. Available from: PS 504 969. (JMB)
Pagano, Alicia L.
Recommends the introduction of social studies/social science content into early childhood and elementary grade curricula. Gives examples of activities based on simple concepts in history, psychology, and geography. (AV)
Reviews nine masters and doctoral degree programs in early childhood education and related fields. Names of contact persons, a description of program format, and a school statement are given for each program. (LB)
Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could be identified that were subdivided into trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), non-trauma-focused CBT, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other treatments (interpersonal, emotion-focused). Results showed that psychological interventions are efficacious for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g=1.24 (pre- vs. post-treatment), and aggregated controlled effect sizes of g=0.72 (post-treatment, comparison to waitlist control conditions) and g=0.50 (post-treatment, comparison with TAU/placebo control conditions), respectively. Effect sizes remained stable at follow-up. As the heterogeneity between studies was large, we examined the influence of two a priori specified moderator variables on treatment efficacy. Results showed that trauma-focused treatments were more efficacious than non-trauma-focused interventions, and that treatments including individual sessions yielded larger effect sizes than pure group treatments. As a whole, the findings are in line with earlier meta-analyses showing that the best effects can be achieved with individual trauma-focused treatments. PMID:25455628
Wyllie, E; Chee, M; Granström, M L; DelGiudice, E; Estes, M; Comair, Y; Pizzi, M; Kotagal, P; Bourgeois, B; Lüders, H
To explore the electroclinical features of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in early childhood, we studied results of video-EEG and other tests of 14 children aged 16 months to 12 years selected by seizure-free outcome after temporal lobectomy. Four children had mesiotemporal sclerosis, 1 had cortical dysplasia, and 9 had low-grade temporal neoplasms. The children had complex partial seizures (CPS) with symptomatology similar to that of adults with TLE, including decreased responsiveness and automatisms. Automatisms tended to be simpler in the younger children, typically limited to lip smacking and fumbling hand gestures. Scalp/sphenoidal EEG showed anterior/inferior temporal interictal sharp waves and unilateral temporal seizure onset in the 4 children with mesiotemporal sclerosis and in the child with cortical dysplasia, but EEG findings in 9 children with low-grade temporal tumors were complex, including multifocal interictal sharp waves or poorly localized or falsely lateralized EEG seizure onset. In children without tumors, video-EEG was critical to localization of the epileptogenic zone for resection, but in patients with tumors video-EEG was less localizing and its main value was to confirm that the reported behaviors were epileptic seizures with semiology typical of temporal lobe onset. PMID:8404738
Poythress, Norman G; Skeem, Jennifer L; Lilienfeld, Scott O
Theorists have postulated that some variants of psychopathy result from childhood abuse and neglect. Dissociative symptoms are also thought to arise from abuse. To date, the conjoint associations among abuse, dissociation, and psychopathy have not been examined systematically. Some have hypothesized that abuse relates primarily to the affective symptoms of psychopathy, with dissociative experiences mediating this relationship. Others have suggested that abuse more directly affects the impulsive lifestyle features of psychopathy. The authors used structural equation modeling to examine these hypotheses in a sample of 615 male offenders who had completed a retrospective self-report measure of childhood abuse, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and R. D. Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist--Revised. Abuse exerted no direct or indirect effect on the core interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy but was directly related to the facet of psychopathy associated with an impulsive and irresponsible lifestyle. Implications for psychopathy subtypes are discussed. PMID:16737393
Caufield, P. W.; Li, Y.; Bromage, T. G.
We propose a new classification of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC): hypoplasia-associated severe early childhood caries (HAS-ECC). This form of caries affects mostly young children living at or below poverty, characterized by structurally damaged primary teeth that are particularly vulnerable to dental caries. These predisposing developmental dental defects are mainly permutations of enamel hypoplasia (EHP). Anthropologists and dental researchers consider EHP an indicator for infant and...
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.
This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psycholo...
Kern, J M; Hastings, T
Although bulimics' family functioning usually is reported to be abnormal, the present study examined whether these abnormalities are specific to bulimia or whether they may be due to covariation with another problem associated with abnormal family functioning, childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Consistent with prior research, the family environments of bulimic and normal eaters, as well as abused and nonabused subjects, differed significantly. However, when eating behavior and abuse status were analyzed concurrently, significant differences between bulimics and normals failed to emerge. Abnormal family environment was associated more closely with CSA than with bulimia. The one abnormality unique to bulimia was the family's heightened emphasis on achievement. The potential importance of familial achievement orientation is discussed. PMID:7593669
Full Text Available This paper challenges traditional perspectives of professional development through a reconceptualization of early childhood professional growth. A review of the early childhood professional development literature reveals the problematic nature of the linear perspectives and deficit models of staff development prevalent in the early childhood field. In contrast to these models, the paper proposes alternative perspectives that recognize staff as empowered learners who build their working knowledge through spirals of engagement with many aspects of early childhood philosophy and practice over time. To illustrate the challenges to the dominant professional development paradigm, the paper discusses the professional development components of an Australian study of early childhood centers that began with off-site researcher-led inservice workshops and was followed by on-site staff-led discussion. The study involved approximately 75 staff members from 12 early childhood centers who participated in collaborative rethinking of approaches to planning and working with young children and their families. This approach to professional development was sustained by ongoing support of the researchers as critical friends who facilitated staff engagement through a sense of personal and professional agency. The approaches explored in this paper propose a constructivist view of professional growth that acknowledges the unique contribution of the personal professional knowledge of individuals and the importance of the orientation of individuals both to their work and to new ideas.
Full Text Available A day care center is not just any place where children can spend their day while parents are at work. How to ensure that children have good childhood experiences and how to support their positive development from the very beginning of their educational career? In this study, we introduce the concept of love-based leadership and discuss its role and implementation in early education. Love-based leadership in early education is a method that renews teachers’ professional skills. The Finnish early childhood education system offers favorable premises for love-based leadership in early education. The method should also be included in the curriculum of future early childhood education teachers.
Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty
Rates of childhood obesity have increased dramatically in the last few decades. Non-causal evidence suggests that childhood obesity is highly persistent over the life cycle. However little is known about the origins of this persistence. In this paper we attempt to answer three questions. First, how do anthropometric measures evolve from birth through primary school? Second, what is the causal effect of past anthropometric outcomes on future anthropometric outcomes? In other words, how importa...
Ali Reza Kakavand; Mojgan Salavati; Mohammad Zargar; Mohammad Reza Jalali
"nObjective: The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. "nMethod: The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form); and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. "nResults: Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MA...
Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia
Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses on the challenges of…
Support for early care and education among policy makers and the public is at an unprecedented high. As investments in early care and education programs in the United States continue to rise, the issue of quality becomes increasingly critical. This article addresses the need for adequate infrastructure to support high-quality early care and education—a need that was brought to the forefront by James Gallagher and Richard Clifford in their 2000 article in Early Childhood Research & Practice ...
Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.
State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…
Caliskan Dedeoglu, Nuray; Alat, Zeynep
The aim of this study was to explore the spiral relation and the congruency between mathematics standards listed in the Early Childhood and First Grade curricula in Turkey. A descriptive content analysis was conducted on Early Child Education Curriculum (OOEP) for 36-72 months old children and Math Curriculum for the Grades 1-5 (IMOP), both…
Olds, David; Hill, Peggy; Rumsey, Elissa
This issue of the Juvenile Justice Bulletin provides information on the Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse Home Visitation program, designed to help low-income, first-time parents start their lives with their children on a sound course and prevent the health and parenting problems that can contribute to the early development of antisocial…
Razfar, Aria; Yang, Eunah
This article examines sociocultural research on early literacy development in the digital age. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of informational technology that has fundamentally shifted how we think about language and literacy in the early childhood years. Despite these trends, narrow and reductive views of literacy continue to…
Friedman, Sarah L.; Scholnick, Ellin K.; Bender, Randall H.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Spieker, Susan; Pasek, Kathy Hirsh; Keating, Daniel P.; Park, Yoonjung
Data from 1,364 children and families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed to track the early correlates and later academic outcomes of planning during middle childhood. Maternal education, through its effect on parenting quality when…
Horm, Diane M.; O'Keefe, Beverly; Diffendale, Charlotte; Cohen, Amy; Schennum, Ruth; Pucciarelli, Larry; Collins, Cheryl; Merrifield, Margaret; Nardone, Virginia; Martin, Marilyn; Bryan, Linda; DeRobbio, Gail
This narrative chronicles the continued evolution and development of the Rhode Island Early Childhood Summer Institute, an intensive 5-day inservice professional development program designed for educational leaders from various sectors of the early care and education field. The goal is to review the continued use of successful practices…
Shiller, Virginia M.; O'Flynn, Janet C.; Reineke, June; Sonsteng, Kathleen; Gartrell, Dan
Does the use of rewards to motivate children to learn or to follow classroom rules run counter to fostering a true desire for mastery? This column, which consists of two separate articles, provides the opposing opinions of the authors regarding the appropriateness of giving rewards in an early childhood classroom. In "Using Rewards in the Early…
Sundin, Eva; Wiberg, Britt; Eklo?f, Hanna
The main objective of this study was to examine continuity and change inattachment classification from childhood to early adulthood. The relationsbetween childhood attachment, stressful life events, and young adultattachment were examined based on data from observations of thirty-fourSwedish middle-class 3 years old children who were invited to a play sessiontogether with their mothers. At 23 years, the same participants wereinterviewed with an attachment interview and they also filled out Pa...
Ching-Chun Lin; Shih-Kuan Yang; Kuan-Chia Lin; Wen-Chao Ho; Wu-Shiun Hsieh; Bih-Ching Shu; Pau-Chung Chen
To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3...
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H
Current frameworks for understanding the link between early adverse childhood experiences and later negative life outcomes, including psychopathology, focus on the mediating negative impact on brain and biological systems in the developing child resulting broadly from stress and trauma. Although this approach is useful, we argue that the framework could be functionally extended by distinguishing the effects of two different types of abnormal input, both deviations from the expectable environment in early childhood. Specifically, we review the consequences of inadequate input (eg, neglect/deprivation) and harmful input (eg, abuse/trauma) on brain and biological development. We then review evidence on the differential links between each type of abnormal input to four selected domains of psychopathology (indiscriminate social behavior, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct problems), and consider potential mechanisms for inadequate and harmful input to lead to these outcomes. We conclude that the careful consideration of the type of deviation from the expected environment, while acknowledging the practical difficulties in assessing this, is likely to lead to clearer understanding of the mechanism of risk for psychopathology, and that tailored approaches to prevention and intervention may be informed by considering the unique consequences of inadequate and harmful input when experienced in early childhood. PMID:24998622
Bouras, G; Lazaratou, E
Trauma comes as a result of the subject's exposure to extremely negative and stressful events, such as natural or human-provoked catastrophes, wars, serious injuries, violent deaths, tortures, terrorist attacks, rapes and other sexual crimes. A child's exposure to traumatic circumstances of this level during the crucial period of self-structuring creates rather difficult conditions for its development. Moreover, if the child does not have the opportunity to elaborate and analyze all these stressful conditions and put them into words, serious consequences, both psychological and somatic, may occur in adult life. Specific factors and child characteristics, namely, the age, the developmental stage within which the trauma occurs, its type (physical or sexual abuse, neglect or traumatic social events), frequency, duration and intensity, have been proved to seriously affect the trauma's consequences. The immediate emotional impact of trauma may include isolation, fear, feeling of weakness or loss of the sense of confidence. Moreover, mood disorders such as depression and withdrawal, negative effects on cognitive ability, language development and academic performance, difficulties in creating a secure link and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also observed. The long-term consequences for the individual's mental health can be expressed through the following: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) combined or not with depression and anxiety disorder, mood disorders, personality disorders, poor control of impulsions, dissociation disorder, psychotic disorder. Finally, apart from the dramatic impact of trauma on the person itself, there is also a high social cost to be paid as a result of the individual's poor adjustment and dysfunction in the community. Early support and intervention in the child's environment may significantly minimize the negative effects of trauma. Beyond the expression of genes, good maternal care as well as psychological support, lead to normal DNA methylation and brain development. Supporting the family and break the silence that frequently covers the traumatic events and feelings, will give the opportunity for the elaboration of all these aspects which could capture and imprison the subject in a dramatic circle of psychopathology. Moreover, the effectiveness of early interventions and child psychotherapy is now a common ground, so we have to use all our clinical instruments (dialogue, symbolic play, drawing, storytelling) in order to help the child and have the best possible result. Finally, concerning clinical practice, the emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology is so frequent that mental health experts should take it into serious account while developing an appropriate clinical treatment for such patients. PMID:22796972
... ways to stop. Back Continue What Are the Effects of Abuse? When people are abused, it can affect every ... report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can ...
Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.
This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…
Crowley, Angela A; Whitney, Grace-Ann C
Health assessments are required for entrance into child care, Head Start, and preschool programs. However, state and federal screening and documentation mandates vary, and programs create their own forms for keeping required data on file. Inconsistent recording formats present challenges for primary care providers who must document each child's health status and for program administrators who wish to collect data across groups of children. This article describes how the passage of new legislation in Connecticut establishing a statewide prekindergarten program presented the opportunity to develop a comprehensive early childhood health form for all early childhood programs, which promotes children's access to health services and coordination of care among health care professionals, early childhood providers, and families. PMID:16179077
Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke
This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using str...
Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.
This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…
Vijaykumar R. Londhe
Full Text Available Worldwide, more than 200 million children aged under five do not reach their full developmental potential due to the absence of early childhood care programmes. Education is the mainstay of a development of a human being. Childhood education lays foundation of the child leading to awareness of child rights and empowerment. The awareness about child rights is even more necessary in lieu of various crimes being committed against children. Qualitative school education should not merely confine to text books and theory, it should encompass social and societal issues touching upon the child rights. The utility of primary child education shall go a long way in achieving child rights. This article dwells on role of early childhood education in achieving child rights.
Hall, J M; Kondora, L L
As survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) struggle to grasp and reclaim their selves, their stories, and their futures from the grip of aftereffects of trauma, the processes of recovery and rehabilitation are interwoven with remembering. Questions about women's delayed memories of CSA have stirred a controversy that places clients' credibility at stake. Nurses need to understand the historical and political roots of this controversy and to be familiar with the empirical knowledgebase that exists about traumatic memory. This article is a critical feminist analysis of the topic. Its purposes are to provide a historical context for the current debate about "true" and "false" CSA memories; to discuss selected literature about conventional understandings of memory and their relevance to this debate; to present an integrative, phenomenological approach to memory in the recovery and rehabilitation of women CSA survivors; and to use the insights gained to draw conclusions from a nursing perspective about the authenticity of delayed CSA memories. Phenomenological concepts of reminding, reminiscing, recognition, body memory, place memory, and commemoration are discussed as they illuminate the complexity of traumatic memories and the recovery and rehabilitation needs of survivors of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:9161674
This article investigates young children's understanding of and relationships to their communities and the natural world. Inspired by the pedagogy of Reggio Emilia (Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998) and guided by the concept of documentation as a cycle of inquiry (Gandini & Goldhaber, 2001), a group of early childhood educators from across the…
This book follows master educator Elizabeth (Betty) Jones as she teaches an introductory course in early childhood education. She actively engages the students, encouraging them to make decisions, ask questions, and engage in collaborative problem solving--herself modeling the behaviors that should be practiced by adults working with young…
Friend, Anna C.; Summers, Jean Ann; Turnbull, Ann P.
The purpose of this paper is to review intervention research to determine the types of family support that are reported and evaluated in early childhood. This review includes 26 articles evaluating (a) parent training programs; (b) general family-centered practice models which offer comprehensive supports; (c) peer support; (d) two-generation…
Costello, Patrick J. M.
The central aim of this paper is to undertake a critical review of arguments which propose that chess should be taught in schools and other educational settings. In particular, I offer an answer to the question: "Should chess be taught in early childhood?" Many claims have been made about the educational benefits of chess instruction. In…
Asserts that 3- to 6-year-olds are capable of types of thinking previously thought possible only by older children and that they readily understand content organized into stories. Offers suggestions for providing a storytelling foundation in Montessori early childhood classrooms, including a "random words" challenge and use of abstract paintings…
Brinson, Sabrina A.
In today's ever changing multicultural society, it is imperative for early childhood educators to be adept at facilitating the learning and progress of all children. In the United States, children of color make up about 40% of the population, and across the world children of color make up approximately 70% of the population. A primary goal in…
Katz, Lilian G.
Notes the strong drive toward the professionalization of teaching and working in preschool settings. Applies features of a profession to the current state of the art of early childhood education. Discusses eight characteristics of a profession: social necessity; altruism; autonomy; a code of ethics; distance from clients; standards of practice;…
Gerde, Hope K.; Bingham, Gary E.; Wasik, Barbara A.
Writing is a critical emergent literacy skill that lays the foundation for children's later literacy skills and reading achievement. Recent work indicates that many early childhood programs offer children materials and tools for engaging in writing activities but teachers rarely are seen modeling writing for children or scaffolding children's…
Martin, Sylvia S.; Seevers, Randy L.
This article provides a guide for planning field trips for educational engagement of all children in early childhood education settings. Based on interviews, environmental assessments, and evaluations of activities, it includes field trip considerations and a field trip planning guide that includes the teacher, the parents, and the field site…
Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.
