WorldWideScience
1

Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adjustment in Early Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…

Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

2008-01-01

2

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

Evrim Aktepe

2009-08-01

3

Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

2009-01-01

4

The consequences of childhood abuse on subjective well-being and self-esteem in early adulthood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The presentation examines the consequences of childhood abuse on subjective well-being and self-esteem in early adulthood. This period of the lifecycle may often be a vulnerable time, since there are many developmental tasks to be solved from youth to adulthood (Erikson, Levinson, Arnett, Marcia). A biography including childhood abuse must therefore be seen as a psychological burden with negative impact on the developmental challenges. For this reason, the presentation examines the possible links between childhood abuse and subjective well-being and self-esteem. By using information from the West Jutland Cohort Study (n=3,054), it is shown that 2.8% (n=86) of the participants reported having experienced childhood abuse. The results of the study show that those having been abused have significantly lower levels of self-esteem and a higher risk of lower subjective well-being. These results illuminate an unexplored aspect of the connection between childhood and adulthood. Earlier studies have shown an association between childhood abuse and psychological problems and psychiatric diagnoses whereas few studies have examined the potential negative consequences of childhood abuse on more vague – but still important - parameters such as subjective well-being and self-esteem.

Hansen, Claus D.; Olsen, Jan BrØdslev

5

Childhood abuse :pregnancy and childbirth  

OpenAIRE

Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...

Lukasse, Mirjam

2011-01-01

6

Early Detection of Child Abuse  

OpenAIRE

Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

Shearman, J. K.

1987-01-01

7

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

... is suicidal and/or a victim of childhood sexual abuse, please contact a mental health professional, or call 1-800- ... attempts. 11 3 Resources Rape, Abuse, & Incest National Network (RAINN): www.rainn.org Sexual Assault Resource Agency: http://www.sexualassaultresources.org/ Suicide. ...

8

Childhood sexual abuse.  

OpenAIRE

Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

Evrim Aktepe

1993-01-01

9

Reframing Early Childhood Leadership  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework" (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009)…

Stamopoulos, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

10

Trajectories of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors: The Role of Other Maltreatment, Witnessed Violence, and Child Gender  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semi-parametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA…

Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.

2010-01-01

11

Early Childhood Caries  

OpenAIRE

Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

Yumiko Kawashita; Masayasu Kitamura; Toshiyuki Saito

2011-01-01

12

Frequency of childhood abuse in university students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students and 60 % of them were female. The mean agewas 19.04±1.28 (17-26 years. The emotional (p=0.025,physical (p=0.004 and sexual (p=0.001 abuse of malestudents were significantly higher than female students.The emotional (p=0.009 and total (p=0.026 abuse ofstudents who had families with lower income levels weresignificantly high. Also the frequency of emotional abusein students with divorced parents was significantly increased(p=0.012.Conclusions: Since child abuse and neglect may beassociated with the stresses of family life, the economicand social stresses of family should be determined andsolution advices to these should be developed. A multidisciplinarymanagement is required to detect, treat andrehabilitate the childhood abuse.Key words: Childhood, university student, sexual abuse

Cem Zeren

2012-12-01

13

Identifying and Evaluating Teachers' Knowledge in Relation to Child Abuse and Neglect: A Qualitative Study with Australian Early Childhood Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…

Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann

2008-01-01

14

Preventing childhood sexual abuse: an ecological approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse is a significant public health problem that negatively affects victims, families, organizations, and society. This special issue presents innovative approaches designed to prevent the sexual exploitation of youth. Using both an ecological approach and the Spectrum of Prevention ( Parks, Davis & Cohen, 2010 ), the articles collected for this special issue highlight cutting-edge prevention approaches educating children, parents, professionals, organizations, and the general public. PMID:22809043

Kenny, Maureen C; Wurtele, Sandy K

2012-01-01

15

The Sexuality of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors  

OpenAIRE

In this grounded theory study, a theoretical framework that depicts the process by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) influences the sexuality of women and men survivors was constructed. Data were drawn from interview transcripts of 95 men and women who experienced CSA. Using constant comparison analysis, the researchers determined that the central phenomenon of the data was a process labeled Determining My Sexual Being, in which survivors moved from grappling with questions related to the na...

Roller, Cynthia; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire Burke; Ross, Ratchneewan

2009-01-01

16

Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Malaysian Paramedical Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 616 nursing and paramedical students in Malaysia found that 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females reported having been sexually abused in their childhood. Of these, 69% reported the abuse involved physical contact; 38% reported the abuse began before the age of 10; and 71% reported knowing the abuser. (Author/DB)

Singh, HSS Amar; And Others

1996-01-01

17

Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

1994-01-01

18

Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…

Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra

2008-01-01

19

Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

2009-01-01

20

Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72–2.83). Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15–12.26). The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60–6.89). Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04–1.68) and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58–2.71). Conclusion These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women’s health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence. PMID:25635902

Barrios, Yasmin V.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Nicolaidis, Christina; Rondon, Marta B.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Sanchez, Pedro A. Mascaro; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

2015-01-01

21

Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

2012-01-01

22

Childhood abuse and migraine: epidemiology, sex differences, and potential mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Migraine and maltreatment are both common conditions that are more prevalent in women. Epidemiological evidence supports an association between childhood abuse and headache, as well as pain in general, although some controversy exists based on methodological concerns of studying the influence of remote, traumatic, stigmatizing events in an often depressed population. There is a growing scientific body of knowledge regarding the neurobiological effects of abuse on brain function and structure that suggest a possible role of early life stress in the pathogenesis of migraine, and a differential impact based on sex. Advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms by which an adverse environment interacts with and changes the genome, may suggest new treatment strategies. PMID:21631473

Tietjen, Gretchen E; Peterlin, B Lee

2011-06-01

23

Childhood physical abuse in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan and Asia, few studies have been done of physical and sexual abuse. This study was aimed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse is associated with anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. Methods We divided 564 consecutive new outpatients at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine of Kyushu University Hospital into two groups: a physically abused group and a non-abused group. Psychological test scores and the prevalence of self-injurious behavior were compared between the two groups. Results A history of childhood physical abuse was reported by patients with depressive disorders(12.7%, anxiety disorders(16.7%, eating disorders (16.3%, pain disorders (10.8%, irritable bowel syndrome (12.5%, and functional dyspepsia(7.5%. In both the patients with depressive disorders and those with anxiety disorders, STAI-I (state anxiety and STAI-II (trait anxiety were higher in the abused group than in the non-abused group (p In the patients with depressive disorders, the abused group was younger than the non-abused group (p Conclusion A history of childhood physical abuse is associated with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. It is important for physicians to consider the history of abuse in the primary care of these patients.

Kubo Chiharu

2008-03-01

24

Early Childhood Special Music Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of early intervention is a critical component of Early Childhood Special Music Education. Early intervention is the process of providing services, education, and support to young children who have disabilities or to children who are at-risk of developing needs that may affect their physical, cognitive, or emotional development. The…

Darrow, Alice-Ann

2011-01-01

25

Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

2013-01-01

26

The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Teenage Pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)

Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo

1997-01-01

27

Teaching Mathematics in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Children who learn math fundamentals in preschool and kindergarten have the best chance of later achievement in school--but too often, children don't get the effective early math instruction that makes all the difference. Now there's a core early childhood textbook that helps current and future educators teach the most critical math concepts to…

Moomaw, Sally

2011-01-01

28

Invest in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The history of American early education is one of changing roles and goals. As federal engagement in early childhood has shifted in response to social, political, and economic needs, few policy efforts have focused on long-term planning or coordination. The authors identify the appropriate roles of federal, state, and local governments and make 13…

Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Reid, Jeanne L.

2009-01-01

29

Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Subsequent Educational Achievement Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This paper examined the relationship between exposure to sexual and physical abuse (CSA and CPA) in childhood and later educational achievement outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood in a birth cohort of over 1,000 children studied to age 25. Method: Retrospective data on CSA and CPA were gathered at ages 18 and 21 and used to…

Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

2007-01-01

30

Early Childhood Education as a Resilience Intervention for Maltreated Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…

Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine

2014-01-01

31

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Abuse-Specific Attributions of Blame over 6 Years Following Discovery  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change in attributions for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) over a 6-year period and whether such patterns were related to abuse severity, age, gender, and subsequent symptoms of depression and PTSD. Methodology: One-hundred and sixty children, 8-15 years old, were interviewed within 8…

Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles

2007-01-01

32

Childhood History of Abuse and Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…

de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia

2000-01-01

33

Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative reports from a subset (n = 30)…

Crowley, M. Sue

2008-01-01

34

Extension of the Sexual Abuse Questionnaire to Other Abuse Categories: The Initial Psychometric Validation of the Binghamton Childhood Abuse Screen  

Science.gov (United States)

Study I represents a follow-up to a recently published study dealing with the initial development of the Sexual Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ). The SAQ was designed to be used to identify individuals experiencing psychological distress resulting from a history of childhood sexual abuse. Using a new data set (N = 2,806), this study utilized item…

Castelda, Bryan A.; Levis, Donald J.; Rourke, Patricia A.; Coleman, Shannon L.

2007-01-01

35

INDICATORS OF QUALITY OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION  

OpenAIRE

This graduation thesis encompasses findings about the importance of providing and establishing indicators of quality in early childhood education. The theoretical part of the graduation thesis includes definitions of the concept of quality in early childhood education. The last cannot be established without knowing indicators of quality in early childhood education. These are, in greater detail, described in the chapter about the levels of quality in early childhood education. We defined the ...

Petek, Barbara

2012-01-01

36

Deficits in short-term memory in adult survivors of childhood abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to stress has been associated with alterations in memory function, and we have previously shown deficits in short-term verbal memory in patients with a history of exposure to the stress of combat and the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies of any kind have focused on adult survivors of childhood physical and sexual abuse. The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term memory function in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Adult survivors of severe childhood physical and sexual abuse (n = 21), as defined by specific criteria derived from the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), who were presenting for psychiatric treatment were compared with healthy subjects (n = 20) matched for several variables including age, alcohol abuse, and years of education. All subjects were assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) Logical (verbal memory) and Figural (visual memory) components, the Verbal and Visual Selective Reminding Tests (SRT), and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). Adult survivors of childhood abuse had significantly lower scores on the WMS Logical component for immediate and delayed recall in comparison to normal subjects, with no difference in visual memory, as measured by the WMS or the SRT, or IQ, as measured by the WAIS-R. Deficits in verbal memory, as measured by the WMS, were associated with the severity of abuse, as measured by a composite score on the ETI. Our findings suggest that childhood physical and sexual abuse is associated with long-term deficits in verbal short-term memory. These findings of specific deficits in verbal (and not visual) memory, with no change in IQ, are similar to the pattern of deficits that we have previously found in patients with combat-related PTSD. PMID:8771224

Bremner, J D; Randall, P; Scott, T M; Capelli, S; Delaney, R; McCarthy, G; Charney, D S

1995-11-29

37

Early Childhood Education in Azerbaijan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the Early Learning Childhood Center in Azerbaijan's capital city. Focuses on the goals of the program; its initial development; staff ratios, compensation, and teacher training; curriculum; cultural challenges and compromise; and relationships with parents. Asserts that developing a culturally sensitive program is extremely difficult,…

Starnes, Lisa

2000-01-01

38

The Early Childhood Coaching Handbook  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence-based and highly effective, "coaching" helps early childhood practitioners support other professionals and families as they enhance existing knowledge, develop new skills, and promote healthy development of young children. This hands-on guide shows professionals how to conduct skillful coaching in any setting--home, school, or community.…

Rush, Dathan D.; Shelden, M'Lisa L.

2011-01-01

39

Language, Literacy and Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

"Language, Literacy and Early Childhood Education" is a comprehensive textbook for all students studying literacy and language subjects in early childhood education and primary degrees. Covering an age range from 0 to 8 years the book encompasses the four main early childhood contexts of: the family and community; childcare; the pre-school years,…

Fellowes, Janet; Oakley, Grace

2011-01-01

40

Early Childhood Education: The Case of Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now widely recognized that early childhood education has paramount significance for the well-being of societies. In this study, the current situation of early childhood education in Turkey is discussed mainly in terms of its perception by the government, the school enrollment rate and the quality of early childhood education programs. The…

Usakli, Hakan

2010-01-01

41

Dispersing Waves: Innovation in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education Centres of Innovation (COI) were established in 2002 as part of the 10-year plan for early childhood education, "Pathways to the Future/Nga Huarahi Arataki." In COI projects, innovative early childhood teaching teams reflect on and investigate their practices through action research, and share their findings with the…

Meade, Anne, Ed.

2010-01-01

42

Expertise of Early Childhood Educators  

OpenAIRE

Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80). The data consisted of the early educators’ stories of their growth towards expertise. The analysis was carried out by the methods of content analysis. As the results, three key competences of the informants were created: 1) contex...

Iiris Happo; Kaarina Määttä

2011-01-01

43

Childhood abuse and its association with mid-aged women's sexual functioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the association of recalled childhood sexual and physical abuse with current sexual functioning in mid-life. The sample was participants in the longitudinal population-based cohort of mid-aged women, The Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project. Three hundred sixty two of the women (92% of the available cohort) were administered the Violence Questionnaire in the sixth year of follow-up. This included questions on physical abuse and sexual abuse experienced in childhood. We used the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (Dennerstein, Anderson-Hunt, & Dudley, 2002) to assess current sexual functioning. Forty eight percent of the women had no experience of childhood sexual abuse, 42% had experienced noncontact sexual abuse, 36% had experienced contact sexual abuse, and 7% had experienced penetrative sexual abuse. Nine percent of the women had experienced physical abuse in childhood. Women who had experienced penetrative childhood sexual abuse were significantly more likely to have fewer children (median 2) than women who had not experienced penetrative childhood sexual abuse (median 3) (P sexual or relational functioning significantly affected by childhood sexual abuse was that of feelings for partner (P childhood sexual abuse had, on average, significantly shorter current relationships (P childhood sexual and physical abuse reported a lower frequency of current sexual activities (P childhood sexual abuse is on the quality of relationship with the partner. PMID:15205061

Dennerstein, Lorraine; Guthrie, Janet R; Alford, Simone

2004-01-01

44

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

2013-01-01

45

Acute leukemia in early childhood  

OpenAIRE

Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months....

Emerenciano, M.; Koifman, S.; Pombo-de-oliveira, M. S.

2007-01-01

46

Psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology of men sexually abused during childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology among men sexually abused during their childhood and arrive at a better understanding of the reasons for which, following such sexual experiences, some adult males manifest greater distress than others. In total, 64 participants were interviewed and completed eight questionnaires covering various aspects of childhood and adult life. Results suggest the existence of three types of sexual abuse scenarios. Participants in each of these three groups presented with an adult-specific adjustment. However, the methodology and multivariate analyses used in this study suggest that some of these problems were not only associated with the sexual contacts but also with other childhood experiences and with the participant's cognitive, affective, and psychological resources. PMID:16249395

Forouzan, Elham; Van Gijseghem, Hubert

2005-12-01

47

Narrative Identity and Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

An intensification of interest in early childhood by government, parents, and employers, focuses primarily on the provision of private early childhood education services outside of the home. With a focus on New Zealand, the paper argues that the form of early education now promoted is a particular form of care and education that moves children…

Farquhar, Sandy

2012-01-01

48

Early Childhood Development Policy Advances in Uganda  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early

Ejuu, Godfrey

2012-01-01

49

Shame and Guilt in Men Exposed to Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…

Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken

2012-01-01

50

Exploring the Quality of Early Childhood Education in China: Implications for Early Childhood Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The following article introduces an exploratory study that was designed to measure the quality of early childhood education within its ever changing sociocultural context utilizing the Early Childhood Learning Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) in 40 classrooms in Beijing, China. Implications for early childhood teacher education,…

Hu, Bi Ying; Szente, Judit

2009-01-01

51

Childhood physical abuse, aggression, and suicide attempts among criminal offenders  

OpenAIRE

Childhood physical abuse (CPA) has numerous short and long-term negative effects. One of the most serious consequences of CPA is an increased risk for suicide attempts. Clarifying the mechanisms by which CPA increases risk for suicidal behavior may enhance preventative interventions. One potential mechanism is a tendency toward aggression. In a sample of 266 criminal offenders, ages 18–62, we examined the relationships among CPA, lifetime aggression, and suicide attempts and tested lifetime...

Swogger, Marc T.; You, Sungeun; Cashman-brown, Sarah; Conner, Kenneth R.

2011-01-01

52

Expertise of Early Childhood Educators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80. The data consisted of the early educators’ stories of their growth towards expertise. The analysis was carried out by the methods of content analysis. As the results, three key competences of the informants were created: 1 contextual knowledge, 2 cooperation and communication knowledge, and 3 pedagogical knowledge. This research shows that the educators’ work has become more and more collegial and it is necessary to expand a notion of individual expertise into the realm of collaborative and socially shared expertise.

Iiris Happo

2011-07-01

53

Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care  

SCPinfonet

Title: Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care ...Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care UNITED KINGDOM (ENGLAND) ...Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care: United Kingdom (England)2012

54

Psychosocial Resources and Associations Between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Well-being  

OpenAIRE

Childhood physical abuse is often associated with detrimental physical and psychological consequences in adulthood. Yet, some adults appear to overcome effects of very severe parental physical abuse in childhood. This study considered whether psychosocial resources (i.e., emotional and instrumental support, personal control) explain variability in well-being for adults who experienced childhood physical abuse by their parents. Participants included 2,711 adults aged 25–74 years from the Mid...

Pitzer, Lindsay M.; Fingerman, Karen L.

2010-01-01

55

Early Childhood Teacher Education in China  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews early childhood teacher education in the People's Republic of China in the past years and raises the issues about teacher's education in the future. With thinking about early childhood education reform in China, unevenness in development in different areas and regions, and disparity in resources and programming among teacher…

Zhu, Jiaxiong

2008-01-01

56

Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…

Morgan, Harry

2006-01-01

57

The Early Childhood Social Skills Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the Early Childhood Social Skills Program developed at the University of Pittsburgh's Early Childhood Research Institute. The paper discusses specific social skill strategies as well as steps for implementing the peer-mediated social skill program in an integrated preschool setting. (JDD)

Kohler, Frank W.; Strain, Phillip S.

1993-01-01

58

Parental perspectives of early childhood caries.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND. Parental perspectives of children with early childhood caries may help inform the development and improvement of caries prevention strategies. OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to explore parents' experiences, perceptions, and expectations regarding prevention and management of early childhood caries. Methods. The authors conducted semistructured interviews with 25 parents of children aged 2 to 5 years, with a known history of caries. All interviews were transcribed and coded, and iterative analyses were conducted to identify key emergent themes within the data. RESULTS. Parents had limited knowledge of behaviors contributing to early childhood caries and when to first seek regular dental care. Parents expected pediatricians to provide education on how to prevent childhood caries, conduct preliminary oral health assessments, and help establish early linkages between medical and dental care. CONCLUSION. The findings make a strong case for pediatricians to take responsibility for engaging and educating parents on fostering optimal oral health and helping to access early childhood dental care. PMID:21903623

Isong, Inyang A; Luff, Donna; Perrin, James M; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Ng, Man Wai

2012-01-01

59

Sequelae of abuse. Health effects of childhood sexual abuse, domestic battering, and rape.  

Science.gov (United States)

Violence against women is endemic in the United States. One third to one half of all women will experience one or more types of abuse in their lifetime, most often at the hands of a family member or an intimate or formerly intimate partner. One in 12 women is battered during pregnancy. Abuse survivors are disproportionately frequent users of health care services because of acute and chronic physical, somatic, emotional, and behavioral sequelae of abuse. Health care practitioners are often the first contact abuse survivors have with a potentially helping professional. It is, therefore, essential that health care providers learn to identify and to intervene appropriately with survivors of abuse. This article reviews and compares the health effects of three of the most common types of violence against women: childhood sexual abuse, domestic battering, and rape. Sequelae are divided into six categories: physical/medical, somatic, emotional/ psychological, social/interpersonal, behavioral/sexual, and pregnancy-related effects. The health effects discussed in this article include research findings, as well as effects noted in clinical practice. Recommendations are made for routine screening of all women for past and current abuse, as well as for intervention strategies. PMID:8990716

Bohn, D K; Holz, K A

1996-01-01

60

Acute leukemia in early childhood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in in [...] fant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months) has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9), E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4), PML/RARA+ve (N = 4), and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2) cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07), OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31) and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96)], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

M., Emerenciano; S., Koifman; M.S., Pombo-de-Oliveira.

2007-06-01

61

Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsive circuit. The goal of this study is to examine how childhood emotional and physical abuse relates to adulthood stressor-evoked activity within these visceral brain regions. To evoke acute states of mental stress, participants (n = 155) performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-adapted versions of the multi-source interference task (MSIT) and the Stroop task with simultaneous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Regression analyses revealed that childhood physical abuse correlated positively with stressor-evoked changes in MAP, and negatively with unbiased, a priori extractions of fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent signal change values within the sgACC, BNST, PVN and Amyg (n = 138). Abuse-related changes in the function of visceral neural circuits may reflect neurobiological vulnerability to adverse health outcomes conferred by early adversity. PMID:24847113

Banihashemi, Layla; Sheu, Lei K; Midei, Aimee J; Gianaros, Peter J

2014-05-19

62

The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

2009-01-01

63

The World Bank's View of Early Childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores World Bank's view of early childhood as an example of the globalization of childhood, arguing that the Bank's policies exacerbate the gap between rich and poor nations and between rich and poor within countries, and affect children's lives adversely. Explores inherent contradictions of policies that draw on traditional Anglo-American…

Penn, Helen

2002-01-01

64

Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

65

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder in the Eating Disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examination of 115 women with eating disorders revealed a secondary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. A model involving background features, precipitants, and immediate and long-term psychological consequences is suggested to explain the link to childhood abuse, and implications for…

Waller, Glenn

1994-01-01

66

The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization and Alcohol Abuse  

OpenAIRE

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age and sex-stratified population survey of Olmsted County, MN residents (n=610), we developed a sexual abuse severity score (SASS). The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included: age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, sever...

Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa M.; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

2009-01-01

67

Business Case for Early Childhood Investments  

Science.gov (United States)

America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.

America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

68

Early childhood programs and the education system  

OpenAIRE

Policy makers, advocates and experts agree that the current delivery of early childhood development programs is fragmented. Many point to the education system as a better alternative for a more coherent approach that has the necessary infrastructure in place in communities, and is well placed to meet the needs of all young children and their families. In other jurisdictions, early childhood development programs have moved into education. In Canada, provincial and local school authorities are ...

Beach, Jane; Bertrand, Jane

2009-01-01

69

EARLY CHILDHOOD INVESTMENTS SUBSTANTIALLY BOOST ADULT HEALTH  

OpenAIRE

High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report the long-term health impacts of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that d...

Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J.; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi

2014-01-01

70

Hardiness as a Moderator of Shame Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys an adult female sample of childhood sexual abuse survivors to determine if hardiness was effective in moderating the negative effects of perceived trauma and severity of the sexual abuse and internalized shame on relationship intimacy. Results indicate that perception and severity of abuse, and shame were significantly and negatively…

Feinauer, Leslie; Hilton, H. Gill; Callahan, Eddy Howard

2003-01-01

71

Experiences of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Visually Impaired Adults in Norway: Prevalence and Characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among visually impaired children and sighted children in Norway. Visually impaired women and men aged 18-65 who lost their sight before age 18 reported sexual abuse with contact before age 18 more often than did the sighted group, and the abuse of the visually impaired children was more…

Kvam, Marit Hoem

2005-01-01

72

Early-married and sexually abused girls differ in their psychiatric outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early marriage and sexual abuse are the two of the most frequent types of childhood abuse. Although early marriage is also a type of sexual abuse, it is associated with different physical, social, and mental outcomes than sexual abuse alone. The purpose of this study was to compare early-married girls and sexually abused girls who were referred for forensic evaluation in Turkey in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics, mental disorder rates, and mental symptom severity. We included 63 adolescent girls for whom a judicial report had been demanded and who were under 15 years old when they were married but were not yet 18 years old during the evaluation (15.51±0.78) and 72 sexually abused adolescent girls between 14 and 18 years old (15.80±1.10) in this study. Following a psychiatric evaluation, the study participants completed the Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). We used the Windows SPSS 16.0 software program to assess the results. At least one psychiatric disorder was determined in 44.4% of the early-married and 77.8% of the sexually abused cases (pmarriage has severe physical, social and mental outcomes, it is not as severe as sexual abuse in terms of psychiatric disorder rates and the psychiatric symptom severity it causes. PMID:24994572

Soylu, Nusret; Ayaz, Muhammed; Yüksel, Tu?ba

2014-09-01

73

Integrating Computer Technology in Early Childhood Education Environments: Issues Raised by Early Childhood Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess the educators' perspectives on the introduction of computer technology in the early childhood education environment. Fifty early childhood educators completed a survey and participated in focus groups. Parallels existed between the individually completed survey data and the focus group discussions. The…

Wood, Eileen; Specht, Jacqueline; Willoughby, Teena; Mueller, Julie

2008-01-01

74

Physiological responses to child stimuli in mothers with and without a childhood history of physical abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated changes in heart rate, skin conductance, and self-reported affect in response to child stimuli in mothers with and without a childhood history of physical abuse. The stimuli were videotape presentations of a smiling and crying infant. During baseline periods (prior to videotape presentations), mothers without a childhood history of abuse displayed a significant reduction in skin conductance, which was not observed in mothers with a childhood history of abuse, suggesting that mothers without a history of abuse habituated to the experimental setting. Although the two groups of mothers did not differ in self-reported affect or in heart rates in response to the crying and smiling infant, mothers with a childhood history of abuse showed increases in skin conductance while viewing the smiling infant, but not while viewing the crying infant. In contrast, mothers without a childhood history of abuse showed increases in skin conductance during the presentation of the crying infant, but not while viewing the smiling infant. Similarities between the skin conductance results for mothers with and without a childhood history of abuse and skin conductance data reported for physically abusive and at-risk mothers are discussed. PMID:7850618

Casanova, G M; Domanic, J; McCanne, T R; Milner, J S

1994-12-01

75

Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

Bach K

2014-06-01

76

Linking Childhood and Adult Criminality: Using a Life Course Framework to Examine Childhood Abuse and Neglect, Substance Use and Adult Partner Violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children’s life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1 patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2 cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed.

Patricia O'Campo

2013-10-01

77

Early Childhood Special Education and Early Intervention Personnel Preparation Standards of the Division for Early Childhood: Field Validation  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of the field validation survey of the revised initial and new advanced Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Division for Early Childhood (DEC) early childhood special education (ECSE)/early intervention (EI) personnel standards are presented. Personnel standards are used as part of educational accountability systems and in teacher…

Cochran, Deborah C.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Christensen, Kimberly A.

2012-01-01

78

Constructivism and Jewish Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Having an educational theory as a school's foundation is a key component in successful educational endeavors. However, many Jewish early childhood programs do not commonly use educational theory to support methods of instruction. In this study 14 children from a constructivist-based Jewish kindergarten class are interviewed to determine how…

Muller, Meir

2013-01-01

79

Early Childhood Trends around the World  

Science.gov (United States)

This article shares the views of the members of the World Forum community regarding early childhood education trends around the world. It summarizes trends from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Denmark, The Netherlands, Italy, Turkey, Nepal, Vietnam, Tajikistan, Hong Kong, Singapore, India, New Zealand, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt,…

Neugebauer, Roger

2007-01-01

80

Foucault and the Early Childhood Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Foucault's notion of "regimes of truth" (MacNaughton 2005, 30) provides an understanding of how some discourses operate and network together to reinforce a particular powerful view of the world. These can be in oral or written forms. Early childhood education practices are drawn on the discourse of a document developed by the National Association…

Cohen, Lynn E.

2008-01-01

81

Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

2014-01-01

82

Transforming Early Childhood Education through Critical Reflection  

Science.gov (United States)

There is tension growing in early childhood education between an emphasis on higher learning standards, teacher-directed activities, and evidence-based instructional methods and maintaining active, dynamic and integrated learning experiences for young children. This short essay highlights the ways in which our existing values and beliefs,…

Anderson, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

83

A Universal Early Childhood Education System  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author demonstrates how the current emphasis on viewing early childhood education (ECE) as an investment keeps ECE at the margins of U.S. political debates as well as in other discussions around the world. Historically, the field of ECE in the United States has struggled, and continues to struggle, for political positioning.…

Brown, Christopher P.

