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1

Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations.

Lopez-Castroman J; Melhem N; Birmaher B; Greenhill L; Kolko D; Stanley B; Zelazny J; Brodsky B; Garcia-Nieto R; Burke AK; Mann JJ; Brent DA; Oquendo MA

2013-06-01

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Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations.

Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A

2013-01-01

3

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

Evrim Aktepe

2009-01-01

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Childhood abuse and age at menarche.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Physical and sexual abuse are prevalent social hazards. We sought to examine the association between childhood physical and sexual abuse and age at menarche. METHODS: Among 68,505 participants enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study II, we investigated the association between childhood physical abuse and sexual abuse and menarche before age 11 years (early) or after age 15 years (late) using multivariate logistic regression analysis, mutually adjusting for both types of abuse. RESULTS: Fifty-seven percent of respondents reported some form of physical or sexual abuse in childhood. We found a positive dose-response association between severity of sexual abuse in childhood and risk for early menarche. Compared with women who reported no childhood sexual abuse, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for early menarche in women who reported childhood sexual abuse was 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10, 1.37) for sexual touching and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.66) for forced sexual activity. Severe physical abuse predicted early menarche (AOR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.37). Childhood physical abuse had a dose-response association with late age at menarche: AOR 1.17 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.32) for mild, 1.20 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.33) for moderate, and 1.50 (95% CI: 1.27, 1.77) for severe physical abuse. Sexual abuse was not associated with late menarche. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood abuse was prevalent in this large cohort of U.S. women. Severity of childhood sexual abuse was associated with risk for early onset of menarche, and physical abuse was associated with both early and late onset of menarche.

Boynton-Jarrett R; Wright RJ; Putnam FW; Lividoti Hibert E; Michels KB; Forman MR; Rich-Edwards J

2013-02-01

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Childhood abuse in late-life depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. METHODS: Data were used from 378 depressed and 132 non-depressed persons, aged 60-93 years, from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older persons (NESDO). Childhood abuse included psychological, physical and sexual abuse and emotional neglect. RESULTS: 53% of the depressed older adults reported childhood abuse, compared to 16% of the non-depressed older adults (p<0.001). Using logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and level of education, depression was strongest associated with physical abuse (Odds Ratio ((OR) 13.71; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 3.25-57.91) and least with sexual abuse (OR 5.35; 95% CI 2.36-12.14). Childhood abuse was associated with early-onset (OR 13.73, 95% CI 7.31-25.80), middle age-onset (OR 5.36, 95% CI 2.90-9.90) and late-onset depression (OR 4.74, 95% CI 2.51-8.95). In the late-onset group childhood abuse was associated with an increased number of chronic diseases. LIMITATIONS: Age of depression onset and childhood abuse were asked retrospectively, which may have biased the results. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood abuse is strongly related to late-life depression and its comorbidities, even in the case of late-onset depression. This might suggest that psychological wellbeing can be maintained throughout middle age, but may be disturbed in later life.

Comijs HC; van Exel E; van der Mast RC; Paauw A; Oude Voshaar R; Stek ML

2013-05-01

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Psychological distress in childhood trauma survivors who abuse drugs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationships between the level of childhood maltreatment and current psychological distress were examined in a community sample of 676 substance abusing men and women using a validated self-report instrument (the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) designed to measure physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and physical and emotional neglect. Current levels of self-reported psychological distress/symptoms were measured using a 53-item Brief Symptom Inventory. Prevalence of early trauma ranged from 44% for emotional neglect to 65% for sexual abuse. The severity of all forms of childhood maltreatment were directly associated with current psychological distress.

Medrano MA; Hatch JP; Zule WA; Desmond DP

2002-01-01

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Psychological distress in childhood trauma survivors who abuse drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationships between the level of childhood maltreatment and current psychological distress were examined in a community sample of 676 substance abusing men and women using a validated self-report instrument (the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) designed to measure physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and physical and emotional neglect. Current levels of self-reported psychological distress/symptoms were measured using a 53-item Brief Symptom Inventory. Prevalence of early trauma ranged from 44% for emotional neglect to 65% for sexual abuse. The severity of all forms of childhood maltreatment were directly associated with current psychological distress. PMID:11853127

Medrano, Martha A; Hatch, John P; Zule, William A; Desmond, David P

2002-01-01

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Exposure to childhood neglect and physical abuse and developmental trajectories of heavy episodic drinking from early adolescence into young adulthood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although the literature suggests that childhood maltreatment (CM) relates to adolescent heavy episodic drinking (HED), few studies have examined the long-term effects of CM on adolescent HED. This study is the first to examine associations between exposure to CM and trajectories of HED from adolescence to young adulthood for the US population. METHODS: Four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. A total of 8503 adolescents followed from adolescence (7th-12th grades) into young adulthood (ages 24-32) were assessed on CM and past-year HED frequency. Using growth curve modeling, trajectories of adolescent HED were examined, with subtype, frequency, and severity of CM as the primary independent variables. All of our analyses controlled for common risk factors for adolescent HED, including demographics, parental and peer alcohol use, parental education and employment, family income, parent-child relationship, and adolescent depression. RESULTS: After controlling for potential risk factors, neglect and physical abuse, both individually and in conjunction, were associated with faster increases in HED during adolescence and persistently elevated HED over much of adolescence and young adulthood. The frequency of neglect and physical abuse, individually and in conjunction, was also associated with the trajectory of HED, such that additional instances of these types of maltreatment were associated with faster increases in HED during adolescence and higher rates of peak use during young adulthood. CONCLUSION: Child neglect and physical abuse appear to have long-lasting adverse effects on HED beyond adolescence and throughout much of young adulthood.

Shin SH; Miller DP; Teicher MH

2013-01-01

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Patterns of Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Their Relationships to Other Childhood Abuse and Adult Health  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to cluster women who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) according to their shared patterns of CSA characteristics and (b) to examine differences across clusters on measures of other childhood abuse and adult health. Seven CSA characteristic variables were used for cluster analysis. The seven-cluster…

Hulme, Polly A.; Agrawal, Sangeeta

2004-01-01

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The nurse face childhood sexual abuse diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article discuss nursing diagnosis face sexual abuse victim child, considering magnitude problem in health and psychosexual development repercussions. The objective is reflect about nurse action face childhood sexual abuse situations. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, using bibliographic survey about nurse participation in childhood sexual abuse diagnosis. We believe that is necessary to sensitize nurse about detection responsibility of determinants aspects, attempting for social, cultural and economical children's family context. The result point to the necessity of an efficient and quality nursing assistance, witch is able to identify and recognize psychosocial indicators, having focus in child protection and damage reduction

Lia Leão Ciuffo; Janice Machado da Cunha; Benedita Maria Rêgo Deusdará Rodrigues

2008-01-01

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The nurse face childhood sexual abuse diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article discuss nursing diagnosis face sexual abuse victim child, considering magnitude problem in health and psychosexual development repercussions. The objective is reflect about nurse action face childhood sexual abuse situations. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, using bibliographic survey about nurse participation in childhood sexual abuse diagnosis. We believe that is necessary to sensitize nurse about detection responsibility of determinants aspects, attempting for social, cultural and economical children's family context. The result point to the necessity of an efficient and quality nursing assistance, witch is able to identify and recognize psychosocial indicators, having focus in child protection and damage reduction.

Lia Leão Ciuffo; Janice Machado da Cunha; Benedita Maria Rêgo Deusdará Rodrigues

2008-01-01

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Childhood experiences of perpetrators of child sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study explored the childhood experiences of perpetrators of child sexual abuse. DESIGN AND METHODS: A blend of narrative inquiry and phenomenology was employed. Interviews were conducted with 23 community-dwelling perpetrators (21 males, 2 females). The education of participants ranged from GED to PhD. FINDINGS: There were four types of narratives: There Was No Love; Love Left; Love Was Conflated With Sex; and a Pretty Good Childhood. Chronic sorrow for a painful childhood was evident in most participants. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Cognitive-behavioral treatment may not be optimal for all perpetrators because it is not designed to facilitate recovery from early trauma and loss.

Thomas SP; Phillips K; Carlson K; Shieh E; Kirkwood E; Cabage L; Worley J

2013-07-01

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Frequency of childhood abuse in university students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students and 60 % of them were female. The mean agewas 19.04±1.28 (17-26 years). The emotional (p=0.025),physical (p=0.004) and sexual (p=0.001) abuse of malestudents were significantly higher than female students.The emotional (p=0.009) and total (p=0.026) abuse ofstudents who had families with lower income levels weresignificantly high. Also the frequency of emotional abusein students with divorced parents was significantly increased(p=0.012).Conclusions: Since child abuse and neglect may beassociated with the stresses of family life, the economicand social stresses of family should be determined andsolution advices to these should be developed. A multidisciplinarymanagement is required to detect, treat andrehabilitate the childhood abuse.Key words: Childhood, university student, sexual abuse

Cem Zeren; Erhan Yengil; Adnan Çelikel; Ay?egül Ar?k; Mustafa Arslan

2012-01-01

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Personal constructs, childhood sexual abuse and revictimization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the theoretical framework of Ryle's Procedural Sequence Object Relations Model and Kelly's Personal Construct Theory, this study investigates sex-role polarization of incest survivors and the centrality of abuse within survivors' constructs of men that may contribute to revictimization. Repertory grid methodology was used with 40 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse and 28 non-abused women. Grid measures and psychometric measures were compared between groups of women who had and had not experienced childhood sexual abuse, revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, and survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. Results showed significant differences between survivors and non-abused women, with survivors having higher levels of depression and perceived distress, lower self-esteem and higher self/ideal self discrepancy. Hypothesized differences in sex-role polarization were not found. There were few differences between revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, although revictimized survivors rated 'self now' as more powerful than non-revictimized survivors. No differences were found between survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. In addition to the value of exploring personal constructs, a range of models need to be considered in understanding revictimization and women's construal of men. The implications of using repertory grid methodology for research and clinical work are discussed. PMID:11802849

Freshwater, Kate; Leach, Chris; Aldridge, Jan

2001-09-01

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Early childhood aggression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show...

Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

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Childhood abuse in patients with conversion disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that the assumption of a relationship between conversion disorder and childhood traumatization has a long history, there is little empirical evidence to support this premise. The present study examined this relation and investigated whether hypnotic susceptibility mediates the relation between trauma and conversion symptoms, as suggested by Janet's autohypnosis theory of conversion disorder. METHOD: A total of 54 patients with conversion disorder and 50 matched comparison patients with an affective disorder were administered the Structured Trauma Interview as well as measures of cognitive (Dissociative Experiences Scale) and somatoform (20-item Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire) dissociative experiences. RESULTS: Patients with conversion disorder reported a higher incidence of physical/sexual abuse, a larger number of different types of physical abuse, sexual abuse of longer duration, and incestuous experiences more often than comparison patients. In addition, within the group of patients with conversion disorder, parental dysfunction by the mother-not the father-was associated with higher scores on the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. Physical abuse was associated with a larger number of conversion symptoms (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders). Hypnotic susceptibility proved to partially mediate the relation between physical abuse and conversion symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The present results provide evidence of a relationship between childhood traumatization and conversion disorder.

Roelofs K; Keijsers GP; Hoogduin KA; Näring GW; Moene FC

2002-11-01

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Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3) were females while 382 were males (%41.7). As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abuse and self esteem. As a result of the regression analyses conducted separately, childhood abuse predicted significantly self-esteem, and it has been revealed that just even emotional abuse is major determinant of self-esteem. Result achieved on this issue indicates that students’ self esteem levels decrease as childhood abuse increase.

Özlem Karaku?

2012-01-01

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Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

2006-01-01

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Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

|Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

2006-01-01

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Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Psychological sequelae in adult females reporting childhood ritualistic abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study sought to increase current scientific knowledge about the controversial issue of subjectively reported childhood ritualistic abuse by addressing several key unresolved issues. In particular, the possibility that those reporting ritualistic abuse may be characterized primarily by the severity of their abuse histories or the severity of their present psychological symptoms, rather than the veridicality of the ritualistic events, was explored. Adult female outpatients reporting childhood sexual abuse with ritualistic features were compared with a second group of women who reported childhood sexual abuse without ritualism. Measures included characteristics of childhood sexual and physical abuse, current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status and symptom severity, and severity of current dissociative experiences. Women reporting ritualistic features scored significantly higher on measures of childhood sexual and physical abuse. Neither PTSD diagnostic status nor severity for PTSD nor dissociative experiences were significantly different between the groups. While preliminary in nature, these results suggest that it may be helpful to conceptualize reported childhood ritualistic abuse as indicative of the need to assess carefully for severe abuse and its predictable sequelae within existing traumatic victimization conceptual frameworks.

Lawrence KJ; Cozolino L; Foy DW

1995-08-01

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Childhood physical abuse and differential development of paranormal belief systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.

Perkins SL; Allen R

2006-05-01

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Childhood physical abuse in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan and Asia, few studies have been done of physical and sexual abuse. This study was aimed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse is associated with anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. Methods We divided 564 consecutive new outpatients at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine of Kyushu University Hospital into two groups: a physically abused group and a non-abused group. Psychological test scores and the prevalence of self-injurious behavior were compared between the two groups. Results A history of childhood physical abuse was reported by patients with depressive disorders(12.7%), anxiety disorders(16.7%), eating disorders (16.3%), pain disorders (10.8%), irritable bowel syndrome (12.5%), and functional dyspepsia(7.5%). In both the patients with depressive disorders and those with anxiety disorders, STAI-I (state anxiety) and STAI-II (trait anxiety) were higher in the abused group than in the non-abused group (p In the patients with depressive disorders, the abused group was younger than the non-abused group (p Conclusion A history of childhood physical abuse is associated with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. It is important for physicians to consider the history of abuse in the primary care of these patients.

Handa Masanori; Nukina Hideyuki; Hosoi Masako; Kubo Chiharu

2008-01-01

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Alexithymia and childhood abuse among patients attending primary and psychiatric care: results of the RADEP Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Some authors have suggested that the background of alexithymia is related to affective development during early childhood. OBJECTIVE: Authors studied the associations between alexithymia and childhood emotional neglect and sexual and physical abuse, also taking into account the significance of concomitant psychopathology. METHOD: Associations between childhood difficulties and adulthood alexithymia were studied with samples of primary-care (N=1,033) and mental-health center (N=243) outpatients assessed by The Toronto Alexithymia Scale and questionnaires for depressive, manic, and psychotic symptoms, and childhood difficulties. RESULTS: No association between alexithymia and childhood abuse was found in mental-health center patients. Among primary-care patients, alexithymia total score and difficulty in identifying feelings and difficulty in describing feelings were associated with childhood emotional, sexual, and physical abuse. CONCLUSION: After controlling for psychopathology, there still remained an association with difficulty in identifying feelings and most abuse and neglect variables. These findings serve to strengthen the theory of alexithymia as a developmental process starting in childhood.

Joukamaa M; Luutonen S; von Reventlow H; Patterson P; Karlsson H; Salokangas RK

2008-07-01

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EARLY CHILDHOOD PEREFCTIONISM  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To examine childhood perfectionism in anorexia nervosa (AN) restricting (RAN), purging (PAN), and binge eating with or without purging (BAN) subtypes. Method The EATATE, a retrospective assessment of childhood perfectionism, and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) were administered to 728 AN participants. Results EATATE responses revealed General Childhood Perfectionism, 22.3% of 333 with RAN, 29.2% of 220 with PAN, and 24.8% of 116 with BAN; School Work Perfectionism, 31.2% with RAN, 30.4% with PAN, and 24.8% with BAN; Childhood Order and Symmetry, 18.7% with RAN, 21.7% with PAN, and 17.8% with BAN; and Global Childhood Rigidity, 42.6% with RAN, 48.3% with PAN and 48.1% with BAN. Perfectionism preceded the onset of AN in all subtypes. Significant associations between EDI-2 Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction were present with four EATATE subscales. Discussion Global Childhood Rigidity was the predominate feature that preceded all AN subtypes. This may be a risk factor for AN.

Halmi, Katherine A.; Bellace, Dara; Berthod, Samantha; Ghosh, Samiran; Berrettini, Wade; Brandt, Harry A.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M.; Johnson, Craig L.; Kaplan, Allan; Kaye, Walter H.; Thornton, Laura; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Strober, Michael

2012-01-01

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Questions and Answers about Memories of Childhood Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... with such things as issues of personal adjustment, depression, substance abuse and problems in relationships. The issues of childhood abuse or questionable memory retrieval techniques never enter into the equation in the great majority of therapy relationships. What should I know ...

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Childhood sexual, physical, and psychological abuse in bulimia nervosa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine if rates of childhood sexual, physical, psychological, and multiple abuse (i.e., abuse in more than one form) differed between women with a lifetime history of bulimia nervosa and women with no history of eating disorders. METHOD: Subjects were 80 women, aged 18-35, with a lifetime history of bulimia nervosa (40 women who had recovered for a year or more and 40 women currently suffering from bulimia nervosa) and 40 women who had never had an eating disorder or related difficulties. The cohort was obtained primarily by newspaper advertisement. Subjects participated in structured diagnostic interviews and completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires related to abusive experiences in childhood. RESULTS: Women in the bulimia nervosa group reported higher levels of childhood physical, psychological, and multiple abuse. Contrary to expectation, rates of sexual abuse did not distinguish the groups, except in combination with other forms of abuse. CONCLUSIONS: The higher rates of psychological, physical, and multiple abuse found among women with a lifetime history of bulimia nervosa than among comparison subjects underscore the importance of examining the full range of possible abusive experiences in women with eating disorders, rather than focusing simply on sexual abuse.

Rorty M; Yager J; Rossotto E

1994-08-01

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Sexual abuse in childhood and deliberate self-harm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the association between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent incidents of deliberate self-harm in women. METHOD: A random community sample of women (N = 252) that reported having been sexually abused as children was interviewed and compared to a similarly sized group (N = 225) that did not report abuse. The subgroup of women sexually abused as children who reported subsequent incidents of deliberate self-harm was then contrasted with abused women who did not report self-harm. RESULTS: There was a clear statistical association between sexual abuse in childhood and self-harm that was most marked in those subjected to more intrusive and more frequent abuse. Self-harm was also associated with major interpersonal problems in the subject's family of origin and with becoming involved in further abusive relationships as an adult. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual abuse in childhood is associated with later incidents of deliberate self-harm and may well be an etiologic factor in its development.

Romans SE; Martin JL; Anderson JC; Herbison GP; Mullen PE

1995-09-01

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Extension of the Sexual Abuse Questionnaire to Other Abuse Categories: The Initial Psychometric Validation of the Binghamton Childhood Abuse Screen  

Science.gov (United States)

Study I represents a follow-up to a recently published study dealing with the initial development of the Sexual Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ). The SAQ was designed to be used to identify individuals experiencing psychological distress resulting from a history of childhood sexual abuse. Using a new data set (N = 2,806), this study utilized item…

Castelda, Bryan A.; Levis, Donald J.; Rourke, Patricia A.; Coleman, Shannon L.

2007-01-01

30

Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

Drummond, Murray

2012-01-01

31

The Early Childhood Coaching Handbook  

Science.gov (United States)

|Evidence-based and highly effective, "coaching" helps early childhood practitioners support other professionals and families as they enhance existing knowledge, develop new skills, and promote healthy development of young children. This hands-on guide shows professionals how to conduct skillful coaching in any setting--home, school, or community.…

Rush, Dathan D.; Shelden, M'Lisa L.

2011-01-01

32

Early Childhood Education in Azerbaijan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the Early Learning Childhood Center in Azerbaijan's capital city. Focuses on the goals of the program; its initial development; staff ratios, compensation, and teacher training; curriculum; cultural challenges and compromise; and relationships with parents. Asserts that developing a culturally sensitive program is extremely difficult,…

Starnes, Lisa

2000-01-01

33

Early Childhood Education: The Case of Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now widely recognized that early childhood education has paramount significance for the well-being of societies. In this study, the current situation of early childhood education in Turkey is discussed mainly in terms of its perception by the government, the school enrollment rate and the quality of early childhood education programs. The…

Usakli, Hakan

2010-01-01

34

Language, Literacy and Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

"Language, Literacy and Early Childhood Education" is a comprehensive textbook for all students studying literacy and language subjects in early childhood education and primary degrees. Covering an age range from 0 to 8 years the book encompasses the four main early childhood contexts of: the family and community; childcare; the pre-school years,…

Fellowes, Janet; Oakley, Grace

2011-01-01

35

Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood.

Carroll JE; Gruenewald TL; Taylor SE; Janicki-Deverts D; Matthews KA; Seeman TE

2013-09-01

36

Childhood sexual abuse in women with bulimia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a study of the family environments and psychiatric histories of 35 bulimic women, the authors found that 12 (34.3%) of the 35 women had been sexually abused or had a sister who had been sexually abused. That rate is comparable to estimates from other studies of women with eating disorders and of female psychiatric patients, but is apparently higher than the rate found in the general population. Bulimic women from families in which sexual abuse occurred were more likely than bulimic women with no personal or family history of sexual abuse to have a personal history of major depression, relatives who abused drugs, and a disturbed family environment. The presence of bulimia should alert clinicians to screen for concomitant depression, suicidality, and substance abuse as well as the possibility of severe, if hidden, familial pathology and environmental disruption including sexual abuse, parental psychopathology, and character deficits.

Bulik CM; Sullivan PF; Rorty M

1989-12-01

37

Childhood physical abuse as a common risk factor for depression and thyroid dysfunction in the earlier postpartum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood abuse is a powerful risk factor for developing postpartum depression in adulthood, and recently it has been associated to thyroid dysfunction in postpartum depressive women. The purpose of this study was to investigated the effects of childhood abuse on thyroid status and depressive symptomatology in two hundred and thirty-six (n=236) postpartum women 24-48h after delivery. The Early-Trauma-Inventory Self-Report was used to assess the presence of childhood abuse and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) to evaluate depressive symptomatology (EPDS?11). Free thyroxin (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. Thyroid dysfunction (TD) was defined as altered TSH or TSH and fT4. Socio-demographic, reproductive, and psychopathological variables were also collected. Multivariate analysis shows that childhood physical abuse increases by four times the risk for TD (OR: 3.95, 95% CI: 1.23-12.71) and five times the risk for depressive symptomatology (OR: 5.45, 95% CI: 2.17-13.66) in the earlier postpartum. Our findings suggest that women with history of childhood physical abuse are particularly at-risk for thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptomatology 24-48h after delivery. The assessment of childhood abuse in the perinatal period is important to identify women at-risk for physical and mental health problems in this period.

Plaza A; Garcia-Esteve L; Torres A; Ascaso C; Gelabert E; Luisa Imaz M; Navarro P; Valdés M; Martín-Santos R

2012-12-01

38

Childhood Sexual Abuse: Impact on a Community's Mental Health Status.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the mental health status of the Los Angeles Epidemiologic Catchment Area. A history of CSA was found to significantly increase an individual's odds of developing eight psychiatric disorders in adulthood. CSA's effect on the community level was also found to be substantial.…

Scott, Kathryn D.

1992-01-01

39

Maternal childhood abuse and offspring adjustment over time.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study addressed the basis for the intergenerational transmission of psychosocial risk associated with maternal childhood abuse in relation to offspring adjustment. The study tested how far group differences in individual change in adjustment over time were explained by differences in exposure to specific environmental risk experiences. Data are drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Information on mothers' own experience of childhood abuse, offspring adjustment at ages 4 and 7 years, and hypothesized mediators was available for 5,619 families. A residuals scores analysis was used to track children's adjustment over time. Maternal childhood abuse was associated with poorer behavioral trajectories between ages 4 and 7 years. Children of abused mothers were more likely to experience a range of negative life events between ages 4 and 7 years, including changes in family composition, separations from parents, "shocks and frights" and physical assaults. Interim life events, together with antecedent psychosocial risk (maternal antenatal affective symptoms, age 4 parental hostility, age 4 family type) fully mediated the association between maternal childhood abuse and offspring prognosis.The authors express their gratitude to the families who participated in the study. Support for these analyses was provided by a grant from the Medical Research Council. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is part of the World Health Organisation initiated European Study of Pregnancy and Childhood, and is supported, among others, by the Wellcome Trust, The Department of Health, The Department of the Environment, and the Medical Research Council. The ALSPAC study team comprises interviewers, computer technicians, laboratory technicians, clerical workers, research scientists, volunteers, and managers who continue to make the study possible.

Collishaw S; Dunn J; O'Connor TG; Golding J

2007-01-01

40

Narrative Identity and Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

An intensification of interest in early childhood by government, parents, and employers, focuses primarily on the provision of private early childhood education services outside of the home. With a focus on New Zealand, the paper argues that the form of early education now promoted is a particular form of care and education that moves children…

Farquhar, Sandy

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

The Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator's Role in Teaching Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a strong likelihood that at least one participant in any Lamaze childbirth education class has had personal experience with childhood sexual abuse. Using the wisdom of Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators and respected authors in the field of childhood sexual abuse, this column enlightens the childbirth educator in three ways: understanding the incidence of female and male childhood sexual abuse; understanding the effects of sexual, emotional, physical, and verbal abuse on the pregnant and parenting family; and facilitating classes that are sensitive to the needs of survivors of childhood sexual abuse as well to all expectant parents. PMID:23449947

Hotelling, Barbara A

2012-01-01

42

Exploring the Quality of Early Childhood Education in China: Implications for Early Childhood Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The following article introduces an exploratory study that was designed to measure the quality of early childhood education within its ever changing sociocultural context utilizing the Early Childhood Learning Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) in 40 classrooms in Beijing, China. Implications for early childhood teacher education,…

Hu, Bi Ying; Szente, Judit

2009-01-01

43

Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

2010-01-01

44

Intergenerational associations between a consensual childhood sexual experience and adult substance abuse among Latina mothers and daughters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patria Rojas2,3, Sunny Kim4, Mario De La Rosa2,3, Frank R Dillon2,3, Theophile Niyonsenga1,31Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 2School of Social Work, 3Center for Research on US Latinos HIV/AIDs and Drug Abuse, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Davis, CA, USAPurpose: Early onset of sexual activity has been linked to later substance abuse. Our study aimed to further describe the associations between Latina mothers’ and daughters’ early sexual activity and adult substance abuse.Methods: A survey was conducted with 92 Latina mother–daughter dyads whose members never experienced sexual abuse. Childhood sexual experience was defined as the occurrence of a consensual sexual encounter at the age of 15 years or younger. Substance abusers were identified by the extent of substance use during the 12 months prior to the interview. Path analysis was used to fit our conceptual models to the data.Main findings: Daughters’ current, adult substance abuse was associated independently with: their own childhood sexual experience (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0) and mothers’ current, adult substance abuse (OR = 2.0). Compared with daughters who first experienced sex after the age of 19, the odds of using substances were 17.7 times higher among daughters who had childhood sexual experience and 3.8 times higher among daughters who first experienced sex between the age of 16–19 years. Explicitly, sexual experiences between the ages of 16–19 years were also risk factors for later adult substance abuse. Mothers’ childhood sexual experience (OR = 7.3) was a strong predictor for daughters’ childhood sexual experience.Conclusions: Our study supported a link between mother and daughter childhood sexual experience among Latinas, and indicated it is a correlate of adult substance abuse. Family based substance abuse prevention efforts and future longitudinal studies should consider maternal childhood sexual experience as a potential indication of risk for Latina daughters.Keywords: early sex, child sex, Latina, substance abuse

Patria Rojas; Sunny Kim; Mario De La Rosa; et al

2010-01-01

45

Perceptions of childhood sexual abuse survivors: development and initial validation of a new scale to measure stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and Characteristics, were developed and administered online to 182 participants. Exploratory factor analysis produced 7 factors, 4 for the Emotions Scale and 3 for the Characteristics Scale. Study 2 replicated this factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis (N?=?457). Reliability and validity analyses suggest that the Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale has satisfactory psychometric properties. The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale can be used to examine stereotypes of legal and health care professionals likely to work with survivors as well as in stereotyping research.

Zafar S; Ross EC

2013-01-01

46

Physical Punishment, Childhood Abuse and Psychiatric Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Physical punishment, as a means of disciplining children, may be considered a mild form of childhood adversity. Although many outcomes of physical punishment have been investigated, little attention has been given to the impact of physical punishment on later adult psychopathology. Also, it has been stated that physical punishment by a…

Afifi, Tracie O.; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Cox, Brian J.; Sareen, Jitender

2006-01-01

47

Childhood sexual abuse: impact on a community's mental health status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemiologists have used impact fractions (e.g., attributable fractions) to study the influence of various risk factors on the rates of physical diseases within the community. In this study, impact fractions are applied to a psychiatric epidemiologic problem in order to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the mental health status of a community. Analysis of the Los Angeles Epidemiologic Catchment Area (LAECA) data indicate that a history of CSA significantly increases an individual's odds of developing eight psychiatric disorders in adulthood. On the community level, however, it is estimated that 74% of the exposed psychiatric cases (i.e., those with a history of CSA), and 3.9% of all psychiatric cases within the population can be attributed to childhood sexual abuse. Intervention implications are discussed.

Scott KD

1992-01-01

48

The Importance of Quality Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education can level the academic playing field for Latino children entering school by supporting what parents are doing at home to teach their children the skills necessary to succeed. Yet, only 20% of Latino children under the age of 5 are enrolled in preschool. Many Latinos don't understand why early childhood education is…

Rivera, Miquela

2008-01-01

49

Conduct disorder behaviors, childhood family instability, and childhood abuse as predictors of severity of adult homelessness among American veterans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Despite US federal efforts to end and prevent homelessness among veterans, there has been limited examination of pre-military factors like childhood problems, associated with adult homelessness. This study examined childhood problems among homeless veterans and its relation to severity of homelessness and outcomes in supported housing. METHODS: Using data from 1,161 homeless veterans at 19 sites enrolled in the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) program, three types of childhood problems were examined: conduct disorder behaviors, family instability, and childhood abuse. Multiple regressions were conducted to examine the association between childhood problems and severity of homelessness before supported housing, and childhood problems and outcomes after supported housing. RESULTS: About one-third reported conduct disorder behaviors, over half reported family instability, and 40% reported childhood abuse. Greater childhood problems were found in this sample compared to published samples of non-homeless veterans. Conduct disorder behaviors, family instability, and childhood abuse were each weakly associated with lifetime homeless episodes. One year after enrollment in the HUD-VASH program, past conduct disorder behaviors and family instability were not predictive of outcomes, except childhood abuse was related to less social support and lower quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate not only the potential impact of childhood abuse on social relationships and quality of life in adulthood, but also the resilience of homeless veterans from adverse childhoods to be successfully housed in a supported housing program.

Tsai J; Rosenheck RA

2013-03-01

50

The Economics of Early Childhood Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

What, pray tell, might the so-called "dismal science" of economics have to say about public investment in early childhood programs? Quite a bit, as it turns out. This report from the RAND Corporation takes an economic perspective on such investments, and its intent is to provide policymakers with a primer about "how economic analysis can help set agendas for early childhood policy and identify the economics benefits of targeting certain groups for help." Released in May 2008, the 48-page report draws on concepts including human capital theory and monetary "payoffs" from investments in early childhood programs. The report is divided into four chapters, including "Human Capital Theory" and "Implications for Early Childhood Policy". It's quite a compelling read, and it will be of interest to a broad range of persons working in fields such as early childhood development, economics, and public policy.

2008-01-01

51

Coping and Dissociation among Female College Students: Reporting Childhood Abuse Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationship among coping strategies, dissociation, and childhood abuse experiences of female college students. Results provided support for the theoretical links between 3 types of child abuse experience (sexual abuse, physical abuse, and negative home environment) and coping style and dissociation. The study's results add…

Gipple, Deborah Ellen; Lee, Sang Min; Puig, Ana

2006-01-01

52

[Orofacial aspects of childhood abuse and dental negligence].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this paper was to identify the main oral and dental aspects of childhood abuse and dental neglect, contributing to the identification of these victims in a dental office. A bibliographic research was carried out, in ADOLEC, MEDLINE, LILACS and BBO databases. The following key words were used: child abuse, oral manifestations, dentists; role; liability, legal. It was verified that violence against children happens in general at home and the resulting orofacial injuries encompass: injuries, burns and lacerations on soft and hard tissues, bite marks and gradually-healed wounds. It can have wounds in other parts of the body next to the oral cavity, such as periorbital wound and nasal injury. Regarding sexual abuse, many victims do not present any associated physic signs; therefore, behavioral indicators must be observed. The immediate recognition and report of childhood abuse and dental negligence by dental surgeon are essential for children protection. Therefore, it is critical to define more effective action from those professionals, by registration and denunciation of suspect cases to child protection agencies.

Massoni AC; Ferreira AM; Aragão AK; de Menezes VA; Colares V

2010-03-01

53

Childhood abuse and neglect and cognitive flexibility in adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12-17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with nonperseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with nonperseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction.

Spann MN; Mayes LC; Kalmar JH; Guiney J; Womer FY; Pittman B; Mazure CM; Sinha R; Blumberg HP

2012-01-01

54

Acute leukemia in early childhood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months) has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9), E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4), PML/RARA+ve (N = 4), and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2) cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07), OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31) and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96)], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

M. Emerenciano; S. Koifman; M.S. Pombo-de-Oliveira

2007-01-01

55

Prevalence and Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Adults Consulting for Sexual Problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in individuals consulting for sexual therapy and to explore the association between a history of childhood sexual abuse and psychological and couple functioning. A sample of 218 adults receiving sex therapy completed questionnaires assessing depressive and anxious symptomatology, as well as dyadic adjustment. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse was high in women (56%) and men (37%), and clients with a history of childhood sexual abuse were more likely to report psychological and relationship problems. Findings should aware clinicians of the need to assess sexual trauma and related outcomes.

Berthelot N; Godbout N; Hébert M; Goulet M; Bergeron S

2013-07-01

56

[Risk factors of child abuse and neglect in childhood].  

Science.gov (United States)

Among factors identified as being statistically associated with child abuse, we can broadly distinguish those related to characteristics of the child itself and those related to family characteristics, bearing in mind that parents are the perpetrators of child abuse in the vast majority of cases. Observed among children are: young age (abuse begins very early in life); male sex, as concerns shaken baby syndrome and lethal violence; the presence of mental disability and/or behavioural disorders; and particularly frequently, prematurity, especially if it requires neonatal hospitalisation. In fact, any circumstance that makes early attachment between the newborn and its parents difficult or impossible, such as prematurity or postpartum depression, constitutes a situation of risk for subsequent child abuse. Among parents, psycho-affective factors take precedence over socio-economic factors, which play no role. Child abuse is found in all social classes, as is the transgenerational transmission of violence, with those parents having suffered from abuse as children being more at risk than others of becoming abusive themselves. PMID:21698899

Tursz, Anne

2011-05-01

57

[Risk factors of child abuse and neglect in childhood].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among factors identified as being statistically associated with child abuse, we can broadly distinguish those related to characteristics of the child itself and those related to family characteristics, bearing in mind that parents are the perpetrators of child abuse in the vast majority of cases. Observed among children are: young age (abuse begins very early in life); male sex, as concerns shaken baby syndrome and lethal violence; the presence of mental disability and/or behavioural disorders; and particularly frequently, prematurity, especially if it requires neonatal hospitalisation. In fact, any circumstance that makes early attachment between the newborn and its parents difficult or impossible, such as prematurity or postpartum depression, constitutes a situation of risk for subsequent child abuse. Among parents, psycho-affective factors take precedence over socio-economic factors, which play no role. Child abuse is found in all social classes, as is the transgenerational transmission of violence, with those parents having suffered from abuse as children being more at risk than others of becoming abusive themselves.

