WorldWideScience

Sample records for early childhood abuse

  1. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated...

  2. Rebooting the Brain: Using Early Childhood Education to Heal Trauma from Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLintock, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Abused and neglected children live in a world that usually includes some sort of violence, chaos, and tremendous physical and mental stress. This toxic environment wreaks havoc on a child's developing brain. This article discusses how to use early childhood education to heal trauma from abuse and neglect. It shares the story of two children, Bryce…

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

  4. Combating Violence against Children: Jordanian Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Perceptions towards Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayez, Merfat; Takash, Hanan Mahmoud; Al-Zboon, Eman Khleif

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood teachers play major roles in defying child abuse and neglect and alleviating its detrimental effects on young children. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring how Jordanian pre-service early childhood teachers define and perceive violence against children and their role in child abuse detection and prevention. Furthermore, the…

  5. Combating Violence against Children: Jordanian Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Perceptions towards Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayez, Merfat; Takash, Hanan Mahmoud; Al-Zboon, Eman Khleif

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood teachers play major roles in defying child abuse and neglect and alleviating its detrimental effects on young children. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring how Jordanian pre-service early childhood teachers define and perceive violence against children and their role in child abuse detection and prevention. Furthermore, the…

  6. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick Karl; Doudin, Pierre André; Harris, Paul L.; Giménez-Dasí, Marta

    2014-01-01

    had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning...... learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally...... difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not...

  7. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Freda

    2014-01-01

    When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

  9. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Freda

    2014-01-01

    When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

  11. Does Physical Abuse in Early Childhood Predict Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood?

    OpenAIRE

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from 535 families were used to examine parents’ reports of child physical abuse in the first five years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first five years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls’ substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance us...

  12. Childhood abuse : pregnancy and childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasse, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Childhood abuse affects adult physical and psychological health. There is limited research on the effect of childhood abuse on pregnancy and childbirth. Studies usually focus on a single type of abuse, commonly sexual and/or physical abuse, few have considered emotional abuse. The results of studies on childhood abuse and mode of delivery are inconsistent. This might be due to methodological differences. No studies so far have focused on the relationship between childhood abuse an...

  13. Prevalence of substance use and abuse in late childhood and early adolescence: What are the implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Lion, Camilla; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence by gender of substance use and misuse in late childhood and early adolescence. A survey was conducted in 2013–2014 at primary and secondary schools of Padova, Veneto region, North-East Italy, on a sample of 171 pupils in 5th grade and 1325 in 6th to 8th grade. Among the 8th graders, more than one in three males and one in four females had experimented with smoking, and more than half the boys and nearly half the girls had experience of alcohol. In this same age group, almost two in three males and one in three females had used energy drinks, and nearly 5% of the boys had experience of marijuana and/or stimulant drugs. In addition, almost one in four of the male students in 8th grade had experimented with three of these substances. The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.” PMID:26844161

  14. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  15. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  16. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Shearman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

  17. Prevalence of substance use and abuse in late childhood and early adolescence: What are the implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gallimberti

    2015-01-01

    The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.”

  18. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  19. Linking Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent Risk Behavior: The Intervening Role of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah J. Jones; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Trish; DUBOWITZ, HOWARD; English, Diana; Jones, Bobby; Nagin, Daniel; Runyan, Desmond

    2013-01-01

    A robust literature links childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to later substance use and sexual risk behavior; yet, relatively little empirical attention has been devoted to identifying the mechanisms linking CSA to risky behavior among youth, with even less work examining such processes in boys. With the aim of addressing this gap in the literature, the current study examined the indirect effect of childhood sexual abuse (CSA; from age 2 to 12) trajectory group on risky behavior at age 14 (alcohol ...

  20. The Relation of Childhood Abuse and Early Parenting Experiences to Current Marital Quality in a Nonclinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, William; Abidin, Richard R.

    1996-01-01

    This study of 159 nonclinical married adults found that, for women, verbal abuse in childhood was predictive of marital conflict, and the caring parenting they experienced predicted the depth of the marital relationship. For men, the abuse variables did not predict any dimension of their current marital relationship. Among parenting variables,…

  1. Childhood sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Aktepe

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  2. PSYCHOTHERAPY AND CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sanjeev; Vythilingam, Meena; Eapen, Valsa; Reddy, Janardhan

    1992-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse may have a significant impact on psychological well being in later life. In this report, we describe 5 women who had a variety of psychological symptoms that were related to childhood sexual trauma. These factors were explored during psychotherapy. Persistent feeling of depression, anxiety and problems in socio-sexual functioning, were prominent. Therapy varied from counselling and ventilation, to prolonged dynamically oriented therapy.

  3. Linking Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent Risk Behavior: The Intervening Role of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Patricia; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana; Jones, Bobby; Nagin, Daniel; Runyan, Desmond

    2013-01-01

    A robust literature links childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to later substance use and sexual risk behavior; yet, relatively little empirical attention has been devoted to identifying the mechanisms linking CSA to risky behavior among youth, with even less work examining such processes in boys. With the aim of addressing this gap in the literature, the…

  4. Exploring Disclosure in Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, Roberta Ann

    2009-01-01

    Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…

  5. Childhood sexual abuse and delusions.

    OpenAIRE

    Brett, E

    2005-01-01

    There is a considerable body of research demonstrating that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with widespread short- and long-term psychopathology, and moreover, is connected with the most severe, chronic and life-threatening consequences of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. More specifically, there is a growing body of evidence reporting that CSA is related to psychotic symptoms and diagnoses of schizophrenia, and some authors have found thematic links between the nature of abu...

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Early Cannabis Use, and Psychosis: Testing an Interaction Model Based on the National Comorbidity Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, James E.; Murphy, Jamie; Adamson, Gary; Stringer, Maurice; Shevlin, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Previous research investigating the etiology of psychosis has identified risk factors such as childhood sexual abuse and cannabis use. This study investigated the multiplicative effect of these variables on clinically assessed diagnoses of psychosis based on a large community sample (the National Comorbidity Survey). Demographic variables (sex, age, urbanicity, ethnicity, education, employment, and living arrangements) and depression were used as predictors in the first block of a binary logi...

  7. Early childhood experiences of intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Paula Sismeiro; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa

    2013-01-01

    Research about intergenerational transmission of spouse abuse produced diverse results assigning different degrees of importance to parental abuse or to child witnessing of interparental violence as risk factors for future intimate partner violence. The present study analyses early experiences of abuse through childhood recollections of physical and emotional abuse and neglect and of witnessing interparental violence. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview specia...

  8. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Later Sexual Victimization among Runaway Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Cauce, Ana Mari

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on later sexual victimization among homeless and runaway youth. Found high rates of childhood sexual abuse and street sexual victimization, with females experiencing higher rates than males. Early sexual abuse increased likelihood of later victimization indirectly by increasing amount of time at…

  9. Aspects of abuse: consequences of childhood victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Deye, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment is unfortunately a common occurrence in the United States, affecting 1 in 8 children annually.(1) The consequences of maltreatment can be considerable, and exact a heavy toll on the individual, family, and society. Child abuse and neglect can cause permanent, heritable changes in the body׳s response to stress, which in turn inflicts profound changes in the developing brain. While these changes allow a child to contend with a neglectful, chaotic, or possibly violent environment, they strongly influence an individual׳s behavioral, educational, physical, and mental functioning and well-being throughout his/her lifetime, long after the maltreatment has ended. As the adverse childhood experiences (ACE) studies clearly demonstrate, adult survivors of maltreatment experience significant health harms that can cause significant morbidity and contribute to early death. Further, the lifetime economic cost to society of childhood maltreatment is estimated to be $124 billion dollars.(2) The study of resilient individuals who appear to suffer fewer negative consequences of their maltreatment offers insights into possible interventions for clinical practice as well as advocacy and public policy opportunities that would begin to lessen the significant burdens of childhood maltreatment. PMID:25834940

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse: Whose Memories Are Faulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Linda J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an argument for the possibility of faulty memory in perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse as an additional component in a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between sexual trauma and memory loss. Discusses motivations perpetrators may have for repressing memories, the most prominent being their own sexual abuse as children.…

  11. Trajectories of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors: The Role of Other Maltreatment, Witnessed Violence, and Child Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semi-parametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA…

  12. Childhood Abuse and the Content of Delusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Oliver J.; Brett, Emma; Collinge, Miriam; Curr, Helen; Rhodes, John

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate possible associations between histories of childhood abuse and the content of delusions for individuals with psychotic disorders. Methods: 39 participants with a psychotic disorder including one or more delusional beliefs successfully completed structured interviews about childhood trauma, delusional beliefs and…

  13. Childhood Abuse and the Content of Delusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Oliver J.; Brett, Emma; Collinge, Miriam; Curr, Helen; Rhodes, John

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate possible associations between histories of childhood abuse and the content of delusions for individuals with psychotic disorders. Methods: 39 participants with a psychotic disorder including one or more delusional beliefs successfully completed structured interviews about childhood trauma, delusional beliefs and…

  14. The nurse face childhood sexual abuse diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Leão Ciuffo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article discuss nursing diagnosis face sexual abuse victim child, considering magnitude problem in health and psychosexual development repercussions. The objective is reflect about nurse action face childhood sexual abuse situations. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, using bibliographic survey about nurse participation in childhood sexual abuse diagnosis. We believe that is necessary to sensitize nurse about detection responsibility of determinants aspects, attempting for social, cultural and economical children's family context. The result point to the necessity of an efficient and quality nursing assistance, witch is able to identify and recognize psychosocial indicators, having focus in child protection and damage reduction

  15. The nurse face childhood sexual abuse diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Leão Ciuffo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article discuss nursing diagnosis face sexual abuse victim child, considering magnitude problem in health and psychosexual development repercussions. The objective is reflect about nurse action face childhood sexual abuse situations. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, using bibliographic survey about nurse participation in childhood sexual abuse diagnosis. We believe that is necessary to sensitize nurse about detection responsibility of determinants aspects, attempting for social, cultural and economical children's family context. The result point to the necessity of an efficient and quality nursing assistance, witch is able to identify and recognize psychosocial indicators, having focus in child protection and damage reduction.

  16. Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Yumiko Kawashita; Masayasu Kitamura; Toshiyuki Saito

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

  17. Childhood experiences of incarcerated male child sexual abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-10-01

    While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships. PMID:20854041

  18. Frequency of childhood abuse in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Zeren

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students and 60 % of them were female. The mean agewas 19.04±1.28 (17-26 years. The emotional (p=0.025,physical (p=0.004 and sexual (p=0.001 abuse of malestudents were significantly higher than female students.The emotional (p=0.009 and total (p=0.026 abuse ofstudents who had families with lower income levels weresignificantly high. Also the frequency of emotional abusein students with divorced parents was significantly increased(p=0.012.Conclusions: Since child abuse and neglect may beassociated with the stresses of family life, the economicand social stresses of family should be determined andsolution advices to these should be developed. A multidisciplinarymanagement is required to detect, treat andrehabilitate the childhood abuse.Key words: Childhood, university student, sexual abuse

  19. Albania Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the early childhood development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Albania and recommendations to move forward. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the systems approach for better education results (SABER) - ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition, and social ...

  20. Malawi Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the early childhood development (ECD) program and policies that affect young children in Malawi and recommendations to move forward. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the systems approach for better education results (SABER) ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition, and social and ...

  1. Tuvalu : Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the early childhood development (ECD) programs and policies which affect young children in Tuvalu and recommendations to move forward. It is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the systems approach for better education results (SABER)-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition, and social and child p...

  2. Perceptions of Early Childhood Assessment among Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Barbara Mongelli

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate perceptions held by early childhood educators about the assessment process in their schools and to identify current assessment practices in early childhood settings in Delaware County, Pennsylvania. In February 2009, 230 early childhood educators completed surveys on the topic of assessment at an annual early…

  3. Childhood Abuse and Harmful Substance Use among Criminal Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Swogger, Marc T.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Walsh, Zach; MAISTO, STEPHEN A.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with s...

  4. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  5. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse. A Booklet for First Nations Adult Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Alana; And Others

    This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…

  7. Identifying and Evaluating Teachers' Knowledge in Relation to Child Abuse and Neglect: A Qualitative Study with Australian Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…

  8. Identifying and Evaluating Teachers' Knowledge in Relation to Child Abuse and Neglect: A Qualitative Study with Australian Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…

  9. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  10. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  11. Early Childhood: Psychomotor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 31 materials for teaching psychomotor skills at the early childhood level. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include the following…

  12. Early Childhood Kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials, the bibliography covers 80 kits for developing skills at the early childhood level. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include the following information:…

  13. Tooth decay - early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elsevier; 2011:chap 304. Ribeiro NM, Ribeiro MA. Breastfeeding and early childhood caries: a critical review. J Pediatr (Rio J) . 2004;80:S199-S210. Sexton S, Natale R. Risks and benefits of pacifiers. Am Fam Physician . 2009;79:681- ...

  14. Early Childhood Military Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelo, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Does the country's national security rely on top-quality early childhood education? Yes, say the military leaders of Mission: Readiness, an organization led by retired military commanders that promotes investment in education, child health, and parenting support. Actually, the generals are right, but for all the wrong reasons. The generals' aim is…

  15. Music in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andress, Barbara L.; And Others

    This booklet, designed for early childhood educators, describes young children's developmental sequences as they are related to music education and gives suggestions for age-appropriate musical activities. Special music environments, sound plays, and the teacher's role in helping a child discover music are examined. (SET)

  16. Emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality: The mediating roles of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of emotional abuse in childhood, along with physical and sexual abuse, on suicidality in adulthood, and whether and how emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediate the association between the childhood emotional abuse and suicidality. The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey with a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used to analyze the relationships between childhood emotional abuse and suicidality and the mediating effects. Random effects models showed that emotional abuse in childhood was positively associated with suicidality in adulthood, even after controlling for physical and sexual abuse in childhood. Emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediated the association between emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality. Depressive symptoms also mediated between emotional abuse in adulthood and suicidality. These findings suggest that emotional abuse in childhood has indirect harmful effects on suicidality in adulthood. It increases suicidality through higher occurrences of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Practitioners and policy makers should recognize that experiences of emotional abuse in childhood may result in re-victimization in adulthood, which, in turn, lead to suicidality. Early intervention programs to reduce the likelihood of experiencing re-victimization may be critical for people exposed to emotional abuse in childhood. PMID:25890665

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Work Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), physical and mental health work barriers, and employment outcomes using a large panel study of current and former welfare recipients. Controlling for human capital and demographic characteristics, they found CSA was associated with significantly fewer months worked over the…

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse, & Incest National Network (RAINN) : www. rainn. org Sexual Assault Resource ... organization for all those involved in suicide prevention and intervention, or touched by suicide. AAS is a leader ...

  19. Associations between childhood sexual abuse, substance use and body image

    OpenAIRE

    Erna Björnsdóttir 1985

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Childhood sexual abuse is a very serious but fairly common offense. It is defined as touching and/or non-touching activity, performed by adult or older child. Research has found that childhood sexual abuse can affect adolescent’s substance use. Also has been found that sexual abuse is associated with lower body image. The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the associations between childhood sexual abuse, body image and substance use among adolescents. The possible m...

  20. Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent's gender and timing of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, A; Figueiredo, B; Moya-Albiol, L

    2014-03-01

    It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mothers) from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect who completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The results showed that fathers had lower current potential risk of becoming physical abuse perpetrators with their children than mothers although they did not differed in their physical victimization history. Moreover, the risk was higher in parents (both genders) with continuous history of victimization than in parents without victimization. Prediction models showed that for fathers and mothers separately similar socio-demographic variables (family income, number of children at home, employment status and marital status) predicted the potential risk of becoming physical abuses perpetrators. Nevertheless, the timing of victimization was different for fathers (before 13 years old) and mothers (after 13 years old). Then our study targets specific variables (timing of physical abuse, parents' gender and specific socio-demographic variables), which may enable professionals to select groups of parents at greater need of participating in abuse prevention programs. PMID:24269330

  1. Positive Coping Strategies Developed by Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benishek, Lois A.; Morrow, Susan L.