Executive functioning skills develop rapidly during early childhood. Recent research has focused on specifying this development, particularly predictors of executive functioning skills. Here we focus on sustained attention as a predictor of inhibitory control, one key executive functioning component. Although sustained attention and inhibitory…
In early childhood education, children's daily practice revolves to a great extent around order and discipline. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork from a Swedish preschool class, the present study further explores how the task of being a teacher's assistant can be critically understood in terms of how gender, discipline and order are…
Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina
Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…
Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy
This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…
The article discusses the inclusion of technology resources in early childhood music education. Successful technology inclusion in music for young children depends on the physical, mental, and social readiness of each individual child. Learning providers involved with young children should constantly review the child's capabilities and …
The computer has now become a recognized tool in the education of young children and when used appropriately can reinforce their learning experiences. This paper reviews specific features (relating to pedagogic design, software content and user-interface design) of early childhood educational software and discusses issues in favor of its…
Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.
In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…
Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…
Bond, Vanessa L.
In this review of literature, the author explored the representation of music in early childhood education researcher and practitioner journal articles. Thirty-eight pertinent journal articles were identified in a keyword search for "music" in eight journals. The search was limited to a 5-year period, 2005-2010. Article summaries were categorized…
Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly
Research Findings: Sibling teaching and learning behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of children in early and middle childhood. Study 1 addressed individual differences in teaching/learning and associations with dyadic age, age gap, gender, birth order, and relationship quality in 71 middle-class dyads (firstborns M age = 81.54 months;…
Griffith, Annette K.; Nelson, J. Ron; Epstein, Michael H.; Pederson, Bjorn
This study examined the convergent validity of the parent and teacher versions of the Early Childhood Behavior Problem Screening Scale (ECBPSS) with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), respectively. Data were collected on a sample of preschool and kindergarten students (n = 149) from two medium-sized…
Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.
This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…
Action research was used to study the effectiveness of Learning Organisation and Adaptive Enterprise theories for promoting organisation-wide learning and creating a more effective early childhood education organisation. This article describes the leadership steps taken to achieve shared vision via meaningful dialogue between board, management and…
Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…
The study reported here examined Greek parents' perceptions of barriers to men entering the early childhood education and care profession and their recommendations for recruiting more males into the field. Parents were asked to respond on a Likert scale to statements regarding males' decision to enter the profession, possible benefits for male…
Fleet, Alama; Kitson, Ros; Cassady, Bevan; Hughes, Ross
Demonstrating persistence and resilience, increasing numbers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander early childhood teachers are gaining university qualifications. This paper explores factors that support and constrain these students on the path to their degrees. Investigated through a cycle of interviews and focus groups, otherwise perceived as…
The systemic reform of early childhood education (ECE) in Shenzhen has given rise to widespread debate as it has, in fact, changed ECE's rights and power relationships. It has created an impact in terms of ECE's public nature and, in a way, affected the integrity of China's education system. Although this reform possesses positive significance,…
Western frameworks for school improvement, including the stakeholder model and the model of decentralized leadership, have recently been promoted as solutions for school improvement. Using early childhood education in Hong Kong as an illustrative case, this article focuses on the power and authority of leadership in school decision making. The…
Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina
This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…
This article explores early childhood professionalism in the Republic of Serbia. The concept of professionalism in this context is examined in light of current international debates about professionalism. More specifically, how the use of specific nomenclature, the existence of multi-professional teams of practitioners and state-regulated but…
This article discusses professionalism in early childhood education through the analytical tool of a research-based multi-level perspective that sees this as a cultural, communal, organisational, and individual phenomenon. Starting from an understanding of professionalism derived from a model of professional expertise, the article discusses the…
Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.
These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…
Cadiz, Sharon M.
Early childhood programs can use a number of mental health strategies as preventive measures in support of constructive coping, including circle time, which enhances children's sense of belonging; daily affirmations, which promote positive thinking; and action plans, which allow children to plan their day and have some control over their lives.…
Jalongo, Mary Renck
Three general purposes of research in human development are to explain, predict, and modify behavior. Studies of listening during early childhood (birth through age eight) are of particular significance to the field because they enable researchers to describe listening processes from their very origins (explain), they demonstrate the effects of…
Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.
A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a…
Buysse, Virginia; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Skinner, Martie L.
This study examined strategies teachers reported using to support friendships among young children in inclusive early childhood classrooms. The teachers included 25 general early childhood educators from 9 child care centers and 20 early childhood special educators from 9 specialized programs. The Playmates and Friends Questionnaire for Teachers…
Souto-Manning, Mariana; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa; Dice, Jaime; Wooten, Jennifer
While early childhood education programs seek to provide the tools to work with children and explore content, many fail to address the social and emotional contexts in which early childhood education occurs. This is evident in the seldom addressed topic of collaboration between lead teachers and assistant teachers in the early childhood classroom.…
Brotman, Laurie Miller; O'Neal, Colleen R.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Shrout, Patrick E.
Background: Parenting practices predict early childhood physical aggression. Preventive interventions that alter parenting practices and aggression during early childhood provide the opportunity to test causal models of early childhood psychopathology. Although there have been several informative preventive intervention studies that test mediation…
Purdue, Kerry; Gordon-Burns, Diane; Gunn, Alexandra; Madden, Barbara; Surtees, Nicola
Aotearoa New Zealand, like other countries, has legislation and policies that support inclusion and promote the participation of all children and families in early childhood education. We might expect therefore to see a culture of inclusion resonating through policy and practice in early childhood settings. There are early childhood teachers who…
Patterson, Jean A.
Using data from a qualitative case study of a statewide early childhood initiative, this article critically examines the budding relationship between one state's early childhood initiative and the corporate community. The analysis is situated within assumptions about the benefits of public--private partnerships and early childhood and childcare as…
Basturk, Ramazan; Isikoglu, Nesrin
Quality of early childhood education institutions specifically, dimensions of process quality should be evaluated. Purpose of this study is to analyze process quality of early childhood education by using many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM). In this study, data were collected from twelve early childhood education institutions by four…
Grace, Cathy; Shores, Elizabeth F.; Zaslow, Martha; Brown, Brett; Aufseeser, Dena; Bell, Lynn
This report shows the rural disparities in the baseline data of the Birth and Kindergarten Cohorts of the national Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives, known as Rural Early Childhood, commissioned Child Trends to perform the analysis of key indicators of child well-being and…
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Nnenna Clara Okoroafor
Full Text Available This research explored child sexual abuse (CSA, knowledge and prevention media among parents of pupils and teachers of nursery schools and playgroup. This research was conducted in qualitative mythology, through in-depth interviews (IDIs, and focus group discussions (FGD. In-depth interview held for 10 nursery school teachers and playgroup teachers. For children aged 0-5 years, FGD was conducted towards 10 parents of nursery School and 12 parents of playgroup. The study explored the following: parents’ and teachers’ knowledge on child sexual abuse prevention. The child sexual abuse prevention messages were provided to the children and topics they discussed and their attitudes towards child sexual abuse prevention education in school. The proposed primary prevention media strategies for parents were speech and posters as well as for nursery and playgroup teachers who understood the CSA impact. Research concluded that parents didn’t understand CSA concepts; media proposed for primary prevention are through dialogue and poster. Nursery, playgroup teachers and parents understood with poster media. Parents and teachers were encouraged to focus on the early prevention by building child sexual abuse knowledgeable community.
Kinzl, Johannes; Biebl, Wilfried
Psychosocial, psychosomatic, and psychodynamic factors were evaluated in 33 female psychiatric patients who had been victims of incest. Sexual abuse experiences in childhood were related to feelings of anxiety, helplessness, and powerlessness, which, with a lack of support from the mother, led to ego weakness, and an autoplastic model of coping…
McGuigan, William M.; Middlemiss, Wendy
This study investigates the cumulative impact of sexual abuse in childhood and adult interpersonal violence in the past year on depressive symptoms in a nonclinical sample of 265 primarily African American (74%) women. The frequency of depressive symptoms, measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), was highest for…
Palesh, Oxana Gronskaya; Classen, Catherine C.; Field, Nigel; Kraemer, Helena C.; Spiegel, David
This study examined the impact of telling one's story of childhood sexual abuse and its relationship with the survivor's self-capacities and history of other child maltreatment. The baseline data were collected from 134 female CSA survivors who were participating in a large intervention study. Participants were given 10 minutes to describe their…
Bowman, Katherine Gail; Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Becker, Heather
The purpose of this study is to compare Mexican American adolescent mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories to examine the influence of CSA on dissociation, selection of infant feeding method, and intimate parenting anxiety. Participants are 78 English-speaking adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age and recruited from…
Arend, Lauren E.
Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…
Sigurdardottir, Sigrun; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur; Bender, Sóley S
Previous studies indicate that childhood sexual abuse can have extensive and serious consequences. The aim of this research was to do a qualitative study of the consequences of childhood sexual abuse for Icelandic men's health and well-being. Phenomenology was the methodological approach of the study. Totally 14 interviews were conducted, two per individual, and analysed based on the Vancouver School of Phenomenology. The main results of the study showed that the men describe deep and almost unbearable suffering, affecting their entire life, of which there is no alleviation in sight. The men have lived in repressed silence most of their lives and have come close to taking their own lives. What stopped them from committing suicide was revealing to others what happened to them which set them free in a way. The men experienced fear- or rage-based shock at the time of the trauma and most of them endured the attack by dissociation, disconnecting psyche and body and have difficulties reconnecting. They had extremely difficult childhoods, living with indisposition, bullying, learning difficulties and behavioural problems. Some have, from a young age, numbed themselves with alcohol and elicit drugs. They have suffered psychologically and physically and have had relational and sexual intimacy problems. The consequences of the abuse surfaced either immediately after the shock or many years later and developed into complex post-traumatic stress disorder. Because of perceived societal prejudice, it was hard for the men to seek help. This shows the great need for professionals to be alert to the possible consequences of childhood sexual abuse in their practice to reverse the damaging consequences on their health and well-being. We conclude that living in repressed silence after a trauma, like childhood sexual abuse, can be dangerous for the health, well-being and indeed the very life of the survivor. PMID:22462731
Dalsgaard, SØren; Mortensen, Preben Bo
The purpose of the study was to estimate the risk of substance use disorder (SUD) and alcohol abuse in adulthood among children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to the background population. Furthermore, to examine whether the age at initiation and duration of stimulant treatment in childhood predicts SUD and alcohol abuse in adulthood. 208 youths with ADHD (183 boys; 25 girls) were followed prospectively. Diagnoses of SUD and alcohol abuse were obtained from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The relative risk (RR) of SUD and alcohol abuse for cases with ADHD, compared to the background population was 7.7 (4.3-13.9) and 5.2 (2.9-9.4), respectively. Female gender, conduct disorder in childhood and older age at initiation of stimulant treatment increased the risk of later SUD and alcohol abuse. Our results warrant increased focus on the possibly increased risk of substance abuse in females with ADHD compared to males with ADHD.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Fomby, Paula
Research has established the importance of early socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage for understanding later life outcomes, but less is known about change in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and child development within the period of early childhood. Competing hypotheses drawn from the literature posited: (1) a stable SES-development relationship, (2) a stronger relationship in infancy than at older ages, and (3) a stronger relationship at school entry than at younger ages. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007), we followed 8600 children from infancy through kindergarten entry to model change over time in the relationship between socioeconomic status and cognitive and behavioral development. The unexpected main finding was that the relationships between three socioeconomic measures (household income, assets, and maternal educational attainment) strengthened from infancy through age 4 or 4½, then weakened slightly until the start of kindergarten. Indirect evidence suggested preschool education as one possible explanation. We argue for researchers to expand the school transition concept to include the now widespread prekindergarten year, as well as for attention to psychological and physiological developmental factors that may shape the relationship between SES and cognitive and behavioral development throughout early childhood. PMID:25431546
In 2007, "Environmental Education Research" dedicated a special issue to childhood and environmental education. This paper makes a case for "early childhood" to also be in the discussions. Here, I am referring to early childhood as the before-school years, focusing on educational settings such as childcare centres and kindergartens. This sector is…
Jalongo, Mary Renck; Fennimore, Beatrice S.; Pattnaik, Jyotsna; Laverick, DeAnna M.; Brewster, Jeffrey; Mutuku, Moses
What are the attributes of a high-quality early childhood education program worldwide? A group of experienced early childhood educators that represent diverse international backgrounds attempts to respond to this question by examining six dimensions of quality set forth by the Association for Childhood Education International: (1) philosophies and…
Bachar, Eytan; Canetti, Laura; Hadar, Hilit; Baruch, Julia; Dor, Yehuda; Freedman, Sara
The aim of the present study is to determine whether narcissistic vulnerability can aid in clarifying the debate regarding the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adulthood adjustment to traumatic events. 157 survivors (mean age = 31.1, SD = 10.9) of a traumatic event (war activities and road and work accidents) were assessed 1 week, 1, and 4 months following the event. Of the 157 participants, 15 reported experiencing CSA, and 26 reported experiencing childhood physical abuse (CPA). In the first-week assessment, patients were administered the Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale (NVS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In the follow-up assessments, subjects were interviewed on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Narcissistic vulnerability was found, both in 1- and 4-month follow-ups, to increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CSA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their adult life, when exposed to other additional trauma. Narcissistic vulnerability, in both follow-ups, did not increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CPA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their life when exposed to other additional trauma. The NVS predicted the development of PTSD symptoms in the whole sample, both in the 1- and 4-month follow-ups, above and beyond the prediction of the BDI. In other words, narcissistic vulnerability can add additional information above and beyond general negative emotionality. In conclusion, it is recommended to take into consideration the interplay between CSA and the individual's narcissistic vulnerability when assessing the long term effects of CSA such as acute or chronic PTSD. PMID:25410429
Graphic organizers such as webs, time lines, Venn diagrams, flowcharts, and concept maps are well known and widely used instructional and learning tools. They help teachers and students not only to identify and visually represent their views and knowledge but also to recognize and depict relationships among concepts. This article discusses the use of concept maps in early childhood education. In light of a theory that suggests that information is processed and stored in memory in both linguis...
Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.
Bremner, J D; Vythilingam, M; Vermetten, E; Adil, J; Khan, S; Nazeer, A; Afzal, N; McGlashan, T; Elzinga, B; Anderson, G M; Heninger, G; Southwick, S M; Charney, D S
Preclinical studies show that animals with a history of chronic stress exposure have increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity following reexposure to stress. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to have normal or decreased function of the HPA axis, however no studies have looked at the HPA response to stress in PTSD. The purpose of this study was to assess cortisol responsivity to a stressful cognitive challenge in patients with PTSD related to childhood abuse. Salivary cortisol levels, as well as heart rate and blood pressure, were measured before and after a stressful cognitive challenge in patients with abuse-related PTSD (N=23) and healthy comparison subjects (N=18). PTSD patients had 61% higher group mean cortisol levels in the time period leading up to the cognitive challenge, and 46% higher cortisol levels during the time period of the cognitive challenge, compared to controls. Both PTSD patients and controls had a similar 66-68% increase in cortisol levels from their own baseline with the cognitive challenge. Following the cognitive challenge, cortisol levels fell in both groups and were similar in PTSD and control groups. PTSD patients appeared to have an increased cortisol response in anticipation of a cognitive challenge relative to controls. Although cortisol has been found to be low at baseline, there does not appear to be an impairment in cortisol response to stressors in PTSD. PMID:12812861
Fitzpatrick Caroline; Pagani Linda S; Barnett Tracie A
Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the s...
Full Text Available Support for early care and education among policy makers and the public is at an unprecedented high. As investments in early care and education programs in the United States continue to rise, the issue of quality becomes increasingly critical. This article addresses the need for adequate infrastructure to support high-quality early care and education—a need that was brought to the forefront by James Gallagher and Richard Clifford in their 2000 article in Early Childhood Research & Practice (http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v2n1/gallagher.html. The present article provides an update and emphasizes the critical roles of infrastructure in establishing and enforcing standards, supporting quality, and ensuring quality and accountability. Progress in developing the mechanisms and systems to support and ensure quality in several states is assessed, and the perils of expanding early childhood programs in the absence of such systems are examined. Also discussed are strategies for building capacity and strengthening the various functions of infrastructure in order to successfully support the expansion of universal prekindergarten and other early care and education initiatives. The article emphasizes the importance of being able to demonstrate that these initiatives truly benefit the children who participate in them.