Tursz A

2011-05-01

58

Carrying the Pain of Abuse: Gender-Specific Findings on the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Obesity in Adulthood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Childhood abuse has been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including obesity. This study sought to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult obesity, while controlling for five clusters of potentially confounding factors: childhood stressors, socioeconomic indicators, marital status, health behaviors, and mental health. Methods: Representative data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey were selected. The response rate was approximately 84%. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses determined the association between abuse and obesity, while controlling for age and race and five clusters of potentially confounding factors. Of the 12,590 respondents with complete data, 2,787 were obese and 976 reported physical abuse as a child or adolescent by someone close to them. Results: Among women with childhood physical abuse compared to no abuse, the odds of obesity were 35% higher, even when controlling for age, race, and the five clusters of factors (odds ratio (OR) = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09, 1.67). Childhood physical abuse was not associated with adult obesity among men (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.53). Conclusions: This study provides one of the first population-based, gender-specific analyses of the association between childhood physical abuse and obesity controlling for a wide range of factors. The gender-specific findings require further exploration. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Fuller-Thomson E; Sinclair DA; Brennenstuhl S

2013-01-01

59

Symptoms and responses to critical incidents in paramedics who have experienced childhood abuse and neglect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mental and physical symptoms are common in paramedics, which may relate to high work stress, including critical incidents. As previous trauma is a risk factor for psychological symptoms after exposure to critical incidents, the prevalence of childhood experiences with abuse and neglect and paramedics' adaptation to critical incidents may be important. METHODS: 635 paramedics were surveyed regarding childhood experiences of physical, sexual or emotional abuse as well an index critical incident from the past, acute stress responses to that event and current mental and physical symptoms. A comparison group of 159 female hospital-based healthcare workers completed the same survey of childhood abuse and neglect in a separate study. RESULTS: 232 paramedics (36.5%) responded. Among these, physical, sexual or emotional childhood abuse was reported by 38.4%. Female paramedics reported significantly more emotional and physical abuse and neglect than female hospital workers. Paramedics who reported childhood abuse or neglect more frequently experienced signs of acute stress immediately following the index critical incident and for the following 2 weeks. Childhood abuse and neglect were associated with significantly higher scores for depressive symptoms, physical symptoms and burnout, and a higher prevalence of 'cases' scoring above thresholds of clinical significance. CONCLUSION: Childhood abuse may be more common in paramedics than in other healthcare workers, at least in women. Childhood abuse and neglect is associated with acute stress responses to critical incidents and to current physical and mental symptoms. These results are based on a low response rate and may not be generalisable.

Maunder RG; Halpern J; Schwartz B; Gurevich M

2012-03-01

60

Analysis of monoaminergic genes, childhood abuse, and dimensions of psychopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychopathy is a multidimensional construct characterized by an interpersonally manipulative and emotionally detached personality profile that differentiates it from other antisocial syndromes. Previous research with youth has linked the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene in the presence of environmental stress with the interpersonal and affective traits of psychopathy, but these relationships have yet to be examined in relation to adult psychopathy. Consequently, we examined how serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms, monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) variants, and childhood abuse measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire relate to dimensions of psychopathy in a forensic sample of 237 men with elevated levels of environmental adversity. We found that the emotional deficits characterizing the affective factor of psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, were highest among carriers of the 5-HTT long allele. Furthermore, the impulsive and irresponsible lifestyle features of psychopathy were higher among low-activity than high-activity MAO-A carriers. These genetic effects were unexpectedly not moderated by a history of childhood abuse. Results provide evidence on the molecular genetics correlates of psychopathic traits in adulthood, relationships that should be investigated further in future research. PMID:22985017

Sadeh, Naomi; Javdani, Shabnam; Verona, Edelyn

2012-09-17

 
 
 
 
61

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Mediate the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

|Prior research consistently has shown a strong relation between childhood abuse and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), yet it is unclear why this relation exists. The authors examined 2 specific posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters as potential mechanisms through which childhood abuse may be related to NSSI. Participants were 86…

Weierich, Mariann R.; Nock, Matthew K.

2008-01-01

62

Childhood abuse and neglect and cognitive flexibility in adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12-17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with nonperseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with nonperseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction. PMID:21942637

Spann, Marisa N; Mayes, Linda C; Kalmar, Jessica H; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M; Sinha, Rajita; Blumberg, Hilary P

2011-09-26

63

Overcoming sequelae of childhood sexual abuse with stress management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The immense stress associated with experiencing and surviving childhood sexual abuse directly influences coping, immune function and overall health. Lifelong overuse of maladaptive coping strategies results in impaired adjustment to stress. The purpose of this research was to re-examine if stress management education would be effective in improving coping skills for this population. Two 4-week series of stress management workshops were completed by 32 adult survivors who completed the ways of coping questionnaire before and after the training. Four categories of coping showed significant change. Stress management education is an effective and cost-efficient approach that gives adult survivors an empowering set of tools for their healing journey.

Wilson DR; Vidal B; Wilson WA; Salyer SL

2012-09-01

64

Study Guide for TCT in Early Childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study guide is designed for those individuals who are preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in early childhhood education. Educators from across the State of Georgia participated in the preparation of this guide. The TCT in early childhood education addresses seven areas: (1) art; (2) language arts; (3) mathematics;…

Pruitt, Linda H.

65

Early life stress and PTSD symptoms in patients with comorbid schizophrenia and substance abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The comorbidity of schizophrenia and substance abuse is well documented and is remarkable for its prevalence and poor prognosis. While the etiology for this association is unknown, one possible mechanism relates to traumatic early life experiences, which have been shown to predispose individuals to both psychosis and substance abuse. METHODS: Participants (N=122) who were outpatients in an inner city public mental health clinic and who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, were administered a battery of structured clinical assessments including the Childhood Traumatic Events Scale (CTES), Davidson PTSD rating scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), and assessments of medication satisfaction and side effects. Patients with schizophrenia and a history of substance abuse (N=70) were compared to patients with schizophrenia who did not have a history of substance abuse (N=52). RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia and a history of substance abuse had significantly higher frequency and severity of childhood traumatic events, greater PTSD symptomatology, significantly higher depression scores, and higher scores on the general subscale of the PANSS. DISCUSSION: Our findings lend support to the notion that sensitization to stress from early life experiences may be a factor contributing to the high rate of substance abuse comorbidity in patients with schizophrenia.

Scheller-Gilkey G; Moynes K; Cooper I; Kant C; Miller AH

2004-08-01

66

Childhood sexual abuse, adult psychiatric morbidity, and criminal outcomes in women assessed by medium secure forensic service.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of this group were victims of a subsequent sexual assault in adulthood. The perpetrators were all male. The majority of intrafamilial cases resulted in victims being raised in environments outside the family home. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with later relationship, educational, and occupational difficulties. Significant associations were also seen with personality disorder, self-harm, and substance misuse. Treating services need to recognize the potential importance of childhood sexual abuse in their models of care given the complexity of the association between childhood sexual abuse and psychosocial needs and its impact on successful rehabilitation. PMID:23428151

Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

2013-01-01

67

Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased.

Wilson JE; Wilson KM

2008-12-01

68

Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased. PMID:18355799

Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

2008-01-18

69

Childhood Abuse and Level of Manifested Anxiety in Adult Patients with Anxiety Disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The relation of the childhood abuse with anxiety disorders is reported in numerous studies. Aim: Relation between the childhood abuse and level of manifested anxiety in adult patients with anxiety disorders. Material and Methods: The severity of the emotional and physical childhood abuse is measured with the CTQ, while the level of manifest anxiety of the patients is measured with the TMAS. Both questionnaires were administered to 96 patients with AD (32 with panic disorder, 32 with social phobia and 32 with generalized anxiety disorder) according ICD10. Results: In 35.42% of the examined patients was found abuse during the childhood. Childhood emotional abuse was higher among female patients. There is a statistically significant difference in the severity of the manifest anxiety between various groups of AD. Statistically significant relation between the physical and emotional abuse in childhood and the level of manifest anxiety of all three clinical groups that were examined was found. Conclusion: These findings confirm the correlation between childhood physical and emotional abuse and the level of manifest anxiety in adult patients with anxiety disorders.

Dimitar Bonevski; Antoni Novotni; Marija Raleva; Andromahi Naumovska

2012-01-01

70

Early childhood predictors of early substance use and substance use disorders: prospective study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine the longitudinal association between early childhood factors and early initiation of use of substances and substance use disorders in a large prospective study. METHOD: Data were from the Mater Hospital University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a prospective birth cohort study in Brisbane, Australia. Use of nicotine, alcohol and cannabis and age of initiation of such use were reported at the 21 year follow up. DSM-IV diagnosis of nicotine, alcohol and cannabis use disorders was assessed at 21 years using a computerized version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-Auto). Early childhood factors were measured between mother's pregnancy and child age 5 years. RESULTS: Of the 3647 respondents with complete data, 15.4% had started to smoke cigarettes before 15 years. Another 17.4% and 12.2% reported having started to consume alcohol or use cannabis in early adolescence, respectively. Some 16.2%, 27.8% and 21.9% had ever had nicotine, alcohol or cannabis abuse or dependence (disorder) by 21 years, respectively. In multivariate models early initiation of use of substances, and substance use disorders were associated with disrupted families or drug-using parents, childhood problem behaviours, and poor parental monitoring and supervision in childhood. CONCLUSIONS: There are four independent factors in early or middle childhood that predict early initiation of use of substances and subsequent substance use disorders by early adulthood. There is a need to consider whether what is known about the risk factors that predict young age of substance use, and substance use disorders, may be incorporated into treatment and/or prevention initiatives.

Hayatbakhsh MR; Mamun AA; Najman JM; O'Callaghan MJ; Bor W; Alati R

2008-08-01

71

Overcoming sequelae of childhood sexual abuse with stress management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immense stress associated with experiencing and surviving childhood sexual abuse directly influences coping, immune function and overall health. Lifelong overuse of maladaptive coping strategies results in impaired adjustment to stress. The purpose of this research was to re-examine if stress management education would be effective in improving coping skills for this population. Two 4-week series of stress management workshops were completed by 32 adult survivors who completed the ways of coping questionnaire before and after the training. Four categories of coping showed significant change. Stress management education is an effective and cost-efficient approach that gives adult survivors an empowering set of tools for their healing journey. PMID:22070354

Wilson, D R; Vidal, B; Wilson, W A; Salyer, S L

2011-09-23

72

45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Education and early childhood development...and Health Services § 1304.21 Education and early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children....

2012-10-01

73

Early childhood care and education in Cambodia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses child care and education policy in Cambodia, a country where there is currently a strong commitment to Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). This is done by (i) providing an overview of national statistics related to the health and development of young Cambodian children and...

Rao, N; Pearson, V

74

Twelve Characteristics of Effective Early Childhood Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Ever wonder what draws teachers to the field of early childhood education? Do you have the personal attributes needed? Unlike knowledge or skills, which can be developed, dispositions are personal characteristics involving the socioemotional and spiritual realms, rooted in feelings and beliefs. Colker reviews the literature on teacher…

Colker, Laura

2008-01-01

75

Prevalence of childhood physical and sexual abuse in veterans with psychiatric diagnoses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the prevalence of childhood (? 18 years) physical and sexual abuse reported among patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient service and the differential rates of this abuse associated with psychiatric diagnoses. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 603 patients admitted to a psychiatric ward during a period of 1 year at Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center who had data on childhood physical and sexual abuse. The prevalence of reported childhood physical or sexual abuse in this inpatient clinical population was 19.4% (117/603). The prevalence of reported physical abuse was 22.6% (19/84) in the women and 12.0% (62/519) in the men (p = 0.008); the prevalence of sexual abuse was 33.3% (28/84) in the women and 7.7% (40/519) in the men (p < 0.0001). More patients with depressive disorders reported sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. More patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported physical and sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. Stratifying by race, sex, and diagnoses, multivariate analyses showed that the women with PTSD had a greater likelihood to report physical abuse (p = 0.03) and sexual abuse histories (p = 0.008) than did the women without PTSD. The men with substance-induced mood disorder (p = 0.01) were more likely to report physical abuse compared with the men without substance-induced mood disorder. Screening for abuse in patients with depressive disorders and PTSD is warranted to tailor individualized treatments for these patients. More research is needed to better understand the potential implications of childhood abuse on psychiatric diagnoses.

Koola MM; Qualls C; Kelly DL; Skelton K; Bradley B; Amar R; Duncan EJ

2013-04-01

76

Contemporary Trends and Developments in Early Childhood Education in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education in China has gone through a century-long development process and has made great progress in the past two decades. Contemporary early childhood education is becoming diverse in its forms and educational approaches, and is aligning itself with the increasingly open and diversified society. It is clear that early childhood

Zhu, Jiaxiong; Zhang, Jie

2008-01-01

77

Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada: Issues of Context  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…

Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.

2012-01-01

78

Changing Curriculum for Early Childhood Education in England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines early childhood curriculum in England. Traditional early childhood education in England has been child centered, in contrast to approaches that are subject centered and teacher directed, emphasizing individual children?s interests, free play, firsthand experience, and integrated learning. However, recently, the government introduced a framework for an early years curriculum, redefined the child-centered educational model, and initiated reforms for raising standards. In order to identify the nature of early childhood curriculum in England, this article examines the historical development and philosophical underpinnings of early childhood education, including recent developments. The article then investigates and describes the early childhood curriculum in England today.

Young-Ihm Kwon

2002-01-01

79

Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: a clinical syndrome. Report of 37 cases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty-seven adult dissociative disorder patients who reported ritual abuse in childhood by satanic cults are described. Patients came from a variety of separate clinical settings and geographical locations and reported a number of similar abuses. The most frequently reported types of ritual abuse are outlined, and a clinical syndrome is presented which includes dissociative states with satanic overtones, severe post-traumatic stress disorder, survivor guilt, bizarre self abuse, unusual fears, sexualization of sadistic impulses, indoctrinated beliefs, and substance abuse. Questions relating to issues of reliability, credibility and verifiability are addressed in depth, and the findings and implications are discussed.

Young WC; Sachs RG; Braun BG; Watkins RT

1991-01-01

80

Failure to find association between childhood abuse and cognition in first-episode psychosis patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the relationship between severe childhood abuse and cognitive functions in first-episode psychosis patients and geographically-matched controls. Reports of any abuse were associated with lower scores in the executive function domain in the control group. However, in contrast with our hypothesis, no relationships were found amongst cases.

Sideli L; Fisher HL; Russo M; Murray RM; Stilo SA; Wiffen BD; O'Connor JA; Aurora Falcone M; Pintore SM; Ferraro L; Mule' A; La Barbera D; Morgan C; Di Forti M

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in a Representative Sample of College Students in Samsun, Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this article is to obtain the prevalence of childhood physical abuse experiences in college students. This cross-sectional study was performed on a gender-stratified random sample of 988 participants studying at Ondokuz Mayis University, with self-reported anonymous questionnaires. It included questions on physical abuse in…

Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Ozkanli, Caglar

2010-01-01

82

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

2007-01-01

83

Impact of Remembering Childhood Sexual Abuse on Addiction Recovery for Young Adult Lesbians  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.

Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela

2011-01-01

84

Early childhood tuberculosis in northwestern Tanzania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SETTING: Data on pediatric tuberculosis (TB) from TB-endemic, resource-constrained regions are limited, impacting awareness of disease burden and influencing diagnostic actions. OBJECTIVE: To obtain recorded incidence of childhood (age <5 years) TB in Mwanza Municipality, Tanzania, to estimate true incidence and to explore setting-specific reasons for differences. DESIGN: Recorded incidence of pediatric TB (2006-2010) was obtained from Mwanzan TB registries. Incident smear-positive pulmonary TB cases recruited from four TB clinics were used to estimate children exposed and the theoretical incidence of disease, assuming that either 10% or 23% of children would progress to disease following exposure. Reasons for underestimation were evaluated in the medical records of children who died at a secondary hospital. RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2010, 279 early childhood TB cases were recorded (TB incidence 63/100,000/year). Over a 3-month period in 2011, 44% of smear-positive TB patients being treated in Mwanza were living with a total of 139 children. From census data, we estimated that 1279 children were exposed in Mwanza in 2011. Using estimates of the likelihood of disease progression, the theoretical incidence of early childhood TB ranged from 134.2 to 308.5/100,000/year. CONCLUSIONS: The true burden of early childhood TB is likely much higher than recorded. Age-specific reporting, increasing clinical awareness and screening may reduce the magnitude of underdiagnosis in this vulnerable population.

Praygod G; Todd J; McDermid JM

2012-11-01

85

Childhood abuse as a risk factor for adolescent pregnancy in El Salvador.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine whether having been abused as a child increases the risk of adolescent pregnancy in El Salvador and whether intimate partner violence during adolescence affects the association. METHODS: Using data from 3753 women between the ages of 15 and 24 from a nationally representative household health survey of Salvadoran women (FESAL 2002/2003), the association between history of childhood abuse (emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, and witnessing abuse of one's mother) and adolescent pregnancy was explored using multiple logistic regression analyses. The effect of intimate partner violence during adolescence on the relationship was explored among a subgroup of 15-19-year-olds. RESULTS: The risk of adolescent pregnancy was significantly higher among women abused as children. Women who were sexually abused, physically abused, or who experienced any type of abuse had a 48%, 42%, and 31% higher risk, respectively, of adolescent pregnancy than those without a history of abuse, after adjusting for confounding factors. Intimate partner violence during adolescence was also strongly and significantly linked with adolescent pregnancy risk. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study from a Latin American country to demonstrate a relationship between childhood abuse and adolescent pregnancy. Greater efforts are needed to promote detection of abuse, expand knowledge about sexual and reproductive health, protect vulnerable youth, and to advocate for greater rights and social protections to Salvadoran children and adolescents.

Pallitto CC; Murillo V

2008-06-01

86

The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2) were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

Mohammad Narimani; Mansour Mahmoodi-Aghdam; Abbas Abolghasemi

2012-01-01

87

Childhood abuse and later parenting outcomes in two American Indian tribes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship of childhood physical and sexual abuse with reported parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment later in life among American Indians (AIs). METHODS: AIs from Southwest and Northern Plains tribes who participated in a large-scale community-based study (n=3,084) were asked about traumatic events and family history; those with children were asked questions about their parenting experiences. Regression models estimated the relationships between childhood abuse and parenting satisfaction or parenting role impairment, and tested for mediation by depression or substance use disorders. RESULTS: Lifetime substance use disorder fully mediated the relationship between childhood physical abuse and both parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment in the Northern Plains tribe. There was only partial mediation between childhood sexual abuse and parenting role impairment in the Southwest. In both tribes, lifetime depression did not meet the criteria for mediation of the relationship between childhood abuse and the two parenting outcomes. Instrumental and perceived social support significantly enhanced parenting satisfaction; negative social support reduced satisfaction and increased the likelihood of parenting role impairment. Exposure to parental violence while growing up had deleterious effects on parenting outcomes. Mothers and fathers did not differ significantly in the relation of childhood abuse experience and later parenting outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Strong effects of social support and mediation of substance abuse disorders in the Northern Plains offer direct ways in which childhood victims of abuse could be helped to avoid negative attributes of parenting that could put their own children at risk. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Mothers were not significantly different from fathers in the relation of abusive childhood experiences and later parenting outcomes, indicating both are candidates for interventions. Strong effects of social support offer avenues for interventions to parents. The prevalence of substance use disorders and their role as a mediator of two parenting outcomes in the Northern Plains should focus special attention on substance use treatment, especially among those who experienced childhood victimization. These factors offer direct ways in which childhood victims of abuse can be helped to avoid negative attributes of parenting that could put their own children at risk of violence.

Libby AM; Orton HD; Beals J; Buchwald D; Manson SM

2008-02-01

88

Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). A group of 5-month-olds (n = 201) were classified as short or long lookers. At 24, 36, and 48 months of age, children completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Infant short lookers (i.e., more efficient information processors) exhibited higher EF throughout early childhood as compared to infant long lookers, even after controlling for verbal ability (a potential indicator of intelligence). These findings are discussed in relation to the emergence of executive attention.

Cuevas K; Bell MA

2013-05-01

89

The influence of childhood abuse and adult attachment style on clinical relationships in breast cancer care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: In a previous report, breast cancer patients reporting a history of childhood abuse were less likely to feel fully supported in their relationships with clinical staff than were patients who did not report an abuse history. Our aims were to replicate this effect, to test whether surgeons' difficulties in these relationships mediated the relationship of abuse to patients feeling less supported, and to test whether patients' attachment style mediates the influence of abuse on patients' or surgeons' experience of the relationship. METHOD: Women with primary breast cancer (N = 100) completed self-report questionnaires around the time of surgery to assess: emotional distress; adult attachment (models of self and other); sexual, physical and emotional abuse before age 16; and childhood parental care. After consultation three weeks post-operatively patients and surgeons completed self-report questionnaires to measure, respectively, patients' perceptions of support from the surgeon, and surgeons' perceptions of difficulty in their relationship with the patient. RESULTS: Patients recalling abuse were more than seven times more likely to feel incompletely supported by the surgeon than those not recalling abuse, after controlling for emotional distress. Surgeons reported greater difficulty in relationships with patients recalling abuse than with non-abused patients. Attachment (poor model of self) mediated the relationship of abuse with patient perceptions of incomplete support, but not the relationship with surgeon ratings of difficulty. CONCLUSION: The damaging effects of childhood abuse on adult relationships extend to relationships with surgeons in cancer care. While effects of abuse on attachment can explain the damage that patients experience, mediators of the difficulty that surgeons experience need further research.

Clark L; Beesley H; Holcombe C; Salmon P

2011-11-01

90

Prevalence of childhood trauma in a community sample of substance-abusing women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of positive trauma histories in a community sample of intravenous drug using (IVDU) women for five subsets of childhood trauma (emotional abuse or neglect, physical abuse or neglect, and sexual abuse) and to compare demographic variables between the abused versus nonabused groups. Of the 181 women who completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), 109 (60.2%) were sexually abused, 100 (55.2%) were physically abused, 83 (45.9%) were emotionally abused, 151 (83.4%) were emotionally neglected, and 108 (59.7%) were physically neglected. There were no statistically significant findings for age, ethnicity, and educational level. Those subjects that were physically neglected were more likely not to be in a current relationship compared to those subjects that were not abused (p = .036). The findings suggest that the prevalence of all five childhood traumas was higher than what has been reported in the general population, and that physical neglect of individuals may predict lack of current significant relationships. PMID:10473008

Medrano, M A; Zule, W A; Hatch, J; Desmond, D P

1999-08-01

91

Prevalence of childhood trauma in a community sample of substance-abusing women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of positive trauma histories in a community sample of intravenous drug using (IVDU) women for five subsets of childhood trauma (emotional abuse or neglect, physical abuse or neglect, and sexual abuse) and to compare demographic variables between the abused versus nonabused groups. Of the 181 women who completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), 109 (60.2%) were sexually abused, 100 (55.2%) were physically abused, 83 (45.9%) were emotionally abused, 151 (83.4%) were emotionally neglected, and 108 (59.7%) were physically neglected. There were no statistically significant findings for age, ethnicity, and educational level. Those subjects that were physically neglected were more likely not to be in a current relationship compared to those subjects that were not abused (p = .036). The findings suggest that the prevalence of all five childhood traumas was higher than what has been reported in the general population, and that physical neglect of individuals may predict lack of current significant relationships.

Medrano MA; Zule WA; Hatch J; Desmond DP

1999-08-01

92

Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

2011-01-01

93

Prevalence of self-reported childhood abuse in psychosis: A meta-analysis of retrospective studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is extensive clinical literature reporting traumatic childhood experiences in patients with psychosis. A quantitative meta-analysis addressing the prevalence of self-reported childhood sexual (CSA), physical (CPA) and emotional abuse (CEA) in psychotic patients has yet to be done. We conducted, a systematic literature search to identify retrospective studies addressing self-reported childhood abuse in patients with DSM/ICD psychosis. Demographic, clinical, and methodological variables were extracted from each publication, or obtained directly from its authors. Quantitative meta-analysis of CSA, CPA, CEA in the sample of patients was performed. Statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed and meta-regressions performed to control for different moderators. Twenty-three studies were retrieved and included a total of 2017 psychotic patients. The prevalence of self-reported CSA, CPA, CEA were respectively of 26%, 39% and 34%. Age, publication year, gender and substance abuse moderated CSA, while age, clinical setting and substance abuse moderated CPA. Results indicated that CEA was moderated by gender and publication year of the study. According to our meta-analysis, psychotic patients have a consistently high self-report of childhood traumatic events which are sexual, physical and emotional in nature. It is our opinion that clinicians should be trained and skilled to carefully investigate childhood abuse in psychosis.

Bonoldi I; Simeone E; Rocchetti M; Codjoe L; Rossi G; Gambi F; Balottin U; Caverzasi E; Politi P; Fusar-Poli P

2013-06-01

94

Cannabinoid receptor genotype moderation of the effects of childhood physical abuse on anhedonia and depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in stress adaptation and the regulation of mood in rodent studies, but few human association studies have examined these links and replications are limited. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a synonymous polymorphism, rs1049353, in exon 4 of the gene encoding the human endocannabinoid receptor (CNR1) moderates the effect of self-reported childhood physical abuse on lifetime anhedonia and depression and to replicate this interaction in an independent sample. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Genetic association study in 1041 young US women with replication in an independent Australian sample of 1428 heroin-dependent individuals as cases and 506 participants as neighborhood controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported anhedonia and depression (with anhedonia). RESULTS: In both samples, individuals who experienced childhood physical abuse were considerably more likely to report lifetime anhedonia. However, in those with 1 or more copies of the minor allele of rs1049353, this pathogenic effect of childhood physical abuse was attenuated. Thus, in participants reporting childhood physical abuse, although 57.1% of those homozygous for the major allele reported anhedonia, only 28.6% of those who were carriers of the minor allele reported it (P=.01). The rs1049353 polymorphism also buffered the effects of childhood physical abuse on major depressive disorder; however, this influence was largely attributable to anhedonic depression. These effects were also noted in an independent sample, in which minor allele carriers were at decreased risk for anhedonia even when exposed to physical abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with preclinical findings, a synonymous CNR1 polymorphism, rs1049353, is linked to the effects of stress attributable to childhood physical abuse on anhedonia and anhedonic depression. This polymorphism reportedly resides in the neighborhood of an exon splice enhancer; hence, future studies should carefully examine its effect on expression and conformational variation in CNR1, particularly in relation to stress adaptation.

Agrawal A; Nelson EC; Littlefield AK; Bucholz KK; Degenhardt L; Henders AK; Madden PA; Martin NG; Montgomery GW; Pergadia ML; Sher KJ; Heath AC; Lynskey MT

2012-07-01

95

Cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) genotype moderates the effects of childhood physical abuse on anhedonia and depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Context The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in stress adaptation and the regulation of mood in rodent studies, but few human association studies have examined these links and replications are limited. Objective To examine whether a synonymous polymorphism, rs1049353, in exon 4 of the gene encoding the human endocannabinoid receptor (CNR1) moderates the effect of self-reported childhood physical abuse on lifetime anhedonia and depression and further, to replicate this interaction in an independent sample. Design Genetic association study in 1041 young adult U.S. women with replication in an independent Australian sample of 1428 heroin dependent cases and 506 neighborhood controls. Main outcome measure Self-reported anhedonia and depression (with anhedonia). Results In both samples, those who experienced childhood physical abuse were considerably more likely to report lifetime anhedonia. However, in those with one or more copies of the minor allele of rs1049353, this pathogenic effect of childhood physical abuse was attenuated. Thus, in those reporting childhood physical abuse, while 57% of those homozygous for the major allele reported anhedonia, only 29% of those who were carriers of the minor allele reported it (p < 0.02). rs1049353 also buffered the effects of childhood physical abuse on major depressive disorder, however this influence was largely attributable to anhedonic depression. These effects were also noted in an independent sample, where minor allele carriers were at decreased risk for anhedonia even when exposed to physical abuse. Conclusions Consistent with preclinical findings, a synonymous CNR1 polymorphism, rs1049353, is linked to the effects of stress attributable to childhood physical abuse on anhedonia and anhedonic depression. This polymorphism reportedly resides in the neighborhood of an exon splice enhancer and hence, future studies should carefully examine its impact on expression and conformational variation in CNR1, particularly in relation to stress adaptation.

Agrawal, Arpana; Nelson, Elliot C.; Littlefield, Andrew K.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Degenhardt, Louisa; Henders, Anjali K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Heath, Andrew C.; Lynskey, Michael T.

2013-01-01

96

Childhood sexual, physical, and psychological abuse and their relationship to comorbid psychopathology in bulimia nervosa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the relationship between childhood sexual, physical, psychological, and "multiple" abuse (i.e., abuse in more than one form) and comorbid Axis I and personality psychopathology among women with a lifetime history of bulimia nervosa (BN group; n =s 80) and a control group of noneating-disordered women (n = 40). Subjects were recruited primarily by newspaper advertisement. They participated in structured clinical interviews for diagnosis of Axis I and personality pathology, and they completed child abuse questionnaires in the interview setting. At odds with prediction, child abuse in various forms was not associated with the presence of lifetime comorbid Axis I disorders in general (i.e., 1 or more) or disorder classes in particular (mood, alcohol/substance use, anxiety) among BN subjects, although sexual, psychological, and multiple abuse were associated with the diagnosis of a higher total number of Axis I conditions. A history of psychological and multiple abuse (but not physical or sexual abuse alone) among BN subjects was strongly associated with the presence of personality disorder diagnoses, especially those in the "anxious-fearful" cluster (Cluster C). Finally, we found that when a personality disorder was present in addition to the Axis I conditions in question, significant relationships emerged between abuse and Axis I pathology, particularly for psychological and multiple abuse. In general, control group findings were in accord with BN group findings, indicating that our findings were not specific to eating-disordered women. Our results suggest that childhood abuse, particularly psychological abuse and abuse in multiple forms, increase the likelihood of lifetime comorbid Axis I disorders and personality pathology among bulimic patients. Eating-disordered women with a history of child abuse may thus represent a subgroup of patients requiring especially intensive intervention.

Rorty M; Yager J; Rossotto E

1994-12-01

97

The contribution of childhood emotional abuse to teen dating violence among child protective services-involved youth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional abuse for understanding adolescent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and dating violence. Further, PTSD symptomatology is assessed as an explanatory bridge in the emotional abuse-teen dating violence link. METHODS: A random sample of 402 youth from the active caseload of a large urban CPS catchment area participated as part of a larger longitudinal study on adolescent health behaviors. Mid-adolescent youth across types of CPS status were targeted. CPS youth reported on lifetime maltreatment experiences, PTSD symptomatology, and past year dating experiences, using published scales. RESULTS: Over 85% of CPS youth had begun dating. For dating youth, some level of dating violence was common: over half of females (63-67%) and nearly half of males (44-49%). Taking into account other forms of maltreatment, emotional abuse emerged as a significant predictor of both PTSD symptomatology and dating violence among males and females. PTSD symptomatology was a significant mediator of the male emotional abuse-perpetration and the female emotional/physical abuse-victimization links, indicating a gendered patterning to findings. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that: (1) CPS youth are a high priority group for dating violence and PTSD-linked intervention; and (2) CPS youth continue to experience the unique negative impact of childhood emotional abuse in their adolescent adjustment. All CPS children should be evaluated for emotional abuse incurred, and appropriate intervention attention be given as to how it specifically impacts on the child's approach to relating to themselves and to others. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The present study directs practice implications in regards to: (1) the problem of teen dating violence, (2) the salience of childhood emotional abuse; and (3) the importance of targeting PTSD symptomatolgy among CPS youth. A substantial number of CPS youth report early engagement in violent romantic relationships and require support towards attaining the non-coercive relationship experiences of their non-CPS-involved age mates. The topic of dating, healthy dating relationships, and dating violence may need to be part of the regular casework, with a view towards supporting youths' conceptualization of and skill set for healthy, close relationships. Further, this knowledge needs to be translated to foster parents and group home staff. With regard to the impact of childhood emotional abuse, CPS workers need to be sensitive to its potential for long-term, unique impact impairing relationship development. Emotional abuse is (a) unique among genders (i.e., for females, it clusters with physical abuse) and (b) uniquely predictive of PTSD symptoms and dating violence. Finally, as is consistent with theory and biopsychosocial evidence, PTSD symptomatology is a key causal candidate for understanding maltreatment-related impairment. Attention to targeting PTSD symptoms may be preventative for dating violence; attention to targeting emotional abuse experiences may be preventative for PTSD symptoms. CPS youth are an important population to involve in research, as their inclusion adds to the evidence-base to achieve evidence-informed practice and policy within child welfare.

Wekerle C; Leung E; Wall AM; MacMillan H; Boyle M; Trocme N; Waechter R

2009-01-01

98

Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adult Vulnerability to PTSD: The Mediating Effects of Attachment and Dissociation  

Science.gov (United States)

Two hundred and eighty-four adults from the metropolitan New York area reported on their history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical abuse (CPA), and on the nature of their exposure to the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The respondents also completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Attachment Style…

Twaite, James A.; Rodriguez-Srednicki, Ofelia

2004-01-01

99

Early Childhood Presentation of Czech Dysplasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Czech dysplasia, metatarsal type is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder that is characterized by early-onset, progressive arthritis, brachydactyly of the 3rd and 4th toes, and characteristic radiographic findings in patients of normal stature. Patients with Czech dysplasia typically present in late childhood or later. In the present report, whole exome sequencing identified a mutation in COL2A1 (c.823C>T, p.R275C) known to be associated with Czech dysplasia in a 3.5 year old female who had a family history of early-onset arthritis and who was asymptomatic except for prominent knees. The use of whole exome sequencing facilitated diagnosis of this rare disease (less than 15 families in the literature) in the presymptomatic period and thus enabled us to provide early anticipatory guidance and genetic counseling for the family.

Burrage, Lindsay C.; Lu, James T.; Liu, David S.; Moss, Timothy J.; Gibbs, Richard; Schlesinger, Alan E.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Campeau, Philippe M.; Lee, Brendan H.

2013-01-01

100

Preschool Is School, Sometimes: Making Early Childhood Education Matter  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, providsion of early learning experiences to children has found a place on political agendas nationwide. Increasingly, early childhood education is viewed as a point of leverage for addressing low levels of, and gaps in, K-12 achievement. This article discusses what people know about the quality of existing early-childhood

Pianta, Robert C.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Abuse in childhood and religious/spiritual status in adulthood among internal medicine outpatients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between abuse in childhood and religiosity/spirituality status in adulthood has been previously studied, but not in a medical sample or with the current study measure. Using a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 317 internal medicine outpatients, we asked participants, "As a child, were you the victim of either physical or sexual abuse?," and assessed religiosity/spirituality status with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp-12). We found that among the cohort with abuse in childhood, seven of twelve scales as well as the overall FACIT-Sp-12 score demonstrated statistically significant differences, with abused participants consistently evidencing lower religiosity/spirituality scores. PMID:22395752

Sansone, Randy A; Kelley, Amy R; Forbis, Jeremy S

2013-12-01

102

CREB1 modulates the influence of childhood sexual abuse on adult's anger traits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood maltreatment and genes underlie vulnerability to suicidal behaviours (SB), possibly by affecting the constitution of endophenotypes such as anger traits. The CREB protein has been implicated in antidepressant response, suicide and mood disorders in general. The aim of this study was to investigate if CREB1 gene is associated with SB and/or anger-related traits and if these associations are modulated by childhood maltreatment. Five hundred and thirty-four male suicide attempters and 357 male non-suicide attempters were genotyped for several polymorphisms within CREB1 gene. Four hundred and thirty-seven (156 non-suicide attempters and 281 suicide attempters) completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and 288 (265 suicide attempters and 23 controls) fulfilled the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). In total, 72 males had experienced childhood sexual abuse. Our results did not show any significant association between CREB1 and suicide behaviour. We found a significant interaction showing that CREB1 rs4675690 polymorphism modulated the effect of childhood sexual abuse on adulthood anger-out levels (P = 0.003). Sexually abused subjects carrying the CC genotype showed higher anger-out scores than T allele carriers, whereas no difference was observed in non-sexually abused subjects. CREB1 rs4675690 polymorphism modulates the association between childhood sexual abuse and adulthood anger-trait level. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show such an interaction and to highlight the main effect of this gene on modulating the effect of child abuse on psychopathologies and warrant further investigation on this topic.