    1995-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have been sexually abused as children. These statistics may be underestimated based on anecdotal information relayed by many therapists who specialize in working with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Effects of childhood sexual abuse have far reaching implications for the survivors' abilities…

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse among University Students in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse among University Students in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…

  4. Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios, Yasmin V.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Nicolaidis, Christina; Rondon, Marta B.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Sanchez, Pedro A. Mascaro; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods: In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatolo...

  5. The Sexuality of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Roller, Cynthia; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire Burke; Ross, Ratchneewan

    2009-01-01

    In this grounded theory study, a theoretical framework that depicts the process by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) influences the sexuality of women and men survivors was constructed. Data were drawn from interview transcripts of 95 men and women who experienced CSA. Using constant comparison analysis, the researchers determined that the central phenomenon of the data was a process labeled Determining My Sexual Being, in which survivors moved from grappling with questions related to the na...

  6. Questions and Answers about Memories of Childhood Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recalled. Some clinicians believe that severe forms of child sexual abuse are especially conducive to negative disturbances of memory ... with such things as issues of personal adjustment, depression, substance abuse and problems in relationships. The issues of childhood ...

  7. The Association Between Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse and Breastfeeding Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Julia C.; Michael C. Lu; Lange, Linda; Halfon, Neal

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the association between self-identified childhood sexual abuse and breastfeeding initiation. A nationally representative sample of 2017 parents with children younger than 3 years was surveyed by telephone about child-rearing needs. Respondents were asked to report childhood sexual abuse and breastfeeding practices. Responses of 1220 biological mothers were analyzed. A possible association between self-reported childhood sexual abuse and breastfeeding initiation was investi...

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…

  9. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…

  11. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Hatice; DİNÇER, Çağlayan

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  12. Retraumatization among Adult Women Sexually Abused in Childhood: Exploratory Analysis in a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.; Siegel, Jane A.

    2002-01-01

    Study examined risk factors related to re-traumatization in women sexually abused in childhood. Eighty women were interviewed once in childhood, twice in early adulthood. Risk factors were measured at second interview and used to predict reported trauma exposure between interviews two and three. Some factors (e.g. homelessness, depression) were…

  13. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  14. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  15. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  16. Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

  17. Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

  18. Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

  19. Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

  20. Counselor Meaning-Making: Working with Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Anna Michele

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent but taboo topic in society. Conservatively 80,000 new cases are reported each year with many more either unreported or unsubstantiated within the legal system. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse often times seek counseling assistance to manage the variety of short-and long-term emotional issues that may arise…

  1. Characteristics of childhood sexual abuse among female survivors in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, S N; Hughes, D M; Swingle, J M

    1996-04-01

    Characteristics of the abuse experience by 135 women entering an outpatient treatment program for survivors of childhood sexual abuse were assessed utilizing a structured clinical interview. Areas assessed included: nature, frequency and duration of the abuse; participant's age at onset of abuse; perpetrator characteristics; childhood physical abuse experiences; and circumstances leading to abuse cessation. Participants who had been molested by more than one perpetrator were administered questions about the abuse committed by each perpetrator separately. Abuse by the first individual to molest a participant was found to be more likely to be incestuous, of higher frequency, and more extensive and invasive than that by later perpetrators. Survivors seeking therapy indicated experiencing considerably more severe abuse, at a younger age, for longer duration, and at the hands of more perpetrators than previously reported in the literature on nonclinical samples of survivors. PMID:8730768

  2. Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Yasmin V.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Nicolaidis, Christina; Rondon, Marta B.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Sanchez, Pedro A. Mascaro; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72–2.83). Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15–12.26). The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60–6.89). Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04–1.68) and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58–2.71). Conclusion These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women’s health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence. PMID:25635902

  3. Unresolved Childhood Sexual Abuse: Are Older Adults Affected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Christopher T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents case studies and discussions regarding 3 observed characteristics of unresolved childhood sexual abuse in adult survivors over 65 years of age. Specifically, chronic depression, elder abuse, and misdiagnosis of residual abuse trauma as dementia or mental illness are compared to parallel issues identified by researchers working with…

  4. Childhood abuse and fear of childbirth--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Vangen, Siri; Øian, Pål; Kumle, Merethe; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Schei, Berit; Tabor, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Childhood abuse affects adult health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between a self-reported history of childhood abuse and fear of childbirth.......Childhood abuse affects adult health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between a self-reported history of childhood abuse and fear of childbirth....

  5. COMT but not serotonin-related genes modulates the influence of childhood abuse on anger traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Nader; Jaussent, Isabelle; Guillaume, Sébastien; Bellivier, Frank; Baud, Patrick; Jollant, Fabrice; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Cathryn; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Anger-related traits are regulated by genes as well as early environmental factors. Both childhood maltreatment and genes underlie vulnerability to suicidal behaviors, possibly by affecting the constitution of intermediate phenotypes such as anger traits. The aim of this study was to test the interaction between nine candidate genes and childhood maltreatment in modulating anger-related traits in 875 adult suicide attempters. The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were used to examine anger traits and traumatic childhood experiences respectively. The functional polymorphism of the catecholamine-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) gene Val158Met significantly modulated the association between sexual abuse and anger-trait level (p=0.001). In the presence of sexual abuse, individuals carrying the Val high-activity allele displayed greater disposition towards anger than individuals homozygous for the Met allele (p=0.0003). Notably, none of the serotonin-related genes influenced the effect of childhood abuse on anger traits. The results of the present study suggest that anger-trait level is influenced by the interaction between childhood abuse and functional polymorphism in the COMT gene. This study was carried out in a population with a high frequency of childhood abuse and a high disposition towards anger, and replication in healthy subjects is needed. PMID:20002200

  6. Early Childhood Special Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2011-01-01

    The process of early intervention is a critical component of Early Childhood Special Music Education. Early intervention is the process of providing services, education, and support to young children who have disabilities or to children who are at-risk of developing needs that may affect their physical, cognitive, or emotional development. The…

  7. Abuse Characteristics among Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors in Therapy: A Gender Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Steven N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Lucenko, Barbara A.; Swingle, Janine M.; Hughes, Dawn M.

    1998-01-01

    Abuse characteristics of 48 men from an outpatient treatment program for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse were compared with those of 257 women survivors. Only two major differences were found. Women were significantly more likely to have been sexually abused by a family member. Men were significantly more likely to report having oral sex…

  8. The Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Karni; Arnow, Bruce; Hart, Stacey; Gardner, William; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C.; Giese-Davis, Janine; Spiegel, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire (ARBQ), designed to assess abuse-related beliefs among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Study 1 examined the structure of the scale, and Study 2 evaluated its reliability and validity. Method: One hundred and seventy female…

  9. Childhood physical abuse in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubo Chiharu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan and Asia, few studies have been done of physical and sexual abuse. This study was aimed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse is associated with anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. Methods We divided 564 consecutive new outpatients at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine of Kyushu University Hospital into two groups: a physically abused group and a non-abused group. Psychological test scores and the prevalence of self-injurious behavior were compared between the two groups. Results A history of childhood physical abuse was reported by patients with depressive disorders(12.7%, anxiety disorders(16.7%, eating disorders (16.3%, pain disorders (10.8%, irritable bowel syndrome (12.5%, and functional dyspepsia(7.5%. In both the patients with depressive disorders and those with anxiety disorders, STAI-I (state anxiety and STAI-II (trait anxiety were higher in the abused group than in the non-abused group (p In the patients with depressive disorders, the abused group was younger than the non-abused group (p Conclusion A history of childhood physical abuse is associated with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. It is important for physicians to consider the history of abuse in the primary care of these patients.

  10. Knowledge of Child Abuse and Reporting Practices among Early Care and Education Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…

  11. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  12. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  13. Pre-Service Early Childhood Education Teachers’ Metaphors about Early Childhood Education Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ertürk Kara, Hatice Gözde

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the purpose is to determine metaphorical thoughts of pre-service early childhood education teachers about the early childhood education. Participants completed the sentence “Early childhood education is like…, because….” by writing what early childhood education means for them and why. 40 pre-service early childhood education teachers participated to this study in department of early childhood education teacher education in Aksaray University in 2013-2014 education year. the da...

  14. Teaching Mathematics in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Children who learn math fundamentals in preschool and kindergarten have the best chance of later achievement in school--but too often, children don't get the effective early math instruction that makes all the difference. Now there's a core early childhood textbook that helps current and future educators teach the most critical math concepts to…

  15. The Gambia Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the early childhood development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in the Gambia and recommendations to move forward. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the systems approach for better education results (SABER) - ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition, and soci...

  16. Yemen : Early Childhood Development 2013

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Yemen. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the SABER-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition, and social and child protection policies and interventions in Yemen, along with regional and intern...

  17. A Coping Model for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    A group of 149 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse was tested using a causal model that identifies relationships among sexual abuse situation characteristics, the accomplishment of cognitive coping tasks, and long-term effects. Results indicated the model did not fit the data. A revised model is proposed and examined. (JBJ)

  18. Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Female Survivors in Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Steven N.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Structured clinical interviews with 135 women entering an outpatient treatment program for survivors of childhood sexual abuse found that participants indicated experiencing considerably more severe abuse, at a younger age, for longer duration, and at the hands of more perpetrators than reported in the literature on nonclinical samples of…

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse and the Academic Adjustment of College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelein, Melissa J.

    1995-01-01

    This study compared college women with a history of childhood sexual abuse to nonabused college women on three measures of academic performance. No evidence was found that sexually abused college women differ from nonabused women in terms of their likelihood of staying in college, overall grade point average, or progress toward degrees. (DB)

  20. Childhood physical abuse and midlife physical health: testing a multi-pathway life course model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W

    2009-07-01

    Although prior research has established that childhood abuse adversely affects midlife physical health, it is unclear how abuse continues to harm health decades after the abuse has ended. In this project, I assess four life course pathways (health behaviors, cognition, mental health, and social relation) that plausibly link childhood physical abuse to three midlife physical health outcomes (bronchitis diagnosis, ulcer diagnosis, and general physical health). These three outcomes are etiologically distinct, leading to unique testable hypotheses. Multivariate models controlling for childhood background and early adversity were estimated using data from over 3000 respondents in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, USA. The results indicate that midlife social relations and cognition do not function as pathways for any outcome. However, smoking is a crucial pathway connecting childhood abuse with bronchitis; mental health is important for ulcers; and BMI, smoking, and mental health are paramount for general physical health. These findings suggest that abuse survivors' coping mechanisms can lead to an array of midlife health problems. Furthermore, the results validate the use of etiologically distinct outcomes for understanding plausible causal pathways when using cross-sectional data. PMID:19446943

  1. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Attachment Processes in the Dyadic Adjustment of Dating Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Shelley A.; Cusimano, Angela M.; Benson, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to improve understanding of the mechanisms that link early maltreatment to later outcomes, this study investigated the mediation effects of adult attachment processes on the association between childhood emotional abuse and later romantic relationships among heterosexual couples. College students and their dating partners (N = 310;…

  2. Pathways from physical childhood abuse to partner violence in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Mason, W Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D

    2004-04-01

    Analyses investigated several competing hypotheses about developmental pathways from childhood physical abuse and early aggression to intimate partner violence (IPV) for young adult males and females at age 24. Potential intervening variables included: adolescent violence (age 15 to 18), negative emotionality at age 21, and quality of one's relationship with an intimate partner at age 24. At the bivariate level, nearly all variables were associated in the expected directions. However, tests of possible intervening variables revealed only a few significant results. For males, a strong direct effect of abuse on later partner violence was maintained in each model. For females, the quality of one's relationship with an intimate partner did appear to mediate the effect of childhood abuse on later violence to a partner, raising the possibility of gender differences in developmental pathways linking abuse to IPV. Implications with regard to prevention are discussed. PMID:15384450

  3. The Early Childhood Coaching Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Dathan D.; Shelden, M'Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based and highly effective, "coaching" helps early childhood practitioners support other professionals and families as they enhance existing knowledge, develop new skills, and promote healthy development of young children. This hands-on guide shows professionals how to conduct skillful coaching in any setting--home, school, or community.…

  4. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  5. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  6. Early Childhood Education in Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Early Learning Childhood Center in Azerbaijan's capital city. Focuses on the goals of the program; its initial development; staff ratios, compensation, and teacher training; curriculum; cultural challenges and compromise; and relationships with parents. Asserts that developing a culturally sensitive program is extremely difficult,…

  7. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative reports from a subset (n = 30)…

  8. Childhood History of Abuse and Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia

    2000-01-01

    Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…

  9. Dispersing Waves: Innovation in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Anne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood education Centres of Innovation (COI) were established in 2002 as part of the 10-year plan for early childhood education, "Pathways to the Future/Nga Huarahi Arataki." In COI projects, innovative early childhood teaching teams reflect on and investigate their practices through action research, and share their findings with the…

  10. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  11. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Problems: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gila; Gueta, Keren

    2016-03-01

    Gender differences in the relationship between mental health problems and childhood abuse have long been of interest to researchers. The purpose of the present study was to examine gender differences in the relationship between childhood abuse and mental health problems among 110 Israeli inmates (50 women and 60 men). The findings indicated that female inmates reported higher prevalence of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and were more likely to suffer from mental health problems, compared with the male inmates. Additionally, the findings revealed that more female than male inmates had parents with mental health problems. Female inmates who reported mental health problems in their families also reported higher rates of child abuse relative to male inmates with a similar family history. PMID:25999267

  12. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kwako, Laura E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children’s attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of...

  13. The Revictimization of Adult Women With Histories of Childhood Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    CHU, JAMES A.

    1992-01-01

    Both clinical experience and recent research statistics support the observation that childhood abuse survivors are vulnerable to revictimization as adults. The responsibility for revictimization, such as physical or sexual assault, belongs to the perpetrators. However, the factors that make abuse survivors more vulnerable to exploitation need to be examined and understood in order to provide adequate treatment and protection. This discussion integrates an understanding of three...

  14. Rural-Urban Migration and Experience of Childhood Abuse in the Young Thai Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Abas, Melanie; Harpham, Trudy; Prince, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Evidence suggests that certain migrant populations are at increased risk of abusive behaviors. It is unclear whether this may also apply to Thai rural-urban migrants, who may experience higher levels of psychosocial adversities than the population at large. The study aims to examine the association between migration status and the history of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse among young Thai people in an urban community. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Northern Bangkok on a representative sample of 1052 young residents, aged 16-25 years. Data were obtained concerning: 1) exposures-migration (defined as an occasion when a young person, born in a more rural area moves for the first time into Greater Bangkok) and age at migration. 2) outcomes-child abuse experiences were assessed with an anonymous self report adapted from the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS). There were 8.4%. 16.6% and 56.0% reporting sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, respectively. Forty six percent of adolescents had migrated from rural areas to Bangkok, mostly independently at the age of 15 or after to seek work. Although there were trends towards higher prevalences of the three categories of abuse among early migrants, who moved to Bangkok before the age of 15, being early migrants was independently associated with experiences of physical abuse (OR 1.9 95%CI 1.1-3.2) and emotional abuse (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.3-3.0) only. Our results suggest that rural-urban migration at an early age may place children at higher risk of physical and emotional abuse. This may have policy implications for the prevention of childhood abuse particularly among young people on the move. PMID:22131643

  15. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  16. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  17. A Perspective on Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamroy, Jerilyn A.