2006-01-01

84

Early Childhood Intervention: An Australian Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

This article uses the developmental systems approach, an approach developed by M. Guralnick (2001), with an aim to assess and evaluate early childhood intervention (ECI) practices in Australia. The author explores the Australian national context of ECI and its complexities and conclude with recommendations to address (a) the possibility of a…

Sukkar, Hanan

2013-01-01

85

Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada: Issues of Context  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…

Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.

2012-01-01

86

Contemporary Trends and Developments in Early Childhood Education in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education in China has gone through a century-long development process and has made great progress in the past two decades. Contemporary early childhood education is becoming diverse in its forms and educational approaches, and is aligning itself with the increasingly open and diversified society. It is clear that early childhood

Zhu, Jiaxiong; Zhang, Jie

2008-01-01

87

Early Childhood Education: A Study of Twenty-Seven States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Descriptions of 27 state early childhood education programs are presented in this survey conducted to provide information on which to base program development decisions related to early childhood education in West Virginia. The study surveyed the following areas in each state: definition of early childhood education; administrating agency; laws,…

Benish, Jean, Comp.

88

Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…

Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

2009-01-01

89

Trajectories of Childhood Aggression and Inattention/Hyperactivity: Differential Effects on Substance Abuse in Adolescence  

Science.gov (United States)

335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…

Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

2008-01-01

90

Impact of Remembering Childhood Sexual Abuse on Addiction Recovery for Young Adult Lesbians  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.

Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela

2011-01-01

91

Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

2006-01-01

92

Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

2013-01-01

93

Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

2010-01-01

94

A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality  

OpenAIRE

The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...

Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

2003-01-01

95

Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood  

OpenAIRE

Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of ...

Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

2007-01-01

96

"Learning Stories"--Crossing Borders: Introducing Qualitative Early Childhood Observation Techniques to Early Childhood Practitioners in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education has become a focus of government policy across the world. Part of the present increased interest in early childhood education has been a focus on curriculum frameworks and socio/cultural methods of assessment. Currently, New Zealand has emerged as a world leader in early childhood education, and observation and assessment…

Nyland, Berenice; Alfayez, Shatha

2012-01-01

97

Self-Reported Childhood Physical Abuse and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence: The Moderating Role of Psychopathic Traits  

OpenAIRE

Whereas considerable evidence links childhood physical abuse with later perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), research to identify moderators of this relationship will increase our understanding of which victims of childhood abuse are at risk for later IPV. The present study examined dimensions of psychopathy as moderators of the relationship between physical abuse in childhood and perpetration of IPV in a sample of criminal offenders. Results indicated that, among individuals with...

Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.; Cashman-brown, Sarah; Caine, Eric D.

2012-01-01

98

An examination of the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and borderline personality disorder features: The role of difficulties with emotion regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood abuse has been consistently linked with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and recent studies suggest that some forms of childhood abuse might be uniquely related to both BPD and BPD features. In addition, difficulties with emotion regulation have been found to be associated with childhood abuse, BPD, as well as BPD features. The present study examined (1) whether frequency of childhood emotional abuse is uniquely associated with BPD feature severity when controlling for other forms of childhood abuse and (2) whether difficulties with emotion regulation accounts for the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD feature severity. A sample of undergraduates (n=243) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Borderline Symptom List-23. Multiple regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling were conducted. Results indicated that frequency of childhood emotional abuse (and not sexual or physical abuse) was uniquely associated with BPD feature severity. In addition, while there was no direct path between childhood emotional abuse, childhood physical abuse, or childhood sexual abuse and BPD features, there was an indirect relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD features through difficulties with emotion regulation. These findings suggest that, of the different forms of childhood abuse, emotional abuse specifically, may have a developmental role in BPD pathology. Prevention and treatment of BPD pathology might benefit from the provision of emotion regulation strategies. PMID:25192957

Kuo, Janice R; Khoury, Jennifer E; Metcalfe, Rebecca; Fitzpatrick, Skye; Goodwill, Alasdair

2015-01-01

99

Neurocognitive and symptom correlates of self-reported childhood sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether self-reported childhood sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorders is linked with severity of neurocognitive deficits. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, California Verbal Learning Test, and select WAIS III subtests were administered to 15 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who had been sexually abused and to 28 participants with no abuse history. Controlling for age and premorbid IQ, a MANCOVA indicated there were group differences (f(9, 31) = 5.53, p < .001). Subsequent ANCOVA indicated that the sexual abuse group performed more poorly on tests of working memory and information processing speed. Childhood sexual abuse is associated with more severe working memory deficits in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PMID:11534930

Lysaker, P H; Meyer, P; Evans, J D; Marks, K A

2001-06-01

100

Handbook of Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehensive and authoritative, this forward-thinking book reviews the breadth of current knowledge about early education and identifies important priorities for practice and policy. Robert C. Pianta and his associates bring together foremost experts to examine what works in promoting all children's school readiness and social-emotional…

Pianta, Robert C., Ed.

2012-01-01

101

The effects of childhood abuse on symptom complexity in a clinical sample: mediating effects of emotion regulation difficulties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to first examine whether childhood abuse predicts symptom complexity, as indicated by the number of clinically elevated scales on the MMPI-2 in an adult clinical sample. Secondly, we investigated whether emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and symptom complexity. A total of 162 adult outpatients not presenting with psychotic symptoms completed the Korean Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (K-CTQ), Life Events Checklist (LEC), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and Korean Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Partial correlation analysis results indicated that after controlling for the presence of adulthood trauma, childhood abuse was associated with more symptom complexity, or more clinically elevated scales on the MMPI-2. Furthermore, structural equation modeling results showed that emotion regulation difficulties partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and symptom complexity. These findings indicate that individuals who had experienced childhood abuse evidence simultaneous presentation of diverse clinical symptoms. PMID:24841063

Choi, Ji Young; Choi, Young Min; Gim, Min Sook; Park, Jun Hyun; Park, Soo Hyun

2014-08-01

102

The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. PMID:25012954

Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

2015-04-01

103

The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

Mohammad Narimani

2012-10-01

104

Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education  

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Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

2011-01-01

105

The Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Heart Disease in Adulthood: Findings from a Representative Community Sample  

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Objectives: Although, the relationship between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease has been documented, very few studies have controlled for many of the known risk factors for heart disease. The objective of the current study, therefore, was to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease while…

Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Frank, John

2010-01-01

106

The impact of childhood abuse on inpatient substance users: specific links with risky sex, aggression, and emotion dysregulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. PMID:24521524

Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C

2014-05-01

107

Preschool Is School, Sometimes: Making Early Childhood Education Matter  

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In recent years, providsion of early learning experiences to children has found a place on political agendas nationwide. Increasingly, early childhood education is viewed as a point of leverage for addressing low levels of, and gaps in, K-12 achievement. This article discusses what people know about the quality of existing early-childhood

Pianta, Robert C.

2007-01-01

108

Prevention and early identification of elder abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elder abuse is a public health problem growing more pervasive despite being grossly underreported and underdetected. Annually, many vulnerable older adults suffer various forms of abuse threatening their overall health, quality of life, and survival. To better protect our aging population, we must overcome obstacles such as ageism, lack of geriatric health professional training, and low screening practices in clinical settings. Addressing these challenges is not sufficient for eliminating the abuse of older adults, but it is necessary for diminishing the potential for abuse and the associated negative health outcomes. PMID:25439639

Burnett, Jason; Achenbaum, W Andrew; Murphy, Kathleen Pace

2014-11-01

109

Stories and narratives in early childhood education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of oral and written narrative for the maintenance of tradition and history of each one of us, in a society that seems to valorize the information more than the stories lived and told. It stresses the need, at school, of the teachers to read stories to children from early childhood education to boys and girls love to the world of literature. The text also contains situations en countered in schools that show the value of reading and the magic that literature provides in the lives of children.

Jacqueline de Fatima dos Santos Morais

2014-06-01

110

Deaths in early childhood in west Cumbria  

OpenAIRE

Investigation of deaths in early childhood is one method of assessing the quality of child care in a district. This paper describes a study carried out in one health district, on children in the age group one week to five years: 28 deaths occurred over a two-year period, 25 of these in the first year of life. The deaths are classified according to potential preventable factors. The study gave a more detailed picture of mortality patterns in the district than was previously available. Parents ...

Walker, Robert; Platt, John; Roberts, Ronayne; Bird, Tom; Rudman, Julie

1984-01-01

111

Early Childhood Presentation of Czech Dysplasia  

OpenAIRE

Czech dysplasia, metatarsal type is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder that is characterized by early-onset, progressive arthritis, brachydactyly of the 3rd and 4th toes, and characteristic radiographic findings in patients of normal stature. Patients with Czech dysplasia typically present in late childhood or later. In the present report, whole exome sequencing identified a mutation in COL2A1 (c.823C>T, p.R275C) known to be associated with Czech dysplasia in a 3.5 year old female who ha...

Burrage, Lindsay C.; Lu, James T.; Liu, David S.; Moss, Timothy J.; Gibbs, Richard; Schlesinger, Alan E.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Campeau, Philippe M.; Lee, Brendan H.

2013-01-01

112

Memory of childhood sexual abuse among clinicians: characteristics, outcomes, and current therapy attitudes.  

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This paper reports preliminary data on a sample of therapists with memory of childhood sexual abuse. Therapists who reported experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA, n = 131) were compared with therapists who suspected sexual abuse but had no memories (n = 24) on variables related to abuse characteristics, outcomes, and perceived difficulties working with clients with a CSA history. Therapists who suspected abuse, in contrast to those who made definite reports, were more likely to report that the perpetrator was a family member, that their CSA did not involve physical contact, that there was alcoholism in their families of origin, and that the CSA had negative effects on their relationships with their own children, ability to trust others, sexual satisfaction, and work life. Therapists who suspected abuse also reported more difficulty treating CSA clients because of interpersonal pulls during sessions, arousal without memories of abuse, and some countertransferential behaviors. These findings indicate that issues related to personal trauma should be addressed during training and practice. PMID:11677925

Little, L; Hamby, S L

2001-10-01

113

Exploring Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Abuse and the Relevance of Religiosity.  

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Although childhood abuse is an established risk factor for mental health problems in adulthood, there is relatively little empirical evidence concerning intervening factors that may mitigate the risk. One potentially protective factor is religiosity. A unique opportunity to explore religiosity's relevance exists with a community-based sample of adult Jewish women that includes sizable subsamples of both rigorously devout ultra-Orthodox (Haredi) and nonreligious Secular Jews. A global measure of any childhood abuse (ACA) includes sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse. Mental health is assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI distress) and a single item reflecting unresolved anger about the past. Predictors of distress severity are examined with separate hierarchical regressions for each religious observance (RO) group. Despite being located at opposite ends of the religiosity spectrum, several surprising similarities emerge including no significant RO group differences in distress among abuse survivors. Moreover, ACA emerges as the strongest predictor of BSI distress within both groups and regressions explain similar amounts of variance. In contrast, two important differences emerge regarding unresolved anger and any recent abuse (ARA). Anger makes a strong contribution to explaining Haredi distress severity, less so for Secular respondents (6.1% vs. 2.9% respectively) while ARA is significant only for Haredi respondents. These initial findings suggest that abusive traumas in childhood may seriously compromise religiosity's potentially protective role. Broadening the research agenda to focus on resilient survivors would expand our understanding of healing resources-both within and outside of a religious framework. Moreover, a better understanding of unresolved anger would likely enhance interventions with greater potential for mitigating the suffering of those abused in childhood. PMID:25015236

Feinson, Marjorie C; Meir, Adi

2014-07-11

114

Voices of healing and recovery from childhood sexual abuse.  

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Child sexual abuse continues to occur for a significant number of children, often having deleterious consequences for survivors' physical and mental health. Research has thoroughly explored various consequences as a result of child sexual abuse, but scholars and practitioners know less about the healing processes from survivors' viewpoints. Using a constructivist grounded theory design, this study examined perceptions of healing in 10 female survivors of child sexual abuse. Results conclude with a theoretical model of healing, capturing the significance of supportive relationships, internal characteristics, turning points, and sources of active healing. Important sources of active healing include therapy, informal and formal education, compassion and empathy, blame attribution to abusers, and confronting abusers. Limitations and implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:24125084

Arias, Brittany J; Johnson, Chad V

2013-01-01

115

Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte MØlgaard

2015-01-01

116

Childhood Abuse and Later Parenting Outcomes in Two American Indian Tribes  

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Objectives: To examine the relationship of childhood physical and sexual abuse with reported parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment later in life among American Indians (AIs). Methods: AIs from Southwest and Northern Plains tribes who participated in a large-scale community-based study (n=3,084) were asked about traumatic events and…

Libby, Anne M.; Orton, Heather D.; Beals, Janette; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero M.

2008-01-01

117

The Intergenerational Transmission of Externalizing Behaviors in Adult Participants: The Mediating Role of Childhood Abuse  

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Childhood abuse was investigated as a potential mediator of the intergenerational transmission of externalizing behaviors (EXT) in adulthood among a large general population sample drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey. Community participants (N = 5,424) underwent diagnostic and psychosocial interviews and reported on their own adult symptoms…

Verona, Edelyn; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie

2005-01-01

118

Disordered Eating in College Students: Links with Childhood Abuse and Maternal Eating Behavior.  

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The prevalence of sexual conflicts in many patients with eating disorders has been well documented. A parallel has been found between psychological problems experienced by victims of childhood sexual abuse and patients with anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia. Past studies have used inpatient clinical samples; however, this study extended this area of…

Feilke, Kim; Chambliss, Catherine

119

Female Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: An Existential Exploration and Implications for Therapists  

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In the United States, annual prevalence factors indicate that 25% of women are reported survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Existential concerns and basic purposes within the physical, social, personal and spiritual dimensions of female CSA survivors' worldviews are explored. The recognition and meanings of existential purposes and concerns…

Robinson, Kathy D.; Mills, Kimberly T.; Strickland, Amanda L.

2011-01-01

120

Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Birth-Related Posttraumatic Stress and Postpartum Posttraumatic Stress  

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Objective: To investigate the extent to which childbirth may function as a retraumatization of childhood sexual abuse, and may exacerbate postpartum posttraumatic stress reactions. Methods: Data was obtained from a convenience sample of 837 women in mid-pregnancy, at 2 and 6 months following childbirth. Three groups were drawn from this sample:…

Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Daphna-Tekoah, Shir; Hallak, Mordechai

2009-01-01

121

A Psychosynthesis Approach to the Use of Mental Imagery with Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

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States that the techniques of mental imagery can help adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse access the inner wisdom necessary to identify, understand, and creatively address issues from the past and develop new and healthier patterns of thinking and behaving. Documents the innovative ways psychosynthesis uses mental imagery with this client…

Brown, Michael H.

1997-01-01

122

Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Narrative Analyses of Types, Experiences, and Processes of Remembering  

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The study explored types of memory for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a clinical sample of 30 women and identified factors that led some women (n = 24) to report recovered memories. Questionnaires produced three types of memory: always (n = 6), recovered (n = 14), both (n = 10); however, analysis of narrative data also revealed the use of…

Crowley, M. Sue

2007-01-01

123

Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Teacher Change among Early Childhood Teachers  

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This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…

Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia

2010-01-01

124

Quality and Equity in Early Childhood Care in Peru  

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The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The…

Izu, Regina Moromizato

2006-01-01

125

Changing Curriculum for Early Childhood Education in England.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines early childhood curriculum in England. Traditional early childhood education in England has been child centered, in contrast to approaches that are subject centered and teacher directed, emphasizing individual children's interests, free play, firsthand experience, and integrated learning. However, recently, the government…

Kwon, Young-Ihm

2002-01-01

126

Preparing Early Childhood Special Educators for Inclusive Practice  

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The purpose of this study was to describe experienced practitioners' beliefs about inclusion and their perceptions of what early childhood special education (ECSE) preservice teachers need to know and be able to do to effectively support early childhood inclusion. This study used a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach to describe the…

Hooper, Belinda Bourne

2011-01-01

127

Early Childhood Teacher Education in Pakistan: Time for Action  

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This paper presents a critical account of early childhood education (ECE) in Pakistan. It moves from a general review of the benefits of ECE to focus on the issues and challenges connected to the professional development of early childhood teachers. It highlights problems encountered in developing practitioners who are highly skilled in the…

Zada, Khan

2014-01-01

128

Writing Research Articles for Publication in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…

Saracho, Olivia N.

2013-01-01

129

Renovating Early Childhood Education Pedagogy: A Case Study in Vietnam  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to…

Thao, Dang Phuong; Boyd, Wendy Anne

2014-01-01

130

Retention of Staff in the Early Childhood Education Workforce  

Science.gov (United States)

What incentives can the administrators of early childhood education facilities offer their staff in order to retain them? In light of research identifying low staff turnover as a key component of high quality early childhood education, the answer to this question has ramifications beyond human-resources management. This paper presents the results…

Holochwost, Steven J.; DeMott, Kerri; Buell, Martha; Yannetta, Kelly; Amsden, Deborah

2009-01-01

131

Competence Requirements in Early Childhood Education and Care. Final Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the findings of a European research project jointly conducted by the University of East London (UEL) and the University of Ghent (UGent). The "study on competence requirements in early childhood education and care" (CoRe) explored conceptualisations of "competence" and professionalism in early childhood practice, and…

Urban, Mathias; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Lazzari, Arianna; Van Laere, Katrien; Peeters, Jan

2012-01-01

132

Teacher Preparation for Early Childhood: Special Education in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood special education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was conducted in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood special education in Taiwan could be summarized…

Ho, Hua-Kuo

2014-01-01

133

Taiwanese Model of Teacher Preparation for Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was employed in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood education in Taiwan could be summarized as: (1) The…

Ho, Hua-Kuo

2012-01-01

134

Parental Conceptions of Quality in Greek Early Childhood Education  

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The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers' parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the…

Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

2014-01-01

135

Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice. Second Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…

Morgan, Harry

2010-01-01

136

Early Childhood Socialization: Societal Context and Childrearing Values in Hungary  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the socio-cultural context of early childhood socialization in Hungary. Using a macroscopic lens, we describe the national demographic situation and the social organization of early childhood education and care. Our analysis then shifts to a microscopic focus on parental values and beliefs about the substance of what young…

Brayfield, April; Korintus, Marta

2011-01-01

137

Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?  

Science.gov (United States)

Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood

Smith, Wyverne

2008-01-01

138

Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for professional practice, and as education of early childhood teachers matters with regard to developmental outcomes of children, knowledge orientations of prospective early childhood teachers attending universities and attending vocational schools are investigated and compared. Knowledge orientations were assessed by means of a questionnaire. After propensity score matching of 402 beginners and 402 graduates, multilevel analyses indicate that scientific orientation at the end of teacher education was higher and subjective orientation was lower than at the beginning. Furthermore, scientific knowledge orientation of BA-students was higher, subjective orientation was lower than of students at professional schools. Implications of these results regarding education of early childhood teachers are discussed.

Christoph Mischo

2014-01-01

139

Abuse in Childhood Tied to Migraines in Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

... of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Search MedlinePlus ... in Childhood Tied to Migraines in Adulthood Emotional or sexual maltreatment linked to higher odds of serious headache, ...

140

Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

141

Psychopathology and resilience in relation to abuse in childhood among youth first referred to the psychiatrist  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Child abuse may be related to adverse psychological outcomes in adult life. However, little is known about specific clinical, family and resilience profiles of adolescents that have experienced child abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical symptoms, family functioning and resilience characteristics of adolescents with the experience of abuse, first referred to psychiatrists. Methods. The study included 84 young participants (mean age 14.90 ± 3.10, ranging from 11 to 18 years as consecutive first referrals to the Clinic for Children and Youth of the Institute of Mental Health, Belgrade, Serbia. The sample consisted of two groups, based on the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The first group included adolescents with the experience of abuse in childhood (n = 38, 13 males, 25 females, whereas the second, control group, comprised of non-abused adolescents (n = 47, 20 males, 27 females. The presence of abuse was evaluated by the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The study used the following questionnaires: Youth Self-Report (YSR, Adolescent Resilience Attitudes Scale (ARAS, and Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI. Results. Significant differences were found only among females. According to YSR, the abused girls had significantly higher scores on the Delinquent Behavior scale and marginally higher scores on Anxious/ Depressed and Social Problems scales. Analyses of the SFI showed significantly lower family functioning among the girls with the child abuse history for all scales except for the Directive Leadership. The abused girls also showed significantly lower scores on the Insight scale, and marginally lower Initiative scores at the ARAS. Conclusions. These findings may have practical application in the creation of specific preventive and treatment strategies, particularly focused on delinquent tendencies, as well as on enhancing resilience through providing positive environments within families, schools and communities.

Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica

2014-01-01

142

Post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociation, and neuropsychological performance in Latina victims of childhood sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the memory, attention/concentration, and executive functioning of 12 women with histories of child sexual abuse with a control group of 12 women without childhood abuse. Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and various instruments assessing post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation. The child sexual abuse group had lower performance than the control group on long- and short-term visual and verbal memory and presented more limited performance on executive functioning tasks. Functioning in these areas showed a negative correlation with post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative symptoms. These findings suggest that child sexual abuse is associated with memory and executive functioning deficits and supports the idea that people with trauma histories and increased post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation symptoms may have alterations in neuropsychological functioning. PMID:24393090

Rivera-Vélez, Giselle M; González-Viruet, Maribella; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Pérez-Mojica, Deborah

2014-01-01

143

Does physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect in childhood increase the likelihood of same-sex sexual relationships and cohabitation? A prospective 30-year follow-up.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing cross-sectional research suggests associations between physical and sexual abuse in childhood and same-sex sexual orientation in adulthood. This study prospectively examined whether abuse and/or neglect in childhood were associated with increased likelihood of same-sex partnerships in adulthood. The sample included physically abused (N = 85), sexually abused (N = 72), and neglected (N = 429) children (ages 0-11) with documented cases during 1967-1971 who were matched with non-maltreated children (N = 415) and followed into adulthood. At approximately age 40, participants (483 women and 461 men) were asked about romantic cohabitation and sexual partners, in the context of in-person interviews covering a range of topics. Group (abuse/neglect versus control) differences were assessed with cross-tabulations and logistic regression. A total of 8% of the overall sample reported any same-sex relationship (cohabitation or sexual partners). Childhood physical abuse and neglect were not significantly associated with same-sex cohabitation or sexual partners. Individuals with documented histories of childhood sexual abuse were significantly more likely than controls to report ever having had same-sex sexual partners (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.16-6.80, p relationship and to examine potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:19130206

Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

2010-02-01

144

Changing Curriculum for Early Childhood Education in England  

OpenAIRE

This article examines early childhood curriculum in England. Traditional early childhood education in England has been child centered, in contrast to approaches that are subject centered and teacher directed, emphasizing individual children?s interests, free play, firsthand experience, and integrated learning. However, recently, the government introduced a framework for an early years curriculum, redefined the child-centered educational model, and initiated reforms for raising standards. In ...

Young-Ihm Kwon

2002-01-01

145

Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

2012-01-01

146

Childhood sexual abuse, distress, and alcohol-related problems: Moderation by drinking to cope.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have found relationships between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and problem alcohol use. However, few studies have explored mechanisms that may explain this relationship. The present study examined whether (a) distress mediated the relationship between CSA and both heavy drinking and alcohol consequences, (b) coping motives for drinking moderated the paths between distress and both heavy drinking and alcohol consequences, and (c) these relationships remained significant after controlling for other forms of abuse/trauma. Three hundred ninety-five undergraduate women completed survey measures of childhood abuse/trauma, alcohol use/consequences, distress, and drinking motives. Data were analyzed using path analyses. Results supported a moderated-mediation model in which distress mediated the relationship between CSA and alcohol consequences, but only among those who endorsed coping motives for drinking. After controlling for other forms of abuse/maltreatment, the moderated-mediated pathway was no longer significant, but there remained a direct path between CSA and alcohol consequences. The present study provides support for tension-reduction models of alcohol use among CSA-exposed women and demonstrates the moderating role of coping motives. The present study also highlights the need for future studies to control for other forms of abuse/trauma and suggests that other mechanisms and contextual variables need to be explored to explain the CSA/alcohol-use pathway. PMID:24955671

Smith, Kathryn Z; Smith, Philip H; Grekin, Emily R

2014-06-01

147

Constructions of Childhood in Early Childhood Education Policy Debate in New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

What assumptions about children and childhood are held by government officials and organisation representatives who are influential in policy formation in early childhood education (ECE) in New Zealand? How are assumptions manifested in policy? This article draws on a study carried out from 2001 to 2003, a time of radical ECE policy change in New…

Mitchell, Linda

2010-01-01

148

Childhood sexual abuse: From victim to survivor and beyond  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the similarities and differences in the constructions of the healing processes of adult women who were sexually abuse as children. This purpose was linked to answering two questions: (a) Are there ways to know what therapeutic approach may work better for a particular person? and (b) Is there a reason why some people are affected by CSA to a lesser degree than others? This study was qualitative and used constructivism and phenomenology as...

Summer, Netti Jo

2007-01-01

149

Iron Deficiency in Young Children: A Risk Marker for Early Childhood Caries  

OpenAIRE

Aim: Evaluate the coexistence of iron deficiency and early childhood caries.Evaluate whether iron deficiency can be considered as a risk marker for early childhood caries.Estimate the incidence of iron deficiency in children with early childhood caries.To evaluate and compare the iron status of children with and without severe early childhood caries.

Iranna Koppal, Pushpa; Sakri, Mohan Ravishankar; Akkareddy, Basavaprabhu; Hinduja, Dharam M.; Gangolli, Raviraj Annayya; Patil, Basanagouda C.

2013-01-01

150

Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization  

Science.gov (United States)

Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2012-01-01

151

A Survey of Sexually Abusive Experiences in Childhood Amongst a Sample of Third Level Students  

OpenAIRE

The following survey is an investigation into the nature, incidence and effects of childhood sexual abuse as experienced by a sample of third level students in Dublin. Unwanted sexual experiences whilst under the age of sixteen were surveyed. Response rates were high and indicate that unwanted sexual experiences prior to age sixteen are experienced by some 30% of female respondents. Indecent exposure was the most frequently reported experience. This figure falls considerably for contact a...

Lalor, Kevin

1999-01-01

152

Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could be identified that were subdivided into trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), non-trauma-focused CBT, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other treatments (interpersonal, emotion-focused). Results showed that psychological interventions are efficacious for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g=1.24 (pre- vs. post-treatment), and aggregated controlled effect sizes of g=0.72 (post-treatment, comparison to waitlist control conditions) and g=0.50 (post-treatment, comparison with TAU/placebo control conditions), respectively. Effect sizes remained stable at follow-up. As the heterogeneity between studies was large, we examined the influence of two a priori specified moderator variables on treatment efficacy. Results showed that trauma-focused treatments were more efficacious than non-trauma-focused interventions, and that treatments including individual sessions yielded larger effect sizes than pure group treatments. As a whole, the findings are in line with earlier meta-analyses showing that the best effects can be achieved with individual trauma-focused treatments. PMID:25455628

Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

2014-12-01

153

Early Childhood Education in Botswana: A Case of Fragmented “Fits”  

OpenAIRE

Scholarly and institutional research on early childhood education is not a new phenomenon, but what is perhaps limited is extant literature that particularly focuses on revisiting current practices and their “dialogue” with the ever-changing environment that prevails especially in an African setting. The practices of providers of early childhood education are either simply “business opportunity seeking” responses to the new consumption patterns of more affluent parent (...

Langtone Maunganidze; Marea Tsamaase

2014-01-01

154

Integrating emotional competences in the Early Childhood Education curriculum  

OpenAIRE

The current Spanish education legislation has started to highlight the need to work on emotional education since early childhood Education. The Spanish Education Law 2/2006 May 3rd (known as LOE), and all decrees and orders currently regulating the curriculum and teaching in Early Childhood Education include contents and objectives related to the Emotional Intelligence framework developed by Mayer & Salovey (1997). Because all these laws and regulations give teachers autonomy for both designi...

Rocío Guil; José Miguel Mestre; Gabriel González; Susana Foncubierta

2011-01-01

155

Gender and teacher training in Early Childhood Education studies  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the findings of a research study funded by the European Union that aims to improve early childhood teacher training in gender-related topics. Spain has made considerable headway with the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in the political agenda. However, as we point out in this paper, this issue is still not a priority in vocational training for early childhood education. A series of qualitative interviews and a quantitative questionnaire revealed a lack of training, mater...