Hasler R; Perroud N; Baud P; Olié E; Guillaume S; Malafosse A; Courtet P

2012-08-01

103

[Child psychiatric viewpoint towards early childhood feading disorders].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early childhood feading disorders are estimated to occur in 20% to 40% of normally developing young children. In most severe cases, troubles associated with feading interfere with the child's growth and development and may continue until adulthood. Early childhood feading disorders are discernible into different types of disorder, such as early childhood anorexia, sensory food aversion and posttraumatic feading disorder. Early childhood feading disorders are often associated with problems in parent-child interaction either primarily or secondarily as factors maintaining the disorder. Interactive therapy is often beneficial regardless of the etiology of the disorder.

Mäntymaa M; Luoma I; Puura K

2013-01-01

104

Epidemiology of early childhood caries: clinical application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most communicable and preventable disease process in children younger than 5 years. Instead of moving in the direction epidemiologists would like to see, incidence rates of ECC are moving upward from the targeted 11%, as outlined by Healthy People 2010. The nursing profession can address risk factors, treatment options, and the need to increase awareness of the transmission of ECC along with prevention efforts. Efforts made by nursing students in a service-learning project to increase awareness of ECC are outlined. In addition, intervention strategies disseminated by advanced nurse practitioners and nurse educators to augment these efforts are summarized. PMID:22608944

Smith, Georgia A; Riedford, Kathy

2012-05-17

105

Epidemiology of early childhood caries: clinical application.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most communicable and preventable disease process in children younger than 5 years. Instead of moving in the direction epidemiologists would like to see, incidence rates of ECC are moving upward from the targeted 11%, as outlined by Healthy People 2010. The nursing profession can address risk factors, treatment options, and the need to increase awareness of the transmission of ECC along with prevention efforts. Efforts made by nursing students in a service-learning project to increase awareness of ECC are outlined. In addition, intervention strategies disseminated by advanced nurse practitioners and nurse educators to augment these efforts are summarized.

Smith GA; Riedford K

2013-07-01

106

An Integrated Approach to Early Childhood Education and Care. Early Childhood and Family Policy Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report was commissioned as a state-of-the-art paper on policy development and implementation of integrated or coordinated services of early childhood education and care (ECEC) within a systemic perspective. The report compares main ECEC policy issues in developed and developing countries, focusing on practical implications and mechanisms…

Haddad, Lenira

107

Childhood abuse and stress generation: the mediational effect of depressogenic cognitive styles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to the stress generation hypothesis (Hammen, 1991), depressed and depression-prone individuals experience higher rates of negative life events influenced by their own behaviors and characteristics (i.e., dependent events), which in part may account for the often recurrent nature of depression. Relatively little is known about the interrelation between stress generation predictors, and distal risk factors for this phenomenon. This study examined whether childhood emotional, sexual, and physical abuse, each uniquely predicted negative dependent events in individuals with a history of depression. The role of negative inferential styles as a potential mediator was also assessed. A sample of 66 adults with a history of depression completed self-report measures of childhood abuse history and negative inferential styles at baseline. The "contextual threat" method was used to assess the occurrence of negative life events over a 4-month prospective follow-up period. Childhood emotional abuse, but not sexual or physical abuse, prospectively predicted greater stress generation. Negative inferential styles mediated this relation. These findings suggest that targeting negative cognitive styles in clinical settings, especially in patients with a history of childhood emotional abuse, may be important for reducing the occurrence of negative life events, thereby possibly decreasing risk for depression recurrence.

Liu RT; Choi JY; Boland EM; Mastin BM; Alloy LB

2013-04-01

108

The prevalence and impact of early childhood trauma in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although some studies have found high rates of early childhood trauma in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), the role of early trauma in this condition remains controversial. METHODS: This study examined the prevalence of early childhood trauma and its impact on daily fatigue and pain levels over a 14-day period in a sample of 90 carefully screened CFS patients using a diary method approach. Data were analyzed using multilevel analysis. RESULTS: More than half of the patients (54.4%) had experienced at least one type of early trauma, with the majority of these patients reporting multiple traumas. Prevalence rates were particularly high for emotional trauma (i.e., emotional abuse and/or emotional neglect) (46.7%). Moreover, total trauma scores and emotional abuse significantly predicted higher levels of daily fatigue and pain over the 14-day period, even when controlling for demographic features and depressed mood. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that early childhood trauma predicts increasing levels of core symptoms of CFS in the daily flow of life. Moreover, findings of this study suggest that emotional trauma may be particularly important in CFS.

Kempke S; Luyten P; Claes S; Van Wambeke P; Bekaert P; Goossens L; Van Houdenhove B

2013-05-01

109

Examining childhood abuse patterns and sensitive periods in juvenile sexual offenders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Findings in the sexual aggression literature on the link between childhood sexual abuse and future sexual coercion have been inconsistent. In adult sexual offenders, studies have found that the relation of sexual abuse to sexual coercion is mediated by sexually related deviant cognitions, but this mediation is not found when replicated on juvenile sexual offenders. In this study it is hypothesized that this link will be found in juvenile sexual offenders when their sexual abuse history is stratified into discrete developmental epochs. It is further hypothesized that the age range of 3 to 7 years, when children rapidly acquire inhibition and cognitive flexibility skills, will be the most potent predictor. A sample of 193 juvenile sexual offenders is used to examine whether sexual abuse specifically in this discrete period, as opposed to other periods, predicts subsequent sexual fantasy. The results confirm that sexual abuse correlates with later adolescent sexual fantasy only during the 3- to 7-year epoch.

Grabell AS; Knight RA

2009-06-01

110

Examining childhood abuse patterns and sensitive periods in juvenile sexual offenders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings in the sexual aggression literature on the link between childhood sexual abuse and future sexual coercion have been inconsistent. In adult sexual offenders, studies have found that the relation of sexual abuse to sexual coercion is mediated by sexually related deviant cognitions, but this mediation is not found when replicated on juvenile sexual offenders. In this study it is hypothesized that this link will be found in juvenile sexual offenders when their sexual abuse history is stratified into discrete developmental epochs. It is further hypothesized that the age range of 3 to 7 years, when children rapidly acquire inhibition and cognitive flexibility skills, will be the most potent predictor. A sample of 193 juvenile sexual offenders is used to examine whether sexual abuse specifically in this discrete period, as opposed to other periods, predicts subsequent sexual fantasy. The results confirm that sexual abuse correlates with later adolescent sexual fantasy only during the 3- to 7-year epoch. PMID:19351968

Grabell, Adam S; Knight, Raymond A

2009-04-07

111

Dissociative Symptoms as a Consequence of Traumatic Experiences: The Long-term Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background:the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dissociative symptoms and post-traumatic experiences in an ambulatory setting. Method: the study was conducted in the ambulatory outpatient clinic of the Beersheva Mental Health Center. over a period of six months new patients over 18 years of age were asked to participate in this survey. Patients completed questionnaires including the Dissociative experience Scale, trauma History Questionnaire, impact of event Scale, and Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale. Results: A total of 505 patients were enrolled in the study, and 456 completed questionnaires were analyzed. of these, 442 (97%) participants reported at least one traumatic event during their lifetime. the traumatic events were experienced as meaningful and severe at the time of occurrence. the effects of sexual and childhood emotional abuse remained very intense throughout the victim's life and were viewed as powerful, significant experiences. on the other hand, traumatic experiences such as natural disasters and battle trauma were associated with longterm effects of relatively low intensity. Conclusions: the presence of undiagnosed posttraumatic stress disorder (PtSD) among patients in outpatient mental health clinics suggests that screening and diagnostic procedures for this condition be more carefully defined. our most important finding is the large impact of childhood trauma, especially sexual abuse, on later life. thus the prevention, early detection and treatment of child abuse in preventing long term psychopathology must be emphasized.

Gaon A; Kaplan Z; Dwolatzky T; Perry Z; Witztum E

2013-01-01

112

Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Parenting Origins in Patients with Opioid Abuse and Non-Abusers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. "nMethod: The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form); and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. "nResults: Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The analysis showed that the means for schemas between opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers were different. Chi square test showed that parenting origins were significantly associated with their related schemas. "nConclusion:  The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers were more than non-opioid abusers ; and parenting origins were related to their Corresponding schemas.

Mohammad Reza Jalali; Mohammad Zargar; Mojgan Salavati; Ali Reza Kakavand

2011-01-01

113

78 FR 44553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 2010-11...Title of Collection: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 2010-11...702. Abstract: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of...

2013-07-24

114

Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

2013-01-01

115

Quality and Equity in Early Childhood Care in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The…

Izu, Regina Moromizato

2006-01-01

116

A Nordic Perspective on Early Childhood Education and Care Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…

Karila, Kirsti

2012-01-01

117

Retention of Staff in the Early Childhood Education Workforce  

Science.gov (United States)

What incentives can the administrators of early childhood education facilities offer their staff in order to retain them? In light of research identifying low staff turnover as a key component of high quality early childhood education, the answer to this question has ramifications beyond human-resources management. This paper presents the results…

Holochwost, Steven J.; DeMott, Kerri; Buell, Martha; Yannetta, Kelly; Amsden, Deborah

2009-01-01

118

Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice. Second Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…

Morgan, Harry

2010-01-01

119

Writing Research Articles for Publication in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…

Saracho, Olivia N.

2013-01-01

120

Competence Requirements in Early Childhood Education and Care. Final Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the findings of a European research project jointly conducted by the University of East London (UEL) and the University of Ghent (UGent). The "study on competence requirements in early childhood education and care" (CoRe) explored conceptualisations of "competence" and professionalism in early childhood practice, and…

Urban, Mathias; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Lazzari, Arianna; Van Laere, Katrien; Peeters, Jan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Taiwanese Model of Teacher Preparation for Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was employed in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood education in Taiwan could be summarized as: (1) The…

Ho, Hua-Kuo

2012-01-01

122

Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood

Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

123

Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education: Issues, Challenges, Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education provides a comprehensive introduction to literacy teaching and learning. The book explores the continuum of literacy learning and children's transitions from early childhood settings to junior primary classrooms and then to senior primary and beyond. Reader-friendly and accessible, this book equips…

McLachlan, Claire; Nicholson, Tom; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Mercer, Louise; Ohi, Sarah

2012-01-01

124

Early Childhood Education Programs in Kenya: Challenges and Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education in Kenya serves the critical purpose of preparing young children for primary education. Notwithstanding the associated benefits for society as a whole, the government of Kenya is involved minimally. Indeed, parents are responsible for planning, developing and managing different early childhood programs. Consequently,…

Nganga, Lydiah W.

2009-01-01

125

Preparing Teachers for Inclusion: Jordanian Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study was conducted during a period of national educational reforms in Jordan to investigate Jordanian preservice early childhood teachers' attitudes toward inclusion and the adequacy of their current preparation for implementing inclusion. The study also sought to identify the perceived concerns of preservice early childhood teachers about…

Fayez, Merfat; Dababneh, Kholoud; Jumiaan, Ibrahim

2011-01-01

126

Aesthetic Discourses in Early Childhood Settings: Dewey, Steiner, and Vygotsky  

Science.gov (United States)

|Early childhood, when young children are already capable of undergoing aesthetic experience, must be the starting point for aesthetic education. Despite increasing attention to the significant values of the arts in early childhood classrooms, no theoretical framework to support aesthetic education has been established. This article introduces the…

Lim, Booyeun

2004-01-01

127

Aesthetic Discourses in Early Childhood Settings: Dewey, Steiner, and Vygotsky  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood, when young children are already capable of undergoing aesthetic experience, must be the starting point for aesthetic education. Despite increasing attention to the significant values of the arts in early childhood classrooms, no theoretical framework to support aesthetic education has been established. This article introduces the…

Lim, Booyeun

2004-01-01

128

The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study  

Science.gov (United States)

|Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

2012-01-01

129

Childhood sexual abuse and adult binge drinking among Kanak women in New Caledonia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardised interviews were conducted in 2002-2003, among women aged 18-54 years drawn from the electoral rolls. Childhood sexual abuse before 15 years of age was reported by 11.6% of respondents. Nearly all the perpetrators (96%) were known to the victims (63% being a close relative). The rate of frequent binge drinking amongst the women within the last 12 months was 34%. After controlling for social and demographic factors, an independent association was found between childhood sexual abuse and current binge drinking. This study is the first to analyse the contribution of childhood sexual abuse to the likelihood of later heavy alcohol use in an indigenous population in the South Pacific. The findings call for improving and giving priority to care for children who are victims of violence to prevent long-term health consequences and to develop prevention programs aimed at alcohol-related behaviour in women, while taking into account simultaneous individual and collective factors.

Hamelin C; Salomon C; Sitta R; Gueguen A; Cyr D; Lert F

2009-04-01

130

Childhood sexual abuse and adult binge drinking among Kanak women in New Caledonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardised interviews were conducted in 2002-2003, among women aged 18-54 years drawn from the electoral rolls. Childhood sexual abuse before 15 years of age was reported by 11.6% of respondents. Nearly all the perpetrators (96%) were known to the victims (63% being a close relative). The rate of frequent binge drinking amongst the women within the last 12 months was 34%. After controlling for social and demographic factors, an independent association was found between childhood sexual abuse and current binge drinking. This study is the first to analyse the contribution of childhood sexual abuse to the likelihood of later heavy alcohol use in an indigenous population in the South Pacific. The findings call for improving and giving priority to care for children who are victims of violence to prevent long-term health consequences and to develop prevention programs aimed at alcohol-related behaviour in women, while taking into account simultaneous individual and collective factors. PMID:19217196

Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Sitta, Rémi; Gueguen, Alice; Cyr, Diane; Lert, France

2009-02-13

131

Coping Strategies Used by Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Journey to Recovery  

Science.gov (United States)

This interpretative phenomenological analysis study explored seven adult survivors' experiences of coping with childhood sexual abuse and identified their coping strategies on the road to recovery. Data for the analysis was collected using semistructured interviews. The analytical process yielded two key theme clusters: avoidant coping strategies…

Phanichrat, Thanomjit; Townshend, Julia M.

2010-01-01

132

A Clinician's Guide to STAIR/MPE: Treatment for PTSD Related to Childhood Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Women who have PTSD related to childhood abuse have significant deficits in the areas of emotion regulation and interpersonal skills. These problems are associated with impaired functioning in social, work, and home life. In addition, there is substantial clinical concern that limited emotion-regulation skills puts this population at risk for…

Levitt, Jill T.; Cloitre, Marylene

2005-01-01

133

Perspectives from the field of early childhood special education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Positive academic outcomes for young children with special education needs can best be facilitated when a combination of professionals including speech-language pathologists (SLPs), general education teachers, occupational and physical therapists, and early childhood special educators (ECSEs) work together. However, it can be challenging to read across disciplines to maintain expertise within the domain of early childhood education because each profession has specialized intradisciplinary terminology. This clinical forum provides an up-to-date summary of the field of early childhood special education, with articles from experts from related professions describing current issues and trends in the field. METHOD: This prologue introduces the concepts of universal design, differentiated instruction, and embedded learning opportunities. The prologue also outlines the roles, responsibilities, and accountability of professionals who work in early childhood special education. CONCLUSION: SLPs can work toward strategic alliances with ECSEs when they understand the field from the perspective of related professions in early childhood special education.

Kaderavek JN

2009-10-01

134

Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

Adamson, Peter C. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2009-02-15

135

Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

2009-01-01

136

The Sexual Abuse Questionnaire: A Preliminary Examination of a Time and Cost Efficient Method in Evaluating the Presence of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Adult Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides the results of two studies designed to evaluate a newly constructed self-report instrument, the Sexual Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ). The SAQ was designed as a brief screening device to aid in the identification of a childhood sexual abuse history. A "unique" feature of the SAQ is the inclusion of a number of non-face valid…

Lock, Timothy G.; Levis, Donald J.; Rourke, Patricia A.

2005-01-01

137

Frequency of Six Early Childhood Education Approaches: A 10-Year Content Analysis of Early Childhood Education Journal  

Science.gov (United States)

The frequency of early childhood education approaches spanning 10 years of publications was investigated. A content analysis of publications (N = 492) from "Early Childhood Education Journal" was conducted. From a previous content analysis six approaches or search words were identified: Bank Street, Head Start, High/Scope, Montessori, Reggio…

Walsh, Bridget A.; Petty, Karen

2007-01-01

138

Early childhood caries in indigenous communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) and the United States (American Indian, Alaska Native) is a major child health issue: there is a high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and resulting adverse health effects in this community, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. This statement includes recommendations for preventive oral health and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health-promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride-varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management, and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial.

2011-06-01

139

Managing severe epilepsy syndromes of early childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Managing severe epilepsy syndromes of early childhood is challenging as the seizures are typically resistant to treatment and may cause disabling mental and behavioral problems in later life. A comprehensive treatment plan includes pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and surgical options. This article reviews clinical studies examining the efficacies of antiepileptic medications in reducing seizure frequency in Dravet syndrome, Doose syndrome, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The benefits of the ketogenic diet for children with these severe epilepsies, together with the advantages of vagus nerve stimulation and corpus callosotomy in those patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, are also discussed. Special treatment considerations for each syndrome are also highlighted to improve the management of patients with these syndromes.

Wheless JW

2009-08-01

140

Trajectories of Autism Severity in Early Childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Relatively little is known about trajectories of autism severity using calibrated severity scores (CSS) from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, but characterizing these trajectories has important theoretical and clinical implications. This study examined CSS trajectories during early childhood. Participants were 129 children with autism spectrum disorder evaluated annually from ages 2½ to 5½. The four severity trajectory classes that emerged-Persistent High (n = 47), Persistent Moderate (n = 54), Worsening (n = 10), and Improving (n = 18)-were strikingly similar to those identified by Gotham et al. (Pediatrics 130(5):e1278-e1284, 2012). Children in the Persistent High trajectory class had the most severe functional skill deficits in baseline nonverbal cognition and daily living skills and in receptive and expressive language growth.

Venker CE; Ray-Subramanian CE; Bolt DM; Weismer SE

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
141

Managing severe epilepsy syndromes of early childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Managing severe epilepsy syndromes of early childhood is challenging as the seizures are typically resistant to treatment and may cause disabling mental and behavioral problems in later life. A comprehensive treatment plan includes pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and surgical options. This article reviews clinical studies examining the efficacies of antiepileptic medications in reducing seizure frequency in Dravet syndrome, Doose syndrome, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The benefits of the ketogenic diet for children with these severe epilepsies, together with the advantages of vagus nerve stimulation and corpus callosotomy in those patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, are also discussed. Special treatment considerations for each syndrome are also highlighted to improve the management of patients with these syndromes. PMID:19666880

Wheless, James W

2009-08-01

142

Repressed and silent suffering: consequences of childhood sexual abuse for women's health and well-being.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research results indicate that psychological trauma in childhood caused by child sexual abuse can have serious and widespread consequences for health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences of childhood sexual abuse for women's health and well-being. The research methodology was phenomenology. Seven women with a history of childhood sexual abuse were interviewed twice with 1-6 months interval. For all the women, the abuse started when they were between 4 and 5. All of them were repeatedly violated and traumatized ever since then and were even still being victimized at the time of the interviews. The main result of the study is that time does not heal all wounds. All the women described great repressed and silent suffering in all aspects of life, and the abuse is still seriously affecting them and their loved ones. As children, they had learning problems, experienced bullying and had unexplained physical symptoms. In adulthood, they have been suffering multiple physical and psychological symptoms: five of them have fibromyalgia; all of them have been suffering chronic and widespread pain; they have all been dealing with depression and difficulty with close connections, and they all have trouble trusting others. Because they were kids, they have been using the health service to a great extent but without adequate help. It is important for health professionals to know the symptoms and consequences of childhood sexual abuse to be able to respond to adult survivors in a supportive and caring way. More effective therapeutic measures have to be developed to decrease their suffering. PMID:22849608

Sigurdardottir, Sigrun; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur

2012-07-31

143

Does physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect in childhood increase the likelihood of same-sex sexual relationships and cohabitation? A prospective 30-year follow-up.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Existing cross-sectional research suggests associations between physical and sexual abuse in childhood and same-sex sexual orientation in adulthood. This study prospectively examined whether abuse and/or neglect in childhood were associated with increased likelihood of same-sex partnerships in adulthood. The sample included physically abused (N = 85), sexually abused (N = 72), and neglected (N = 429) children (ages 0-11) with documented cases during 1967-1971 who were matched with non-maltreated children (N = 415) and followed into adulthood. At approximately age 40, participants (483 women and 461 men) were asked about romantic cohabitation and sexual partners, in the context of in-person interviews covering a range of topics. Group (abuse/neglect versus control) differences were assessed with cross-tabulations and logistic regression. A total of 8% of the overall sample reported any same-sex relationship (cohabitation or sexual partners). Childhood physical abuse and neglect were not significantly associated with same-sex cohabitation or sexual partners. Individuals with documented histories of childhood sexual abuse were significantly more likely than controls to report ever having had same-sex sexual partners (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.16-6.80, p < or = .05); however, only men with histories of childhood sexual abuse were significantly more likely than controls to report same-sex sexual partners (OR = 6.75, 95% CI = 1.53-29.86, p < or = .01). These prospective findings provide tentative evidence of a link between childhood sexual abuse and same-sex sexual partnerships among men, although further research is needed to explore this relationship and to examine potential underlying mechanisms.

Wilson HW; Widom CS

2010-02-01

144

Ecological influences of early childhood obesity: a multilevel analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aims to determine the contributing factors for early childhood overweight/obesity within the contexts of the child's home, school, and community, and to determine how much each of the ecological contexts contributes to childhood overweight/obesity. The framework was developed from Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Data for 2,100 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, were used in a series of multilevel modeling analyses. There was significant variation in childhood overweight/obesity by school and community. The majority of variation in childhood overweight/obesity was explained by the child and family factors in addition to school and community factors. Explained variance of childhood overweight/obesity at the school level was 27% and at the community level, 2%. The variance composition at children's family level alone was 71%. Therefore, overweight/obesity prevention efforts should focus primarily on child, family, and school factors and then community factors, to be more effective.

Boonpleng W; Park CG; Gallo AM; Corte C; McCreary L; Bergren MD

2013-07-01

145

Ecological influences of early childhood obesity: a multilevel analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to determine the contributing factors for early childhood overweight/obesity within the contexts of the child's home, school, and community, and to determine how much each of the ecological contexts contributes to childhood overweight/obesity. The framework was developed from Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Data for 2,100 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, were used in a series of multilevel modeling analyses. There was significant variation in childhood overweight/obesity by school and community. The majority of variation in childhood overweight/obesity was explained by the child and family factors in addition to school and community factors. Explained variance of childhood overweight/obesity at the school level was 27% and at the community level, 2%. The variance composition at children's family level alone was 71%. Therefore, overweight/obesity prevention efforts should focus primarily on child, family, and school factors and then community factors, to be more effective. PMID:23493675

Boonpleng, Wannaporn; Park, Chang Gi; Gallo, Agatha M; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda; Bergren, Martha Dewey

2013-03-14

146

Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... that the abuse is not your fault . Sometimes abusers manipulate those they're abusing by telling them ... is being abused, no matter how much the abuser tries to blame others. Abusers may manipulate somebody ...

147

Prevalence of childhood physical abuse in a representative sample of college students in Samsun, Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main objective of this article is to obtain the prevalence of childhood physical abuse experiences in college students.This cross-sectional study was performed on a gender-stratified random sample of 988 participants studying at Ondokuz Mayis University, with self-reported anonymous questionnaires. It included questions on physical abuse in childhood, on whom and why the violence was inflicted, and on the reactions exhibited. Of the 988 participants, 527 (53.3%) had a history of childhood physical abuse (64.0% in men and 41.6% in women). The prevalence of being subject to physical violence was 1.5 times higher in men. Mothers more frequently inflicted violence on daughters and fathers on sons. According to participants, most frequent reasons for physical violence were "loss of perpetrator's self-control" and "establishment of discipline at home." The most frequent statement observed among the participants was humiliation after subjection to physical violence. It is concluded that the first (and the most) important preventive measure is to protect and strengthen the social, economic, and judicial status of the Turkish family. Second, it should by all means be prevented that violence remains legal in some social conditions like child abuse.

Turla A; Dündar C; Ozkanli C

2010-07-01

148

Childhood trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors and prediction of substance abuse/dependence: a 15-year longitudinal population-based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are three important limits to these studies: (a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; (b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; and (c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood substance abuse/dependence. Behavioral problems of 1803 participants (814 males) in a population-based longitudinal study were assessed yearly between 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. The prevalence of substance abuse/dependence at age 21 years was 30.7% for nicotine, 13.4% for alcohol, 9.1% for cannabis and 2.0% for cocaine. The significant predictors of nicotine dependence were inattention (odds ratio (OR): 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63-3.11) and opposition (OR: 1.65; 95%: 1.20-2.28). Only opposition contributed to the prediction of cannabis dependence (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40-3.87) and cocaine dependence (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.06-8.57). The best behavioral predictor of alcohol abuse/dependence (opposition) was only marginally significant (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98-1.95). Frequent oppositional behaviors during elementary school were clearly the most pervasive predictors of substance abuse/dependence in early adulthood. The association of childhood ADHD with substance abuse/dependence is largely attributable to its association with opposition problems during childhood. However, inattention remained an important predictor of nicotine dependence, in line with genetic and molecular commonalities between the two phenotypes suggested in the literature.

Pingault JB; Côté SM; Galéra C; Genolini C; Falissard B; Vitaro F; Tremblay RE

2013-07-01

149

Change and stability of attachment from childhood to early adulthood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this study was to examine continuity and change inattachment classification from childhood to early adulthood. The relationsbetween childhood attachment, stressful life events, and young adultattachment were examined based on data from observations of thirty-fourSwedish middle-...

Sundin, Eva; Wiberg, Britt; Eklöf, Hanna

150

Autism Risk Unrelated to Total Vaccine Exposure in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Autism Risk Unrelated to Total Vaccine Exposure in Early Childhood Recent News NIMH Hosts Twitter Chat on ... Disorder (ADHD) (30 Items) Anxiety Disorders (43 Items) Autism (81 Items) Bipolar Disorder (60 Items) Borderline Personality ...

151

Does physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect in childhood increase the likelihood of same-sex sexual relationships and cohabitation? A prospective 30-year follow-up.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing cross-sectional research suggests associations between physical and sexual abuse in childhood and same-sex sexual orientation in adulthood. This study prospectively examined whether abuse and/or neglect in childhood were associated with increased likelihood of same-sex partnerships in adulthood. The sample included physically abused (N = 85), sexually abused (N = 72), and neglected (N = 429) children (ages 0-11) with documented cases during 1967-1971 who were matched with non-maltreated children (N = 415) and followed into adulthood. At approximately age 40, participants (483 women and 461 men) were asked about romantic cohabitation and sexual partners, in the context of in-person interviews covering a range of topics. Group (abuse/neglect versus control) differences were assessed with cross-tabulations and logistic regression. A total of 8% of the overall sample reported any same-sex relationship (cohabitation or sexual partners). Childhood physical abuse and neglect were not significantly associated with same-sex cohabitation or sexual partners. Individuals with documented histories of childhood sexual abuse were significantly more likely than controls to report ever having had same-sex sexual partners (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.16-6.80, p same-sex sexual partners (OR = 6.75, 95% CI = 1.53-29.86, p < or = .01). These prospective findings provide tentative evidence of a link between childhood sexual abuse and same-sex sexual partnerships among men, although further research is needed to explore this relationship and to examine potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:19130206

Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

2009-01-07

152

The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig

2005-01-01

153

Professional Growth Reconceptualized: Early Childhood Staff Searching for Meaning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper challenges traditional perspectives of professional development through a reconceptualization of early childhood professional growth. A review of the early childhood professional development literature reveals the problematic nature of the linear perspectives and deficit models of staff development prevalent in the early childhood field. In contrast to these models, the paper proposes alternative perspectives that recognize staff as empowered learners who build their working knowledge through spirals of engagement with many aspects of early childhood philosophy and practice over time. To illustrate the challenges to the dominant professional development paradigm, the paper discusses the professional development components of an Australian study of early childhood centers that began with off-site researcher-led inservice workshops and was followed by on-site staff-led discussion. The study involved approximately 75 staff members from 12 early childhood centers who participated in collaborative rethinking of approaches to planning and working with young children and their families. This approach to professional development was sustained by ongoing support of the researchers as critical friends who facilitated staff engagement through a sense of personal and professional agency. The approaches explored in this paper propose a constructivist view of professional growth that acknowledges the unique contribution of the personal professional knowledge of individuals and the importance of the orientation of individuals both to their work and to new ideas.

Alma Fleet; Catherine Patterson

2001-01-01

154

Childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual health among indigenous Kanak women and non-Kanak women of New Caledonia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by ...

Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Cyr, Diane; Guéguen, Alice; Lert, France

155

Childhood Risk Factors in Substance Abuse Among a Group of Abuser 20-30 Year-Old Group in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0). Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0)that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who were selected by DSM- IV based semi-structured diagnostic interviews for decrease memory biases in this retrospective cohart study. The patient’s parents also evaluated by DSM- IV based Semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The analysis showed significant relation between: parents control on the siblings, addiction in relatives of pt (except parents), addicted peers and friends, to be affected with the peers and friends and substance use disorder at the ages (20-30y/o). There wasn’t any association between: Disruptive childhood behaviors (under 11y/o), diagnosed medical illness (under 11y/o) diagnosed Psychiatric illness (under 6 mo) , family size, socio economic state and substance use disorder at the age(20-30y/0 ). Finally some childhood and adolescence pathologic factors has association with Substance use disorder at the ages ( 20-30y/5) that these can be used for education all planning , prevention , design high risk group and remedical plans.

A.R. Zahiredin; A. Kiany

2004-01-01

156

Factors contributing to ongoing intimate partner abuse: childhood betrayal trauma and dependence on one's perpetrator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying the factors that contribute to ongoing intimate partner abuse (IPA) among survivors of childhood abuse is essential to developing appropriate interventions. The current study assessed prospectively whether childhood betrayal trauma (BT) history and women's potential dependence on their perpetrators (unemployment, number of children below 13) increased women's risk of ongoing victimization, while controlling for trauma-related symptoms (PTSD, depression, dissociation). Women survivors of IPA (N = 190) from an urban U.S. city were recruited based on an IPA incident reported to the police. At the initial interview, women reported on childhood betrayal trauma experiences, their employment status, number of children, and current trauma-related symptoms. Women returned 6 months later and reported on ongoing events of victimization (physical, sexual, psychological aggression, and injury) in their relationships with the initial IPA perpetrator. Results showed that higher levels of childhood BT were associated with ongoing victimization over the course of 6 months. Women's unemployment status predicted greater physical and sexual aggression and injuries. Higher levels of depression and lower levels of PTSD symptoms were also associated with increases in physical, sexual, and psychological aggression, and bodily injury. The findings have important implications for interventions by demonstrating the need to process women's betrayal trauma experiences, target depression symptoms, and increase women's economic opportunities to prevent further victimization. PMID:23266993

Babcock, Rebecca L; Deprince, Anne P

2012-12-24

157

INCLUSIVE EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: TEACHERS AND PARENTS PERCEPTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All areas of education face changes and challenges constantly. Early childhood education is no exception. A recent challenge teachers face in early childhood education is the advent of inclusion. Implementing inclusion in early childhood classrooms creates more diversity among the children. Inclusion of students with various disabilities has caused concern among parents and teachers. There are some concerns that need special attention when including students with disabilities in the early childhood classrooms. Reforming public education to accommodate the needs of special education children placed in regular classrooms is a vital issue .For several years there have been arguments concerning the placement of children with disabilities in the regular classrooms. When inclusion children are placed in the regular classrooms the teachers are required to provide individualized instruction for the inclusion children. This may take away the time the teacher have to spend with the other children. The inclusion of children in regular classrooms have been both positive and negative effects. This means, with respect to all stages of the education system, including early childhood, that all children , regardless of their disability, can attend their local educational setting, and have their learning and development needs met through the provision of high-quality care and education For inclusive early childhood education to be successful, early childhood teachers as well as parents and members of the wider community need to embrace and practice inclusion. Parents of children without disabilities may bring with them attitudes and understandings that can lead to social exclusions, restrictions and disadvantages for all children with disabilities and their family in their early childhood setting and neighbourhood community. In this paper, we tried to highlight the attitudes and understandings of some parents of non-disabled children towards the inclusion and teaching of children with disabilities in regular early childhood settings and the consequences that resulted from the exclusionary and inclusionary constructions that these parents took up to define and understand disability and inclusion. We then offer some ideas and strategies for dialogue that may help early childhood teachers appropriately respond to this issue at own capacity .

PRASHANT THOTE; L MATHEW; D.P.S RATHOURE

2013-01-01

158

Epidemiology of rhabdoid tumors of early childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rhabdoid tumors are a rare and aggressive cancer subtype which is usually diagnosed in early childhood. Little is known about their etiology. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of rhabdoid tumors and examine their relation to perinatal characteristics. METHODS: We identified 44 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) of the central nervous system (CNS) and 61 rhabdoid sarcomas (renal and extra-renal non-CNS tumors) from California Cancer Registry records of diagnoses 1988-2007 among children <6 years of age. We randomly selected 208,178 controls from California birthrolls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between rhabdoid tumors and perinatal characteristics. RESULTS: After adjustment for demographic characteristics, low birthweight (<2,500 g) strongly increased risk for developing both rhabdoid sarcomas (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.09, 5.41) and AT/RT (OR = 2.99, 95% CI 1.31, 6.84). Both preterm delivery (<37 weeks gestation, OR = 2.63, 95% CI 1.34, 5.17) and late term delivery (>42 weeks, OR = 3.66, 95% CI 1.54, 8.71) also increased risk of rhabdoid sarcomas. Rhabdoid sarcoma cases (OR = 3.08, 95% CI 1.11, 8.55) and AT/RT cases (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 1.23, 8.13) also were more likely to be multiple births. CONCLUSION: The excess of twin pregnancies may suggest an association with infertility treatments. This is the first population-based epidemiologic study to examine these rare tumors.

Heck JE; Lombardi CA; Cockburn M; Meyers TJ; Wilhelm M; Ritz B

2013-01-01

159

The impact of childhood abuse history, domestic violence and mental health symptoms on parenting behaviour among mothers in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of childhood abuse history, domestic violence experiences and mental health symptoms on the parenting behaviour of mothers in Japan who have separated from violent husbands or partners. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on a sample of mothers (n = 304) and their children (n = 498) residing in 83 mother-child homes in Japan. The survey assessed the mothers' childhood abuse history (physical, psychological and sexual abuse and neglect history), domestic violence experiences, current mental health symptoms (dissociative, depressive and traumatic symptoms) and parenting behaviours after moving into the homes to separate from a violent husband or partner. RESULTS: The mothers' childhood abuse history and experience of domestic violence were not associated with their not playing with their children. In contrast, the mothers' dissociative and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with not playing with their children. Although there was no association between the mothers' total childhood abuse history and not praising their children, their childhood physical abuse history was significantly associated with their not praising their children. The dissociative and depressive symptoms were also associated with no praise. Interestingly, the experience of domestic violence showed an inverse association with no praise. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health symptoms, more specifically dissociative and depressive symptoms, are associated with a decrease in parenting quality. Mothers who were physically abused as children are less likely to praise their own children, independent of maternal mental health symptoms. In contrast, mothers who experienced domestic violence but subsequently separated from their violent husbands or partners are more likely to praise their children. The treatment of mental health symptoms, particularly dissociative and depressive symptoms, therapy for childhood abuse history and separation from violent husbands or partners might be effective ways to enhance the quality of parenting in Japan.