Godleski, Stephanie A; Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M; Hart, Emily J; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J
The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bidirectional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3 to 5 years old) were investigated in an integrated model. The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the United States. Using observations, research assistant report, and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659
Appel, Katja; Schwahn, Christian; Mahler, Jessie; Schulz, Andrea; Spitzer, Carsten; Fenske, Kristin; Stender, Jan; Barnow, Sven; John, Ulrich; Teumer, Alexander; Biffar, Reiner; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Freyberger, Harald J; Grabe, Hans J
Childhood maltreatment and depressive disorders have both been associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The FKBP5 gene codes for a co-chaperone regulating the glucocorticoid-receptor sensitivity. Previous evidence suggests that subjects carrying the TT genotype of the FKBP5 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 have an increased susceptibility to adverse effects of experimental stress. We therefore tested the hypothesis of an interaction of childhood abuse with rs1360780 in predicting adult depression. In all, 2157 Caucasian subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania (German general population) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) was assessed by interview. Genotypes of rs1360780 were taken from the Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0. Significant interaction (p=0.006) of physical abuse with the TT genotype of rs1360780 was found increasing the BDI-II score to 17.4 (95% confidence interval (CI)=12.0-22.9) compared with 10.0 (8.2-11.7) in exposed CC/CT carriers. Likewise, the adjusted odds ratio for MDD in exposed TT carriers was 8.2 (95% CI=1.9-35.0) compared with 1.3 (0.8-2.3) in exposed subjects with CC/CT genotypes. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) analyses confirmed a significant additive interaction effect (RERI=6.8; 95% CI=0.64-33.7; p<0.05). In explorative analyses, the most severe degree of sexual and emotional abuse also yielded significant interaction effects (p<0.05). This study revealed interactions between physical abuse and rs1360780 of the FKBP5 gene, confirming its role in the individual susceptibility to depression. Given the large effect sizes, rs1360780 could be included into prediction models for depression in individuals exposed to childhood abuse. PMID:21654733
Appel, Katja; Schwahn, Christian; Mahler, Jessie; Schulz, Andrea; Spitzer, Carsten; Fenske, Kristin; Stender, Jan; Barnow, Sven; John, Ulrich; Teumer, Alexander; Biffar, Reiner; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Freyberger, Harald J; Grabe, Hans J
Childhood maltreatment and depressive disorders have both been associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. The FKBP5 gene codes for a co-chaperone regulating the glucocorticoid-receptor sensitivity. Previous evidence suggests that subjects carrying the TT genotype of the FKBP5 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 have an increased susceptibility to adverse effects of experimental stress. We therefore tested the hypothesis of an interaction of childhood abuse with rs1360780 in predicting adult depression. In all, 2157 Caucasian subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania (German general population) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) was assessed by interview. Genotypes of rs1360780 were taken from the Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0. Significant interaction (p=0.006) of physical abuse with the TT genotype of rs1360780 was found increasing the BDI-II score to 17.4 (95% confidence interval (CI)=12.0–22.9) compared with 10.0 (8.2–11.7) in exposed CC/CT carriers. Likewise, the adjusted odds ratio for MDD in exposed TT carriers was 8.2 (95% CI=1.9–35.0) compared with 1.3 (0.8–2.3) in exposed subjects with CC/CT genotypes. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) analyses confirmed a significant additive interaction effect (RERI=6.8; 95% CI=0.64–33.7; p<0.05). In explorative analyses, the most severe degree of sexual and emotional abuse also yielded significant interaction effects (p<0.05). This study revealed interactions between physical abuse and rs1360780 of the FKBP5 gene, confirming its role in the individual susceptibility to depression. Given the large effect sizes, rs1360780 could be included into prediction models for depression in individuals exposed to childhood abuse. PMID:21654733
Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Cyr, Mireille; Pauzé, Robert; McDuff, Pierre
Research has yielded contradictory results on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and later parental functioning. This study was undertaken to specify the link between childhood sexual abuse and maternal parenting, while taking into account mothers' childhood physical and emotional traumas and current depressive and dissociative symptoms. Data were collected through self-report measures completed by 93 French-speaking Canadian mothers of children aged 6 to 11 years referred to Youth Protection Services. Parental behaviors examined included involvement with the child, use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Mothers' perception of the quality of the relationship with her child was also assessed. In addition, history of abuse and neglect, depression and dissociation were respectively measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Simplified, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The short-form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale was used to control for respondent bias aimed at minimizing their problems. Mothers' current depressive symptoms were not found to predict any of the parental dimensions measured. Results from multiple hierarchical regressions pointed to dissociative symptoms as the key predictor of parental practices and attitudes. More specifically, dissociative symptoms predicted the use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Dissociation also mediated the association between childhood maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse and neglect) and inconsistency in applying discipline. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:16150686
... CFS) Share Compartir Early Life Stress and Adult CFS It is a well-established fact that experiences ... reported in studies of survivors of childhood abuse. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness that can sometimes ...
Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.
In 2008, the Minnesota Early Learning Foundation created the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program, a pilot program to provide families with scholarships to cover the cost of high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs. Although there is a large body of research about the benefits of preschool specifically and early learning…
Chang, Florence; Early, Diane M.; Winton, Pamela J.
The movement toward inclusion has made educating and caring for children with disabilities an increasingly critical part of the early education teacher?s role. The goal of this paper is to describe the extent to which early childhood teacher preparation programs are including early childhood special education/early intervention content and…
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e LILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005, aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual.OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, using abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005, in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.
Luci, Pfeiffer; Edila Pizzato, Salvagni.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e L [...] ILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005), aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, u [...] sing abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005), in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.
Harner, Holly M
Although the mechanism by which early victimization, specifically sexual abuse, increases the risk of adolescent pregnancy is unclear, a relationship between previous victimization and adolescent pregnancy has been demonstrated. While partnering with an older man may initially offer the means necessary to escape a neglectful or violent family of origin, this protection be accompanied by an imbalance of power and control. Both adolescent mothers partnered with adult men and adolescent mothers partnered with male peers reported sexual abuse perpetrated by family members, family friends, strangers, and peers. Policies developed to protect young people from victimization, including mandatory reporting and statutory rape laws, should be evaluated for their consistent application to all children, regardless of age, race, gender, or pregnancy status. PMID:16149725
Boyce, W Thomas
A rapidly expanding body of research indicates that early social environments characterized by adversity, subordination and stress, along with individual differences in susceptibility to such environments, create risks for lifelong chronic diseases, including declines in oral health. Emerging findings suggest that gene-environment interplay, resulting in epigenetically regulated differences in gene expression, underlie many such declines in health. The origins of these processes in early life reveal how many of the chronic morbidities of adulthood should be viewed as developmental disorders, with etiologic roots in childhood. PMID:24717746
Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S
Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n?=?97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n?=?53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors. PMID:23064898
Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.
This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self- regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task, measures of peer rejection were collected during middle childhood at the summer camp, and reports of antisocial behavior were obtained during earl...
Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.
This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self-regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task,…
Full Text Available To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10, carbon monoxide (CO, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester ? = ?0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester ? = ?0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age ? = ?0.091, se = 0.034. Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC levels during the second and third trimesters (? = ?8.742, se = 3.512. Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age.
Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Shih-Kuan; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Ho, Wen-Chao; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chen, Pau-Chung
To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester ? = -0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester ? = -0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age ? = -0.091, se = 0.034). Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC) levels during the second and third trimesters (? = -8.742, se = 3.512). Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age. PMID:24992486
Williams, John K.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Rivkin, Inna; Ramamurthi, Hema Codathi; Li, Xiaomin; Liu, Honghu
While the HIV epidemic has disproportionately affected African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), few HIV prevention interventions have focused on African American and Latino men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW). Even fewer interventions target HIV-positive African American and Latino MSM and MSMW with histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), a population that may be vulnerable to high-risk sexual behaviors, having multiple sexual partners, and depression. The M...
Fouche, A.; Joubert, J. M. C.
Conducting forensic interviews are challenging and the impact of a poorly conducted interview has a detrimental impact on all persons concerned. This study aimed at developing, implementing and evaluating a seven-phase forensic interview protocol for social workers and allied professionals. Twenty girls in the middle childhood, allegedly been sexually abused, were purposively selected in an experimental and comparison group in order to determine if the proposed seven-phase forensic interview ...
Eimear Coyle; Thanos Karatzias; Andy Summers; Mick Power
Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. Objective: ...
Crane, C.; Duggan, Ds
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between age of onset of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and overgeneral memory (OGM) in a clinical sample. METHOD: Presence and age of onset of CSA and levels of OGM were assessed in 49 patients attending hospital following a recurrence of suicidal behaviour. RESULTS: Twenty six participants reported CSA. Earlier age of onset of CSA was associated with greater OGM, indexed by fewer specific and more categoric memories. The association was not accounted for e...
Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N?=?2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735
The situation of early childhood intervention in Austria is described from its beginning in the 1970s up to the present situation and future challenges. Children with disability or at risk of being disabled qualify for early childhood intervention as well as partly and to some extent also children in the context of socially disadvantaged families. Based on nine provincial laws, the structure of early childhood intervention in Austria is heterogeneous. A consensus regarding key terms, the age ...
Horsley, Mike W.; Bauer, Kathy Anne
This paper outlines the increasing cultural diversity of Australia's education settings and explicates the global education movement and the new Australian Early Years Learning Framework. It discusses the implication of these factors for early childhood education practice and early childhood teacher education. The key research question considered…
Merletti, Franco; Maule, Milena Maria
The population-based Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont (CCRP) has collected data on incidence since 1967. The occurrence of early death (i.e. within 30 days of diagnosis) was investigated in 3006 cases of childhood cancer diagnosed during the period 1967-1998. The proportion of early deaths (178 of the 3006 cases) was analysed by period of diagnosis (three decennial periods), age group, major diagnostic group and hospital category, with univariate statistics and logistic regression. The p...
ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.
This third chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" contains four articles on peer pressure and drug abuse in early adolescence. "Initiation of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the Midel School Years," by Robert Hubbard, Rebecca Brownlee, and Ron Anderson, presents a study designed to provide a prospective assessment of the nature and…
Fei, Chunyuan; McLaughlin, Joseph K
To examine whether prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is associated with the occurrence of hospitalization for infectious diseases during early childhood.
Tan Kendrick, A.P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Ling, Ho [Department of Paediatric Medicine, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Subramaniam, Ramnath; Joseph, Vijeyakaran T. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore)
Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)
Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In cofected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)
Hanna Onyi Yusuf
Full Text Available Early childhood is as charming as ever. It is an age of imagination and fantasy. Therefore, it is natural that education at this stage should develop the child’s imagination through literacy materials such as folk-tales, rhymes and songs etc. This paper is therefore intended to enthuse to the psychological view that children’s success in life depends on the preparation they receive when younger. The paper upholds the view that a good preparation of children for life entails giving them the ability to read and write. The importance of literacy is measurable. Literacy is instrumental to the attainment of success of individuals in both career aspirations and quality of life. It is fundamental for learning in school. It impacts on individuals the ability to participate in society and understand important public issues. It also provides foundation upon which skills in the labour industry are built, etc. The paper concludes that literacy, which should start from infancy, could be better taught using the phonics methodology. This is because, in early childhood, education should involve more of playing, singing, clapping, etc, and that is the focal objectives of phonics method. This should be so to support the idea that literacy should not be boring but enjoyable especially as early as infancy, because it is a panacea for achieving life’s goals.
Jackson, Margot I
For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects. PMID:25555255
This article explores, through a review of a body of literature, whether it is possible to create a new understanding of what it means to be a professional in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in England. It reviews some competing views of the nature of professionalism and then explores the distinctive attributes and qualities required by…
Md. Mortuza Ahmmed
Full Text Available In this article , an attempt has been taken to focus light on the status of women in Bangladesh and also see its effect on early childhood mortality controlling the effect of other associated determinants. This paper examines the proposition that constraints on women’s status adversely affect the survival of their children. BDHS 2007 data have been used to construct indices of women’s household autonomy and authority , which are then linked to longitudinal data on survival of their neonates.
Hanna Onyi Yusuf; Agnes Ovayioza Enesi
Early childhood is as charming as ever. It is an age of imagination and fantasy. Therefore, it is natural that education at this stage should develop the child’s imagination through literacy materials such as folk-tales, rhymes and songs etc. This paper is therefore intended to enthuse to the psychological view that children’s success in life depends on the preparation they receive when younger. The paper upholds the view that a good preparation of children for life entails giving...
Sidsel H. Karsberg
Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ?25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ?30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.
This paper examines whether morbidity in early and later childhood is associated with health later in life. I investigate the relationship between five types of childhood morbidity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among Guatemalan adults who experienced high levels of morbidity in childhood. The analysis is based on the Human Capital Study (2002–2004), a recent follow-up of the INCAP Longitudinal Study conducted between 1969 and 1977. I find that most types of childhood morbidity...
It can be argued that globalisation brings change for children and their families in the guise of increased poverty and inequality; for example, for the world's poorest populations and communities. Students undertaking Early Childhood Studies degrees in the United Kingdom are likely to encounter modules with a focus on childhood in a variety of…
Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin
This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for a sample…
Green, Robin John; Samy, Gamal; Miqdady, Mohamad Saleh; Salah, Mohamed; Sleiman, Rola; Abdelrahman, Hatim Mohamed Ahmed; Al Haddad, Fatima; Reda, Mona M; Lewis, Humphrey; Ekanem, Emmanuel E; Vandenplas, Yvan
Eating behaviour disorder during early childhood is a common pediatric problem. Many terminologies have been used interchangeably to describe this condition, hindering implementation of therapy and confusing a common problem. The definition suggests an eating behaviour which has consequences for family harmony and growth. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not cover the entire spectrum seen by pediatricians. Publications are substantive but level of evidence is most of the time low. This purpose of this review is to clarify terminology of eating behaviour problems during early childhood; including benign picky eating, limited diets, sensory food aversion, selective eating, food avoidance emotional disorder, pervasive refusal syndrome, tactile defensiveness, functional dysphagia, neophobia and toddler anorexia. This tool is proposed only to ease the clinical management for child care providers. Diagnostic criteria are set and management tools are suggested. The role of dietary counselling and, where necessary, behavioural therapy is clarified. It is hoped that the condition will make its way into mainstream pediatrics to allow these children, and their families, to receive the help they deserve. PMID:25866727
Susan L. Recchia
Full Text Available This study explored the ways in which early childhood special education teachers supported children's social behavior within the context of their preschool classrooms. Data collected for six children through naturalistic classroom observations were coded and analyzed for emergent themes within a qualitative framework. Findings revealed a variety of strategies and behaviors used by early childhood special education teachers and their assistants to respond socially to the children in their classrooms. The data were grouped into five overarching themes: (1 teachers' adaptations to support positive social experiences, (2 positive emotional connections between teachers and students, (3 negative interactions between teachers and students, (4 teachers' promotion of positive social engagement with peers, and (5 teachers' help with conflict resolution. These data present multiple lenses through which to view children's and teachers' social experiences in the classroom, providing the potential for a richer understanding of both what is observed as well as how it actually transpires. The complexity of individual differences and classroom dynamics are discussed, with recommendations for practice and future research.
Samy, Gamal; Miqdady, Mohamad Saleh; Salah, Mohamed; Sleiman, Rola; Abdelrahman, Hatim Mohamed Ahmed; Al Haddad, Fatima; Reda, Mona M.; Lewis, Humphrey; Ekanem, Emmanuel E.; Vandenplas, Yvan
Eating behaviour disorder during early childhood is a common pediatric problem. Many terminologies have been used interchangeably to describe this condition, hindering implementation of therapy and confusing a common problem. The definition suggests an eating behaviour which has consequences for family harmony and growth. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not cover the entire spectrum seen by pediatricians. Publications are substantive but level of evidence is most of the time low. This purpose of this review is to clarify terminology of eating behaviour problems during early childhood; including benign picky eating, limited diets, sensory food aversion, selective eating, food avoidance emotional disorder, pervasive refusal syndrome, tactile defensiveness, functional dysphagia, neophobia and toddler anorexia. This tool is proposed only to ease the clinical management for child care providers. Diagnostic criteria are set and management tools are suggested. The role of dietary counselling and, where necessary, behavioural therapy is clarified. It is hoped that the condition will make its way into mainstream pediatrics to allow these children, and their families, to receive the help they deserve.
Nichols, Sara R; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David B; Wakschlag, Lauren S
Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal: abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (3-5 years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N?=?1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50 % of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed. PMID:25425187
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Miller-johnson, Shari; Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
In this prospective longitudinal study of 574 children followed from age 5 to age 21, the authors examine the links between early physical abuse and violent delinquency and other socially relevant outcomes during late adolescence or early adulthood and the extent to which the child's race and gender moderate these links. Analyses of covariance indicated that individuals who had been physically abused in the first 5 years of life were at greater risk for being arrested as juveniles for violent...
Reifen Tagar, Michal; Federico, Christopher M; Lyons, Kristen E; Ludeke, Steven; Koenig, Melissa A
In the research reported here, we examined whether individual differences in authoritarianism have expressions in early childhood. We expected that young children would be more responsive to cues of deviance and status to the extent that their parents endorsed authoritarian values. Using a sample of 43 preschoolers and their parents, we found support for both expectations. Children of parents high in authoritarianism trusted adults who adhered to convention (vs. adults who did not) more than did children of parents low in authoritarianism. Furthermore, compared with children of parents low in authoritarianism, children of parents high in authoritarianism gave greater weight to a status-based "adult = reliable" heuristic in trusting an ambiguously conventional adult. Findings were consistent using two different measures of parents' authoritarian values. These findings demonstrate that children's trust-related behaviors vary reliably with their parents' orientations toward authority and convention, and suggest that individual differences in authoritarianism express themselves well before early adulthood. PMID:24503871
Friedman, Sarah L; Scholnick, Ellin K; Bender, Randall H; Vandergrift, Nathan; Spieker, Susan; Hirsh Pasek, Kathy; Keating, Daniel P; Park, Yoonjung
Data from 1,364 children and families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed to track the early correlates and later academic outcomes of planning during middle childhood. Maternal education, through its effect on parenting quality when children were 54 months old, predicts their concurrent performance on sustained attention, inhibition, and short-term verbal memory tests. This performance predicts planning in first grade, which predicts third-grade reading and mathematics attainment, but not the rate of growth in academic skills from first to fifth grades. This path was also found when the same parenting, cognitive, and academic constructs were measured at later time points. PMID:24476334
Anita, Padmanabhanunni; David, Edwards.
Full Text Available This is a systematic case study of the assessment and treatment of Anna (43), a woman presenting with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a drug-facilitated sexual assault that occurred over twenty years earlier. She was also diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder. Treatment with co [...] gnitive therapy for PTSD and social phobia was supplemented by imagery rescripting (IR) of memories of childhood trauma within a schema therapy approach. The study documents how her intrusive memories of the rape were potentiated by early maladaptive schemas that developed in response to abusive and neglectful parenting. Within a broader narrative, three examples of IR are described which show how, as an emotion-focused intervention, this approach discloses deeper memories and emotional states that are distressing and traumatic and allows them to be transformed through a healing process that is organic and displays what Bohart and Tallman (2010) call "self-organizing wisdom."