    1980-01-01

    The Cincinnati Children's Hospital treated preadolescent children for symptoms, signs, or complaints of sexual abuse. The alleged abuser was known to the children in 72 percent of the cases. Describes the hospital's procedure for identifying these children and the follow-up services necessary for their protection and emotional adjustment. (Author)

  18. Early Childhood Education/Drug Abuse Prevention Curricula/Materials Project Mini-Conference Materials (Washington, D.C., June 8-9, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredekamp, Sue; And Others

    This collection of conference materials presents papers on the following topics: (1) approaches and targeting; (2) the BABES Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children; (3) a prekindergarten substance abuse prevention education curriculum; (4) a parent-oriented, pilot Head Start primary prevention, drug education project; (5) evaluation…

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  1. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…

  2. Resilience Factors Associated with Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, LaNae; Feinauer, Leslie L.

    1993-01-01

    Interviewed 22 women who were survivors of childhood sexual abuse, yet who were able to have relationships, stable careers, and healthy personalities. Interviews revealed resiliency themes of ability to find emotional support outside the family; self-regard or ability to think well of oneself; spirituality; external attribution of blame and…

  3. Representations of Self in Women Sexually Abused in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Catherine; Field, Nigel P.; Atkinson, Ami; Spiegel, David

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-seven self-identified female survivors of childhood sexual abuse completed measures designed to elicit symptoms and self-descriptions. Discrepancies in views of current self when compared to ideal or future selves were positively correlated with all symptom measures. Self integration was negatively correlated with symptoms. (Author/DB)

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychosomatic Symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A.

    2005-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…

  5. Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse for College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Edward A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Survey of university undergraduates (N=958) revealed that over 4% recalled being forced into oral or genital sexual abuse during childhood. Survivors reported minimal evidence of emotional or family dysfunction. However, they behaved promiscuously, attempted suicide, perpetrated sexual assault, and engaged in juvenile crimes. Findings were…

  6. Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse for College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Edward A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Survey of university undergraduates (N=958) revealed that over 4% recalled being forced into oral or genital sexual abuse during childhood. Survivors reported minimal evidence of emotional or family dysfunction. However, they behaved promiscuously, attempted suicide, perpetrated sexual assault, and engaged in juvenile crimes. Findings were…

  7. Using the Couple Relationship to Address Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Marcia M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of the couple relationship to address the effects of childhood sexual abuse of one or both of the partners, discusses the issues facing couples, and presents therapeutic guidelines for working with such couples. Reviews related work in the field and methods for treating couples facing other traumas. Reviews available resources.…

  8. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…

  9. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    OpenAIRE

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the US. There are few published studies examining the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause PTSD, activate biological stress response systems, and contribute to adverse brain development. This article will critically review the psychiatric problems associated with maltreatment and th...

  10. The Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator’s Role in Teaching Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong likelihood that at least one participant in any Lamaze childbirth education class has had personal experience with childhood sexual abuse. Using the wisdom of Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators and respected authors in the field of childhood sexual abuse, this column enlightens the childbirth educator in three ways: understanding the incidence of female and male childhood sexual abuse; understanding the effects of sexual, emotional, physical, and verbal abuse on the pregn...

  11. Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm”

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M.; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in...

  12. Developmental Psychology and Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    This report discusses the relationship between the fields of early childhood education and developmental psychology. A historical overview focuses on the early influence of Freud's psychoanalytical principles on early childhood education. Developmental psychologists became involved with ECE on a large scale in the 1960's, encouraged largely by the…

  13. Early Childhood Development Policy Advances in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early…

  14. Global Trends in Early Childhood Education: 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger; Goodeve, Emily

    2009-01-01

    As early childhood professionals from 78 countries prepare to travel to Belfast for the 2009 World Forum on Early Care and Education, these authors surveyed a sampling of those who will be attending on the current trends in early childhood education in their country. Delegates from over 40 countries responded, and in reviewing the reports from…

  15. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. PMID:25550167

  16. Maternal history of childhood sexual abuse and preterm birth: an epidemiologic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Gelaye, Bizu; Michelle A.Williams

    2015-01-01

    Background: History of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent with as many as one in four American women being victims. Exposure to CSA or other early life traumatic experiences has been associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. However, the effects of CSA on preterm delivery (PTB), a leading cause of neonatal mortality, remain poorly understood. The objectives of this review are (i) to synthesize the available research investigating the relationship between mater...

  17. Maternal history of childhood sexual abuse and preterm birth: an epidemiologic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Gelaye, Bizu; Michelle A.Williams

    2015-01-01

    Background History of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent with as many as one in four American women being victims. Exposure to CSA or other early life traumatic experiences has been associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. However, the effects of CSA on preterm delivery (PTB), a leading cause of neonatal mortality, remain poorly understood. The objectives of this review are (i) to synthesize the available research investigating the relationship between matern...

  18. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  19. The Specific Role of Childhood Abuse, Parental Bonding, and Family Functioning in Female Adolescents With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family. PMID:25905734

  20. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  1. Shame and Guilt in Men Exposed to Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…

  2. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  3. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  4. Intergenerational associations between a consensual childhood sexual experience and adult substance abuse among Latina mothers and daughters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patria Rojas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Patria Rojas2,3, Sunny Kim4, Mario De La Rosa2,3, Frank R Dillon2,3, Theophile Niyonsenga1,31Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 2School of Social Work, 3Center for Research on US Latinos HIV/AIDs and Drug Abuse, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Davis, CA, USAPurpose: Early onset of sexual activity has been linked to later substance abuse. Our study aimed to further describe the associations between Latina mothers’ and daughters’ early sexual activity and adult substance abuse.Methods: A survey was conducted with 92 Latina mother–daughter dyads whose members never experienced sexual abuse. Childhood sexual experience was defined as the occurrence of a consensual sexual encounter at the age of 15 years or younger. Substance abusers were identified by the extent of substance use during the 12 months prior to the interview. Path analysis was used to fit our conceptual models to the data.Main findings: Daughters’ current, adult substance abuse was associated independently with: their own childhood sexual experience (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 and mothers’ current, adult substance abuse (OR = 2.0. Compared with daughters who first experienced sex after the age of 19, the odds of using substances were 17.7 times higher among daughters who had childhood sexual experience and 3.8 times higher among daughters who first experienced sex between the age of 16–19 years. Explicitly, sexual experiences between the ages of 16–19 years were also risk factors for later adult substance abuse. Mothers’ childhood sexual experience (OR = 7.3 was a strong predictor for daughters’ childhood sexual experience.Conclusions: Our study supported a link between mother and daughter childhood sexual experience among Latinas, and indicated it is a correlate of adult substance abuse. Family based substance abuse prevention efforts and future longitudinal studies should consider maternal childhood sexual experience as a potential indication of risk for Latina daughters.Keywords: early sex, child sex, Latina, substance abuse

  5. Physical Punishment, Childhood Abuse and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Cox, Brian J.; Sareen, Jitender

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Physical punishment, as a means of disciplining children, may be considered a mild form of childhood adversity. Although many outcomes of physical punishment have been investigated, little attention has been given to the impact of physical punishment on later adult psychopathology. Also, it has been stated that physical punishment by a…

  6. Formative Assessment: Guidance for Early Childhood Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This policy report provides a guide and framework to early childhood policymakers considering formative assessment. The report defines formative assessment and outlines its process and application in the context of early childhood. The substance of this document is the issues for consideration in the implementation of the formative assessment…

  7. Moving beyond Colorblindness in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Powers-Costello, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Countering the position that colorblindness is desirable for teachers and children, this article encourages early childhood education teachers to engage in conversations about race and racism with young children. We discuss why the early childhood years are important for interrupting racism and make suggestions for helping children develop tools…

  8. Pretend Play in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…

  9. Early Childhood Development Policy Advances in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early…

  10. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  11. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  12. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  13. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Forms of Childhood Adversity on Adulthood Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child…

  14. Prevalence of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Veterans With Psychiatric Diagnoses

    OpenAIRE

    Koola, Maju Mathew; Qualls, Clifford; Kelly, Deanna L; Skelton, Kelly; Bradley, Bekh; Amar, Richard; Duncan, Erica J.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of childhood (?18 years) physical and sexual abuse reported among patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient service and the differential rates of this abuse associated with psychiatric diagnoses. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 603 patients admitted to a psychiatric ward during a period of 1 year at Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center who had data on childhood physical and sexual abuse. The prevalence of reported childhood physical o...

  15. Psychosocial Resources and Associations Between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Pitzer, Lindsay M.; Fingerman, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood physical abuse is often associated with detrimental physical and psychological consequences in adulthood. Yet, some adults appear to overcome effects of very severe parental physical abuse in childhood. This study considered whether psychosocial resources (i.e., emotional and instrumental support, personal control) explain variability in well-being for adults who experienced childhood physical abuse by their parents. Participants included 2,711 adults aged 25–74 years from the Midli...

  16. Predicting Childhood Sexual or Physical Abuse: A Logistic Regression Geo-mapping Approach to Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Tadoum, Roland K.; Smolij, Kamila; Lyn, Michelle A.; Johnson, Craig W

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which gender, ethnicity, relationship to perpetrator, and geo-mapped socio-economic factors significantly predict the incidence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse and non- abuse. These variables are then linked to geographic identifiers using geographic information system (GIS) technology to develop a geo-mapping framework for child sexual and physical abuse prevention.

  17. Early Childhood Education and Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Denboba, Amina; Hasan, Amer; Wodon, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, Indonesia has taken a number of steps to prioritize early childhood development – ranging from the inclusion of Early Childhood Development (ECD) in the National Education System Law No. 20 in 2003 to a Presidential Declaration on Holistic and Integrated ECD and the launch of the country’s first ever ECD Census in 2011. These policy milestones have occurred in parallel with sustained progress on outcomes included in the Millennium Development Goals, including for child ...

  18. Reduced gray matter volume in psychotic disorder patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffield, Julia M; Williams, Lisa E; Woodward, Neil D; Heckers, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with smaller gray matter volume, similar to the pattern seen in psychotic disorders. We explored the relationship between childhood abuse, psychosis, and brain volume in a group of 60 individuals with a psychotic disorder and 26 healthy control subjects. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to quantify gray and white matter volume and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to measure childhood abuse. Within the psychotic disorders group, total gray matter vol...

  19. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  20. Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemi, Layla; Sheu, Lei K; Midei, Aimee J; Gianaros, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsive circuit. The goal of this study is to examine how childhood emotional and physical abuse relates to adulthood stressor-evoked activity within these visceral brain regions. To evoke acute states of mental stress, participants (n = 155) performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-adapted versions of the multi-source interference task (MSIT) and the Stroop task with simultaneous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Regression analyses revealed that childhood physical abuse correlated positively with stressor-evoked changes in MAP, and negatively with unbiased, a priori extractions of fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent signal change values within the sgACC, BNST, PVN and Amyg (n = 138). Abuse-related changes in the function of visceral neural circuits may reflect neurobiological vulnerability to adverse health outcomes conferred by early adversity. PMID:24847113

  1. The World Bank's View of Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Explores World Bank's view of early childhood as an example of the globalization of childhood, arguing that the Bank's policies exacerbate the gap between rich and poor nations and between rich and poor within countries, and affect children's lives adversely. Explores inherent contradictions of policies that draw on traditional Anglo-American…

  2. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  3. Business Case for Early Childhood Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.

  4. Bilingual Education in Early Childhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys literature of research based on several early childhood bilingual education programs and guidelines. Common findings of each are outlined. It also includes a case study of instructional discourse in teaching language minority kindergarten children. (JL)

  5. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa M; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age and sex-stratified population survey of Olmsted County, MN residents (n=610), we developed a sexual abuse severity score (SASS). The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included: age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, sever...

  6. Sexual revictimization: the impact of attachment anxiety, accumulated trauma, and response to childhood sexual abuse disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Inbal; Ben-Amitay, Galit

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that a complexity of personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors is related to sexual revictimization among childhood sexual abuse survivors. In this study, we investigated the relations between attachment dimensions, exposure to accumulated childhood traumas, reaction to childhood sexual abuse disclosure, and adult sexual revictimization. Participants were 60 Israeli women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy percent of the women reported adult sexual revictimization. Revictimization was related to higher attachment anxiety but not to higher attachment avoidance. Revictimization was also related to emotional and physical child abuse but not to emotional and physical child neglect. Revictimization rates were higher among women who had received negative environmental responses following childhood sexual abuse disclosure than among women who had received supportive reactions and those who had not disclosed childhood sexual abuse at all. Findings were significant even after controlling for severity of childhood sexual abuse. The findings emphasize the role of various contextual-interpersonal factors on revictimization vulnerability among the survivors of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:25774414

  7. Locus of Control and Adjustment in Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Chebon A.; Long, Patricia J.

    1999-01-01

    A sample of 84 college women retrospectively reporting childhood sexual abuse and 285 women failing to report such a history participated in a study designed to investigate the relationship between victimization history and locus of control and the role of locus of control in predicting the adjustment of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse Severity Reconsidered: A Factor Structure of CSA Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T. Lorraine; Riggs, Matt; Robinson, Jill L.

    2011-01-01

    To address the lack of empirically grounded measures of childhood sexual abuse severity, a survey of self-report items was developed following a thorough review of the childhood sexual abuse literature. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from a convenience sample of college students that included 275 females and…

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Mediate the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierich, Mariann R.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research consistently has shown a strong relation between childhood abuse and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), yet it is unclear why this relation exists. The authors examined 2 specific posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters as potential mechanisms through which childhood abuse may be related to NSSI. Participants were 86…

  10. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  11. Childhood Abuse, Chronic Pain, and Depression in the National Comorbidity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Hernandez, Annya

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse on reports of pain in men and women (N=1,727). Methods: Data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative sample, were utilized. Childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse were assessed, and pain reports in relation to current…

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder in the Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn

    1994-01-01

    Examination of 115 women with eating disorders revealed a secondary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. A model involving background features, precipitants, and immediate and long-term psychological consequences is suggested to explain the link to childhood abuse, and implications for…

  13. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  14. Number of Childhood Abuse Perpetrators and the Occurrence of Depressive Episodes in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although past research has documented a link between adverse childhood experiences--particularly childhood emotional (CEA), physical (CPA), and sexual abuse (CSA)--and depression, relatively few studies have examined the unique impact of each of these highly co-occurring abuse types. Moreover, relatively little is known about the…

  15. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Cognitive Flexibility in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y.; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Sinha, Rajita; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12–17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with non-perseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with non-perseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction. PMID:21942637

  16. Anogenital Warts in Childhood – Always a Marker for Sexual Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussen, S.; Sütterlin, M.; Schmidt, U.; Bussen, D.

    2012-01-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are common pathogens associated with a wide range of cutaneous and mucosal infections in childhood. Different HPV types can cause common warts and anogenital warts. Condylomata acuminata in children may be, but are not necessarily, an indicator of sexual abuse. Each individual case therefore requires careful examination, with consideration of other possible means of transmission. Diagnosis of anogenital warts is generally by means of clinical examination. Additional histological, serological or molecular genetic investigation may be indicated occasionally. The high rate of spontaneous remission and the rate of recurrence after treatment should be considered. The available topical and surgical treatment options are discussed. PMID:25253903

  17. Childhood sexual abuse and later-life economic consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Alan; Kamiya, Yumiko

    2012-01-01

    The impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on later-life health outcomes has been studied extensively and links with depression, anxiety and self-harm have been established. However, there has been relatively little research undertaken on the possible impact of CSA on later-life economic outcomes. Here, we explore whether older men who report having experienced CSA have weaker labour force attachment and lower incomes compared to other men. We use data from the first wave of the new Irish Lon...

  18. Early Indicators of Pathological Dissociation in Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Linda Provus

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)

  19. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  20. Childhood emotional abuse and borderline personality features: The role of anxiety sensitivity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Nadia; Felton, Julia F; Long, Katie; Stadnik, Ryan D; Loya, Jennifer M; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W

    2015-05-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive personality disorder that poses a burden for affected individuals, their family members and society as a whole. Current research suggests that early childhood abuse, including emotional abuse, may be an important predictor of later BPD symptomology. Further, an emerging body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity (AS) may serve as a form of emotional vulnerability and be a key variable in the relation between abuse and the development of BPD symptomatology. This literature has relied on retrospective recall of abuse and AS in adult samples. As a result, there is a dearth of literature examining these variables in adolescence, which is a developmental period in which personality traits begin to emerge. This study explored the impact of AS in the development of BPD symptoms in a group of 277 adolescents. Results suggest a significant indirect effect of emotional abuse on BPD symptoms via AS, after controlling for sex, grade and prior levels of AS (indirect effect?=?0.04, standard error (SE)?=?0.02 (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.001-0.070)). These findings suggest that, among adolescents, AS may serve as an important contributor to the development of BPD symptoms. Implications for interventions and future research are further discussed. PMID:25940514

  1. Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors using Attachment and Family Systems Theory Orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Karakurt, Gunnur; Silver, Kristin E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand the effects of childhood sexual abuse on a survivor’s later life. For understanding and treating the emotional distress and interpersonal problems resulting from childhood sexual abuse, attachment theory provides a valuable framework. When this framework is combined with family systems theory, it can help therapists understand the family context where sexual abuse occurs and how this affects health and functioning throughout the lifespan. Case examples o...