Fujiwara T; Okuyama M; Izumi M

2012-07-01

160

Response to intervention: implications for early childhood professionals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of building strong early childhood communities of interdisciplinary practice in the application of a comprehensive curriculum framework. A curriculum framework is proposed as a means of applying and extending the principles of response to intervention (RtI) to early childhood education providers working with young children, including speech-language pathologists (SLPs). The article presents information regarding the elements of a curriculum framework and suggestions for practice. METHOD: Literature related to RtI was reviewed to identify common principles of practice. The resulting principles were then aligned to early childhood education recommended practices in order to illustrate the overlapping beliefs. Rationale and support for a curriculum framework as an early childhood education RtI model was then gathered to identify appropriate practices for working with young children who are served in a variety of early childhood settings. CONCLUSION: SLPs are important members of early educational teams, particularly when applying the principles of RtI using a curriculum framework. SLPs bring the expertise needed to ensure that children achieve critical outcomes. Implementation of the curriculum framework is made possible when everyone involved in supporting young children understands how to apply the elements of a curriculum framework.

Jackson S; Pretti-Frontczak K; Harjusola-Webb S; Grisham-Brown J; Romani JM

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

The mediating effect of hostility toward women on the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and sexual violence perpetration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some evidence suggests that childhood emotional abuse (CEA) may serve as a risk factor for sexual violence (SV) perpetration; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which CEA may influence SV. This study examined the relationship between CEA and SV by assessing the mediating role of hostility toward women (HTW) in a sample of adjudicated adult males (N = 360). Approximately 1 in 5 participants was classified as sexually violent based on self-reported behavior and/or criminal records. Results indicted that CEA significantly predicted HTW and SV, and HTW significantly predicted SV. As hypothesized, the relationship between CEA and SV was no longer significant after controlling for HTW, supporting the role of HTW as a mediator between CEA and SV. Efforts that aim to prevent CEA or that address early aggressive attitudes or behavior toward women may have a positive impact on preventing or reducing SV.

Vivolo-Kantor AM; DeGue S; DiLillo D; Cuadra LE

2013-01-01

162

Mental health, childhood abuse and HIV sexual risk behaviour among university students in Ivory Coast  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Little focus has been paid to the role of poor mental health and childhood abuse among young people with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviour and HIV prevention in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mental health, childhood abuse and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university students in Ivory Coast. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with undergraduate students that were recruited randomly from classes at the Félix Houphouët Boigny University of Cocody. The sample included 824 university students (50% men and 50% women), with a mean age of 23.7 years (SD = 2.7). Results Of the 824 university students who completed the survey, 17.6% reported depression, 10.8% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder, 8.3% reported at least monthly heavy episodic drinking, 13.5% reported childhood physical abuse and 4.7% sexual abuse, 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months, 66.3% had inconsistent condom use, 23.6% had alcohol use in the context of sex and 16.7% had a history of a sexually transmitted infection In multivariable analysis among men, lack of religiousness and alcohol use in the context of sex were associated with HIV risk behaviour, and among women, poorer family background, experience of sexual and physical partner violence, alcohol use in the context of sex and depression were associated with HIV risk behaviour. Conclusions Poor mental health (depression) including alcohol use and partner violence was found to be associated with HIV risk behaviour. Coordinated mental health and sexual and reproductive health services to meet the needs of university students would be desirable.

2013-01-01

163

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign provides ready access to a wide array of information resources in the areas of child development, the education and care of children from birth through early adolescence, the teaching of young children, and parenting and family life.

164

Attitudes among judiciary and junior clerks toward the survivors of childhood sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood sexual abuse is a growing concern throughout the world, although the legal sequelae of this phenomenon are frequently neglected. We aimed to reveal and compare the attitudes of judiciary and junior clerks toward sexually abused children that might contribute to these sequelae. We divided 302 study participants into two groups of judiciary members and junior clerks. All the participants were asked to anonymously complete a questionnaire about stigmatization, including questions assessing social distance, dangerousness and skillfulness. In their responses, 51.2% of the judiciary and 64.0% of the junior clerks displayed a negative attitude toward "asking a childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor to supervise their child for few hours" (p=0.029). When asked "What would you think if your child wanted to marry a CSA survivor?" 76.5% of the judiciary and 84.1% of the junior clerks were opposed to the idea (p=0.095). Interestingly, significantly more judiciary than junior clerks believed that a "CSA survivor can control his/her rage" (p=0.001), and significantly more of the junior clerks did not believe that "CSA survivors do not behave impulsively" (p=0.034). Both groups of legal professionals in this study appear to distance themselves from or have negative thoughts about CSA survivors, particularly when the issue involves their own children and/or social situations. Along with other factors, these negative assumptions might also contribute to lower prosecution rates and retestifying procedures.

Berber G; Karapirli M; Kantarci N; Kandemir E; Varkal MD; Sahin E; Emül M

2013-01-01

165

Early childhood experiences, parenting and the process of drug dependency among young people in Tehran, Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. RESULTS: The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals.

Mirlashari J; Demirkol A; Salsali M; Rafiey H; Jahanbani J

2012-06-01

166

Towards Sustainable National Development Through Well Managed Early Childhood Education  

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Full Text Available This paper discusses issues relating to sustainable development and effective management of early childhood education. Thechild is the ‘owner’ of the future. The problems that confront the current generation are complex and serious that cannotbe addressed in the same way they were created. But they can be addressed. The concept of sustainable development is anattempt to shape thought in global systemic perspective as well as secure a future. The future is the children heritagewho must also understand the demands of this challenge. Early childhood education is the key to unlock the understandingrequired to inherit this future and requires effective management. The paper therefore recommends the school building,provision of appropriate instructional and infrastructural facilities; curricula reforms in line with future (economic,political, natural, social, etc) demands as well as increased funding to enhance early childhood education.

Nath Abraham

2012-01-01

167

Nomadic Research Practices in Early Childhood: Interrupting Racisms and Colonialisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.

Veronica Pacini-Ketchabaw; Fikile Nxumalo; Carol Rowan

2011-01-01

168

Gender and teacher training in Early Childhood Education studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a research study funded by the European Union that aims to improve early childhood teacher training in gender-related topics. Spain has made considerable headway with the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in the political agenda. However, as we point out in this paper, this issue is still not a priority in vocational training for early childhood education. A series of qualitative interviews and a quantitative questionnaire revealed a lack of training, materials and sensitivity, all needed for the introduction of gender and sexual diversity issues.

Alfonso Romero Díaz; Paco Abril Morales

2008-01-01

169

Positive work environments of early-career registered nurses and the correlation with physician verbal abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Verbal abuse in the workplace is experienced by registered nurses (RNs) worldwide; physicians are one of the main sources of verbal abuse. PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between levels of physician verbal abuse of early-career RNs and demographics, work attributes, and perceived work environment. METHOD: Fourth wave of a mailed national panel survey of early career RNs begun in 2006. DISCUSSION: RNs' perception of verbal abuse by physicians was significantly associated with poor workgroup cohesion, lower supervisory and mentor support, greater quantitative workload, organizational constraints, and nurse-colleague verbal abuse, as well as RNs' lower job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intent to stay. CONCLUSION: RNs working in unfavorable work environments experience more physician abuse and have less favorable work attitudes. Causality is unclear: do poor working conditions create an environment in which physicians are more likely to be abusive, or does verbal abuse by physicians create an unfavorable work environment?

Brewer CS; Kovner CT; Obeidat RF; Budin WC

2013-03-01

170

The PCDH1-gene and asthma in early childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies suggests that variants in the protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) gene, important for cell-cell adhesion, are associated with asthma, bronchial, hyperresponsiveness and atopic dermatitis in school-children.To associate common variants of the PCDH1-gene to longitudinally assessed asthma-phenotypes and atopic dermatitis in early childhood.We analysed 8 SNPs in PCDH1 from 411 children born to asthmatic mothers from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth-cohort.Asthma and atopic dermatitis were diagnosed prospectively to age seven and asthma was categorized by temporal pattern: transient early respiratory symptoms, persistent symptoms, and late-onset symptoms. Bronchial responsiveness was measured at age six. We used additive genetic models.Kaplan-Meier plots revealed early onset for hetero- and homozygote for the rs10063472-T allele. Significant association was observed between the transient early phenotype and rs10063472-T (transient early vs. all: OR=1.91, CI: 1.21-3.01, p=0.0058; transient early vs. asymptomatic: OR=2.00, CI: 1.23-3.25, p=0.0053). No association was observed for other symptom patterns or bronchial responsiveness.Significant association was observed for atopic dermatitis and rs11167761-A (OR=1.85, CI: 1.24-2.75, p=0.0026).Common variations in PCDH1 increase the risk of developing both transient early asthma and atopic dermatitis in early childhood.

Mortensen LJ; Kreiner-Møller E; Hakonarson H; Bønnelykke K; Bisgaard H

2013-08-01

171

Childhood maltreatment and early alcohol use among high-risk adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Child maltreatment (CM) is prevalent among U.S. youth and has been associated with subsequent maladaptive behaviors, including substance use. The current study examines the associations between early child maltreatment and (1) preteen alcohol-use initiation and (2) heavy episodic drinking among students in a large study of adolescents. METHOD: The Youth Violence Survey is a cross-sectional survey of public school students enrolled in Grades 7,9, 11, and 12 in a school district in a high-risk community. The analysis sample was limited to students who provided complete data on all relevant variables (N= 3,559). Fifty-two percent of the analysis sample was female. Early child maltreatment was defined as witnessing domestic violence and experiencing physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 10 years. Outcome variables include ever drinking alcohol, preteen alcohol-use initiation, and heavy episodic drinking. RESULTS: Witnessing domestic violence, experiencing physical abuse, and experiencing sexual abuse were significantly associated with preteen alcohol-use initiation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-1.91; AOR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.69-2.63; AOR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.16-2.14, respectively). Students who experienced one or more types of maltreatment were 1.5-3 times more likely to report preteen alcohol-use initiation. Heavy episodic drinking was associated only with childhood sexual abuse in boys (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.52-4.50). CONCLUSIONS: Prevention and treatment of the negative impact of early child maltreatment may delay and reduce alcohol use.

Hamburger ME; Leeb RT; Swahn MH

2008-03-01

172

Kentucky's Statewide Early Childhood Professional Development System  

Science.gov (United States)

Public school systems have recently become major players in providing services for children in their early years. In addition, a number of other services are available to young children including child care, Head Start, and Early Head Start programs. The link between program quality and professional development of early care and education…

Rous, Beth; Grove, Jaime; Townley, Kim

2007-01-01

173

On-the-Spot Course: Early Childhood Education. Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a 2-week course in early childhood education designed for resident college students in Malawi. Section 1 discusses participation by an experimental combination of trained and untrained personnel: 6 social work supervisors, 2 paraprofessional playgroup organizers, and 13 paraprofessional playgroup leaders. Staff and objectives…

Lombard, Avima D.; Jasik, Lynne S.

174

Developing a Data-Driven Assessment for Early Childhood Candidates  

Science.gov (United States)

|One hundred forty-nine teacher candidates participated in a yearlong study to investigate what a well-prepared early childhood teacher candidate knows about teaching and learning. This study provides findings on assessments used to determine candidates' knowledge of pedagogy at program entry and exit. The general question this study explored was:…

Autry, Mary Murray; Lee, Joohi; Fox, Jill

2009-01-01

175

The Social and Political Construction of Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyse two foundational social problems regarding early childhood education. The first, in the late nineteenth century, is infant mortality, a social problem that constituted the historical legitimation for the first creches. The second, the prevention of school failure, is very topical today. By analysing these examples in their historicity,…

Vandenbroeck, Michel; Coussee, Filip; Bradt, Lieve

2010-01-01

176

Early childhood lead exposure and exceptionality designations for students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The achievement gap continues to be an important educational issue, with disadvantaged groups exhibiting poorer school performance. Recently, literature has shown that even very low levels of early lead exposure affect cognitive and academic performance. As individuals at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum are more likely to be exposed to lead, this exposure may be an important contributor to the achievement gap. In this paper, we explore whether early childhood blood lead levels are associated with membership in exceptionality designation groups. In addition, we examine the racial and socioeconomic composition of these exceptional groups. Data from the North Carolina Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program surveillance registry were linked at the individual child level to educational outcomes available through the North Carolina Education Research Data Center. Designation into exceptionality groups was obtained from the end-of-grade (EOG) data. Both standard bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed. Bivariate analyses indicate that blood lead levels and reading EOG scores differ by exceptionality, as well as by race and enrollment in free/reduced lunch. Logistic regression confirmed the relationship between blood lead levels and likelihood of exceptionality. Contextual factors - enrollment in the free/reduced lunch program, race, and parental education - are also significant with regard to exceptionality. This study demonstrates that early childhood lead exposure significantly influences the likelihood of being designated exceptional. These results provide additional evidence that early childhood lead exposure is a significant explanator of the achievement gap.

Miranda ML; Maxson P; Kim D

2010-01-01

177

Suffolk County Community College: Early Childhood Program Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report reviews Suffolk County Community College's (New York) Early Childhood Program. The document begins with an overview of the program's goals, intentions, student requirements, recent student outcomes, and recommendations for future goals and focuses of the program. The program's intent is to prepare individuals for working with young…

Hochman, Darlene; Cummings, Kathleen; Elek-Fisk, Elvira; Jefferson, Marcia; Means, Robin; Weber, Alan

178

Malaysian undergraduates' knowledge and opinions on Early Childhood oral health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: In Malaysia, Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was found to affect 76.2% of 5-year-olds (2005). General practitioners are more likely to encounter preschool children and are in a better position to educate parents and caretakers about ECC and make appropriate referrals. This study assessed the knowledge and opinions on early childhood oral health among medical and dental undergraduates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross sectional study involved 245 students enrolled in the first year medical (M1) and dental (D1) course and fourth year medical (M4) and dental (D4) course. The students completed a self-administered questionnaire which included knowledge and opinions on early childhood oral health. Comparisons between the groups were done using chi-square test. RESULTS: Dental students showed significantly better knowledge than medical students. D1 students showed significantly better knowledge of age of first tooth eruption over M1. Knowledge of recommended age for bottle weaning was higher among D4 students but not significantly more than M4 students. CONCLUSION: The majority of medical students showed inadequate knowledge indicating that medical curriculum should emphasise on oral health topics of public health relevance like ECC and its prevention. Dental students had better knowledge regarding early childhood oral health, but lacked knowledge on its preventive aspects.

Mani SA; Burhanudin NA; John J

2012-03-01

179

Looking Forward in East Timor: Early Childhood Finds a Voice  

Science.gov (United States)

|East Timor is at a crossroads and in a unique position. Building a national infrastructure in the 21st century should allow policy makers to learn from the successes and failures of other nations, and to use this knowledge to develop a strong future. An investment in early childhood development is essential if that vision is to become a reality.…

Palmer, Glen; Pires, Sr Aurora

2005-01-01

180

The Development of an Early Childhood Teacher Research Collaborative  

Science.gov (United States)

This article investigates young children's understanding of and relationships to their communities and the natural world. Inspired by the pedagogy of Reggio Emilia (Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998) and guided by the concept of documentation as a cycle of inquiry (Gandini & Goldhaber, 2001), a group of early childhood educators from across the…

Goldhaber, Jeanne

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Examining the Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highlights points that guide the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education: the learner is a social being who possesses rights and is an active constructor of knowledge; the instructors' role is one of collaborator and co-learner, guiding and facilitating, as well as researching; and knowledge is socially constructed, encompassing…

Hewett, Valarie Mercilliott

2001-01-01

182

The Construction Site Project: Transforming Early Childhood Teacher Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

The work of Malaguzzi (in Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998; Fraser, 2006) has made the fundamentals of the preschools of Reggio Emilia familiar to many early childhood educators. The article describes an authentic project that enhanced undergraduate and postgraduate participants' understanding of the impact of collaboration, conversation, and…

McNaughton, Kathryn; Krentz, Caroline

2007-01-01

183

Environmental Education in 2002 and 2006 Early Childhood Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study is to analyze comparatively 2002 (previous) and 2006 (current) Early Childhood Curricula with regard to concepts and attainments associated with environmental education (EE). 2002 and 2006 preschool curricula were firstly retrieved from the web-site of Board of Education and then subjected to content analysis across 41…

Erdogan, Mehmet; Bahar, Mehmet; Ozel, Ruhan; Erdas, Eda; Usak, Muhammet

2012-01-01

184

Knowledge of Multicultural Literature among Early Childhood Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

In today's ever changing multicultural society, it is imperative for early childhood educators to be adept at facilitating the learning and progress of all children. In the United States, children of color make up about 40% of the population, and across the world children of color make up approximately 70% of the population. A primary goal in…

Brinson, Sabrina A.

2012-01-01

185

Sustained Attention and Age Predict Inhibitory Control during Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

|Executive functioning skills develop rapidly during early childhood. Recent research has focused on specifying this development, particularly predictors of executive functioning skills. Here we focus on sustained attention as a predictor of inhibitory control, one key executive functioning component. Although sustained attention and inhibitory…

Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.

2011-01-01

186

Recording & Reporting: A Comprehensive Early Childhood Recordkeeping System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended for early childhood teachers and supervisors, this booklet describes and illustrates a comprehensive recordkeeping system that is based on written observations. The full recordkeeping system includes daily classroom observational notes, monthly cumulative summaries, checklists, monthly plans, and bi-yearly progress reports. Daily notes…

Barron, Marlene

187

Striving for Mental Health in the Early Childhood Center Setting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood programs can use a number of mental health strategies as preventive measures in support of constructive coping, including circle time, which enhances children's sense of belonging; daily affirmations, which promote positive thinking; and action plans, which allow children to plan their day and have some control over their lives.…

Cadiz, Sharon M.

1994-01-01

188

How Aligned Are We? Assessment Procedures and Practices between Early Childhood and Early Intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

Early intervention and early childhood share a unique space in our early years education in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The assessment practices of the two are distinctively different and specific to each discipline. As assessment is a powerful agent for change and responsiveness to learners this article will unpack the reasoning behind these…

Caulcutt, Toia; Paki, Vanessa

2011-01-01

189

The influence of childhood physical abuse on adult health status in sexual minority women: the mediating role of smoking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Among women in the general population, childhood physical abuse (CPA) is associated with poor adult health status and engagement in health risk behaviors. Sexual minority women (SMW) are at elevated risk of CPA, have higher rates of smoking, and may be at higher risk for poorer general health. In this study, we examined the influences of CPA on health status in a diverse sample of SMW. We hypothesized that SMW with a history of CPA would report poorer health than those without such histories and that early onset of smoking-an important health risk behavior-would mediate the relationship between CPA and current health status. METHODS: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the influence of CPA on early health risk behavior (i.e., age of smoking onset) and current perceived health status in a community based sample of 368 SMW. RESULTS: More than one fifth of the sample (21.5%) reported a history of CPA. One fourth of the sample was current smokers; the average age of smoking onset was 19 to 20 years old. The mean level of self-rated health status was between "fair" and "good." When relationships were simultaneously estimated, the effect of CPA on health status was mediated by two sequential smoking factors: CPA was associated with earlier age of smoking onset, and age of smoking onset was associated with current smoker status. Being a current smoker had a negative effect on perceived health status. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE AND/OR POLICY: These results suggest that tobacco use is an important pathway by which CPA influences current health status. Prevention and early intervention initiatives should focus on the reduction of CPA among SMW to eliminate the long-term health consequences of adverse childhood events among SMW.

Matthews AK; Cho YI; Hughes TL; Johnson TP; Alvy L

2013-03-01

190

Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: Testing a developmental cascade model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

Sitnick SL; Shaw DS; Hyde LW

2013-09-01

191

Early childhood caries: risk-based disease prevention and management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early childhood caries (ECC), common in preschoolers, can lead to pain and infection if left untreated. Yet, ECC is largely preventable, and if it is identified early and the responsible risk factors are addressed, its progression can be halted or slowed. This article reviews the rationale for a first dental visit by age 1 year, caries risk assessment, and risk-based prevention and management of ECC and discusses strategies for providers to implement these contemporary evidence-based concepts into clinical practice.

Ng MW; Chase I

2013-01-01

192

The New Turkish Early Childhood Teacher Education Curriculum: A Brief Outlook  

Science.gov (United States)

This article aims to describe and reflect on the new early childhood teacher education curriculum in Turkey. The new curriculum is part of a large-scale reform agenda to improve education at all levels. The article begins with a brief history of early childhood education and early childhood teacher education in Turkey. Then, the needs for the…

Atay-Turhan, Tulay; Koc, Yusuf; Isiksal, Mine; Isiksal, Huseyin

2009-01-01

193

Teacher Education in Pakistan: Analysis of Planning Issues in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the status of teacher education and early childhood education in Pakistan. The paper analyzes planning issues in early childhood teacher education by examining education policies and existing practices in early childhood teacher education in Pakistan. Initiatives taken at public and private levels in Pakistan are also…

Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

2009-01-01

194

Analyzing Process Quality of Early Childhood Education with Many Facet Rash Measurement Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality of early childhood education institutions specifically, dimensions of process quality should be evaluated. Purpose of this study is to analyze process quality of early childhood education by using many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM). In this study, data were collected from twelve early childhood education institutions by four…

Basturk, Ramazan; Isikoglu, Nesrin

2008-01-01

195

An Analysis of New Zealand's Changing History, Policies and Approaches to Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

New Zealand has an internationally unique approach to early childhood education, which includes a bicultural early childhood curriculum, a robust infrastructure of organisation and management overseen by the New Zealand Ministry of Education, and a growing reputation for innovation in early childhood teaching and learning. This paper examines how…

McLachlan, Claire

2011-01-01

196

Childhood abuse history, posttraumatic stress disorder, postpartum mental health, and bonding: a prospective cohort study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Research is needed that prospectively characterizes the intergenerational pattern of effects of childhood maltreatment and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on women's mental health in pregnancy and on postpartum mental health and bonding outcomes. This prospective study included 566 nulliparous women in 3 cohorts: PTSD-positive, trauma-exposed resilient, and not exposed to trauma. METHODS: Trauma history, PTSD diagnosis, and depression diagnosis were ascertained using standardized telephone interviews with women who were pregnant at less than 28 gestational weeks. A 6-week-postpartum interview reassessed interim trauma, labor experience, PTSD, depression, and bonding outcomes. RESULTS: Regression modeling indicates that posttraumatic stress in pregnancy, alone, or comorbid with depression is associated with postpartum depression (R(2) = .204; P < .001). Postpartum depression alone or comorbid with posttraumatic stress was associated with impaired bonding (R(2) = .195; P < .001). In both models, higher quality of life ratings in pregnancy were associated with better outcomes, while reported dissociation in labor was a risk for worse outcomes. The effect of a history of childhood maltreatment on both postpartum mental health and bonding outcomes was mediated by preexisting mental health status. DISCUSSION: Pregnancy represents an opportune time to interrupt the pattern of intergenerational transmission of abuse and psychiatric vulnerability. Further dyadic research is warranted beyond 6 weeks postpartum. Trauma-informed interventions for women who enter care with abuse-related PTSD or depression should be developed and tested.

Seng JS; Sperlich M; Low LK; Ronis DL; Muzik M; Liberzon I

2013-01-01

197

Socioeconomic status, infant feeding practices and early childhood obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. Children predominantly breastfed have a reduced risk of early childhood obesity. Yet, it is not known how feeding patterns mediate the relationship between social class and obesity. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Based on a nationally representative, longitudinal study of early childhood, this study finds that healthy infant feeding practices, including predominant breastfeeding, mediates the negative association between social class and obesity at 24 months. BACKGROUND: Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. OBJECTIVES: Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. METHODS: Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n?=?8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). RESULTS: Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (< 4 months) and putting the child to bed with a bottle also increased the likelihood of obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. CONCLUSIONS: The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice.

Gibbs BG; Forste R

2013-04-01

198

Twelve Best Practices for Early Childhood Education: Integrating Reggio and Other Inspired Approaches. Early Childhood Education Series  

Science.gov (United States)

In her new book, popular author Ann Lewin-Benham draws on her intimate knowledge and experience with the Reggio Approach to present 12 "best practices" inspired not only by Reggio, but also by play-based and Montessori approaches to early childhood education. These practices are demonstrated, one per chapter, with scenarios from classrooms,…

Lewin-Benham, Ann

2011-01-01

199

The Current State of Early Childhood Education Programs: How Early Childhood Center Directors Manage Their Human Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…

Arend, Lauren E.

2010-01-01

200

Childhood sexual abuse is associated with cortisol awakening response over pregnancy: preliminary findings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in non-pregnant samples. However, it is not yet known whether CSA is associated with HPA dysregulation over pregnancy. In the present study we assessed whether maternal cortisol levels across pregnancy differed in women with CSA histories compared to women with histories of non-sexual child abuse (CA) and no abuse (NA). METHODS: 135 pregnant mothers (CSA=30, CA=58, NA=47) provided salivary cortisol samples at wakeup, wake +30 min, and bedtime for 3 consecutive days at 1-3 time points over second and third trimester. Cortisol awakening responses and slopes were computed. RESULTS: Women with CSA histories displayed increasing cortisol awakening response over pregnancy compared to women with CA and NA histories. Group differences were not observed for slope. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that cortisol awakening responses increase over pregnancy in women with CSA histories compared to women with CA and NA histories.

Bublitz MH; Stroud LR

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

The link between childhood sexual abuse and myocardial infarction in a population-based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes mellitus). METHODS: Population-based data were obtained from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Myocardial infarction was ascertained by self-report of a health-professional diagnosis. CSA was defined as forced sex with someone at least 5 years older before the age of 18. The final sample included 5,095 men and 7,768 women. RESULTS: After adjustment for 15 factors, abused males had nearly 3 times the odds of heart attack compared to non-abused males (OR=2.96; 95% CI=1.12, 7.85). Among women, CSA was not associated with heart attack in the age-race adjusted (OR=1.20; 95% CI=0.39, 3.68) or fully-adjusted (OR=0.88; 95% CI=0.28, 2.75) analyses. CONCLUSIONS: CSA was associated with heart attack in men, even when controlling for traditional risk factors; however, no association was found among women. Future research is needed to replicate the study's unique findings.

Fuller-Thomson E; Bejan R; Hunter JT; Grundland T; Brennenstuhl S

2012-09-01

202

Theory of mind performance in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: Key questions remain unaddressed concerning the nature of interpersonal functioning in trauma survivors, including the ability to understand and interpret other people's thoughts and feelings. Here, we investigate theory of mind (ToM) performance of women with PTSD related to childhood abuse in comparison to healthy controls. METHOD: Participants completed two ToM tasks, the Interpersonal Perception Task-15 (IPT-15) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task - Revised (RMET). RESULTS: Relative to controls, women with a history of childhood trauma had difficulty recognizing familial relationships depicted in the IPT-15 (P = 0.005). No other category of the IPT-15 showed significant group differences. In addition, while healthy women displayed faster RMET reaction times to emotionally valenced mental states (positive: P = 0.003; negative: P = 0.016) compared with neutral mental states, the PTSD group showed similar reaction times across all valences. The presence of dissociative symptoms (e.g., disengagement, amnesia, identity dissociation) was strongly associated with hindered accuracy of complex mental state identification and altered perception of kinship interactions. CONCLUSION: Women with PTSD stemming from childhood trauma show changes in ToM abilities particularly those often involved in the interpretation of family interactions. In addition, individuals with PTSD showed slower reaction times during the recognition of complex mental states from emotionally salient facial/eye expressions in comparison with healthy subjects. PMID:23662597

Nazarov, A; Frewen, P; Parlar, M; Oremus, C; Macqueen, G; McKinnon, M; Lanius, R

2013-05-10

203

Theory of mind performance in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Key questions remain unaddressed concerning the nature of interpersonal functioning in trauma survivors, including the ability to understand and interpret other people's thoughts and feelings. Here, we investigate theory of mind (ToM) performance of women with PTSD related to childhood abuse in comparison to healthy controls. METHOD: Participants completed two ToM tasks, the Interpersonal Perception Task-15 (IPT-15) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task - Revised (RMET). RESULTS: Relative to controls, women with a history of childhood trauma had difficulty recognizing familial relationships depicted in the IPT-15 (P = 0.005). No other category of the IPT-15 showed significant group differences. In addition, while healthy women displayed faster RMET reaction times to emotionally valenced mental states (positive: P = 0.003; negative: P = 0.016) compared with neutral mental states, the PTSD group showed similar reaction times across all valences. The presence of dissociative symptoms (e.g., disengagement, amnesia, identity dissociation) was strongly associated with hindered accuracy of complex mental state identification and altered perception of kinship interactions. CONCLUSION: Women with PTSD stemming from childhood trauma show changes in ToM abilities particularly those often involved in the interpretation of family interactions. In addition, individuals with PTSD showed slower reaction times during the recognition of complex mental states from emotionally salient facial/eye expressions in comparison with healthy subjects.

Nazarov A; Frewen P; Parlar M; Oremus C; Macqueen G; McKinnon M; Lanius R

2013-05-01

204

Redistributional consequences of early childhood intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, early investment in the human capital of children from socially disadvantaged environments has attracted a great deal of attention. Programs of such early intervention, aimed at children's health and well-being, are spreading considerably in the US and are currently being tested in several European countries. In a discrete version of the Mirrlees model with a parents' and a children's generation, we model the intra-generational and the inter-generational redistributional consequences of such intervention programs. It turns out that the parents' generation loses whenever such intervention programs are implemented. Furthermore, the rich part of the children's generation always benefits. Despite the expectation that early intervention puts the poor descendants in a better position, our analysis reveals that the poor among the children's generation may even be worse off, if the effect of early intervention on their productivity is not large enough.

Lohse T; Lutz PF; Thomann C

2013-06-01

205

Resiliency Factors in the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adulthood Sexual Assault in College-Age Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy,…

Walsh, Kate; Blaustein, Margaret; Knight, Wanda Grant; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel A.

2007-01-01

206

Affect and State Dysregulation as Moderators of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

|Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant problem in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Affect and state dysregulation are frequently observed in survivors of childhood sexual abuse and in those who engage in NSSI. Both have been found to predict NSSI, and affect regulation has also been modeled as a mediator of NSSI. This study…

Bolen, Rebecca M.; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Hodges, Liz

2013-01-01

207

Affect and State Dysregulation as Moderators of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant problem in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Affect and state dysregulation are frequently observed in survivors of childhood sexual abuse and in those who engage in NSSI. Both have been found to predict NSSI, and affect regulation has also been modeled as a mediator of NSSI. This study…

Bolen, Rebecca M.; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Hodges, Liz

2013-01-01

208

Oral manifestations of systemic alterations in early childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study aimed to describe certain common oral manifestations during early childhood that should be known by the pediatric dental surgeon. BACKGROUND: The correct diagnosis and treatment of oral manifestations during early childhood is important for children's development. The pediatric dentist is responsible for maintaining oral health in children, since they change constantly during their development and growth. CASE REPORT: Four cases of oral lesions are described, in which the diagnosis and related approach for each one is reported. The first was an acute primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, the second, pseudomembranous candidiasis, the third, chickenpox and the last was molluscum. CONCLUSION: Professionals who treat children in this age group must be able to diagnose and treat common oral manifestations when necessary and should refer the child to a pediatrician for effective treatment if the presence of any systemic alteration is suspected. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Pathognomonic signs of the most common oral manifestations in early childhood should be known by dentists to improve early diagnosis and proper management.

Padovani MC; Barbosa PS; Baeder F; de Sant'Anna GR; Santos MT; Guaré RO

2013-03-01

209

Infâncias em Educação Infantil Different kinds of childhood in early childhood education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo, por sua natureza teórica, trabalha com noções tais como infâncias, crianças, multidão e experiência, no intuito de pensar uma educação cujas práticas educativas possibilitem o exercício da infância. O artigo refaz um caminho no qual a infância e a criança são percebidas "em sua dimensão singular", de modo a recuperar, no fim do percurso, o caráter plural que as noções de criança e infância encerram. O referencial teórico parte de Deleuze, Guattari, Agamben, entre outros autores, e busca colocar a infância numa temporalidade múltipla, em detrimento da temporalidade fundada em visões da história e da psicologia, que privilegiam etapas e sucessões cronológicas. Ao afirmarmos a infância como atravessada pela experiência, pela inventividade e pelo desarazoamento, propomos pensar uma educação na direção da multidão.This article, in its theoretical nature, discusses notions such as childhood, children, multitude and experience, in order to consider a kind of early childhood education in which educational routine enables the practice of childhood to happen. The article rebuilds a path on which childhood and children are perceived according to a single particular notion. Towards the ending of the analysis, the plural character involved in the notions of child and childhood is considered.The theoretical framework for the analysis was based on the propositions of Deleuze, Guattari and Agamben, among others. Their views place childhood in a multiple temporality rather than in a single temporality which is determined by historical and psychological perspectives both based on chronological and succession levels. By stating that childhood is crossed by experiences, inventiveness and unreasonableness, our proposal is about thinking of a different kind of education, which leans towards the multitude.

Anete Abramowicz; Diana Levcovitz; Tatiane Cosentino Rodrigues

2009-01-01

210

Sexual orientation and functional pain in U.S. young adults: the mediating role of childhood abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Pain without known pathology, termed "functional pain," causes much school absenteeism, medication usage, and medical visits. Yet which adolescents are at risk is not well understood. Functional pain has been linked to childhood abuse, and sexual orientation minority youth (gay, lesbian, bisexual, "mostly heterosexual," and heterosexual with same-sex sexual contact) are more likely to be victims of childhood abuse than heterosexuals, thus may be at greater risk of functional pain. METHODS: We examined sexual orientation differences in past-year prevalence of functional headache, pelvic, and abdominal pain and multiple sites of pain in 9,864 young adults (mean age?=?23 years) from a large U.S. cohort. We examined whether childhood abuse accounted for possible increased risk of functional pain in sexual minority youth. RESULTS: Sexual minority youth, except for gays and lesbians, were at higher risk of functional pelvic and abdominal pain and multiple sites of pain than heterosexuals. Gay and lesbian youth had elevated prevalence only of abdominal pain. Childhood abuse accounted for 14% to 33% of increased experience of multiple sites of pain in minority youth. CONCLUSIONS: Youth who identify as "mostly heterosexual" or bisexual or who identify as heterosexual and have had same-sex partners comprised 18% of our sample. Clinicians should be aware that patients with these orientations are at elevated risk of functional pain and may be in need of treatment for sequelae of childhood abuse. Conventional categorization of sexual orientation as heterosexual or homosexual may fail to distinguish a large number of youth who do not wholly identify with either group and may be at elevated risk of health problems.

Roberts AL; Rosario M; Corliss HL; Wypij D; Lightdale JR; Austin SB

2013-01-01

211

International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chapter Dr. Cochran uses an empirically based overarching conceptual framework linking historical patterns, current policy goals and intervening influences as a tool for understanding the policy and program outcomes manifested in the early education programs of representative Western countries (Australia, France, Italy, Sweden). Policy…

Cochran, Moncrieff

2011-01-01

212

Collaborating for impact: a multilevel early childhood obesity prevention initiative.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures, a multilevel initiative in Boston, Massachusetts, which brings major institutions' missions and resources together to address early childhood obesity prevention. Programming is designed to facilitate healthy eating and physical activity in preschool children's home, school, and community environments by engaging parents and early childhood educators in the places where they live, learn, and play. This article describes how established interventions were implemented in a novel setting to engage the parents of children attending Head Start and staff, and presents pilot data from the first 2 years of the initiative. Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures is a feasible initiative, which has shown concrete, positive results that can be replicated.