Alfonso Romero Díaz; Paco Abril Morales

2008-01-01

156

Early childhood numeracy in a multiage setting  

Science.gov (United States)

This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social interactions coding system designed by MacMillan (1998), while the running records and reflection notes contributed to descriptions of the children's interactions with each other and with the teachers. Teachers used an `assisted performance' approach to instruction that supported problem solving and inquiry processes in mathematics activities, and this, combined with a child-centred pedagogy and specific values about community learning, created a learning environment designed to stimulate and foster learning. The mathematics discourse analysis showed a use of explanatory language in mathematics discourse, and this language supported scaffolding among children for new mathematics concepts. These and other interactions related to peer sharing, tutoring and regulation also emerged as key aspects of students' learning practices. However, the findings indicated that multiage grouping alone did not support learning. Rather, effective learning was dependent upon the teacher's capacities to develop productive discussion among children, as well as implement developmentally appropriate curricula that addressed the needs of the different children.

Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra

2005-10-01

157

Professional Growth Reconceptualized: Early Childhood Staff Searching for Meaning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper challenges traditional perspectives of professional development through a reconceptualization of early childhood professional growth. A review of the early childhood professional development literature reveals the problematic nature of the linear perspectives and deficit models of staff development prevalent in the early childhood field. In contrast to these models, the paper proposes alternative perspectives that recognize staff as empowered learners who build their working knowledge through spirals of engagement with many aspects of early childhood philosophy and practice over time. To illustrate the challenges to the dominant professional development paradigm, the paper discusses the professional development components of an Australian study of early childhood centers that began with off-site researcher-led inservice workshops and was followed by on-site staff-led discussion. The study involved approximately 75 staff members from 12 early childhood centers who participated in collaborative rethinking of approaches to planning and working with young children and their families. This approach to professional development was sustained by ongoing support of the researchers as critical friends who facilitated staff engagement through a sense of personal and professional agency. The approaches explored in this paper propose a constructivist view of professional growth that acknowledges the unique contribution of the personal professional knowledge of individuals and the importance of the orientation of individuals both to their work and to new ideas.

Alma Fleet

2001-01-01

158

Childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant and postpartum women: review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this review are (i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, (ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and (iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as "child abuse," "posttraumatic stress," "pregnancy," and "postpartum". Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean?±?SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p?abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p?childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:25380784

Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

2015-02-01

159

Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

2015-03-01

160

Early childhood infection and atopic disorder  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND—Atopy is of complex origins but the recent rise in atopic diseases in westernised communities points to the action of important environmental effects. One candidate mechanism is the changing pattern of microbial exposure in childhood. This epidemiological study investigated the relationship between childhood infections and subsequent atopic disease, taking into account a range of social and medical variables.?METHODS—A total of 1934 subjects representing a ...

Farooqi, I.; Hopkin, J.

1998-01-01

161

Alcohol Abuse and the Elderly: Comparison of Early & Late-Life Onset.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two types of elderly alcohol abusers are described. Early onset or long-term alcohol abusers are abusers with long-standing behavioral problems considered well known to the social service delivery system. Late-life onset elderly alcohol abusers are those whose drinking problems began in the later years, after age 50, often in response to stresses…

Schonfeld, Lawrence; And Others

162

Quality Support Infrastructure in Early Childhood: Still (Mostly) Missing  

OpenAIRE

Support for early care and education among policy makers and the public is at an unprecedented high. As investments in early care and education programs in the United States continue to rise, the issue of quality becomes increasingly critical. This article addresses the need for adequate infrastructure to support high-quality early care and education—a need that was brought to the forefront by James Gallagher and Richard Clifford in their 2000 article in Early Childhood Research & Practice ...

Lenette Azzi-Lessing

2009-01-01

163

Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

2011-01-01

164

Understanding Early Childhood Mental Health: A Practical Guide for Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating infant mental health services into early education programs leads to better child outcomes and stronger parent-child relationships--the big question is how to do it appropriately and effectively. Clear answers are in this accessible textbook, created to prepare early childhood professionals and programs to weave best practices in…

Summers, Susan Janko, Ed.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel, Ed.

2012-01-01

165

Early Childhood Care and Education: A Child Perspective Paradigm  

Science.gov (United States)

From research we know that there is no specific early childhood education programme that is superior to other approaches (National Research Council. 2001). At the same time, historically it looks like people think there is a specific programme that will solve all problems and guarantee a high quality in early years education, since different…

Sommer, Dion; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Hundeide, Karsten

2013-01-01

166

Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

2014-01-01

167

Hide and Seek: Values in Early Childhood Education and Care  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education and care settings in England and the people who work in them constitute an important sphere of influence, shaping young children's characters and values. But the values and dispositions expected of the early years workforce are missing from statutory policy documentation despite its clear requirement that practitioners…

Powell, Sacha

2010-01-01

168

Sunset Commission Decisions. Interagency Council on Early Childhood Intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains recommendations from the Sunset Commission for the Interagency Council on Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) in Austin, Texas. Recommendations include: (1) modify ECI's current method of purchasing early intervention services to ensure the state receives the best value for its dollars; (2) tap additional funding sources to…

Sunset Advisory Commission, Austin, TX.

169

Prenatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Early Childhood BMI  

OpenAIRE

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of childhood overweight body mass index (BMI). Less is known about the association between prenatal secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and childhood BMI. We followed 292 mother-child dyads from early pregnancy to 3 years of age. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy was quantified using self-report and serum cotinine biomarkers. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between tobacco smoke expo...

Braun, Joe M.; Daniels, Julie L.; Poole, Charles; Olshan, Andrew F.; Hornung, Richard; Bernert, John T.; Khoury, Jane; Needham, Larry L.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Lanphear, Bruce P.

2010-01-01

170

Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development  

OpenAIRE

To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3...

Ching-Chun Lin; Shih-Kuan Yang; Kuan-Chia Lin; Wen-Chao Ho; Wu-Shiun Hsieh; Bih-Ching Shu; Pau-Chung Chen

2014-01-01

171

Integrating emotional competences in the Early Childhood Education curriculum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current Spanish education legislation has started to highlight the need to work on emotional education since early childhood Education. The Spanish Education Law 2/2006 May 3rd (known as LOE, and all decrees and orders currently regulating the curriculum and teaching in Early Childhood Education include contents and objectives related to the Emotional Intelligence framework developed by Mayer & Salovey (1997. Because all these laws and regulations give teachers autonomy for both designing and programming the curriculum in Early Childhood Education and because important relationships have been established between social and emotional competence and school adaptation, we argue in this paper that the training of future teachers in Early Childhood Education should include the development of emotional intelligence abilities and skills.This article presents an emotional education proposal for its integration in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education (children aged 3 to 6 years old. This proposal is based on Mayer and Salovey’s model (1997 of emotional intelligence. This model is the only one in which emotional abilities are considered cognitive-emotional capacities which can be developed and it matches the general goal of this educational stage and also the general aims and curricular contents included in the abovementioned legislation.

Rocío Guil

2011-10-01

172

Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.

2010-01-01

173

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Disorders of Extreme Stress (DESNOS) symptoms following prostitution and childhood abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the participation of 46 prostituted women in Korea, this study investigates the relationship between prostitution experiences, a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS). Prostituted women showed higher levels of PTSD and DESNOS symptoms compared to a control group. Women who had experienced both CSA by a significant other and prostitution showed the highest levels of traumatic stress. However, posttraumatic reexperiencing and avoidance and identity, relational, and affect regulation problems were significant for prostitution experiences even when the effects of CSA were controlled. PMID:19515944

Choi, Hyunjung; Klein, Carolin; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Hoon-Jin

2009-08-01

174

Regulating Early Childhood Mathematical Provision: An Exploration Across the Sectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective mathematics provision is a central goal within Early Childhood Education. However, the choices that teachers make within Centers and new entrant classrooms are influenced by deeper understandings about the kinds of arrangements that allow young students to enhance their learning. This paper explores similarities and differences with respect to the practices and processes in Early Childhood Centers and in new entrant classrooms. Drawing in Foucauldian concepts, the analysis reports that practices and processes were at odds across the two sectors. The challenge is to offer young learners a more seamless mathematical experience.

Margaret Walshaw

2013-12-01

175

Early Childhood Morality In ICDS Blocks Of Haryana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mortality risk of early childhood period has been studied in ICDS Blocks of State of Haryana. The components and causes of early childhood mortality in one block have been viewed. The existing monitoring system of vital events under the scheme is building up. The infant mortality rate of 107 per thousand, 1 to 3years mortality rate of 16.26 per thousand 3 to 6 years mortality rate of 8.08 per thousand is amenable to sample, effective and affordable and affordable technologies and interventions.

Lal Sunder

1985-01-01

176

Self-Reported Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse among Adult Homosexual and Bisexual Men.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study of 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men found that 37% reported they had been encouraged or forced to have sexual contact with an older or more powerful partner before age 19. Median age at first contact was 10. Ninety-three percent of participants reporting early sexual contact were classified as sexually abused. (Author/DB)

Doll, Lynda S.; And Others

1992-01-01

177

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program. 674.58 Section...EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM...Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program....

2010-07-01

178

Mediators of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) increases the risk of suicidal behavior and the lifetime number of suicide attempts in adults with BPD. Despite a strong association, specific variables mediating the relationship between CSA and adult suicidal behavior in BPD have not been identified. This study examined risk factors for suicidal behavior as potential mediators of the relationship between CSA and suicide attempts in 151 men and women with BPD. Diagnostic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors, as well as CSA, and suicidal behaviors, were assessed by standardized interviews or self-rated measures. Psychotic and schizotypal symptoms, and poor social adjustment, were associated with both CSA and suicidal behavior, and partially mediated the relationship between CSA and attempter status. Psychotic and schizotypal symptoms in BPD define a vulnerability to cognitive and perceptual distortions under stress. They increase the likelihood of suicidal behavior in BPD, especially in the absence of mitigating social support. A theoretical model for suicidal behavior in BPD is presented which integrates direct, mediated, and moderated pathways between childhood sexual abuse and temperament, adolescent and adult risk factors, and suicidal behavior. PMID:18540795

Soloff, Paul H; Feske, Ulrike; Fabio, Anthony

2008-06-01

179

THE ROLE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN ACHIEVING CHILD RIGHTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide, more than 200 million children aged under five do not reach their full developmental potential due to the absence of early childhood care programmes. Education is the mainstay of a development of a human being. Childhood education lays foundation of the child leading to awareness of child rights and empowerment. The awareness about child rights is even more necessary in lieu of various crimes being committed against children. Qualitative school education should not merely confine to text books and theory, it should encompass social and societal issues touching upon the child rights. The utility of primary child education shall go a long way in achieving child rights. This article dwells on role of early childhood education in achieving child rights.

Vijaykumar R. Londhe

2014-12-01

180

More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina

2008-01-01

181

West Virginia Early Childhood Transition Initiative: Operation Tadpole. 1995 Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The West Virginia Early Childhood Transition Initiative is an interagency systems change effort started in 1993 to develop a seamless system of service for children, ages birth to 5 years. The initiative's training and technical assistance component is known as Operation Tadpole. A state level steering committee coordinates the initiative on an…

West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston. Office of Special Education Programs and Assurances.

182

How Do They Manage? An Investigation of Early Childhood Leadership  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood (EC) leadership literature indicates few theoretically based studies identifying and testing different models and characteristics of leadership. Objectives were thus to identify, describe and analyse what leadership meant to key EC participants; to consider roles, responsibilities and characteristics; to investigate core…

Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Harris, Alma

2013-01-01

183

Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

2012-01-01

184

Programs That Work: Early Childhood Education Plan Continuing Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Briefly described are 15 projects originally funded by the State of Maine as early childhood education plans, subsequently evaluated as successful and instituted by local units as part of a regular school program. After each program description, the names, telephone numbers, and addresses of contact persons are provided. (RH)

Deusen-Henkel, Jenifer Van

185

"Cry and You Cry Alone": Timeout in Early Childhood Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores isolation in early childhood education settings in the context of historical and current theories of punishment. The authors conclude that although isolation was reinterpreted in the 20th century in relation to changing theories of learning, teaching and child development, its earlier meanings have endured. (Contains 2 notes.)

Prochner, Larry; Hwang, Yeonwook

2008-01-01

186

Teaching Adults, Revisited: Active Learning for Early Childhood Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

This book follows master educator Elizabeth (Betty) Jones as she teaches an introductory course in early childhood education. She actively engages the students, encouraging them to make decisions, ask questions, and engage in collaborative problem solving--herself modeling the behaviors that should be practiced by adults working with young…

Jones, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

187

Continuing Professional Development in Early Childhood Education in New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the influences on and nature of continuing professional development in the New Zealand early childhood education sector. In addition to discussing the nature of professional development and providing an explanation of the policy context that informs the delivery of professional development, the paper draws on evaluations of…

Cherrington, Sue; Thornton, Kate

2013-01-01

188

Being Maori: Culturally Relevant Assessment in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…

Rameka, Lesley Kay

2011-01-01

189

Writing in Early Childhood Classrooms: Guidance for Best Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing is a critical emergent literacy skill that lays the foundation for children's later literacy skills and reading achievement. Recent work indicates that many early childhood programs offer children materials and tools for engaging in writing activities but teachers rarely are seen modeling writing for children or scaffolding children's…

Gerde, Hope K.; Bingham, Gary E.; Wasik, Barbara A.

2012-01-01

190

Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

2006-01-01

191

Early Childhood Teacher Education: Historical Themes and Contemporary Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, many states have increased their investment in prekindergarten (pre-K) school programs that serve 3- and 4-year-old children. This increase has raised questions about what constitutes a well-qualified early childhood teacher. Similar questions were raised in the late part of the nineteenth century when states began investing…

Blank, Jolyn

2010-01-01

192

The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

2014-01-01

193

Flame Retardant Exposures in California Early Childhood Education Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Infants and young children spend as much as 50 hours per week in child care and preschool centers. Although approximately 13 million children, or 65% of all U.S. children, spend a portion of each day in early childhood education (ECE) facilities, little information is available a...

194

Emergency preparedness-an early childhood educator's perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As early childhood educators who participated in the discussion of optimal scene management involving children and families in the event of a radiological/nuclear event, the authors would suggest consideration be given to the formal preparation for evacuation of educators and families and how to ensure that families are provided factual and updated information. (authors)

195

Constructions of Early Childhood Education and Care Provision: Negotiating Discourses  

Science.gov (United States)

Drives to increase the number of early childhood education and care places in England have relied on a mixed economy of providers. Yet this is not a free market as policy makers have sought to create a discursive truth of an entrepreneurial provider in order to secure their initial pump priming investment. However, there remain sustainability…

Campbell-Barr, Verity

2014-01-01

196

Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

2013-01-01

197

Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: Recommendations for Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The following recommendations for "Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)" in Early Childhood Education were the product of an extended international collaboration that was supported by a number of bodies including the Centre for Environment and Sustainability in Gothenburg, the Swedish Ministry of Education and Research, the Swedish National…

Daries, Julie; Engdahl, Ingrid; Otieno, Lorraine; Pramling-Samuelson, Ingrid; Siraj-Blatchford, John; Vallabh, Priya

2009-01-01

198

Development and Evaluation of Metacognition in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study is to provide information and suggest ways to improve and evaluate metacognition in early childhood. Metacognition is important to learning and knowledge transfer and preparing students to become lifelong learners is a main aim of schooling. The engagement of young students in metacognitive thinking is considered…

Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios

2014-01-01

199

Reform of Early Childhood Education in Shenzhen: A Legal Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

The systemic reform of early childhood education (ECE) in Shenzhen has given rise to widespread debate as it has, in fact, changed ECE's rights and power relationships. It has created an impact in terms of ECE's public nature and, in a way, affected the integrity of China's education system. Although this reform possesses positive significance,…

Guolin, Zhang

2008-01-01

200

An Interpretive Analysis of Teacher Expectations in Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to broaden the existing field of teacher expectation research by answering the following questions about teacher expectations: (1) How do teachers in early childhood education develop expectations for student success and failure within the classroom social system? (2) What are the stereotypes of the "good" and "bad"…

Arnold, Genevieve Hunter

201

Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

202

Early Childhood Discipline: A Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…

Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.

2008-01-01

203

First Chance Outreach. Del Rio First Chance Early Childhood Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to help handicapped children function in regular school programs by the time they enter first grade, the First Chance Early Childhood Program provides precise intervention into the development of children aged 3 to 5 with clearly identified handicapping conditions. Using English and/or Spanish, program staff test and measure the referred…

Hanna, Cornelia B.; Levermann, D.

204

Early Childhood Teachers Reconstruct Beliefs and Practices through Reflexive Action  

Science.gov (United States)

Professional development, which results in sustained transformative change, requires that teachers engage in critical reflection regarding teaching practices. In this study, a group of five bilingual and generalist early childhood teachers engaged in a journey in which they elected to try to reconstruct their beliefs and practices about teaching…

Riojas-Cortez, Mari; Alanis, Iliana; Flores, Belinda Bustos

2013-01-01

205

Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping  

Science.gov (United States)

Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.

2007-01-01

206

Acting with the Clock: Clocking Practices in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author addresses intra-actions that take place among humans and non-human others--the physical world, the materials--in early childhood education's everyday practices. Her object of study is the clock. Specifically, she provides an example of what it might mean to account for the intra-activity of the material-discursive…

Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica

2012-01-01

207

Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

Gomez, Grace Felix

2013-01-01

208

Early Childhood Educational Software: Specific Features and Issues of Localization  

Science.gov (United States)

The computer has now become a recognized tool in the education of young children and when used appropriately can reinforce their learning experiences. This paper reviews specific features (relating to pedagogic design, software content and user-interface design) of early childhood educational software and discusses issues in favor of its…

Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra

2007-01-01

209

Urban Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n = 130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were…

Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Hsieh, Chang-Ming

2012-01-01

210

Romance or Reality?: Examining Burnout in Early Childhood Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Relatively high rates of teacher attrition have been consistently identified as a major issue for the teaching profession over several decades. As a result, there has been a growing interest in the wellbeing of teachers across the entire education sector. Recent research by Noble, Goddard and O'Brien (2003) has found that early childhood teachers,…

Noble, Karen; Macfarlane, Kym

2005-01-01

211

Music's Representation in Early Childhood Education Journals: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review of literature, the author explored the representation of music in early childhood education researcher and practitioner journal articles. Thirty-eight pertinent journal articles were identified in a keyword search for "music" in eight journals. The search was limited to a 5-year period, 2005-2010. Article summaries were categorized…

Bond, Vanessa L.

2012-01-01

212

Early Childhood Leadership through the Lens of Distributed Leadership  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education (ECE) context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how ECE stakeholders, e.g. teachers, ECE centre directors and administrative ECE leaders in municipalities perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus…

Heikka, Johanna; Hujala, Eeva

2013-01-01

213

The Role of Meaningful Dialogue in Early Childhood Education Leadership  

Science.gov (United States)

Action research was used to study the effectiveness of Learning Organisation and Adaptive Enterprise theories for promoting organisation-wide learning and creating a more effective early childhood education organisation. This article describes the leadership steps taken to achieve shared vision via meaningful dialogue between board, management and…

Deakins, Eric

2007-01-01

214

A Case Against Public School Early Childhood and Preschool Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book, which is based on the personal and professional experience of a Head Start program director, presents a detailed argument against funding early childhood programs through local school districts. Chapter I examines the fact that so many children in the wealthiest country of the world have such a small chance to succeed. Chapter II argues…

Wardle, Francis

215

The Gymnasium of the Mind: Teaching Chess in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

The central aim of this paper is to undertake a critical review of arguments which propose that chess should be taught in schools and other educational settings. In particular, I offer an answer to the question: "Should chess be taught in early childhood?" Many claims have been made about the educational benefits of chess instruction. In…

Costello, Patrick J. M.

2013-01-01

216

Playing to Learn: A Training Manual for Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide for trainers offers a comprehensive child-centered perspective on training field workers in early childhood education. The theme of the role of play in child growth, development, and learning runs throughout the guide while its form, a series of structured exercises to help trainers handle all aspects of the subject, emphasizes the…

Singh, Asha; Swaminathan, Mina

217

An Experimental Test of Parenting Practices as a Mediator of Early Childhood Physical Aggression  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Parenting practices predict early childhood physical aggression. Preventive interventions that alter parenting practices and aggression during early childhood provide the opportunity to test causal models of early childhood psychopathology. Although there have been several informative preventive intervention studies that test mediation…

Brotman, Laurie Miller; O'Neal, Colleen R.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Shrout, Patrick E.

2009-01-01

218

An Analysis of New Zealand's Changing History, Policies and Approaches to Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

New Zealand has an internationally unique approach to early childhood education, which includes a bicultural early childhood curriculum, a robust infrastructure of organisation and management overseen by the New Zealand Ministry of Education, and a growing reputation for innovation in early childhood teaching and learning. This paper examines how…

McLachlan, Claire

2011-01-01

219

Teacher Education in Pakistan: Analysis of Planning Issues in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the status of teacher education and early childhood education in Pakistan. The paper analyzes planning issues in early childhood teacher education by examining education policies and existing practices in early childhood teacher education in Pakistan. Initiatives taken at public and private levels in Pakistan are also…

Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

2009-01-01

220

Towards the Emergence of a Critical Ecology of the Early Childhood Profession in New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

A 10-year strategic plan for early childhood education introduced by the New Zealand Ministry of Education in 2002 included policies to create a teacher-led early childhood profession by 2012. This article reviews the provisions of the strategic plan and argues that it emerged from a critical ecology of the early childhood profession with a…

Dalli, Carmen

2010-01-01

221

Neurobehavioral impact of sickle cell disease in early childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physical effects of sickle cell disease (SCD) begin in infancy or early childhood, yet most behavioral studies have focused on school-age children. We evaluated the impact of higher versus lower neurologic risk on language, motor abilities, executive functions, and temperament in toddlers and early preschoolers with SCD. Thirty-nine children with higher risk SCD were compared to 22 children with lower risk SCD. Language and motor abilities were lower in older compared with younger children but were unrelated to sickle cell subgroups. Executive functions, particularly working memory, were poorer in children with higher risk SCD regardless of age. Parent-reported activity level was also lower in children with higher risk. Specific behavioral influences of SCD are evident early in childhood and include working memory decrements. Executive function deficits in SCD can emerge early in life and may be an important context for other areas of cognitive and behavioral development. PMID:17942011

Schatz, Jeffrey; Roberts, Carla W

2007-11-01

222

Primary Prevention Knowledge of Parents and Teachers of Nursery and Play Group on Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research explored child sexual abuse (CSA, knowledge and prevention media among parents of pupils and teachers of nursery schools and playgroup. This research was conducted in qualitative mythology, through in-depth interviews (IDIs, and focus group discussions (FGD. In-depth interview held for 10 nursery school teachers and playgroup teachers. For children aged 0-5 years, FGD was conducted towards 10 parents of nursery School and 12 parents of playgroup. The study explored the following: parents’ and teachers’ knowledge on child sexual abuse prevention. The child sexual abuse prevention messages were provided to the children and topics they discussed and their attitudes towards child sexual abuse prevention education in school. The proposed primary prevention media strategies for parents were speech and posters as well as for nursery and playgroup teachers who understood the CSA impact. Research concluded that parents didn’t understand CSA concepts; media proposed for primary prevention are through dialogue and poster. Nursery, playgroup teachers and parents understood with poster media. Parents and teachers were encouraged to focus on the early prevention by building child sexual abuse knowledgeable community.  

Nnenna Clara Okoroafor

2012-09-01

223

The Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Unwanted Sexual Contact among Boys and Girls Living in Victoria, Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…

Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.

2010-01-01

224

The Impact of Childhood Abuse History and Domestic Violence on the Mental Health of Women in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV…

Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko

2010-01-01

225

Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women  

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Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

2011-01-01

226

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

Science.gov (United States)

... OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM...service in an early childhood education program. (a)(1...early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical...

2010-07-01

227

Early Childhood Education: Babies Are Everybody's Business  

Science.gov (United States)

A movement is building that favors creating a national network of high-quality early education and care systems that begin at birth. It makes sense. Promoting positive early learning experiences, healthy caregivers, and a connection between families and community resources can reverse rising rates of expulsion, high school dropouts, and the need…

Cox, Kitt

2009-01-01

228

Integrating Vygotsky's theory of relational ontology into early childhood science education  

Science.gov (United States)

In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.

Kirch, Susan A.

2014-03-01

229

Deep and almost unbearable suffering: consequences of childhood sexual abuse for men's health and well-being.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies indicate that childhood sexual abuse can have extensive and serious consequences. The aim of this research was to do a qualitative study of the consequences of childhood sexual abuse for Icelandic men's health and well-being. Phenomenology was the methodological approach of the study. Totally 14 interviews were conducted, two per individual, and analysed based on the Vancouver School of Phenomenology. The main results of the study showed that the men describe deep and almost unbearable suffering, affecting their entire life, of which there is no alleviation in sight. The men have lived in repressed silence most of their lives and have come close to taking their own lives. What stopped them from committing suicide was revealing to others what happened to them which set them free in a way. The men experienced fear- or rage-based shock at the time of the trauma and most of them endured the attack by dissociation, disconnecting psyche and body and have difficulties reconnecting. They had extremely difficult childhoods, living with indisposition, bullying, learning difficulties and behavioural problems. Some have, from a young age, numbed themselves with alcohol and elicit drugs. They have suffered psychologically and physically and have had relational and sexual intimacy problems. The consequences of the abuse surfaced either immediately after the shock or many years later and developed into complex post-traumatic stress disorder. Because of perceived societal prejudice, it was hard for the men to seek help. This shows the great need for professionals to be alert to the possible consequences of childhood sexual abuse in their practice to reverse the damaging consequences on their health and well-being. We conclude that living in repressed silence after a trauma, like childhood sexual abuse, can be dangerous for the health, well-being and indeed the very life of the survivor. PMID:22462731

Sigurdardottir, Sigrun; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur; Bender, Sóley S

2012-12-01

230

Avoidant and compulsive sexual behaviors in male and female survivors of childhood sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objectives of this study were to test a theory-based mediation model in which the relation between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and dyadic adjustment is mediated through adult sexual avoidance and sexual compulsivity and to examine the gender-invariance of this model. A sample of 686 adults currently involved in a close relationship completed online self-report computerized questionnaires. Prevalence of CSA was 20% in women and 19% in men. In line with our hypotheses, path analyses and structural equation analyses showed that, for both women and men, CSA was associated with more sexual avoidance and sexual compulsivity, which, in turn, predicted lower couple adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that both avoidant and compulsive sexuality are relevant intervention targets with couples in which one or both partners are CSA survivors. PMID:25435106

Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Labadie, Chloé; Runtz, Marsha; Lussier, Yvan; Sabourin, Stéphane

2014-11-27

231

A longitudinal intergenerational analysis of executive functions during early childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the importance of executive function (EF) in both clinical and educational contexts, the aetiology of individual differences in early childhood EF remains poorly understood. This study provides the first longitudinal intergenerational analysis of mother-child EF associations during early childhood. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Mother and child EFs were modestly correlated by 24 months of age, and this association was stable through 48 months. Importantly, maternal-child EF associations were still robust after controlling for verbal ability (potential indicator of verbal/crystallized intelligence) and maternal education (correlate of socio-economic status and verbal intelligence). Potential implications of these findings as well as underlying mechanisms of the maternal-child EF association (gene-environment interplay) are discussed. PMID:25284715

Cuevas, Kimberly; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Wang, Zhe; Morasch, Katherine C; Bell, Martha Ann

2014-03-01

232

[Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among 2508 college students in 6 provinces of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in college students and to explore the association of CSA with youth mental health problem. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted among 2508 students (females 1360, males 1148) in Nov. 2003 to Mar. 2004. The students were from 6 colleges/universities in Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangsu, Shaanxi and Anhui provinces of China. RESULTS: Of the 2508 students, 24.8% of females and 17.6% of males reported one or more types of nonphysical contact CSA (females 20.0% vs. males 14.6%) or/and physical contact CSA (females 14.1% vs. males 7.8%) before the age of 16 years. Risk of any CSA was not associated with the existence of siblings (one-child vs. two-or more child families), rural/non-rural residence during childhood, or parental education. Compared with their peers who had no CSA, the students with CSA showed significantly higher mean scores of psychological symptoms of somatization, obsessiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. CONCLUSION: The problem of CSA was not uncommon and there was a significant correlation between CSA experience and students mental health problems. More attention should be paid on CSA prevention and provision of health services for the victims. PMID:21162984

Chen, Jing-Qi; Han, Ping; Lian, Guang-Li; Dunne, Michael P

2010-08-01

233

Couples therapy with childhood sexual abuse survivors (CSA) and their partners: establishing a context for witnessing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article proposes a clinical practice for therapy with couples in which one partner suffered sexual abuse in childhood. Such couples often encounter unique difficulties with physical contact, intimacy, sexuality, communication, and trust, and their relationship dynamic may be marked by reenactments of past traumatic relational patterns. This clinical practice is founded on the assumption that establishing the witnessing lacking during the traumatic event in childhood can break the traumatic reenactments in adulthood, and spur recovery. The suggested practice may facilitate twofold witnessing: the couple's therapist witnesses the reenactments of the trauma in the couple's relationship; and the survivor's partner witnesses the trauma's effect on the survivor's personal life and relationship. Twofold witnessing can help break the cycle of traumatic reenactment and help the survivor integrate the events of her life into a more coherent, continuous narrative. The partner's presence also facilitates acknowledgement of what happened to the survivor, and helps the survivor elaborate on her stories of resistance, survival, and strength. Finally, each of the partners is able to appear more wholly and fully, and together to tell the preferred stories of their life as a couple, replete with the multiple relational patterns they wish to live, which may contradict the characteristics of the original trauma. PMID:24033236

Nasim, Ron; Nadan, Yochay

2013-09-01

234

International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education: Lessons from My Travels  

OpenAIRE

Noting that working with early childhood colleagues in other countries can be enlightening and enriching, this paper offers seven insights gained from the experience: (1) "What It Feels Like To Be a Teacher" discusses observations of student and teacher behavior and attitudes in classrooms in China, a Caribbean island, and India; (2) "Similarities across Countries" notes that teachers? roles may be more powerful determinants of their ideas, ideals, ideologies, concerns, and beliefs than are ...