  2. Multi-type Childhood Abuse, Strategies of Coping, and Psychological Adaptations in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sesar, Kristina; Šimić, Nataša; Barišić, Marijana

    2010-01-01

    Aim To retrospectively analyze the rate of multi-type abuse in childhood and the effects of childhood abuse and type of coping strategies on the psychological adaptation of young adults in a sample form the student population of the University of Mostar. Methods The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 233 students from the University of Mostar (196 female and 37 male), with a median age of 20 (interquartile range, 2). Exposure to abuse was determined using t...

  3. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, Sara M; Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7-12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history and (marginally) to postbaseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436

  4. The Therapeutic Roller Coaster : Dilemmas in the Treatment of Childhood Abuse Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Survivors of severe childhood abuse often encounter profound difficulties. In addition to posttraumatic and dissociative symptomatology, abuse survivors frequently have characterologic problems, particularly regarding self-care and maintaining relationships. Backgrounds of abuse, abandonment, and betrayal are often recapitulated and reenacted in therapy, making the therapeutic experience arduous and confusing for therapists and patients. Efforts must be directed at building an ...

  5. Quality of Life in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse Who Have Undergone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Examines perception of past sexual abuse experiences and quality of life among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Interviews (N=52) reveal three types of explanations for the offenders' behavior. Results indicate that survivors who attributed the abuse to the offenders' characteristics managed to keep their self esteem fairly intact and…

  6. Willingness To Self-Disclose among Late Adolescent Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nereo, Nancy E.; Farber, Barry A.; Hinton, Veronica J.

    2002-01-01

    Compared the willingness of sexually abused late adolescent women (n=22) to self-disclose general and sexual information to strangers and intimate partners with that of similar women who had not been sexually abused. Results indicate that those who were sexually abused in childhood are less likely than nonabused counterparts to be highly…

  7. Hardiness as a Moderator of Shame Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinauer, Leslie; Hilton, H. Gill; Callahan, Eddy Howard

    2003-01-01

    Surveys an adult female sample of childhood sexual abuse survivors to determine if hardiness was effective in moderating the negative effects of perceived trauma and severity of the sexual abuse and internalized shame on relationship intimacy. Results indicate that perception and severity of abuse, and shame were significantly and negatively…

  8. Experiences of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Visually Impaired Adults in Norway: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Marit Hoem

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among visually impaired children and sighted children in Norway. Visually impaired women and men aged 18-65 who lost their sight before age 18 reported sexual abuse with contact before age 18 more often than did the sighted group, and the abuse of the visually impaired children was more…

  9. Factors that Predict How Women Label Their Own Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David; Burge, Sandra; Kellogg, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Despite the psychological impact of child sexual abuse, many victims do not acknowledge that their experiences were "abuse." This study sought to identify factors that predict how women label their own experiences of childhood sexual abuse. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a family medicine clinic with adult female patients. Subjects…

  10. Early Childhood Professionals and Inter-Professional Work in Integrated Early Childhood Services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sandie; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature argues that integrated services, where a range of professionals including early childhood professionals work together in teams, offer a potentially highly effective strategy for providing families with access to a range of services in a seamless "joined-up" way. Some have cautioned, however, that early childhood…

  11. Republic of Mali Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the early childhood development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Mali and recommendations to move forward. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the systems approach for better education results (SABER) - ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition, and social and...

  12. Research Priorities for Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2006

    2006-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that investments in comprehensive and coordinated early intervention services will generate long-term benefits for children and families. Additional research is needed to continue to improve all aspects of service delivery in early intervention and early childhood special education, with a particular focus on conditions…

  13. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  14. CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE AMONG JUNIOR COLLEG E STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA , INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Omkar S; Vaishali V

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a serious problem globally. Approximately 150 million girls and 73 million boys are being victimized for sexual abuse. Disclosure by the children and reporting by the parents regarding exposure to sexual violence found to be poor. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cu rrent study is aimed to find the magnitude of childhood sexual abuse among junior college male students and the various types of sexual abuse experienced. METHODOLOGY: TYPE OF STUDY: ...

  15. The disclosure of sexual abuse during middle childhood : a forensic social work perspective / Yolanda van Huyssteen

    OpenAIRE

    Van Huyssteen, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Working with sexually abused children and conducting forensic assessments is a difficult task for many professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse. In this specialised field, it is imperative that professionals are aware of the disclosure process, as well as what contributes to, or hampers the disclosure of sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the disclosure of sexual abuse during middle childhood years from a forensic social work perspective. Resear...

  16. Early Childhood Special Education and Early Intervention Personnel Preparation Standards of the Division for Early Childhood: Field Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Deborah C.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Christensen, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Results of the field validation survey of the revised initial and new advanced Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Division for Early Childhood (DEC) early childhood special education (ECSE)/early intervention (EI) personnel standards are presented. Personnel standards are used as part of educational accountability systems and in teacher…

  17. Early Attachment Relationships and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Alejandra; Herreros, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between attachment theory and the early childhood curriculum. During the first years of life children develop early attachment relationships with their primary caregivers. These attachment relationships, either secure or insecure, will shape children's socio-emotional development. In the USA, the predominant…

  18. Childhood trauma and METH abuse among men who have sex with men: Implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Patton, Maria; Kumar, Mahendra; Jones, Deborah; Fonseca, Marla; Kumar, Adarsh M; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) has become one of the most widely abused drugs in South Florida, particularly among MSM who may or may not be HIV seropositive. High rates of childhood trauma have been reported among HIV-infected MSM (Chartier et al., 2010), but, the association of childhood trauma, and mood disorders with methamphetamine use in HIV-infected men, has not been comprehensively explored. A better understanding of the association between these factors could improve existing substance abuse treatment intervention strategies and medical treatment programs (e.g., medication adherence; Carrico, 2010) to enhance positive health outcomes for male meth abusers living with the psychological consequences of childhood abuse. This study, as part of a larger study, examined the occurrence of childhood trauma and depression in a group of HIV seropositive METH abusing MSM. Significantly higher levels of depression symptom severity were found among METH users relative to non-METH users (p sexual child abuse relative to non-METH users (p abuse in this population. These findings have important implications for substance abuse interventions, specifically targeting METH addiction among MSM. Addressing childhood trauma and depression may play a key role in enhancing the effectiveness of interventions for methamphetamine addiction. PMID:26519763

  19. Linking Childhood and Adult Criminality: Using a Life Course Framework to Examine Childhood Abuse and Neglect, Substance Use and Adult Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia O'Campo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children’s life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1 patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2 cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed.

  20. Early Childhood: Activity Books and Resource Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 59 activity books and resource guides for developing skills at the early childhood level. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include…

  1. Turkish Early Childhood Educators on Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Sevcan

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted over recent decades show that parental involvement plays a significant role in children's academic achievement as well as their cognitive, social and emotional development. For effective parental involvement, understanding the conceptualization of early childhood educators should be significant. This research investigated the…

  2. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  3. Texas Early Childhood Intervention Programs, 1997 Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Interagency Council on Early Childhood Intervention, Austin.

    The Texas Interagency Council on Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) serves 23,000 children a year and funds 71 comprehensive programs and 12 Milestones programs throughout Texas. Comprehensive programs offer a variety of services to help families who have babies and toddlers with disabilities or delays, providing services in the home or integrated…

  4. Early Childhood Curriculum: Planning, Assessment, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Claire; Fleer, Marilyn; Edwards, Susan

    2010-01-01

    "Early Childhood Curriculum" addresses current approaches to curriculum for infants, toddlers and young children, ages birth to eight. It provides a comprehensive introduction to the curriculum issues that student teachers and emerging practitioners will face and equips them with the decision-making tools that will ultimately enhance and promote…

  5. Early Childhood Trends around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This article shares the views of the members of the World Forum community regarding early childhood education trends around the world. It summarizes trends from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Denmark, The Netherlands, Italy, Turkey, Nepal, Vietnam, Tajikistan, Hong Kong, Singapore, India, New Zealand, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt,…

  6. Early Childhood Trends around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This article shares the views of the members of the World Forum community regarding early childhood education trends around the world. It summarizes trends from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Denmark, The Netherlands, Italy, Turkey, Nepal, Vietnam, Tajikistan, Hong Kong, Singapore, India, New Zealand, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt,…

  7. Trajectories of Autism Severity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venker, Courtney E.; Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about trajectories of autism severity using calibrated severity scores (CSS) from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, but characterizing these trajectories has important theoretical and clinical implications. This study examined CSS trajectories during early childhood. Participants were 129 children with autism…

  8. Measuring in support of early childhood development

    OpenAIRE

    Hertzman, Clyde; Clinton, Jean; Lynk, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A child’s early experiences and environments have a significant, measurable effect on later life trajectories of health and well-being. Each child’s own world, especially parents and other caregivers, literally sculpts the brain and impacts stress pathways. Effective early childhood interventions exist that can improve adult and societal outcomes. In this statement, the Canadian Paediatric Society calls on federal and provincial/territorial governments to measure and monitor the developmental...

  9. Early Childhood Data Systems: Putting Data to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinides, Philip; Fink, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Faced with rising demand for information about early childhood programs, states need to find tools and strategies to monitor the progress of and to identify high-quality early childhood programs. In response, REL Mid-Atlantic convened a regional workgroup for state personnel who work with the systems containing early childhood data. The workgroup…

  10. Breaking Bread: Spirituality, Food and Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The spiritual aspect of early childhood education is supported by the early childhood curriculum in Aotearoa New Zealand, "Te Whariki". Research in three different early childhood settings presents new perspectives on the everyday experiences of children in terms of spirituality. Each setting formed a case study that included the voices of…

  11. Reliability and Comparability of Psychosis Patients’ Retrospective Reports of Childhood Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Helen L.; Craig, Thomas K.; FEARON, PAUL; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Lappin, Julia; Hutchinson, Gerard; Doody, Gillian A.; Jones, Peter B.; McGuffin, Peter; Murray, Robin M; Leff, Julian; Morgan, Craig

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of studies are demonstrating an association between childhood abuse and psychosis. However, the majority of these rely on retrospective self-reports in adulthood that may be unduly influenced by current psychopathology. We therefore set out to explore the reliability and comparability of first-presentation psychosis patients’ reports of childhood abuse. Psychosis case subjects were drawn from the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (ÆSOP) epidemio...

  12. Relation between sexual abuse in childhood and adult depression: case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheasty, M.; Clare, A W; Collins, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between sexual abuse in childhood and adult depression in women. DESIGN: Two stage, case detection and case identification design, using the 30-item general health questionnaire and the Beck depression inventory for screening and the affective items relating to current functioning on the schizophrenia and affective disorders schedule to identify depressed cases. Details of sexual abuse in childhood were elicited retrospectively by semistructured interview...

  13. Reported History of Childhood Abuse and Young Adults’ Information Processing Biases for Facial Displays of Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Gibb, Brandon E.; SCHOFIELD, CASEY A.; Coles, Meredith E.

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the relations between young adults’ reports of childhood abuse and their current attention and interpretation biases for facial displays of emotion. Consistent with prediction, individuals reporting a history of moderate to severe childhood abuse exhibited preferential attention to angry faces and increased sensitivity in the detection of angry expressions at lower levels of emotional intensity. Both the attention and interpretation biases were sp...

  14. Early Childhood Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education in Turkey within the Scope of the Developmental System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Bayhan, Pinar; Turan, Figen; Sipal, R. Firat; Sucuoglu, Bulbin; Ceber-Bakkaloglu, Hatice; Gunel, Mintaze Kerem; Kara, Ozgun Kaya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of early childhood intervention and early childhood special education (ECI/ECSE) services and practices in Turkey by using the Developmental System Approach (M. J. Guralnick, 2001). After pointing out the history of early childhood and ECI/ECSE services and current legislations with regard to…

  15. Homeless Youths' Caretakers: The Mediating Role of Childhood Abuse on Street Victimization and Housing Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Zhang, Jing; Brakenhoff, Brittany

    2016-04-01

    Homeless youths who live on the streets are particularly vulnerable to victimization and continued homelessness. Identifying factors associated with housing stability and victimization while homeless can offer useful guidance for those who serve these youths. The current study examined the relationship between multiple caretakers and the unique effect of childhood abuse (physical, sexual, neglect) on past-year housing and victimization experiences. Seventy-nine substance-using, street-living youths ages 14 to 24 years completed the survey. Findings confirmed a relationship between multiple caretaker transitions and childhood sexual abuse and neglect, but not physical abuse. Sexual abuse was further associated with higher street victimization and reduced housing stability. In addition, sexual abuse mediated the relationship between multiple caretakers and past-year victimization and housing instability. These findings suggest that sexually abused homeless youths are at particular risk for future victimization and housing instability compared with other youths, and specialized intervention for these youths is indicated. PMID:27180525

  16. Childhood Psychological Abuse and Adult Aggression: The Mediating Role of Self-Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines the utility of self-trauma theory for explaining the long-term impact of childhood psychological abuse on aggression. Specifically, the self-capacities of interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation are tested as mediators of the impact of psychological abuse on various types of aggression in adulthood.…

  17. The Process of Coping with Domestic Violence in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sascha; Lewis, Carla S.; Chu, Melissa; Sage, Robert; Jospitre, Tania; Madry, Lorraine; Primm, Beny J.

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that the use of disengaged or avoidant strategies to cope with interpersonal violence contributes to the development of depressive symptoms and other psychological difficulties. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who are exposed to subsequent episodes of abuse may be more likely to rely on disengaged coping strategies,…

  18. Care and support needs of male survivors of childhood sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been done on the needs of men who experienced child sexual abuse, particularly on survivors’ own perspectives. Mental health charity, Health in Mind worked with CRFR on a Big Lottery funded project, to explore care and support needs of male survivors of childhood sexual abuse. This briefing outlines the project’s findings and recommendations.

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Clinical Sample of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ned; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 117 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse investigated the relationship between the level of sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder. It was found that 86% of the participants met criteria for a posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis at some point during their lives. (CR)

  20. Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

  3. Impact of Remembering Childhood Sexual Abuse on Addiction Recovery for Young Adult Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.

  4. Gender in Suicide Attempt Rates and Childhood Sexual Abuse Rates: Is There an Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec; Janal, Malvin

    2006-01-01

    Two competing explanations for higher rates of attempted suicide in women than men were compared. Because childhood sexual abuse is more prevalent in girls than boys, one explanation of higher rates of suicide attempts in women is that it is a direct result of the higher incidence of sexual abuse in girls. Alternatively, higher rates of suicide…

  5. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Depressed Patients with Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andover, Margaret S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown both childhood physical and sexual abuse to be associated with later suicide attempts, although some studies have not supported these findings. However, few studies have investigated differences in physical and sexual abuse histories among single and multiple suicide attempters. The goals of the current study were two-fold: (a)…

  6. Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Client Spiritual Development: Counseling Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganje-Fling, Marilyn A.; McCarthy, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Defines spirituality and discusses its relevance for counselors who work with childhood sexual abuse survivors. Describes the impact of abuse on client spirituality, and presents several suggestions for assessment and intervention approaches that address spiritual issues as part of the counseling process. (JPS)

  7. Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  9. Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

  10. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Family Functioning on Four Dimensions of Women's Later Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary analysis of data on 518 low-income mothers examined the impact of mothers' childhood sexual abuse and quality of family relationships on parenting. Child sexual abuse was associated with more negative views of self as a parent and the greater use of physical punishment strategies, even after accounting for differences in family-of-origin…

  11. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Family Functioning on Four Dimensions of Women's Later Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary analysis of data on 518 low-income mothers examined the impact of mothers' childhood sexual abuse and quality of family relationships on parenting. Child sexual abuse was associated with more negative views of self as a parent and the greater use of physical punishment strategies, even after accounting for differences in family-of-origin…

  12. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Male Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment found that childhood sexual abuse did not predict sexual dysfunction in the men. Unemployment was the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Differences between the sexual abuse experiences of the male victims compared to female victims (n=73) are discussed. (Author/CR)

  13. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, Theresa E.; CAREY, MICHAEL P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of ...