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.
Spencer, Nick; Thanh, Tu Mai; Louise, Séguin
To systematically review the literature on the relationship between early childhood low income/socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health in later childhood/adolescence, to identify gaps in the literature and to suggest new avenues for research. A systematic search of electronic databases from their start date to November 2011 was conducted to identify prospective longitudinal studies in industrialized countries with a measure of low income/SES in the first 5 years of life and physical health outcomes in later childhood or adolescence. STROBE criteria were used to assess study quality. Risk estimates were expressed as odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals where possible. Heterogeneity of studies precluded meta-analysis. Nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Significant associations of early childhood low income/SES with activity-limiting illness, parent-reported poor health status, acute and recurrent infections, increasing BMI percentile and hospitalization were reported. Results for parent-reported asthma were less consistent: there was a significant association with low income/SES in early childhood in 2 studies but null findings in 3 others. This systematic review of the association of early childhood low income/SES with physical health status in later childhood and adolescence shows that, in contrast to the extensive literature on the impact of poor childhood social circumstances on adult health, the evidence base is limited. The literature points to some associations of early low income/SES with later poor health status, but many key research questions remain unanswered. Implications for further research are considered. PMID:22466716
Used a case study of boys' and girls' block play in Australian early childhood centers to critically appraise current approaches to gender equity in the early childhood curriculum. Investigated how patriarchal gender relations were created and maintained, how teachers responded to these relationships (feminisation, separatism, fusion, or…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.
Naomi Karp is the Director of the National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education (ECI) in the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) in the U.S. Department of Education. This interview concerns funding for early childhood education research through OERI's Field-Initiated Studies (FIS) Grant Program. Questions…
Hitz, Randy; Driscoll, Amy
Gives teachers insights into how to make their praise statements effective and consistent with early childhood education goals. Discusses reasons why common praise expressions may be at odds with intended early childhood environments. Examines motivation for using praise. Describes effective praise or encouragement and derives guidelines. (BB)
Council of Chief State School Officers, 2012
In 2009, the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) adopted a new policy statement on early childhood education. Based on the work of a task force of 13 chiefs, "A Quiet Crisis: The Urgent Need to Build Early Childhood Systems and Quality Programs for Children Birth to Age Five" presents a compelling argument for why public education…
Presents an overview of the history of early childhood education (ECE) in Korea from 1897 to the present. Discusses types of early childhood institutions, the rate of attendance in kindergartens and nursery schools, the organization and content of ECE, teacher education, and prospects for the future of ECE in Korea. (BC)
Fenech, M.; Robertson, G.; Sumsion, J.; Goodfellow, J.
The regulatory environment in which long daycare centres are required to operate plays a key role in determining what early childhood professionals do and how they go about doing it. This paper reports findings from a state-wide survey undertaken in New South Wales, Australia, which shows how early childhood professionals position themselves on…
Doyle, Orla; Logue, Caitriona; McNamara, Kelly A.
This study examined the factors associated with childcare staff members' readiness to implement quality standards in early childhood settings in Ireland. To coincide with a new government policy that provides every three-year-old child with access to a free preschool year, a framework designed to improve the quality of early childhood care and…
Gerde, Hope K.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Wasik, Barbara A.
Researchers and practitioners have become increasingly interested in how early childhood programs prepare young children for science. Due to a number of factors, including educators' low self-efficacy for teaching science and lack of educational resources, many early childhood classrooms do not offer high-quality science experiences for young…
Discusses "Te Whariki," the New Zealand Draft Curriculum Guidelines for Early Childhood Education, in relation to historical and cultural contexts. Addresses aspirations of the Maori people for their language and culture to be protected and sustained. Asserts a bicultural imperative for early childhood education curriculum. (BGC)
Adair, Jennifer Keys
The immigrant teacher perspective has been largely missing from local and national debates on early childhood pedagogy and has certainly been marginalized in debates about language in early childhood settings. Interviews with dozens of preschool teachers in multiple U.S. cities about children of immigrants' language choices at school (as part of…
Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia
This paper examines contemporary issues in early childhood teacher education in Sweden. The aim of the study was to explore dimensions of the construct of preschool teachers' competence as reported by 810 students enrolled in early childhood teacher education at 15 Swedish universities. The results showed that students' definitions of…
Willis, Elizabeth; Dinehart, Laura H.
This article examines the development of self-regulation skills in early childhood and the possibilities of children's contemplative practices as a viable tool to facilitate this development. Current research indicates that self-regulation skills in early childhood education make a significant contribution to school readiness, and long-term…
Erdiller, Z. B.; Dogan, Ö.
The purpose of this study is to examine the level of teacher stress experienced by Turkish early childhood education teachers working in public and private preschools serving children from three to six years of age. The participants of the study include 1119 early childhood education teachers gathered through simple random sampling. The data are…
Bers, Marina Umaschi; Seddighin, Safoura; Sullivan, Amanda
Prior work has shown that early childhood educators demonstrate a lack of knowledge and understanding about technology and engineering, and about developmentally appropriate pedagogical approaches to bring those disciplines into the classrooms. This paper reports a study in which 32 early childhood educators participated in an intensive three-day…
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006
A case study of Nebraska early childhood legislation, passed unanimously in 2005, shows the role of science in effective policymaking. By combining citizen advocacy, skillful work by legislators, and testimony by local experts as well as national scientists, Nebraska succeeded in producing bipartisan consensus on the importance of early childhood…
Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas
This manuscript focuses on neuroscience research that may have applicability for early childhood educators. Beginning with cautions about the usefulness of neurosciences, we offer reviews of several ideas that can inform the practice of early childhood educators. We begin with the understanding that reading is not innate, meaning that every brain…
Madrid, Samara; Dunn-Kenney, Maylan
This research examines the emotional themes and discourse of emotion of early childhood educators using a post-structuralist theoretical framework of emotion. The data selected and analyzed is taken from 4 two-hour discussion groups that were conducted over an eight-week period with four female early childhood educators. The emotional themes and…
The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment among early childhood educators. Organizational commitment and its established precursor, job satisfaction, have gained relevance because turnover within early childhood education has fluctuated between 25% and 40% for…
Considerable interest has emerged in policy frameworks to sustain and encourage democratic participation and responsive pedagogy in early childhood education. Using findings from an evaluation of New Zealand's strategic plan for early childhood education, this article highlights ways in which policy initiatives interacted to support such…
Fleer, Marilyn; Robbins, Jill
In many European heritage early childhood education communities cultural-historical theory has become increasingly influential for informing practice. Yet one of the major challenges facing the field has been the slow mobilisation of new theory into practice. This paper reports on a study of 40 early childhood pre-service students as they moved…
Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth
The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…
The technological knowledge the children bring with them into early childhood settings is not well documented or understood. This article discusses the technological knowledge and understanding of the nature of technology present within children's collaborative play in two New Zealand early childhood settings. The children incorporated a wide…
Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram
The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…
Flores, Belinda Bustos; Riojas-Cortez, Mari
With the increase of Latino preschoolers, it is pressing that early childhood teachers are prepared to create a high quality environment in which all children can succeed. Using the frameworks of cultural responsiveness and classroom management, we developed the Early Childhood Ecology Scale (ECES) as an observational and reflective tool to…
Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari
Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…
Rentzou, Konstantina; Sakellariou, Maria
Though quality in early childhood education and care has attracted last decades enormous research interest there is still not a unanimous agreement about its definition. Yet, almost all definitions attempted include interaction, group size, adult:child ratio and early childhood educators' level of education, as important indices of quality.…
Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Brookfield, Jeffri
Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered…
Hutinger, Patricia; Robinson, Linda; Schneider, Carol
The Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System (EC-TIIS), a Steppingstones of Technology Innovation Phase 1--Development project, was developed by the Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood (the Center) at Western Illinois University as an online instructional system. EC-TIIS' ultimate goal was to improve technology services…
Adair, Jennifer Keys
Initiated as part of the Council on Anthropology and Education's Policy Engagement Working Group, the policy brief "Ethnographic Knowledge For Early Childhood" focused on making the case for ethnography as evidence within early childhood federal policy. This article describes the creation and distribution of the policy brief as well as the…
Zepeda, Marlene; Varela, Frances; Morales, Alex
In 2003, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) released a "Strategic Plan for Early Childhood Health." In recognition of the critical role states play in the development of early childhood initiatives and of the unique contributions that state Title V programs can make to these initiatives, the Bureau operationalized their strategic plan…
Early, Diane M.; Winton, Pamela J.
Details investigation of characteristics of early childhood teacher preparation programs at 2- and 4-year institutions through a survey of program chairs or directors. Presents findings on faculty characteristics, including racial makeup; course and practica requirements; comparisons between early childhood programs and the institutions as whole…
Althouse, Rosemary; Johnson, Margaret H.; Mitchell, Sharon T.
Based on the view that young children will benefit from having art experiences as an integrated part of the curriculum and based on a 3-year study conducted with 5 early childhood teachers, this book presents information on the theory, research, and practice of art in early childhood education. Chapter 1 begins with a description of the…
This paper explores the issue of early childhood professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective. In particular the article is concerned with how pre-school teachers conceptualise their professionalism by making sense of the work they carry out on an everyday basis in early childhood institutions. In analysing teachers' perceptions special…
Mckinlay, A.; Dalrymple-alford, J.; Horwood, L.; Fergusson, D.
Objectives: The question of whether any adverse cognitive or psychosocial outcomes occur after mild head injury in early childhood has evoked considerable controversy. This study examined mild head injury before age 10 and potential differences in late childhood/early adolescence as a function of severity of mild injury and age at injury.
Isenberg, Joan Packer, Ed.; Jalongo, Mary Renck, Ed.
Noting that understanding the contexts, continuities, and controversies of early childhood education is especially challenging because of the diversity in the field, this book provides a critical examination of the issues and controversies surrounding early childhood practices, policies, and professional development. Following an introduction…
Gargiulo, Richard; Jalongo, Mary Renck; Motari, Jacqueline
Presents a guide for early childhood education professionals seeking to publish in the field. Provides information on 14 representative journals in early childhood education, noting each journal's audience, circulation, content, publishing requirements and characteristics. Offers suggestions and strategies from prolific authors in the field. (JPB)
Isenberg, Joan P., Ed.; Jalongo, Mary Renck, Ed.
Noting that understanding the contexts, continuities, and controversies of early childhood education is a particularly challenging task because of the diversity of the field, this book provides a critical examination of the issues and controversies surrounding early childhood practices, policies, and professional development. The book's chapters…
Jalongo, Mary Renck
Synthesizing information on language arts gleaned from research on emergent literacy, early childhood education, and special education, this book underscores what is being emphasized in early childhood teacher accreditation programs--responding to the increasingly diverse needs of young language learners in inclusive settings, working with parents…
Jalongo, Mary Renck
Notes that obesity is the primary reason for peer rejection in America; examines effects of obesity on wellness, self-esteem, peer relationships, and social status of children/families and early childhood teachers. Suggests that early childhood educators: (1) educate all stakeholders about nutrition and body size issues; (2) speak out against…
The purpose of this study was to explore the association between job stress and coping strategies in early childhood teachers in Central Taiwan. A quantitative approach was utilized, and data were collected from 314 participants. The results of the present study suggest that (1) early childhood teachers believed that their job stress was due to a…
This article reports a study that investigated preservice and inservice early childhood teachers' perceived levels of preparedness to handle stress in early childhood and elementary education students. A survey that included vignettes was used to collect data. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and statistically, using one-way ANOVA, "t"-test,…
La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.
Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)
Li, Jiong; Olsen, JØrn
Objective: The rise in the occurrence of childhood obesity during the last decades in many populations indicates an important role of environmental exposures, which may operate very early in life. We aimed to examine the association between bereavement during the first 6 years of life, as a stress indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children. Methods: We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years of life. We compared BMI levels, changes in BMI, and the prevalence of overweight at 7-13 years of age between bereaved and non-bereaved children. Results: Between bereaved children and non-bereaved children, there were no differences in average BMI levels at any age or changes in BMI at 7-13 years of age. Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age. Conclusion: This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Rudant, Jérémie; Lightfoot, Tracy; Urayama, Kevin Y; Petridou, Eleni; Dockerty, John D; Magnani, Corrado; Milne, Elizabeth; Spector, Logan G; Ashton, Lesley J; Dessypris, Nikolaos; Kang, Alice Y; Miller, Margaret; Rondelli, Roberto; Simpson, Jill; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Orsi, Laurent; Roman, Eve; Metayer, Catherine; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline
The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several proxies of early stimulation of the immune system, that is, day-care center attendance, birth order, maternally reported common infections in infancy, and breastfeeding, were investigated by using data from 11 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980-2010). The sample included 7,399 ALL cases and 11,181 controls aged 2-14 years. The data were collected by questionnaires administered to the parents. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Day-care center attendance in the first year of life was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.84), with a marked inverse trend with earlier age at start (P analysis reinforce the hypothesis that day-care center attendance in infancy and prolonged breastfeeding are associated with a decreased risk of ALL. PMID:25731888
Full Text Available In our research we formulated the hypothesis that children create different meanings at theirdrawings through pictures of art and that these meanings are more original when the stimulusis a picture of art that belongs to the abstract art. The research was conducted with 28children aged 4.5 to 6.5 attending two early childhood classes in Volos, Greece. Our studyinvolved asking children to study paintings and create opportunities for them to express theirideas through drawings. In their drawings, children in a way try to imitate the way that thepicture of art is designed, but at the same time they are creative by thinking of new ideas andways of doing things. The tools used were three pictures of art. The purpose of the study wasto use these particular works of art as an opportunity for each young child to express hiscreativity within the school setting.
Liptay, S; Bauer, C P; Grübl, A; Franz, R; Emmrich, P
In this study, we attempted to find factors which predispose infants to atopy. 200 unselected newborns were followed up to 3 years of age. Children with elevated cordblood IgE or positive family history developed atopic disease significantly more frequent (p less than 0.05, p less than 0.01). Parental smoking or formula feeding alone did not influence the frequency of subsequent atopic disorders. However, in combination with reduced cordblood CD8-cells atopy was observed significantly more often (p less than 0.05, p less than 0.025). Similar results were found in children with reduced cordblood CD3-cells, whose parents were smokers (p less than 0.01). These results suggest that factors which alone do not influence atopy can enhance each other to predispose atopic disease in early childhood. PMID:2056994
Clauß, D; Deutsch, J; Krol, I; Haase, R; Willard, P; Müller-Bahlke, T; Mauz-Körholz, C; Körholz, D
Interdisciplinary cooperation and networking determine the success of activities for supporting families at risk for early childhood abuse. The integration of the healthcare sector might be important.The medical standard of perinatal care at the University hospital includes information exchange about family risk factors which may contribute to an increased risk of child abuse within the first year of life. As a result, the -pediatrician offered supporting services for the families at the time of the second examination during the official childhood health screening program (U2). A team of family-sponsorship was established and evaluated.In 281 of 1238 risk-factor questionnaires at least one stress factor was detected and 97 families had high-impact family stress. Families under the supervision of a family midwife or youth services had a significantly higher number of risk factors. The family-sponsorship program was institutionalized and positively evaluated by the families.The time of a hospital delivery is an excellent opportunity for the evaluation of familial risk factors and for the provision of supporting services. To increase the acceptance of such services by the families at risk repeated assessment of risk factors and support offers are required. PMID:25010130
Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, Concepción; Rosario Rueda, M
Attention has been related to functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control, which are associated with distinct brain networks. This study aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the development of attention functions during childhood. A total of 46 healthy 4-13-year-old children and 15 adults performed an adapted version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) while brain activation was registered with a high-density EEG system. Performance of the ANT revealed changes in the efficiency of attention networks across ages. While no differences were observed on the alerting score, both orienting and executive attention scores showed a more protracted developmental curve. Further, age-related differences in brain activity were mostly observed in early ERP components. Young children had poorer early processing of warning cues compared to 10-13-year-olds and adults, as shown by an immature auditory-evoked potential complex elicited by warning tones. Also, 4-6-year-olds exhibited a poorer processing of orienting cues as indexed by lack of modulation of the N1. Finally, flanker congruency produced earlier modulation of ERPs amplitude with age. Flanker congruency effects were delayed and more anteriorly distributed for young children, compared to adults who showed a clear modulation of the N2 in fronto-parietal channels. Additionally, interactions among attention networks were examined. Both alerting and orienting conditions modulated the effectiveness of conflict processing by the executive attention network. The Orienting×Executive networks interactions was only observed after about age 7. Results are informative of the neural correlates of the development of attention networks in childhood. PMID:24593898
Berenson, Kathy R; Andersen, Susan M
Extending research on transference and the relational self (Andersen & Chen, 2002), female undergraduates with or without a history of physical and emotional abuse by a loved parent participated in an experiment manipulating parental resemblance and threat-relevant interpersonal context in a new person. Transference elicited differences not evident in the control condition between abused and nonabused participants' responses, with greater rejection expectancy, mistrust, dislike, and emotional indifference reported by abused participants. Immediate implicit affect was more positive in transference than in the control condition regardless of abuse history. Yet, abused participants in transference also reported increased dysphoria that was markedly attenuated when interpersonal threat was primed, and no such pattern occurred among nonabused participants. Evidence that interpersonally guarded and affectively complex responses are triggered in transference among previously abused individuals suggests that this social-cognitive process may underlie long-term interpersonal difficulties associated with parental abuse. PMID:17030892
Bonuck, Karen A.; Hyden, Christel; Ury, Guenn; Barnett, Josephine; Ashkinaze, Hannah; Briggs, Rahil D.