Katz, Lilian G.

1999-01-01

235

Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: Recommendations for development  

OpenAIRE

The following recommendations for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Early Childhood Education were the product of an extended international collaboration that was supported by a number of bodies including the Centre for Environment and Sustainability in Gothenburg, the Swedish Ministry of Education and Research, the Swedish National Commission for UNESCO, and the Swedish International Centre for Education for Sustainable Development. The recommendations were formally adopted in N...

Engdahl, Ingrid; Davis, Julie; Ottieno, Lorraine; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Siraj-blatchford, John; Vallabh, Priya

2009-01-01

236

Creativity Expressed through Drawings in Early Childhood Education  

OpenAIRE

In our research we formulated the hypothesis that children create different meanings at theirdrawings through pictures of art and that these meanings are more original when the stimulusis a picture of art that belongs to the abstract art. The research was conducted with 28children aged 4.5 to 6.5 attending two early childhood classes in Volos, Greece. Our studyinvolved asking children to study paintings and create opportunities for them to express theirideas t...

Aikaterini Michalopoulou

2014-01-01

237

Towards Sustainable National Development Through Well Managed Early Childhood Education  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses issues relating to sustainable development and effective management of early childhood education. Thechild is the ‘owner’ of the future. The problems that confront the current generation are complex and serious that cannotbe addressed in the same way they were created. But they can be addressed. The concept of sustainable development is anattempt to shape thought in global systemic perspective as well as secure a future. The future is the child...

Nath Abraham

2012-01-01

238

Parent and Teacher Expectations for Early Childhood Education in Oman  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to examine parent and teacher expectations for early childhood educational programs in Muscat, the capital city of Oman. Questionnaires were distributed in three private schools in Muscat; these schools differed from one another in terms of their socioeconomic (SES) levels. Parent and teacher expectations were assessed, as reflected in their educational levels and socioeconomic status, in jobs and income level, and by the c hi !d 's level in kindergarten. Partici...

Al-lawati, Fatma Anwar Khamis

1999-01-01

239

Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitn...

Fitzpatrick Caroline; Pagani Linda S; Barnett Tracie A

2012-01-01

240

Quality Support Infrastructure in Early Childhood: Still (Mostly Missing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Support for early care and education among policy makers and the public is at an unprecedented high. As investments in early care and education programs in the United States continue to rise, the issue of quality becomes increasingly critical. This article addresses the need for adequate infrastructure to support high-quality early care and education—a need that was brought to the forefront by James Gallagher and Richard Clifford in their 2000 article in Early Childhood Research & Practice (http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v2n1/gallagher.html. The present article provides an update and emphasizes the critical roles of infrastructure in establishing and enforcing standards, supporting quality, and ensuring quality and accountability. Progress in developing the mechanisms and systems to support and ensure quality in several states is assessed, and the perils of expanding early childhood programs in the absence of such systems are examined. Also discussed are strategies for building capacity and strengthening the various functions of infrastructure in order to successfully support the expansion of universal prekindergarten and other early care and education initiatives. The article emphasizes the importance of being able to demonstrate that these initiatives truly benefit the children who participate in them.

Lenette Azzi-Lessing

2009-01-01

241

Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

2001-01-01

242

Improving the Quality of Early Childhood Education in Chile: Tensions between Public Policy and Teacher Discourses over the Schoolarisation of Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article problematises emerging tensions in Chile, in relation to the discourses of early childhood teachers and public policies aimed at improving the quality of early childhood education. The aim of the analysis is to contribute to developing more nuanced understandings of these tensions, through the analytical lenses provided by the…

Pardo, Marcela; Woodrow, Christine

2014-01-01

243

Early Childhood Education and Special Education: How Well Do They Mix? An Examination of Inclusive Practices in Early Childhood Educational Settings in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine and identify the current inclusive practices in early childhood educational settings in Hong Kong, this qualitative study looks at the support and educational services available for young children with special needs in Hong Kong mainstream preschools as well as the characteristics of early childhood educational settings that support…

Zhang, Kaili C.

2011-01-01

244

Childhood sexual abuse, teenage pregnancy, and partnering with adult men: exploring the relationship.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the mechanism by which early victimization, specifically sexual abuse, increases the risk of adolescent pregnancy is unclear, a relationship between previous victimization and adolescent pregnancy has been demonstrated. While partnering with an older man may initially offer the means necessary to escape a neglectful or violent family of origin, this protection be accompanied by an imbalance of power and control. Both adolescent mothers partnered with adult men and adolescent mothers partnered with male peers reported sexual abuse perpetrated by family members, family friends, strangers, and peers. Policies developed to protect young people from victimization, including mandatory reporting and statutory rape laws, should be evaluated for their consistent application to all children, regardless of age, race, gender, or pregnancy status. PMID:16149725

Harner, Holly M

2005-08-01

245

Visão atual do abuso sexual na infância e adolescência Current view of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e LILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005, aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência dom?stica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual.OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, using abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005, in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.

Luci Pfeiffer

2005-11-01

246

Visão atual do abuso sexual na infância e adolescência / Current view of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e L [...] ILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005), aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, u [...] sing abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005), in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.

Luci, Pfeiffer; Edila Pizzato, Salvagni.

2005-11-01

247

Early Childhood Guided Tour: Promoting Language and Literacy Among Young Students with Developmental Disabilities in Early Childhood Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Center to Improve Practice in Special Education through Technology, Media and Materials has made a guided tour through two Early Childhood (age 3 to 7) classes available via the Web. The classes, in Brockton, Massachussetts, and Wade County, North Carolina, exemplify: "engineering the classroom environment to optimize access to learning; modifying instructional strategies, materials, and tools to meet individual needs; integrating the curriculum through theme-based learning; and embedding assessment in all classroom activities." The site provides a "bus tour" through free choice, circle time, small group activities, and story time, complete with text, photos, and Quicktime videos, to show users how these classes achieve their goals, while at the same time vividly demonstrating the challenges of providing Early Childhood Special Education.

Merkell, Susan.

248

Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first six months postpartum: The primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the contexts of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. Method In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect (CA) histories (CA+, n=97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n=53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infant at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and postpartum psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6 months postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. Results We found that all women independent of risk status increased in bonding to their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and PTSD) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all times points. Moreover, we found that at the 6 months assessment bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. Conclusion These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Parenting Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors. PMID:23064898

Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S.

2014-01-01

249

Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Measurement of Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse—A Preliminary Report  

OpenAIRE

We have previously reported smaller hippocampal volume and deficits in short-term memory in patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relative to comparison subjects. The purpose of this study was to compare hippocampal volume in adult survivors of childhood abuse to matched controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure volume of the hippocampus in adult survivors of childhood abuse (n = 17) and healthy subjects (n = 17) matched on a case-by-case basis for a...

Bremner, J. Douglas; Randall, Penny; Vermetten, Eric; Staib, Lawrence; Bronen, Richard A.; Mazure, Carolyn; Capelli, Sandi; Mccarthy, Gregory; Innis, Robert B.; Charney, Dennis S.

1997-01-01

250

77 FR 52704 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Early Childhood...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Institute of Education Sciences; Early Childhood Longitudinal...Department of Education (ED), is a survey...on children's early school experiences...Department of Education (ED), is a survey...on children's early school...

2012-08-30

251

Multilevel analysis of air pollution and early childhood neurobehavioral development.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester ? = -0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester ? = -0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age ? = -0.091, se = 0.034). Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC) levels during the second and third trimesters (? = -8.742, se = 3.512). Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age. PMID:24992486

Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Shih-Kuan; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Ho, Wen-Chao; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chen, Pau-Chung

2014-07-01

252

Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10, carbon monoxide (CO, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester ? = ?0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester ? = ?0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age ? = ?0.091, se = 0.034. Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC levels during the second and third trimesters (? = ?8.742, se = 3.512. Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age.

Ching-Chun Lin

2014-07-01

253

Suicide Risk Factors and Mediators between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide Ideation Among Male and Female Suicide Attempters  

OpenAIRE

The current study examined the manner in which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history relates to risk factors for suicidal behavior among recent suicide attempters (n = 166). Men who recently attempted suicide and endorsed a CSA history had higher scores on measures of hopelessness and suicide ideation than men without a CSA history. Men with a CSA history were also more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts and meet diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline p...

Spokas, Megan; Wenzel, Amy; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; Beck, Aaron T.

2009-01-01

254

Proactive coping, just-world beliefs and future aspirations of an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse  

OpenAIRE

This study represents a shift in focus with regard to studies related to traumatic events such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA). It endeavours to go beyond documenting the prevalence of CSA to understanding the moderating factors that encourage adaptive adjustment to CSA. The rationale of this study was to understand how personal beliefs in a just world, future aspirations and proactive coping in the context of an earlier traumatic event such as CSA, are related. My secondary inte...

Nxumalo, Tebuhleni Phila

2011-01-01

255

Childhood Sexual Abuse and its Relationship with Psychosocial Outcomes Among Children Affected by HIV in Rural China  

OpenAIRE

This study assessed the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with psychosocial outcomes among children in high HIV-prevalence communities in rural China. Data were collected from HIV orphans (n = 417; children who had lost one or both parents to HIV), vulnerable children (n = 326; children living with HIV-infected parents), and comparison children (n = 276; children who had not experienced HIV-related familial illness or death). About 30% reported having experienced ...

Zhao, Qun; Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Lin, Danhua; Stanton, Bonita

2011-01-01

256

Neonatal and early childhood outcomes following early vs later preterm premature rupture of membranes  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE Data regarding long-term outcomes of neonates reaching viability following early preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM; <25.0 weeks at rupture) are limited. We hypothesized that babies delivered after early PPROM would have increased rates of major childhood morbidity compared with those with later PPROM (?25.0 weeks at rupture). STUDY DESIGN This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate vs placebo for cerebral palsy prevention. Women with singletons and PPROM of 15-32 weeks were included. All women delivered at 24.0 weeks or longer. Those with PPROM less than 25.0 weeks (cases) were compared with women with PPROM at 25.0-31.9 weeks (controls). Composite severe neonatal morbidity (sepsis, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, severe necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and/or death) and composite severe childhood morbidity at age 2 years (moderate or severe cerebral palsy and/or Bayley II Infant and Toddler Development scores greater than 2 SD below the mean) were compared. RESULTS A total of 1531 women (275 early PPROM cases) were included. Demographics were similar between the groups. Cases delivered earlier (26.6 vs 30.1 weeks, P < .001) and had a longer rupture-to-delivery interval (20.0 vs 10.4 days, P < .001). Case neonates had high rates of severe composite neonatal morbidity (75.6% vs 21.8%, P < .001). Children with early PPROM had higher composite severe childhood morbidity (51.6% vs 22.5%, P < .001). Early PPROM remained associated with composite severe childhood morbidity in multivariable models, even when controlling for delivery gestational age and other confounders. CONCLUSION Early PPROM is associated with high rates of neonatal morbidity. Early childhood outcomes at age 2 years remain poor compared with those delivered after later PPROM. PMID:24858202

Manuck, Tracy Ann; Varner, Michael Walter

2014-01-01

257

Delineating selection and mediation effects among childhood personality and environmental risk factors in the development of adolescent substance abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N?=?2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735

Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

2014-07-01

258

Moderation of adult depression by the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR), childhood abuse and adult traumatic events in a general population sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of the promoter polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) on mood has been studied by two-way interaction models comprising one environmental factor and genotype variants. However, childhood abuse is assumed to be associated with different psychobiological long-term effects than adult traumatic events. Both types of trauma may interact on an individual basis throughout the lifespan moderating the impact of the 5-HTTLPR s allele on depressive disorders. Therefore, the hypothesis of a three-way interaction among the 5-HTTLPR, childhood abuse and adult traumatic experience was tested. Caucasian subjects (1,974) from the general population in Germany (Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)) were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Childhood abuse was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Adult traumatic events were derived from the SCID interview (DSM-IV) on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Global three-way interactions among the 5-HTTLPR, adult traumatic experiences and childhood abuse (P?=?0.0007) were found. Carriers of the ss or sl genotypes who had been exposed to childhood abuse and to more than two adult traumatic events had higher mean BDI-II scores (16.0 [95% CI 8.4-23.6]) compared to those carrying the ll genotype (7.6 [4.5-10.7]). These results were supported using a second, more severe definition of childhood abuse (P?=?0.02). No two-way interactions were observed (P?>?0.05). Childhood abuse and adult traumatic events may act synergistically in interaction with the s allele of the 5-HTTLPR to increase the risk for depressive symptoms independently from the lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. PMID:22328412

Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Schwahn, Christian; Mahler, Jessie; Schulz, Andrea; Spitzer, Carsten; Fenske, Kristin; Appel, Katja; Barnow, Sven; Nauck, Matthias; Schomerus, Georg; Biffar, Reiner; Rosskopf, Dieter; John, Ulrich; Völzke, Henry; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen

2012-04-01

259

Rights of the Child and Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

"Securing the rights articulated in the Convention is an effective approach to improving the quality of early experiences." This article analyses early childhood education and care and child rights in early childhood and their relationship in the European Union. Both are primarily national competencies. The EU has limited access and tools to…

Herczog, Maria

2012-01-01

260

School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

2015-01-01

261

The effects of childhood sexual abuse on cortisol trajectories in pregnancy are moderated by current family functioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was to understand the roles of maternal history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and current family functioning on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in pregnancy. Participants were 185 pregnant women (ages 18-40) who completed items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale to measure child maltreatment history and the Family Assessment Device to measure current family functioning. Participants provided saliva samples at wake-up and 30min after wake-up at 25, 29, and 35 weeks gestation to measure CAR. A moderation effect was found such that participants with more severe CSA histories and poorer perceived family functioning had increasing CAR in pregnancy compared to participants with less severe CSA histories and better family functioning. These findings highlight the importance of considering stress in both childhood and current environments in predicting maternal cortisol in pregnancy. PMID:25220484

Bublitz, Margaret H; Parade, Stephanie; Stroud, Laura R

2014-12-01

262

The value of early CT in complicated childhood pneumonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)

Tan Kendrick, A.P. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Ling, Ho [Department of Paediatric Medicine, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore); Subramaniam, Ramnath; Joseph, Vijeyakaran T. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital (Singapore)

2002-01-01

263

Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects. PMID:25555255

Jackson, Margot I

2015-02-01

264

The value of early CT in complicated childhood pneumonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. To investigate the value of CT in complicated childhood pneumonia and its role in early intervention when chest radiography (CXR) is non-contributory. Materials and methods. Forty-two immunocompetent children, aged 1-11 years, admitted for community-acquired pneumonia from October 1997 to September 1999, had 42 contrast-enhanced CT scans and frontal chest radiographs on the same day, which were assessed independently. CT was performed when the patient remained unwell and the CXR images showed failure of resolution despite 7-10 days of antibiotics and/or drainage with urokinase therapy. Results. Compared to CT, CXR revealed suboptimal accuracy rates of lobar involvement (84%), chest tube placement (73%), fluid loculation (42%), abscess formation (40%) and bronchopleural fistulae (33%). It could not assess parenchymal or pleural complications such as cavitary necrosis, early abscess formation, empyemas or pericardial effusions. On the basis of the CT findings and poor clinical progress, 16 patients underwent surgical intervention with the aid of video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS). The CT features correlated well with surgical findings. Ten cases required pleural decortication while six with destructive or necrotic lung lesions had surgical resection. Debridement was difficult when the pleura had become thick and fibrotic. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the offending organism in 81% of cases. The right side was affected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In cofected in 67% of cases. Conclusions. In complicated childhood pneumonia, CT is far superior to CXR in revealing pleural and parenchymal complications, which may require early surgical intervention. (orig.)

265

Using Sound in Teaching Reading in Early Childhood Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early childhood is as charming as ever. It is an age of imagination and fantasy. Therefore, it is natural that education at this stage should develop the child’s imagination through literacy materials such as folk-tales, rhymes and songs etc. This paper is therefore intended to enthuse to the psychological view that children’s success in life depends on the preparation they receive when younger. The paper upholds the view that a good preparation of children for life entails giving them the ability to read and write. The importance of literacy is measurable. Literacy is instrumental to the attainment of success of individuals in both career aspirations and quality of life. It is fundamental for learning in school. It impacts on individuals the ability to participate in society and understand important public issues. It also provides foundation upon which skills in the labour industry are built, etc. The paper concludes that literacy, which should start from infancy, could be better taught using the phonics methodology. This is because, in early childhood, education should involve more of playing, singing, clapping, etc, and that is the focal objectives of phonics method. This should be so to support the idea that literacy should not be boring but enjoyable especially as early as infancy, because it is a panacea for achieving life’s goals.

Hanna Onyi Yusuf

2012-07-01

266

Early loss of teeth after treatment for childhood leukemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: only few reports of effects of radiotherapy in childhood on the dental apparatus are available in the literature. The basis for early loss of teeth appears to be a reduction of the root surface area after radiation exposure. These effects in the periodontium are a consequence of combined radiochemotherapy usually applied for treatment of childhood neoplasia. Chemotherapy alone also results in changes of periodontal development. Case report: a 33-year-old patient is reported, who, at the age of 11 years, received high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy of neuroaxis and cranium for acute lymphatic leukemia with relapse. The patient consulted the Implant Section of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery because of severe dental changes and tooth loss despite adequate dental care and oral hygiene. Radiation doses given to the superior maxilla and mandible at the age of 11 were estimated to be in the range of 8-25 Gy. Conclusion: intense, life-long dental care and follow-up of patients cured from malignant disease in childhood must hence be postulated in order to minimize dental treatment sequelae by supportive measures, but also to initiate timely adequate dental and prosthetic management. (orig.)

267

Phenomenology of Early Childhood Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the phenomenological features of early childhood onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD; defined as children meeting DSM-IV criteria for OCD with age of onset <8 years). Fifty-eight children (ages 4–8) were included in the sample. OCD and comorbid diagnoses were determined by structured interview, and OCD severity was measured using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Mean age of OCD onset was almost five, and mean age of presentation was...

Garcia, Abbe M.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Himle, Michael B.; Berman, Noah C.; Ogata, Alexandra K.; Ng, Janet; Choate-summers, Molly L.; Leonard, Henrietta

2009-01-01

268

Using Sound in Teaching Reading in Early Childhood Education  

OpenAIRE

Early childhood is as charming as ever. It is an age of imagination and fantasy. Therefore, it is natural that education at this stage should develop the child’s imagination through literacy materials such as folk-tales, rhymes and songs etc. This paper is therefore intended to enthuse to the psychological view that children’s success in life depends on the preparation they receive when younger. The paper upholds the view that a good preparation of children for life entails giving...

Hanna Onyi Yusuf; Agnes Ovayioza Enesi

2012-01-01

269

A Look at Children's Adjustment to Early Childhood Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot project during which the author visited different early childhood classrooms and used a handheld video camera to record how children adjust to new programs. The objectives were (1 to describe how children adjust to new programs or classes, (2 to sensitize teachers to the issues involved in those adjustments, (3 to collect data using a handheld video camera, and (4 to encourage teachers to view themselves as classroom researchers. Included in the paper are video clips, brief descriptions of selected children, and a discussion of issues raised by the children's behavior in the videos, related research, and implications for practice.

Carol R. Keyes

2006-01-01

270

Why We Should Begin Early with ESD: The Role of Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Only recently has Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) become a question for Early Childhood Education (ECE, including care). Since it is a new area of content in ECE, there are also many questions to sort out. Some people claim that young children should be sheltered from all the problems in the world, which is an understandable…

Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid

2011-01-01

271

Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on inpatient treatment for early sexually abused adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the possible predictors of treatment outcome in early chronically sexually abused adults. The current study aimed to investigate what impact initial levels of dissociation and pre-treatment negative change in interpersonal functioning have on treatment response after 3 months of first-phase trauma inpatient treatment as well as after a period of 1 year the patients returned to their usual lives. Methods: The sample comprised 48 inpatients with childhood sexual abuse histories and mixed trauma-related disorders who were examined at discharge and prospectively followed up for a period of 1 year under naturalistic conditions. Outcome variables were general psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems as measured with the Symptom Check List-Revised (SCL-R and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP Circumplex. Results: The central findings were that pathological dissociation and deterioration in interpersonal functioning prior to admittance predicted general psychiatric symptom levels and interpersonal problems at the end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Pathological dissociation, involving memory and identity problems, alone predicted negative outcome at the end of treatment. The findings at 1-year follow-up indicate that it is not pathological dissociation in isolation that affects outcomes, but rather the interaction between dissociation and change in interpersonal functioning prior to treatment. Conclusion: These findings indicate the need of addressing dissociation and interpersonal problems in treatment planning and favor an integrated treatment approach for complex trauma patients. Future research should investigate whether and how this leads to better outcome, including long-term maintenance of gains after the end of treatment.

Ellen K. K. Jepsen

2013-12-01

272

Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on inpatient treatment for early sexually abused adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Little is known about the possible predictors of treatment outcome in early chronically sexually abused adults. The current study aimed to investigate what impact initial levels of dissociation and pre-treatment negative change in interpersonal functioning have on treatment response after 3 months of first-phase trauma inpatient treatment as well as after a period of 1 year the patients returned to their usual lives. Methods The sample comprised 48 inpatients with childhood sexual abuse histories and mixed trauma-related disorders who were examined at discharge and prospectively followed up for a period of 1 year under naturalistic conditions. Outcome variables were general psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems as measured with the Symptom Check List-Revised (SCL-R) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) Circumplex. Results The central findings were that pathological dissociation and deterioration in interpersonal functioning prior to admittance predicted general psychiatric symptom levels and interpersonal problems at the end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Pathological dissociation, involving memory and identity problems, alone predicted negative outcome at the end of treatment. The findings at 1-year follow-up indicate that it is not pathological dissociation in isolation that affects outcomes, but rather the interaction between dissociation and change in interpersonal functioning prior to treatment. Conclusion These findings indicate the need of addressing dissociation and interpersonal problems in treatment planning and favor an integrated treatment approach for complex trauma patients. Future research should investigate whether and how this leads to better outcome, including long-term maintenance of gains after the end of treatment. PMID:24386549

Jepsen, Ellen K. K.; Langeland, Willie; Heir, Trond

2013-01-01

273

Constructs of Childhood: Enduring or Open to Change? Early Years Students' Reflections on First Hand Experiences of Childhood and Early Years Education in a Different Country and Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

It can be argued that globalisation brings change for children and their families in the guise of increased poverty and inequality; for example, for the world's poorest populations and communities. Students undertaking Early Childhood Studies degrees in the United Kingdom are likely to encounter modules with a focus on childhood in a variety of…

McGillivray, Gill

2009-01-01

274

Nurturing Social Experience in Three Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms  

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Full Text Available This study explored the ways in which early childhood special education teachers supported children's social behavior within the context of their preschool classrooms. Data collected for six children through naturalistic classroom observations were coded and analyzed for emergent themes within a qualitative framework. Findings revealed a variety of strategies and behaviors used by early childhood special education teachers and their assistants to respond socially to the children in their classrooms. The data were grouped into five overarching themes: (1 teachers' adaptations to support positive social experiences, (2 positive emotional connections between teachers and students, (3 negative interactions between teachers and students, (4 teachers' promotion of positive social engagement with peers, and (5 teachers' help with conflict resolution. These data present multiple lenses through which to view children's and teachers' social experiences in the classroom, providing the potential for a richer understanding of both what is observed as well as how it actually transpires. The complexity of individual differences and classroom dynamics are discussed, with recommendations for practice and future research.

Susan L. Recchia

2006-01-01

275

Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

Fitzpatrick Caroline

2012-07-01

276

Priorities for early childhood development in low-income countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The remarkable progress in reducing child mortality in low-income countries is now accompanied with a rapidly expanding population of child survivors and increased life expectancy. However, many have special health care needs in the early foundational years for optimal health and educational and vocational status. Investment in early childhood development (ECD) is therefore crucial but likely to be constrained by lack of adequate resources making priority-setting inevitable. A review of current ECD approaches in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia shows that concerted multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral initiatives targeted at children with developmental disabilities across all crucial domains of ECD and guided by available evidence on optimal timing for interventions are urgently required. This focus would necessitate appropriate national ECD policies, modifications to the current global ECD programs in the developing world, and a more active collaboration between pediatricians and other related service providers. PMID:21654509

Olusanya, Bolajoko O

2011-01-01

277

More than "Just" Changing Diapers: The Experiences of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers in Infant Field Placements  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the fact that early childhood preservice teachers are typically being prepared to work with children from birth through age 8, preservice field experiences with infants continue to be largely missing in early childhood teacher preparation programs Since the education and care of infants often takes place in vastly different settings than…

Beck, Lisa Marie Powell

2010-01-01

278

Literacy Outcomes of Children with Early Childhood Speech Sound Disorders: Impact of Endophenotypes  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To demonstrate that early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) and later school-age reading, written expression, and spelling skills are influenced by shared endophenotypes that may be in part genetic. Method: Children with SSD and their siblings were assessed at early childhood (ages 4-6 years) and followed at school age (7-12 years).…

Lewis, Barbara A.; Avrich, Allison A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Sucheston, Lara E.; Kuo, Iris; Taylor, H. Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.

2011-01-01

279

Capture the Moment: Using Digital Photography in Early Childhood Settings. Research in Practice Series  

Science.gov (United States)

The Research in Practice Series has been developed to provide practical, easy to read, up-to-date information and support to a growing national readership of early childhood workers. Digital photography opens a whole new world of communication within early childhood settings, giving scope for devising more effective ways of engaging children,…

Walters, Kim

2006-01-01

280

Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach  

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This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

281

Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System (EC-TIIS): Phase 3. Final Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System 3 (EC-TIIS 3), housed in the Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood (the Center) within the College of Education and Human Services at Western Illinois University (WIU), was funded in 2004 by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) as a…

Robinson, Linda; Schneider, Carol; Daytner, Gary; Johanson, Joyce; Hutinger, Patricia

2009-01-01

282

Matters of Size: Obesity as a Diversity Issue in the Field of Early Childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that obesity is the primary reason for peer rejection in America; examines effects of obesity on wellness, self-esteem, peer relationships, and social status of children/families and early childhood teachers. Suggests that early childhood educators: (1) educate all stakeholders about nutrition and body size issues; (2) speak out against…

Jalongo, Mary Renck

1999-01-01

283

Reconceptualising Professionalism in Early Childhood Education: Insights from a Study Carried out in Bologna  

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This paper explores the issue of early childhood professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective. In particular the article is concerned with how pre-school teachers conceptualise their professionalism by making sense of the work they carry out on an everyday basis in early childhood institutions. In analysing teachers' perceptions special…

Lazzari, Arianna

2012-01-01

284

Learning about Early Childhood Education from and with Western European Nations  

Science.gov (United States)

Rebecca New describes a history of selective enthusiasm for Western European ideas about children, the period of childhood, and the potentials of early care and educational services. She further acknowledges the European origins of many features of contemporary early childhood education, including the prevalence of educational toys, the principles…

New, Rebecca S.