  14. A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2003-01-01

    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...

  15. Risk for Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior after Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…

  16. Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Breast Cancer: The Role of Childhood Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Jandorf, Lina; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Amend, Kandace L.; Stoudt, Brett G.; Rini, Christine; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred; Reilly, James J.; Tartter, Paul I.; Feldman, Sheldon M.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated relations between reported childhood abuse and recent traumatic stress symptoms in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 330). Methods: As part of a larger ongoing study, patients from eight public and private hospitals were referred by their physicians and completed the Childhood Trauma…

  17. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  18. Sexual Function in Women with a History of Intrafamilial Childhood Sexual Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who...

  19. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  20. Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Breast Cancer: The Role of Childhood Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Jandorf, Lina; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Amend, Kandace L.; Stoudt, Brett G.; Rini, Christine; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred; Reilly, James J.; Tartter, Paul I.; Feldman, Sheldon M.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated relations between reported childhood abuse and recent traumatic stress symptoms in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 330). Methods: As part of a larger ongoing study, patients from eight public and private hospitals were referred by their physicians and completed the Childhood Trauma…

  1. Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

  2. Risk for Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior after Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…

  3. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  4. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  5. Trauma Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Substance Abuse: Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David

    2004-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…

  6. Competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of child sexual abuse in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele; Hafner, J.A.; Maharaj, P.E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, K.; Johnson, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region’s complex historical, social and cultural specificities, real or imagined. As childhood is a concept that lies at the intersection of multiple frames of ...

  7. The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

  8. The early childhood determinants of time preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Delaney, Liam; Doyle, Orla

    2008-01-01

    Research on time preference formation and socioeconomic differences in discounting has received little attention to date. This article examines the extent to which early childhood differences emerge in measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and persistence, all of which are good psychometric analogues to how economists conceptualise discounting. We examine the distribution of these traits measured at age three across parental social class and analyse the extent to which different mechanism pl...

  9. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: Adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B.; SIKKEMA, KATHLEEN J.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Sevent...

  10. INCLUSIVE EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: TEACHERS AND PARENTS PERCEPTION

    OpenAIRE

    PRASHANT THOTE; Mathew, L.; D.P. S Rathoure2

    2013-01-01

    All areas of education face changes and challenges constantly. Early childhood education is no exception. A recent challenge teachers face in early childhood education is the advent of inclusion. Implementing inclusion in early childhood classrooms creates more diversity among the children. Inclusion of students with various disabilities has caused concern among parents and teachers. There are some concerns that need special attention when including students with disabilities in the early chi...

  11. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  12. Treatment of childhood sexual abuse in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a feminist psychodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney-Cooke, A; Striegel-Moore, R H

    1994-05-01

    In this article a parallel is drawn between the psychological problems experienced by victims of childhood sexual abuse and by clients with eating disorders. In particular, we describe how sexual abuse has a significant and lasting effect on body image, identity, self-regulation, and interpersonal functioning. Treatment issues are outlined including the nature of the healing relationship, assessment of abuse, development of capacity for self-soothing, techniques for assisting in memory recall, sculpting of images, description and reenactment of abuse, dealing with shame, and ending the cycle of repeated victimization. PMID:8032346

  13. Early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers and their intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact couple's functioning. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas and substance use of a sample of adult substance abusers who have sought residential substance abuse treatment and their intimate partners (N = 102). Results demonstrated that the early maladaptive schemas of patients and their intimate partners may be interrelated and that patients scored significantly higher than their partners on 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Substance use was only associated with a few early maladaptive schemas. These findings highlight the potential importance of assessing early maladaptive schemas in couples where one partner has a substance abuse problem. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:24175492

  14. Pathways from childhood abuse to prospective revictimization: depression, sex to reduce negative affect, and forecasted sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Lynsey R; Orcutt, Holly K

    2014-11-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women's (N=541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants' response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants' estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming are discussed. PMID:25455965

  15. A critique of conceptual and treatment approaches to borderline psychopathology in light of findings about childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, E A; Arnold, F

    1993-05-01

    A series of recent research findings has begung to supply strong evidence of a highly significant correlation between borderline psychopathology and experiences of repeated childhood trauma including sexual abuse (especially incest), physical abuse, and the witnessing of severe domestic violence (Bryer et al. 1987; Herman et al. 1989; Western et al. 1990; Zanarini et al. 1989). The replication of these results with different research samples is in contrast to the inconsistent findings associated with earlier etiological theories, in which the roots of borderline pathology were variously linked to schizophrenic or affective illnesses (Akiskal 1981; Akiskal et al. 1985; Klein 1977; Perry 1985), to derailments in the separation-individuation process (Kernberg 1975, 1976; Mahler and Kaplan 1977; Masterson and Rinsley 1975), to actual early losses and separations (Bradley 1979; Paris et al. 1988; Soloff and Millward 1983a, 1983b), to severe empathic failures during the first years of life (Adler and Buie 1979), or to more general family-based pathologies (Frank and Hoffman 1980; Frank and Paris 1981; Grinker et al. 1968; Gunderson and Englund 1981; Gunderson et al. 1980; Links 1990; Walsh 1977; Zinner and Shapiro 1975). Not only do current findings regularly identify 50% to 80% of subjects as victims of childhood abuse and trauma, but also several studies show that factors such as age of onset, severity, and type of abuse reliably discriminate between borderline and other diagnostic groups (Herman et al. 1989; Zanarini et al. 1989). PMID:8351295

  16. Tracing Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting in...... in families with a non-western ethnic minority background and with low socioeconomic status. In families who participated in interventions, other social problems and a sense of insecurity caused by precarious living conditions of different kinds influenced the parents’ readiness to restrict children...... in order to enforce lifestyle changes. Overall, this thesis addresses issues of childhood obesity, inequality in health, health policy, individualization, racialized biases in health care, the role of health care practitioners and insecurity and health....

  17. Parental conceptions of quality in Greek early childhood education.

    OpenAIRE

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; ????????????????, ???????; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos,; Zachopoulou, Evridiki,; ???????????, ?????????; ?????????, ????????; ??????????, ????????

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers’ parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the aspects of ECE. The same aspects were evaluated with Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) by trained observers. Results suggested t...

  18. Professional Growth Reconceptualized: Early Childhood Staff Searching for Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Fleet; Catherine Patterson

    2001-01-01

    This paper challenges traditional perspectives of professional development through a reconceptualization of early childhood professional growth. A review of the early childhood professional development literature reveals the problematic nature of the linear perspectives and deficit models of staff development prevalent in the early childhood field. In contrast to these models, the paper proposes alternative perspectives that recognize staff as empowered learners who build their working knowle...

  19. Reported Research Funding in Four Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Funding for research in the area of early childhood is an ongoing challenge. The present research objective was to identify the frequency of acknowledgment of federal funding in articles published by four leading early childhood journals from 1999 to 2008. We conducted a content analysis of 1,338 publications found in "Early Child Development and…

  20. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals, we conducted a meta-analysis that compiled the results of 65 articles across 9 countries. The results revealed no significant difference in the prevalence of child sexual abuse between homosexual and bisexual people for both sexes. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among female sexual minorities was significantly higher than that among male sexual minorities. The lowest prevalence was found in South America, followed by Asia. The definition of child sexual abuse, dimension used to measure sexual orientation, year of data collection, and the mean age of participants at the time of assessment influenced the estimated prevalence of child sexual abuse. We conclude that many variables influence the reported prevalence of child sexual abuse among sexual minorities. PMID:25942288

  1. Stories and narratives in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Fatima dos Santos Morais

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of oral and written narrative for the maintenance of tradition and history of each one of us, in a society that seems to valorize the information more than the stories lived and told. It stresses the need, at school, of the teachers to read stories to children from early childhood education to boys and girls love to the world of literature. The text also contains situations en countered in schools that show the value of reading and the magic that literature provides in the lives of children.

  2. Inclusive discourses in early childhood education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis...... worldwide on 'initiatives by governments', this interest has centred on the school environment and institutions of higher education. Thus, despite increasing recognition of the significance of preschool and after-school-care, inclusion in these environments remains peripheral to the main debate....

  3. Traumagenic Dynamics in Adult Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse vs. Adolescent Male Sex Offenders with Similar Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Carla; Hendrix, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Female childhood sexual abuse survivors and adolescent male sexual offenders with a history of childhood sexual abuse were assessed using the Trauma-Related Beliefs Questionnaire. Results suggested that male sex offenders hold high levels of traumagenic beliefs common in females, especially related to trust and betrayal. (Author)

  4. Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Experience between Adult Hispanic and Anglo Women in a Primary Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David A.; Burge, Sandra K.; Kellogg, Nancy; Parra, Juan M.

    2005-01-01

    The literature on racial and ethnic factors in childhood sexual abuse is limited. The purpose of this exploratory study was to document Hispanic-Anglo differences in childhood sexual abuse experiences and assess whether these differences may be explained by socio-demographic and family environmental differences. Adult Hispanic (n = 69) and Anglo…

  5. Brief Report: Attitudes about Responding to Survey Questions Concerning Childhood Sexual Abuse by Hispanic Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Frederick A.; Salinas, Nancy I.; Perez, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    In no studies have research participants been asked how they feel about answering questions concerning childhood sexual abuse. We have performed searches from two different search engines again and have found nothing published which specifically addresses this question in the way we have. A questionnaire about childhood sexual abuse was…

  6. The Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Heart Disease in Adulthood: Findings from a Representative Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Frank, John

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Although, the relationship between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease has been documented, very few studies have controlled for many of the known risk factors for heart disease. The objective of the current study, therefore, was to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease while…

  7. Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci

    2011-01-01

    The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

  8. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  9. The impact of childhood abuse on inpatient substance users: specific links with risky sex, aggression, and emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-05-01

    Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. PMID:24521524

  10. The Long-term Health Outcomes of Childhood Abuse: An Overview and a Call to Action

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Kristen W; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly

    2003-01-01

    While the association between abuse in childhood and adverse adult health outcomes is well established, this link is infrequently acknowledged in the general medical literature. This paper has 2 purposes: (1) to provide a broad overview of the research on the long-term effects of child abuse on mental and physical health including some of the potential pathways, and (2) to call for collaborative action among clinicians, psychosocial and biomedical researchers, social service agencies, crimina...

  11. Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories

    OpenAIRE

    You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L; He, Hua; CONNER, KENNETH R.

    2012-01-01

    Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 10, 24, and 36 weeks. Sadness, guilt, and shame-proneness were associated with self-reported and observer-r...

  12. People Believe it is Plausible to have Forgotten Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, David C; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    Pezdek, Blandon-Gitlin, and Gabbay (2006) found that perceptions of the plausibility of events increase the likelihood of imagination inducing false memories of those events. Using a survey conducted by Gallup, we asked a large sample of the general population how plausible it would be for a person with longstanding emotional problems and a need for psychotherapy to be a victim of childhood sexual abuse, even though the person could not remember the abuse. Only 18% indicated that it was impla...

  13. Rural–Urban Migration and Experience of Childhood Abuse in the Young Thai Population

    OpenAIRE

    Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Abas, Melanie; Harpham, Trudy; Prince, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that certain migrant populations are at increased risk of abusive behaviors. It is unclear whether this may also apply to Thai rural–urban migrants, who may experience higher levels of psychosocial adversities than the population at large. The study aims to examine the association between migration status and the history of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse among young Thai people in an urban community. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in...

  14. Grace's story: prolonged incestuous abuse from childhood into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Some sexually abused women in mental health settings are reporting prolonged incest and yet little is known about the circumstances that enable fathers to sexually abuse their daughters over a period of decades. This article draws from the life history of Grace, a woman who survived prolonged incest, in order to document and analyze the interplay of familial, social, and political factors that entrap girls and women within prolonged incestuous abuse. PMID:23420835

  15. Pathways from Childhood Abuse to Prospective Revictimization: Depression, Sex to Reduce Negative Affect, and Forecasted Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Miron, Lynsey R.; Orcutt, Holly K.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women’s (N = 541) risk of experiencing prosp...

  16. Associations between Childhood Abuse and Interpersonal Aggression and Suicide Attempt among U.S. Adults in a National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Grant, Bridget F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine associations among childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse and violence toward self (suicide attempts [SA]) and others (interpersonal aggression [IA]). Data were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Waves 1 and 2 (n = 34,653). Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between type of childhood abuse and violence categories, adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and DSM...

  17. The Impact of Early Childhood Education on Early Achievement Gaps : Evidence from the Indonesia Early Childhood Education and Development Project

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Haeil; Hasan, Amer

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses whether the Indonesia Early Childhood Education and Development project had an impact on early achievement gaps as measured by an array of child development outcomes and enrollment. The analysis is based on longitudinal data collected in 2009 and 2010 on approximately 3,000 four-year-old children residing in 310 villages located in nine districts across Indonesia. The s...

  18. Early Childhood Education: Difficulties Creating and Changing Daily Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Kramer

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on research carried out with children and adults at early childhood education institutions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The research goals were to identify interactions between adults and children and to rethink pedagogical practice. The theoretical-methodological framework was based on language and culture studies, the sociology of childhood and anthropology. After studying children and adults in different contexts and early childhood education public...

  19. Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Teacher Change among Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…

  20. Workforce Development in Early Childhood Education and Care. Research Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood education and care industry in Australia is undergoing a shift in philosophy. Changes in policy are driving the industry towards a combined early childhood education and care focus, away from one on child care only. This move has implications for the skilling of the child care workforce. This research overview describes the…

  1. Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and toward Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Feyza

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate early childhood teachers' attitudes toward gender roles and toward discipline. The findings demonstrated that early childhood teachers had a tendency to hold egalitarian attitudes toward gender roles and discipline. In other words, these attitudes were found to be highly correlated. (Contains 4…

  2. Expanding Access to Early Childhood Development : Using Interactive Audio Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group; Education Development Center

    2015-01-01

    The returns to investments in early childhood development (ECD) are manifold and can include improved school readiness, reduced drop-out rates, higher labor force productivity and greater social cohesion. Despite these high returns, enrollment in early childhood education is just 18 percent across Africa, with disproportionately high enrollment from children in urban areas and from wealthi...

  3. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  4. Renovating Early Childhood Education Pedagogy: A Case Study in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Dang Phuong; Boyd, Wendy Anne

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to…

  5. Family Strategies to Support and Develop Resilience in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taket, A. R.; Nolan, A.; Stagnitti, K.