Behavioral insomnias of childhood (BIC) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) disorders cause disrupted and/or inefficient sleep. Left untreated in early childhood, both conditions increase the risk of compromised development, particularly in the areas of behavior, cognition, and growth. This systematic review determined whether and how current…
Parkes, A.; Waylen, A.; Sayal, K.; Heron, J.; Henderson, M.; Wight, D.; Macleod, J.
Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16–18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-...
New, Rebecca S.; Ben Mardell; David Robinson
Much has been learned about the possibilities of early childhood education from nations that have long invested in high-quality early care and educational programs. These new understandings are now being used by U.S. early childhood advocates to help parents, policy makers, and others better understand children's vast learning potentials, to acknowledge the deep intellectual work of teachers, and to recognize the rights of parents to help determine the essential features of a challenging and ...
Full Text Available International research has consistently found that good staff-parent relationships in early childhood centers benefit children, staff, and parents. Given these findings, the Australian federal government's Quality Improvement and Accreditation Scheme (QIAS requires centers to involve parents in their programs. However, international research has also found that early childhood staff are anxious about their relationships with parents. This article describes a study in which early childhood staff in Australia were asked about their experiences with parent involvement. It draws on those interviews to consider communication strategies to create equitable relationships between staff and parents.
Bell, Kathryn M; Higgins, Lorrin
The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person's ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk. PMID:25893570
Luis Lefio Celedón
Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years. Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on detection, prevention and treatment strategies in different situations of child maltreatment. Sexual abuse was excluded. The search spanned from 2002 to 2012, in English and Spanish. Results. Of 105 articles, 36 met the selection criteria. In prevention, the best evaluated strategies were parenting programs based on cognitive or cognitive-behavioral approach and interactive learning strategies. In detection, only two instruments were identified with optimum specificity and positive predictive value. In treatment, a variety of treatment strategies were identified with favorable effects on behavioral, functional and psycho affective indicators. The population relevance of these interventions is unclear, as the differential effectiveness of these therapeutic approaches. Conclusions. There are many child maltreatment prevention strategies at the individual and family level. The instruments used for detection are not reliable for use at the collective level. Insofar as therapy, not enough evidence was found both in quality and quantity to favor one intervention over another. It is recommended to understand the problem from the public health perspective and to generate multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches.
This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…
Garvis, Susanne; Pendergast, Donna
In 2009, the Australian Government introduced the Get Up and Grow (Commonwealth Government, 2009) guidelines for healthy eating and exercise in early childhood as one element of a range of initiatives aiming to curb childhood obesity, a problem affecting an increasing proportion of Australia children. Included in the policy recommendations are…
Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Lall, Debra I. K.; De Jaeger, Amy E.
We examined individual differences in shame responding in early childhood and predictive relations with shame proneness in middle childhood. Child shame responding, parental shaming, and child temperamental inhibition were assessed at Time 1 (n = 225, aged 3-4 years), shame responding was reassessed at Time 2 (n = 199, aged 5-7 years), and shame…
Sanders, B; Becker-Lausen, E
This paper describes a self-report measure, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, which yields a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of various types of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence. Data on this measure are presented for two large samples of college students and for a small clinical sample of subjects with a diagnosis of Multiple Personality Disorder. The strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the scale in the college population is documented, and its validity is attested to by demonstrating that it correlates significantly with outcomes such as dissociation, depression, difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and victimization, all of which have previously been associated with childhood trauma or abuse. The extremely high scores of the Multiple Personality subjects confer additional validity to the measure. The authors suggest that the construct of psychological maltreatment underlies the destructive elements of numerous forms of abuse and neglect, and that the scale they have developed may provide a useful index of this construct. PMID:9278731
Kuo, Janice R.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.
Etiological models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that early childhood trauma contributes to the development of this disorder. However, surprisingly little is known about the link between different forms of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. This study (1) compared levels of childhood trauma in adults with generalized SAD versus healthy controls (HCs), and (2) examined the relationship between specific types of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. Participants were 102 individuals with generalized SAD and 30 HCs who completed measures of childhood trauma, social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Compared to HCs, individuals with SAD reported greater childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect. Within the SAD group, childhood emotional abuse and neglect, but not sexual abuse, physical abuse, or physical neglect, were associated with the severity of social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. PMID:21183310
Full Text Available This paper summarizes demographic information on early childhood programs and teachers of 3- and 4-year-olds. Questionnaires were sent to a random sample of early childhood programs across the United States. Data were collected on teacher characteristics and structural features of early childhood programs (enrollment, class size, hours of operation, and ratio of teachers to students. Results indicate that there are approximately 284,277 teachers of 3- and 4-year-olds in the United States. The vast majority of these teachers are women, and 78% are White. Approximately 50% of these teachers have earned a college degree, although educational attainment varies among program types. For-profit centers currently outnumber other types of centers, although the number of early childhood programs in public schools is increasing rapidly. The findings will be of interest to parents because they must choose among different program types when selecting a setting for their children, and it is therefore important for them to have access to information about the characteristics of early childhood programs and teachers. Additionally, policy makers need to understand the distinctions that exist between different types of early childhood settings as they adopt regulations and make funding decisions that affect parental choice of programs.
Saçkes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe
This study investigated the predictive ability of an intentional learning model in the change of preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understanding of lunar phases. Fifty-two preservice early childhood teachers who were enrolled in an early childhood science methods course participated in the study. Results indicated that the use of metacognitive strategies facilitated preservice early childhood teachers' use of deep-level cognitive strategies, which in turn promoted conceptual change. Also, preservice early childhood teachers with high motivational beliefs were more likely to use cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Thus, they were more likely to engage in conceptual change. The results provided evidence that the hypothesized model of intentional learning has a high predictive ability in explaining the change in preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understandings from the pre to post-interviews. Implications for designing a science methods course for preservice early childhood teachers are provided.
Friedman, Mark S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Stall, Ron; Cheong, Jeewon; Wright, Eric R.
This study examined relationships between timing of gay-related developmental milestones, early abuse, and emergence of poor health outcomes in adulthood among 1,383 gay/bisexual men in the Urban Men’s Health Study. Latent Profile Analysis grouped participants as developing early, middle or late based on the achievement of four phenomena including age of first awareness of same-sex sexual attractions and disclosure of sexual orientation. Participants who developed early were more likely, co...
Khan, Alaptagin; McCormack, Hannah C.; Bolger, Elizabeth A.; McGreenery, Cynthia E.; Vitaliano, Gordana; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H.
Background: The adverse childhood experience (ACE) study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age. Methods: 560 (223M/337F) young adults (18–25?years) were recruited from the community without regard to diagnosis and balanced to have equal exposure to 0–4 plus types of maltreatment. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure Scale assessed severity of exposure to 10 types of maltreatment across each year of childhood. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and current symptoms were evaluated by SCID, interview, and self-report. Predictive analytics assessed importance of exposure at each age and evaluated whether exposure at one or two ages was a more important predictor than number, severity, or duration of maltreatment across childhood. Results: The most important predictors of lifetime history of MDD were non-verbal emotional abuse in males and peer emotional abuse (EA) in females at 14?years of age, and these were more important predictors across models than number of types of maltreatment (males: t9?=?16.39, p?Suicidal ideation was predicted, in part, by NVEA and peer EA at age 14, but most importantly by parental verbal abuse at age 5 in males and sexual abuse at age 18 in females. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for sensitive exposure periods when maltreatment maximally impacts risk for depression, and provides an alternative interpretation of the ACE study results. These findings fit with emerging neuroimaging evidence for regional sensitivity periods. The presence of sensitive exposure periods has important implications for prevention, preemption, and treatment of MDD.
Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore…
Mallie, Adana L.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Mordell, Sarah; Spice, Andrew; Roesch, Ronald
Recent research indicates that adolescents who have sexually offended are more likely than other adolescents to have a history of sexual and physical abuse. However, it is unclear whether abuse predicts re-offending among these adolescents. To examine this relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted which included 29 effect sizes drawn from 11…
Bensley, L.; Ruggles, D.; Simmons, K.W.; Harris, C.; Williams, K.; Putvin, T.; Allen, M.
Background:: A variety of definitions of child abuse and neglect exist. However, little is known about norms in the general population as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect or how perceived norms may be related to personal experiences. Methods:: We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 504 Washington State adults.…
Oakes, Susan; Virbick, Diane E.
Describes an early childhood literacy program called Begin with Books and provides ideas for starting up, finding, and administering similar programs in public libraries. Topics include corporate sponsors; staffing; partnering with community organizations; training; scheduling; and budget information. (LRW)
Fleer, Marilyn; Robbins, Jill
Constructivism has provided us with a useful pedagogy and a powerful methodological framework for over twenty years. We now know a great deal about children's thinking. Can this research paradigm take us any further? Are we locked into a particular perspective about data gathering and categorising children's thinking? Have we tended to fit early childhood data into the 'accepted science education paradigm'? As early childhood researchers, we have found the wealth of research in science education research unable to provide solutions to some fundamental challenges we face when working with young children. This paper seeks to examine the established body of literature in science education research with a view to seeking out a more inclusive research approach to support early childhood science education. Examples of early childhood data within a range of contexts are presented to illustrate some of the challenges. Some of the issues that are raised may well be helpful to the field as a whole.
Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.
This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…
Lilian G. Katz
Full Text Available Noting that working with early childhood colleagues in other countries can be enlightening and enriching, this paper offers seven insights gained from the experience: (1 "What It Feels Like To Be a Teacher" discusses observations of student and teacher behavior and attitudes in classrooms in China, a Caribbean island, and India; (2 "Similarities across Countries" notes that teachers? roles may be more powerful determinants of their ideas, ideals, ideologies, concerns, and beliefs than are the larger political, social, and cultural contexts in which they work; (3 "Problems with Comparative Studies" discusses the difficulties inherent in comparing educational provisions and effectiveness across countries; (4 "The Spread of Ideas across Borders" discusses the influence of the British Infant School approach in the 1960s and 1970s, the influence of the innovative province-wide reform work of British Columbia, Canada, in the 1980s, and most recently the influence of the Reggio Emilia approach; (5 "Issues Unique to the U.S." explores interests that appear of concern only in the United States, such as the development of self-esteem in children; (6 "Self-criticism in the U.S." discusses one American habit ? self-deprecation; and (7 "U.S. Leadership in Anti-bias and Multicultural Awareness" notes that the United States deserves a great deal of credit for leadership in addressing anti-bias and multicultural issues.
Bartik, Timothy J.
This paper is a draft of Chapter 8 of a planned book, Preschool and Jobs: Human Development as Economic Development, and Vice Versa. This book analyzes early childhood programs' effects on regional economic development. Four early childhood programs are considered: 1) universally accessible preschool for four-year-olds of similar quality to the Chicago Child Parent Center program; 2) the Abecedarian program, which provides disadvantaged children with high-quality child care and preschool from...
Farah Deeba and Muhammad Saeed Anjum
This article is based on a study aimed at developing a model for streamlining early childhood education (ECE) in Pakistan. The objectives of the study were to analyze the existing status, the existing facilities and practices at ECE level in public and private sector schools. The study was delimited to schools of Lahore Division of Punjab province. The population of the study included public sector schools with the facilities of early childhood education and from private sector schools, City ...
Urayama, Kevin Y.; Ma, Xiaomei; Selvin, Steve; Metayer, Catherine; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Does, Monique; Chang, Jeffrey; Wong, Alan; Trachtenberg, Elizabeth; Buffler, Patricia A.
Evidence from a growing number of studies indicates that exposure to common infections early in life may be protective against childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We examined the relationship between three measures of early life exposure to infections—daycare attendance, birth order and common childhood infections in infancy—with the risk of ALL in non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children, two ethnicities that show sociodemographic differences. The analysis included 669 ALL case...
Jayabal, Jayabaarathi; Mahesh, Ramakrishnan
The treatment of early childhood caries can have a significant economical burden and treatment relapses are frequent. Effective intervention by means of topical antimicrobial agents can reduce the burden of early childhood caries. The main aim in prevention and treatment should focus on inhibition of the growth of oral bacteria. This is a comprehensive review of the literature on the various antimicrobial agents which are proven to be effective in management of this carious progression. The r...
ECRP associate editor Jean Mendoza met with Dr. Bernard Spodek, Professor Emeritus of Early Childhood Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in December 2008 in his home in Champaign, Illinois, USA. Dr. Spodek's contributions to early childhood education have spanned six decades, during which his teaching, mentoring, and writing have influenced many around the world who are working in the field today. It all began in the 1950s, as he tells ECRP, when as an undergraduate ...
Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren
Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…
Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sakelliadis, Emmanouil I; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Goutas, Nikolaos; Sergentanis, Ioannis N; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Papadodima, StavroulaA
This study attempts to assess childhood maltreatment in prison through a hierarchical approach. The hierarchical approach principally aims to disentangle the independent effects of childhood maltreatment upon psychiatric morbidity/personality traits, if any, from the burden that the adverse family conditions have already imposed to the mental health of the maltreated individual-prisoner. To this direction, a conceptual framework with five hierarchical levels was constructed, namely: immutable demographic factors; family conditions; childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, neglect and sexual abuse); personality traits, habits and psychiatric morbidity; prison-related variables. A self-administered, anonymous set (battery) of questionnaires was administered to 173 male prisoners in the Chalkida prison, Greece; 26% of prisoners disclosed childhood maltreatment. Psychiatric condition in the family, parental alcoholism and parental divorce correlated with childhood maltreatment. After adjustment for immutable demographic factors and family conditions, childhood maltreatment was associated with aggression (both in terms of Lifetime History of Aggression and Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire scores), illicit substance use, personal history of psychiatric condition, current smoking, impulsivity and alcohol abuse. In conclusion, childhood maltreatment represents a pivotal, determining factor in the life course of male prisoners. Delinquents seem to suffer from long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment in terms of numerous mental health aspects. PMID:25468626
Stafford, Jane; Lynn, Steven Jay
This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it. PMID:11778708
Identifies five key findings of brain research: complex inter-play between genes and environment; early experiences contribute to brain structure and capacities; early interactions affect wiring; brain development is non-linear; and a child's brain is more active than adults'. Discusses implications for early childhood environments, curriculum,…
Transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo: associação com abuso físico na infância / Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders: association with physical abuse in childhood
Sheila, Abramovitch; Maria Claudia, Maia; Elie, Cheniaux.
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Muitos transtornos psiquiátricos, geralmente diagnosticados pela primeira vez na infância, estão associados a maus-tratos, entre eles o abuso físico, causando significativo impacto no desenvolvimento das crianças acometidas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a associação entre um diagnóstico psiquiátrico [...] do grupo dos transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo (TDACD) em crianças e a história de abuso físico na infância. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo seccional, crianças de 3 a 12 anos, atendidas em um ambulatório de psiquiatria de um hospital universitário, foram avaliadas por meio do MINI KID (), tendo sido diagnosticadas de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV. A avaliação de abuso físico e de outros eventos traumáticos foi realizada por um questionário específico, o LSC-R () e inclui diferentes tipos de maus-tratos. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma razão de chance mais alta de exposição freqüente ao abuso físico (p = 0,02) no grupo de crianças diagnosticadas com TDACD. Não se encontrou associação entre transtornos de humor (p = 0,67) e de ansiedade (p = 0,57) com abuso físico. Evidenciou-se uma relação de temporalidade entre o grupo dos TDACD e abuso físico (66,6%). Após ajuste de possíveis fatores de confundimento, meninos demonstraram índices significativamente mais elevados de abuso físico do que meninas (p = 0,001). CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados documentaram associação entre um diagnóstico do grupo dos TDACD em crianças e abuso físico na infância. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Many psychiatric disorders diagnosed at the first time in childhood are associated with child abuse, like physical abuse. This disorders cause an important impact on the childhood development. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between children with attention-deficit and disrupti [...] ve behavior disorders group (ADDBD) and physical abuse in childhood. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the MINI KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents) to evaluate children with and without the diagnostic of ADDBD group. Physical abuse was evaluated using the LSC-R (Life Stressor Checklist - Revised) and included others child abuses. RESULTS: We found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to physical abuse (p = 0,02) in the ADDBD group than in the group without this diagnostic. No association between mood (p = 0,67) and anxiety (p = 0,57) disorders and physical abuse. We found a temporal association (66,6%) between ADDBD group and physical abuse. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found significantly higher odds ratio to the association between boys and physical abuse than did girls (p = 0,001). DISCUSSION: Our findings document an association between ADDBD group and physical abuse in childhood period.
Transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo: associação com abuso físico na infância Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders: association with physical abuse in childhood
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Muitos transtornos psiquiátricos, geralmente diagnosticados pela primeira vez na infância, estão associados a maus-tratos, entre eles o abuso físico, causando significativo impacto no desenvolvimento das crianças acometidas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a associação entre um diagnóstico psiquiátrico do grupo dos transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo (TDACD em crianças e a história de abuso físico na infância. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo seccional, crianças de 3 a 12 anos, atendidas em um ambulatório de psiquiatria de um hospital universitário, foram avaliadas por meio do MINI KID (, tendo sido diagnosticadas de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV. A avaliação de abuso físico e de outros eventos traumáticos foi realizada por um questionário específico, o LSC-R ( e inclui diferentes tipos de maus-tratos. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma razão de chance mais alta de exposição freqüente ao abuso físico (p = 0,02 no grupo de crianças diagnosticadas com TDACD. Não se encontrou associação entre transtornos de humor (p = 0,67 e de ansiedade (p = 0,57 com abuso físico. Evidenciou-se uma relação de temporalidade entre o grupo dos TDACD e abuso físico (66,6%. Após ajuste de possíveis fatores de confundimento, meninos demonstraram índices significativamente mais elevados de abuso físico do que meninas (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados documentaram associação entre um diagnóstico do grupo dos TDACD em crianças e abuso físico na infância.BACKGROUND: Many psychiatric disorders diagnosed at the first time in childhood are associated with child abuse, like physical abuse. This disorders cause an important impact on the childhood development. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between children with attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders group (ADDBD and physical abuse in childhood. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the MINI KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents to evaluate children with and without the diagnostic of ADDBD group. Physical abuse was evaluated using the LSC-R (Life Stressor Checklist - Revised and included others child abuses. RESULTS: We found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to physical abuse (p = 0,02 in the ADDBD group than in the group without this diagnostic. No association between mood (p = 0,67 and anxiety (p = 0,57 disorders and physical abuse. We found a temporal association (66,6% between ADDBD group and physical abuse. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found significantly higher odds ratio to the association between boys and physical abuse than did girls (p = 0,001. DISCUSSION: Our findings document an association between ADDBD group and physical abuse in childhood period.