Agrawal T; Hoffman JA; Ahl M; Bhaumik U; Healey C; Carter S; Dickerson D; Nethersole S; Griffin D; Castaneda-Sceppa C

2012-07-01

213

From science to policy in early childhood education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the relationship between scientific research and public policy. After explaining why the simple conversion of research into public law is unlikely, several factors are identified that can promote the use of research by public officials. Examples of use and non-use are cited from early childhood education, where empirical evidence on program effects is relatively strong. Some specific suggestions are offered for improving the connection between science and public policy. PMID:21852491

Gormley, William T

2011-08-19

214

From science to policy in early childhood education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines the relationship between scientific research and public policy. After explaining why the simple conversion of research into public law is unlikely, several factors are identified that can promote the use of research by public officials. Examples of use and non-use are cited from early childhood education, where empirical evidence on program effects is relatively strong. Some specific suggestions are offered for improving the connection between science and public policy.

Gormley WT Jr

2011-08-01

215

Early Childhood Education and Special Education: How Well Do They Mix? An Examination of Inclusive Practices in Early Childhood Educational Settings in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine and identify the current inclusive practices in early childhood educational settings in Hong Kong, this qualitative study looks at the support and educational services available for young children with special needs in Hong Kong mainstream preschools as well as the characteristics of early childhood educational settings that support…

Zhang, Kaili C.

2011-01-01

216

Visão atual do abuso sexual na infância e adolescência Current view of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e LILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005), aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual.OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, using abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005), in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.

Luci Pfeiffer; Edila Pizzato Salvagni

2005-01-01

217

Visão atual do abuso sexual na infância e adolescência/ Current view of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e LILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005), aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem u (more) m impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, using abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005), in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great (more) impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.

Pfeiffer, Luci; Salvagni, Edila Pizzato

2005-11-01

218

Reported Physical and Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adult HIV Risk Behaviour in Three African Countries: Findings from Project Accept (HPTN-043).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked to adolescent and adult risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut, an increased number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use during sex and sexual violence. This paper explores these relationships among both men and women who report histories of childhood abuse from representative samples of communities in three countries in southern and eastern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). Data were collected as part of a 3-year randomized community trial to rapidly increase knowledge of HIV status and to promote community responses through mobilisation, mobile testing, provision of same-day HIV test results and post-test support for HIV. The results indicate that reported childhood sexual and physical abuse is high in all three settings, also among men, and shows strong relationships with a range of sexual risk behaviors, including age at first sex (OR -0.6 (CI: -0.9, -0.4, p < 0.003)-among men, OR -0.7 (CI: -0.9, -0.5, p < 0.001)-among women), alcohol (OR 1.43 (CI: 1.22, 1.68, p < 0.001)-men, OR 1.83 (CI: 1.50, 2.24, p < 0.001)-women) and drug use (OR 1.65 (CI: 1.38, 1.97, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.14 (CI: 1.95, 5.05, p < 0.001)-women) and two forms of partner violence-recent forced sex (OR 2.22 (CI: 1.66, 2.95, p < 0.001)-men, OR 2.76 (CI: 2.09, 3.64, p < 0.001)-women) and ever being hurt by a partner (OR 3.88 (CI: 2.84, 5.29, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.06 (CI: 2.48, 3.76, p < 0.001)-women). Individuals abused in childhood comprise between 6 and 29 % of young adult men and women living in these African settings and constitute a population at high risk of HIV infection.

Richter L; Komárek A; Desmond C; Celentano D; Morin S; Sweat M; Chariyalertsak S; Chingono A; Gray G; Mbwambo J; Coates T

2013-03-01

219

[Histocompatibility antigens in early and late onset childhood psychoses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood psychoses could have a genetic etiology, but early and late onset psychoses have to be separated. Genetic factors are certainly implicated in the development of late onset psychoses and appear to overlap with those of adult schizophrenia. Evidence implicating genetics in early onset psychoses is likely, as twin studies have supported this hypothesis. HLA system is a particularly suitable genetic marker. We report the results of an investigation on HLA A and B antigens we have performed on 57 psychotics (30 early onset psychotics, 27 late onset psychotics). No genetic association appears in the whole population, as well as in the early and late onset psychosis series. These results have to be compared with Golse's et al. (1977, 1980), Stebbs and Magenis' (1980) and adult schizophrenia data. Further researches with population and family pedigree are required with other major histocompatibility complex markers.

Goudemand M; Goudemand J; Parquet PJ; Goudemand-Joubert C; Letallec-Duytschaever F; Fontan M

1981-12-01

220

Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. Method We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children’s mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Data analysis Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children’s mental, motor and language development over time. Results Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children’s mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Conclusion Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior, placing their infants at increased risk for poor parenting, abuse and neglect. Early home-based intervention in high-risk families may be beneficial to infant development.

Schuler, Maureen E.; Black, Maureen M.; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Early childhood outcomes of infants born with gastroschisis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To describe neonatal and childhood outcomes of a contemporary cohort of infants with gastroschisis. METHODS: Observational, single center, inception cohort of children born with gastroschisis from January 2005 to December 2008. RESULTS: Of 63 infants, 61 survived to hospital discharge and 39 were seen for follow-up. Complications included sepsis (37%), necrotizing enterocolitis (10%), parenteral nutrition related cholestasis (25%), and short bowel syndrome (13%). Of survivors, 5% had visual impairment and 10% had hearing loss. No child tested had mental delay or cerebral palsy. Early gestational age predicted death or disability (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38, 0.96; p=0.033). There was a high incidence of prescription medications for presumed gastroesophageal reflux (90%). Some infants continued to require tube feeds (15%). There were improvements in longitudinal growth reflected in increasing z-scores. CONCLUSIONS: Although children with gastroschisis are at risk for disability, childhood outcomes are encouraging.

van Manen M; Hendson L; Wiley M; Evans M; Taghaddos S; Dinu I

2013-08-01

222

Being Confined within? Constructions of the Good Childhood and Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings in Ireland  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is based on a study of the experience of the outdoors in early childhood education and care settings in Ireland. Central to the analyses are the inter-linkages drawn between constructions of a "good" childhood, and children's "need" for outdoor play, as well as the contradictions which arise around competing discourses of safety and…

Kernan, Margaret; Devine, Dympna

2010-01-01

223

Interaction between tryptophan hydroxylase I polymorphisms and childhood abuse is associated with increased risk for borderline personality disorder in adulthood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe disorder with high morbidity and mortality, but unknown etiology. Childhood abuse has been proposed as an etiological factor, but the mechanism by which an abuse history could influence the risk for BPD has not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine whether the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene is related to BPD in a clinical sample, and whether TPH1 genotypes or haplotypes moderate the relationship between abuse history and BPD. METHODS: Three hundred and ninety-eight patients diagnosed with mood disorders were genotyped for TPH1 G-6526A promoter polymorphism (rs4537731) and the A218C intron 7 polymorphism (rs1800532) and a set of ancestry informative markers, assessed for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition diagnoses, and assessed for a history of physical and sexual abuse. RESULTS: Patients with a diagnosis of BPD were more likely to be risk allele carriers (A alleles at both loci) than the non-BPD group. Logistic regression analysis predicting BPD diagnosis with both single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes showed significant interaction effects between genotype and abuse history. Poisson regression predicting the number of BPD diagnostic criteria met with the same predictor set also included a significant interaction term. Risk allele carriers with a history of abuse had an increased likelihood of a BPD diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Variation in TPH1 may increase risk for developing BPD as a result of childhood abuse. Elements of BPD pathology may be due in part to a genetically influenced serotonergic dysfunction, which in turn may lead to a differential response to environmental stressors.

Wilson ST; Stanley B; Brent DA; Oquendo MA; Huang YY; Haghighi F; Hodgkinson CA; Mann JJ

2012-02-01

224

Early Start: An Integrated Model of Substance Abuse Intervention for Pregnant Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Untreated perinatal substance abuse is associated with serious adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Historically, many barriers have prevented pregnant women from seeking treatment. Early Start (ES) breaks new ground by sidestepping these barriers with a fully integrated service delivery model.

Taillac, Cosette; Goler, Nancy; Armstrong, Mary Anne; Haley, Kathleen; Osejo, Veronica

225

Preparing Early Childhood Educators for Global Education: The Implications of Prior Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines the increasing cultural diversity of Australia's education settings and explicates the global education movement and the new Australian Early Years Learning Framework. It discusses the implication of these factors for early childhood education practice and early childhood teacher education. The key research question considered…

Horsley, Mike W.; Bauer, Kathy Anne

2010-01-01

226

Teachers Supporting Future Teachers: A Critical Part of Early Childhood Teacher Preparation  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-quality field experience is a fundamental part of early childhood teacher preparation where teachers-in-training observe, develop, and practice critical teaching skills and dispositions in early childhood classrooms. Many teachers welcome extra assistance in the classroom but do not know how to provide hands-on training to aspiring early

Korth, Byran B.; Baum, Angela C.

2011-01-01

227

Method for the systematic reviews on occupational therapy and early intervention and early childhood services.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Systematic reviews of literature relevant to early intervention and early childhood services are important to the practice of occupational therapy. We describe the five questions that served as the focus for the systematic reviews of the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions in early intervention and early childhood services. We include the background for the reviews; the process followed for each question, including search terms and search strategy; the databases searched; and the methods used to summarize and critically appraise the literature. The final number of articles included in each systematic review; a summary of the themes of the results; the strengths and limitations of the findings; and implications for practice, education, and research are presented.

Arbesman M; Lieberman D; Berlanstein DR

2013-07-01

228

The value of early CT in complicated childhood pneumonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)

2002-01-01

229

The value of early CT in complicated childhood pneumonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)

Tan Kendrick, A.P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Ling, Ho [Department of Paediatric Medicine, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Subramaniam, Ramnath; Joseph, Vijeyakaran T. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore)

2002-01-01

230

A Look at Children's Adjustment to Early Childhood Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot project during which the author visited different early childhood classrooms and used a handheld video camera to record how children adjust to new programs. The objectives were (1) to describe how children adjust to new programs or classes, (2) to sensitize teachers to the issues involved in those adjustments, (3) to collect data using a handheld video camera, and (4) to encourage teachers to view themselves as classroom researchers. Included in the paper are video clips, brief descriptions of selected children, and a discussion of issues raised by the children's behavior in the videos, related research, and implications for practice.

Carol R. Keyes

2006-01-01

231

Emerging control and disruptive behavior disorders during early childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study evaluates associations between control processes and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during early childhood. Participants were 98 children between ages 3 and 6 and their primary caregivers. Diagnostic information on ODD and ADHD symptoms was available from parents and teachers/caregivers via standardized rating forms. Affective, effortful, and cognitive control processes were measured using parent and examiner ratings via standardized questionnaires, observational ratings, and child performance on laboratory tasks of cognitive control. Affective control, but not effortful control, was significantly associated with cognitive control. A latent factor of control was significantly associated with ADHD, but not ODD, symptoms. PMID:23573794

Martel, Michelle M; Roberts, Bethan; Gremillion, Monica L

2013-01-01

232

Emerging control and disruptive behavior disorders during early childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current study evaluates associations between control processes and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during early childhood. Participants were 98 children between ages 3 and 6 and their primary caregivers. Diagnostic information on ODD and ADHD symptoms was available from parents and teachers/caregivers via standardized rating forms. Affective, effortful, and cognitive control processes were measured using parent and examiner ratings via standardized questionnaires, observational ratings, and child performance on laboratory tasks of cognitive control. Affective control, but not effortful control, was significantly associated with cognitive control. A latent factor of control was significantly associated with ADHD, but not ODD, symptoms.

Martel MM; Roberts B; Gremillion ML

2013-01-01

233

Overgeneral autobiographical memory and age of onset of childhood sexual abuse in patients with recurrent suicidal behaviour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between age of onset of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and overgeneral memory (OGM) in a clinical sample. METHOD: Presence and age of onset of CSA and levels of OGM were assessed in 49 patients attending hospital following a recurrence of suicidal behaviour. RESULTS: Twenty six participants reported CSA. Earlier age of onset of CSA was associated with greater OGM, indexed by fewer specific and more categoric memories. The association was not accounted for either by elevated levels of depression in those reporting earlier abuse, nor by levels of general verbal fluency. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are consistent with previous work and support the hypothesis that abuse occurring earlier in development results in more pronounced OGM.

Crane C; Duggan DS

2009-03-01

234

Sexual abuse in childhood and postoperative depression in women with breast cancer who opt for immediate reconstruction after mastectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Breast reconstruction is routinely offered to women who undergo mastectomy for breast cancer. However, patient-reported outcomes are mixed. Child abuse has enduring effects on adults' well-being and body image. As part of a study into damaging effects of abuse on adjustment to breast cancer, we examined: (i) whether women with history of abuse would be more likely than other women to opt for reconstruction; and (ii) whether mood problems in women opting for reconstruction can be explained by greater prevalence of abuse. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 355 women within 2-4 days after surgery for primary breast cancer; 104 had mastectomy alone and 29 opted for reconstruction. Using standardised questionnaires, women self-reported emotional distress and recollections of childhood sexual abuse. Self-report of distress was repeated 12 months later. RESULTS: Women who had reconstruction were younger than those who did not. Controlling for this, they reported greater prevalence of abuse and more distress than those having mastectomy alone. They were also more depressed postoperatively, and this effect remained significant after controlling for abuse. CONCLUSIONS: One interpretation of these findings is that history of abuse influences women's decisions about responding to the threat of mastectomy, but it is premature to draw inferences for practice until the findings are replicated. If they are replicated, it will be important to recognise increased vulnerability of some patients who choose reconstruction. Studying the characteristics and needs of women who opt for immediate reconstruction and examining the implications for women's adjustment should be a priority for research.

Clark L; Holcombe C; Hill J; Krespi-Boothby MR; Fisher J; Seward J; Salmon P

2011-03-01

235

Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI) <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ?25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ?30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.

Stine Roenholt; Nina N. Beck; Sidsel H. Karsberg; Ask Elklit

2012-01-01

236

Psychological pathways from childhood sexual and physical abuse to HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among homeless women: The role of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the psychological factors linking childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among 190 single homeless women in New York City. Participants were assessed for mental health symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Findings indicate that the relationship between childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection diagnoses during adulthood is mediated by a combination of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Screening single homeless women who report childhood abuse histories for symptoms of both disorders may aid in the identification of individuals particularly vulnerable for HIV infection. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:23180873

Houston, Eric; Sandfort, Theo Gm; Watson, Kalycia T; Caton, Carol Lm

2012-11-23

237

Verbal abuse from nurse colleagues and work environment of early career registered nurses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study examined relationships between verbal abuse from nurse colleagues and demographic characteristics, work attributes, and work attitudes of early career registered nurses (RNs). DESIGN AND METHODS: Data are from the fourth wave of a national panel survey of early career RNs begun in 2006. The final analytic sample included 1,407 RNs. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample, analysis of variance to compare means, and chi square to compare categorical variables. FINDINGS: RNs reporting higher levels of verbal abuse from nurse colleagues were more likely to be unmarried, work in a hospital setting, or work in a non-magnet hospital. They also had lower job satisfaction, and less organizational commitment, autonomy, and intent to stay. Lastly, they perceived their work environments unfavorably. CONCLUSIONS: Data support the hypothesis that early career RNs are vulnerable to the effects of verbal abuse from nurse colleagues. Although more verbal abuse is seen in environments with unfavorable working conditions, and RNs working in such environments tend to have less favorable work attitudes, one cannot assume causality. It is unclear if poor working conditions create an environment where verbal abuse is tolerated or if verbal abuse creates an unfavorable work environment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: There is a need to develop and test evidence-based interventions to deal with the problems inherent with verbal abuse from nurse colleagues.

Budin WC; Brewer CS; Chao YY; Kovner C

2013-09-01

238

Two new otolaryngologic findings in child abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We reviewed cases of early childhood hoarseness caused by vocal nodules and functional hearing loss as being possible manifestations of child abuse. This is a retrospective review set in two urban referral centers. The patients consisted of four children with vocal nodules and known histories of abuse, and four children with functional hearing loss and histories suggestive of abuse. Vocal nodules or functional hearing loss may be indicators of an abusive situation. Child abuse should be considered in the differential diagnosis of these problems.

Drake AF; Makielski K; McDonald-Bell C; Atcheson B

1995-12-01

239

Interparental aggression, attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study explored longitudinal associations between interparental aggression, the development of child attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems in a diverse sample of 636 families living in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. The results of latent-variable, cross-lagged longitudinal models revealed that maternal-reported interparental aggression in infancy predicted reduced observed attention skills in toddlerhood; no association was observed, however, between attention in infancy and interparental aggression during the toddler years. Further, reduced toddler attention and high interparental aggression were both associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems at 3 years of age. Processes largely operated in similar ways regardless of child gender or low-income status, although a few differences were observed. Overall, the results suggest that interparental aggression undermines attention development, putting children's early behavioral adjustment at risk. PMID:23786696

Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Stifter, Cynthia A; Coccia, Michael A; Cox, Martha J

2011-05-01

240

Interparental aggression, attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current study explored longitudinal associations between interparental aggression, the development of child attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems in a diverse sample of 636 families living in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. The results of latent-variable, cross-lagged longitudinal models revealed that maternal-reported interparental aggression in infancy predicted reduced observed attention skills in toddlerhood; no association was observed, however, between attention in infancy and interparental aggression during the toddler years. Further, reduced toddler attention and high interparental aggression were both associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems at 3 years of age. Processes largely operated in similar ways regardless of child gender or low-income status, although a few differences were observed. Overall, the results suggest that interparental aggression undermines attention development, putting children's early behavioral adjustment at risk.

Towe-Goodman NR; Stifter CA; Coccia MA; Cox MJ

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Early childhood pneumonia in Aborigines of Bourke, New South Wales.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We carried out a retrospective survey of all children born in the district of Bourke , New South Wales, over a three-year period to determine the frequency of lobar pneumonia in the first three years of life. Although more non-Aboriginal children (167) than Aboriginal children (103) were born during this period, there was a striking difference between these groups in the frequency of pneumonia. Twenty-six (25.2%) Aboriginal children had one or more episodes of lobar pneumonia, compared with only five (3%) non-Aboriginal children born during the same period. Characteristic features of the disease in the Aboriginal children included a high rate of recurrent pneumonia (35%), frequent involvement of the upper lobe of the right lung (77%), and often a family history of pneumonia in early childhood. Of those with siblings, 39% of the affected infants had siblings who had suffered from pneumonia in early childhood. No perinatal factors which correlated with the subsequent development of lobar pneumonia could be identified. However, a greater proportion of the affected than of the non-affected children lived in substandard housing conditions.

Harris MF; Nolan B; Davidson A

1984-06-01

242

Nurturing Social Experience in Three Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the ways in which early childhood special education teachers supported children's social behavior within the context of their preschool classrooms. Data collected for six children through naturalistic classroom observations were coded and analyzed for emergent themes within a qualitative framework. Findings revealed a variety of strategies and behaviors used by early childhood special education teachers and their assistants to respond socially to the children in their classrooms. The data were grouped into five overarching themes: (1) teachers' adaptations to support positive social experiences, (2) positive emotional connections between teachers and students, (3) negative interactions between teachers and students, (4) teachers' promotion of positive social engagement with peers, and (5) teachers' help with conflict resolution. These data present multiple lenses through which to view children's and teachers' social experiences in the classroom, providing the potential for a richer understanding of both what is observed as well as how it actually transpires. The complexity of individual differences and classroom dynamics are discussed, with recommendations for practice and future research.

Susan L. Recchia; Eleni P. Soucacou

2006-01-01

243

Mapping Knowledge: Concept Maps in Early Childhood Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Graphic organizers such as webs, time lines, Venn diagrams, flowcharts, and concept maps are well known and widely used instructional and learning tools. They help teachers and students not only to identify and visually represent their views and knowledge but also to recognize and depict relationships among concepts. This article discusses the use of concept maps in early childhood education. In light of a theory that suggests that information is processed and stored in memory in both linguistic and visual forms, it is argued that concept maps can be used in early childhood classrooms to help children organize and spatially represent both what they know and what they are thinking. Once children learn how to “read” and make concept maps, teachers can also use them to identify children’s preexisting knowledge or misconceptions as well as use them as an evaluation tool. The article also considers the role of concept maps in teacher planning. Concept maps can help teachers to plan, structure, and sequence the content of their teaching. Finally, the article illustrates some of the issues involved in using concept maps with preschool children and suggests ways of introducing children to the process of constructing their own concept maps.

Maria Birbili

2006-01-01

244

Multiple mediators of the relationships among maternal childhood abuse, intimate partner violence, and offspring psychopathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the study was to examine whether maternal depression, mothers' and fathers' parenting, child physical punishment and negative life events (NLE) mediate the effect of maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV) and cumulative violence (both CA and IPV) on Spanish children's and adolescents' psychopathology. Furthermore, multiple mediator models examine whether IPV mediates the effect of CA on the contextual and family factors mentioned above. Three hundred and eighteen Spanish outpatients aged 7 to 18 and their parents were assessed using a structured interview and other instruments for measuring the study variables. Structural equation models (SEMs) showed multiple pathways explaining psychopathological problems among offspring of mothers who suffered CA, IPV and both of these violent experiences. In particular, mothers' depression mediated the link between maternal CA, IPV, cumulative violence and children's externalizing, and total behavior problems. Child NLE was an important pathway between maternal CA and total behavior problems, as well as between cumulative violence and both externalizing and total problems. IPV contributed to explaining the link between maternal CA and contextual and family factors, such as child physical punishment and NLE, which were in turn, associated with children's behavior problems. Findings show the complex interconnections between different types of violence and their harmful effects on the mental health of women and their offspring, as well as the need to extend our knowledge on this subject.

Miranda JK; de la Osa N; Granero R; Ezpeleta L

2013-09-01

245

Multiple mediators of the relationships among maternal childhood abuse, intimate partner violence, and offspring psychopathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to examine whether maternal depression, mothers' and fathers' parenting, child physical punishment and negative life events (NLE) mediate the effect of maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV) and cumulative violence (both CA and IPV) on Spanish children's and adolescents' psychopathology. Furthermore, multiple mediator models examine whether IPV mediates the effect of CA on the contextual and family factors mentioned above. Three hundred and eighteen Spanish outpatients aged 7 to 18 and their parents were assessed using a structured interview and other instruments for measuring the study variables. Structural equation models (SEMs) showed multiple pathways explaining psychopathological problems among offspring of mothers who suffered CA, IPV and both of these violent experiences. In particular, mothers' depression mediated the link between maternal CA, IPV, cumulative violence and children's externalizing, and total behavior problems. Child NLE was an important pathway between maternal CA and total behavior problems, as well as between cumulative violence and both externalizing and total problems. IPV contributed to explaining the link between maternal CA and contextual and family factors, such as child physical punishment and NLE, which were in turn, associated with children's behavior problems. Findings show the complex interconnections between different types of violence and their harmful effects on the mental health of women and their offspring, as well as the need to extend our knowledge on this subject. PMID:23686620

Miranda, Jenniffer K; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

2013-05-17

246

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Acute Alcohol Effects on Men's Sexual Aggression Intentions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men's perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men's self-reported sexual aggression intentions. METHOD: After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. RESULTS: Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication.

Davis KC; Schraufnagel TJ; Jacques-Tiura AJ; Norris J; George WH; Kiekel PA

2012-04-01

247

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Acute Alcohol Effects on Men's Sexual Aggression Intentions.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men's perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men's self-reported sexual aggression intentions. METHOD: After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. RESULTS: Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication. PMID:22754720

Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Kiekel, Preston A

2012-02-20

248

The Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Youth in Three Asian Cities: Taipei, Shanghai, and Hanoi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The article describes the prevalence and risk factors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among youth in Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei. Data used in this study are from the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, 2006-2007. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression models were used. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of CSA was 5.2% in Taipei, 1.3% in Shanghai, and 0.5% in Hanoi. The overall prevalence was 2.2% for females and 1.7% for males. The average age of first CSA was 10.5 years. Household instability, migration before age 14, and low maternal warmth were found to be positively associated with CSA, whereas discussing problems with father and being close to mother were negatively associated with CSA, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Our findings suggested the importance of prevention programs for preteen aged children, public education to raise awareness, and further prospective studies to identify various risk markers for CSA in Asia.

Li N; Zabin LS; Ahmed S

2013-01-01

249

The Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Youth in Three Asian Cities: Taipei, Shanghai, and Hanoi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The article describes the prevalence and risk factors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among youth in Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei. Data used in this study are from the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, 2006-2007. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression models were used. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of CSA was 5.2% in Taipei, 1.3% in Shanghai, and 0.5% in Hanoi. The overall prevalence was 2.2% for females and 1.7% for males. The average age of first CSA was 10.5 years. Household instability, migration before age 14, and low maternal warmth were found to be positively associated with CSA, whereas discussing problems with father and being close to mother were negatively associated with CSA, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Our findings suggested the importance of prevention programs for preteen aged children, public education to raise awareness, and further prospective studies to identify various risk markers for CSA in Asia. PMID:23343644

Li, Nan; Zabin, Laurie S; Ahmed, Saifuddin

2013-01-22

250

Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. METHODS: Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ) and fourth grade waist circumference. RESULTS: Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. INTERPRETATION: Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

Fitzpatrick C; Pagani LS; Barnett TA

2012-01-01

251

Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ) and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

Fitzpatrick Caroline; Pagani Linda S; Barnett Tracie A

2012-01-01

252

Low income/socio-economic status in early childhood and physical health in later childhood/adolescence: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To systematically review the literature on the relationship between early childhood low income/socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health in later childhood/adolescence, to identify gaps in the literature and to suggest new avenues for research. A systematic search of electronic databases from their start date to November 2011 was conducted to identify prospective longitudinal studies in industrialized countries with a measure of low income/SES in the first 5 years of life and physical health outcomes in later childhood or adolescence. STROBE criteria were used to assess study quality. Risk estimates were expressed as odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals where possible. Heterogeneity of studies precluded meta-analysis. Nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Significant associations of early childhood low income/SES with activity-limiting illness, parent-reported poor health status, acute and recurrent infections, increasing BMI percentile and hospitalization were reported. Results for parent-reported asthma were less consistent: there was a significant association with low income/SES in early childhood in 2 studies but null findings in 3 others. This systematic review of the association of early childhood low income/SES with physical health status in later childhood and adolescence shows that, in contrast to the extensive literature on the impact of poor childhood social circumstances on adult health, the evidence base is limited. The literature points to some associations of early low income/SES with later poor health status, but many key research questions remain unanswered. Implications for further research are considered.

Spencer N; Thanh TM; Louise S

2013-04-01

253

Interactions among Attitudes toward Teaching and Personality Constructs in Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

|The main purpose of this study was to examine early childhood education teachers' attitudes toward teaching, and their relationship to internal-external locus of control and sociotropy and autonomy orientations. The participants in this study were limited to 180 undergraduate students enrolled in early childhood education in three different…

Bedel, Emine Ferda

2008-01-01

254

Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

255

Implications of Evidence-Based Practices for Personnel Preparation Development in Early Childhood Intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

|The article includes a practical definition of evidence-based practices, examples of different types of practice-based research syntheses, 3 models for conceptualizing evidence-based early childhood intervention, and a description of the implications of the definition, syntheses, and models of early childhood intervention for personnel…

Dunst, Carl J.

2009-01-01

256

Oakton Community College: Early Childhood Career Opportunities (ECCO) Program. Program Description Based on Grant Abstract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Early Childhood Career Opportunities (ECCO) Program is a 21-week program of intensive training that provides limited-English-proficient Hispanic, Indian, and Pakistani adult students with the required skills for entry-level positions in the child care field. Courses in early childhood focus on child growth and development, introduction to…

Kerwin, Sheila

257

A Study of Early Childhood Teachers' Conceptions of Creativity in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aimed to uncover the conceptions of creativity among early childhood teachers in Hong Kong. The sample comprised 563 early childhood teachers. Factor analysis supported the multidimensional hypothesis of teachers' conceptions of creativity. Five dimensions were found: novelty, product, problem solving, cognitive processes and personal…

Cheung, Rebecca Hun Ping; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

2013-01-01

258

Choices and Changes in Early Childhood Education in Australia: A "Play School" Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education in Australia is currently undergoing a period of change and renewal. Times of change offer opportunities to revisit the perspectives of the past, to respond to current choices and challenges, and explore future opportunities within the national provision of early childhood care and education. Such opportunities also exist…

Harrison, Cathie

2011-01-01

259

Beyond Anti-Bias Education: Changing Conceptions of Diversity and Equity in European Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The articles draws on history-of-the-present research on Belgian childcare, on experiences within the European DECET network (Diversity in Early Childhood Education and Training) and on post-structuralist theory. A historical hindsight is helpful to understand how different discourses on diversity and equity in early childhood education have been…

Vandenbroeck, Michel

2007-01-01

260

Enquiring Teachers and Democratic Politics: Transformations in New Zealand's Early Childhood Education Landscape  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable interest has emerged in policy frameworks to sustain and encourage democratic participation and responsive pedagogy in early childhood education. Using findings from an evaluation of New Zealand's strategic plan for early childhood education, this article highlights ways in which policy initiatives interacted to support such…

Mitchell, Linda

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Salivary cortisol response to psychological stress in children with early childhood caries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims and Objectives: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a multi-factorial disease and has numerous biological, psychological, and behavioral risk factors. In this study, we have attempted to study psychological stress as a risk factor for early childhood caries by investigating and comparing th...

Kambalimath Halaswamy; Dixit Uma; Thyagi Parimala

262

The Relationship between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values and Their Perceptions of Scientists' Cultural Values  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers' cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) "Adv Exp Soc Psychol" 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of the values…

Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer

2010-01-01

263

Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

264

A Study of Early Childhood Teachers' Conceptions of Creativity in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

|The study aimed to uncover the conceptions of creativity among early childhood teachers in Hong Kong. The sample comprised 563 early childhood teachers. Factor analysis supported the multidimensional hypothesis of teachers' conceptions of creativity. Five dimensions were found: novelty, product, problem solving, cognitive processes and personal…

Cheung, Rebecca Hun Ping; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

2013-01-01

265

Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates  

Science.gov (United States)

Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

2011-01-01

266

"On the Shoulders of Giants": Exploring the Traditions of Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses trends in early childhood education rooted in much older traditions, such as the project approach and Reggio Emilia approach, as well as the history of Head Start, and other changes in early childhood programs and services. Considers the need for practitioners to understand the theoretical and ideological foundations of pedagogical…

Spodek, Bernard; Saracho, Olivia N.

2003-01-01

267

Parental and Early Childhood Influences on Adolescent Obesity: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…

Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth

2012-01-01

268

An Affordance Network for Engagement: Increasing Parent and Family Agency in an Early Childhood Education Setting  

Science.gov (United States)

Research from the United Kingdom suggests that early childhood centres that operate from a multi or integrated service model, offering opportunities for parents to attend to a range of their needs and aspirations, increase the ability and the inclination of families to engage with their child's learning at the early childhood centre. Integrated…

Clarkin-Phillips, Jeanette; Carr, Margaret

2012-01-01

269

Synchronising Pedagogy and Musical Experiences in Early Childhood: Addressing Challenges in Preschool Music Education in Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines pedagogy in early childhood music education and the resultant learning experiences in music for children in Kenyan preschools. Two important principles proposed for the synchronisation of teaching and learning in early childhood music education are cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. These terms are…

Andang'o, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

270

Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: The rise in the occurrence of childhood obesity during the last decades in many populations indicates an important role of environmental exposures, which may operate very early in life. We aimed to examine the association between bereavement during the first 6 years of life, as a stress indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children. Methods: We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years of life. We compared BMI levels, changes in BMI, and the prevalence of overweight at 7-13 years of age between bereaved and non-bereaved children. Results: Between bereaved children and non-bereaved children, there were no differences in average BMI levels at any age or changes in BMI at 7-13 years of age. Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age. Conclusion: This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Li, Jiong; Olsen, JØrn

2012-01-01

271

La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

Argos, Javier

2000-01-01

272

Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting (MECSH) trial: design, method and sample description  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Home visiting programs comprising intensive and sustained visits by professionals (usually nurses) over the first two years of life show promise in promoting child health and family functioning, and ameliorating disadvantage. Australian evidence of the effectiveness of sustained nurse home visiting in early childhood is limited. This paper describes the method and cohort characteristics of the first Australian study of sustained home visiting commencing antenatally and continuing to child-age two years for at-risk mothers in a disadvantaged community (the Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting trial). Methods and design Mothers reporting risks for poorer parenting outcomes residing in an area of socioeconomic disadvantage were recruited between February 2003 and March 2005. Mothers randomised to the intervention group received a standardised program of nurse home visiting. Interviews and observations covering child, maternal, family and environmental issues were undertaken with mothers antenatally and at 1, 12 and 24 months postpartum. Standardised tests of child development and maternal-child interaction were undertaken at 18 and 30 months postpartum. Information from hospital and community heath records was also obtained. Discussion A total of 338 women were identified and invited to participate, and 208 were recruited to the study. Rates of active follow-up were 86% at 12 months, 74% at 24 months and 63% at 30 months postpartum. Participation in particular data points ranged from 66% at 1 month to 51% at 24 months postpartum. Rates of active follow-up and data point participation were not significantly different for the intervention or comparison group at any data point. Mothers who presented for antenatal care prior to 20 weeks pregnant, those with household income from full-time employment and those who reported being abused themselves as a child were more likely to be retained in the study. The Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting trial will provide Australian evidence of the effectiveness of sustained nurse home visiting for children at risk of poorer health and developmental outcomes. Trial registration ACTRN12608000473369

Kemp Lynn; Harris Elizabeth; McMahon Catherine; Matthey Stephen; Vimpani Graham; Anderson Teresa; Schmied Virginia

2008-01-01

273

Childhood trauma and health outcomes in adults with comorbid substance abuse and mental health disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes the prevalence of childhood traumatic events (CTEs) among adults with comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs) and mental health problems (MHPs) and assesses the relation between cumulative CTEs and adult health outcomes. Adults with SUDs/MHPs (N=402) were recruited from residential treatment programs and interviewed at treatment admission. Exposures to 9 types of adverse childhood experiences were summed and categorized into 6 ordinal levels of exposure. Descriptive analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence and range of exposure to CTEs in comparison with a sample from primary health care. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between the cumulative exposure to CTEs and adverse health outcomes. Most of the sample reported exposure to CTEs, with higher exposure rates among the study sample compared with the primary health care sample. Greater exposure to CTEs significantly increased the odds of several adverse adult outcomes, including PTSD, alcohol dependence, injection drug use, tobacco use, sex work, medical problems, and poor quality of life. Study findings support the importance of early prevention and intervention and provision of trauma treatment for individuals with SUDs/MHPs.