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood is an important time for the development of resilience. A recently completed study has followed three cohorts of resilient children and young people living in disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia, through different transitions in their educational careers. This paper focuses on the early childhood cohort, where we have…

  6. Early Childhood Teacher Candidates Evaluate Computer Software for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation of computer software for young children necessitates that early childhood teachers have the knowledge and skills needed to evaluate and select developmentally appropriate software. This article describes the manner in which one university prepares early childhood teacher candidates to analyze software for the young children in…

  7. Teaching Practices that Promote Motor Skills in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Logan, S. Wood; Lucas, W. Amarie; Barber, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators, especially those in preschool centers, are often expected to design and implement movement programs. However, these individuals may not have been taught these skills during their education. The purpose of this study was to determine if early childhood majors could successfully be taught to implement a mastery climate…

  8. Renovating Early Childhood Education Pedagogy: A Case Study in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Dang Phuong; Boyd, Wendy Anne

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to…

  9. Implementation of Early Childhood Education: A Case Study in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwafemi, Osho Lauretta; Nma, Aliyu; Osita, Okolie; Olugbenga, Onifade

    2014-01-01

    Early Childhood Education (ECE) is the education given in educational institutions to children prior to entering the primary schools. Recently, there have been heightening concerns raised by stakeholders concerning the quality of education in Early Childhood Development and Education (ECDE). This paper assesses the level of implementation of ECE…

  10. Recent Trends and Innovations in the Early Childhood Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Examines recent trends in early childhood education practice: the education of all children in inclusive classes, the management of vertical and horizontal transitions, the emergence of early childhood education and care programs, the development of school-family-community partnerships, the emphasis on language learning and emergent literacy, the…

  11. Educating the Early Childhood Workforce: Trends in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the country's early childhood educators' views from a survey conducted by "Exchange" regarding on trends affecting the early childhood segment of higher education. From the survey, five key trends were identified: (1) Shrinking student population--teachers are paid poorly so there is little incentive to invest resources in a…

  12. Bilingualism and Multiculturalism Go to Early Childhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roy Ceferino

    This presentation on the preparation of early childhood teachers addresses implication of multiculturalism and bilingual education in early childhood programs. The purpose of the presentation was threefold: (1) to increase understanding of bilingualism and multiculturalism; (2) to compare and contrast bilingualism and multiculturalism; and (3) to…

  13. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  14. Researching Early Childhood Policy and Practice. A Critical Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…

  15. Assessment Practices and Training Needs of Early Childhood Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…

  16. Competence Requirements in Early Childhood Education and Care. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mathias; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Lazzari, Arianna; Van Laere, Katrien; Peeters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a European research project jointly conducted by the University of East London (UEL) and the University of Ghent (UGent). The "study on competence requirements in early childhood education and care" (CoRe) explored conceptualisations of "competence" and professionalism in early childhood practice, and…

  17. Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Teacher Change among Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…

  18. Directory of Selected Early Childhood Programs, 1988-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Marcia J., Ed.

    This directory lists selected early childhood projects sponsored by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS). An introduction provides an overview of OSERS' early childhood programs, their purposes and activities, and a brief discussion of the implications of Public Law 99-457. The "Directory of Projects" provides a…

  19. Preparing Teachers for Inclusion: Jordanian Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayez, Merfat; Dababneh, Kholoud; Jumiaan, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted during a period of national educational reforms in Jordan to investigate Jordanian preservice early childhood teachers' attitudes toward inclusion and the adequacy of their current preparation for implementing inclusion. The study also sought to identify the perceived concerns of preservice early childhood teachers about…

  20. Early Childhood Education in Minnesota: A Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Corinna

    This paper offers brief discussions of central aspects of public policy and curriculum guidelines for early childhood education in Minnesota and provides capsule descriptions of Piagetian research and national events reflecting trends in early childhood education. Following examination of these topics, the discussion contrasts the Piagetian…

  1. Early Childhood Teacher Research: From Questions to Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…

  2. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  3. Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Long-term social and psychiatric aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self.......5 perpetrators. A quarter of the women had been subjected to violence in connection with the sexual abuse. The likelihood of violence having occurred rose significantly if there was more than one perpetrator and/or if penetration had been part of the sexual abuse. Violence was less common if the perpetrator was......-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1...

  4. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the...

  5. How ineffective family environments can compound maldevelopment of critical thinking skills in childhood abuse survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostolitz, Alessandra C; Hyman, Scott M; Gold, Steven N

    2014-01-01

    The high stress of childhood abuse is associated with neurobiological detriments to executive function. Child abuse survivors may also be cognitively and relationally disadvantaged as a result of being raised in emotionally impoverished families that lack cohesion, organization, flexibility, self-expression, and moral and ethical values and fail to provide opportunities for effective learning. A review of literature demonstrates how dysfunctional family of origin environments common to child abuse survivors, concomitant with the extreme stress of overt acts of abuse, can act as a barrier to the development of higher-order critical thinking skills. The article concludes by discussing ramifications of critical thinking skill deficits in child abuse survivors and highlights the importance of integrating and prioritizing critical thinking skills training in treatment. PMID:25116865

  6. Exploring mental health consequences of childhood abuse and the relevance of religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Marjorie C; Meir, Adi

    2015-02-01

    Although childhood abuse is an established risk factor for mental health problems in adulthood, there is relatively little empirical evidence concerning intervening factors that may mitigate the risk. One potentially protective factor is religiosity. A unique opportunity to explore religiosity's relevance exists with a community-based sample of adult Jewish women that includes sizable subsamples of both rigorously devout ultra-Orthodox (Haredi) and nonreligious Secular Jews. A global measure of any childhood abuse (ACA) includes sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse. Mental health is assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI distress) and a single item reflecting unresolved anger about the past. Predictors of distress severity are examined with separate hierarchical regressions for each religious observance (RO) group. Despite being located at opposite ends of the religiosity spectrum, several surprising similarities emerge including no significant RO group differences in distress among abuse survivors. Moreover, ACA emerges as the strongest predictor of BSI distress within both groups and regressions explain similar amounts of variance. In contrast, two important differences emerge regarding unresolved anger and any recent abuse (ARA). Anger makes a strong contribution to explaining Haredi distress severity, less so for Secular respondents (6.1% vs. 2.9% respectively) while ARA is significant only for Haredi respondents. These initial findings suggest that abusive traumas in childhood may seriously compromise religiosity's potentially protective role. Broadening the research agenda to focus on resilient survivors would expand our understanding of healing resources-both within and outside of a religious framework. Moreover, a better understanding of unresolved anger would likely enhance interventions with greater potential for mitigating the suffering of those abused in childhood. PMID:25015236

  7. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Peter C. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  8. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  9. The relationship of sexual abuse, early initiation of substance use, and adolescent trauma to PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Sharon; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-02-01

    This study explores relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), age of substance use initiation, additional traumatic events, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of adolescents. A history of CSA that preceded substance use was not related to an earlier age of substance use initiation. Early initiation of substance use predicted exposure to additional traumatic experiences. This relationship was partially mediated by engagement in risky behavior while under the influence of substances. Posttraumatic stress disorder was related to CSA, additional traumatic experiences and engagement in risky behavior while under the influence of substances. PMID:19145642

  10. Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Parenting Origins in Patients with Opioid Abuse and Non-Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Kakavand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. "nMethod: The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form; and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. "nResults: Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. The analysis showed that the means for schemas between opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers were different. Chi square test showed that parenting origins were significantly associated with their related schemas. "nConclusion:  The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers were more than non-opioid abusers ; and parenting origins were related to their Corresponding schemas.

  11. Disentangling possible effects of childhood physical abuse on gray matter changes in violent offenders with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; Gregory, Sarah; Attard, Stephen; Blackwood, Nigel; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-02-28

    Violent offenders with psychopathy present a lifelong pattern of callousness and aggression and fail to benefit from rehabilitation programs. This study presents the first, albeit preliminary, evidence suggesting that some of the structural brain anomalies distinguishing violent offenders with psychopathy may result from physical abuse in childhood. PMID:24361393

  12. Disentangling possible effects of childhood physical abuse on gray matter changes in violent offenders with psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kolla, Nathan J; Gregory, Sarah; Attard, Stephen; Blackwood, Nigel; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    Violent offenders with psychopathy present a lifelong pattern of callousness and aggression and fail to benefit from rehabilitation programs. This study presents the first, albeit preliminary, evidence suggesting that some of the structural brain anomalies distinguishing violent offenders with psychopathy may result from physical abuse in childhood.

  13. Coping Strategies Used by Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Journey to Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanichrat, Thanomjit; Townshend, Julia M.

    2010-01-01

    This interpretative phenomenological analysis study explored seven adult survivors' experiences of coping with childhood sexual abuse and identified their coping strategies on the road to recovery. Data for the analysis was collected using semistructured interviews. The analytical process yielded two key theme clusters: avoidant coping strategies…

  14. Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Terry Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of spiritual coping in adult survivors' responses to current life stressors. Although there has been research on general coping and adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), there has been no work done on spiritual coping behaviour and survivors' current adjustment. Method: One…

  15. Female Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: An Existential Exploration and Implications for Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathy D.; Mills, Kimberly T.; Strickland, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, annual prevalence factors indicate that 25% of women are reported survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Existential concerns and basic purposes within the physical, social, personal and spiritual dimensions of female CSA survivors' worldviews are explored. The recognition and meanings of existential purposes and concerns…

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Culture, and Coping: A Qualitative Study of Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligiero, Daniela P.; Fassinger, Ruth; McCauley, Moira; Moore, Jessica; Lyytinen, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to articulate a model of how Latinas cope with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the ways in which personal and cultural variables influence their coping strategies. Nine women who identified as Latina and as survivors of CSA participated in an in-depth interview. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory…

  17. A Psychosynthesis Approach to the Use of Mental Imagery with Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    States that the techniques of mental imagery can help adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse access the inner wisdom necessary to identify, understand, and creatively address issues from the past and develop new and healthier patterns of thinking and behaving. Documents the innovative ways psychosynthesis uses mental imagery with this client…

  18. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  19. Interpersonal Dependency among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erica L.; Gold, Steven N.; Bornstein, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates dependency in survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Analyses of CSA Interpersonal Dependency Inventory scores indicated that among women, CSA survivors obtained higher dependency scores than non-CSA psychiatric patients, community adults, and college students. Findings for men were less consistent. Follow-up analyses revealed…

  20. Relational Challenges and Recovery Processes in Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Sorsoli, Lynn; Grossman, Frances K.

    2010-01-01

    Male survivors of childhood sexual abuse face challenges resolving sexual victimization experiences with the ideals of masculinity, often experiencing intimacy problems, emotional discomfort, alienation, and anger. Little attention has been paid to how male survivors learn to develop long-term connections, disclose emotions in relationship…

  1. Posttraumatic Growth among Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Relation to the Perpetrator Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne; Besser, Avi

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and posttraumatic growth in young adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse in relation to the identity of the perpetrator. Two hundred and forty-six non-clinical female university students were administered self-report…

  2. The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

  3. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Incarcerated Males in County Jail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Regina J.; Ross, Michael W.; Taylor, Wendell C.; Williams, Mark L.; Carvajal, Raul I.; Peters, Ronald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse in a jailed-based population. Methodology: A retrospective, self-reported survey was administered over an 8-week period to a random sample of 100 men who were incarcerated in a county jail in Southeastern Texas. The survey included questions about…

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

  5. Psychogenic Amnesia for Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Sexual Revictimisation in Both Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…

  6. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse: Prevalence and Correlates among Adolescents Living in Rural Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…

  7. Sexual and Physical Revictimization among Victims of Severe Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This 15-year prospective, longitudinal study examines adolescent and young-adult female self-reports of traumatic sexual and physical experiences occurring subsequent to substantiated childhood sexual abuse-revictimizations (N=89). Method: These incidences were contrasted to sexual and physical victimizations reported by a group of…

  8. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  9. The Effects of Childhood Abuse on Relationship Quality: Gender Differences and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Carly D.; Sandberg, Jonathan G.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse, romantic relationship quality, possible gender differences, and clinical implications. Three hundred thirty-eight women and 296 men who sought services at a university mental health clinic in the northeast region of the United States completed a…

  10. Relationships with Mothers and Peers Moderate the Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess whether relationships with mothers and peers moderate the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and anxiety disorders. That is, positive and supportive experiences were expected to minimize the effects of CSA whereas nonsupportive experiences were expected to magnify them.…

  11. Family Environment in Hispanic College Females with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen C.; McEachern, Adriana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to examine the family environments of a sample of Hispanic women who reported childhood sexual abuse. Eighteen women, taken from a larger college sample, were individually interviewed and administered the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994). Cultural values and the relationship of family characteristics to the…

  12. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Transactional Sex in Youth Aging out of Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R.; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. Methods: We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants…

  13. The Perils and Possibilities in Disclosing Childhood Sexual Abuse to a Romantic Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Darren; O'Dougherty Wright, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to understand the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in adulthood by interviewing seven women about their experiences of disclosing CSA to romantic partners. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, an in-depth, qualitative research approach, was used to analyze the transcripts. The analysis produced 10 themes…

  14. School-Based Childhood Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, Candice M.; Hulme, Polly A.

    2015-01-01

    One prevention strategy for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves educational programs delivered to children in the school environment. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to determine the state of the science on school-based CSA prevention programs. The authors extracted data from 26 articles that fit inclusion criteria to…

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Birth-Related Posttraumatic Stress and Postpartum Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Daphna-Tekoah, Shir; Hallak, Mordechai

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which childbirth may function as a retraumatization of childhood sexual abuse, and may exacerbate postpartum posttraumatic stress reactions. Methods: Data was obtained from a convenience sample of 837 women in mid-pregnancy, at 2 and 6 months following childbirth. Three groups were drawn from this sample:…

  17. Interpersonal Rejection Sensitivity in Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Mediator of Depressive Symptoms and Anger Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterek, Jane A.; Harb, Gerlinde C.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Marx, Brian P.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated whether interpersonal rejection sensitivity serves a mediating role between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and three long-term psychological correlates of CSA in adult female survivors: depressive symptoms, anger suppression, and attenuated emotional expression. Interpersonal rejection sensitivity has been shown to be a risk…

  18. Constructions of Survival and Coping by Women Who Have Survived Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Susan L.; Smith, Mary Lee

    1995-01-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 women survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Over 160 individual strategies were coded and analyzed, and a theoretical model was developed describing causal conditions that underlie the development of survival and coping strategies, phenomena that arose from those causal conditions, contexts that influenced…

  19. Process Research in the Treatment of Adult Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E.; Alexander, Pamela C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews three areas of psychotherapy process research: therapist behaviors, client behaviors, and therapist-client interaction. Examines how each of these variables affects the process of treatment and how they are likely to affect treatment outcomes. Implications for research with adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse are examined. (JPS)

  20. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse: Prevalence and Correlates among Adolescents Living in Rural Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…

  1. Family Environment in Hispanic College Females with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen C.; McEachern, Adriana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to examine the family environments of a sample of Hispanic women who reported childhood sexual abuse. Eighteen women, taken from a larger college sample, were individually interviewed and administered the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994). Cultural values and the relationship of family characteristics to the…

  2. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Transactional Sex in Youth Aging out of Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R.; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. Methods: We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants…

  3. Psychogenic Amnesia for Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Sexual Revictimisation in Both Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…

  4. Deficits in Emotion Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Later Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…

  5. The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

  6. Deficits in Emotion Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Later Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…

  7. Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse and Eating-Disordered Cognitions and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerko, K.; Hughes, M.L.; Hamill, M.; Waller, G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This study assessed links between reported childhood sexual abuse and a range of eating behaviors and attitudes, among a large sample of eating-disordered women. It tested the hypothesis that there will be links to bulimic behaviors and body dissatisfaction, rather than restriction. Method:: The sample consisted of 299 women, meeting…

  8. Group Therapy for Survivors of Severe Childhood Abuse: Repairing the Social Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Presents a model for conducting time-limited group therapy with adult survivors of severe childhood abuse who were diagnosed with complex post-traumatic and dissociative disorders. Group sessions are organized around verbal promises that encourage the client's active, attentive engagement. Gentle confrontation of dissociative defenses is integral…

  9. Working with Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Survey of Mental Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Andrew; Thurlow, Katie; Woolliscroft, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 54 British mental health professionals found respondents were reasonably knowledgeable about childhood sexual abuse. However, they were not very comfortable, competent, or supported in their work with these clients. Less experienced staff were more likely to feel supported. Those who received training and/or supervision felt more…

  10. Serotonin Transporter (5-HTTLPR) Genotype, Childhood Abuse, and Suicide Attempts in Adult Psychiatric Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E.; McGeary, John E.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2006-01-01

    There is growing evidence that a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the impact of negative life events (e.g., childhood abuse) on the development of depression. However, it is unclear whether the gene x environment interaction predicts suicide attempts specifically. In addition, previous studies have not…

  11. Relational Challenges and Recovery Processes in Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Sorsoli, Lynn; Grossman, Frances K.