2005-01-01

285

Everyday Environmental Education Experiences: The Role of Content in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years discussions surrounding early childhood curriculum has focused on the movement from developmental to sociocultural theory. A further area worthy of investigation involves the role of content in early childhood education, specifically the relationship between content, context and pedagogy. The paper draws on teacher vignettes to…

Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Suzy

2014-01-01

286

Democratisation of Early Childhood Education in the Attitudes of Slovene and Finnish Teachers  

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The article presents the findings of the comparative survey on attitudes (beliefs, preferences) of 222 Slovenian and 230 Finnish early childhood teachers (Turnsek 2005). They have completed the questionnaire on aspect of democratisation of early childhood education, which consisted of attitude (Likart) scales and questions of ranking the…

Turnsek, Nada; Pekkarinen, Asko

2009-01-01

287

Coaching and Professional Development in Early Childhood Classrooms: Current Practices and Recommendations for the Future  

Science.gov (United States)

Coaching is one of several professional development approaches being used in early childhood to facilitate improved teacher instruction to promote child outcomes. Despite its use, little is known about how coaching promotes teacher knowledge and skills (Sheridan, Edwards, Marvin, & Knoche, 2009). We reviewed the early childhood coaching literature…

Gupta, Sarika S.; Daniels, Janese

2012-01-01

288

The Effectiveness of Family Involvement in Early Childhood Programmes: Perceptions of Kindergarten Principals and Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Family involvement can no longer be considered a luxury but is rather a main component of early childhood programmes. The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of family involvement in early childhood programmes in Jordan. In total, 84 kindergarten principals and 276 teachers participated in the study. To achieve the study…

Ihmeideh, Fathi; Oliemat, Enass

2015-01-01

289

Reaching the Youngest Hearts and Minds: Interviews with Diocesan Leaders Regarding Catholic Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood is a critically formative stage of human development and the educational experiences of children at this young age impact their cognitive, social, emotional, and physical competencies. In the U.S., early childhood education has grown dramatically since the 1960s, both in federal and state dollars invested and in terms of overall…

Frabutt, James M.; Waldron, Rachel

2013-01-01

290

A Review and Analysis of the Current Policy on Early Childhood Education in Mainland China  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared with the former policies on early childhood education, the policies recently issued in mainland China clearly defined early childhood education as an integral part of education and social public welfare and stipulated the responsibilities of the government in its development, shifting the developmental orientation to promoting social…

Liu, Yan; Pan, Yue-Juan

2013-01-01

291

Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

2014-01-01

292

Research on Early Childhood Teacher Education: Evidence from Three Domains and Recommendations for Moving Forward  

Science.gov (United States)

It is essential that a solid research base be established to provide a foundation that will enable the field of early childhood teacher education to examine whether, for whom, and in what ways teacher education matters. The purpose of this article is to review several important domains in early childhood teacher education to illustrate the…

Horm, Diane M.; Hyson, Marilou; Winton, Pamela J.

2013-01-01

293

Preschool Teacher Competence Viewed from the Perspective of Students in Early Childhood Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines contemporary issues in early childhood teacher education in Sweden. The aim of the study was to explore dimensions of the construct of preschool teachers' competence as reported by 810 students enrolled in early childhood teacher education at 15 Swedish universities. The results showed that students' definitions of…

Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia

2014-01-01

294

Early Childhood Education and Care for Native Hawaiian Children in Hawai'i: A Brief History  

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This study provides a brief overview of the history of early childhood education and care for Native Hawaiian children in Hawai'i. Data sources include a literature review, examination of archival documents, and interviews with a sample of Native Hawaiian parents and community members. We trace the emergence of outside-the-home early childhood

Grace, Donna J.; Ku'ulei Serna, Alethea

2013-01-01

295

Choices and Changes in Early Childhood Education in Australia: A "Play School" Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education in Australia is currently undergoing a period of change and renewal. Times of change offer opportunities to revisit the perspectives of the past, to respond to current choices and challenges, and explore future opportunities within the national provision of early childhood care and education. Such opportunities also exist…

Harrison, Cathie

2011-01-01

296

Enquiring Teachers and Democratic Politics: Transformations in New Zealand's Early Childhood Education Landscape  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable interest has emerged in policy frameworks to sustain and encourage democratic participation and responsive pedagogy in early childhood education. Using findings from an evaluation of New Zealand's strategic plan for early childhood education, this article highlights ways in which policy initiatives interacted to support such…

Mitchell, Linda

2011-01-01

297

Technological Funds of Knowledge in Children's Play: Implications for Early Childhood Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

The technological knowledge the children bring with them into early childhood settings is not well documented or understood. This article discusses the technological knowledge and understanding of the nature of technology present within children's collaborative play in two New Zealand early childhood settings. The children incorporated a wide…

Mawson, Brent

2011-01-01

298

Review of the Task Force Studying Teacher Competence in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 1974, the Department of Education in Alberta appointed a three member Task Force to study the competence of effective early childhood teachers. Discusses the qualifications necessary for being an effective early childhood teacher and guidelines formulated by the Task Force for evaluating teaching skills. (Author/RK)

Mallet, Mary

1977-01-01

299

Parental and Early Childhood Influences on Adolescent Obesity: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…

Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth

2012-01-01

300

Parental Demand, Choice and Access to Early Childhood Education in Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined parental demand for early childhood education (ECE) in relation to choice and access to early childhood programmes in Tanzania. Extensive analyses of both Government and privately written documents over the past decade were used to determine parental demand, choice and access to ECE. The literature revealed that although…

Mtahabwa, Lyabwene

2011-01-01

301

Early Childhood Education Administration in the New Period: Challenges and Opportunities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a keynote speech delivered at the National Symposium of Early Childhood Education) held by the Ministry of Education, December 16-19, 2004. In this paper, Jiang Jin first analyzed the difficulties and challenges that China faced in the development of early childhood education (ECE), including the partially dissolved ECE system,…

Jin, Jiang

2008-01-01

302

Values Embodied in Children's Literature Used in Early Childhood Education in Israeli State Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Societies can examine themselves and their values through examining their literature and the way they use literature in values education. This research investigated the values embodied in children's literature used by early childhood teachers in Israeli state schools. On the basis of questionnaires completed by 14 early childhood educators, and…

Court, Deborah; Rosental, Ety

2007-01-01

303

Oakton Community College: Early Childhood Career Opportunities (ECCO) Program. Program Description Based on Grant Abstract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Early Childhood Career Opportunities (ECCO) Program is a 21-week program of intensive training that provides limited-English-proficient Hispanic, Indian, and Pakistani adult students with the required skills for entry-level positions in the child care field. Courses in early childhood focus on child growth and development, introduction to…

Kerwin, Sheila

304

Assessing the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment among Early Childhood Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment among early childhood educators. Organizational commitment and its established precursor, job satisfaction, have gained relevance because turnover within early childhood education has fluctuated between 25% and 40% for…

Shepherd-Osborne, Tracie

2009-01-01

305

A Study of Early Childhood Teachers' Conceptions of Creativity in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aimed to uncover the conceptions of creativity among early childhood teachers in Hong Kong. The sample comprised 563 early childhood teachers. Factor analysis supported the multidimensional hypothesis of teachers' conceptions of creativity. Five dimensions were found: novelty, product, problem solving, cognitive processes and personal…

Cheung, Rebecca Hun Ping; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

2013-01-01

306

76 FR 12978 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...  

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...gaining access to the call, please click on the...presentation of the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...prior to the conference call. Written comments must...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Any person interested...Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood...

2011-03-09

307

Advocating for Ethnographic Work in Early Childhood Federal Policy: Problems and Possibilities  

Science.gov (United States)

Initiated as part of the Council on Anthropology and Education's Policy Engagement Working Group, the policy brief "Ethnographic Knowledge For Early Childhood" focused on making the case for ethnography as evidence within early childhood federal policy. This article describes the creation and distribution of the policy brief as well as the…

Adair, Jennifer Keys

2011-01-01

308

A Model of Early Childhood Foreign Language Education through Playing Motoric Games.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the methods used to improve and increase the efficiency of early childhood foreign language education through movements and speech in play situations. The goals of the study were (1) to devise an adaptable model for variable situations in early childhood foreign language education through playing motoric games, and (2) to…

Angelova, Tanka Gueorguieva; Lekova, Branimira Christova

309

77 FR 52702 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Early Childhood...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission...Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Early Childhood Longitudinal...S. Department of Education (ED), is a survey...focuses on children's early school...

2012-08-30

310

Put “Academic Content” in Early Childhood Education and Early Childhood Teacher Education: A Response to Hyson et al.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Programs of teacher preparation in early childhood education have struggled with a lack of resources in nearly every area. As this and other articles attest, the numbers of potential teachers and teacher educators, particularly among minority candidates, have waned; the types of support (e.g., professional status, additional time for professional development, time and opportunity to conduct action and other types of research are often lost in the name of managing teacher education programs with inadequate numbers of faculty. Financial backing for program maintenance and improvement has been low in many of our two- and four/five-year institutions. In addition, it is my belief that a broad, general focus on the many competing demands inherent in early education and care has contributed to a loss of a systematic focus on critically important content for prospective teachers and children alike. Given the new opportunities and the accountability ahead of us, we have a great deal of work to do. We are hampered by having too few teacher educators well prepared in research and who have sufficient depth of knowledge regarding key content-domain early educational practice. To this challenge, I want to elaborate on a few thoughts and recommendations. First and foremost, I believe that we must return to a clear emphasis on academic content in early childhood—both in our teacher preparation programs and in what we advocate that teachers do in their interactions with young children. Such emphasis can prepare children for success using methods that honor children’s developmental trajectories and cultural contexts. Second, we need to find more focused and strategic ways to work together, building on successful, research-based models already in place. I offer these thoughts on the basis of my own experiences, acknowledging that others may disagree or have far better ideas.

Elaine Surbeck

2009-01-01

311

Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: The rise in the occurrence of childhood obesity during the last decades in many populations indicates an important role of environmental exposures, which may operate very early in life. We aimed to examine the association between bereavement during the first 6 years of life, as a stress indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children. Methods: We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years of life. We compared BMI levels, changes in BMI, and the prevalence of overweight at 7-13 years of age between bereaved and non-bereaved children. Results: Between bereaved children and non-bereaved children, there were no differences in average BMI levels at any age or changes in BMI at 7-13 years of age. Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age. Conclusion: This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Li, Jiong; Olsen, JØrn

2012-01-01

312

Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... more basic needs like food, shelter, and love. Family violence can affect anyone. It can happen in any ... and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

313

Turning College Students into Leaders in Early Childhood Education--Part 1: Getting Involved outside the College Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education college students are very busy people. They take required general education and early childhood curriculum courses, and they complete prepracticum and field experiences in a variety of early childhood settings. There has been an increase in the number of students who work during the day and go to school in the evening, as…

Young Children, 2011

2011-01-01

314

Re-Envisioning the Role of Universities in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Community Partnerships for 21st-Century Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite contrasting views on the overlap of early childhood education and teacher education, opportunities abound for expanding the role of early childhood educators in broader teacher education discourse. University-based early childhood education and kindergarten-through-grade-12 teacher education share purposes, philosophies, and resources that…

Kennedy, Adam S.; Heineke, Amy

2014-01-01

315

Early Childhood Teachers' Perceived Competence during Transition from Teacher Education to Work: Results from a Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The transition from education to work is a challenge for early childhood teachers. In this study, competence self-ratings of 348 German early childhood teachers were investigated one year before, at the end of and four months after early childhood teacher education at universities and vocational schools. Perceived competence was assessed by means…

Mischo, Christoph

2015-01-01

316

Can child temperament be related to early childhood caries?  

Science.gov (United States)

Beyond the biological risk factors of early childhood caries (ECC) is child temperament. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of ECC to different traits of child temperament, directly and indirectly through the nutritional and oral hygiene habits. Through a multi-stage sampling, 373 kindergarten children aged 18-36 months participated in this study. The primary caregivers filled in the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire (ECBQ) and a checklist containing demographic data and the dietary and oral hygiene habits of the children. Children were examined for dental caries. The frequency of ECC was 41.14%. With 18 aspects of a child's temperament under consideration, attentional shifting, fear, frustration, low-intensity pleasure, sadness and shyness were significantly higher in the ECC group. Cuddliness, perceptual sensitivity, positive anticipation and soothability were significantly higher in caries-free children. Attentional shifting (p = 0.02), frustration (p = 0.02) and shyness (p = 0.03) were risk factors and cuddliness (p habits, easily soothable children were 0.69 times less likely to use sweetened liquids frequently [odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.97, p = 0.03], while sad children were 0.58 times less likely to brush (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.94, p = 0.02). Considering temperament traits along with socioeconomic status, positive anticipation was the most significant determinant of ECC (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.19, p = 0.007). However, considering temperament, socioeconomic measures and child habits among ECC risk factors, the most significant was the initiation of brushing habits (OR 5.41, 95% CI 2.81-12.98, p = 0.002). PMID:24216506

Aminabadi, N A; Ghoreishizadeh, A; Ghoreishizadeh, M; Oskouei, S G; Ghojazadeh, M

2014-01-01

317

Screening for Sleep Problems in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education: A Systematic Review of Screening and Assessment Instruments  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioral insomnias of childhood (BIC) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) disorders cause disrupted and/or inefficient sleep. Left untreated in early childhood, both conditions increase the risk of compromised development, particularly in the areas of behavior, cognition, and growth. This systematic review determined whether and how current…

Bonuck, Karen A.; Hyden, Christel; Ury, Guenn; Barnett, Josephine; Ashkinaze, Hannah; Briggs, Rahil D.

2011-01-01

318

Early Childhood Education as Risky Business: Going Beyond What’s  

OpenAIRE

Much has been learned about the possibilities of early childhood education from nations that have long invested in high-quality early care and educational programs. These new understandings are now being used by U.S. early childhood advocates to help parents, policy makers, and others better understand children's vast learning potentials, to acknowledge the deep intellectual work of teachers, and to recognize the rights of parents to help determine the essential features of a challenging and ...

New, Rebecca S.; Ben Mardell; David Robinson

2005-01-01

319

MODELING THE EFFECTS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD INTERVENTION VARIABLES ON PARENT AND FAMILY WELL-BEING  

OpenAIRE

Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered early intervention practices had direct and indirect positive effects, perceived program control appraisals had direct and indirect positive effects, ...

Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Brookfield, Jeffri

2007-01-01

320

Epigenetics and development of food allergy (FA) in early childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review aims to highlight the latest advance on epigenetics in the development of food allergy (FA) and to offer future perspectives. FA, a condition caused by an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to food, has emerged as a major clinical and public health problem worldwide in light of its increasing prevalence, potential fatality, and significant medical and economic impact. Current evidence supports that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in immune regulation and that the epigenome may represent a key "missing piece" of the etiological puzzle for FA. There are a growing number of population-based epigenetic studies on allergy-related phenotypes, mostly focused on DNA methylation. Previous studies mostly applied candidate-gene approaches and have demonstrated that epigenetic marks are associated with multiple allergic diseases and/or with early-life exposures relevant to allergy development (such as early-life smoking exposure, air pollution, farming environment, and dietary fat). Rapid technological advancements have made unbiased genome-wide DNA methylation studies highly feasible, although there are substantial challenge in study design, data analyses, and interpretation of findings. In conclusion, epigenetics represents both an important knowledge gap and a promising research area for FA. Due to the early onset of FA, epigenetic studies of FA in prospective birth cohorts have the potential to better understand gene-environment interactions and underlying biological mechanisms in FA during critical developmental windows (preconception, in utero, and early childhood) and may lead to new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA and provide novel targets for future drug discovery and therapies for FA. PMID:25096861

Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

2014-09-01

321

Building Equitable Staff-Parent Communication in Early Childhood Settings: An Australian Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available International research has consistently found that good staff-parent relationships in early childhood centers benefit children, staff, and parents. Given these findings, the Australian federal government's Quality Improvement and Accreditation Scheme (QIAS requires centers to involve parents in their programs. However, international research has also found that early childhood staff are anxious about their relationships with parents. This article describes a study in which early childhood staff in Australia were asked about their experiences with parent involvement. It draws on those interviews to consider communication strategies to create equitable relationships between staff and parents.

Patrick Hughes

2001-01-01

322

Multimodal optical device for early childhood caries: a clinical prototype  

Science.gov (United States)

There is currently a need for a safe and effective way to detect and diagnose early childhood caries. We have developed a multimodal optical clinical prototype for testing in vivo. The device can be used to quickly image and screen for any signs of demineralized enamel by obtaining high-resolution and highcontrast surface images using a 405-nm laser as the illumination source, as well as obtaining autofluorescence and bacterial fluorescence images. Then, when a suspicious region is located, the device can perform dual laser fluorescence spectroscopy using 405-nm and 532-nm laser excitation which is used to compute an autofluorescence ratio. This ratio can be used to quantitatively diagnose enamel health. The device is tested on four in vivo test subjects as well as 17 extracted teeth with clinically diagnosed carious lesions. The device was able to provide detailed images which served to screen for suspected early caries. The autofluorescence ratios obtained from the extracted teeth were able to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy enamel. Therefore, the clinical prototype demonstrates feasibility in screening for and in quantitatively diagnosing healthy from demineralized enamel.

Zhang, Liang; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Berg, Joel H.; Seibel, Eric J.

323

Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Learning of Science in a Methods Course: Examining the Predictive Ability of an Intentional Learning Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the predictive ability of an intentional learning model in the change of preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understanding of lunar phases. Fifty-two preservice early childhood teachers who were enrolled in an early childhood science methods course participated in the study. Results indicated that the use of metacognitive strategies facilitated preservice early childhood teachers' use of deep-level cognitive strategies, which in turn promoted conceptual change. Also, preservice early childhood teachers with high motivational beliefs were more likely to use cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Thus, they were more likely to engage in conceptual change. The results provided evidence that the hypothesized model of intentional learning has a high predictive ability in explaining the change in preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understandings from the pre to post-interviews. Implications for designing a science methods course for preservice early childhood teachers are provided.

Saçkes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

2014-06-01

324

Parenting and Child Characteristics in the Prediction of Shame in Early and Middle Childhood  

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We examined individual differences in shame responding in early childhood and predictive relations with shame proneness in middle childhood. Child shame responding, parental shaming, and child temperamental inhibition were assessed at Time 1 (n = 225, aged 3-4 years), shame responding was reassessed at Time 2 (n = 199, aged 5-7 years), and shame…

Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Lall, Debra I. K.; De Jaeger, Amy E.

2010-01-01

325

Experiencing Multiculturalism First Hand: Looking at Early Childhood Education in China Teaches Us about Ourselves.  

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Recognizing and appreciating culturally diverse views of what is best for children is important, as underscored by the views of childhood evident in early childhood education programs in China. Families and schools in modern China experience unique social and political pressures, the most obvious of which is the "one child policy," which runs…

Freeman, Nancy K.

326

Warning--Television Viewing May Harm Your Child's Health: Parent Perceptions of Early Childhood Viewing Habits  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2009, the Australian Government introduced the Get Up and Grow (Commonwealth Government, 2009) guidelines for healthy eating and exercise in early childhood as one element of a range of initiatives aiming to curb childhood obesity, a problem affecting an increasing proportion of Australia children. Included in the policy recommendations are…

Garvis, Susanne; Pendergast, Donna

2011-01-01

327

Early Childhood Brain Development and Elementary Music Curricula: Are They in Tune?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines elementary music curricula. It presents an overview of research on childhood mental development; the importance of the early experiences of children on childhood development; the impact of environmental factors on language development; children's acquisition of music ability; enhancing elementary music curriculum; and…

Scott, Larissa K.

2004-01-01

328

Demographic Characteristics of Early Childhood Teachers and Structural Elements of Early Care and Education in the United States  

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Full Text Available This paper summarizes demographic information on early childhood programs and teachers of 3- and 4-year-olds. Questionnaires were sent to a random sample of early childhood programs across the United States. Data were collected on teacher characteristics and structural features of early childhood programs (enrollment, class size, hours of operation, and ratio of teachers to students. Results indicate that there are approximately 284,277 teachers of 3- and 4-year-olds in the United States. The vast majority of these teachers are women, and 78% are White. Approximately 50% of these teachers have earned a college degree, although educational attainment varies among program types. For-profit centers currently outnumber other types of centers, although the number of early childhood programs in public schools is increasing rapidly. The findings will be of interest to parents because they must choose among different program types when selecting a setting for their children, and it is therefore important for them to have access to information about the characteristics of early childhood programs and teachers. Additionally, policy makers need to understand the distinctions that exist between different types of early childhood settings as they adopt regulations and make funding decisions that affect parental choice of programs.

Gitanjali Saluja

2002-01-01

329

Maltreatment in early childhood: a scoping review of prevention, detection and treatment  

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Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years. Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on detection, prevention and treatment strategies in different situations of child maltreatment. Sexual abuse was excluded. The search spanned from 2002 to 2012, in English and Spanish. Results. Of 105 articles, 36 met the selection criteria. In prevention, the best evaluated strategies were parenting programs based on cognitive or cognitive-behavioral approach and interactive learning strategies. In detection, only two instruments were identified with optimum specificity and positive predictive value. In treatment, a variety of treatment strategies were identified with favorable effects on behavioral, functional and psycho affective indicators. The population relevance of these interventions is unclear, as the differential effectiveness of these therapeutic approaches. Conclusions. There are many child maltreatment prevention strategies at the individual and family level. The instruments used for detection are not reliable for use at the collective level. Insofar as therapy, not enough evidence was found both in quality and quantity to favor one intervention over another. It is recommended to understand the problem from the public health perspective and to generate multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches.

Luis Lefio Celedón

2013-08-01

330

Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse of Community Women: Mediated Effects on Psychological Distress and Social Relationships  

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Possible mediators of sexual abuse severity were tested on the basis of D. Finkelhor and A. Browne's (1985) traumagenic dynamics model with 178 low-income African American, European American, and Mexican American community women interviewed for Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women. This subsample reported contact sexual abuse before the age of 18…

Kallstrom-Fuqua, Amanda C.; Weston, Rebecca; Marshall, Linda L.

2004-01-01

331

Childhood Abuse, Nonadherence, and Medical Outcome in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients  

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Objective: The study assessed the relationship between a history of child abuse, nonadherence to medications, and medical outcome in children who had a liver transplant. Method: Abuse history for children and adolescents ages 8 to 21 who underwent a liver transplantation at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York was obtained in interviews in 2002.…

Shemesh, Eyal; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Yehuda, Rachel; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Hutson, Carolyn; Cohen, Judith A.; Briere, John; Gorman, Jack M.; Emre, Sukru

2007-01-01

332

Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study  

OpenAIRE

Matijasevich A, Howe LD, Tilling K, Santos IS, Barros AJD, Lawlor DA. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 236–249.

Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D.; Tilling, Kate; Santos, Ina? S.; Barros, Alui?sio J. D.; Lawlor, Debbie A.

2012-01-01

333

Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women  

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This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

2008-01-01

334

Women who experience domestic violence and women survivors of childhood sexual abuse: a survey of health professionals' attitudes and clinical practice.  

OpenAIRE

Health professionals do not wish to routinely screen women for a history of domestic violence or childhood sexual abuse. However, over 80% believe that these are significant health care issues. Routine screening should not be prioritised until evidence of benefit has been established.

Richardson, J.; Feder, G.; Eldridge, S.; Chung, W. S.; Coid, J.; Moorey, S.

2001-01-01

335

A literature review of the relationship between breastfeeding and early childhood caries  

OpenAIRE

Background and Aims: Improper feeding is one of the most important etiologic factors in early childhood caries (ECC). In some clinical trials, breast feeding (BF) is mentioned as a causing factor in ECC. Results in this topic are different or even controversial. It is vital that all general advices given out are consistent with general health education messages. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the relationship between breast feeding and early childhood caries. Mate...

Narjes Amiri TehraniZadeh; Nahid Asgarizadeh; Vajihe Kamel

2012-01-01

336

Conceptualizing the Professional Role in Early Childhood Centers: Emerging Profiles in Four European Countries  

OpenAIRE

Drawing on data from a recent cross-national study, this paper looks first at how European Union countries?through the framing mechanisms of training and provision?conceptualize the role of early childhood professionals. Four broad categories are delineated. These different role typologies raise questions related to the concept of professionalism. Professional knowledge and representations of early childhood professionals appear to be linked to the particular sociocultural discourse used to...

Pamela Oberhuemer

2000-01-01

337

A Neophyte Early Childhood Teacher's Developing Relationships with Parents: An Ecological Perspective  

OpenAIRE

Research has shown that close ties between early childhood teachers and parents are helpful for children, but many teachers have mixed feelings about, or feel unprepared for, such relationships. This study, drawn from a larger study of preservice and beginning teachers, used narrative inquiry to trace the development of an early childhood teacher?s relationships with parents during her first 2 years of teaching. Interviews and an audiotaped journal provided material for construction of the n...

Jennifer Sumsion

1999-01-01

338

Parents' perceptions of early childhood development in the Langkloof farming communities / S.L.D. Kemmies.  

OpenAIRE

Early childhood development has a lifelong impact on the future of each human being. However, all South Africans do not have equal access to the same quality ECD opportunities and services. As a means to advance knowledge in this regard, this study explores parents' perceptions regarding early childhood development (ECD) and their involvement therein, particularly within the Langkloof farming communities. Furthermore, the objective is to formulate guidelines, which can be applied to promote p...

Kemmies, Sharelda Luanshia Davidene

2013-01-01

339

The Discursive Construction of ‘Children’ and ‘Rights’ in Irish Early Childhood Policy  

OpenAIRE

This paper explores the construction of knowledge about ?children‘, ?rights‘ and ?ECEC‘ in Irish early childhood policy discourses. This research forms part of a wider thematic research project exploring Irish early childhood policy design from a number of angles; this strand of the research is concerned with ?revealing meaning? from Irish ECEC policy texts through a critical discourse analysis study. The theoretical goal of a critical discourse analysis study aims to understa...

Kiersey, Rachel; Hayes, No?iri?n

2010-01-01

340

“Unintended Consequences”—A Life in Early Childhood Education: An Interview with Bernard Spodek  

OpenAIRE

ECRP associate editor Jean Mendoza met with Dr. Bernard Spodek, Professor Emeritus of Early Childhood Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in December 2008 in his home in Champaign, Illinois, USA. Dr. Spodek's contributions to early childhood education have spanned six decades, during which his teaching, mentoring, and writing have influenced many around the world who are working in the field today. It all began in the 1950s, as he tells ECRP, when as an undergraduate ...

Jean Mendoza

2009-01-01

341

Childhood Onset Schizophrenia and Early Onset Schizophrenia spectrum disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Synopsis The clinical severity, impact on development, and poor prognosis of Childhood Onset Schizophrenia (COS) may represent a more homogeneous group. Positive symptoms in children are necessary for the diagnosis and hallucinations are more often multi modal. Both in healthy children, as well as in children with a variety of other psychiatric illnesses, hallucinations are not uncommon [1] and diagnosis should not be based on these alone. COS is an extraordinarily rare illness which is poorly understood but appears continuous with the adult onset disorder. Additionally, as seen in other areas of medicine, early onset populations have more prominent progressive brain changes, and genetic risk factors [2]. Diagnosing a child with schizophrenia has profound effects on the treatment course, including the potential for neglecting another disorder, as psychosis often becomes the primary focus. Since onset is almost always insidious, the “episodes” so common in later onset disorder are rarely seen. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the use of unmodified DSM criteria, based on extensive collateral information. Once a diagnosis is affirmed, aggressive medication treatment, in majority of cases with Clozapine, combined with family education and individual counseling may defer further deterioration. PMID:24012072

Driver, David I.; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L.