Wu NS; Schairer LC; Dellor E; Grella C

2010-01-01

274

Childhood trauma and health outcomes in adults with comorbid substance abuse and mental health disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the prevalence of childhood traumatic events (CTEs) among adults with comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs) and mental health problems (MHPs) and assesses the relation between cumulative CTEs and adult health outcomes. Adults with SUDs/MHPs (N=402) were recruited from residential treatment programs and interviewed at treatment admission. Exposures to 9 types of adverse childhood experiences were summed and categorized into 6 ordinal levels of exposure. Descriptive analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence and range of exposure to CTEs in comparison with a sample from primary health care. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between the cumulative exposure to CTEs and adverse health outcomes. Most of the sample reported exposure to CTEs, with higher exposure rates among the study sample compared with the primary health care sample. Greater exposure to CTEs significantly increased the odds of several adverse adult outcomes, including PTSD, alcohol dependence, injection drug use, tobacco use, sex work, medical problems, and poor quality of life. Study findings support the importance of early prevention and intervention and provision of trauma treatment for individuals with SUDs/MHPs. PMID:19775820

Wu, Nancy S; Schairer, Laura C; Dellor, Elinam; Grella, Christine

2009-09-11

275

The Development and Support of Creativity in Early Childhood Period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Creativity is a talent that has existed since the day man was created and exists in every human being. Creative thinking is a force. When the studies on creativity are examined, it can be seen that they are usually on who we are as creative individuals, what we do and what product we create in the end, so far. From the perspective of development, the development of creativity in other areas of development are different but closely related to each area of development is to be seen. To support creativity, the child’s development should be taken as a whole and game playing, which is the most significant task for the child, and imitation, one of the most important methods of learning, should be used. In this article, especially to improve the creativity of children in early childhood characteristics of creative people, creative abilities and creative utilization of mobile games should be emphasized.

H. Elif DA?LIO?LU

2011-01-01

276

Phonological universals in early childhood: Evidence from sonority restrictions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Across languages, onsets with large sonority distances are preferred to those with smaller distances (e.g., bw>bd>lb; Greenberg, 1978). Optimality theory (Prince & Smolensky, 2004) attributes such facts to grammatical restrictions that are universally active in all grammars. To test this hypothesis, here, we examine whether children extend putatively universal sonority restrictions to onsets unattested in their language. Participants (M=4;04 years) were presented with pairs of auditory words-either identical (e.g., lbif?lbif) or epenthetically related (e.g., lbif?lebif)-and asked to judge their identity. Results showed that, like adults, children's ability to detect epenthetic distortions was monotonically related to sonority distance (bw>bd>lb), and their performance was inexplicable by several statistical and phonetic factors. These findings suggest that sonority restrictions are active in early childhood and their scope is broad.

Berent I; Harder K; Lennertz T

2011-01-01

277

The Audiovisual Temporal Binding Window Narrows in Early Childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Binding is key in multisensory perception. This study investigated the audio-visual (A-V) temporal binding window in 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children (total N = 120). Children watched a person uttering a syllable whose auditory and visual components were either temporally synchronized or desynchronized by 366, 500, or 666 ms. They were asked whether the voice and face went together (Experiment 1) or whether the desynchronized videos differed from the synchronized one (Experiment 2). Four-year-olds detected the 666-ms asynchrony, 5-year-olds detected the 666- and 500-ms asynchrony, and 6-year-olds detected all asynchronies. These results show that the A-V temporal binding window narrows slowly during early childhood and that it is still wider at 6 years of age than in older children and adults.

Lewkowicz DJ; Flom R

2013-07-01

278

Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

2012-01-01

279

Turning College Students into Leaders in Early Childhood Education--Part 1: Getting Involved outside the College Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education college students are very busy people. They take required general education and early childhood curriculum courses, and they complete prepracticum and field experiences in a variety of early childhood settings. There has been an increase in the number of students who work during the day and go to school in the evening, as…

Young Children, 2011

2011-01-01

280

Clarifying the causal relationship in women between childhood sexual abuse and lifetime major depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is strongly associated with risk for major depression (MD) but the degree to which this association is causal remains uncertain. Method We applied structural equation modeling using the Mplus program to 1493 longitudinally assessed female twins from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. RESULTS: Our model included (i) retrospective self- and co-twin reports on CSA, (ii) major potentially confounding covariates, (iii) assessment of lifetime history of MD at two separate interviews, and (iv) mood-congruent recall (implemented by allowing current depressive symptoms to predict reporting of CSA). In a model with only measurement error, CSA explained 9.6% of MD. Including four key covariates reduced the variance explained to 5.3%, with the largest effects found for parental loss and low parental warmth. Adding the effect of mood-congruent recall to a final well-fitting model reduced the percentage of variance explained in lifetime MD (LTMD) by CSA to 4.4%. In this model, current depressive symptoms significantly predicted recall of CSA. CONCLUSIONS: In a model correcting for measurement error, confounding and the impact of mood-congruent recall, CSA remains substantially associated with the risk for LTMD in women. These findings strongly suggest, but do not prove, that this association is causal, and are consistent with previous results in this sample using a co-twin control design, but also indicate that more than half of the uncorrected CSA-MD association is probably not causal. Traumatic life experiences contribute substantially to the risk for LTMD.

Kendler KS; Aggen SH

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

[Experience of Icelandic adults of corporal punishment and abuse in childhood].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Corporal punishment and abuse of children can have a negative impact on their health and well-being. The aim is to examine on Icelandic adults, experience of corporal punishment as children, its prevalence, justification as victims, and its impact on the assessment of their upbringing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the national population register, out of 1500 randomly selected adults 18 years and older, 977 (65%) participated. In a telephone interview, they appraised their upbringing, followed by questions regarding 5 specific forms of corporal punishment in addition to an open-ended question about other forms experienced. RESULTS: Out of 968 respondents, 810 (84%) regarded their upbringing as good. In total, 465 (48%) reported at least one form of corporal punishment in childhood, with spanking being the most prevalent one (29%). Respondents 30 years and older were 1.9 times more likely to have experienced corporal punishment compared to those who were younger (95% CI 1.4-2.6) and males were 1.6 times more likely to report it compared to females (95% CI 1.2-2.0). Those who had frequently been punished were significantly more likely to hold of the opinion that it had never been justified (OR=6.5; 95% CI 1.8-22.9) and were more likely to judge their upbringing to have been reasonable or bad (OR=10.2; 95% CI 4.7-21.9) compared to those who had no such experience. CONCLUSION: The practice of corporal punishment of Icelandic children was significantly less prevalent among respondents born about 1980 and later compared to those born earlier. Increased public debate and awareness of children's rights and changed ideas about their upbringing has facilitated such development.

Gunnlaugsson G; Einarsdottir J

2013-05-01

282

[Childhood sexual abuse: how important is the diagnosis to understand and manage sexual, anorectal and lower urinary tract symptoms].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To understand and manage the sequels of childhood sexual abuse on sexual, anorectal and lower urinary tract functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of articles published in the Medline database, selected according to their scientific relevance and published guidelines on this subject together with our own experience. RESULTS: A history of sexual abuse is frequently found when assessing dysfunction or symptoms of the lower urinary tract. In this context, urinary stress incontinence is rarely involved but it can be linked by epidemiological factors. Dysuria with urgency is the most frequent expressed symptom. When associated with anorectal disorders and pelvic pain or a sexual disorder in particular dyspareunia, a sexual abuse should be evoked and specific questions asked to the patient. Although these symptoms are frequently encountered in 12 to 33% of women, and 8 to 16% of men, few practitioners, whatever their speciality ask about them as routine. It is important that the physician diagnose the existence of sexual abuse, in particular when the symptoms mentioned by the patient are not conclusive, in spite of thorough urological assessment. Patients finding the initial examination difficult and painful and the failure of the initial treatment should lead to questions concerning abuse, if neglected by the initial medical inquiry. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians involved in perineal functional pathology are able to acquire standardized modalities of inquiry about child sexual abuse for a better time management and efficacy in the therapeutic approach. The interest of a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach is primordial, associating psychological therapy and if necessary perineal re-education. This can avoid unnecessary tests and out-patient visits. Directing patients towards a multidisciplinary approach is highly advisable.

Cour F; Robain G; Claudon B; Chartier-Kästler E

2013-07-01

283

Peer substance use and homelessness predicting substance abuse from adolescence through early adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were housed at the baseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age range from 13 to 25. Many participants experienced a recurrence of homelessness during follow-up, with 64.6 % of the baseline homeless group and 22.6 % of the baseline housed group reporting an additional episode of homelessness. Both alcohol abuse and other drug abuse symptoms showed an increase in adolescence followed by slowing in early adulthood. Recent homelessness and friend alcohol use predicted alcohol abuse symptoms, and the strength of the influence of friend use decreased over time. Recent homelessness and friend drug use predicted other drug abuse symptoms. Duration of the initial episode of adolescent homelessness showed no influence on substance abuse over time, or the effects of other predictors, highlighting the importance of conceptualizing the experience of homelessness as a recent stressor rather than an enduring personal characteristic. PMID:23381568

Tompsett, Carolyn J; Domoff, Sarah E; Toro, Paul A

2013-06-01

284

Peer substance use and homelessness predicting substance abuse from adolescence through early adulthood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were housed at the baseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age range from 13 to 25. Many participants experienced a recurrence of homelessness during follow-up, with 64.6 % of the baseline homeless group and 22.6 % of the baseline housed group reporting an additional episode of homelessness. Both alcohol abuse and other drug abuse symptoms showed an increase in adolescence followed by slowing in early adulthood. Recent homelessness and friend alcohol use predicted alcohol abuse symptoms, and the strength of the influence of friend use decreased over time. Recent homelessness and friend drug use predicted other drug abuse symptoms. Duration of the initial episode of adolescent homelessness showed no influence on substance abuse over time, or the effects of other predictors, highlighting the importance of conceptualizing the experience of homelessness as a recent stressor rather than an enduring personal characteristic.

Tompsett CJ; Domoff SE; Toro PA

2013-06-01

285

Childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual health among indigenous Kanak women and non-Kanak women of New Caledonia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by comparing indigenous Kanak to non-Kanak women in New Caledonia. METHODS: Data come from a population survey on violence against women and health. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with adult women randomly selected from the electoral list. Separate models for Kanak (n=329) and non-Kanak women (n=426) were performed. Regression models adjusted for relevant socio-demographics factors were conducted to estimate the odds ratios for the associations between childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual health outcomes. RESULTS: A non-significant difference between Kanak (11.8%) and non-Kanak women (14.4%) was found for the prevalence of CSA. Among Kanak women, CSA increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections, of non-desired sexual intercourse with an intimate partner and of experience of adult sexual violence. However, use of modern contraception as an adult was more frequent among CSA Kanak victims, as compared to other Kanak women. Among non-Kanak women, only abortion appeared significantly associated with CSA. CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The findings show that in all ethnic communities of New Caledonia, a history of child sexual abuse is not rare among women. They also shed light on the long-term consequences of CSA, suggesting that the effect of CSA may differ according to ethnic membership and subsequent social stratification and gender norms. Efforts to break the silence around violence against girls and establish a stronger foundation are required in New Caledonia. Prevention programs on violence against women and sexual health that take into account the cultural and social heterogeneity are needed.

Hamelin C; Salomon C; Cyr D; Gueguen A; Lert F

2010-09-01

286

Affect and state dysregulation as moderators of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and nonsuicidal self-injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant problem in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Affect and state dysregulation are frequently observed in survivors of childhood sexual abuse and in those who engage in NSSI. Both have been found to predict NSSI, and affect regulation has also been modeled as a mediator of NSSI. This study extends present research by modeling both affect and state dysregulation as moderators of NSSI. The findings are discussed as an extension of the tension reduction theory and within a conceptualization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as an asymmetry of the approach-avoidance neurophysiological system.

Bolen RM; Winter VR; Hodges L

2013-01-01

287

Nurses' perspectives on the care of adults with mental health problems and histories of childhood sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite growing awareness and evidence linking childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to numerous ongoing health problems in adulthood, the integration of this knowledge into nursing practice remains inconsistent. This article reports the results of a study that explored nurses' perspectives on, and experiences with, providing care for adults with mental health problems who may also have histories of CSA. Nurses' views underscore the challenges and complexities involved when providing care for this population. The themes of nurses' knowledge and comfort levels, ethical practice, patient care considerations, and system issues are used to discuss nurses' understandings, perspectives, and experiences.

Chernomas WM; Mordoch E

2013-09-01

288

Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors in early life (up to 3 years of age) for obesity in children in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 8234 children in cohort aged 7 years and a subsample of 909 children (children in focus) with data on additional early growth related risk factors for obesity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Obesity at age 7 years, defined as a body mass index (3) 95th centile relative to reference data for the UK population in 1990. RESULTS: Eight of 25 putative risk factors were associated with a risk of obesity in the final models: parental obesity (both parents: adjusted odds ratio, 10.44, 95% confidence interval 5.11 to 21.32), very early (by 43 months) body mass index or adiposity rebound (15.00, 5.32 to 42.30), more than eight hours spent watching television per week at age 3 years (1.55, 1.13 to 2.12), catch-up growth (2.60, 1.09 to 6.16), standard deviation score for weight at age 8 months (3.13, 1.43 to 6.85) and 18 months (2.65, 1.25 to 5.59); weight gain in first year (1.06, 1.02 to 1.10 per 100 g increase); birth weight, per 100 g (1.05, 1.03 to 1.07); and short (< 10.5 hours) sleep duration at age 3 years (1.45, 1.10 to 1.89). CONCLUSION: Eight factors in early life are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood.

Reilly JJ; Armstrong J; Dorosty AR; Emmett PM; Ness A; Rogers I; Steer C; Sherriff A

2005-06-01

289

Comparison of childhood sexual histories in subjects with pedophilia or opiate addiction and healthy controls: is childhood sexual abuse a risk factor for addictions?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Given the recent interest in the concept of sexual addictions, it is instructive to study subjects with pedophilia alongside chemically addicted individuals and non-addicted controls in order to help identify which factors may determine the objects of people's respective addictions, as well as any factors that may predispose people to developing an addictive disorder. METHOD: In this study, we considered whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a specific risk factor for pedophilia as opposed to other types of addictive disorders by comparing the childhood sexual histories of 48 pedophilic sex offenders, 25 subjects with opiate addiction in remission, and 61 healthy controls. CSA was assessed with The Sexual History Questionnaire and the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). RESULTS: Compared with both opiate addicted subjects and healthy controls, subjects with pedophilia were more likely to report experiencing adult sexual advances when they were children and a first sexual contact by age 13 with a partner at least 5 years older. Although both subjects with pedophilia and those with opiate addiction first had sex at a younger age than healthy controls, opiate addicted subjects, compared with healthy controls, reported neither increased reception of sexual advances as children nor increased rates of first sexual contact before age 13 with a partner at least 5 years older. Further, subjects with pedophilia but not those with opiate addiction scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the CTQ. CONCLUSION: Sexual abuse in childhood may be a specific risk factor for sexual addictions such as pedophilia but may not be a specific risk factor for chemical addictions.

Cohen LJ; Forman H; Steinfeld M; Fradkin Y; Frenda S; Galynker I

2010-11-01

290

Polyarteritis Nodosa in Childhood: Recognition of Early Dermatologic Signs May Prevent Morbidity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Systemic polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a vasculitis that affects small to medium-size arteries. Onset in childhood is rare and can cause significant morbidity. Often, cutaneous manifestations can provide early clues toward diagnosis. This article describes a case of childhood systemic PAN that presented with fever, a necrotic skin lesion, and oral ulceration. Intestinal perforation complicated this case. Prompt recognition of childhood PAN is important to prevent serious complications.

Beckum KM; Kim DJ; Kelly DR; Weiser P; Lara DA; Theos A

2013-08-01

291

Child Care and Cortisol Across Early Childhood: Context Matters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large population-based sample of families from predominantly low-income backgrounds in rural communities, we tested the degree to which links between children's child-care experiences (at 7-36 months) and their subsequent cortisol levels (at 48 months) were moderated by their level of cumulative environmental risk. Our results provided evidence of a crossover interaction between cumulative risk and child-care quantity. For children from low-risk contexts, greater weekly hours in child care were predictive of higher cortisol levels. In contrast, for children facing several cumulative risk factors, greater hours in child care per week were predictive of lower cortisol levels. These effects were robust after adjusting for several controls, including children's cortisol levels in early infancy. Child-care quality and type were not predictive of children's cortisol levels, and neither mitigated the conditional effect of child-care quantity on cortisol. These findings suggest that links between child care and children's development may differ as a function of children's broader ecologies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Berry D; Blair C; Ursache A; Willoughby M; Garrett-Peters P; Vernon-Feagans L; Bratsch-Hines M; Mills-Koonce WR; Granger DA

2013-06-01

292

Early childhood television viewing and kindergarten entry readiness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background:Using a large population-based sample, this study aims to verify whether televiewing at 29 mo, a common early childhood pastime, is prospectively associated with school readiness at 65 mo.Methods:Participants are a prospective longitudinal cohort of 991 girls and 1,006 boys from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development with parent-reported data on weekly hours of televiewing at 29 mo of age. We conducted a series of ordinary least-squares regressions in which children's scores on direct child assessments of vocabulary, mathematical knowledge, and motor skills, as well as kindergarten teacher reports of socioemotional functioning, were linearly regressed on early televiewing.Results:Every SD increase (1.2?h) in daily televiewing at 29 mo predicted decreases in receptive vocabulary, number knowledge scores, classroom engagement, and gross motor locomotion scores, as well as increases in the frequency of victimization by classmates.Conclusion:Increases in total time watching television at 29 mo were associated with subsequent decreases in vocabulary and math skills, classroom engagement (which is largely determined by attention skills), victimization by classmates, and physical prowess at kindergarten. These prospective associations, independent of key potential confounders, suggest the need for better parental awareness and compliance with existing viewing recommendations put forth by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).

Pagani LS; Fitzpatrick C; Barnett TA

2013-09-01

293

PROMOTING CHILDREN’S AGENCY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using conversation analysis (CA), this study identifies features of teacher-child interactions that enable opportunities for children’s active participation in early learning environments, specifically, how teachers promote children’s agency in the resolution of their peer disputes. The analysis focuses on two particular episodes of teacher intervention selected from a total of 28 hours of video-recorded observations in two early childhood education settings with three- to five-year-old children. The first demonstrates how a teacher can facilitate the collaborative resolution of a dispute; the second demonstrates how a teacher can respond to a child’s report of conflict by positioning herself as a non-participant. While different strategies were utilized in each of these episodes, redirecting responsibility to the children themselves was found to be the key practice in facilitating children’s agency in these interventions. Knowledge and insights gained through conversation analysis contribute to our understanding of how teachers and children collaboratively achieve opportunities for agency.

Angela MASHFORD-SCOTT; Amelia CHURCH

2011-01-01

294

Building Equitable Staff-Parent Communication in Early Childhood Settings: An Australian Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available International research has consistently found that good staff-parent relationships in early childhood centers benefit children, staff, and parents. Given these findings, the Australian federal government's Quality Improvement and Accreditation Scheme (QIAS) requires centers to involve parents in their programs. However, international research has also found that early childhood staff are anxious about their relationships with parents. This article describes a study in which early childhood staff in Australia were asked about their experiences with parent involvement. It draws on those interviews to consider communication strategies to create equitable relationships between staff and parents.

Patrick Hughes; Glenda MacNaughton

2001-01-01

295

Preliminary study of renal hemodynamic alteration in early childhood diabetes mellitus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Renal hemodynamic study was performed in eight patients associated with type 1, early childhood diabetes mellitus (DM) and seven patients associated with type 2, early childhood DM. The results in both types of DM revealed a significant reduction in peritubular capillary flow and a high value of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the presence of reduced renal perfusion characteristic of glomerular hyperfiltration. These findings imply that renal ischemia has already developed in both types of early stage childhood DM and GFR is overestimated in DM, which may mislead to improper interpretation of renal function.

Wacharasindhu S; Rugpolmuang R; Roonghiranwat T; Supornsilchai V; Sahakitrungruang T; Aroonparkmongkol S; Chaiwatanarat T

2013-01-01

296

Low-income parents' perceptions of pediatrician advice on early childhood education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians promote early childhood education (ECE). However, pediatricians have met resistance from low-income parents when providing anticipatory guidance on some topics outside the realm of physical health. Parents' views on discussing ECE with the pediatrician have not been studied. We sought to understand low-income parents' experiences and attitudes with regard to discussing ECE with the pediatrician and to identify opportunities for pediatrician input. We conducted 27 in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with parents of 3- and 4-year-old patients (100% Medicaid, 78% African American) at an urban primary care center. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed for themes by a multidisciplinary team. Most low-income parents in our study reported they primarily sought ECE advice from family and friends but were open to talking about ECE with the pediatrician. They considered their children's individual behavior and development to be important factors in ECE decisions and appreciated pediatricians' advice about developmental readiness for ECE. Participants' decisions about ECE were often driven by fears that their children would be abused or neglected. Many viewed 3 years as the age at which children had sufficient language skills to report mistreatment and could be safely enrolled in ECE. Participants were generally accepting of discussions about ECE during well child visits. There may be opportunity for the pediatrician to frame ECE discussions in the context of development, behavior, and safety and to promote high-quality ECE at an earlier age.

Brown CM; Girio-Herrera EL; Sherman SN; Kahn RS; Copeland KA

2013-02-01

297

Maltreatment in early childhood: a scoping review of prevention, detection and treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years). Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on detection, prevention and treatment strategies in different situations of child maltreatment. Sexual abuse was excluded. The search spanned from 2002 to 2012, in English and Spanish. Results. Of 105 articles, 36 met the selection criteria. In prevention, the best evaluated strategies were parenting programs based on cognitive or cognitive-behavioral approach and interactive learning strategies. In detection, only two instruments were identified with optimum specificity and positive predictive value. In treatment, a variety of treatment strategies were identified with favorable effects on behavioral, functional and psycho affective indicators. The population relevance of these interventions is unclear, as the differential effectiveness of these therapeutic approaches. Conclusions. There are many child maltreatment prevention strategies at the individual and family level. The instruments used for detection are not reliable for use at the collective level. Insofar as therapy, not enough evidence was found both in quality and quantity to favor one intervention over another. It is recommended to understand the problem from the public health perspective and to generate multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches.

Luis Lefio Celedón; Helia Silva Bustos; Katherinne Rivas Castro

2013-01-01

298

A new framework for childhood health promotion: the role of policies and programs in building capacity and foundations of early childhood health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the connection between early life experiences and later health is becoming increasingly clear, what is needed, now, is a new organizing framework for childhood health promotion, grounded in the latest science. We review the evidence base to identify the steps in the overall pathway to ensuring better health for all children. A key factor in optimizing health in early childhood is building capacities of parents and communities. Although often overlooked, capacities are integral to building the foundations of lifelong health in early childhood. We outline a framework for policymakers and practitioners to guide future decision-making and investments in early childhood health promotion.

Mistry KB; Minkovitz CS; Riley AW; Johnson SB; Grason HA; Dubay LC; Guyer B

2012-09-01

299

A new framework for childhood health promotion: the role of policies and programs in building capacity and foundations of early childhood health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the connection between early life experiences and later health is becoming increasingly clear, what is needed, now, is a new organizing framework for childhood health promotion, grounded in the latest science. We review the evidence base to identify the steps in the overall pathway to ensuring better health for all children. A key factor in optimizing health in early childhood is building capacities of parents and communities. Although often overlooked, capacities are integral to building the foundations of lifelong health in early childhood. We outline a framework for policymakers and practitioners to guide future decision-making and investments in early childhood health promotion. PMID:22813416

Mistry, Kamila B; Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Riley, Anne W; Johnson, Sara B; Grason, Holly A; Dubay, Lisa C; Guyer, Bernard

2012-07-19

300

Associations between childhood adversity and depression, substance abuse and HIV & HSV2 incident infections in rural South African youth  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives to describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes. Methods we analysed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes simplex type 2 virus at 12 and 24 month follow up; 1,367 male and 1,415 female volunteers were recruited from 70 rural villages. Results Both women and men before 18 had experienced physical punishment (89.3% & 94.4%), physical hardship (65.8% & 46.8%), emotional abuse (54.7% & 56.4%), emotional neglect (41.6% & 39.6%), and sexual abuse (39.1% & 16.7%). Incident HIV infections were more common in women who experienced emotional abuse (IRR 1.96, 95% CI 1.25, 3.06, p=0.003), sexual abuse (IRR 1.66 95%CI 1.04, 2.63, p=0.03), and physical punishment (IRR 2.13 95%CI 1.04, 4.37, p=0.04). Emotional neglect in women was associated with depression (aOR 1.82 (95% CI 1.15, 2.88, p= 0.01), suicidality (aOR 5.07 (95% CI 2.07, 12.45, p<0.0001), alcohol abuse (aOR 2.17 (95% CI 0.99, 4.72, p=0.05), and incident HSV2 infections (IRR 1.62, 95% CI 1.01, 2.59, p=0.04). In men emotional neglect was associated with depression (aOR 3.41 (95% CI1.87, 6.20, p<0.0001) and drug use (aOR 1.98 (95% CI 1.37, 2.88, p<0.0001). Sexual abuse was associated with alcohol abuse in men (aOR 3.68 (95% CI2.00, 6.77, p<0.0001) and depression (aOR 2.16 (95% CI1.34, 3.48, p=0.002) and alcohol abuse in women (aOR 3.94 (95% CI 1.90, 8.17, p<0.0001). Practice implications Childhood exposure to adversity is very common and influences the health of women and men. All forms of adversity, emotional, physical and sexual, enhance the risk of adverse health outcomes in men and women. Prevention of child abuse need to be included as part of the HIV prevention agenda in Sub-Saharan Africa. Interventions are needed to prevent emotional, sexual, and physical abuse and responses from health and social systems in Africa to psychologically support exposed children must be strengthened.

Jewkes, Rachel K; Dunkle, Kristin; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, P Nwabisa; Puren, Adrian

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Associations between childhood adversity and depression, substance abuse and HIV and HSV2 incident infections in rural South African youth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes simplex type 2 virus at 12- and 24-month follow up; 1,367 male and 1,415 female volunteers were recruited from 70 rural villages. RESULTS: Both women and men before 18 had experienced physical punishment (89.3% and 94.4%), physical hardship (65.8% and 46.8%), emotional abuse (54.7% and 56.4%), emotional neglect (41.6% and 39.6%), and sexual abuse (39.1% and 16.7%). Incident HIV infections were more common in women who experienced emotional abuse (IRR 1.96, 95% CI 1.25, 3.06, p=.003), sexual abuse (IRR 1.66 95% CI 1.04, 2.63, p=.03), and physical punishment (IRR 2.13 95% CI 1.04, 4.37, p=.04). Emotional neglect in women was associated with depression (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.15, 2.88, p=.01), suicidality (aOR 5.07, 95% CI 2.07, 12.45, p<.0001), alcohol abuse (aOR 2.17, 95% CI .99, 4.72, p=.05), and incident HSV2 infections (IRR 1.62, 95% CI 1.01, 2.59, p=.04). In men emotional neglect was associated with depression (aOR 3.41, 95% CI 1.87, 6.20, p<.0001) and drug use (aOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.37, 2.88, p<.0001). Sexual abuse was associated with alcohol abuse in men (aOR 3.68, 95% CI 2.00, 6.77, p<.0001) and depression (aOR 2.16, 95% CI 1.34, 3.48, p=.002) and alcohol abuse in women (aOR 3.94, 95% CI 1.90, 8.17, p<.0001). PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Childhood exposure to adversity is very common and influences the health of women and men. All forms of adversity, emotional, physical and sexual, enhance the risk of adverse health outcomes in men and women. Prevention of child abuse need to be included as part of the HIV prevention agenda in sub-Saharan Africa. Interventions are needed to prevent emotional, sexual, and physical abuse and responses from health and social systems in Africa to psychologically support exposed children must be strengthened.

Jewkes RK; Dunkle K; Nduna M; Jama PN; Puren A

2010-11-01

302

Relationship of Pessimistic Attitude with Childhood Abuse among the Female Prisoners of Punjab Prisons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study explores the relationship between the experience of abuse and pessimistic attitude among the female prisoners. This area of research has never been explored in Pakistan. Participants included 400 females both the convicts and under trials from the four Central Prisons of Punjab Prisons. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire. House Tree Person Test was also administered for rapport building. It was hypothesized that female prisoners having the experience of abuse were also having pessimistic attitude towards the life. Findings showed significant co-relation between experience of abuse and pessimistic attitude. Pearson correlation co-efficient was calculated between experience of abuse and pessimisms. In order to further understand the level of abuse; it was divided into emotional, physical and sexual abuse. This study highlighted the need to attend emotional problems of female criminals.

Sarwat Inayat Mirza

2011-01-01

303

The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advances in fields of inquiry as diverse as neuroscience, molecular biology, genomics, developmental psychology, epidemiology, sociology, and economics are catalyzing an important paradigm shift in our understanding of health and disease across the lifespan. This converging, multidisciplinary science of human development has profound implications for our ability to enhance the life prospects of children and to strengthen the social and economic fabric of society. Drawing on these multiple streams of investigation, this report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. An ecobiodevelopmental framework also underscores the need for new thinking about the focus and boundaries of pediatric practice. It calls for pediatricians to serve as both front-line guardians of healthy child development and strategically positioned, community leaders to inform new science-based strategies that build strong foundations for educational achievement, economic productivity, responsible citizenship, and lifelong health.

Shonkoff JP; Garner AS

2012-01-01

304

The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in fields of inquiry as diverse as neuroscience, molecular biology, genomics, developmental psychology, epidemiology, sociology, and economics are catalyzing an important paradigm shift in our understanding of health and disease across the lifespan. This converging, multidisciplinary science of human development has profound implications for our ability to enhance the life prospects of children and to strengthen the social and economic fabric of society. Drawing on these multiple streams of investigation, this report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. An ecobiodevelopmental framework also underscores the need for new thinking about the focus and boundaries of pediatric practice. It calls for pediatricians to serve as both front-line guardians of healthy child development and strategically positioned, community leaders to inform new science-based strategies that build strong foundations for educational achievement, economic productivity, responsible citizenship, and lifelong health. PMID:22201156

Shonkoff, Jack P; Garner, Andrew S

2011-12-26

305

Managing Depressive Symptoms in Substance Abuse Clients During Early Recovery  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) is designed to assist you—the substance abuse counselor—in working with clients who are experiencing depressive symptoms. These symptoms occur along a continuum of intensity from mild to severe. When they reach a certain level of intensity and frequency, they become consistent with a diagnosis of a mood disorder, such as major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, substance-induced mood disorder, or bipolar disorder. It is clear from clinical research and practice that a significant percentage of your clients have depressive symptoms. Some, but not all, will have these depressive symptoms in the context of a mood disorder diagnosis. Even if you will not be diagnosing and treating depressive illnesses—which is in the scope of practice of those mental and behavioral health professionals licensed in your State to diagnose and treat mood disorders, and capable of doing so—you will be providing substance abuse counseling to clients with these diagnoses and to clients with depressive symptoms but whose mood states do not reach a level that would warrant a mood disorder diagnosis (that is, clients whose symptoms do not meet the diagnostic criteria).

306

Body image in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder after childhood sexual abuse and co-occurring eating disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Body image is a multidimensional construct with cognitive-affective, behavioral and perceptive components. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse report a disturbance of the cognitive-affective component of their body image but not of the perceptive component. It has not yet been examined whether and how the behavioral component is affected. Also, it is still unknown whether the disturbances might be due to the influence of co-occurring eating disorders. SAMPLING AND METHODS: The cognitive-affective and behavioral components of the body image of 84 female participants with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childhood sexual abuse (31 with a co-occurring eating disorder) and 53 healthy participants were assessed via the Dresden Body Image Inventory (Dresdner Körperbildfragebogen-35, DKB-35) and the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ). RESULTS: PTSD patients reported significantly higher negative scores on all DKB-35 subscales (p < 0.001) and the BIAQ (p = 0.002; p < 0.001). Results remained consistent after accounting for the influence of co-occurring eating disorders (p = 0.021; p = 0.001; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Results show for the first time that the behavioral component of the body image is impaired in female patients with PTSD in addition to the cognitive-affective component. This is not solely due to a comorbid eating disorder. The effect of established treatments on the body image of PTSD patients should be evaluated and new treatment modules should be developed and tested, if necessary.

Dyer A; Borgmann E; Kleindienst N; Feldmann RE Jr; Vocks S; Bohus M

2013-01-01

307

Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed.

Easton SD

2013-09-01

308

Sexual orientation disparities in substance misuse: the role of childhood abuse and intimate partner violence among patients in care at an urban community health center.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined disparities in lifetime substance misuse by sexual orientation among 2,653 patients engaged in care at an urban community health center in Boston, MA, as well as the potential mediating roles of childhood abuse substance misuse, as was identifying as a sexual minority compared to heterosexual. CA and IPV experiences partly explained disparities in substance abuse by sexual orientation with differences seen by sex. Clinicians should assess history of CA and IPV among sexual minorities presenting with a history of substance abuse disorders. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:23368669

Reisner, Sari L; Falb, Kathryn L; Wagenen, Aimee Van; Grasso, Chris; Bradford, Judith

2013-01-31

309

Association between childhood sexual abuse and transactional sex in youth aging out of foster care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. METHODS: We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants were, on average, 17 years of age. Our outcome variables were self-report of having transactional sex ever and in the past year, when participants were an average age of 19 years. Separate multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA variables and transactional sex variables. Initial analyses were performed on both genders; exploratory analyses were then performed evaluating each gender separately. Total N=732; 574 were included in the main analyses. RESULTS: History of sexual molestation was significantly associated with increased odds of having transactional sex, both ever and in the past year (OR [95% CI]: 3.21 [1.26-8.18] and 4.07 [1.33, 12.52], respectively). History of rape was also significantly associated with increased odds of having had transactional sex ever and in the past year (ORs [95% CI]: 3.62 [1.38-9.52] and 3.78 [1.19, 12.01], respectively). Odds ratios in female-only analyses remained significant and were larger in magnitude compared with the main, non-stratified analyses; odds ratios in male-only analyses were non-significant and smaller in magnitude when compared with the main analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Both CSA variables were associated with increased likelihood of transactional sex. This association appears to vary by gender. Our results suggest that policymakers for youth in foster care should consider the unique needs of young women with histories of CSA when developing programs to support healthy relationships. Health care providers should also consider adapting screening and counseling practices to reflect the increased risk of transactional sex for female youth in foster care with a history of CSA.

Ahrens KR; Katon W; McCarty C; Richardson LP; Courtney ME

2012-01-01

310

Early Childhood Education: What Are the Costs of High-Quality Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Letter from Franklin Frazier to Senator Edward Kennedy: 'To assist the Congress in its deliberations on your proposed 'Smart Start' bill (S. 123) and other pending legislation relating to early childhood education and child care, you requested that we det...

1990-01-01

311

Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Matijasevich A, Howe LD, Tilling K, Santos IS, Barros AJD, Lawlor DA. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 236–249.

Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Lawlor, Debbie A

312

Tracking of Physical Activity from Early Childhood through Youth into Adulthood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: This study has shown that physically active lifestyle starts to develop very early in childhood and that the stability of physical activity is moderate or high along the life-course from youth to adulthood.

Telama R; Yang X; Leskinen E; Kankaanpää A; Hirvensalo M; Tammelin T; Viikari JS; Raitakari OT

2013-10-01

313

Childhood Emotional Abuse and Disordered Eating among Undergraduate Females: Mediating Influence of Alexithymia and Distress  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore…

Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

2006-01-01

314

International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education: Lessons from My Travels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Noting that working with early childhood colleagues in other countries can be enlightening and enriching, this paper offers seven insights gained from the experience: (1) "What It Feels Like To Be a Teacher" discusses observations of student and teacher behavior and attitudes in classrooms in China, a Caribbean island, and India; (2) "Similarities across Countries" notes that teachers? roles may be more powerful determinants of their ideas, ideals, ideologies, concerns, and beliefs than are the larger political, social, and cultural contexts in which they work; (3) "Problems with Comparative Studies" discusses the difficulties inherent in comparing educational provisions and effectiveness across countries; (4) "The Spread of Ideas across Borders" discusses the influence of the British Infant School approach in the 1960s and 1970s, the influence of the innovative province-wide reform work of British Columbia, Canada, in the 1980s, and most recently the influence of the Reggio Emilia approach; (5) "Issues Unique to the U.S." explores interests that appear of concern only in the United States, such as the development of self-esteem in children; (6) "Self-criticism in the U.S." discusses one American habit ? self-deprecation; and (7) "U.S. Leadership in Anti-bias and Multicultural Awareness" notes that the United States deserves a great deal of credit for leadership in addressing anti-bias and multicultural issues.