    2010-01-01

    Male survivors of childhood sexual abuse face challenges resolving sexual victimization experiences with the ideals of masculinity, often experiencing intimacy problems, emotional discomfort, alienation, and anger. Little attention has been paid to how male survivors learn to develop long-term connections, disclose emotions in relationship…

  12. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  13. Early childhood caries in indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) and the United States (American Indian, Alaska Native) is a major child health issue: there is a high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and resulting adverse health effects in this community, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. This statement includes recommendations for preventive oral health and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health-promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride-varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management, and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial. PMID:21624884

  14. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  15. Height and calories in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Andrew S

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants. PMID:26656205

  16. [Eating disorders of infancy and early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielska, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Feeding problems are frequently observed among the population of infants and small children. This problems include food refusal, overeating, selective eating and bizarre food habits. That problems might be transient, but they may last for many years among some of children. They could lead to poor weight gain, specific nutritional deficiencies and even failure to thrive. In ICD-10 classification two diagnostic categories regarding eating disorders during this life period have been proposed (Eating disorders and Pica of infancy and early childhood). That criteria are too general though, they don't tell much about etiology and they don't allow to make decision about using specific therapy for the disorder as well. The author presents American authors' propositions regarding more specific categories of feeding problems differentiation in this particular age group and presents casuistic descriptions. PMID:19485268

  17. Childhood abuse increases the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms and history of suicidal behavior in Mexican pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Asunción Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the relationship between individual and co-occurring childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, prenatal depressive (PDS and anxiety symptoms (PAS, and history of suicidal behavior (HSB among Mexican pregnant women at risk of depression.Methods:A sample of 357 women screened for PDS was interviewed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA-Q, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, the anxiety subscale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90, and specific questions on verbal abuse and HSB.Results:Logistic regression analyses showed that women who had experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA were 2.60 times more likely to develop PDS, 2.58 times more likely to develop PAS, and 3.71 times more likely to have HSB. Childhood physical abuse (CPA increased the risk of PAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51 and HSB (OR = 2.62, while childhood verbal abuse (CVA increased PDS (OR = 1.92. Experiencing multiple abuses increased the risk of PDS (OR = 3.01, PAS (OR = 3.73, and HSB (OR = 13.73.Conclusions:Childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, especially when they co-occur, have an impact on PDS and PAS and lifetime HSB. These findings suggest that pregnant women at risk for depression should also be screened for trauma as a risk factor for perinatal psychopathology.

  18. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  19. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  20. Exploring the Impact of Childhood Abuse on HIV Social and Attitudinal Factors Among Adults With and Without this History in Sub-Saharan Africa: Findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV. PMID:26271817

  1. Empirical Studies on Early Childhood Education in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Coneus, Katja

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation considers different aspects of early childhood education in Germany. It aims at providing an empirical contribution to four issues in early childhood education: the development of cognitive and noncognitive skills (chapter 1-3), institutional child care (chapter 4), the intergenerational transmission of a child's health (chapter 5), and the long-term consequences of early noncognitive skills (chapter 6). This is done by using two data sets: First, we use the mother and...

  2. Changing Curriculum for Early Childhood Education in England

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Ihm Kwon

    2002-01-01

    This article examines early childhood curriculum in England. Traditional early childhood education in England has been child centered, in contrast to approaches that are subject centered and teacher directed, emphasizing individual childrens interests, free play, firsthand experience, and integrated learning. However, recently, the government introduced a framework for an early years curriculum, redefined the child-centered educational model, and initiated reforms for raising standards. In or...

  3. Psychopathology and resilience in relation to abuse in childhood among youth first referred to the psychiatrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Child abuse may be related to adverse psychological outcomes in adult life. However, little is known about specific clinical, family and resilience profiles of adolescents that have experienced child abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical symptoms, family functioning and resilience characteristics of adolescents with the experience of abuse, first referred to psychiatrists. Methods. The study included 84 young participants (mean age 14.90 ± 3.10, ranging from 11 to 18 years as consecutive first referrals to the Clinic for Children and Youth of the Institute of Mental Health, Belgrade, Serbia. The sample consisted of two groups, based on the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The first group included adolescents with the experience of abuse in childhood (n = 38, 13 males, 25 females, whereas the second, control group, comprised of non-abused adolescents (n = 47, 20 males, 27 females. The presence of abuse was evaluated by the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The study used the following questionnaires: Youth Self-Report (YSR, Adolescent Resilience Attitudes Scale (ARAS, and Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI. Results. Significant differences were found only among females. According to YSR, the abused girls had significantly higher scores on the Delinquent Behavior scale and marginally higher scores on Anxious/ Depressed and Social Problems scales. Analyses of the SFI showed significantly lower family functioning among the girls with the child abuse history for all scales except for the Directive Leadership. The abused girls also showed significantly lower scores on the Insight scale, and marginally lower Initiative scores at the ARAS. Conclusions. These findings may have practical application in the creation of specific preventive and treatment strategies, particularly focused on delinquent tendencies, as well as on enhancing resilience through providing positive environments within families, schools and communities.

  4. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  5. Early Childhood Educators' Perceived and Actual Metalinguistic Knowledge, Beliefs and Enacted Practice about Teaching Early Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…

  6. Providing Optimal Opportunities: Structuring Practicum Experiences in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Preservice Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Marisa; Squires, Jane K.; Barton, Erin E.

    2009-01-01

    An approach to designing field-based practicum opportunities for preservice students is described. First, the importance of quality field experiences is presented, together with a conceptual framework. Second, foundational and philosophical perspectives in early childhood and early intervention (EI) and early childhood special education (ECSE)…

  7. Are Minority Children Disproportionately Represented in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether and to what extent children who are racial-ethnic minorities are disproportionately represented in early intervention and/or early childhood special education (EI/ECSE). We did so by analyzing a large sample of 48-month-olds (N = 7,950) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a…

  8. Positive and Negative Posttraumatic Change Following Childhood Sexual Abuse Are Associated With Youths' Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A; Smith, Erin; Fava, Nicole; Feiring, Candice

    2015-11-01

    Meanings made of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences are important to psychosocial adjustment. The current study examined adolescents' and young adults' perceptions of posttraumatic change (PTC) in the self, relationships, sexuality, and worldviews attributed to prior CSA experiences. We sought to document the prevalence of positive and negative PTC and examine their unique and joint associations with psychosocial adjustment. Participants included 160 youth with confirmed cases of CSA (73% female; 8-14 years at abuse discovery) who were part of a longitudinal study of the long-term effects of CSA. Six years after discovery, youth were interviewed about their abuse experiences. Interviews were coded for the valence and strength of PTC. The majority of youth reported PTC, and negative changes were more frequent and stronger than positive changes. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and negative PTC, positive PTC was associated with lower abuse stigmatization for all youth. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and positive PTC, negative PTC was associated with greater abuse stigmatization, post-traumatic stress disorder, sexual problems, and dating aggression for all youth. Relations of positive PTC with depression and support from friends and romantic partner were moderated by negative PTC, such that positive PTC was associated with better adjustment for youth with low versus high levels of negative PTC. Results highlight the importance of both negative and positive PTC for understanding meanings made of CSA experiences and their implications for psychosocial adjustment and intervention. PMID:26092440

  9. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  10. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  11. The development of storytelling in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is an important aspect of child's language competence, which largely depends on her/his understanding and expression of a decontextualised content and develops rapidly in the period between the second and sixth year of life. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in children's storytelling in the period between the third and sixth year of age. In addition, we considered the effect of gender on storytelling of children of different ages. The sample included 156 children aged from 3 to 6 years, who were divided into 3 age groups, namely children, aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Child's storytelling competence was assessed with the Little Glove Storytelling Test. Children's stories told by a standard set of illustrations, were analyzed in terms of criteria, designed to assess the developmental level of the stories. The criteria refer to the words, included in the story, the grammatical structure and the content of the story. The obtained results suggested that several important changes in the development of storytelling occur within the period of early childhood. The 5-years-old children told longer stories with a more complex grammatical structure and a coherent content as the 3-years-old children. Children's achievements on the individual criteria for assessing the developmental level of the stories progressed relatively steadily through all three age groups. The results also showed that gender had no significant effect on the storytelling of children of different ages.

  12. Scaffolding conceptual change in early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    1990-01-01

    The general educational literature draws our attention to the limitations of Piaget’s work and presents a number of interesting ideas that science educators and researchers could consider. Of interest are Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s writings on the zone of proximal development and the more recent writings of Jerome Bruner on scaffolding. The notion of learning as a a socially constructed process in opposition to the more individualistic orientation of Piaget has challenged much of our educational practice. This paper will briefly explore the basic tenets of constructivism and contrast the theories developed from within this paradigm to the work of Vygotsky and Bruner through an analysis of classroom discourse collected from a number of early childhood classes involved in the interactive teaching approach to science. Transcripts of teacher-child discourse are presented as evidence to support the proposition that when the teacher’s role is not clearly defined, the range of teacher-child interactions will vary enormously, and the subsequent learning outcomes for children will be quite different.

  13. The Missing Support Infrastructure in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gallagher

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Noting that current programs for young children outside the home lack a comprehensive infrastructure or support system to stand behind the delivery of services to the child and family, this paper proposes the development of a support infrastructure designed to provide continuing and effective assistance to those who work with young children. The paper notes that a support system for early childhood services would include the following components: (1 personnel preparation, (2 technical assistance, (3 applied research and program evaluation, (4 communication, (5 demonstration, (6 data systems, (7 comprehensive planning, and (8 coordination of support elements. The paper next discusses barriers to policy implementation that would result in a coordinated support infrastructure. These barriers are institutional, psychological, sociological, economic, political, and geographic in nature. The paper then suggests strategies that might be implemented to bring about change, including identifying and cultivating powerful political forces, establishing planning structures, mounting a media initiative, and involving professional organizations. The paper concludes with suggestions for financing the infrastructure.

  14. Montessori and Early Childhood Education: A Contemporary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Annette

    2000-01-01

    Surveys constructivism and developmental psychology, including work by Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner, Gardner, Kamii, and DeVries. Considers the influence of Montessori pedagogy on early childhood education in contrast to its neglect in professional literature. (JPB)

  15. Paracetamol use in pregnancy and wheezing in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    S. Shaheen; Newson, R; Sherriff, A; Henderson, A.; Heron, J.; Burney, P.; Golding, J; The, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: We recently reported links between frequent paracetamol (acetaminophen) use and wheezing and asthma in adults and children, but data are lacking on possible effects of prenatal exposure on wheezing in early childhood.

  16. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test

    OpenAIRE

    Kunseler, Florentina C.; Oosterman, Mirjam; Marleen H. M. de Moor; Verhage, Marije L.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243) participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25%) experi...

  17. The role of parents in early childhood education in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ashu, F. (Felix)

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to provide some suggestions for the role of parents in early childhood education in Cameroon. It also tries to create an awareness of the current state of educational structures and institutions that are available for early childhood education and to identify gaps where urgent attention is needed. Data for this study was collected through interview with the use of Skype. A stratified random sampling method was used and the focus groups were parents who live both in cities a...

  18. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunseler, Florentina C.; Oosterman, Mirjam; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Verhage, Marije L.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243) participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25%) experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success) and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success). Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline), but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood. PMID:26848573

  19. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunseler, Florentina C; Oosterman, Mirjam; de Moor, Marleen H M; Verhage, Marije L; Schuengel, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243) participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25%) experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success) and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success). Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline), but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood. PMID:26848573

  20. Professional Growth Reconceptualized: Early Childhood Staff Searching for Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Fleet

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges traditional perspectives of professional development through a reconceptualization of early childhood professional growth. A review of the early childhood professional development literature reveals the problematic nature of the linear perspectives and deficit models of staff development prevalent in the early childhood field. In contrast to these models, the paper proposes alternative perspectives that recognize staff as empowered learners who build their working knowledge through spirals of engagement with many aspects of early childhood philosophy and practice over time. To illustrate the challenges to the dominant professional development paradigm, the paper discusses the professional development components of an Australian study of early childhood centers that began with off-site researcher-led inservice workshops and was followed by on-site staff-led discussion. The study involved approximately 75 staff members from 12 early childhood centers who participated in collaborative rethinking of approaches to planning and working with young children and their families. This approach to professional development was sustained by ongoing support of the researchers as critical friends who facilitated staff engagement through a sense of personal and professional agency. The approaches explored in this paper propose a constructivist view of professional growth that acknowledges the unique contribution of the personal professional knowledge of individuals and the importance of the orientation of individuals both to their work and to new ideas.

  1. Traumatic stress and psychological adjustment in treatment-seeking women sexually abused in childhood: a follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, and risk factors among women sexually abused in childhood (CSA) after six months in therapy. Thirty in-treatment CSA survivors reported their abuse history and filled out several questionnaire...

  2. An Exploratory Qualitative Study of the Self-Reported Impact of Female-Perpetrated Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Rebecca; Mellor, David

    2011-01-01

    The limited findings on the impact of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children are often contradictory, particularly in relation to males. In this exploratory qualitative study, a sample of nine men and five women who reported that they had been sexually abused by women in their childhood were recruited from the general community. They…

  3. Beyond "Survivor": How Childhood Sexual Abuse Informs the Identity of Adult Women at the End of the Therapeutic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alexis; Daniluk, Judith C.

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative method was used to explore how adult women experienced their identity after extensive therapy to deal with childhood sexual abuse. Seven women shared their healing journeys and their perceptions of the role of the abuse in their current life and self-perceptions. Phenomenological analysis of the interview data revealed 5 common…

  4. A Qualitative Study of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors in Taiwan: Toward a Transactional and Ecological Model of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Wei; Heppner, P. Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the experiences of 10 female Taiwanese childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors (age range = 20-39 years) to broaden our understanding of the post-abuse coping process in a Chinese sociocultural context. This investigation was grounded on a feminist paradigm, and the consensual qualitative research method (Hill et…

  5. Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Victims' Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings from a National Sample of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics--penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment--in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with…

  6. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  10. Traumatic stress and psychological adjustment in treatment-seeking women sexually abused in childhood: a follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, and risk factors among women sexually abused in childhood (CSA) after six months in therapy. Thirty in-treatment CSA survivors reported their abuse history and filled out several questionnaires...

  11. Childhood abuse and neglect and loss of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, B A; Fisler, R E

    1994-01-01

    Secure attachments with caregivers play a critical role in helping children develop a capacity to modulate physiological arousal. Loss of ability to regulate the intensity of feelings and impulses is possibly the most far-reaching effect of trauma and neglect. It has been shown that most abused and neglected children develop disorganized attachment patterns. The inability to modulate emotions gives rise to a range of behaviors that are best understood as attempts at self-regulation. These include aggression against others, self-destructive behavior, eating disorders, and substance abuse. The capacity to regulate internal states affects both self-definition and one's attitude toward one's surroundings. Abused children often fail to develop the capacity to express specific and differentiated emotions: Their difficulty putting feelings into words interferes with flexible response strategies and promotes acting out. Usually, these behaviors coexist, which further complicates diagnosis and treatment. Affective dysregulation can be mitigated by safe attachments, secure meaning schemes, and pharmacological interventions that enhance the predictability of somatic responses to stress. The ability to create symbolic representations of terrifying experiences promotes taming of terror and desomatization of traumatic memories. PMID:7519094

  12. The Influence of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Adolescent Outcomes: The Roles of Gender, Poverty, and Revictimization

    OpenAIRE

    Matta Oshima, Karen M.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Seay, Kristen D.

    2014-01-01

    Research on childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has focused on adult revictimization and outcomes. This article examines the rate of child maltreatment revictimization among male and female children reported to child protective services for CSA and whether revictimization impacts outcomes. Using longitudinal administrative data, Cox regressions were used to examine relationships between initial report of CSA, maltreatment revictimization, and adolescent outcomes among children from poor and non-poor...

  13. Exploration of explicit and implicit emotion in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Eimear; Mckay, Eimear

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise the socioemotional development of the victim resulting in an increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions and one’s sense of self. Emotion is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation will inform current treatment....