Shaw, Benjamin A.
The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…
Nikcevi?, Ana V; Kramolisova-Advani, Jana; Spada, Marcantonio M
Motivation underlying the career choice of mental health professionals may include a desire to resolve personal psychological distress from childhood or the need to continue the caretaking role held in the family (A. DiCaccavo, 2002; J. D. Guy, 1987). The authors examined whether psychology students whose future vocational aspirations lie in the clinical domain (N = 40) differed from psychology students with no clinical aspirations (N = 35) and from business students (N = 91) in reported childhood experiences and current psychological functioning. Psychology students who wanted to work in the clinical domain reported higher rates of perceived childhood sexual abuse and neglect as compared with both psychology students with no clinical aspirations and business students. They also reported more parentification experiences between the ages of 14 years and 16 years as compared with business students. There were no significant differences between groups in reported levels of current negative emotions. PMID:17312684
Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino Massoni
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar os principais aspectos orofaciais dos maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica, contribuindo com a identificação destas vítimas no ambiente odontológico. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados Adolec, MEDLINE, LILACS e BBO. Utilizaram-se como descritores: maus-tratos infantis, manifestações bucais, odontólogos, papel (figurativo e responsabilidade legal. Verificou-se que os maus-tratos infantis acontecem em geral em domicílio e os ferimentos orofaciais decorrentes incluem trauma, queimaduras e lacerações dos tecidos duros e moles, marcas de mordida e hematomas em vários estágios de cura. Pode haver ferimentos que envolvem outras partes do corpo próximas à cavidade bucal, como hematoma periorbital e contusão nasal. Quanto ao abuso sexual, muitas vítimas não apresentam nenhum sinal físico associado; assim, indicadores comportamentais devem ser observados. A imediata identificação e o relato de maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica pelo cirurgião-dentista são essenciais para a proteção das crianças, sendo fundamental uma maior atuação destes profissionais, através do registro e denúncia dos casos suspeitos às agências de proteção à criança.The aim of this paper was to identify the main oral and dental aspects of childhood abuse and dental neglect, contributing to the identification of these victims in a dental office. A bibliographic research was carried out, in ADOLEC, MEDLINE, LILACS and BBO databases. The following key words were used: child abuse, oral manifestations, dentists; role; liability, legal. It was verified that violence against children happens in general at home and the resulting orofacial injuries encompass: injuries, burns and lacerations on soft and hard tissues, bite marks and gradually-healed wounds. It can have wounds in other parts of the body next to the oral cavity, such as periorbital wound and nasal injury. Regarding sexual abuse, many victims do not present any associated physic signs; therefore, behavioral indicators must be observed. The immediate recognition and report of childhood abuse and dental negligence by dental surgeon are essential for children protection. Therefore, it is critical to define more effective action from those professionals, by registration and denunciation of suspect cases to child protection agencies.
Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali
Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…
McNichol, Heidi; Davis, Julie Margaret; O'Brien, Katherine R.
In this study, engineers and educators worked together to adapt and apply the ecological footprint (EF) methodology to an early learning centre in Brisbane, Australia. Results were analysed to determine how environmental impact can be reduced at the study site and more generally across early childhood settings. It was found that food, transport…
Hume, Kara; Bellini, Scott; Pratt, Cathy
This study investigated families of children with autism spectrum disorders using early intervention and early childhood services, as well as the perceived efficacy and developmental outcomes related to the services and service delivery methods. Results indicated that a variety of recommended practices are not being used by families and…
Pedersen, Sara; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Borge, Anne I. H.
This study used a sample of 551 children surveyed yearly from ages 6 to 13 to examine the longitudinal associations among early behavior, middle-childhood peer rejection and friendedness, and early-adolescent depressive symptoms, loneliness, and delinquency. The study tested a sequential mediation hypothesis in which (a) behavior problems in the…
Al-Hadad, Nawal Khalil
Family-professional partnership has been considered a recommended practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (EI/ECSE) programs for young children with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The importance of establishing successful partnerships between families and professionals in educational planning has…
Jordan has been paying increased attention to early childhood education in recent years. In particular, the government allocated unprecedented resources to the sector through its Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) 2003/08. Funded by the World Bank and other donor agencies, ERfKE is designed to revamp the education sector starting…
Danaher, Joan, Ed.; deFosset, Shelley, Ed.
This publication presents information compiled from early childhood projects funded by the Office of Special Education Programs on resources that support the inclusion of children with special needs and their families in regular educational or community environments. These 113 resources can be used for a variety of purposes, including inservice…
Edwards, Betty; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen
Recognizing the need to support the work of educators and others in evaluating the quality of early childhood programs, this toolkit provides a framework for continuous program improvement based on a 6-phase planning process focused on assessing childrens progress and on analyzing the quality of teaching and organizational effectiveness. The guide…
Full Text Available Introduction. Early childhood caries (ECC is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. Objective. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Ba?ka area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. Methods. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and ?2 (p<0.05 test, as well as interdependence of ECC and single characteristics that could be a predictor of the disease by the logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 30.5%. The highest disease frequency was found in children of male sex (35.1%, out of kindergardens (54.2%, in the third and the next born child in the family (46.9% and in part-time employed mothers (47.2% who had only elementary education (59.3% and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1% of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%. Conclusion. The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite major progress made over the past 10?years, malaria remains one of the primary causes of ill health in developing countries in general, and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Whilst a large literature has documented the frequency and severity of malaria infections for children under-five years, relatively little evidence is available regarding the impact of early childhood malaria exposure on subsequent child development. Methods The objective of the study was to assess the associations between early childhood exposure to malaria and pre-school development. Child assessment data for 1,410 children in 70 clusters collected through the 2010 Zambian Early Childhood Development Project was linked with malaria parasite prevalence data from the 2006 Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey. Linear and logistic models were used to estimate the effect of early childhood exposure to malaria on anthropometric outcomes as well as on a range of cognitive and behavioural development measures. Results No statistically significant associations were found between parasite exposure and children’s height and weight. Exposure to the malaria parasite was, however, associated with lower ability to cope with cognitive tasks administered by interviewers (z-score difference ?1.11, 95% CI ?2.43–0.20, as well as decreased overall socio-emotional development as assessed by parents (z-score difference ?1.55, 95% CI ?3.13–0.02. No associations were found between malaria exposure and receptive vocabulary or fine-motor skills. Conclusions The results presented in this paper suggest potentially large developmental consequences of early childhood exposure to malaria. Continued efforts to lower the burden of malaria will not only reduce under-five mortality, but may also have positive returns in terms of the long-term well-being of exposed cohorts.
Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.; Belden, Andy; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N.
Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between early experience and brain development. Although much retrospective data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes ...
Delker, Brianna C; Noll, Laura K; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A
Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent's own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother's history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child's first 24-36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N=488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children's birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child's birth through 36 months, and at age 9-11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child's early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. PMID:25459984
Full Text Available Despite the strong empirical support for the effectiveness of exposure-based treatments in ameliorating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, improvement of treatment is wanted given relatively high dropout rates and challenges of treating patients with high comorbidity and treatment-interfering stressors. The purpose of the current paper is to introduce an intensive exposure treatment program, illustrated by four case descriptions of PTSD patients, who suffered multiple (sexual traumas in childhood, had high levels of comorbidity and psychosocial stressors, and failed to improve during “regular” trauma-focused treatment programs. The program consisted of psychoeducation, prolonged imaginal exposure, exposure in vivo, exposure by drawings combined with narrative reconstructing, and writing assignments about central trauma-related cognitions. The treatment included 5 working days with individual sessions (in total 30 h of treatment provided by a team of four therapists. The PTSD symptoms of all patients decreased substantially and the effect sizes were large (Cohen's d resp. 1.5 [pre–post], 2.4 [pre-FU1 month], and 2.3 [pre-FU3 months]. Also, none of the patients showed symptom worsening or dropped out. The evaluation of these four pilot cases suggests that it is possible to intensify exposure treatment, even for multiple traumatized PTSD patients with high comorbidity. We concluded that the first results of this new, intensive exposure program for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse are promising.
Meade, Christina S; Hansen, Nathan B; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J
HIV is a chronic, life-threatening illness that necessitates regular and consistent medical care. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a common experience among HIV-positive adults and may interfere with treatment utilization. This study examined rates and correlates of treatment utilization among HIV-positive adults with CSA enrolled in a coping intervention trial in New York City. The baseline assessment included measures of treatment utilization, mental health, substance abuse, and other psychosocial factors. In 2002-2004, participants (50% female, 69% African-American, M = 42.3 +/- 6.8 years old) were recruited. Nearly all (99%) received HIV medical care. However, 20% had no outpatient visits and 24% sought emergency services in the past 4 months. Among 184 participants receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), 22% were less than 90% adherent in the past week. In a multivariable logistic regression model, no outpatient treatment was associated with African American race (AOR = 3.46 [1.42-8.40]), poor social support (AOR = 1.59 [1.03-2.45]), and abstinence from illicit drug use (AOR = 0.37 [0.16-0.85]). Emergency service utilization was associated with HIV symptoms (AOR = 2.30 [1.22-4.35]), binge drinking (AOR=2.92 (1.18-7.24)), and illicit drug use (AOR = 1.98 [1.02-3.85]). Poor medication adherence was associated with trauma symptoms (AOR = 2.64 [1.07-6.75]) and poor social support (AOR = 1.82 [1.09-2.97]). In sum, while participants had access to HIV medical care, a sizable minority did not adhere to recommended guidelines and thus may not be benefiting optimally from treatment. Interventions targeting HIV-positive adults with CSA histories may need to address trauma symptoms, substance abuse, and poor social support that interfere with medical treatment utilization and adherence. PMID:19260772
Darryl W. Etter
Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse, childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction, and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.
Martin, Carolyn Douglas
Assumptions are made by policy makers, service planners and providers that their aspirations for early childhood are shared by professionals, parents and children. Policy makers consistently use words such as holistic, integration, partnership and collaboration to describe the ways they wish early years practitioners to engage with children and families. In order to explore these assumptions and expectations this thesis utilises data from early years settings themselves (focus ...
DeVore, Simone; Russell, Karen
In this case study, a co-operative inquiry process was used to facilitate the expansion of inclusive early childhood education and care practices in a rural community in the Midwest. A university and a community researcher first engaged in interviews and site visits, during which they learned how a three-member inclusion team of early care and…
Rubenstein, Tamera S.
Reviews Cannella's book which questions assumptions of early-childhood education and child development. Asserts that children develop in a progressive, stage-related fashion that blends with adulthood rather than being separate from it. Considers the quality of the theoretically rich investigation and reconceptualization of early education. (JPB)
Copple, Carol, Ed.; Bredekamp, Sue, Ed.
Since the first edition in 1987, National Association for the Education of Young Children's book "Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs" has been an essential resource for the early child care field. Now fully revised and expanded, the 2009 version comes with a supplementary CD containing readings on key topics, plus…
Dietze, Beverlie; Kashin, Diane
Using technology with children in play-based early learning programs creates questions for some within the Early Childhood Education (ECE) community. This paper presents how two faculty who teach in ECE-related degree programs integrated educational technology into their teaching pedagogy as a way to model to their students how it can be used to…
The early years are a foundational time for the establishment of dispositions for learning. This paper draws on a recent study in Aotearoa (New Zealand) to illustrate ways educators have been implementing programs, within mainstream early childhood care and education settings, that inclusively offer Maori perspectives on caring for ourselves,…
Davis, Belinda; Degotardi, Sheila
This research adopted a qualitative methodology to investigate the reported beliefs and pedagogical practices relating to infant peer relationships held by three early childhood infant educators. Thematic analysis was used to derive commonalties and differences that reflected these educators' views and practices about children's early…
Durand, Tina M.
Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…
Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline M.
This study assesses the stability of dietary patterns obtained using principal components analysis (PCA) through early to mid-childhood. Dietary data were collected from children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). Frequency of consumption of a range of food items was recorded by mothers using self-completion postal questionnaires when their children were 3, 4, 7 and 9 years of age. Dietary patterns were identified using PCA and component scores were calculated...
Ovsk Xe, Eva Ko X. D.; Eva Billstedt; Asa Ellefsen; Hanna Kampmann; Carina Gillberg, I.; Rannvá Biskupstø; Guðrið Andorsdóttir; Tormóður Stóra; Helen Minnis; Christopher Gillberg
Childhood autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been regarded as one of the most stable diagnostic categories applied to young children with psychiatric/developmental disorders. The stability over time of a diagnosis of ASD is theoretically interesting and important for various diagnostic and clinical reasons. We studied the diagnostic stability of ASD from childhood to early adulthood in the Faroe Islands: a total school age population sample (8–17-year-olds) was screened and diagno...
Sweig, Terri L.
Describes a time-limited, psychoeducational group in its 16th consecutive year of providing a safe and supportive milieu that breaks down isolation while helping women understand the impact of abuse on their lives and empowering them to alter their victim identity. Cognitive, affective, and expressive arts approaches are used to address aspects of…
Bremner, J. Douglas; Bolus, Roger; Mayer, Emeran A.
Childhood trauma is an important public health problem, but there are limitations in our ability to measure childhood abuse. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report instrument for the assessment of childhood trauma that is valid but simple to administer. A total of 288 subjects with and without trauma and psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Early Trauma Inventory– Self Report (ETI-SR), an instrument for the assessment of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, as well...
Berth, Hendrik; Förster, Peter; Balck, Friedrich; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve
The influence of day nursery in early childhood on later mental and social development has been controversially discussed for a long time. Opponents of day nurseries express the considerable concern that serious negative mental consequences in later life result from early separation from the mother. A sample of n=383 respondents (54.2% women, aged 34.2 years on average) from the twenty-first wave of the Saxony Longitudinal Study (2007) was analyzed regarding the impact of day nursery in early childhood on different psychological indicators measured later. By applying standardized instruments several aspects were examined such as anxiety, depression, the occurrence of common somatic symptoms, attachment, confidence towards the future, experiences of menace, and common values towards political aspects. The findings show various gender differences, e. g. women report a worse mental health. Yet, only one of the examined indicators can be explained by day nursery in early childhood: respondents who had not been in day nursery felt more threatened by potential stressful life-events, e. g. unemployment. Furthermore the analysis of variance indicates some interaction effects between gender and day nursery in early childhood. Data doesn't support the critic that day nursery in early childhood negatively influences mental health at a later age. A particular positive impact of day nursery in early childhood on the examined aspects cannot be assumed, either. Facing the ongoing political debate on the expansion of day nursery facilities, further research is needed focusing more in detail on qualitative aspects of day nursery. PMID:19753512
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines 5 potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages…
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines five potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages 0–11) with cases processed during 1967–1971 were matched with non-abused, non-neglected children and followed into young adulthood. Data are fr...
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.
This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from ages 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from ages 5 to 15. Analyses indicated…
Simner, Julia; Harrold, Jenny; Creed, Harriet; Monro, Louise; Foulkes, Louise
We show that the neurological condition of synaesthesia--which causes fundamental differences in perception and cognition throughout a lifetime--is significantly represented within the childhood population, and that it manifests behavioural markers as young as age 6 years. Synaesthesia gives rise to a merging of cognitive and/or sensory functions…
Ruttle, Paula L; Serbin, Lisa A; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Stack, Dale M; Schwartzman, Alex E
The present study sought to determine if exposure to common childhood medical problems (i.e., infections and atopic disorders [e.g., allergies, asthma]) may dysregulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Longitudinal data from 96 youth were used to examine this possibility. Medical records were drawn from government databases indicating the frequency of visits to healthcare facilities for infections and atopic disorders from infancy to early adolescence. During early adolescence, participants provided salivary cortisol samples from awakening until bedtime over 2 consecutive days. Individuals with a history of increased number visits for infections across childhood displayed elevated levels of cortisol at awakening whereas individuals with childhood histories of visits for atopic disorders displayed blunted diurnal cortisol slopes. These findings build on previous research documenting associations between infections and atopic disorders and cortisol by identifying longitudinal linkages from early health problems to later HPA axis functioning. PMID:24037638
Sheridan, Susan M.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Marvin, Christine A.; Knoche, Lisa L.
In light of the current policy context, early childhood educators are being asked to have a complex understanding of child development and early education issues and provide rich, meaningful educational experiences for all children and families in their care. Accountability for outcomes is high, and resources for professional support are limited. As such, the early education field needs well-conducted empirical studies on which to base professional development practices. In this paper, we off...
Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K.; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927
Culpin, Iryna; Heron, Jon; Araya, Ricardo; Joinson, Carol
Absence of the biological father in early childhood has been linked to depressive symptoms in mid-adolescent girls. Earlier studies have linked father absence to early timing of menarche, and early menarche is a risk factor for increased depressive symptoms in adolescence. No studies, however, have examined whether the association between father absence and depressive symptoms may be explained by the early onset of menarche. This study investigated whether age at menarche mediates the association between father absence in early childhood (birth to 5 years) and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls aged 14 years. The study sample comprised 7056 girls from a large UK birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) who provided data on age at onset of menarche and depressive symptoms assessed using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire at 14 years. Mothers provided data on father absence from the birth of the study child up to 10 years. Using structural equation modelling, we found that 15 % of the total estimated association between father absence in early childhood and depressive symptoms at 14 years was explained by early age at menarche. In addition to the mediated effect, father absence was linked to an 11 % increase in depressive symptoms in adolescence. The findings suggest that early age at menarche is one of the pathways linking early childhood father absence and depressive symptoms in mid-adolescent girls. Preventive strategies could be targeting young girls at risk for depressive symptoms as a function of stressful family factors (e.g., biological father absence) and earlier menarche. PMID:25411127
Oliver, Bonamy; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
We investigated infant precursors of low language scores in early childhood. The sample included 373 probands in 130 monozygotic (MZ) and 109 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs in which at least one member of the pair scored in the lowest 15th percentile of a control sample on a general language factor derived from tester-administered tests at…
Liu, Richard T.; Choi, Jimmy Y.; Boland, Elaine M.; Mastin, Becky M.; Alloy, Lauren B.
According to the stress generation hypothesis (Hammen, 1991), depressed and depression-prone individuals experience higher rates of negative life events influenced by their own behaviors and characteristics (i.e., dependent events), which in part may account for the often recurrent nature of depression. Relatively little is known about the interrelation between stress generation predictors, and distal risk factors for this phenomenon. This study examined whether childhood emotional, sexual, a...
Pilkauskas, Natasha V.
Despite the increasing prevalence of 3-generation family households (grandparent, parent, child), relatively little research has studied these households during early childhood. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort ("N" = ~6,550), this study investigated the associations between…
Young children learn through play. This has long been acknowledged in the writings of educational theorists dating back as far as Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel and is strongly supported by current early childhood research. Play is at the heart of contemporary early childhood pedagogy, and this has led to a strong belief in the importance of an…
Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.
Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…
Kim, Hae Kyoung; Kemple, Kristen M.
This study examines early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about the importance of music in early childhood and explores factors influencing those beliefs. The study found that preservice teachers in this study held relatively strong beliefs about the importance of music, including aesthetic, quality-of-life, and social-emotional benefits.…
Less than one third of early childhood educators have a bachelor's degree, yet national indicators of high-quality early childhood program standards emphasize the importance of higher education for these practitioners. In order to adequately serve and retain these nontraditional learners as they strive to earn their degrees, teacher education…
Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann; Bridgstock, Ruth; Schweitzer, Robert
This article establishes the important role of early childhood teachers in child abuse and neglect and argues for empirical research into their practice of detecting, and reporting, known or suspected child abuse and neglect in a State with new and unique reporting obligations for teachers. It emphasizes the practical value of such research for…
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.
This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from age 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from age 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological ...
Full Text Available Background : The WHO recently launched the proposal for the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11 that also includes two diagnoses related to traumatic stress. In contrast to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5, ICD-11 will probably, in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, also define a new diagnosis termed “complex posttraumatic stress disorder” (CPTSD. Objective : We aimed to apply the proposed ICD-11 criteria for PTSD and CPTSD and to compare their prevalence to the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases [10th revision] PTSD prevalence. In addition, we compiled a list of symptoms for CPTSD based on subthreshold PTSD so as to include a wider group of individuals. Methods : To evaluate the appropriateness of the WHO ICD-11 proposal compared to the criteria of ICD-10, we applied the newly introduced criteria for PTSD and CPTSD deriving from the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI scales, to a sample of adult survivors (N=229 of childhood institutional abuse. We evaluated the construct validity of CPTSD using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Results : More individuals fulfilled the criteria for PTSD according to ICD-10 (52.8% than the ICD-11 proposal (17% for PTSD only; 38.4% if combined with complex PTSD. The new version of PTSD neutralized the gender effects. The prevalence of CPTSD was 21.4%, and women had a significantly higher rate of CPTSD than men (40.4 and 15.8%, respectively. Those survivors who were diagnosed with CPTSD experienced institutional abuse for a longer time. CFA showed a strong model fit. Conclusion : CPTSD is a highly relevant classification for individuals with complex trauma history, but surprisingly, effects of gender were apparent. Further research should thus address gender effects.
Rebecca S. New
Full Text Available Much has been learned about the possibilities of early childhood education from nations that have long invested in high-quality early care and educational programs. These new understandings are now being used by U.S. early childhood advocates to help parents, policy makers, and others better understand children's vast learning potentials, to acknowledge the deep intellectual work of teachers, and to recognize the rights of parents to help determine the essential features of a challenging and beneficial early childhood curriculum. What is less well acknowledged are cross-cultural insights into the potentials of a "risk-rich" curriculum, one in which both adults and children explore new topics and unfamiliar terrains, including those traditionally identified as developmentally inappropriate and beyond the reach of young children. In this article, the potentials of a "risk-rich" curriculum are explored using examples from the cross-cultural research literature as well as two classrooms of young children—one of 3- and 4-year-olds, the others from a kindergarten class. Teachers' reflections on what they learned about themselves and the children they teach are presented as they reveal untapped potentials of early childhood settings as sites for new discoveries and new relationships.
Willoughby, Michael T; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Wagner, Nicholas
This study sought to replicate the results of our earlier study, which were published in this Journal (Willoughby et. al 2011), that used mother-reported items from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment to develop a screening measure of callous unemotional (CU) behaviors for use with preschool-aged children. We further sought to extend those results by exploring the predictive validity of the CU measure with aggression trajectories in early-/mid-childhood. The current study involved secondary data analysis of the NICHD Study of Early Childhood and Youth Development (NICHD-SECCYD) dataset. Factor analyses included N = 1176 children who participated in the age 3 year assessment of the NICHD-SECCYD. Predictive models included N = 1081 children for whom four of the six possible teacher ratings of aggressive behavior were available from annual assessments spanning 1(st)-6(th) grades. Consistent with prior work, a three-factor confirmatory factor model, which differentiated CU from oppositional defiant (ODD) and attention deficit/hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD) behaviors, provided the best fit to the data. Among children with disorganized attachment status, the combination of high levels of mother-rated ODD behaviors and CU behaviors, was predictive of stable elevated levels of teacher-rated aggression from 1(st)-6(th) grade (predicted probability = .38, compared with a base rate of .07). These results demonstrate that CU behaviors can be reliably measured by parent report in young children and are dissociable from more commonly assessed dimensions of disruptive behavior. Three-year-old children who exhibit elevated levels of ODD and CU behaviors, and who have disorganized attachments, are at increased risk for exhibiting elevated levels of aggression across middle childhood. Results are discussed from the perspective of early assessment and intervention. PMID:24729655
Rahm, G B; Renck, B; Ringsberg, K C
Shame is a recurrent theme in the context of sexually abused women. Sexual abuse is taboo and shameful, and so is shame. Shame affects the development of a person and relationships, and is mentally painful. It is often covert. One aim of the present study was to explore whether and how women exposed to sexual abuse during childhood verbally express unacknowledged overt and covert shame, when interviewed about their physical and mental health, relations and circumstances relating to the sexual abuse. Another aim was, if shame was present, to describe the quality of the shame expressed by the women. A mainly qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was used. Ten women attending self-help groups for women who were sexually abused during childhood were recruited as informants. The interviews were analysed for verbal expressions of shame by identifying code words and phrases, which were first sorted into six shame indicator groups and then categorized into various aspects of shame. The frequency of the code words and phrases was also counted. The findings clearly reveal that the affect of shame is present and negatively influences the lives of the informants in this study. It was possible to sort the code words and phrases most often mentioned into the indicator groups 'alienated', 'inadequate' and 'hurt', in the order of their frequency. It is obvious that shame affects the lives of this study's informants in negative ways. One important clinical implication for professionals in health care and psychiatric services is to acknowledge both sexual abuse and shame in order to make it possible for patients to work through it and thereby help them psychologically to improve their health. PMID:16441400
Mckinney, Christy M.; Harris, T. Robert; Caetano, Raul
Little is known about the reliability of self-reported child physical abuse (CPA) or CPA reporting practices. We estimated reliability and prevalence of self-reported CPA, and identified factors predictive of inconsistent CPA reporting among 2,256 participants using surveys administered in 1995 and 2000. Reliability of CPA was fair to moderate (K=0.41). Using a positive report from either survey, the prevalence of moderate (61.8%) and severe (12.0%) CPA was higher than at either survey alone....
Upthegrove, Rachel; Chard, Christine; Jones, Lisa; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Forty, Liz; Jones, Ian; Craddock, Nick
Background There has been increasing interest in the association between childhood trauma and psychosis. Proposals for potential mechanisms involved include affective dysregulation and cognitive appraisals of threat. Aims To establish if, within bipolar disorder, childhood events show a significant association with psychosis, and in particular with symptoms driven by dysregulation of mood or with a persecutory content. Method Data on lifetime-ever presence of psychotic symptoms were determined by detailed structured interview with case-note review (n = 2019). Childhood events were recorded using a self-report questionnaire and case-note information. Results There was no relationship between childhood events, or childhood abuse, and psychosis per se. Childhood events were not associated with an increased risk of persecutory or other delusions. Significant associations were found between childhood abuse and auditory hallucinations, strongest between sexual abuse and mood congruent or abusive voices. These relationships remain significant even after controlling for lifetime-ever cannabis misuse. Conclusions Within affective disorder, the relationship between childhood events and psychosis appears to be relatively symptom-specific. It is possible that the pathways leading to psychotic symptoms differ, with delusions and non-hallucinatory symptoms being influenced less by childhood or early environmental experience. PMID:25614532
Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.
This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…
Schurch, Pam; Hopson, Elizabeth
This booklet reflects the past 10 year's thoughts and experiences and presents the current debate concerning multicultural early childhood education, as experienced by the Lady Gowrie Child Centre, in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The booklet describes how the center experienced the satisfying process of change and growth with such a program…
McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan
Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…
In this study, it was aimed to evaluate how the difference the early childhood education in Turkey and OECD countries. The outstanding point evaluated by the teachers about the difference between the education in Turkey and that in OECD countries and the conditions needing to be improved was the compare of age groups benefiting from the services…
Sari, Burcu; Aktan Acar, Ebru
This study has two main aims. The first aim of the study is to develop a scale for determining early childhood period phonological awareness skills, and to put forward the validity-reliability of this scale. The second aim is to determine the norm values of this scale developed for the Marmara Region. For this reason, the research has been carried…
Poon, Kenneth K.; Lim, Ai-Keow
Singapore is a young island nation with a diverse population. Its support for young children at risk has its roots in the 1950s, but early childhood intervention (ECI) programs for young children with disabilities emerged only in the 1980s. ECI programs have proliferated in the subsequent years, offering an increasing range of service delivery…
Bella, Jill; Bloom, Paula Jorde
Using the photographic concept of zoom as a metaphor for the goals of leadership training as well as the personal transformation that occurs within individuals who engage in professional development to enhance their leadership capacity, this study took a focused look at 182 individuals participating in two models of early childhood leadership…
Pinkham, Ashley M., Ed.; Kaefer, Tanya, Ed.; Neuman, Susan B., Ed.
Synthesizing cutting-edge research from multiple disciplines, this book explores how young children acquire knowledge in the "real world" and describes practical applications for early childhood classrooms. The breadth and depth of a child's knowledge base are important predictors of later literacy development and academic achievement. Leading…
Yilmaz, Nursel; Alici, Sule
The purpose of this study was to investigate pre-service early childhood teachers' attitudes towards using Computer Based Education (CBE) while implementing science activities. More specifically, the present study examined the effect of different variables such as gender, year in program, experience in preschool, owing a computer, and the…
Dodge, Diane Trister
This article deals with early childhood curriculum models. The author discusses why programs use a curriculum and how programs use curriculum models. She mentions curriculum models that programs are using, such as: (1) The Creative Curriculum; (2) High/ Scope; (3) Project Approach; (4) Reggio Emilia; and (5) Montessori. She also presents the…
Ursache, Alexandra; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia; Voegtline, Kristin
The relation of observed emotional reactivity and regulation in infancy to executive function in early childhood was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children from predominantly low-income and rural communities. Children participated in a fear eliciting task at ages 7, 15, and 24 months and completed an executive function…
Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Shrout, Patrick E.
A key prediction of cognitive theories of gender development concerns developmental trajectories in the relative strength or rigidity of gender typing. To examine these trajectories in early childhood, 229 children (African American, Mexican American, and Dominican American) were followed annually from age 3 to 5 years, and gender-stereotypical…
Blaise, Mindy; Taylor, Affrica
Queer theory is a new theory about gender. It is relevant to early childhood educators who wish to find new ways of understanding and challenging persistent gender stereotypes. The theory links gender stereotypes to the norms of heterosexuality. It is definitely "not" a theory about gay and lesbian identity. Queer theory is "queer" because it…
DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Burts, Diane C.; Buchanan, Teresa K.; Aghayan, Carol; Benedict, Joan
This article describes how early childhood teacher education faculty at one university responded in the aftermath of hurricanes Katrina and Rita and used the disaster to enhance their undergraduate and graduate programs. They explain how they modeled developmentally appropriate practices while responding to community needs. Four companion articles…
Tabu, Mikiko; Aoki, Hisako
Early childhood education in Japan is reviewed, and education in kindergarten classrooms and day nurseries is described. Activities during a typical day at kindergarten and at day nursery are profiled. An overview of the history of preschool education begins with the time when kindergartens were places for the children of the rich and day…
Herring, Deborah Jean Glisan
The purpose of this course project was to produce a handbook on day nursery program development for children from 6 weeks through 71 months of age residing in the State of Indiana. Intended for early childhood teachers and program directors the handbook includes Indiana State licensing rules and regulations mandated by the Indiana Department of…
Worch, Eric A.; Li, Lan; Herman, Terry L.
Although research on the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) with science instruction has identified significant benefits to students and teachers, K-12 teachers tend to underutilize ICT in their science instruction. This study used a quasi-experimental design to measure preservice early childhood teachers' attitudes…
Identifies Chilean organizations and programs concerned with the environment, and discusses human beings' responsibility for the environment, Chile's environment, and hope for the earth. Offers a philosophical rationale for environmental education in early childhood, and describes a conference on environmental education. Highlights research on…
Character education efforts are influenced by the cultures in which they are implemented. This article describes the character education provided to children in Korea, both in school and at home. The author explores how the Korean early childhood education system strives to ensure positive character development among children. These discussions…
A marketing plan designed to increase enrollment and community support for early childhood education programs in Hawaii is presented. Expansion, economic and demographic trends, changes in state funding policies, and inadequate marketing had resulted in a drop in alternative school enrollment. The resulting support base was unable to support…
This paper proposes that effective leadership is a vital component in providing quality childcare services. It suggests that developing an enhanced understanding of effective leadership frameworks can be a starting point for a quality process and can forge a commitment to working towards excellence in early childhood centres, as well as be a tool…
Pang, Yanhui; Richey, Dean
Chinese traditional and contemporary families are introduced specific to their structure, cultural background, and socioeconomic status and gender roles, followed by an introduction to the relationship between family-centered practices in early childhood special education (ECSE) and current practices in China. Given the specific characteristics of…
Ho, Dora; Chen, Shu-Chin Susan
This paper describes the process of school capacity building in Hong Kong's early childhood education at a time when there was a quest for quality education. A local preschool was selected for the study, which took part in a university-school support programme through which consultancy was hired from a university to provide school-based…
Bassok, Daphna; Fitzpatrick, Maria; Loeb, Susanna; Paglayan, Agustina S.
Historically, the early childhood care and education (ECCE) workforce has been characterized as a low-education, low-compensation, low-stability workforce. In recent years, considerable investments have been made to correct this, but we lack evidence about the extent to which these investments were accompanied by changes in the characteristics of…
Shouse, A. Clay; Epstein, Ann S.