2013-01-01

342

Association of Child Temperament with Early Childhood Caries  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Psychological variable may affect early childhood caries (ECC), but this aspect has not been explored satisfactorily. This study evaluates the child temperament as a risk predictor for ECC. Aim: To find the association of child temperament with ECC. Settings and design: The study is a cross-sectional survey of 1300 school children aged 3 - 6 years from Moradabad city. This survey was conducted during March 2008 to April 2009. The survey assessed the child temperament and analyzed its association with ECC. Materials and Methods: Children were examined for the evidence of caries, using dmft (decayed missing filled teeth) index based on W.H.O standard criteria (1997). Child temperament was assessed on the basis of five factors; namely, Sociability, Emotionality, Energy level, Attentivity and Rhythmicity using Malhotra Temperament Schedule MTS. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data. Significance was deemed at p?0.05. Results: Out of 1,300 parents involved in filling questionnaire for assessment of child temperament, 1053 (81%) responded and their children were included in study. No caries were found in 731 (69%), while 322 (31%) had evidence of caries in one or more teeth. Of the five temperament factors, Sociability, Energy score, Attentivity and Rhythmicity significantly associated with ECC levels. No correlation could be established with emotionality. Conclusion: The children with ECC were found less sociable, less energetic, highly distractible and less rhythmic as compared to children without ECC.

Chaudhary, Seema

2014-01-01

343

International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education: Lessons from My Travels  

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Full Text Available Noting that working with early childhood colleagues in other countries can be enlightening and enriching, this paper offers seven insights gained from the experience: (1 "What It Feels Like To Be a Teacher" discusses observations of student and teacher behavior and attitudes in classrooms in China, a Caribbean island, and India; (2 "Similarities across Countries" notes that teachers? roles may be more powerful determinants of their ideas, ideals, ideologies, concerns, and beliefs than are the larger political, social, and cultural contexts in which they work; (3 "Problems with Comparative Studies" discusses the difficulties inherent in comparing educational provisions and effectiveness across countries; (4 "The Spread of Ideas across Borders" discusses the influence of the British Infant School approach in the 1960s and 1970s, the influence of the innovative province-wide reform work of British Columbia, Canada, in the 1980s, and most recently the influence of the Reggio Emilia approach; (5 "Issues Unique to the U.S." explores interests that appear of concern only in the United States, such as the development of self-esteem in children; (6 "Self-criticism in the U.S." discusses one American habit ? self-deprecation; and (7 "U.S. Leadership in Anti-bias and Multicultural Awareness" notes that the United States deserves a great deal of credit for leadership in addressing anti-bias and multicultural issues.

Lilian G. Katz

1999-01-01

344

Prevalence, risk factors and outcome of childhood abuse reported by female university students in jeddah.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse constitutes all forms of physical and /or emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child's health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence, types, main predictors and outcome of child abuse, retrospectively reported by female university students in Jeddah. A cross sectional study was conducted and the Standardized Arabic Version of Child Abuse Screening Tool for Young Adult (18-24 years old) was used. Ethical standards of confidentiality and freedom to participate were followed. Multistage stratified random sample was used with selection of 1,897 females. About two-thirds (68.3 %) of students reported exposure to some form of child abuse. Physical and emotional forms were recalled by 45.1 % & 50.6 % of students, respectively, while, 2.9 % reported exposure to forced contact sexual assault. Parents and siblings were the commonest perpetrators of both physical & emotional abuse, while other relatives and extra-familial persons were the main offenders of sexual violence. The predictors of exposure to three forms of abuse together were: existence of parent who hit the other (aOR= 2.54; 95 % CI: 1.88-3.42), non-university graduated mother (aOR =1.83; p Child abuse represents a public health problem, and there is a strong influence of familial risk factors in its occurrence. Programs for prevention of child abuse and for treating and rehabilitating victims are urgently needed. PMID:19493505

Ibrahim, Nahla K; Jalali, Ekram A; Al-Ahmadi, Jawaher R; Al-Bar, Adnan A

2008-01-01

345

Maximizing Partnerships with Parents and Pediatricians: The Role of Early Childhood Specialists  

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The early childhood provider, because of the consistent contact over time with infants, toddlers, and their families, is well positioned to observe the nuances of the early caregiving relationship; monitor early child behavior and development; identify deviances; and offer support, guidance, and intervention when families struggle. This…

Shah, Prachi E.

2010-01-01

346

Early Care and Education Matters: A Conceptual Model for Early Childhood Teacher Preparation Integrating the Key Constructs of Knowledge, Reflection, and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a great deal of discourse in the field of early care and education concerning the experiences, skills, competencies, and education level needed by early childhood teachers to ensure that quality teaching and learning take place in the early years. The purpose of this article is to describe an early childhood teacher preparation…

Ritblatt, Shulamit N.; Garrity, Sarah; Longstreth, Sascha; Hokoda, Audrey; Potter, Nina

2013-01-01

347

Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C  

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Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

2012-01-01

348

Hygiene and other early childhood influences on the subsequent function of the immune system.  

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The immune system influences brain development and function. Hygiene and other early childhood influences impact the subsequent function of the immune system during adulthood, with consequences for vulnerability to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Inflammatory events during pregnancy can act directly to cause developmental problems in the central nervous system (CNS) that have been implicated in schizophrenia and autism. The immune system also acts indirectly by "farming" the intestinal microbiota, which then influences brain development and function via the multiple pathways that constitute the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota also regulates the immune system. Regulation of the immune system is crucial because inflammatory states in pregnancy need to be limited, and throughout life inflammation needs to be terminated completely when not required; for example, persistently raised levels of background inflammation during adulthood (in the presence or absence of a clinically apparent inflammatory stimulus) correlate with an increased risk of depression. A number of factors in the perinatal period, notably immigration from rural low-income to rich developed settings, caesarean delivery, breastfeeding and antibiotic abuse have profound effects on the microbiota and on immunoregulation during early life that persist into adulthood. Many aspects of the modern western environment deprive the infant of the immunoregulatory organisms with which humans co-evolved, while encouraging exposure to non-immunoregulatory organisms, associated with more recently evolved "crowd" infections. Finally, there are complex interactions between perinatal psychosocial stressors, the microbiota, and the immune system that have significant additional effects on both physical and psychiatric wellbeing in subsequent adulthood. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:24732404

Rook, Graham A W; Lowry, Christopher A; Raison, Charles L

2014-04-13

349

Aspectos orofaciais dos maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica Orofacial aspects of childhood abuse and dental negligence  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar os principais aspectos orofaciais dos maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica, contribuindo com a identificação destas vítimas no ambiente odontológico. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados Adolec, MEDLINE, LILACS e BBO. Utilizaram-se como descritores: maus-tratos infantis, manifestações bucais, odontólogos, papel (figurativo e responsabilidade legal. Verificou-se que os maus-tratos infantis acontecem em geral em domicílio e os ferimentos orofaciais decorrentes incluem trauma, queimaduras e lacerações dos tecidos duros e moles, marcas de mordida e hematomas em vários estágios de cura. Pode haver ferimentos que envolvem outras partes do corpo próximas à cavidade bucal, como hematoma periorbital e contusão nasal. Quanto ao abuso sexual, muitas vítimas não apresentam nenhum sinal físico associado; assim, indicadores comportamentais devem ser observados. A imediata identificação e o relato de maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica pelo cirurgião-dentista são essenciais para a proteção das crianças, sendo fundamental uma maior atuação destes profissionais, através do registro e denúncia dos casos suspeitos às agências de proteção à criança.The aim of this paper was to identify the main oral and dental aspects of childhood abuse and dental neglect, contributing to the identification of these victims in a dental office. A bibliographic research was carried out, in ADOLEC, MEDLINE, LILACS and BBO databases. The following key words were used: child abuse, oral manifestations, dentists; role; liability, legal. It was verified that violence against children happens in general at home and the resulting orofacial injuries encompass: injuries, burns and lacerations on soft and hard tissues, bite marks and gradually-healed wounds. It can have wounds in other parts of the body next to the oral cavity, such as periorbital wound and nasal injury. Regarding sexual abuse, many victims do not present any associated physic signs; therefore, behavioral indicators must be observed. The immediate recognition and report of childhood abuse and dental negligence by dental surgeon are essential for children protection. Therefore, it is critical to define more effective action from those professionals, by registration and denunciation of suspect cases to child protection agencies.

Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino Massoni

2010-03-01

350

Transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo: associação com abuso físico na infância Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders: association with physical abuse in childhood  

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Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Muitos transtornos psiquiátricos, geralmente diagnosticados pela primeira vez na infância, estão associados a maus-tratos, entre eles o abuso físico, causando significativo impacto no desenvolvimento das crianças acometidas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a associação entre um diagnóstico psiquiátrico do grupo dos transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo (TDACD em crianças e a história de abuso físico na infância. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo seccional, crianças de 3 a 12 anos, atendidas em um ambulatório de psiquiatria de um hospital universitário, foram avaliadas por meio do MINI KID (, tendo sido diagnosticadas de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV. A avaliação de abuso físico e de outros eventos traumáticos foi realizada por um questionário específico, o LSC-R ( e inclui diferentes tipos de maus-tratos. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma razão de chance mais alta de exposição freqüente ao abuso físico (p = 0,02 no grupo de crianças diagnosticadas com TDACD. Não se encontrou associação entre transtornos de humor (p = 0,67 e de ansiedade (p = 0,57 com abuso físico. Evidenciou-se uma relação de temporalidade entre o grupo dos TDACD e abuso físico (66,6%. Após ajuste de possíveis fatores de confundimento, meninos demonstraram índices significativamente mais elevados de abuso físico do que meninas (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados documentaram associação entre um diagnóstico do grupo dos TDACD em crianças e abuso físico na infância.BACKGROUND: Many psychiatric disorders diagnosed at the first time in childhood are associated with child abuse, like physical abuse. This disorders cause an important impact on the childhood development. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between children with attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders group (ADDBD and physical abuse in childhood. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the MINI KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents to evaluate children with and without the diagnostic of ADDBD group. Physical abuse was evaluated using the LSC-R (Life Stressor Checklist - Revised and included others child abuses. RESULTS: We found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to physical abuse (p = 0,02 in the ADDBD group than in the group without this diagnostic. No association between mood (p = 0,67 and anxiety (p = 0,57 disorders and physical abuse. We found a temporal association (66,6% between ADDBD group and physical abuse. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found significantly higher odds ratio to the association between boys and physical abuse than did girls (p = 0,001. DISCUSSION: Our findings document an association between ADDBD group and physical abuse in childhood period.

Sheila Abramovitch

2008-01-01

351

Transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo: associação com abuso físico na infância / Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders: association with physical abuse in childhood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Muitos transtornos psiquiátricos, geralmente diagnosticados pela primeira vez na infância, estão associados a maus-tratos, entre eles o abuso físico, causando significativo impacto no desenvolvimento das crianças acometidas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a associação entre um diagnóstico psiquiátrico [...] do grupo dos transtornos de déficit de atenção e do comportamento disruptivo (TDACD) em crianças e a história de abuso físico na infância. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo seccional, crianças de 3 a 12 anos, atendidas em um ambulatório de psiquiatria de um hospital universitário, foram avaliadas por meio do MINI KID (), tendo sido diagnosticadas de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV. A avaliação de abuso físico e de outros eventos traumáticos foi realizada por um questionário específico, o LSC-R () e inclui diferentes tipos de maus-tratos. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma razão de chance mais alta de exposição freqüente ao abuso físico (p = 0,02) no grupo de crianças diagnosticadas com TDACD. Não se encontrou associação entre transtornos de humor (p = 0,67) e de ansiedade (p = 0,57) com abuso físico. Evidenciou-se uma relação de temporalidade entre o grupo dos TDACD e abuso físico (66,6%). Após ajuste de possíveis fatores de confundimento, meninos demonstraram índices significativamente mais elevados de abuso físico do que meninas (p = 0,001). CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados documentaram associação entre um diagnóstico do grupo dos TDACD em crianças e abuso físico na infância. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Many psychiatric disorders diagnosed at the first time in childhood are associated with child abuse, like physical abuse. This disorders cause an important impact on the childhood development. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between children with attention-deficit and disrupti [...] ve behavior disorders group (ADDBD) and physical abuse in childhood. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the MINI KID (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents) to evaluate children with and without the diagnostic of ADDBD group. Physical abuse was evaluated using the LSC-R (Life Stressor Checklist - Revised) and included others child abuses. RESULTS: We found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to physical abuse (p = 0,02) in the ADDBD group than in the group without this diagnostic. No association between mood (p = 0,67) and anxiety (p = 0,57) disorders and physical abuse. We found a temporal association (66,6%) between ADDBD group and physical abuse. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found significantly higher odds ratio to the association between boys and physical abuse than did girls (p = 0,001). DISCUSSION: Our findings document an association between ADDBD group and physical abuse in childhood period.

Sheila, Abramovitch; Maria Claudia, Maia; Elie, Cheniaux.

352

Children's Participation Rights in Early Childhood Education and Care: The Case of Early Literacy Learning and Pedagogy  

Science.gov (United States)

This position article argues that educators' knowledge of young children's perspectives on aspects of early learning, including literacy learning, and subsequent interpretations of the ways that these perspectives can inform and shape pedagogy are key to promoting children's participation rights in early childhood education and care. Drawing on…

Dunphy, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

353

Childhood Sexual Abuse and its Relationship with Psychosocial Outcomes Among Children Affected by HIV in Rural China  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with psychosocial outcomes among children in high HIV-prevalence communities in rural China. Data were collected from HIV orphans (n = 417; children who had lost one or both parents to HIV), vulnerable children (n = 326; children living with HIV-infected parents), and comparison children (n = 276; children who had not experienced HIV-related familial illness or death). About 30% reported having experienced at least 1 form of CSA; more boys (37%) than girls (24%) reported CSA; 24% reported only non-physical CSA, 5% reported both physical and non-physical CSA; 2% reported only physical CSA. Multivariate analysis revealed that CSA was significantly associated with problem behaviors and quality of life independent of key demographic factors. Findings suggest that these children were vulnerable to CSA and highlight the need to address the issues of CSA in this population. PMID:21112220

Zhao, Qun; Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Lin, Danhua; Stanton, Bonita

2010-01-01

354

Body image disturbance in patients with borderline personality disorder: impact of eating disorders and perceived childhood sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Body image disturbances occur in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Systematic research on these characteristics in well-defined BPD groups is lacking. It is unknown, if the disturbances are related to eating disorders and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), which frequently co-occur in patients with BPD. In the present study, cognitive-affective and behavioral components of body image for 89 female patients with BPD (49 with lifetime eating disorders) and 41 healthy participants were assessed via Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ) and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ). Within the BPD group, 43 patients reported a history of CSA. Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients reported significantly more negative scores in the BIAQ and the MBSRQ. Both a history of CSA and a comorbid eating disorder were independently associated with an even more negative body image. Results suggest a disturbance of cognitive-affective and behavioral components of body image in female BPD patients. PMID:23375838

Dyer, Anne; Borgmann, Elisabeth; Feldmann, Robert E; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Priebe, Kathlen; Bohus, Martin; Vocks, Silja

2013-03-01

355

Jordan's Strategies for Early Childhood Education in a Lifelong Learning Framework. UNESCO Policy Brief on Early Childhood. Number 39, July-August 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

Jordan has been paying increased attention to early childhood education in recent years. In particular, the government allocated unprecedented resources to the sector through its Education Reform for the Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) 2003/08. Funded by the World Bank and other donor agencies, ERfKE is designed to revamp the education sector starting…

Kaga, Yoshie

2007-01-01

356

After Abuse: Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers. FPG Snapshot. Number 54. August 2008  

Science.gov (United States)

By law each state is required to ensure that all substantiated cases of maltreated infants and toddlers are referred to Part C early intervention services. In reality, many children may not be receiving the child development services they need. Researchers have known for some time that children who have been abused are at greater risk for…

FPG Child Development Institute, 2008

2008-01-01

357

Nutrition, acid-base status and growth in early childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal growth is only possible in a well-balanced "inner milieu". Premature infants are especially vulnerable for disturbances of acid-base metabolism with a predisposition to metabolic acidosis due to a transient disproportion between age-related low renal capacity for net acid excretion (NAE) and an unphysiologically high actual renal NAE on nutrition with standard formulas. During a 50 month period, 452 low birth-weight infants were screened for spontaneous development of incipient late metabolic acidosis (ILMA), an early stage during the development of retention acidosis, characterized by maximum renal acid stimulation (MRAS, urine-pH controls, patients with ILMA showed higher serum creatinine values, an increased urinary excretion of sodium, aldosterone and nitrogen, but only slightly lower blood pH (7.38 vs 7.41) and base excess (-2.8 vs. 0.2 mmol/l) with respiratory compensation (PCO2 35 vs 37 mm Hg). Patients with altogether 149 episodes of ILMA were subsequently randomly allocated to either treatment with NaHCO3 2 mmol/kg/d for 7 days or no special therapy in protocol I, or NaHCO3 vs NaCl each 2 mmol/kg/d for 7 days in protocol II. Patients of protocol I with persistent MRAS for 7 days showed lowest weight gain and a tendency for a further increase in urinary aldosterone and nitrogen excretion. NaCl supplementation (protocol II) seemed to promote weight gain without affecting either impaired mineralization or suboptimal nitrogen retention. Patients with alkali therapy under both protocols showed normal weight gain and normalization of hormonal stimulation, mineralization (protocol II) and nitrogen assimilation. Modification of the mineral content of a standard preterm formula decreased renal NAE to the low level seen on alimentation with human milk and reduced the incidence of ILMA in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants to 1%. The data show that ILMA is associated with impaired growth. Activation of secondary homeostatic mechanisms (extracellular volume contraction, depletion of disposable net base pools) might be important for impaired growth. Production of new formulas for reduced renal NAE could be an effective general preventive measure to reduce the clinical importance of one component of mixed acid-base disorders in early childhood. PMID:11842947

Kalhoff, H; Manz, F

2001-10-01

358

Current state of topical antimicrobial therapy in management of early childhood caries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of early childhood caries can have a significant economical burden and treatment relapses are frequent. Effective intervention by means of topical antimicrobial agents can reduce the burden of early childhood caries. The main aim in prevention and treatment should focus on inhibition of the growth of oral bacteria. This is a comprehensive review of the literature on the various antimicrobial agents which are proven to be effective in management of this carious progression. The review identified that there is a significant data to suggest use of antimicrobial agents in management of early childhood caries. Antimicrobial agents aid in better management of patients with early carious lesion. The relapse rates are less, when the treatment is combined with the use of antimicrobial agent. PMID:24701354

Jayabal, Jayabaarathi; Mahesh, Ramakrishnan

2014-01-01

359

Educators' Understandings Of, and Support For, Infant Peer Relationships in Early Childhood Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

This research adopted a qualitative methodology to investigate the reported beliefs and pedagogical practices relating to infant peer relationships held by three early childhood infant educators. Thematic analysis was used to derive commonalties and differences that reflected these educators' views and practices about children's early

Davis, Belinda; Degotardi, Sheila

2015-01-01

360

Integrating Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation with the Pyramid Model. Issue Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing number of states and communities are implementing the Pyramid Model in early care and education settings, and in many of these places there are also early childhood mental health consultation (ECMHC) programs operating. This policy brief provides an overview of ECMHC, how it can support the implementation of the Pyramid Model and the…

Perry, Deborah F.; Kaufmann, Roxane K.

2009-01-01

361

Titiro Whakamuri, Hoki Whakamua: Respectful Integration of Maori Perspectives within Early Childhood Environmental Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The early years are a foundational time for the establishment of dispositions for learning. This paper draws on a recent study in Aotearoa (New Zealand) to illustrate ways educators have been implementing programs, within mainstream early childhood care and education settings, that inclusively offer Maori perspectives on caring for ourselves,…

Ritchie, Jenny

2012-01-01

362

Seeing the Strange in the Familiar: Unpacking Racialized Practices in Early Childhood Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, three educators share case studies describing racial biases and segregationist practices in early schooling. The authors draw upon critical race theory as a lens and employ critical discourse analysis to uncover classed and raced biases within and across three early childhood contexts. While the cases are situated in specific…

Brown, Sally; Souto-Manning, Mariana; Laman, Tasha Tropp

2010-01-01

363

Professionalism in Early Childhood Education and Care in Ethiopia: What Are We Talking About?  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite claims about the significance of early childhood education in improving later outcomes in an individual's life, this stage of development has not received sufficient attention by education systems across the world. Until recently, early education or preschool education did not come under the purview of the formal education system in most…

Tigistu, Kassahun

2013-01-01

364

Shifting Views: Exploring the Potential for Technology Integration in Early Childhood Education Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Using technology with children in play-based early learning programs creates questions for some within the Early Childhood Education (ECE) community. This paper presents how two faculty who teach in ECE-related degree programs integrated educational technology into their teaching pedagogy as a way to model to their students how it can be used to…

Dietze, Beverlie; Kashin, Diane

2013-01-01

365

Learning, Assessment and Equality in Early Childhood Education (ECE) Settings in England  

Science.gov (United States)

The early childhood sector in England, known as the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS), has been a site of intense policy intervention over the last decade, including the introduction of a statutory assessment of children's development at age five, conducted by teachers. National results from this assessment, the EYFS Profile, show continued…

Bradbury, Alice

2014-01-01

366

A Nordic Approach to Early Childhood Education (ECE) and Socially Endangered Children  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper I examine the Nordic model, i.e. a child-centred and holistic approach, in order to discuss Early Childhood Education (ECE) as a key policy instrument for fighting social inequality. Since 1999 it has been an important goal for the Danish government to ensure equal opportunities for all by starting with early intervention. This is…

Jensen, Bente

2009-01-01

367

Early Childhood Family Supports Community of Practice...: Creating Knowledge and Wisdom through Community Conversations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors describe Early Childhood Family Support Community of Practice (CoP), which was launched and facilitated by the Beach Center on Disability at the University of Kansas. A CoP is a group of people who share concerns or passions about a topic and who regularly interact based on their shared interests. The goal of Early

Gotto, George S.; Beauchamp, Donna; Simpson, Mary-Margaret

2007-01-01

368

The rationale for early detection and treatment of brain tumors in survivors of childhood cancer  

OpenAIRE

Survivors of childhood cancer have a relatively high risk of developing second cancers. The incidence of brain tumor in these patients approaches 1% at 10 years, over 80-fold that in the general population. This high incidence increases the likelihood that early detection of brain tumors in survivors of childhood cancer is feasible. By analogy with other epithelial cancers, detection and treatment of brain tumors at a pre-neoplastic or premalignant stage may render screening and treatment cos...

Cohen, Harvey J.; Iv, Griffith Harsh; Recht, Lawrence D.

2011-01-01

369

Early childhood caries trends and surveillance shortcomings in the Czech Republic  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Despite the decline in childhood caries prevalence, seen particularly in 1980s, in recent years there have been reports that the declining trend has stopped or even reversed in some countries. The aim of the study was to analyse data from previous epidemiological studies on early childhood caries in the Czech Republic, conduct a secondary analysis of trend in dental caries prevalence, and discuss issues related to national oral health surveillance. ...

Len?ová Erika; Pikhart Hynek; Broukal Zden?k

2012-01-01

370

The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Health Practices of Homeless Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…

Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin

2006-01-01

371

Mandatory Reporting of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Israel: What Happens after the Report?  

Science.gov (United States)

While the professional literature deals to some degree with the difficult dilemmas faced by professionals regarding the question of reporting or not reporting child abuse as mandated by law, there is a glaring insufficiency of studies looking at the impact of reporting on the victims and their families. This paper presents six cases of suspected…

Oz, Sheri; Balshan, Dorit

2007-01-01

372

Catch-up growth occurs after diarrhea in early childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diarrhea and linear growth faltering continue to burden low-income countries and are among the most important contributors to poor health during early childhood. Diarrhea is thought to adversely affect linear growth, but catch-up growth can occur if no additional insults are experienced. We sought to characterize catch-up growth in relation to diarrhea burden in a multisite dataset of 1007 children. Using longitudinal anthropometry and diarrheal surveillance data from 7 cohort studies in 4 countries, we examined the relation between diarrhea prevalence and growth in 3- to 6-mo periods using linear mixed-effect models. Growth during each period was calculated as a function of age using linear splines. We incorporated the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in both current and previous periods into the model. Diarrhea during the current period was associated with slower linear and ponderal growth. Faster (catch-up) growth in length was observed in children with no diarrhea in age groups immediately after an age group in which diarrhea was experienced [age group >6-12 mo: 0.03 mm/mo for each percentage diarrhea prevalence in the previous period (95% CI: 0.007, 0.06) relative to 11.3 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >12-18 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) relative to 8.9 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >18-24 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.003, 0.09) relative to 7.9 mm/mo mean growth rate]. The associations were stronger in boys than in girls when separate models were run. Similar results were observed when weight was the outcome variable. When diarrheal episodes are followed by diarrhea-free periods in the first 2 y of life, catch-up growth is observed that may allow children to regain their original trajectories. The finding of a greater effect of diarrhea on linear growth in boys than in girls was unexpected and requires additional study. Diarrhea burdens are high throughout the first 2 y of life in these study sites, therefore reducing the likelihood of catch-up growth. Extending diarrhea-free periods may increase the likelihood of catch-up growth and decrease the prevalence of stunting. PMID:24699805

Richard, Stephanie A; Black, Robert E; Gilman, Robert H; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Lanata, Claudio F; Mølbak, Kåre; Rasmussen, Zeba A; Sack, R Bradley; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Checkley, William

2014-06-01

373

Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: a cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (? = -0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (? = -0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (? = -0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (? = -0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences. PMID:24485848

Wingo, Aliza P; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

2014-04-01

374

Mendelian Randomisation Study of Childhood BMI and Early Menarche  

OpenAIRE

To infer the causal association between childhood BMI and age at menarche, we performed a mendelian randomisation analysis using twelve established “BMI-increasing” genetic variants as an instrumental variable (IV) for higher BMI. In 8,156 women of European descent from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, height was measured at age 39–77 years; age at menarche was self-recalled, as was body weight at age 20 years, and BMI at 20 was calculated as a proxy for childhood BMI. DNA was genotyped for twe...

Ong, Ken K.; Shengxu Li; Sharp, Stephen J.; Kay-Tee Khaw; Luben, Robert N.; Mumby, Hannah S.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Elks, Cathy E.

2011-01-01

375

The Role of Youth Problem Behaviors in the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Prostitution: A Prospective Examination  

Science.gov (United States)

Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines 5 potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages…

Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

2010-01-01

376

Movements in the construction of the rigth to early childhood education: historical and current  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the recent events held at the field of public policies on early childhood education, systematizing the marks of construction of this right in terms of its newly established legal system and analyzing such actions from a perspective critical and reflective. The historical review of facts and laws are considered in their socio-historical contexts, showing the formation of children as subjects of rights, the trajectory of the recent history of the right to early childhood education, and some current perspectives for the realization of a Children’s education whith social quality. The study demonstrated that rights have been obtained from large-scale mobilization of social movements, especially considering the participation of Movement Interforuns Child Education in Brazil – MIEIB. It was demonstrated that in light of new legislation in the area, social movements need to continue mobilized in defense of Early Childhood Education.

Maria Luiza Rodrigues Flores

2010-05-01

377

Early Detection of Markers for Synaesthesia in Childhood Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that the neurological condition of synaesthesia--which causes fundamental differences in perception and cognition throughout a lifetime--is significantly represented within the childhood population, and that it manifests behavioural markers as young as age 6 years. Synaesthesia gives rise to a merging of cognitive and/or sensory functions…

Simner, Julia; Harrold, Jenny; Creed, Harriet; Monro, Louise; Foulkes, Louise

2009-01-01

378

The Role of Youth Problem Behaviors in the Path From Child Abuse and Neglect to Prostitution: A Prospective Examination  

OpenAIRE

Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines five potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages 0–11) with cases processed during 1967–1971 were matched with non-abused, non-neglected children and followed into young adulthood. Data are fr...

Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

2010-01-01

379

Exploring Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Ireland: Critical Discourse Analysis as a Methodological Tool  

OpenAIRE

The Irish government have invested considerably in the broad early childhood education and care (ECEC) sector over the last decade. However, a distinction persists within Irish policy between childcare and early education, both structurally and conceptually. Early education frequently refers to intervention based pre-school services; conversely childcare frequently refers to the broad spectrum of care services for 0-12 year olds, from family based child care through to centre-based provision ...