Lilian G. Katz

1999-01-01

315

Factors associated with fragmented sleep at night across early childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors most strongly associated with sleeping less than 6 consecutive hours at night for children aged 5, 17, and 29 months. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized survey design used a representative sample of infants born in 1997-1998 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Data were collected by questionnaires and interviews. Interviews were scheduled at home with the mothers. The number of consecutive hours slept at night by 1741 children aged 5, 17, and 29 months was assessed from parental reports. Factors associated with fragmented sleep were investigated for each age in a cross-sectional design. RESULTS: At 5 months of age, 23.5% of children did not sleep 6 consecutive hours. Of the children who did not sleep 6 consecutive hours at night at 5 months or 17 months of age, 32.9% were still not sleeping 6 consecutive hours at night at 29 months of age. The factor most strongly associated with not sleeping at least 6 consecutive hours per night at 5 months of age was feeding the child after an awakening. Parental presence until sleep onset was the factor most strongly associated with not sleeping at least 6 consecutive hours per night at 17 months and 29 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep consolidation evolves rapidly in early childhood. Parental behaviors at bedtime and in response to a nocturnal awakening are highly associated with the child's sleep consolidation. The effects are probably bidirectional and probably create a long-term problem. Early interventions could possibly break the cycle.

Touchette E; Petit D; Paquet J; Boivin M; Japel C; Tremblay RE; Montplaisir JY

2005-03-01

316

Early menarcheal age and risk for later depressive symptomatology: the role of childhood depressive symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has investigated the relationship between pubertal timing and depression in girls, with most results suggesting that earlier menarche predicts more depression in adolescence. However, few studies have controlled for the potentially confounding effects of childhood depressive symptoms. The current study uses a prospective, longitudinal sample of 1,185 girls (47.8 % Caucasian) to examine the relationships between pubertal timing, childhood depressive symptoms, and adolescent depressive symptomatology. Using multiple linear regression analyses, our results suggest that higher levels of childhood depressive symptoms and earlier menarche have independent effects on adolescent depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, childhood depressive symptomatology predicted later age of menarche, although the magnitude of this effect was small. Taken together, the results suggest that early childhood depressive symptoms and early menarche represent independent pathways to later depressive symptoms. PMID:22447395

Black, Sarah R; Klein, Daniel N

2012-03-25

317

Early menarcheal age and risk for later depressive symptomatology: the role of childhood depressive symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research has investigated the relationship between pubertal timing and depression in girls, with most results suggesting that earlier menarche predicts more depression in adolescence. However, few studies have controlled for the potentially confounding effects of childhood depressive symptoms. The current study uses a prospective, longitudinal sample of 1,185 girls (47.8 % Caucasian) to examine the relationships between pubertal timing, childhood depressive symptoms, and adolescent depressive symptomatology. Using multiple linear regression analyses, our results suggest that higher levels of childhood depressive symptoms and earlier menarche have independent effects on adolescent depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, childhood depressive symptomatology predicted later age of menarche, although the magnitude of this effect was small. Taken together, the results suggest that early childhood depressive symptoms and early menarche represent independent pathways to later depressive symptoms.

Black SR; Klein DN

2012-09-01

318

Do mental health professionals enquire about childhood sexual abuse during routine mental health assessment in acute mental health settings? A substantive literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This literature review examines the extent to which mental health professionals enquire about childhood sexual abuse during routine mental health assessments in acute mental health settings. Five electronic databases were searched for papers which explored the nature of enquiry about childhood sexual abuse by mental health professionals. The literature was searched between December 2008 and March 2010, with an update in October 2011. Of the 332 papers identified, 54 papers were selected as potentially relevant and data extraction was performed. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Eleven studies were identified that either examined the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse enquiry documented in medical records, or directly asked mental health professionals about their own practice in relation to this subject. The studies found that while many professionals acknowledged the importance of enquiry, there was little evidence of widespread routine enquiry during mental health assessments in acute settings. Mental health professionals do not routinely enquire about childhood sexual abuse during mental health assessment in acute mental health settings. Service providers may have to consider incorporating mandatory enquiry into mental health assessments.

Hepworth I; McGowan L

2013-08-01

319

The Co-Occurrence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Sexual Assault, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Harassment: A Mediational Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…

Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela

2008-01-01

320

The Co-Occurrence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Sexual Assault, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Harassment: A Mediational Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…

Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Reductions in Traumatic Stress Following a Coping Intervention Were Mediated by Decreases in Avoidant Coping for People Living with HIV/AIDS and Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine whether (a) Living in the Face of Trauma (LIFT), a group intervention to address coping with HIV and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), significantly reduced traumatic stress over a 1-year follow-up period more than an attention-matched support group comparison intervention; and (b) reductions in avoidant coping over time mediated…

Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ranby, Krista W.; Meade, Christina S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kochman, Arlene

2013-01-01

322

Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

2008-01-01

323

Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: a study of role-played enactments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it.

Stafford J; Lynn SJ

2002-01-01

324

Transient early wheeze and lung function in early childhood associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that a disturbed early lung development underlies the susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Little is known about whether subjects genetically predisposed to COPD show their first symptoms or reduced lung function in childhood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether replicated genes for COPD associate with transient early wheeze (TEW) and lung function levels in 6- to 8-year-old children and whether cigarette smoke exposure in utero and after birth (environmental tobacco smoke [ETS]) modifies these effects. METHODS: The association of COPD-related genotypes of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 15 genes with TEW, FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio was studied in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort (n = 1996) and replicated in the Child, parents and health: lifestyle and genetic constitution (KOALA) and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohorts. RESULTS: AGER showed replicated association with FEV1/FVC ratio. TNS1 associated with more TEW in PIAMA and lower FEV1 in ALSPAC. TNS1 interacted with ETS in PIAMA, showing lower FEV1 in exposed children. HHIP rs1828591 interacted with cigarette smoke exposure in utero in PIAMA and with ETS in ALSPAC, with lower lung function in nonexposed children. SERPINE2, FAM13A, and MMP12 associated with higher FEV1 and FVC, and SERPINE2, HHIP, and TGFB1 interacted with cigarette smoke exposure in utero in PIAMA only, showing adverse effects of exposure on FEV1 being limited to children with genotypes conferring the lowest risk of COPD. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate relevant involvement of at least 3 COPD genes in lung development and lung growth by demonstrating associations pointing toward reduced airway caliber in early childhood. Furthermore, our results suggest that COPD genes are involved in the infant's lung response to smoke exposure in utero and in early life.

Kerkhof M; Boezen HM; Granell R; Wijga AH; Brunekreef B; Smit HA; de Jongste JC; Thijs C; Mommers M; Penders J; Henderson J; Koppelman GH; Postma DS

2013-07-01

325

Measuring Satisfaction with Family-Professional Partnership in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Programs in Qatar  

Science.gov (United States)

Family-professional partnership has been considered a recommended practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (EI/ECSE) programs for young children with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The importance of establishing successful partnerships between families and professionals in educational planning has…

Al-Hadad, Nawal Khalil

2010-01-01

326

Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive attachment disorder is a problem with social interaction that occurs when a child's basic physical and emotional needs ... Reactive attachment disorder is caused by abuse or neglect of an infant's needs for: Emotional bonds with a primary ...

327

Misconceptions about childhood sexual abuse and child witnesses: Implications for psychological experts in the courtroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent changes to the law in New Zealand have led to a marked increase in experts being called to give evidence in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Here we outline some of the common misconceptions that are held by expert witnesses in these cases and we review research on patterns of abuse disclosure and retraction, symptoms of abuse, external influences on children's reports, and experts' ability to distinguish true from false reports. We also consider what experts can say about memory that has relevance for these cases. We conclude that many long-held notions of child sexual abuse and children's testimony that make their way into our courtrooms are not supported by empirical research, raising questions about who is-and who is not-qualified to act as an expert witness. PMID:23506380

Zajac, Rachel; Garry, Maryanne; London, Kamala; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Hayne, Harlene

2013-03-18

328

Misconceptions about childhood sexual abuse and child witnesses: Implications for psychological experts in the courtroom.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent changes to the law in New Zealand have led to a marked increase in experts being called to give evidence in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Here we outline some of the common misconceptions that are held by expert witnesses in these cases and we review research on patterns of abuse disclosure and retraction, symptoms of abuse, external influences on children's reports, and experts' ability to distinguish true from false reports. We also consider what experts can say about memory that has relevance for these cases. We conclude that many long-held notions of child sexual abuse and children's testimony that make their way into our courtrooms are not supported by empirical research, raising questions about who is-and who is not-qualified to act as an expert witness.

Zajac R; Garry M; London K; Goodyear-Smith F; Hayne H

2013-03-01

329

History of Childhood Abuse, Sensation Seeking, and Intimate Partner Violence under/Not under the Influence of a Substance: A Cross-Sectional Study in Russia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV) under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. Results Of 299 women, 104 (34.8%) and 113 (37.8%) reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1%) of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively) was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Conclusions IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking). Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use.

Zhan, Weihai; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Abdala, Nadia

2013-01-01

330

Transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo: associação com abuso físico na infância/ Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders: association with physical abuse in childhood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Muitos transtornos psiquiátricos, geralmente diagnosticados pela primeira vez na infância, estão associados a maus-tratos, entre eles o abuso físico, causando significativo impacto no desenvolvimento das crianças acometidas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a associação entre um diagnóstico psiquiátrico do grupo dos transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo (TDACD) em crianças e a história de abuso físico na infância. MÉTODOS: Em um estu (more) do seccional, crianças de 3 a 12 anos, atendidas em um ambulatório de psiquiatria de um hospital universitário, foram avaliadas por meio do MINI KID (), tendo sido diagnosticadas de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV. A avaliação de abuso físico e de outros eventos traumáticos foi realizada por um questionário específico, o LSC-R () e inclui diferentes tipos de maus-tratos. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma razão de chance mais alta de exposição freqüente ao abuso físico (p = 0,02) no grupo de crianças diagnosticadas com TDACD. Não se encontrou associação entre transtornos de humor (p = 0,67) e de ansiedade (p = 0,57) com abuso físico. Evidenciou-se uma relação de temporalidade entre o grupo dos TDACD e abuso físico (66,6%). Após ajuste de possíveis fatores de confundimento, meninos demonstraram índices significativamente mais elevados de abuso físico do que meninas (p = 0,001). CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados documentaram associação entre um diagnóstico do grupo dos TDACD em crianças e abuso físico na infância. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Many psychiatric disorders diagnosed at the first time in childhood are associated with child abuse, like physical abuse. This disorders cause an important impact on the childhood development. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between children with attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders group (ADDBD) and physical abuse in childhood. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the MINI KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Childr (more) en and Adolescents) to evaluate children with and without the diagnostic of ADDBD group. Physical abuse was evaluated using the LSC-R (Life Stressor Checklist - Revised) and included others child abuses. RESULTS: We found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to physical abuse (p = 0,02) in the ADDBD group than in the group without this diagnostic. No association between mood (p = 0,67) and anxiety (p = 0,57) disorders and physical abuse. We found a temporal association (66,6%) between ADDBD group and physical abuse. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found significantly higher odds ratio to the association between boys and physical abuse than did girls (p = 0,001). DISCUSSION: Our findings document an association between ADDBD group and physical abuse in childhood period.

Abramovitch, Sheila; Maia, Maria Claudia; Cheniaux, Elie

2008-01-01

331

Transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo: associação com abuso físico na infância Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders: association with physical abuse in childhood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Muitos transtornos psiquiátricos, geralmente diagnosticados pela primeira vez na infância, estão associados a maus-tratos, entre eles o abuso físico, causando significativo impacto no desenvolvimento das crianças acometidas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a associação entre um diagnóstico psiquiátrico do grupo dos transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo (TDACD) em crianças e a história de abuso físico na infância. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo seccional, crianças de 3 a 12 anos, atendidas em um ambulatório de psiquiatria de um hospital universitário, foram avaliadas por meio do MINI KID (), tendo sido diagnosticadas de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV. A avaliação de abuso físico e de outros eventos traumáticos foi realizada por um questionário específico, o LSC-R () e inclui diferentes tipos de maus-tratos. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma razão de chance mais alta de exposição freqüente ao abuso físico (p = 0,02) no grupo de crianças diagnosticadas com TDACD. Não se encontrou associação entre transtornos de humor (p = 0,67) e de ansiedade (p = 0,57) com abuso físico. Evidenciou-se uma relação de temporalidade entre o grupo dos TDACD e abuso físico (66,6%). Após ajuste de possíveis fatores de confundimento, meninos demonstraram índices significativamente mais elevados de abuso físico do que meninas (p = 0,001). CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados documentaram associação entre um diagnóstico do grupo dos TDACD em crianças e abuso físico na infância.BACKGROUND: Many psychiatric disorders diagnosed at the first time in childhood are associated with child abuse, like physical abuse. This disorders cause an important impact on the childhood development. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between children with attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders group (ADDBD) and physical abuse in childhood. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the MINI KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents) to evaluate children with and without the diagnostic of ADDBD group. Physical abuse was evaluated using the LSC-R (Life Stressor Checklist - Revised) and included others child abuses. RESULTS: We found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to physical abuse (p = 0,02) in the ADDBD group than in the group without this diagnostic. No association between mood (p = 0,67) and anxiety (p = 0,57) disorders and physical abuse. We found a temporal association (66,6%) between ADDBD group and physical abuse. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found significantly higher odds ratio to the association between boys and physical abuse than did girls (p = 0,001). DISCUSSION: Our findings document an association between ADDBD group and physical abuse in childhood period.

Sheila Abramovitch; Maria Claudia Maia; Elie Cheniaux

2008-01-01

332

Biomechanical maturation of joint dynamics during early childhood: Updated conclusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamic parameters have been commonly explored to characterize the biomechanical maturation of children's gaits, i.e., age-revealing joint moment and power patterns similar to adult patterns. However, the literature revealed a large disparity of conclusions about maturation depending on the study, which was most likely due to an inappropriate scaling strategy and uncontrolled walking speed. With the first years of independent walking, a large growth in height and a large variability of dimensionless walking speed are observed. Moreover, the dynamic parameters were not well studied during early childhood. In the present study, seventy-five healthy children between 1 and 6 years of age were assessed during gait trials at a self-selected speed. Four hundred and sixty-two gait trials constituting five age groups with comparable dimensionless walking speeds were selected. 3D joint moments and the power of the lower limbs were computed and expressed using a dimensionless scaling strategy (according to body weight, leg length and the acceleration of gravity). Statistical analysis was performed to examine inter-group differences. Based on the current results, we concluded the biomechanical maturation of joint dynamics occurred around an age of 4 years for the ankle and between 6 and 7 years for the knee and the hip. Moreover, age group comparisons seemed more appropriate in young children using both the dimensionless strategy and a similar walking speed. Future investigations will be conducted on an older population (i.e., adding children older than 6 years) to clearly define the status of knee and hip biomechanical maturation. PMID:23876715

Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Desroches, Guillaume; Dohin, Bruno; Dumas, Raphaël; Chèze, Laurence

2013-07-19

333

The association between early childhood overweight and maternal factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Early childhood obesity, like other health disparities, disproportionately affects low-income populations. The purpose of this study is to determine the association between maternal sociodemographic factors and child overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income Mexican Americans. METHODS: The current study is a secondary analysis of baseline data that were collected as part of a longitudinal study of 374 children aged 12-24 months receiving Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in a large metropolitan area in central/south Texas.Measures used in this secondary analysis were: Measured weight and height of the child and mother to calculate weight-for-stature and BMI, respectively; maternal sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment status, and nativity); maternal acculturation level; and child breastfed status. Descriptive statistics are reported as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations (SD). Chi-squared Fisher exact tests assessed differences in maternal factors by child weight (healthy weight and overweight). Odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and levels of significance are reported. RESULTS: Of the 372 mothers, most were young (mean age 26.1 years, SD = 6.1), 47.3% had graduated high school, 33.6% were employed at the time of the study, and 72.1% were U.S. born. No significant differences were observed for the maternal factors by child weight-for-stature z-score. However, maternal BMI statistically differed by child weight. Healthy weight mothers were more likely to have healthy weight children than overweight mothers. Maternal nativity and maternal acculturation were not statistically associated with child weight in this sample of low-income Mexican Americans. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study reinforce the importance of addressing the influence of maternal sociodemographic factors on child weight, in particular, maternal weight. A more comprehensive investigation of ecological factors' influence on obesity onset and control in young Mexican-American children is needed.

Barroso CS; Roncancio A; Hinojosa MB; Reifsnider E

2012-10-01

334

Rasch validation of the early childhood oral health impact scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The early childhood oral health impact scale (ECOHIS), a proxy measure to assess the impact of oral health problems and on the quality of life of preschool children and their families, has been translated into Chinese and validated employing the classical test theory. However, some invariable problems are related to this theory. The objective of this study was to assess the metric properties of the ECOHIS by applying the item response theory. METHODS: A random sample of 1296 Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong participated in the study and were subjected to an oral examination for their caries status. Their parents were asked to respond to the ECOHIS and an extra set of questions concerning their socio-demographic backgrounds. The collected data were analysed using Rasch model. RESULTS: The obtained results support the interpretation of adequate total fit of persons and items, because the mean infit MNSQ (1.08) and outfit MNSQ (0.94) for persons, and the mean infit MNSQ (0.99) and outfit MNSQ (0.94) for items, are within the acceptable ranges (0.6-1.4). The difficulty spread of the items was between -0.81 and 1.96 logits, and the levels of respondents spanned from -5.56 to 6.72 logits on the person-item map. The spread of respondents was skewed and mistargeting, between the items and respondents, was confirmed. Combination of responses of 'often' and 'very often' was suggested because of their flat probability showing on the characteristic curves. CONCLUSIONS: Rasch model has been shown to be a feasible and practicable way of assessing the metric properties of the ECOHIS. The results allow the use of ECOHIS to be recommended for clinical research in oral health-related quality of life in young children with minor modifications.

Wong HM; McGrath CP; King NM

2011-10-01

335

Sexual identity group differences in child abuse and neglect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood abuse and neglect are pervasive problems among girls and young women that have numerous health consequences. Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and neglect, but little is known about which sexual minority women are at greatest risk for these early adverse experiences. Using data from a pooled sample of women in a national probability study and in a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed to replicate the national study's methodology (pooled n = 953), we investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women from five sexual identity groups. As predicted, heterosexual women reported significantly less childhood abuse and neglect than did women who identified as mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, or lesbian. We found considerable variability across the sexual minority subgroups, including severity of abuse, highlighting the need for research that distinguishes among these groups. To the extent that differences reported by women in the sample reflect the actual prevalence and severity of abuse experiences, sexual identity group differences in childhood abuse have important clinical and public health implications.

Alvy LM; Hughes TL; Kristjanson AF; Wilsnack SC

2013-07-01

336

Aspectos orofaciais dos maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica/ Orofacial aspects of childhood abuse and dental negligence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar os principais aspectos orofaciais dos maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica, contribuindo com a identificação destas vítimas no ambiente odontológico. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados Adolec, MEDLINE, LILACS e BBO. Utilizaram-se como descritores: maus-tratos infantis, manifestações bucais, odontólogos, papel (figurativo) e responsabilidade legal. Verificou-se que os maus-tratos infan (more) tis acontecem em geral em domicílio e os ferimentos orofaciais decorrentes incluem trauma, queimaduras e lacerações dos tecidos duros e moles, marcas de mordida e hematomas em vários estágios de cura. Pode haver ferimentos que envolvem outras partes do corpo próximas à cavidade bucal, como hematoma periorbital e contusão nasal. Quanto ao abuso sexual, muitas vítimas não apresentam nenhum sinal físico associado; assim, indicadores comportamentais devem ser observados. A imediata identificação e o relato de maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica pelo cirurgião-dentista são essenciais para a proteção das crianças, sendo fundamental uma maior atuação destes profissionais, através do registro e denúncia dos casos suspeitos às agências de proteção à criança. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to identify the main oral and dental aspects of childhood abuse and dental neglect, contributing to the identification of these victims in a dental office. A bibliographic research was carried out, in ADOLEC, MEDLINE, LILACS and BBO databases. The following key words were used: child abuse, oral manifestations, dentists; role; liability, legal. It was verified that violence against children happens in general at home and the resulting orofacial i (more) njuries encompass: injuries, burns and lacerations on soft and hard tissues, bite marks and gradually-healed wounds. It can have wounds in other parts of the body next to the oral cavity, such as periorbital wound and nasal injury. Regarding sexual abuse, many victims do not present any associated physic signs; therefore, behavioral indicators must be observed. The immediate recognition and report of childhood abuse and dental negligence by dental surgeon are essential for children protection. Therefore, it is critical to define more effective action from those professionals, by registration and denunciation of suspect cases to child protection agencies.

Massoni, Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino; Ferreira, Ângela Maria Brito; Aragão, Ana Karla Ramalho; Menezes, Valdenice Aparecida de; Colares, Viviane

2010-03-01

337

Aspectos orofaciais dos maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica Orofacial aspects of childhood abuse and dental negligence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar os principais aspectos orofaciais dos maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica, contribuindo com a identificação destas vítimas no ambiente odontológico. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados Adolec, MEDLINE, LILACS e BBO. Utilizaram-se como descritores: maus-tratos infantis, manifestações bucais, odontólogos, papel (figurativo) e responsabilidade legal. Verificou-se que os maus-tratos infantis acontecem em geral em domicílio e os ferimentos orofaciais decorrentes incluem trauma, queimaduras e lacerações dos tecidos duros e moles, marcas de mordida e hematomas em vários estágios de cura. Pode haver ferimentos que envolvem outras partes do corpo próximas à cavidade bucal, como hematoma periorbital e contusão nasal. Quanto ao abuso sexual, muitas vítimas não apresentam nenhum sinal físico associado; assim, indicadores comportamentais devem ser observados. A imediata identificação e o relato de maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica pelo cirurgião-dentista são essenciais para a proteção das crianças, sendo fundamental uma maior atuação destes profissionais, através do registro e denúncia dos casos suspeitos às agências de proteção à criança.The aim of this paper was to identify the main oral and dental aspects of childhood abuse and dental neglect, contributing to the identification of these victims in a dental office. A bibliographic research was carried out, in ADOLEC, MEDLINE, LILACS and BBO databases. The following key words were used: child abuse, oral manifestations, dentists; role; liability, legal. It was verified that violence against children happens in general at home and the resulting orofacial injuries encompass: injuries, burns and lacerations on soft and hard tissues, bite marks and gradually-healed wounds. It can have wounds in other parts of the body next to the oral cavity, such as periorbital wound and nasal injury. Regarding sexual abuse, many victims do not present any associated physic signs; therefore, behavioral indicators must be observed. The immediate recognition and report of childhood abuse and dental negligence by dental surgeon are essential for children protection. Therefore, it is critical to define more effective action from those professionals, by registration and denunciation of suspect cases to child protection agencies.

Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino Massoni; Ângela Maria Brito Ferreira; Ana Karla Ramalho Aragão; Valdenice Aparecida de Menezes; Viviane Colares

2010-01-01

338

Early maladaptive schemas among young adult male substance abusers: a comparison with a non-clinical group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early maladaptive schemas are rigidly held cognitive and behavioral patterns that guide how individuals encode and respond to stimuli in their environments (J. E. Young, 1994). Research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as schemas are believed to underlie, perpetuate, and maintain problematic substance use. To date, research has not examined whether young adult male substance abuse treatment seekers (ages 18 to 25) report greater early maladaptive schema endorsement than a non-clinical comparison group. The current study extended the research on substance use and schemas by comparing the early maladaptive schemas of young adult male residential substance abuse patients (n = 101) and a group of non-clinical male college students (n = 175). Results demonstrated that the substance abuse group scored higher than the non-clinical comparison group on 9 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Implications of these findings for future research and substance use treatment programs are discussed.

Shorey RC; Stuart GL; Anderson S

2013-05-01

339

Association between early childhood exposure to malaria and children’s pre-school development: evidence from the Zambia early childhood development project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite major progress made over the past 10?years, malaria remains one of the primary causes of ill health in developing countries in general, and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Whilst a large literature has documented the frequency and severity of malaria infections for children under-five years, relatively little evidence is available regarding the impact of early childhood malaria exposure on subsequent child development. Methods The objective of the study was to assess the associations between early childhood exposure to malaria and pre-school development. Child assessment data for 1,410 children in 70 clusters collected through the 2010 Zambian Early Childhood Development Project was linked with malaria parasite prevalence data from the 2006 Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey. Linear and logistic models were used to estimate the effect of early childhood exposure to malaria on anthropometric outcomes as well as on a range of cognitive and behavioural development measures. Results No statistically significant associations were found between parasite exposure and children’s height and weight. Exposure to the malaria parasite was, however, associated with lower ability to cope with cognitive tasks administered by interviewers (z-score difference ?1.11, 95% CI ?2.43–0.20), as well as decreased overall socio-emotional development as assessed by parents (z-score difference ?1.55, 95% CI ?3.13–0.02). No associations were found between malaria exposure and receptive vocabulary or fine-motor skills. Conclusions The results presented in this paper suggest potentially large developmental consequences of early childhood exposure to malaria. Continued efforts to lower the burden of malaria will not only reduce under-five mortality, but may also have positive returns in terms of the long-term well-being of exposed cohorts.

Fink Günther; Olgiati Analia; Hawela Moonga; Miller John M; Matafwali Beatrice

2013-01-01

340

Challenges in the evaluation for possible abuse: presentations of congenital bleeding disorders in childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To describe children with congenital bleeding disorders that present in a manner that may be concerning for non-accidental trauma (NAT), and to evaluate associations with disease and demographic characteristics. METHODS: Ten year retrospective chart review of subjects at a Hemophilia Treatment Center. Demographic, historical, and disease characteristics were collected. Findings were compared to a priori criteria for bleeding/bruising that is concerning for abuse. RESULTS: Twenty-nine (15.3%) of the 189 children in the study had an initial presentation that was concerning for NAT. Of those 29, 75.9% were <5 years of age, 44.8% had von Willebrand disease (vWD), 51.8% had hemophilia, and 48.3% had a family history of a named bleeding disorder. Children from 9 months through 5 years of age were more likely than older children to present with findings concerning for abuse (OR 3.32, 1.21-9.10). No association was detected between presentation concerning for abuse and gender (OR 1.51, 0.6-3.77). Hemophilia was no more likely than vWD to present in a manner that was concerning for abuse (OR 0.7, 0.31-1.58). No children presented with patterned bruising. CONCLUSIONS: Children with bleeding disorders may present with bruising/bleeding that is clinically highly suggestive of NAT. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Infants and young mobile children who have non-patterned bruising or bleeding as the only symptom concerning for abuse require an evaluation that includes testing for hemophilia and vWD. Children who have laboratory testing that indicates the presence of a bleeding disorder, but have clinical findings concerning for abuse, may benefit from a collaborative evaluation including a pediatric hematologist and a child abuse pediatrician.

Jackson J; Carpenter S; Anderst J

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Relationships between childhood sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence: An integrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is thought to be a precursor to substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. To inform adolescent prevention efforts, information is needed to explicate the nature of the relationships between CSA and these health risks. The aim of this study was to summarize the current literature on the associations between a history of CSA and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search and an integrative review. RESULTS: Current evidence implicates CSA as a robust precursor to the use of a wide variety of substances and multiple sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. CONCLUSION: Screening for CSA in adolescents at risk and incorporating strategies that enhance CSA recovery in adolescent prevention programs are warranted. Future research that includes longitudinal designs, uses multiple methods of assessment, and identifies pathways between CSA and adolescent health risks is recommended.

Draucker CB; Mazurczyk J

2013-09-01

342

Body image disturbance in patients with borderline personality disorder: impact of eating disorders and perceived childhood sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Body image disturbances occur in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Systematic research on these characteristics in well-defined BPD groups is lacking. It is unknown, if the disturbances are related to eating disorders and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), which frequently co-occur in patients with BPD. In the present study, cognitive-affective and behavioral components of body image for 89 female patients with BPD (49 with lifetime eating disorders) and 41 healthy participants were assessed via Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ) and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ). Within the BPD group, 43 patients reported a history of CSA. Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients reported significantly more negative scores in the BIAQ and the MBSRQ. Both a history of CSA and a comorbid eating disorder were independently associated with an even more negative body image. Results suggest a disturbance of cognitive-affective and behavioral components of body image in female BPD patients. PMID:23375838

Dyer, Anne; Borgmann, Elisabeth; Feldmann, Robert E; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Priebe, Kathlen; Bohus, Martin; Vocks, Silja

2013-01-30

343

Childhood sexual abuse, alcohol use, and PTSD symptoms as predictors of adult sexual assault among lesbians and gay men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prior research has indicated that childhood sexual abuse (CSA), alcohol use, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are important risk factors for adult sexual assault (ASA). A notable limitation of this prior work, however, is that it has almost exclusively focused on heterosexual women. The present study sought to remedy this by examining the extent to which CSA, alcohol use, and PTSD symptoms related to ASA among lesbians (n = 122) and gay men (n = 117). Using structural equation modeling, we found that alcohol use was the best predictor of ASA among lesbians whereas CSA was the best predictor of ASA among gay men. These results suggest that certain risk factors may be differentially related to ASA among groups with different sexual orientations. Such findings deepen our current understanding of ASA and offer important directions for reducing the risk of ASA for lesbian and gay individuals.

Han SC; Gallagher MW; Franz MR; Chen MS; Cabral FM; Marx BP

2013-08-01

344

Public opinion and knowledge about childhood sexual abuse in a rural community.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To explore the knowledge and attitudes of the general public about child sexual abuse (CSA) through a population-based survey. METHOD: A survey was completed by 246 respondents living in Klamath Falls, a small city in rural eastern Oregon. Specific areas of inquiry included who respondents believed were likely perpetrators of CSA, when a child was most likely to disclose sexual abuse, whether respondents believed that children would be truthful, reasons a child might not acknowledge that they had been sexually abused, what respondents knew about how CSA could be diagnosed, and what attitudes respondents thought that a sexually abused child might have towards the perpetrators of their abuse. Finally, respondents were asked how they would report a suspected case of CSA and about their receptivity to personal safety training to prevent CSA. RESULTS: While significant proportions of respondents were fairly knowledgeable about CSA, gaps in knowledge were found in all age groups and ethnic groups. Groups with the most significant knowledge deficits about CSA included men, unmarried respondents, respondents who had not had children, respondents in younger age groups, respondents of Latino descent, and respondents with low incomes or low education. Respondents were most likely to report CSA to their physician or the police. There is community interest in training about CSA and its prevention. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that significant deficits as well as strengths in knowledge about CSA exist in this rural community, and identify populations to which community education about CSA could be directed.

Calvert JF Jr; Munsie-Benson M

1999-07-01

345

Low-income parents' perceptions of pediatrician advice on early childhood education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians promote early childhood education (ECE). However, pediatricians have met resistance from low-income parents when providing anticipatory guidance on some topics outside the realm of physical health. Parents' views on discussing ECE with the pediatrician have not been studied. We sought to understand low-income parents' experiences and attitudes with regard to discussing ECE with the pediatrician and to identify opportunities for pediatrician input. We conducted 27 in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with parents of 3- and 4-year-old patients (100% Medicaid, 78% African American) at an urban primary care center. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed for themes by a multidisciplinary team. Most low-income parents in our study reported they primarily sought ECE advice from family and friends but were open to talking about ECE with the pediatrician. They considered their children's individual behavior and development to be important factors in ECE decisions and appreciated pediatricians' advice about developmental readiness for ECE. Participants' decisions about ECE were often driven by fears that their children would be abused or neglected. Many viewed 3 years as the age at which children had sufficient language skills to report mistreatment and could be safely enrolled in ECE. Participants were generally accepting of discussions about ECE during well child visits. There may be opportunity for the pediatrician to frame ECE discussions in the context of development, behavior, and safety and to promote high-quality ECE at an earlier age. PMID:23324946

Brown, Courtney M; Girio-Herrera, Erin L; Sherman, Susan N; Kahn, Robert S; Copeland, Kristen A

2013-02-01

346

Evaluation of Effects of the Clovis - Portales Bilingual Early Childhood Program: Final Report, 1972-73.  

Science.gov (United States)

Initiated in 1972, the Bilingual Early Childhood Program (BECP) serves as early intervention for 3- and 4-year-old children in Clovis and Portales, New Mexico (40 children at each site). Target group children were predominantly from Spanish-speaking backgrounds and were selected as participants using guideline requirements of language, background,…

Askins, Billy E.; Alford, Gay

347

Some effects of radiation therapy during early childhood on facial growth and tooth development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Case histories of the dental examinations of 2 children who were treated by radiation therapy for retinoblastomas in early childhood are discussed. The evidence presented here seems to indicate that in both patients early irradiation of the orbits and, as a result thereof, the jaws, could be partly responsible for the underdevelopment of this region

1986-01-01

348

Creating, Constructing, and Cultivating Professional Development within a Reggio-Inspired Early Childhood Education Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined the professional development system of an early childhood education program which was influenced by the Reggio Emilia Approach to early learning. This multi-site program thrived within low-income, inner-city communities of Chicago. Literature connected to the program's historical context of the Settlement House and the Reggio…

Haigh, Karen M.

2009-01-01

349

Health care and female survivors of childhood sexual abuse: health professionals' perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study explored health professionals' experiences with adult survivors of child sexual abuse in New Zealand. Face-to-face, semistructured interviews of up to an hour took place with 13 health professionals. The participants were asked about training, screening practices, their response to disclosures, and advice to other health professionals. A model-transition to ethical practice-emerged from the data, where delivering more sensitive health care to child sexual abuse survivors sits on a continuum from lack of awareness of child sexual abuse to delivery of care where all patients are comfortable. We recommend making sensitive care for all as the standard care of practice and providing training for health professionals on how to deal with disclosures. PMID:23924181

McGregor, Kim; Gautam, Jeny; Glover, Marewa; Jülich, Shirley

2013-01-01

350

Health care and female survivors of childhood sexual abuse: health professionals' perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study explored health professionals' experiences with adult survivors of child sexual abuse in New Zealand. Face-to-face, semistructured interviews of up to an hour took place with 13 health professionals. The participants were asked about training, screening practices, their response to disclosures, and advice to other health professionals. A model-transition to ethical practice-emerged from the data, where delivering more sensitive health care to child sexual abuse survivors sits on a continuum from lack of awareness of child sexual abuse to delivery of care where all patients are comfortable. We recommend making sensitive care for all as the standard care of practice and providing training for health professionals on how to deal with disclosures.

McGregor K; Gautam J; Glover M; Jülich S

2013-01-01

351

Behavior problems in late childhood: the roles of early maternal attachment and teacher-child relationship trajectories.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purposes of the current study were: (1) to examine the roles of early maternal attachment relationships and teacher-child relationships during childhood for externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood, and (2) to investigate teacher-child relationships, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early childhood as possible mechanisms linking early maternal attachment relationships to behavior problems in late childhood. Longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1140 mothers and children) were used in this investigation. There were three main findings. First, insecure/other maternal attachment relationships in early childhood (i.e., 36 months) were associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood (Grade 5). Second, elevated levels of teacher-child conflict during childhood were associated with externalizing behaviors in late childhood whereas low levels of teacher-child closeness were associated with internalizing behaviors. Third, the effects of insecure/other attachment on externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood were mediated through teacher-child relationships during childhood and early externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Implications for attachment theory are discussed.