This document is the final report of the McGregor-funded High/Scope training initiative, a system-wide approach to improving the quality of early childhood programs in the Detroit metropolitan area. The 3-year project was based on the validated High/Scope educational approach and training model, which advocates hands-on active learning for both…
This document is comprised of the papers presented at the First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt in May 2001. Participating in the symposium were representatives from the World Bank, the Amsterdam Institute for International Development, the Children's Project, and the Academy for Educational Development. The symposium opened with an…
Manwaring, Joanne Scandling
This study examined Early Childhood Special Educators' perceptions of play as a developmentally appropriate practice in special education prekindergarten classrooms in one southeastern school district. Through purposeful sampling, eight prekindergarten special educators were identified because they held multiple teaching certifications and some…
Brooks, Jacqueline Grennon
Strong evidence from recent brain research shows that the intentional teaching of science is crucial in early childhood. "Big Science for Growing Minds" describes a groundbreaking curriculum that invites readers to rethink science education through a set of unifying concepts or "big ideas." Using an integrated learning approach, the author shows…
Bracken, Bruce A.; Crawford, Elizabeth
The incidence of basic concepts in early childhood educational standards is explored across all 50 US states. Concept inclusion in state standards is described in terms of the representation of the universe of basic concepts, representation of concept categories, the depth and breadth of individual concept inclusion, and unique examples.…
Hanft, Barbara; Striffler, Nancy
This article identifies challenges to incorporating occupational, physical, and speech-language therapy into early childhood programs under Parts B and H of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Challenges include transforming traditional medical model services, meeting the need for qualified personnel, and adequately preparing…
Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert
Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…
Leadership is a contested term in many contexts and means various things to different people. In early childhood education and care (ECEC) it is understood in multilayered terms. This paper draws on a qualitative research study which employed symbolic interactionism as a methodological tool and drew data from 26 participants from the ECEC field…
Guo, Karen; Dalli, Carmen
A multiple-case study investigation of the experiences of eight Chinese immigrant children in New Zealand early childhood centres suggested that the immigrant children's learning experiences in their first centre can be understood as a process of negotiating and creating intercultural relations. The children's use of family cultural tools, such as…
This article draws on interviews with women who experienced the death of their mothers during early childhood to explore the grieving process of a child for a lost parent. The author describes the women's recollections of how the loss was talked about, or not, in their families and how this impacted the women's mourning and coping. Most women who…
Agut, M. Pilar Martínez; Ull, M. Angeles; Minguet, Pilar Aznar
This article analyses how the sustainability culture has evolved in the early childhood education setting within the Spanish education system with official documents and the sustainability training received by teachers who intervene in this stage of education since these teachers' degrees have been adapted to the European Higher Education…
Parks, Amy Noelle; Schmeichel, Mardi
Despite the increased use of video for data collection, most research using assessment interviews in early childhood education relies solely upon the analysis of linguistic data, ignoring children's bodies. This trend is particularly troubling in studies of marginalized children because transcripts limited to language can make it difficult to…
Henry, Gary T.; Henderson, Laura W.; Ponder, Bentley D.; Gordon, Craig S.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Rickman, Dana K.
The Georgia Prekindergarten Program was established in 1993 to provide the state's 4-year-olds with high-quality preschool experiences. The Early Childhood Study followed the development of young children attending programs funded through the Prekindergarten (Pre-K) Program or Head Start and children eligible for the Pre-K program attending…
Appleton, Julie; McCrea, Nadine; Patterson, Carla
Noting that young children learn about food and nutrition through food preparation, eating together, play, science activities, and games, this resource guide addresses food learning and nutritional provisions in early childhood programs. The guide is designed to meet the needs of children and adults in child care centers, family child care…
Kilburn, M. Rebecca; Karoly, Lynn A.
Advances in neuroscience, developmental psychology, and program evaluation have been combined to develop a unified framework that provides evidence-based guidance related to early childhood policy. This research shows how insights from the field of economics-- human capital theory and monetary payoffs--also contribute to that framework.…
This article reviews approaches to early childhood training and practice in Ontario and sets it in the wider context of feminist poststructural knowledge production. Through a feminist poststructural reading, this article uncovers dominant assumptions of universality underlying the heteronormative discourse of developmentally appropriate practice…
Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn; Angelica, Maria; Gallegos, Juarez; Salazar, Carlos, Marcin
A Spanish translation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC-SP) was administered to 115 children aged 15-73 months in Mexico. In Phase 1, children with Autistic Disorder (AD), a non-Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) diagnosis or typical development were assessed with the ADEC-SP by a clinician blind to the child's diagnostic…
Schneider, Alessandra; Ramires, Vera Regina; Paiva, Maria da Graca Gomes; Almeida, Leila
This paper presents the pioneering experience of the Programa Primeira Infancia Melhor (the Better Early Childhood Development Program), also known as "PIM" that has been developed since 2003 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PIM's goal is to "provide guidance to families, based on their own culture and experiences, to allow them to…
DeStefano, Lizanne; And Others
Describes an alternative method for identifying exemplary practices in early childhood education programs. In this approach, parents and practitioners identify exemplary practices after coming to know the practices and the context in which they operate through observation, interview, and document review. Discusses methodological issues raised by…
Clyde, Margaret; Rodd, Jillian
A study examined the ethical dilemmas faced by Australian early childhood professionals. Data were obtained from responses to a questionnaire mailed to 25 preschool centers and 25 child care centers in Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and the Northern Territory. Of 300 questionnaires mailed, a total of 99…
Katz, Esther; Girolametto, Luigi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of peer intervention on the social interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this model, a speech-language pathologist and three early childhood educators trained typically developing peers to engage children with ASD in play. Three preschool children with ASD and six…
De Gioia, Katey
Developing partnerships with families is critical in childcare services. However, families and early childhood educators bring to settings different cultural backgrounds, experiences and expectations of their role and the role of the childcare service. These differences can impact the family-educator partnership. This article examines some issues…
Heikka, Johanna; Waniganayake, Manjula; Hujala, Eeva
This article seeks to establish a new research agenda on distributed leadership by linking early childhood and school leadership research. It begins with a discussion of how distributed leadership is conceptualized, including a discussion of the main features and meanings of distributed leadership as defined by key scholars who have maintained a…
Polyzoi, Eleoussa; Kerr, Kaye
This paper reviews the current state of child care policy in Canada and the United States and describes a model undergraduate preparation program in child care and early childhood special education recently developed at the University of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. (Author/DB)
Custodero, Lori A.
In this article, jazz music is used as a lens through which early childhood music pedagogy is viewed, specifically thinking about swing and improvisation--the listening and responding to what is heard and seen, and the openness to possibility. These two concepts are defined by prominent jazz musicians and are traced in the child development…
To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic…
Crump, Tracy Lynn
In order for children to receive the best in quality care, early childhood teachers must have a deep understanding of child development and developmentally appropriate teaching methodologies that can only be acquired through accessible and sustainable professional development. This type of professional development for many students comes in the…
Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…
Incorporating technology into the early childhood classroom to enhance traditional teaching methods is not a new idea. Yet the use of technology as an instructional tool in curriculum is still often considered an innovative way to engage young children in learning. Since "computers serve as catalysts for social interaction", the use of technology…
Berson, Ilene R.
A podcast is an audio file published to the Internet for playback on mobile devices and personal computers; the meaning of the term has expanded to include video files, or "enhanced podcasts" as well. Many students are already engaged with digital technologies when they first step into early childhood classrooms. Children as young as three years…
Howe, Nina; Bruno, Andrea
Research Findings: Sibling pretend play, collaboration, and creativity during maternal presence and absence were investigated in 24 dyads in early and middle childhood (younger siblings' M age = 5.3 years; older siblings' M age = 8.2 years). Associations between sibling behavior and maternal interaction (e.g., guidance, positive responses) were…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.
An integrative model is proposed for understanding the development of physical and relational aggression in early and middle childhood. The central goal was to posit a new theoretical framework that expands on existing social-cognitive and gender schema models (i.e., Social Information-Processing Model of Children's Adjustment [N. R. Crick & K. A.…
The "Guidelines for Effective Practice" series was begun in 1991 to meet the need for better definition and articulation of what constitutes best practice in family support programs. This guide, the first issue of the series, focuses on the importance and necessity of linkages between family support and early childhood programs. Chapter 1 presents…
Creative Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
Written in Spanish and focusing on art activities for early childhood education, this manual provides guidelines for Spanish-speaking teachers of preschool and primary school children. The content of the manual is oriented to the learning styles and special interests of Spanish-speaking children. Part One defines artistic activity in the preschool…
Large numbers of young children spend significant amounts of time in early childhood educational settings. Concerns about the quality of this experience have increased substantially in recent years. Further, as social inequalities in Australia continue to grow the gap between disadvantage and advantage widens despite overall levels of increased…
Wong, Kung-Teck; Russo, Sharon; McDowall, Janet
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand early childhood student teachers' self-reported acceptance and use of interactive whiteboard (IWB), by employing the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) as the research framework. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 112 student teachers enrolled in science-related…
Souto-Manning, Mariana; Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill
Gay and lesbian issues are often silenced in teacher education programs. Such silencing has serious consequences for teachers who feel unprepared to discuss such issues in their classrooms. Challenging the silence regarding gay and lesbian issues that often permeates early childhood classrooms, we share a teacher's critical inquiry into teaching…
Chun, Eul Jung; Hertzog, Nancy B.; Gaffney, Janet S.; Dymond, Stacy K.
The researchers described in this case study how Service Learning was incorporated within the context of an early childhood program where the teachers used the Project Approach. The Service Learning project was embedded in an investigation about water and was designed to help tsunami victims in Asia. Participants included two teachers and 12…
...Tracking and Third-Grade Recruitment SUMMARY: The Early Childhood...U.S.C. Chapter 35) requires that Federal agencies provide...Tracking and Third-Grade Recruitment. OMB Control Number: 1850-0750...national data collection; (2) recruitment for the spring 2014...
...Tracking and Third-Grade Recruitment SUMMARY: The Early Childhood...national data collection; (2) recruitment for the spring 2014 third-grade...U.S.C. Chapter 35) requires that Federal agencies provide...Tracking and Third-Grade Recruitment. OMB Control Number:...
This paper considers how young children in early childhood education draw on popular texts and consumer goods in their constitution of subjectivities and social relations. The paper draws on poststructuralist theories of subjectivity, agency, consumption and power, to explore how performative practices of consumption figure in the constitution of…
Everyone's doing it: Tweeting, "friending," blogging, linking, texting, and otherwise zipping around all over the social media landscape. Social media has become more than just a pastime. It is officially now another important communication medium early childhood educators use to establish and enhance meaningful relationships with parents,…
The objective of this small study was to elicit responses from early childhood teachers in India on mathematics learning strategies and to measure the extent of finger counting technique adopted by the teachers in teaching young children. Specifically, the research focused on the effective ways of teaching mathematics to children in India, and…
Taking the view that curriculum and pedagogy are complex processes related to history, politics, economics, culture and knowledge, and influenced by interactions that occur between students, teachers and the larger communities, this article will discuss how curriculum takes shape and is negotiated in some early childhood classrooms in…
For many in early childhood education, STEAM is a new term. It began in this decade as STEM, an acronym for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. These curriculum areas have become a major focus in education because of the concern that the United States is falling behind in scientific innovation. With a new and familiar addition to the…
Krysiak, Patricia Desmond; Strader, William H.
Reviews some of the various early childhood program models that include the speech-language pathologist in service delivery, including the McKay Integrated Preschool model, which focuses on developmentally appropriate practices (as outlined by the National Association for the Education of Young Children) and "best practices" (as accepted by the…
Several major goals of early childhood professionals are to help children learn to work with others, care for others, verbalize feelings, support friends, show kindness and exhibit other character skills and traits. When these life skills are lacking, it affects the ways in which children interact with one another and form relationships with peers…
Andang'o, Elizabeth; Mugo, John
The historical development of early childhood music education (ECE) in Kenya reveals the challenging circumstances under which it has, and continues, to progress. Poverty remains the most formidable hindrance to the success of this area of education. Multiculturalism, the mosaic that defines Kenya's rich heritage, also demands ingenuity from…
Gomez, Florencia; Nussbaum, Miguel; Weitz, Juan F.; Lopez, Ximena; Mena, Javiera; Torres, Alex
The benefits of collaborative learning are well documented. However, most of the research has been done with children beyond the ages of early childhood. This could be due to the common and erroneous belief that young children have not developed the capacity to work collaboratively toward a given aim. In this paper we show how small group…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.
This four-wave prospective longitudinal study evaluated stability of language in 324 children from early childhood to adolescence. Structural equation modeling supported loadings of multiple age-appropriate multisource measures of child language on single-factor core language skills at 20 months and 4, 10, and 14 years. Large stability…
Roben, Caroline K. P.; Cole, Pamela M.; Armstrong, Laura Marie
Researchers have suggested that as children's language skill develops in early childhood, it comes to help children regulate their emotions (Cole, Armstrong, & Pemberton, 2010; Kopp, 1989), but the pathways by which this occurs have not been studied empirically. In a longitudinal study of 120 children from 18 to 48 months of age, associations…
Fenech, Marianne; Sumsion, Jennifer; Shepherd, Wendy
The early childhood education (ECE) sector in Australia is marked by a habitus where "professionalism" is confined to objective, technical practices. The authors suggest that this is a diminished view of professionalism, and one that compromises high-quality ECE. This article is concerned with how teacher professionalism can be re-imagined and…
This study analyzes the structural reform of local governments funding for early childhood education (ECE) as the general public still casts doubts about the fairness of ECE system in China. A particular case in point is the Shenzhen Municipal Government's reform on their ECE funding system. Because the reform efforts are more about restructuring…
Yugoslav Inst. for Educational Research, Belgrade.
This annotated bibliography cites journal articles, research, and excerpts from books which treat early childhood education in Yugoslavia. All materials listed were published in the 1970's, with the exception of one article dated 1967. The listing is alphabetical by author. Among the materials annotated are the following: (1) Conforming the…
Prior, Megan A.; Niesz, Tricia
Researchers have suggested that a paucity of research exists on refugee youth in early childhood education settings. Arguing that children's stories provide educators a valuable resource for understanding the meaning children make of initial cross-cultural experiences, this article presents a narrative inquiry into the stories and artwork of three…
Ricard, Richard J.; Brown, Angela; Sanders, Jana
This chapter is part of a book that recounts the year's work at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the dual-language ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and the…
McKee, Bronagh E.; Dillenburger, Karola
International evidence confirms that early childhood educators can enter professional practice unprepared for child protection due to inadequate pre-service preparation. This paper makes an original contribution by using the Child Protection Questionnaire for Educators (CPQE) to examine the pre- and post-intervention child maltreatment and…
Amodei, Michelle L.; Jalongo, Mary Renck; Myers, Jacqueline; Onchwari, Jacqueline; Gargiulo, Richard M.
Publishing outlets in the field of early childhood vary widely in terms of emphasis on theory, practice, and research as they relate to the care and education of the very young; these outlets also have different readerships (i.e., primarily for teachers, the teachers of their teachers, or the fellow scholars/researchers). Included in the mixture…
Jalongo, Mary Renck
College and university faculty members specializing in early childhood education face some unique challenges in scholarly writing. The purpose of this research was to use open-ended interviews as a way to gather the collective wisdom of a group of key informants about academic writing and publishing in the field. Twenty-two editors and/or authors,…
Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.
The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…
Griffin, Darion; Lundy-Ponce, Giselle
The American Federation of Teachers completed a 50-state study of key elements of state policies designed to ensure that all children, especially those most at risk, have full access to early childhood education. Overall, nearly every state provides funds for some type of preschool program, although the breadth of the programs remains limited. A…
Weniger, Godehard; Siemerkus, Jakob; Barke, Antonia; Lange, Claudia; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Sachsse, Ulrich; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Irle, Eva
Present neuroimaging findings suggest two subtypes of trauma response, one characterized predominantly by hyperarousal and intrusions, and the other primarily by dissociative symptoms. The neural underpinnings of these two subtypes need to be better defined. Fourteen women with childhood abuse and the current diagnosis of dissociative amnesia or dissociative identity disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 14 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view (egocentric), lacked any topographical landmarks and could be learned only by using egocentric navigation strategies. Participants with dissociative disorders (DD) were not impaired in learning the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar, although weaker, pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Stronger dissociative disorder severity of participants with DD was related to better virtual maze performance, and to stronger activity increase within the cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. Our results add to the present knowledge of preserved attentional and visuospatial mnemonic functioning in individuals with DD. PMID:23522878
Klanecky, Alicia; McChargue, Dennis E; Bruggeman, Lindsay
Alcohol use to replace inadequate dissociative capabilities, or chemical dissociation, has been linked to college students with childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA). Insofar as CASA-exposed persons experience a restricted range of dissociative capabilities, what remains relatively unclear is whether some desire to achieve greater dissociative experiences. Nonclinical levels of dissociative tendencies have positively predicted alcohol-related blackouts in CASA-exposed students, and dissociation mediated the relations between CASA and intoxication frequency. Although alcohol (similar to dissociation) can reduce physiological and psychological responses to stress, alcohol consumption may be prompted by a desire to dissociate rather than inadequate dissociative tendencies alone. To investigate this interpretation of the chemical dissociation phenomenon, researchers examined the mediating potential of dissociative tendencies using the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) as well as the desire to dissociate concept (ie, a modified version of the DES-II) on the relations between CASA exposure and problematic alcohol use in college students (N = 298). Results indicated that dissociation scores did not replicate previous mediation findings whereas desire to dissociate scores fully mediated CASA exposure and problematic alcohol use. Implications of the results are discussed including possible reasons why prior mediation results were not replicated as well as links to experiential avoidance. PMID:22494227
Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Meade, Christina S.; Kochman, Arlene; Fox, Ashley M.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with HIV sexual risk behavior. Although many psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among HIV-positive persons have been identified, studies predicting continued risk among HIV-positive adults with histories of CSA are limited. This cross-sectional study identified variables predictive of sexual transmission risk behavior among an ethnically diverse sample of 256 HIV-positive adults (women and men who have sex with men; MSM) with CSA histories. Participants were assessed for trauma symptoms, shame related to HIV and sexual trauma, substance use, coping style, and sexual risk behavior. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify variables predictive of unprotected sexual behavior in the past 4 months. Unprotected sex was significantly associated with substance use and trauma-related behavioral difficulties among women and men, and less spiritual coping among men. Unprotected sex with HIV negative or serostatus unknown partners was significantly associated with greater trauma-related behavioral difficulties, more HIV-related shame, and fewer active coping strategies. Thus, trauma symptoms, shame, coping style, and substance use were significantly associated with sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive adults with histories of CSA, with models of prediction differing by gender and partner serostatus. HIV prevention intervention for persons with HIV and CSA histories should address trauma-related behavioral difficulties and enhance coping skills to reduce sexual transmission risk behavior. PMID:17999171