Kiersey, Rachel

2009-01-01

380

Developmentally Appropriate Technology in Early Childhood (DATEC in Botswana: In-Service Teachers’ Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developmentally Appropriate Technology in Early Childhood (DATEC aims to identify themost appropriate applications of Information and Communication Technology to support thedevelopment of children under eight years of age. Botswana has a unique spread ofpopulation density and deep-rooted socio-cultural values. There is a need to address thecompatibility of these aspects with the application of Information and CommunicationTechnology in the proposed Early Childhood Education programmes throughout Botswana.The researcher felt that the views of the in-service teachers, (who are now students of theBachelor of Education Programme in the University of Botswana and have specialized inEarly Childhood Education, would be a valuable input towards an appropriate EarlyChildhood Education curriculum. Hence, a study was proposed to assess the views of theteachers, regarding DATEC in Botswana. Forty (40 fourth year students (Level 400 ofBachelor of Education (Primary Programme of University of Botswana, who specialised inearly years and have a good exposure to Information and Communication Technologyconstituted the sample. Their views were obtained from a semi-structured questionnaire.Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used for analysis of data. The findings ofthe study showed that the respondents strongly believed that an integration of Informationand Communication Technology with the Early Childhood Education curriculum isnecessary to enhance an overall development of young children. Computers with relevantresources were thought to be the best Information and Communication Technologyapplications in Early Childhood Education for a developmentally appropriate programmethat would provide educational concepts, problem solving skills and creativity. However,they emphasised the need to make the technology socio-culturally compatible to citizens ofBotswana (Batswana to facilitate developmentally appropriate education of young children.The study concluded with a few recommendations.

Kabita BOSE

2009-06-01

381

Childhood sexual and physical abuse as risk factors for the development of bulimia nervosa: a community-based case control study.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: There were two aims: First, to determine whether sexual or physical abuse in childhood or adolescence increases the risk of developing bulimia nervosa, and second, to see whether any increase in risk is specific to bulimia nervosa rather than being common to psychiatric disorders in general. METHOD: A case control design with individual matching was used. There were two related case control comparisons based on community samples. One hundred and two young adult women with bulimia n...

Welch, Sl; Fairburn, Cg

1996-01-01

382

Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. CSA survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by being intoxicated during sex and engaging in sex work, whereas the association between relational control and unprotected sex was not mediated by contextual factors...

Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret

2010-01-01

383

Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior among a Sample of Adults Living with HIV Infection and a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

OpenAIRE

Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior. Predictor variables included DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of PTSD and Dissociative ...

Hansen, Nathan B.; Brown, Lauren J.; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

2012-01-01

384

The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA and low (LA. HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio, and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy. Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.

Luis Moya-Albiol

2013-08-01

385

Early Mathematics Achievement Trajectories: English-Language Learner and Native English-Speaker Estimates, Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, to (a) estimate mathematics achievement trends through 5th grade in the population of students who are English-language proficient by the end of kindergarten, (b) compare trends across primary language groups within this English-language proficient…

Roberts, Greg; Bryant, Diane

2011-01-01

386

Process-Oriented Inquiry--A Constructivist Approach to Early Childhood Science Education: Teaching Teachers to Do Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Process-oriented inquiry can help preservice and inservice early childhood teachers implement constructivist science education in their own classrooms. In this article, we discuss the basic elements of process-oriented inquiry applied to early childhood science education, show how we foster the development of process-oriented inquiry teaching…

Martin, David Jerner; Jean-Sigur, Raynice; Schmidt, Emily

2005-01-01

387

Why Relationships Matter: Parent and Early Childhood Teacher Perspectives about the Provisions Afforded by Young Children's Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the perspectives of early childhood teachers and parents regarding the importance of provisions afforded by child-teacher and peer relationships in early childhood centres. Participants were 200 parents and 71 teachers of children aged 0-5 years who responded to an online survey containing a series of relationship function…

Degotardi, Sheila; Sweller, Naomi; Pearson, Emma

2013-01-01

388

Developing and Supporting Early Childhood Teacher Leaders: A Leadership Project Connecting University, Community and Public School Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The empowerment of early childhood educators as teacher leaders can translate into effective instructional practices that promote children's development. This paper aims to broaden the discussion about the relationship between early childhood educators and their traditional K-12 counterparts. We seek to present a wider exploration of what it takes…

Maxfield, C. Robert; Ricks-Doneen, Julie; Klocko, Barbara A.; Sturges, Lisa

2011-01-01

389

An Examination of Early Childhood Teacher Education in Four West African Nations: Ghana, Mali, Senegal, and the Gambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines opportunities and challenges in early childhood teacher education in Ghana, Mali, Senegal, and the Gambia. It reviews socioeconomic and political issues, current and emerging policies for early childhood and primary education, teacher preparation strategies, and examples of successful programs. Information was collected during…

Pagano, Alicia I.

390

A Comparative Analysis of the Function of Coordination of Early Childhood Education and Care in France and Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveyed local early childhood coordinators in France and Italy regarding their status, training, and tasks in order to compare the function of coordinating municipal early childhood education and care services in these two countries. Found impressive similarities in services, policies, and the function of coordination. Also found that service…

Baudelot, Olga; Rayna, Sylvie; Mayer, Susanna; Musatti, Tullia

2003-01-01

391

Preparing the Next Generation of Early Childhood Teachers: The Emerging Role of Interprofessional Education and Collaboration in Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective collaboration between early childhood teachers and social workers is now considered critical to providing children with adequate psycho-social supports and services in early childhood settings. In order for this interdisciplinary collaboration to be more effective, opportunities for each discipline to learn about each other's knowledge,…

Anderson, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

392

Noticing and Naming as Social Practice: Examining the Relevance of a Contextualized Field-Based Early Childhood Literacy Methods Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study examines what early childhood preservice teachers enrolled in a field-based literacy methods course deemed relevant regarding teaching, literacy, and learning. This study is based on postcourse interviews with 7 early childhood preservice teachers. Findings suggest that "contextualized field experiences" facilitate…

Laman, Tasha Tropp; Miller, Erin T.; Lopez-Robertson, Julia

2012-01-01

393

Study on Group-Based Problem-Solving of Pre-Service Teachers in Early Childhood Education Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aims to investigate how to develop pre-service teachers in early childhood education through employing group-based problem-solving. Participant in this research are 4th year study of pre-service teachers in early childhood education. Forty seven pre-service teachers were selected in the second semester, academic year 2010 by…

Prachagool, Veena; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

2012-01-01

394

At-Risk Children and Otitis Media with Effusion: Management Issues for the Early Childhood Special Educator.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the implications of otitis media with effusion (OME) for children with disabilities who are already at risk for speech, language, and learning difficulties. The results of a survey of 189 early childhood special educators on management of young children with OME and the role of the early childhood special educator are…

Medley, Lynn P.; And Others

1995-01-01

395

Electrophysiological correlates of attention networks in childhood and early adulthood  

OpenAIRE

Attention has been related to functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control, which are associated with distinct brain networks. This study aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the development of attention functions during childhood. A total of 46 healthy 4–13-year-old children and 15 adults performed an adapted version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) while brain activation was registered with a high-density EEG system. Performance of the ANT revealed changes...

Abundis-gutierrez, Alicia; Checa Ferna?ndez, Purificacio?n; Castellanos, Concepcio?n; Rueda Cuerva, Mª Rosario

2014-01-01

396

Exclusive Breastfeeding and Developmental and Behavioral Status in Early Childhood  

OpenAIRE

Breastfeeding during infancy may have beneficial effects on various developmental outcomes in childhood. In this study, exclusively breastfed infants were randomly assigned to receive complementary foods from the age of 4 months in addition to breast milk (CF, n = 60), or to exclusively breastfeed to 6 months (EBF, n = 59). At 18 months and again at 30–35 months of age, the children were evaluated with the Parent’s Evaluation of Developmental Status questionnaire (PEDS) and the Brigance S...

Hibberd, Patricia L.; Kleinman, Ronald E.; Geir Gunnlaugsson; Fewtrell, Mary S.; Inga Thorsdottir; Jonsdottir, Olof H.

2013-01-01

397

Language ability after early detection of permanent childhood hearing impairment  

OpenAIRE

Background: Children with bilateral permanent hearing impairment often have impaired language and speech abilities. However, the effects of universal newborn screening for permanent bilateral childhood hearing impairment and the effects of confirmation of hearing impairment by nine months of age on subsequent verbal abilities are uncertain.Methods: We studied 120 children with bilateral permanent hearing impairment identified from a large birth cohort in southern England, at a mean of 7.9 yea...

Kennedy, C. R.; Mccann, D. C.; Campbell, M. J.; Law, C. M.; Mullee, M.; Petrou, S.; Watkin, P.; Worsfold, S.; Yuen, H. M.; Stevenson, J.

2006-01-01

398

Early Childhood Education as Risky Business: Going Beyond What’s  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much has been learned about the possibilities of early childhood education from nations that have long invested in high-quality early care and educational programs. These new understandings are now being used by U.S. early childhood advocates to help parents, policy makers, and others better understand children's vast learning potentials, to acknowledge the deep intellectual work of teachers, and to recognize the rights of parents to help determine the essential features of a challenging and beneficial early childhood curriculum. What is less well acknowledged are cross-cultural insights into the potentials of a "risk-rich" curriculum, one in which both adults and children explore new topics and unfamiliar terrains, including those traditionally identified as developmentally inappropriate and beyond the reach of young children. In this article, the potentials of a "risk-rich" curriculum are explored using examples from the cross-cultural research literature as well as two classrooms of young children—one of 3- and 4-year-olds, the others from a kindergarten class. Teachers' reflections on what they learned about themselves and the children they teach are presented as they reveal untapped potentials of early childhood settings as sites for new discoveries and new relationships.

Rebecca S. New

2005-01-01

399

Reliability of self-reported childhood physical abuse by adults and factors predictive of inconsistent reporting  

OpenAIRE

Little is known about the reliability of self-reported child physical abuse (CPA) or CPA reporting practices. We estimated reliability and prevalence of self-reported CPA, and identified factors predictive of inconsistent CPA reporting among 2,256 participants using surveys administered in 1995 and 2000. Reliability of CPA was fair to moderate (K=0.41). Using a positive report from either survey, the prevalence of moderate (61.8%) and severe (12.0%) CPA was higher than at either survey alone....

Mckinney, Christy M.; Harris, T. Robert; Caetano, Raul

2009-01-01

400

Reaching Out to Fathers: An Examination of Staff Efforts That Lead to Greater Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, researchers and practitioners have become increasingly interested in father/male involvement in early childhood programs. However, few empirical studies have examined early childhood educators' efforts to involve fathers in such programs. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess early childhood educators' efforts to involve fathers and to determine which efforts lead to greater success at overall father involvement. Surveys were completed by 213 early childhood educators attending regional training events. Findings demonstrate that efforts are being made in a number of areas to increase father involvement. Multiple regression analysis revealed that three factors significantly accounted for early childhood educators' success at involving fathers: (1 including the father's name on the enrollment form, (2 sending written correspondence to fathers even if they live apart from their children, and (3 inviting fathers to the center to participate in educational activities with their children. Implications for practitioners are discussed.

Stephen Green

2003-01-01

401

Egocentric virtual maze learning in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Present neuroimaging findings suggest two subtypes of trauma response, one characterized predominantly by hyperarousal and intrusions, and the other primarily by dissociative symptoms. The neural underpinnings of these two subtypes need to be better defined. Fourteen women with childhood abuse and the current diagnosis of dissociative amnesia or dissociative identity disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 14 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view (egocentric), lacked any topographical landmarks and could be learned only by using egocentric navigation strategies. Participants with dissociative disorders (DD) were not impaired in learning the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar, although weaker, pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Stronger dissociative disorder severity of participants with DD was related to better virtual maze performance, and to stronger activity increase within the cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. Our results add to the present knowledge of preserved attentional and visuospatial mnemonic functioning in individuals with DD. PMID:23522878

Weniger, Godehard; Siemerkus, Jakob; Barke, Antonia; Lange, Claudia; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Sachsse, Ulrich; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Irle, Eva

2013-05-30

402

Developing Peer Mentoring Support for TAFE Students Entering 1st-Year University Early Childhood Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

At Queensland University of Technology (QUT, Australia), in the Bachelor of Education (BEd) (Early Childhood) (EC), Technical and Further Education (TAFE) students with a diploma enroll with advanced standing (1 year's credit). These students share many challenges faced by 1st-year university students--workload, technology, academic orientation,…

Heirdsfield, Ann; Walker, Sue; Walsh, Kerryann

2005-01-01

403

The Use of Computers in Early Childhood Education: A Growing Concern.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rationale for introducing computers in early childhood education in Hong Kong is presented. Findings from a survey of computer use in preschools, and case studies of preschools in which children use computers but do not achieve desired results, provide the background for this discussion. Arguments advanced for the use of computers concern…

Tse, Miranda Siu Ping

404

An Evaluation of the Individualized Learning Intervention: A Mentoring Program for Early Childhood Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the results of an evaluation of the Individualized Learning Intervention (ILI), a mentoring program for early childhood educators that is built upon adult self-directed learning experiences and the collaborative support of others. Sixteen Mentor and 16 Protege teachers in Head Start classrooms were selected for participation…

Gallagher, Peggy A.; Abbott-Shim, Martha; VandeWiele, Laura

2011-01-01

405

Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early

Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

2014-01-01

406

Performance: A Strategy for Professional Development in Early Childhood Teacher Preparation  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to propose performance as a creative instructional strategy to convey complex competencies related to understanding and working effectively with families in early childhood education. Performance derives from performance ethnography, which is a qualitative research methodology. Its application to professional…

Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Summers, Jean Ann; Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Palmer, Susan; Peck, Nancy F.; Zheng, Yu Zhu; Kruse, Aryn; Haines, Shana J.; Weigel, Cindy J.

2011-01-01

407

The Phonological Awareness Scale of Early Childhood Period (PASECP) Development and Psychometric Features  

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This study has two main aims. The first aim of the study is to develop a scale for determining early childhood period phonological awareness skills, and to put forward the validity-reliability of this scale. The second aim is to determine the norm values of this scale developed for the Marmara Region. For this reason, the research has been carried…

Sari, Burcu; Aktan Acar, Ebru

2013-01-01

408

Monitoring and Evaluation of an Early Childhood Development Programme: Implications for Leadership and Management  

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The article aims to discuss preliminary findings from a participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework, used in a community-based early childhood development (ECD) programme in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, and their implications for leadership and management. The purposes of the M&E were for LETCEE, the implementing organization,…

Hodgson, Sarah; Papatheodorou, Theodora; James, Mary

2014-01-01

409

Perspectives in Early Childhood Education: Belize, Brazil, Mexico, El Salvador and Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education (ECE) provision is becoming a growing priority. During the past twenty years, Latin America has shown a growing recognition in the provision of educational programs for young children, birth to age eight, is essential. Urban and rural populations intimated in 2009, that many countries utilizing equitable access to…

McConnell-Farmer, Judith Lynne; Cook, Pamela R.; Farmer, M. W.

2012-01-01

410

Different Neurocognitive Functions Regulating Physical Aggression and Hyperactivity in Early Childhood  

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Background: There are strong parallels between early childhood and adolescent behavior problems. However, we do not know if behavioral symptoms associate with neurocognitive processes in very young children as they do in older children. Methods: We studied a population-based birth cohort of children (N = 1,950) whose developmental trajectories of…

Seguin, Jean R.; Parent, Sophie; Tremblay, Richard E.; Zelazo, Philip David

2009-01-01

411

Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood  

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The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

2008-01-01

412

Implementation of Music Activities to Increase Language Skills in the At-Risk Early Childhood Population  

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The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of a music education intervention on the receptive language skills of students in an at-risk early childhood program. The target population was nine students ages 3, 4, and 5 in an at-risk, inclusive classroom in a Chicago public school. The problem of language delay is indicated in…

Seeman, Elissa

2008-01-01

413

Re-Emphasizing Character Education in Early Childhood Programs: Korean Children's Experiences  

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Character education efforts are influenced by the cultures in which they are implemented. This article describes the character education provided to children in Korea, both in school and at home. The author explores how the Korean early childhood education system strives to ensure positive character development among children. These discussions…

Lee, Guang-Lea

2013-01-01

414

Becoming Mathematical : Mathematical Subjectivity and Gender in Early Childhood Teacher Education  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this thesis is to investigate the processes through which mathematical and gendered subjectivity is constituted, reconstituted and maintained in different situations during Early Childhood Teacher Education (ECE). In three research articles it is investigated how student teachers’ subjectivity constitutions are expressed, formulated and reformulated in different discursive and material practices. With the support of feminist poststructural theories, student teachers’ subjectifi...

Palmer, Anna

2010-01-01

415

Collaborative Practice in Early Childhood Intervention from the Perspectives of Service Providers  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective early childhood intervention (ECI) relies on collaboration among agencies, service providers, and families. Although previous literature has primarily focused on segments of collaboration within ECI service delivery, the actual process and how the adult stakeholders perceive and engage in collaborative practice have important…

Yang, Chih-Hung; Hossain, Syeda Zakia; Sitharthan, Gomathi

2013-01-01

416

Co-Located Single Display Collaborative Learning for Early Childhood Education  

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The benefits of collaborative learning are well documented. However, most of the research has been done with children beyond the ages of early childhood. This could be due to the common and erroneous belief that young children have not developed the capacity to work collaboratively toward a given aim. In this paper we show how small group…

Gomez, Florencia; Nussbaum, Miguel; Weitz, Juan F.; Lopez, Ximena; Mena, Javiera; Torres, Alex

2013-01-01

417

A Validation of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in Finnish and Estonian Kindergartens  

Science.gov (United States)

Research Findings: The aim of the study was to examine the applicability and psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM; D. J. Stipek & P. Byler, 2005) outside the United States. The ECCOM was used to observe 83 kindergarten teachers (49 in Finland and 34 in Estonia) in classroom situations. Self-ratings…

Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Pakarinen, Eija; Trossmann, Kaili; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Siekkinen, Martti; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2012-01-01

418

Negotiating and Creating Intercultural Relations: Chinese Immigrant Children in New Zealand Early Childhood Education Centres  

Science.gov (United States)

A multiple-case study investigation of the experiences of eight Chinese immigrant children in New Zealand early childhood centres suggested that the immigrant children's learning experiences in their first centre can be understood as a process of negotiating and creating intercultural relations. The children's use of family cultural tools, such as…

Guo, Karen; Dalli, Carmen

2012-01-01

419

Early Childhood Teachers in Contexts of Power: Empowerment and a Voice  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on findings from a qualitative research project (Overton, 2006) that highlighted a lack of empowerment experienced by, with and for eight early childhood teachers working in Tasmanian schools. The study investigated how change affects teachers, and focused on the theme of power as experienced by these teachers. The study noted…

Overton, Jenny

2009-01-01

420

What Does Economics Tell Us about Early Childhood Policy? Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in neuroscience, developmental psychology, and program evaluation have been combined to develop a unified framework that provides evidence-based guidance related to early childhood policy. This research shows how insights from the field of economics-- human capital theory and monetary payoffs--also contribute to that framework.…

Kilburn, M. Rebecca; Karoly, Lynn A.

2008-01-01

421

Lessons in Safety: Cultural Politics and Safety Education in a Multiracial, Multiethnic Early Childhood Education Setting  

Science.gov (United States)

Young children learn about safety from a variety of sources, including formal lessons and informal activities provided through early childhood education and care (ECEC) services. For many ECEC centres in Australia, scheduled visits from police and fire departments are a highlight of safety education activities. Such visits offer children the…

Saltmarsh, Sue

2010-01-01

422

Correlations between DIAL and DIAL-R: Implications for Early Childhood Screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each of 64 kindergarten children in an international day school (a Western-oriented educational program for foreign national students in Taipei, Taiwan) were administered original and revised forms of the Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning (DIAL and DIAL-R), two tests widely used in early childhood screening. Of the 24 items…

Mardell-Czudnowski, Carol

423

Conceptualising Early Childhood Arts Education: The Cultivation of Synesthetic Transduction Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

In this theoretical article, we present, argue for, and illustrate a conception of early childhood arts education, centred on the notions of "synaesthesia" and "transduction". The empirical illustrations come from three different activities where teachers and children (aged 4-8 years) are engaged in music-listening, playing drums and a…

Wallerstedt, Cecilia; Pramling, Niklas

2012-01-01

424

Characteristics of Effective Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Multilevel Analysis of a National Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to (a) an increasing need to support children with emotional and behavioral challenges in childcare settings and (b) the high rates of expulsion among preschool children, mental health consultation in early childhood settings is becoming an increasingly popular intervention strategy. At the same time, there is little agreement or…

Green, Beth L.; Everhart, Maria; Gordon, Lyn; Gettman, Maria Garcia

2006-01-01

425

Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Infancy Interact to Predict Executive Functioning in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

The relation of observed emotional reactivity and regulation in infancy to executive function in early childhood was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children from predominantly low-income and rural communities. Children participated in a fear eliciting task at ages 7, 15, and 24 months and completed an executive function…

Ursache, Alexandra; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia; Voegtline, Kristin

2013-01-01

426

Pedagogical Leadership from a Distributed Perspective within the Context of Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In practice, pedagogical leadership cannot be considered on its own. It has to be considered within the full extent of leadership roles and responsibilities expected of today's early childhood leaders. This is not possible without an adequate understanding and theorizing of the foundational concepts of leadership and pedagogy. Here, the authors…

Heikka, Johanna; Waniganayake, Manjula

2011-01-01

427

Child Development in Cultural Contexts: Implications of Cultural Psychology for Early Childhood Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…

Lee, Kyunghwa; Johnson, Amy S.

2007-01-01

428

Documentation and Analysis of Children's Experience: An Ongoing Collegial Activity for Early Childhood Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

Systematic documentation and analysis of educational practice can be a powerful tool for continuous support to the professionalism of early childhood education practitioners. This paper discusses data from a three-year action-research initiative carried out by a research agency in collaboration with a network of Italian municipal "nido" services.…

Picchio, Mariacristina; Giovannini, Donatella; Mayer, Susanna; Musatti, Tullia

2012-01-01

429

Early Childhood Intervention Partnerships on the Navajo Reservation with an Emphasis on Special Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kayenta Unified School District (KUSD) is located in the Navajo Reservation in Arizona. In addition to serving over 2,600 K-12 students, KUSD collaborates with the Navajo Nation and the Kayenta community to provide three early childhood education programs: Acceptance Belonging Caring (ABC) preschool, Navajo Nation Head Start, and Child Care…

Sealander, Karen; Medina, Catherine; Gamble, Armanda; Pettigrew, Bobbie; Snyder, Maria; White, Sherri; Begay, Mary Helen; Bradley, Brian; Bradley-Wilkinson, Evangeline; Heimbecker, Connie; McCarty, Nellie; Nelson, Bernita; Nelson, Jacob; Smith, Jody; Whitehair, Marsha; Redsteer, Denise; Prater, Greg

430

Tracing Global-Local Transitions within Early Childhood Curriculum and Practice in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking the view that curriculum and pedagogy are complex processes related to history, politics, economics, culture and knowledge, and influenced by interactions that occur between students, teachers and the larger communities, this article will discuss how curriculum takes shape and is negotiated in some early childhood classrooms in…

Gupta, Amita

2008-01-01

431

Early Childhood Education in Yugoslavia. A Special Issue of Selected Bibliography of Yugoslav Educational Materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

This annotated bibliography cites journal articles, research, and excerpts from books which treat early childhood education in Yugoslavia. All materials listed were published in the 1970's, with the exception of one article dated 1967. The listing is alphabetical by author. Among the materials annotated are the following: (1) Conforming the…

Yugoslav Inst. for Educational Research, Belgrade.

432

Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

433

Finnish Media Literacy Education Policies and Best Practices in Early Childhood Education and Care since 2004  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the article is to describe Finnish media literacy policies and good media education practices in early childhood education and care. This article will focus on describing two central action lines related to the Children and Media Program, initiated by the Division for Cultural Policy of the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2004.…

Rantala, Leena

2011-01-01

434

The Impact of the Shifting Knowledge Base, from Development to Achievement, on Early Childhood Education Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in child development as a knowledge base for early childhood education programs flourished in the 1970s as a result of the theories and philosophies of Jean Piaget and other cognitive developmentalists. During subsequent decades in America, reform movements emphasizing accountability and achievement became a political and social…

Tyler, Kathleen P.

2012-01-01

435

Do Carrots Make You See Better? A Guide to Food and Nutrition in Early Childhood Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that young children learn about food and nutrition through food preparation, eating together, play, science activities, and games, this resource guide addresses food learning and nutritional provisions in early childhood programs. The guide is designed to meet the needs of children and adults in child care centers, family child care…

Appleton, Julie; McCrea, Nadine; Patterson, Carla

436

Rigidity in Gender-Typed Behaviors in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study of Ethnic Minority Children  

Science.gov (United States)

A key prediction of cognitive theories of gender development concerns developmental trajectories in the relative strength or rigidity of gender typing. To examine these trajectories in early childhood, 229 children (African American, Mexican American, and Dominican American) were followed annually from age 3 to 5 years, and gender-stereotypical…

Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Shrout, Patrick E.

2013-01-01

437

"Clouds Come from New Hampshire": Confronting the Challenge of Philosophical Change in Early Childhood Programs  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the evolution of an early childhood education program from one that was teacher directed, traditionally structured, and academically oriented to one that was emergent and child centered. The paper discusses how philosophical consensus was established, needed changes were prioritized and implemented, and new ways of thinking were presented to the traditionally trained faculty and to some change-resistant parents.

Dodge, Ellen P.; Dulik, Barbara N.; Kulhanek, Jon A.

2001-01-01

438

Use of Dialogue Journals and Video-Recording in Early Childhood Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This study utilizes students' journaling and video-recording of field experience teaching sessions as vehicles for inquiry into the development of the process of productive reflection within the piloting phase of an experimental course, designed by the National Center for Research on Early Childhood Education (NCRECE). The NCRECE course is…

Bayat, Mojdeh

2010-01-01

439

Life in the Village: Teacher Community and Autonomy in an Early Childhood Education Center  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents findings from a qualitative case study of a public early childhood education center whose motto, the familiar African proverb "It takes a village to raise a child," reflects the emphasis given to teacher community in the official school discourse. The meanings teachers gave to professional community were investigated.…

Blank, Jolyn

2009-01-01

440

Gaps and Remedies of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Programs of Botswana  

Science.gov (United States)

Five years after the release of the Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Policy in Botswana in 2001, it was felt necessary to review the current status of the ECCE programmes with special reference to achievement of standards of quality of education with reference to the recommendations in the ECCE policy. This effort has been supported by…

Bose, Kabita

2008-01-01

441

Graduate Leaders in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings, the Practitioner Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2006, UK policy has identified a professionalisation agenda for staff working in early childhood education and care settings. This has included the development of graduate leaders with a specific purpose to lead improvements in these settings by leading change, and hence improving outcomes for children. This article reports on findings from…

Davis, Geraldine

2014-01-01

442

The Impact of Early Childhood Teacher Education: How to Answer the Unanswerable Question. FPG Snapshot #68  

Science.gov (United States)

Public awareness of the value of a high quality early childhood education has never been stronger with Nobel-prize winning economist James J. Heckman declaring that it is the key to the nation's future. Higher education's role in preparing teachers to deliver on that promise is significant and continues to grow. A special issue of the "Journal of…

FPG Child Development Institute, 2013

2013-01-01

443

Master's Programs in Israeli Colleges of Education: A New Learning Opportunity in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of advanced studies for the professional staff working in the field of early childhood education (ECE). Until 2001, Israeli MA programs were controlled exclusively by Israeli universities. The article deals with the development of MEd programs in Israeli colleges of education, using the…

Mevorach, Miriam; Miron, Mordechai

2011-01-01

444

Early Childhood Education in Pakistan: An International Slogan Waiting for National Attention  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Conference on Education for All (1990) stated that learning begins at birth. The Dakar Framework for Action (2000) included the expansion and improvement of early childhood care and education as the first of six global goals. A number of countries have launched a variety of efforts to meet their global commitment to the development of…

Ahmad, Mumtaz

2011-01-01

445

Analyzing the Impact of Gender on Depictions of Touch in Early Childhood Textbooks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early childhood contexts often enact “common-sense identities” that create and sustain the notion that teachers of young children are expressly female and heterosexual. It has also been argued that touch is a key difference between men and women in early childhood classrooms. This exploratory study examined 10 early childhood textbooks to determine whether images depicting touch enacted these common-sense notions. To investigate whether implicit gendered messages existed within the texts, images displaying touch between teachers and children were grouped according to three main recurrent themes: teacher touching child, child touching teacher, and mutually negotiated contact. Findings indicated that, although the images of male teachers were positive, troubling patterns did emerge concerning the type and nature of men’s contact with children. These patterns worked to reaffirm larger patriarchal structures at play in schools and society while simultaneously painting women as more suitable to nurture young children. Furthermore, the texts provided clear messages to beginning teachers that acceptable types of touch were delineated by gender. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for early childhood preservice teacher education.