O'Connor EE; Collins BA; Supplee L

2012-01-01

352

Sex differences in childhood sexual abuse and suicide-related behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child sexual abuse and suicide-related behaviors are associated, but it remains unclear if the strength of this association differs in boys and girls. In a systematic review of this association in children and youth, we identified 16 relevant studies, all cross-sectional surveys of students. The association is stronger in boys specific to suicide attempt(s). Adjustments for potential confounding variables explained some, but not all of this sex difference. While additional research would strengthen causal inferences, this sex difference may be influenced by the nature and timing of child sexual abuse as well as the sex of the perpetrator, which in turn shapes the disclosure of these events.

Rhodes AE; Boyle MH; Tonmyr L; Wekerle C; Goodman D; Leslie B; Mironova P; Bethell J; Manion I

2011-06-01

353

Pyrosequencing analysis of oral microbiota in children with severe early childhood dental caries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries. PMID:23743597

Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui

2013-06-07

354

Early warning signs of functional illiteracy: predictors in childhood and adolescence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early childhood, middle childhood, and early adolescence determinants of functional literacy in adulthood are investigated, using 20-year longitudinal data from a sample of black children of teenaged mothers from the Baltimore metropolitan area. Document literacy was assessed by a test that consisted of a subset of items of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) adult literacy test. The Baltimore sample is compared to the NAEP sample. Family environmental factors, early childhood developmental level, and educational career factors were considered as predictors of young adulthood literacy. Preschool cognitive and behavioral functioning is highly predictive of literacy in young adulthood, even when the effects of family environmental characteristics, including living arrangements, the quality of the home environment, maternal education, and income, are controlled. Grade failure in elementary school is also associated with literacy, but this effect disappears when the measure of preschool abilities is controlled. Family environmental factors that are predictive of literacy include maternal education, family size in early childhood, maternal marital status, and income in middle childhood and early adolescence. Policy implications of these findings are discussed.

Baydar N; Brooks-Gunn J; Furstenberg FF

1993-06-01

355

Early warning signs of functional illiteracy: predictors in childhood and adolescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood, middle childhood, and early adolescence determinants of functional literacy in adulthood are investigated, using 20-year longitudinal data from a sample of black children of teenaged mothers from the Baltimore metropolitan area. Document literacy was assessed by a test that consisted of a subset of items of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) adult literacy test. The Baltimore sample is compared to the NAEP sample. Family environmental factors, early childhood developmental level, and educational career factors were considered as predictors of young adulthood literacy. Preschool cognitive and behavioral functioning is highly predictive of literacy in young adulthood, even when the effects of family environmental characteristics, including living arrangements, the quality of the home environment, maternal education, and income, are controlled. Grade failure in elementary school is also associated with literacy, but this effect disappears when the measure of preschool abilities is controlled. Family environmental factors that are predictive of literacy include maternal education, family size in early childhood, maternal marital status, and income in middle childhood and early adolescence. Policy implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:8339697

Baydar, N; Brooks-Gunn, J; Furstenberg, F F

1993-06-01

356

Feasibility of brief intensive exposure therapy for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse: a brief clinical report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the strong empirical support for the effectiveness of exposure-based treatments in ameliorating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), improvement of treatment is wanted given relatively high dropout rates and challenges of treating patients with high comorbidity and treatment-interfering stressors. The purpose of the current paper is to introduce an intensive exposure treatment program, illustrated by four case descriptions of PTSD patients, who suffered multiple (sexual) traumas in childhood, had high levels of comorbidity and psychosocial stressors, and failed to improve during “regular” trauma-focused treatment programs. The program consisted of psychoeducation, prolonged imaginal exposure, exposure in vivo, exposure by drawings combined with narrative reconstructing, and writing assignments about central trauma-related cognitions. The treatment included 5 working days with individual sessions (in total 30 h of treatment) provided by a team of four therapists. The PTSD symptoms of all patients decreased substantially and the effect sizes were large (Cohen's d resp. 1.5 [pre–post], 2.4 [pre-FU1 month], and 2.3 [pre-FU3 months]). Also, none of the patients showed symptom worsening or dropped out. The evaluation of these four pilot cases suggests that it is possible to intensify exposure treatment, even for multiple traumatized PTSD patients with high comorbidity. We concluded that the first results of this new, intensive exposure program for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse are promising.

Lotte Hendriks; Rianne de Kleine; Mirjam van Rees; Carlijn Bult; Agnes van Minnen

2010-01-01

357

Effects of South African men's having witnessed abuse of their mothers during childhood on their levels of violence in adulthood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the effects of witnessing violence against their mothers in childhood on men's use of violence in a range of settings in adulthood. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 1368 randomly selected male municipal workers in Cape Town, South Africa. RESULTS: Almost a quarter (23.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]=21.2, 25.7) of the men reported witnessing abuse of their mother, and having witnessed such events was associated with men's later involvement in physical conflicts in their community (odds ratio [OR]=1.72; 95% CI=1.29, 2.30) and at their place of work (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.30, 2.58), use of physical violence against their partners (OR = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.94, 3.54), and arrest for possession of illegal firearms (OR=2.86; 95% CI=1.29, 6.32). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show strong links between "publicly" violent behavior among men and childhood experiences of "private" violence against their mothers. Prevention of domestic violence is essential both in its own right and as part of efforts to reduce broader violence and crime in society.

Abrahams N; Jewkes R

2005-10-01

358

Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse), childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction), and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

Darryl W. Etter; Justin R. Gauthier; Elizabeth McDade-Montez; Marylene Cloitre; Eve B. Carlson

2013-01-01

359

Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. METHOD: Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse), childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction), and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. RESULTS: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

Etter DW; Gauthier JR; McDade-Montez E; Cloitre M; Carlson EB

2013-01-01

360

Trajectories of BMI from early childhood through early adolescence: SES and psychosocial predictors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the ways in which body mass index (BMI) percentile - an identified risk factor for overweight and cardiovascular disease in adulthood - develops from birth through early adolescence. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors, such as parenting style and maternal depression, mediated the link between socio-economic status (SES) and BMI growth. Design. Data were obtained from phases 1-3 of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) - a longitudinal study that followed children from 10 communities in the United States from birth to age 11. METHODS: We applied growth mixture models to identify distinct subtypes of BMI development. Within these models, we performed between- and within-class mediation analyses to examine whether SES predicted class membership or differences in development within each class via maternal depression and parenting styles. RESULTS: Results identified three prototypic trajectories of BMI percentile growth, elevated, steady increase, and stable. We found evidence for both between- and within-class mediation, suggesting multiple pathways by which SES can affect BMI development. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the research that suggests that being in a family with a low SES is associated with falling into patterns of development characterized by early and lasting increases in BMI relative to one's peers, and that this association is partly accounted for by maternal depression and parenting styles. STATEMENT OF CONTRIBUTION: What is already known? Past research has found evidence that patterns of childhood overweight are impacted by socioeconomic status through psychosocial factors like parenting and depression. This evidence is often limited to individual points in time where neglectful, permissive, and authoritarian parenting and higher levels of maternal depression are associated with higher levels of overweight status among children from infancy to adolescence. However, little research has linked together whether the children who receive non-authoritative parenting and are overweight in infancy are the same children who are overweight in adolescence. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: • Evidence for 3 different prototypes of BMI percentile growth over the course of childhood approaching adolescence. • Adds complexity re the influence of parenting styles as an influence on patterns of weight gain. • Buttresses existing research as to early and lasting effects of SES on patterns of BMI.

Lane SP; Bluestone C; Burke CT

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
361

Psychoanalytic perspectives on early trauma: interviews with thirty analysts who treated an adult victim of a circumscribed trauma in early childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Information on the long-term effects of early trauma and how such effects are manifested in treatment was obtained through interviews with thirty analysts who had treated an adult patient with a circumscribed trauma in the first four years of life. Childhood traumas fell into four categories: medical/accidental; separation/loss; witnessing a traumatic event; and physical/sexual abuse. Traumatic carryover was recorded in terms of explicit memories, implicit memories (somatic reliving, traumatic dreams, affective memories, behavioral reenactments, and transference phenomena), and global carryover effects (generalized traumatic affective states, defensive styles, patterns of object relating, and developmental disruptions). Linkages between the early trauma and adult symptomatology could be posited in almost every case, yet the clinical data supporting such linkages was often fragmented and ambiguous. Elements of patients' traumas appeared to be dispersed along variable avenues of expression and did not appear amenable to holistic, regressive reworking in treatment. The data did not support linear models of traumatic carryover or the idea that early traumatic experiences will be directly accessible in the course of an analysis. Factors that we believe help explain why traumatic aftereffects in our sample were so heterogeneous and difficult to track over the long term are discussed.

Gaensbauer TJ; Jordan L

2009-08-01

362

Childhood onset schizophrenia and early onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The clinical severity, impact on development, and poor prognosis of childhood onset schizophrenia may represent a more homogeneous group. Positive symptoms in children are necessary for the diagnosis and hallucinations are more often multimodal. In healthy children and children with a variety of other psychiatric illnesses, hallucinations are not uncommon and diagnosis should not be based on these alone. Childhood onset schizophrenia is an extraordinarily rare illness that is poorly understood but seems continuous with the adult onset disorder. Once a diagnosis is affirmed, aggressive medication treatment combined with family education and individual counseling may defer further deterioration.

Driver DI; Gogtay N; Rapoport JL

2013-10-01

363

Childhood onset schizophrenia and early onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical severity, impact on development, and poor prognosis of childhood onset schizophrenia may represent a more homogeneous group. Positive symptoms in children are necessary for the diagnosis and hallucinations are more often multimodal. In healthy children and children with a variety of other psychiatric illnesses, hallucinations are not uncommon and diagnosis should not be based on these alone. Childhood onset schizophrenia is an extraordinarily rare illness that is poorly understood but seems continuous with the adult onset disorder. Once a diagnosis is affirmed, aggressive medication treatment combined with family education and individual counseling may defer further deterioration. PMID:24012072

Driver, David I; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L

2013-06-18

364

A Developmental Framework for Enhancing Resiliency in Adult Survivors of Childhood Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Roughly one third of children subjected to abusive environments grow into healthy and capable adults, demonstrating remarkable resiliency, despite risks for developing maladaptive self-structures and destructive behaviors (Werner, "American Journal of Orthopsychiatry" 59:72-81 1989; Kendall-Tackett "et al.", "Psychological Bulletin" 113:164-180…

Orbke, Samantha; Smith, Heather L.

2013-01-01

365

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Disordered Eating, Alexithymia, and General Distress: A Mediation Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing from trauma-related theory (e.g., M. F. Schwartz & P. Gay, 1996), this article presents a model of associations among child sexual abuse (CSA), psychological distress, alexithymia, and disordered eating (DE). Structural equation modeling was used to test this conceptual model with a sample of female college students (N = 589). Results…

Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

2005-01-01

366

Through a Spiritual Lens: Early Childhood Inclusive Education in Hong Kong.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main purpose of this research was to explore early childhood education teachers', principals', and parents' perceptions of the role of spirituality in the lives of children with special needs, and how educators and schools can support the spiritual development of these children. Three preschools, the Buddhist, Christian, and Waldorf schools, were purposefully selected on the basis that each of them reflects a philosophy that includes the spiritual. Three themes emerged from the data analysis: (a) the influence of the schools' religion and/or spiritual orientations on inclusion; (b) support provided for the spiritual development of children with special needs; and (c) the role of spirituality in the lives of children with special needs. By drawing attention to and offering a preliminary study on early childhood inclusion and spirituality, I hope to encourage more scholars and educators to engage with research and debate on this important yet under-studied dimension of early childhood education.

Zhang KC

2013-09-01

367

Longitudinal associations between infections and atopic disorders across childhood and dysregulated adrenocortical functioning in early adolescence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study sought to determine if exposure to common childhood medical problems (i.e., infections and atopic disorders [e.g., allergies, asthma]) may dysregulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Longitudinal data from 96 youth were used to examine this possibility. Medical records were drawn from government databases indicating the frequency of visits to healthcare facilities for infections and atopic disorders from infancy to early adolescence. During early adolescence, participants provided salivary cortisol samples from awakening until bedtime over 2 consecutive days. Individuals with a history of increased number visits for infections across childhood displayed elevated levels of cortisol at awakening whereas individuals with childhood histories of visits for atopic disorders displayed blunted diurnal cortisol slopes. These findings build on previous research documenting associations between infections and atopic disorders and cortisol by identifying longitudinal linkages from early health problems to later HPA axis functioning. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 9999: 1-11, 2013.

Ruttle PL; Serbin LA; Martin-Storey A; Stack DM; Schwartzman AE

2013-09-01

368

Predicting individual differences in low-income children's executive control from early to middle childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present longitudinal study tested the roles of early childhood executive control (EC) as well as exposure to poverty-related adversity at family and school levels as key predictors of low-income children's EC in elementary school (n = 391). Findings suggest that children's EC difficulties in preschool and lower family income from early to middle childhood are robust predictors of later EC difficulties as rated by teachers in 2nd and 3rd grades. Findings also suggest enrollment in unsafe elementary schools is significantly predictive of higher levels of teacher-rated EC difficulty, but only for those children who showed initially elevated levels of EC difficulty in early childhood. Implications for scientific models of cognitive development and poverty-related adversity are discussed.

Cybele Raver C; McCoy DC; Lowenstein AE; Pess R

2013-05-01

369

Ontogeny of polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance in utero and early childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent hyperandrogenic infertility and cardiometabolic disorder that increases a woman's lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is heritable and intensely familial. Progress toward a cure has been delayed by absence of an etiology. Evidence is mounting, however, for in utero T excess, together with gestational hyperglycemia, contributing to either early differentiation of PCOS or phenotypic amplification of its genotypes. Abnormal endocrine, ovarian, and hyperinsulinemic traits are detectable as early as 2 months of age in daughters of women with PCOS, with adiposity enhancement of hyperinsulinemia during childhood potentially contributing to hyperandrogenism and LH excess by adolescence. These findings encourage increasing clinical focus on early childhood markers for adiposity and hyperinsulinemia accompanying ovarian and adrenal endocrine abnormalities that precede a diagnosable PCOS phenotype. They raise the possibility for lifestyle or therapeutic intervention before and during pregnancy or during childhood and adolescence alleviating the manifestations of a familial genetic predisposition to PCOS.

Abbott DH; Bacha F

2013-07-01

370

Gender and the development of oppositional defiant disorder: contributions of physical abuse and early family environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research is needed to understand the role of gender in the stability, course and etiology of antisocial behavior. Family environment, given its proximal association with children's behavior, holds great promise in understanding risk for antisocial behavior. The present study examined the role of parental acceptance and emotional responsivity as assessed using the HOME, caregiver report of intimate partner violence (IPV), and levels of physical abuse as assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scales, on subsequent symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), a childhood disorder characterized by antisocial behavior. Data were drawn from Waves 1-3, cohorts 3 and 6 of the Project for Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Results suggest only minor gender differences in levels of ODD symptoms, with equal rates of stability from Wave 2 to 3 in symptom levels. For boys and girls, IPV was associated with an increased risk of ODD symptoms, and higher acceptance was associated with reduced risk of ODD symptoms. However, gender differences emerged in the impact of physical abuse and emotional responsiveness, in that the former was a significant predictor for girls only, and the latter was significant for boys only. Potential implications for these findings, including the role of gender socialization are discussed. PMID:23420295

Burnette, Mandi L

2013-02-17

371

Developmentally Appropriate Technology in Early Childhood (DATEC) in Botswana: In-Service Teachers’ Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developmentally Appropriate Technology in Early Childhood (DATEC) aims to identify themost appropriate applications of Information and Communication Technology to support thedevelopment of children under eight years of age. Botswana has a unique spread ofpopulation density and deep-rooted socio-cultural values. There is a need to address thecompatibility of these aspects with the application of Information and CommunicationTechnology in the proposed Early Childhood Education programmes throughout Botswana.The researcher felt that the views of the in-service teachers, (who are now students of theBachelor of Education Programme) in the University of Botswana and have specialized inEarly Childhood Education, would be a valuable input towards an appropriate EarlyChildhood Education curriculum. Hence, a study was proposed to assess the views of theteachers, regarding DATEC in Botswana. Forty (40) fourth year students (Level 400) ofBachelor of Education (Primary) Programme of University of Botswana, who specialised inearly years and have a good exposure to Information and Communication Technologyconstituted the sample. Their views were obtained from a semi-structured questionnaire.Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used for analysis of data. The findings ofthe study showed that the respondents strongly believed that an integration of Informationand Communication Technology with the Early Childhood Education curriculum isnecessary to enhance an overall development of young children. Computers with relevantresources were thought to be the best Information and Communication Technologyapplications in Early Childhood Education for a developmentally appropriate programmethat would provide educational concepts, problem solving skills and creativity. However,they emphasised the need to make the technology socio-culturally compatible to citizens ofBotswana (Batswana) to facilitate developmentally appropriate education of young children.The study concluded with a few recommendations.

Kabita BOSE

2009-01-01

372

The contribution of childhood parental rejection and early androgen exposure to impairments in socio-cognitive skills in intimate partner violence perpetrators with high alcohol consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927

Romero-Martínez, Angel; Lila, Marisol; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K; Moya-Albiol, Luis

2013-08-20

373

Nutrition in early life and risk of childhood leukemia: a case-control study in Greece.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: There is a paucity of findings concerning the role of diet in childhood leukemogenesis, whereas the results are equivocal and the studies heterogeneous with regard to food items examined. This case-control study investigates the association of childhood leukemia with food groups, macronutrient consumption, total energy intake and adherence to Mediterranean diet among children aged 5-14 years in Greece. METHODS: A total of 139 consecutive, incident leukemia cases out of which 121 were acute lymphoblastic leukemia were derived from the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies along with one : one age- and gender-matched hospital controls. Information on socio-demographic, maternal and child variables and dietary habits was obtained through in-person interviews with the guardians/children. Multiple logistic regression was performed with adjustment for birth weight and possible confounding variables. RESULTS: Higher consumption of added lipids was associated with an increased risk of childhood leukemia, whereas consumption of milk and dairy products with reduced risk. From the macronutrient analysis, a borderline trend linking high protein intake with reduced childhood leukemia risk was observed. CONCLUSION: Consumption of milk and dairy products in the first year of life may protect against childhood leukemia possibly through vitamin D actions, while added lipids may increase the risk through various mechanisms. These results offer a holistic evaluation of children's nutrition and suggest that dietary habits in the early years of life may contribute to the prevention of childhood leukemia.

Diamantaras AA; Dessypris N; Sergentanis TN; Ntouvelis E; Athanasiadou-Piperopoulou F; Baka M; Fragandrea I; Moschovi M; Polychronopoulou S; Stiakaki E; Panagiotakos D; Petridou E

2013-01-01

374

Service quality of Early Childhood Education web portals in Finnish municipalities  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing number of governmental organizations have transformed material on their web sites as a way of providing users with information about their products and services. In this paper, we apply Yang et al (2005) instrument for analyzing municipal early childhood education (ECE) web sites in Finland. The objective of the study was to find out the quality of ECE web portals as well as to give hints to improve their value from users' point of view. In general the five dimensions, usability, usefulness of content, adequacy of information, accessibility, and interaction, of the Yang et al model seems to be applicable also in the early childhood education environment.

Koskivaara, Eija; Pihlaja, Päivi

375

Childhood sexual and physical abuse histories, PTSD, depression, and HIV risk outcomes in women injection drug users: a potential mediating pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We explored links between childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical abuse (CPA), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)/depression, and women injection drug users' (IDUs') risk in 113 women recruited from two syringe exchange sites. More than half (56%) reported CSA, 68% CPA, 23% likely were depressed-only, and 53% likely had PTSD/depression. CSA was associated with sexual (p = 0.003) and drug risk (p = 0.05); CPA was not. CSA was associated with PTSD/depression (p = 0.03); PTSD/depression was associated with sexual (p < 0.01) and drug (p < 0.03) risk. After PTSD/depression adjustment, CSA was no longer associated with sexual or drug risk. These results suggest that women IDUs' CSA-to-risk path is mediated by PTSD/depression.

Plotzker RE; Metzger DS; Holmes WC

2007-11-01

376

Childhood emotional abuse and disordered eating among undergraduate females: mediating influence of alexithymia and distress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore those of CEA using measures of specific emotionally abusive acts. METHOD: Five hundred and eighty-eight female university students completed self-report surveys consisting of measures of CEA, alexithymia, depression, anxiety, and DE. Structural equation modeling was used to test this conceptual model. RESULTS: Comparison between measurement models suggested that bulimic behavior is a separate construct from restrictive eating behaviors and body dissatisfaction. In the structural model with the best fit, the association between CEA and DE was mediated by alexithymia and GD (i.e., a component of depression and anxiety). Specifically, CEA was associated with alexithymia, which was further related to GD. Then, restrictive eating behaviors and attitudes mediated the relation between GD and bulimic behaviors. By analyzing a second, nested model, this latter pathway was shown to be important. CONCLUSION: While the best-fitting model is only one of many possibilities, these results point to a weak-but significant-complex relation between CEA and DE. They are associated through a series of mediating relations in a multivariate model including alexithymia and GD. The current study supports research suggesting that child emotional abuse can have a negative impact on its survivors. Treatment of those survivors manifesting disordered eating should be holistic, as opposed to targeted towards specific symptoms.

Hund AR; Espelage DL

2006-04-01

377

Early Childhood Intervention in South Africa in Relation to the Developmental Systems Model  

Science.gov (United States)

As highlighted in recent series in "The Lancet" (2007, 2011), children from low and middle income countries are more likely to be adversely affected by early biological and psychosocial experiences that have their origins in environments characterized by poverty, violence, nutritional deficiencies, HIV infections, substance abuse, and inadequate…

Samuels, Alecia M.; Slemming, Wiedaad; Balton, Sadna

2012-01-01

378

An Examination of Early Childhood Teacher Education in Four West African Nations: Ghana, Mali, Senegal, and the Gambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper examines opportunities and challenges in early childhood teacher education in Ghana, Mali, Senegal, and the Gambia. It reviews socioeconomic and political issues, current and emerging policies for early childhood and primary education, teacher preparation strategies, and examples of successful programs. Information was collected during…

Pagano, Alicia I.

379

Study on Group-Based Problem-Solving of Pre-Service Teachers in Early Childhood Education Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aims to investigate how to develop pre-service teachers in early childhood education through employing group-based problem-solving. Participant in this research are 4th year study of pre-service teachers in early childhood education. Forty seven pre-service teachers were selected in the second semester, academic year 2010 by…

Prachagool, Veena; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

2012-01-01

380

Where to from Here? Career Choices of Pre-Service Teachers Undertaking a Dual Early Childhood/Primary Qualification  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent Australian government initiatives in the early childhood education and care sector are placing demands for an increase in the number of degree qualified early childhood teachers. Many universities are now offering courses with dual qualifications as a way to provide alternate career opportunities for pre-service teachers; however it cannot…

Nolan, Andrea; Rouse, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

|Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

2007-01-01

382

The Struggle for Early Childhood Curricula: A Comparison of the English Foundation Stage Curriculum, "Te Whariki" and Reggio Emilia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses upon the way visions for early childhood are expressed through curricula in England, New Zealand, and Reggio Emilia in Italy. Includes curricular examples illustrating how growing pressure from vocational and instrumental influences affect progressive and socioculturally inspired early childhood curricula. Reveals how curricula and…

Soler, Janet; Miller, Linda

2003-01-01

383

Technology in the Home and the Achievement of Young Children: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Because technology in the home is becoming ever more available, understanding the role of technology in early childhood development is increasingly an opportunity and a concern for educators. This report examines data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99, to provide an overview of the role of technology in the…

Espinosa, Linda M.; Laffey, James M.; Whittaker, Tiffany; Sheng, Yanyan

2006-01-01

384

Hong Kong Student Teachers' Beliefs about Children's Learning: Influences of a Cross-Cultural Early Childhood Teaching Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-one in-service early childhood students participated in a teaching practicum in Australia as part of the final year of a Bachelor of Arts in Hong Kong. Students spent two weeks visiting a university and early childhood settings in Australia. The university based component of the program included workshops and discussions with lecturing…

Brownlee, Joanne; Chak, Amy

2007-01-01

385

Early Childhood Education as Risky Business: Going Beyond What’s  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much has been learned about the possibilities of early childhood education from nations that have long invested in high-quality early care and educational programs. These new understandings are now being used by U.S. early childhood advocates to help parents, policy makers, and others better understand children's vast learning potentials, to acknowledge the deep intellectual work of teachers, and to recognize the rights of parents to help determine the essential features of a challenging and beneficial early childhood curriculum. What is less well acknowledged are cross-cultural insights into the potentials of a "risk-rich" curriculum, one in which both adults and children explore new topics and unfamiliar terrains, including those traditionally identified as developmentally inappropriate and beyond the reach of young children. In this article, the potentials of a "risk-rich" curriculum are explored using examples from the cross-cultural research literature as well as two classrooms of young children—one of 3- and 4-year-olds, the others from a kindergarten class. Teachers' reflections on what they learned about themselves and the children they teach are presented as they reveal untapped potentials of early childhood settings as sites for new discoveries and new relationships.

Rebecca S. New; Ben Mardell; David Robinson

2005-01-01

386

Early life bereavement and childhood cancer: a nationwide follow-up study in two countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Childhood cancer is a leading cause of child deaths in affluent countries, but little is known about its aetiology. Psychological stress has been suggested to be associated with cancer in adults; whether this is also seen in childhood cancer is largely unknown. We investigated the association between bereavement as an indicator of severe childhood stress exposure and childhood cancer, using data from Danish and Swedish national registers. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark and Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: All live-born children born in Denmark between 1968 and 2007 (n=2 729 308) and in Sweden between 1973 and 2006 (n=3 395 166) were included in this study. Exposure was bereavement by the death of a close relative before 15 years of age. Follow-up started from birth and ended at the first of the following: date of a cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, day before their 15th birthday or end of follow-up (2007 in Denmark, 2006 in Sweden). OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates and HRs for all childhood cancers and specific childhood cancers. RESULTS: A total of 1 505 938 (24.5%) children experienced bereavement at some point during their childhood and 9823 were diagnosed with cancer before the age of 15 years. The exposed children had a small (10%) increased risk of childhood cancer (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.17). For specific cancers, a significant association was seen only for central nervous system tumours (HR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.28). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that psychological stress in early life is associated with a small increased risk of childhood cancer.

Momen NC; Olsen J; Gissler M; Cnattingius S; Li J

2013-01-01

387

Reaching Out to Fathers: An Examination of Staff Efforts That Lead to Greater Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, researchers and practitioners have become increasingly interested in father/male involvement in early childhood programs. However, few empirical studies have examined early childhood educators' efforts to involve fathers in such programs. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess early childhood educators' efforts to involve fathers and to determine which efforts lead to greater success at overall father involvement. Surveys were completed by 213 early childhood educators attending regional training events. Findings demonstrate that efforts are being made in a number of areas to increase father involvement. Multiple regression analysis revealed that three factors significantly accounted for early childhood educators' success at involving fathers: (1) including the father's name on the enrollment form, (2) sending written correspondence to fathers even if they live apart from their children, and (3) inviting fathers to the center to participate in educational activities with their children. Implications for practitioners are discussed.

Stephen Green

2003-01-01

388

Interaction of the BcII glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism and childhood abuse in Bulimia Nervosa (BN): relationship to BN and to associated trait manifestations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We recently documented a gene-environment interaction suggesting that individuals with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) differed from normal eaters as to the combined presence of the low-function allele of the glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism, BcII, and childhood abuse. The present study examined the extent to which any such interaction effect may have been attributable to behavioral impulsivity, sensation seeking, affective instability or depression. We had 174 bulimic and 130 nonbulimic women provide blood for genetic assays, and measured psychopathological traits and childhood abuse using structured interviews and self-report questionnaires. As expected, we observed a significant BcII × abuse interaction indicating genetic and environmental susceptibilities to co-occur significantly more often in bulimic than in nonbulimic individuals. The BcII × abuse interaction was attenuated when levels of depression were accounted for, but was surprisingly unaffected by controls for motoric impulsivity, sensation seeking or affective instability. Our findings suggest that stress-induced alterations in glucocorticoid sensitivity contribute to BN and depressive disturbances--without being associated with the behavioral/affective dysregulation seen in many BN sufferers. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of these observations.

Steiger H; Gauvin L; Joober R; Israel M; Badawi G; Groleau P; Bruce KR; Yin Kin NM; Sycz L; Ouelette AS

2012-02-01

389

Listening to victims: Use of a Critical Incident Reporting System to enable adult victims of childhood sexual abuse to participate in a political reappraisal process in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent revelations about the scope and severity of past child sexual abuse in German institutions set off a broad public debate on this issue, and led to the establishment of a politically appointed Round Table committee and an Independent Commissioner whose mandates were to reappraise the issue and develop recommendations for future policies. A media campaign was launched to publicize the establishment of a Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS) whereby now-adult victims of past abuse could anonymously provide testimonials and let policy makers know what issues were important to them. Respondents could either call a hotline number or communicate by mail or email. The information collected was documented and analyzed by a research team, and the results of interim reports were included in the recommendations of the Independent Commissioner and the Round Table committee. Most of the respondents described severe and repeated occurrences of childhood sexual abuse. For many, priorities were improvements in therapy and counseling services, the abolishment of the statute of limitations on prosecuting offenders, and financial compensation. Based on the recommendations of the Round Table and the Independent Commissioner, two new laws were adopted as well as an action plan and some guidelines. In addition to rules for recompensation of victims in an institutional context a fund for victims of sexual abuse in intrafamilial context was established by the Federal Government. Another effect of this process was raising societal sensitivity to the problem of child sexual abuse. The use of a CIRS enabled those directly affected by childhood sexual abuse to have some input into a political process designed to address this issue. Such an approach could have applicability in other countries or in other domains of public health and other forms of societal conflict as well.

Rassenhofer M; Spröber N; Schneider T; Fegert JM

2013-09-01

390

Listening to victims: Use of a Critical Incident Reporting System to enable adult victims of childhood sexual abuse to participate in a political reappraisal process in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent revelations about the scope and severity of past child sexual abuse in German institutions set off a broad public debate on this issue, and led to the establishment of a politically appointed Round Table committee and an Independent Commissioner whose mandates were to reappraise the issue and develop recommendations for future policies. A media campaign was launched to publicize the establishment of a Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS) whereby now-adult victims of past abuse could anonymously provide testimonials and let policy makers know what issues were important to them. Respondents could either call a hotline number or communicate by mail or email. The information collected was documented and analyzed by a research team, and the results of interim reports were included in the recommendations of the Independent Commissioner and the Round Table committee. Most of the respondents described severe and repeated occurrences of childhood sexual abuse. For many, priorities were improvements in therapy and counseling services, the abolishment of the statute of limitations on prosecuting offenders, and financial compensation. Based on the recommendations of the Round Table and the Independent Commissioner, two new laws were adopted as well as an action plan and some guidelines. In addition to rules for recompensation of victims in an institutional context a fund for victims of sexual abuse in intrafamilial context was established by the Federal Government. Another effect of this process was raising societal sensitivity to the problem of child sexual abuse. The use of a CIRS enabled those directly affected by childhood sexual abuse to have some input into a political process designed to address this issue. Such an approach could have applicability in other countries or in other domains of public health and other forms of societal conflict as well. PMID:23796600

Rassenhofer, Miriam; Spröber, Nina; Schneider, Thekla; Fegert, Jörg M

2013-06-22

391

Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. METHODS: Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. RESULTS: Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). CONCLUSIONS: PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents.

Jaspers M; de Winter AF; Veenstra R; Ormel J; Verhulst FC; Reijneveld SA

2012-12-01

392

Enhancing Early Child Care Quality and Learning for Toddlers at Risk: The Responsive Early Childhood Program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Landry SH; Zucker TA; Taylor HB; Swank PR; Williams JM; Assel M; Crawford A; Huang W; Clancy-Menchetti J; Lonigan CJ; Phillips BM; Eisenberg N; Spinrad TL; de Villiers J; de Villiers P; Barnes M; Starkey P; Klein A

2013-06-01

393

The Quality of Work Life in NAEYC Accredited and Nonaccredited Early Childhood Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Compared work environments of NAEYC accredited and nonaccredited centers using the Early Childhood Work Environment Survey. Found that innovativeness, goal consensus, opportunities for professional growth, and clarity accounted for the greatest differences between accredited and nonaccredited centers. Also found differences in staff's job…

Bloom, Paula Jorde

1996-01-01

394

Early childhood lead exposure and academic achievement: evidence from Detroit public schools, 2008-2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the long-term effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement in mathematics, science, and reading among elementary and junior high school children. METHODS: We linked early childhood blood lead testing surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion to educational testing data from the Detroit, Michigan, public schools. We used the linked data to investigate the effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among school-aged children, both marginally and adjusted for grade level, gender, race, language, maternal education, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: High blood lead levels before age 6 years were strongly associated with poor academic achievement in grades 3, 5, and 8. The odds of scoring less than proficient for those whose blood lead levels were greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter were more than twice the odds for those whose blood lead levels were less than 1 micrograms per deciliter after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Early childhood lead exposure was negatively associated with academic achievement in elementary and junior high school, after adjusting for key potential confounders. The control of lead poisoning should focus on primary prevention of lead exposure in children and development of special education programs for students with lead poisoning.

Zhang N; Baker HW; Tufts M; Raymond RE; Salihu H; Elliott MR

2013-03-01

395

An Examination of Locus of Control, Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness in Preservice Early Childhood Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study aims to explore the locus of control, epistemological beliefs and metacognitive awareness levels of preservice early childhood education teachers and to determine the interrelations among these variables. 206 teacher candidates have been asked to fill out Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Central Epistemological…

Bedel, Emine Ferda

2012-01-01

396

Training Early Childhood Educators to Promote Peer Interactions: Effects on Children's Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors  

Science.gov (United States)

Research Findings: This study examined the effects of educators' participation in an in-service training program on the aggressive and prosocial behaviors of preschool-age children. Seventeen early childhood educators were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. A total of 68 preschool children, 4 from each educator's classroom, also…

Girard, Lisa-Christine; Girolametto, Luigi; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice

2011-01-01

397

76 FR 32967 - Proposed Extensions and Waivers: National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center  

Science.gov (United States)

...EDUCATION [CFDA No. 84.326H] Proposed Extensions and Waivers: National Early Childhood...Education. ACTION: Notice of proposed extension of project period and waiver for the...project periods exceeding five years and extensions of project periods involving the...

2011-06-07

398

The Washington State Early Childhood Education Career Development Ladder. Policy Brief.  

Science.gov (United States)

This policy brief discusses the Early Childhood Education Career Development Ladder being implemented in Washington State. The initiative institutionalizes a career ladder with wage increments based on experience, job responsibility, and relevant education with a unique mix of public and private funding. The brief builds a case for the career…

Burbank, John R.; Wiefek, Nancy

399

Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

|The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

2008-01-01

400

From STEM to STEAM: How Early Childhood Educators Can Apply Fred Rogers' Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

For many in early childhood education, STEAM is a new term. It began in this decade as STEM, an acronym for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. These curriculum areas have become a major focus in education because of the concern that the United States is falling behind in scientific innovation. With a new and familiar addition to the…

Sharapan, Hedda

2012-01-01