Andrew Gilbert

2008-01-01

446

Vicissitudes of Children's Mathematical Knowledge: Implications of Developmental Research for Early Childhood Mathematics Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Hachey's (2013) article celebrates a revolution that is taking place in early childhood mathematics education, fueled in part by developmental research demonstrating the mathematical capabilities of young children. At the same time, Hachey notes that the mathematics revolution she describes is not yet complete. In this commentary, the author…

Sophian, Catherine

2013-01-01

447

Education for Sustainable Development in Early Childhood Education in Spain. Evolution, Trends and Proposals  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyses how the sustainability culture has evolved in the early childhood education setting within the Spanish education system with official documents and the sustainability training received by teachers who intervene in this stage of education since these teachers' degrees have been adapted to the European Higher Education…

Agut, M. Pilar Martínez; Ull, M. Angeles; Minguet, Pilar Aznar

2014-01-01

448

In the Pursuit of Unhappiness: The "Measuring Up" of Early Childhood Education in a Seamless System  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent government attention to the coherence between early childhood and compulsory school curricula in Aotearoa/New Zealand has led to debates regarding the educational aims of different education sectors. Concerns regarding a "push-down" of compulsory school aims are highlighted in this article, with reference to Nel Noddings's…

Gibbons, Andrew

2013-01-01

449

Examining Response to Intervention Using a Framework of Best Practice from Early Childhood Special Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Response to Intervention (RTI) models are likely to be implemented in early childhood settings with greater frequency to target academic and developmental skills. With an increasing number of classrooms serving children with identified special needs, it is necessary to examine how current frameworks for RTI models meet the needs of all children in…

Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca G.; Vail, Cynthia O.; Chai, Zhen

2013-01-01

450

Mind-Mindedness in Infant Child-Care: Associations with Early Childhood Practitioner Sensitivity and Stimulation  

Science.gov (United States)

The significance of mind-mindedness, or the tendency of adults to ascribe mental states and processes when describing and interpreting children's behavior, is well established in home contexts. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and pedagogical implications of the mind-mindedness of 24 early childhood practitioners working…

Degotardi, Sheila; Sweller, Naomi

2012-01-01

451

Cross-Cultural Evaluation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) in Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

A Spanish translation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC-SP) was administered to 115 children aged 15-73 months in Mexico. In Phase 1, children with Autistic Disorder (AD), a non-Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) diagnosis or typical development were assessed with the ADEC-SP by a clinician blind to the child's diagnostic…

Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn; Angelica, Maria; Gallegos, Juarez; Salazar, Carlos, Marcin

2010-01-01

452

Whiteboards and Web Sites: Digital Tools for the Early Childhood Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Incorporating technology into the early childhood classroom to enhance traditional teaching methods is not a new idea. Yet the use of technology as an instructional tool in curriculum is still often considered an innovative way to engage young children in learning. Since "computers serve as catalysts for social interaction", the use of technology…

Lisenbee, Peggy

2009-01-01

453

New Policy Conclusions from Starting Strong II: An Update on the OECD Early Childhood Policy Reviews  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the start of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) thematic review of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Policy in 1998, some 20 countries across the world have been involved in the project. Recently the OECD has had a very successful launch of the report from the second round--Starting Strong II. This…

Bennett, John

2006-01-01

454

Comparison of Early Childhood Education (Preschool Education) in Turkey and OECD Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, it was aimed to evaluate how the difference the early childhood education in Turkey and OECD countries. The outstanding point evaluated by the teachers about the difference between the education in Turkey and that in OECD countries and the conditions needing to be improved was the compare of age groups benefiting from the services…

Ozgan, Habib

2010-01-01

455

Social-Emotional Effects of Early Childhood Education Programs in Tulsa  

Science.gov (United States)

This article assesses the effects of Tulsa, Oklahoma's early childhood education programs on social-emotional outcomes, examining teacher ratings of children's behavior from the Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention and a measure of attentiveness using fixed effects regressions with propensity score matching. The sample includes 2,832…

Gormley, William T., Jr.; Phillips, Deborah A.; Newmark, Katie; Welti, Kate; Adelstein, Shirley

2011-01-01

456

A Design of an Appropriate Early Childhood Education Funding System in China  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzes the structural reform of local governments funding for early childhood education (ECE) as the general public still casts doubts about the fairness of ECE system in China. A particular case in point is the Shenzhen Municipal Government's reform on their ECE funding system. Because the reform efforts are more about restructuring…

Xiaodong, Zeng

2008-01-01

457

Kentucky's Early Childhood Professional Development Initiative to Promote Social-Emotional Competence  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the Kentucky Initiative for Social Skill and Emotional Development which provides annual training and technical assistance to build early childhood programs' capacity to deliver practices known to promote social and emotional competency. The initiative is based on the 3-tiered Positive Behavior Support model that teaches…

McLaren, Elizabeth M.; Hall, Phyllis J.; Fox, Pamela

2009-01-01

458

Getting Ready for School: Palm Beach County's Early Childhood Cluster Initiative. Executive Summary  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes findings from the second year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…

Spielberger, Julie; Baker, Stephen; Winje, Carolyn

2008-01-01

459

A Nontraditional Teacher's Experience after Student Teaching: Implications for Early Childhood Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Introducing critical pedagogies into undergraduate early childhood teacher education programs may enable working class teachers who work with working class children to better examine assumptions of developmentally and culturally appropriate practices. This study focuses on a Latino assistant teacher who, after having returned from a semester of…

Garavuso, Vicki

2007-01-01

460

The Evaluation of an Early Childhood Development Support Project Using Goal Programming Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to introduce a goal programming based on a holistic approach for the evaluation of "early childhood development support project", which was applied in some cities in Turkey. Like in many other areas, statistical methods are widely used in research on pre-school education. According to the literature, very few studies were…

Ipekci-Cetin, Emre; Kuruuzum, Ayse; Cetin, Mustafa Koray

2007-01-01

461

Early Childhood Practicum Students' Professional Growth in the USA: Areas of Confidence and Concern  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examines specific areas of confidence and concern as expressed by 40 American undergraduate early childhood students on a practicum (supervised field-based internships); if their beliefs changed over the course of their practicum, and if prior teaching experience had an impact on their confidence levels. Areas of confidence and…

Wee, Su-Jeong; Weber, Elsa K.; Park, Soyeon

2014-01-01

462

An Examination of Locus of Control, Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness in Preservice Early Childhood Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to explore the locus of control, epistemological beliefs and metacognitive awareness levels of preservice early childhood education teachers and to determine the interrelations among these variables. 206 teacher candidates have been asked to fill out Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Central Epistemological Beliefs…

Bedel, Emine Ferda

2012-01-01

463

Arte: Un Programa Creativo Para Ninos Pre-Escolares (Art: A Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood).  

Science.gov (United States)

Written in Spanish and focusing on art activities for early childhood education, this manual provides guidelines for Spanish-speaking teachers of preschool and primary school children. The content of the manual is oriented to the learning styles and special interests of Spanish-speaking children. Part One defines artistic activity in the preschool…

Creative Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

464

Meanings of Child's Play According to Turkish Early Childhood Educators: A Phenomenological Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Play is a very critical element in and has important long-lasting impacts on child's development and learning. However, it has numerous definitions many of which are unclear. There is also a lack of research done with Turkish participants about the meaning of child's play according to early childhood educators who have significant roles in this…

Tekin, Gokce; Tekin, Ali Kemal

2007-01-01

465

Contribution from Various Disciplines to Measurement and Evaluation in Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Actual and potential contributions from the fields of anthropology, sociology, ecological and environmental psychology, and ethology to measurement and evaluation, particularly in early childhood education, are discussed. The diversity and potency of these approaches suggest that a multidisciplinary, eclectic approach to finding measures for…

Goodwin, William L.

1982-01-01

466

From STEM to STEAM: How Early Childhood Educators Can Apply Fred Rogers' Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

For many in early childhood education, STEAM is a new term. It began in this decade as STEM, an acronym for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. These curriculum areas have become a major focus in education because of the concern that the United States is falling behind in scientific innovation. With a new and familiar addition to the…

Sharapan, Hedda

2012-01-01

467

The Early Childhood Inclusion Support Program: Incorporating Discrete Skills into Comprehensive Units for Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experimental study examined the Early Childhood Inclusion Support Program (ECIS).The program uses empirically-based procedures to support effective strategies of inclusion in preschool, including training for program collaboration and implementation through direct services to students and through support for teachers, and through…

Klein, Evelyn R.; Geiss, Dana; Kushner, Robin; Hill, Donna

468

The Texas Early Childhood Intervention Program, 1990. ECI: Helping Families from the Beginning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Texas Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) Program is an interdisciplinary, interagency program established with the belief that programs working in partnership with parents will best serve the needs of infants and toddlers with developmental delays. Services for the children include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech/language…

Kirby, Julia, Ed.

469

Cuyahoga County Early Childhood Initiative Evaluation: Phase I Final Report and Executive Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responding to the need for a universal and comprehensive approach for supporting all families with children from birth through age 5, the Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) was launched by a broad-based coalition of public and private partners brought together by the Cuyahoga County government in Ohio. This report describes the history of ECI,…

Coulton, Claudia

470

Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Lithuania  

Science.gov (United States)

In Lithuania early childhood education and care embraces children of the age from one to seven and is an integrated part of the education system. According to Lithuanian education classification, it belongs to the zero level of education. Though defined as pre-school education yet this stage is composed of two parts--pre-school education of…

Seibokiene, Grazina

2008-01-01

471

Investigating Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes towards the Computer Based Education in Science Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate pre-service early childhood teachers' attitudes towards using Computer Based Education (CBE) while implementing science activities. More specifically, the present study examined the effect of different variables such as gender, year in program, experience in preschool, owing a computer, and the…

Yilmaz, Nursel; Alici, Sule

2011-01-01

472

Sources of Continuity and Change in Activity Level in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Actigraphs and parent and observer ratings were used to explore genetic influences on continuity and change in activity level (AL) in early childhood. Over 300 pairs of twins wore actigraphs for a 48-hr period in the home and laboratory at ages 2 and 3. AL was genetically influenced at both ages with little evidence of differential heritability…

Saudino, Kimberly J.

2012-01-01

473

Professional Burnout and Compassion Fatigue among Early Childhood Special Education Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored stress and coping as related to the phenomena of professional burnout, compassion fatigue, and resiliency in early childhood special education (ECSE) teachers. Interviews and observations were conducted with four ECSE teachers and the data were analyzed to identify stressors, coping strategies, and resiliency outcomes. First,…

Naig, Lisa Ann

2010-01-01

474

Examination of Work Environment Factors Relating to Burnout Syndrome of Early Childhood Educators in Greece  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education is a profession which requires the professional staff to spend considerable time in intense involvement with other people. The pressure from the demands this profession has can create a sense of physical and emotional exhaustion that often leads to burnout. Thus, previous research has linked perceptions of the work…

Rentzou, Konstantina

2012-01-01

475

From "Marginality" to "Mainstream": A Narrative of Early Childhood Professionalism in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood as a professional field with its concern for the young child has gained a distinctive perspective in Bangladesh. The prevailing thoughts and practices of this field, derived from a modern scientific paradigm, are a continuation of the trend that was introduced through colonization. The prime concern of practitioners is that…

Islam, Zahirul

2010-01-01

476

Here's What We Have to Say! Podcasting in the Early Childhood Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

A podcast is an audio file published to the Internet for playback on mobile devices and personal computers; the meaning of the term has expanded to include video files, or "enhanced podcasts" as well. Many students are already engaged with digital technologies when they first step into early childhood classrooms. Children as young as three years…

Berson, Ilene R.

2009-01-01

477

Professional Wisdom and Writing for Publication: Qualitative Interviews with Editors and Authors in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

College and university faculty members specializing in early childhood education face some unique challenges in scholarly writing. The purpose of this research was to use open-ended interviews as a way to gather the collective wisdom of a group of key informants about academic writing and publishing in the field. Twenty-two editors and/or authors,…

Jalongo, Mary Renck

2013-01-01

478

Teachers' Perceptions of Their Personal Early Childhood Special Education Competence in Day Care  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to examine and compare kindergarten and special kindergarten teachers' perceptions of their own competence in early childhood special education (ECSE) in Finnish day care. This comparison is based on the kindergarten teachers' and special kindergarten teachers' self-evaluation. Teachers evaluated their theoretical and…

Holst, Teija K.; Pihlaja, Paivi M.

2011-01-01

479

Directory of Early Childhood Care and Education Organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean. First Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The care and education of children is a primary task of all societies, and the role of parents, families, and communities is essential in this process. This directory describes the major activities of 218 non-governmental and governmental organizations, based in 38 Latin American and Caribbean countries, involved in early childhood care and…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

480

Directory of Early Childhood Care and Education Organizations in Sub-Saharan Africa. First Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This directory describes 241 non-governmental and governmental organizations, based in 40 sub-Saharan African countries, involved in early childhood care, development, and education. A useful information source for those working with and for children, the directory encourages and facilitates communication and information-sharing between…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

481

Early childhood caries update: A review of causes, diagnoses, and treatments  

OpenAIRE

Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious public health problem in both developing and industrialized countries. ECC can begin early in life, progresses rapidly in those who are at high risk, and often goes untreated. Its consequences can affect the immediate and long-term quality of life of the child's family and can have significant social and economic consequences beyond the immediate fami...

C?olak, Hakan; Du?lgergil, C?oruh T.; Dalli, Mehmet; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa

2013-01-01

482

Developing Child Friendly Environment in Early Childhood Education Classrooms in Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

Among all levels of education, Early Childhood Education and Development (ECEd) is considered to be the most critical level for social (relationship to others), emotional (self-image and security), cognitive (thinking and reasoning) and physical development of children. Therefore, the teachers of early years need to play a significant role in the teaching and learning process through providing a friendly environment in their schools. The study employed a case study approach. Information was g...

Khush Funer Murtaza

2011-01-01

483

Psychiatric comorbidity differences between women with history of childhood sexual abuse who are methadone-maintained former opiate addicts and non-addicts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following our finding of high rates of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) among methadone maintained (MMT) former opiate addict women with a history of childhood sexual abuse, we compared 68 MMT sexually abused women to 48 women from a Sexual Abuse Treatment Center (SATC) without a history of opiate addiction, for clinical-OCD (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale), dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), complex-post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress - Non-Other Specify), sexual PTSD (the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) and trauma events history (Life Event Inventory). MMT patients were treated for longer periods and were older and less educated. Clinical OCD was more prevalent among the MMT patients (66.2% vs. 30.4%, respectively), while complex-PTSD and high dissociation score (DES?30) were more prevalent among the non-addicts (46.9% vs. 19.1%, and 57.1% vs. 11.8% respectively). The high rate of OCD among sexually abused MMT women was not found in women who are sexually abused non-addicts. As dissociation was rare among the MMT group, it may just be that the opioids (either as street-drugs or as MMT) serve as an external coping mechanism when the access to the internal one is not possible. Future study about OCD and dissociation before entry to MMT are needed. PMID:24908543

Peles, Einat; Adelson, Miriam; Seligman, Zivya; Bloch, Miki; Potik, David; Schreiber, Shaul

2014-09-30

484

Exploring Partnerships in Early Childhood Teacher Education through Scenario-based Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Belonging to “a family, a cultural group, a neighbourhood and a wider community” (Department of Education,Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR], 2009, p. 7 is integral to children’s early development and learning.Acknowledging families as “children’s first and most influential educators” (DEEWR, 2009, p. 7, DEEWR notes that,“as children participate in everyday life, they develop interests and construct their own identities and understandings ofthe world” (Ibid. So, when children transition from the family context to participate in early education, establishingand maintaining partnerships with families and community members is essential to early childhood pedagogy. TheEarly Years Learning Framework acknowledges, “Belonging is central to being and becoming in that it shapes whochildren are and who they can become” (Ibid.While an important component of education, professional topics such as partnerships can be given less priority inuniversity subjects that focus on curriculum components. To “bridge perceived gaps between subject theory andprofessional practice” (Errington, 2010, p. 17 professional topics can be explored through scenario-based learning.This paper presents findings about the understanding and implementation of partnerships through scenario-basedlearning in a third year, online early childhood education subject, “Early Childhood Education and Care 2”. Theresearch question was, “How can scenario-based learning be implemented to increase students’ understanding andpractice of partnerships?”

Reesa Sorin

2013-01-01

485

Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

Kelley, Susan J.

2003-01-01

486

Early Childhood Mortality and Affecting Factors in Developing Countries: An Experience from Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Within a method of a cross-sectional survey that adopts following as key variable i.e., demographic, socio-economic and health-care factors, this study aimed to understand early childhood mortality rate and probable reasons in Bangladesh. In order to have probable rationality logistic regression of multivariate statistical technique is used to figure out the factors that are responsible for childhood mortality. The women who were married in the range of ageing 10-49 were asked to provide a co...

Matin, M. A.; Gazi Mahabubul Alam; Abul Quasem Al-Amin; Kabir, M. A.

2011-01-01

487

Using Routines-Based Interventions in Early Childhood Special Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Embedding early intervention activities into routines and activities of early care and education programs can result in increased skill development for young children with special needs or developmental delays. Routines-based interventions must be implemented through ongoing collaboration and communication among teachers, families, intervention…

Jennings, Danielle; Hanline, Mary Frances; Woods, Juliann

2012-01-01

488

Affective dynamics in triadic peer interactions in early childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

In interpersonal interaction research, moving beyond dyadic to triadic dynamics can be analytically daunting. We explored the affective states expressed during triadic peer interactions to understand how patterns were associated with childhood psychopathology and sociometric status. High-risk kindergarten children (N = 216) were observed in several groups of three during a free play task. We extended the state space grid technique to 3-dimensional analysis in order to derive variables of interest. Unlike results from parent-child dyadic interactions, triadic affective variability was not strongly associated with externalizing or internalizing problems. However, several triadic affective states were distinguished by externalizing, internalizing, and sociometric status, most commonly mutually aversive affect. Strengths and limitations of this methodology in relation to understanding peer triadic interactions are discussed. PMID:22695150

Lavictoire, Lindsay A; Snyder, James; Stoolmiller, Mike; Hollenstein, Tom

2012-07-01

489

Testing a multiple mediator model of the effect of childhood sexual abuse on adolescent sexual victimization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study modeled the direct relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent peer-to-peer sexual victimization (APSV) and the mediated effect via variables representing the number of sexual partners, sexual risk behavior, and signaling sexual boundaries. A cross-sectional study on the effect of CSA on APSV was conducted, utilizing a multiple mediator model. Mediated and direct effects in the model were estimated employing Mplus using bootstrapped percentile based confidence intervals to test for significance of mediated effects. The study employed 327 Danish female adolescents with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = 0.5). The estimates from the mediational model indicated full mediation of the effect of CSA on APSV via number of sexual partners and sexual risk behavior. The current study suggests that the link between CSA and APSV was mediated by sexual behaviors specifically pertaining to situations of social peer interaction, rather than directly on prior experiences of sexual victimization. The present study identifies a modifiable target area for intervention to reduce adolescent sexual revictimization.

Bramsen, Rikke H; Lasgaard, Mathias

2013-01-01

490

Conceptualizing the Professional Role in Early Childhood Centers: Emerging Profiles in Four European Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drawing on data from a recent cross-national study, this paper looks first at how European Union countries?through the framing mechanisms of training and provision?conceptualize the role of early childhood professionals. Four broad categories are delineated. These different role typologies raise questions related to the concept of professionalism. Professional knowledge and representations of early childhood professionals appear to be linked to the particular sociocultural discourse used to define and evaluate these concepts. Some recent contextual changes in four countries?Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and England/United Kingdom?are outlined that are considered potentially to be changing the structure and content of professional activities. Finally, key dimensions of an emergent role profile are described along with some challenges and opportunities that this profile may bring, both for the profession and for public perceptions of early years education and care.

Pamela Oberhuemer

2000-01-01

491

Early childhood intervention in Austria: An overview of 30 years of development and future challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The situation of early childhood intervention in Austria is described from its beginning in the 1970s up to the present situation and future challenges. Children with disability or at risk of being disabled qualify for early childhood intervention as well as partly and to some extent also children in the context of socially disadvantaged families. Based on nine provincial laws, the structure of early childhood intervention in Austria is heterogeneous. A consensus regarding key terms, the age of the child (0 – 3 or 6, and home-based services exists. Future challenges focus on early identification of vulnerable target groups by increased communication with community based networks (social worker, mental health specialists as the number of children with unspecific developmental delays or vulnerability will increase. The training programmes for early intervention professionals, as proposed for example in the project PRECIOUS (www.precious.at, must include the need for professionals to work with vulnerable families in general to a greater extent.

Manfred Pretis

2009-01-01

492

Language and Literacy Promotion in Early Childhood Settings: A Survey of Center-Based Practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The early childhood years serve as an essential foundation for subsequent literacy development. Despite the increased attention given to children's early literacy development, gaps remain in our understanding of what is actually taking place in child care programs across the nation. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1 to assess the extent to which early childhood educators engage children in literacy-building activities, and (2 to identify educator or programmatic characteristics associated with the promotion of early literacy activities in child care centers. One hundred and eighty surveys were completed by early childhood educators attending regional training events. Findings demonstrate that efforts are being made in a number of areas to engage children in a variety of important language and literacy activities in their centers; however, a sizable minority of those surveyed indicated that they do not frequently engage children in recommended activities. Multiple regression analysis suggests that certain characteristics related to the educator and program itself appear to have a positive influence on how often educators promote language and literacy activities in their centers: availability of print materials, the educator's confidence in the training received in basic literacy skills instruction, and the number of children cared for in a particular program. Implications for practitioners are discussed.

Stephen D. Green

2006-01-01

493

Childhood sexual trauma in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome : a case control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The impact of early lifetime trauma on symptom severity and quality of life of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has not been fully elucidated. We wanted to determine and compare the prevalence and impact of childhood traumatic events, with an emphasis on childhood sexual abuse, on patient symptoms, quality of life and other biopsychosocial parameters.

Nickel, J Curtis; Tripp, Dean A

2011-01-01

494

Adverse Childhood Experiences Reported by Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

... the Abuse of Children American Psychological Association Trauma Psychology Division Childhood Maltreatment Prevention Legacy for Childrenâ„¢ National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information Preventing Child Maltreatment: Program ...

495

Does Parental Psychological Control Relate to Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood? An Examination Using the Berkeley Puppet Interview  

Science.gov (United States)

Parental psychological control has been linked to symptoms of psychopathology in adolescence, yet less is known about its correlates in childhood. The current study is among the first to address whether psychological control is related to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood. A community sample of 298 children aged 7.04…

Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Soenens, Bart; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

2013-01-01

496

Maternal Over-Control Moderates the Association between Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioral inhibition (BI) and maternal over-control are early risk factors for later childhood internalizing problems, particularly social anxiety disorder (SAD). Consistently high BI across childhood appears to confer risk for the onset of SAD by adolescence. However, no prior studies have prospectively examined observed maternal over-control as…

Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderon, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

2012-01-01

497

Early childhood educators’ perceptions of preschoolers' mental health problems: a qualitative analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Early childhood education services create potentially optimal opportunities to identify and respond effectively to preschoolers' mental health problems. However, little is known about the knowledge, skills and competencies of early childhood educators in the area of mental health. The present study aimed to contribute to this field through conducting focus group interviews with professionals from public early childhood education centres in Greece. Methods Thirty-four educators attended five focus group meetings, with each group consisting of five to nine participants and two discussion facilitators. A thematic analysis was conducted using line-by-line open coding. Constructed codes from the wording used by the participants in the interviews were created, and constant comparisons for developing themes as well as seeking data not conforming to each theme were used independently by two researchers. At the end of this process, no new information was being provided and there was repetition in each of the categories. Results The analysis identified three themes in the data: risk factors for preschoolers' mental health problems, signs of preschoolers' mental health problems and practices of helping preschoolers with mental health problems. Results suggested that early childhood educators had satisfactory awareness of many preschoolers' mental health issues, although they showed a rather limited understanding in some domains. Moreover, they seemed to deliver inadequate practices in responding effectively to children's and families' mental health problems. Conclusions Best practice training in working with preschoolers, families and mental health services seems essential for helping young children receive the best level of support through early identification and intervention services for possible mental health problems. PMID:24386965

2014-01-01

498

Personalidad limítrofe, somatización, trauma y violencia infantil: un estudio empírico / Borderline Personality, Somatization, Childhood Trauma and Abuse: an Empirical Study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La somatización, el trauma y el abuso infantil son comunes y generan un uso excesivo de los servicios de salud. Este trabajo intenta estudiar la relación entre trauma psíquico infantil, somatización y personalidad limítrofe, en una población de mujeres hospitalizadas en dos hospitales de la Región M [...] etropolitana. Se aplicó como tamizaje el cuestionario de Marshall para trauma a 159 mujeres (60 del Hospital Parroquial de San Bernardo y 99 del Hospital del Salvador) hospitalizadas en distintos servicios clínicos, y a los quintiles extremos de puntaje en esta escala (64 pacientes) se les aplicó la escala de somatización del CIDI 2.1 de la OMS y la escala de trastorno límite SCID II de la Asociación Psiquiátrica Americana. De las 159 pacientes encuestadas sólo 54 (34%) no presentaban ningún antecedente de experiencia traumática durante la niñez, el 63,1% referían al menos un suceso traumático, un 40,1% al menos dos, y un 22,9% tres o más acontecimientos traumáticos. La experiencia traumática más frecuentemente recordada fue la separación traumática de alguno de los padres (34%), seguida de castigos físicos (27%). En 8,8% hubo secuela física secundaria al acontecimiento traumático. Un 7% de los 64 pacientes cumplieron los criterios diagnósticos del DSM-IV para trastorno límite de personalidad. El 66% cumplió con los criterios para trastorno de somatización, siendo las cefaleas el síntoma más frecuente. Se encontró, finalmente, una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre frecuencia de trauma y el trastorno de somatización. Abstract in english Somatization, childhood trauma and abuse are common, and exert great pressure on health services. This article studies the correlation between backgrounds of psychological childhood trauma, somatization, and borderline personality disorders among female inpatients in two facilities in Santiago, Chil [...] e. A trauma scale was used to screen 159 treated women (60 from San Bernardo Hospital and 99 from El Salvador Hospital) in different clinical units. The two quintiles with the highest scores were administered the CIDI 2.1 somatization scale and the SCID II borderline scale. Among the 159 cases, 34% reported no childhood traumatic experiences, 63.1% reported at least one event, 40.1% at least two events, and 22.9% recalled three or more traumatic experiences. The most frequently recalled event was traumatic separation from a parent (34%), followed by physical punishment (27%). Physical injuries were sustained in 8.8% of the cases as a result of the event. Seven percent of the cases met DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder, and 66% for somatization disorder. Headache was the most commonly symptom. We found a significant correlation between the frequency of trauma and somatization disorder.

Ramón, Florenzano; Kristina, Weil; Carlos, Cruz; Julia, Acuña; Claudio, Fullerton; Carolina, Muñiz; Caroline, Leighton; Magdalena, Marambio.

2002-10-01

499

Snap It up! Using Digital Photography in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

The digital camera has many uses in an early learning environment. However, there are some prerequisites to implementing the use of digital photography. In this article, the author offers some categories of usage as well as some concrete ideas for implementation of digital photography. She discusses how photos can be used (1) to give children…

Good, Linda

2005-01-01

500

Screening for Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the feasibility of doing hearing screening in Migrant, American Indian and Early Head Start programs using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology. Staff members were trained to screen 0-3-year-old children for hearing loss using hand-held OAE equipment and a multi-step screening and referral protocol. Of the 3486 children…

Eiserman, William D.; Shisler, Lenore; Foust, Terry; Buhrmann, Jan; Winston, Randi; White, Karl R.

2007-01-01