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Relationship Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Community Sample of Women

    OpenAIRE

    TESTA, MARIA; VanZILE-TAMSEN, CAROL; LIVINGSTON, JENNIFER A.

    2005-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been proposed to influence both women’s adult sexual risk behaviors and the quality of their intimate relationships. Among a household sample of women (n = 732), good fit was obtained for a model in which CSA predicted Wave 1 male partner sexual risk and aggression characteristics, resulting in lower relationship satisfaction, and ultimately in higher numbers of Wave 2 sexual partners. The model was generally replicated among women who entered new relationship...

  15. Coping behaviour, posttraumatic growth and psychological well-being in women with childhood sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley J. Walker-Williams; Chrizanne van Eeden; Karen Van der Merwe

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the coping behaviours and posttraumatic growth of women with sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and long-term effects on their psychological well-being in adulthood. Participants were 10 women survivors of CSA (ages ranging from 23–48 years). Data on how women resiled, coped and thrived were collected using individual interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis were used for data analysis. The data were thematically analyzed. Themes to emerge from the analysis in...

  16. Trauma Centrality and PTSD Symptom Severity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Robinaugh, Donald John; McNally, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Theorists have posited that regarding a trauma as central to one's identity leads to greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. To test this hypothesis, we administered the Centrality of Events Scale (CES) to women reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse (N = 102). The CES scores were correlated with PTSD symptom severity, depression severity, and self-esteem. In addition, we conducted a principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate factors underlying the CES. The P...

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates Genetic Influences on Age at First Consensual Sexual Intercourse in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C.; Turkheimer, Eric N.; Emery, Robert E.; Nelson, Elliot; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Martin, Nicholas G

    2007-01-01

    We examine interactive effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on heritable variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse in a young cohort of 3,350 female and 2,724 male Australian twins. Consistent with hypotheses, genetic influences explained little if any variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse for female twins reporting CSA (CSA+), with shared environment explaining 73%. For female twins reporting no history of CSA (CSA−), 39% of variation in age at first consen...

  18. Hostile-Helpless states of mind mediate relations between childhood abuse severity and personality disorder features

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Brent; Byun, Sooyeon; MELNICK, SHARON; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study assessed whether the often reported relation between childhood abuse and the extent of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) features would be mediated by Hostile–Helpless (HH) and/or Unresolved (U) states of mind on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI).Method: One hundred and three young adults from low- to moderate-income families were assessed for HH and U states of mind on the AAI, psychopathology on the SCID I and II...

  19. An exploration of the lives of disabled people sexually abused in childhood: "the double whammy effect"

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Martina

    2006-01-01

    This thesis investigates the lives of seven disabled people who were sexually abused in childhood by utilising narrative methodology and the application of the social model of disability. Flexible methods of participation were offered to participants and continuous ethical evaluation formed the backbone of the research relationship. Thematic analysis generated three interlocking and overarching "grand" themes that constituted the substantive chapters of the thesis (power, identity and narrati...

  20. Childhood sexual abuse and the risk for recurrent major depression in Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Cong, E.; C. Shao; Chen, J.; Wu, W.; Shang, X.; Wang, Z.; Liu, Y.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China; Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; School of Physics, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Physics Department, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China); Gao, C.; Wu, J.; Deng, H.; Liu, J.; Sang, W.; LIU, G; Rong, H.; Gan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies in Western countries have repeatedly shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in China? Method Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal...

  1. Mediating role of childhood abuse and emotion regulation between parental bonding and suicidal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Margi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Experiences of negative parenting and childhood abuse can have adverse consequences for the child‟s development particularly in relation to the ability to regulate emotions effectively. There has been extensive research in this area and attachment theory is pivotal. Problems in regulating emotions can involve not being able to recognise, label or manage internal and external states of mind and behaviour. Therefore research has shown that problems in emotion reg...

  2. Direct and indirect influences of childhood abuse on depression symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yumi HAYASHI; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Okada, Go; Toki, Shigeru; INOUE, TAKESHI; Tanabe, Hajime; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Background It is known that the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder are affected by interactions between a number of factors. This study investigated how childhood abuse, personality, and stress of life events were associated with symptoms of depression in depressed people. Methods Patients with major depressive disorder (N = 113, 58 women and 55 men) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Five Factor Inventory (NE...

  3. Emotional Support and Adult Depression in Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Musliner, Katherine L.; Singer, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of emotional support from friends and parents at two time points (adolescence and adulthood) on adult depression in a nationally representative sample of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and examine whether the associations were moderated by the identity of the perpetrator (parent/caregiver vs. not). Data was taken from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study sample included 1...

  4. A structured play therapy intervention model to mitigate the effects of childhood sexual abuse / Louise Petra Aucamp

    OpenAIRE

    Aucamp, Louise Petra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study is to develop a structured play therapy intervention model to mitigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse. South Africa has one of the highest prevalence rates for child sexual abuse, and professionals working with children are consequently faced with the phenomenon on an increasing scale. Many professionals find themselves ill-equipped to address the effect of sexual abuse on the child, and the lack of an integrated understanding of the phenomenon seems to exacerbate ...

  5. Men's and Women's Childhood Sexual Abuse and Victimization in Adult Partner Relationships: A Study of Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Isabelle; Hebert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: (1) Document the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical assault, psychological, physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) in a nationally representative sample. (2) Assess the predictive value of CSA and other characteristics of the respondents and their current partners as potential risk factors for…

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Dating Partner Violence and Suicidal Ideation in a Representative Household Sample in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on future intimate partner violence (IPV) in dating relationship in Hong Kong, China. A total of 1,154 Chinese adult respondents engaged in dating relationships were interviewed face-to-face about their CSA histories, childhood witnessing of parental violence, adult…

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Health among Indigenous Kanak Women and Non-Kanak Women of New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Cyr, Diane; Gueguen, Alice; Lert, France

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by comparing indigenous Kanak to non-Kanak women in…

  8. Association of Abuse-Related Symptoms and Style of Anger Expression for Female Survivors of Childhood Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Roxanne I.; Day, H. D.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and the Response to Childhood Incest Questionnaire. Respondents reported higher levels of both experienced and expressed anger than comparable STAXI norms. Discusses other findings. Research findings indicate the first empirical…

  9. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could be identified that were subdivided into trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), non-trauma-focused CBT, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other treatments (interpersonal, emotion-focused). Results showed that psychological interventions are efficacious for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g=1.24 (pre- vs. post-treatment), and aggregated controlled effect sizes of g=0.72 (post-treatment, comparison to waitlist control conditions) and g=0.50 (post-treatment, comparison with TAU/placebo control conditions), respectively. Effect sizes remained stable at follow-up. As the heterogeneity between studies was large, we examined the influence of two a priori specified moderator variables on treatment efficacy. Results showed that trauma-focused treatments were more efficacious than non-trauma-focused interventions, and that treatments including individual sessions yielded larger effect sizes than pure group treatments. As a whole, the findings are in line with earlier meta-analyses showing that the best effects can be achieved with individual trauma-focused treatments. PMID:25455628

  10. Childhood abuse and deprivation are associated with distinct sex-dependent differences in brain morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; Zwiers, Marcel; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; van Oostrom, Iris; Schene, Aart; Fernández, Guillén; Tendolkar, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) has been associated with long-term structural brain alterations and an increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Evidence is emerging that subtypes of CA, varying in the dimensions of threat and deprivation, lead to distinct neural and behavioral outcomes. However, these specific associations have yet to be established without potential confounders such as psychopathology. Moreover, differences in neural development and psychopathology necessitate the exploration of sexual dimorphism. Young healthy adult subjects were selected based on history of CA from a large database to assess gray matter (GM) differences associated with specific subtypes of adversity. We compared voxel-based morphometry data of subjects reporting specific childhood exposure to abuse (n=127) or deprivation (n=126) and a similar sized group of controls (n=129) without reported CA. Subjects were matched on age, gender, and educational level. Differences between CA subtypes were found in the fusiform gyrus and middle occipital gyrus, where subjects with a history of deprivation showed reduced GM compared with subjects with a history of abuse. An interaction between sex and CA subtype was found. Women showed less GM in the visual posterior precuneal region after both subtypes of CA than controls. Men had less GM in the postcentral gyrus after childhood deprivation compared with abuse. Our results suggest that even in a healthy population, CA subtypes are related to specific alterations in brain structure, which are modulated by sex. These findings may help understand neurodevelopmental consequences related to CA. PMID:26576924

  11. INCLUSIVE EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: TEACHERS AND PARENTS PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRASHANT THOTE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available All areas of education face changes and challenges constantly. Early childhood education is no exception. A recent challenge teachers face in early childhood education is the advent of inclusion. Implementing inclusion in early childhood classrooms creates more diversity among the children. Inclusion of students with various disabilities has caused concern among parents and teachers. There are some concerns that need special attention when including students with disabilities in the early childhood classrooms. Reforming public education to accommodate the needs of special education children placed in regular classrooms is a vital issue .For several years there have been arguments concerning the placement of children with disabilities in the regular classrooms. When inclusion children are placed in the regular classrooms the teachers are required to provide individualized instruction for the inclusion children. This may take away the time the teacher have to spend with the other children. The inclusion of children in regular classrooms have been both positive and negative effects. This means, with respect to all stages of the education system, including early childhood, that all children , regardless of their disability, can attend their local educational setting, and have their learning and development needs met through the provision of high-quality care and education For inclusive early childhood education to be successful, early childhood teachers as well as parents and members of the wider community need to embrace and practice inclusion. Parents of children without disabilities may bring with them attitudes and understandings that can lead to social exclusions, restrictions and disadvantages for all children with disabilities and their family in their early childhood setting and neighbourhood community. In this paper, we tried to highlight the attitudes and understandings of some parents of non-disabled children towards the inclusion and teaching of children with disabilities in regular early childhood settings and the consequences that resulted from the exclusionary and inclusionary constructions that these parents took up to define and understand disability and inclusion. We then offer some ideas and strategies for dialogue that may help early childhood teachers appropriately respond to this issue at own capacity .

  12. Trauma Characteristics and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Carmen P.; Morris, Sarah Herrick; Conklin, Phoebe; Jayawickreme, Nuwan; Foa, Edna B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the severity of consequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use in a sample of 83 female adolescents aged 13-18 years seeking treatment for PTSD. Nearly two-thirds of the sample (60.7%, n = 51) reported the perpetrator of the CSA was a relative. A large portion (40.5%, n = 34) of the sample reported being victimized once, while almost a quarter of the sample reported chronic victimization (23.8%, n = 20). PTSD and depression scores were in the clinical range, whereas reported levels of suicidal ideation and substance use were low. The frequency of victimizations was associated with suicidal ideation. Contrary to expectation, CSA characteristics including trauma type, perpetrator relationship, and duration of abuse were unrelated to PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, or substance abuse. PMID:25089075

  13. Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Parenting Origins in Patients with Opioid Abuse and Non-Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Reza Kakavand; Mojgan Salavati; Mohammad Zargar; Mohammad Reza Jalali

    2011-01-01

    "nObjective: The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. "nMethod: The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form); and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. "nResults: Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MA...

  14. The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and subsequent onset of bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D A; McCluskey-Fawcett, K; Irving, L M

    1993-01-01

    Seventy-two young adult women identified by the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE) as having a high probability of suffering from bulimia nervosa were compared with 72 matched controls who did not display bulimic symptoms. Both groups were given measures of sexual abuse history, dissociation, and early family mealtime experiences. Rates of self-reported sexual abuse after the age of 12 with an adult relative as the perpetrator were significantly greater in the women diagnosed as bulimic. Nonsignificant but high rates of sexual abuse prior to age 12 were also found for this group. Dissociative experiences were also significantly more common in the bulimic group overall, and higher still for bulimic women who reported sexual abuse as children. Bulimic women had more negative and unusual mealtime experiences than nonbulimic women. Results suggest that sexual abuse may be related to the subsequent onset of bulimia nervosa for some women. PMID:8472183

  15. Child Maltreatment and Women’s Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Unique Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, Theresa E.; CAREY, MICHAEL P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psycholo...

  16. Childhood Risk Factors in Substance Abuse Among a Group of Abuser 20-30 Year-Old Group in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Zahiredin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0. Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who were selected by DSM- IV based semi-structured diagnostic interviews for decrease memory biases in this retrospective cohart study. The patient’s parents also evaluated by DSM- IV based Semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The analysis showed significant relation between: parents control on the siblings, addiction in relatives of pt (except parents, addicted peers and friends, to be affected with the peers and friends and substance use disorder at the ages (20-30y/o. There wasn’t any association between: Disruptive childhood behaviors (under 11y/o, diagnosed medical illness (under 11y/o diagnosed Psychiatric illness (under 6 mo , family size, socio economic state and substance use disorder at the age(20-30y/0 . Finally some childhood and adolescence pathologic factors has association with Substance use disorder at the ages ( 20-30y/5 that these can be used for education all planning , prevention , design high risk group and remedical plans.

  17. Factors contributing to ongoing intimate partner abuse: childhood betrayal trauma and dependence on one's perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Rebecca L; Deprince, Anne P

    2013-05-01

    Identifying the factors that contribute to ongoing intimate partner abuse (IPA) among survivors of childhood abuse is essential to developing appropriate interventions. The current study assessed prospectively whether childhood betrayal trauma (BT) history and women's potential dependence on their perpetrators (unemployment, number of children below 13) increased women's risk of ongoing victimization, while controlling for trauma-related symptoms (PTSD, depression, dissociation). Women survivors of IPA (N = 190) from an urban U.S. city were recruited based on an IPA incident reported to the police. At the initial interview, women reported on childhood betrayal trauma experiences, their employment status, number of children, and current trauma-related symptoms. Women returned 6 months later and reported on ongoing events of victimization (physical, sexual, psychological aggression, and injury) in their relationships with the initial IPA perpetrator. Results showed that higher levels of childhood BT were associated with ongoing victimization over the course of 6 months. Women's unemployment status predicted greater physical and sexual aggression and injuries. Higher levels of depression and lower levels of PTSD symptoms were also associated with increases in physical, sexual, and psychological aggression, and bodily injury. The findings have important implications for interventions by demonstrating the need to process women's betrayal trauma experiences, target depression symptoms, and increase women's economic opportunities to prevent further victimization. PMID:23266993

  18. Early Childhood Educator and Administrator Surveys on the Use of Assessments and Standards in Early Childhood Settings. REL 2014-019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Clare W.; O'Dwyer, Laura; Cook, Kyle DeMeo

    2014-01-01

    The Early Childhood Educator Survey and the Early Childhood Administrator Survey allow users to collect consistent data on the use of child assessments and learning standards in early childhood learning settings. Each survey includes modules on educator/administrator background information, assessment use, and learning standards implementation.…

  19. Equity and Quality? Challenges for Early Childhood and Primary Education in Ethiopia, India and Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 55. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses on the challenges of…

  20. Remembering Childhood: Do Our Memories and Experiences Influence Our Understanding of Early Childhood and Our Practice with Young Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Karen; Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Students on the Early Childhood Studies degree programme at the University of East London were asked to reflect on their childhood memories and how these have shaped their understandings of early childhood and practices with young children. Students' rich and varied accounts reflect the diversity of largely non-traditional students from…

  1. Advocacy: The Early Childhood Historian's Not-So-Hidden Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranck, Edna Runnels

    To examine how knowledge of history and politics informs the early education and child care field, this paper identifies sources of historical knowledge and unexamined underlying presuppositions frequently held by early childhood professionals which, if allowed to remain unchallenged, contribute to professional burn-out, repeated frustration at…

  2. Early Childhood Music Education in England: Changes, Choices, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Early childhood provision in England is undergoing a period of expansion and change. Policy for English early years education and care is based on principles of serving children in need rather than entitlement for all. The result is a two-tier system of private and state provision. Music has benefited from this increase in interest and investment.…

  3. Early Childhood Care and Education: A Child Perspective Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Dion; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Hundeide, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    From research we know that there is no specific early childhood education programme that is superior to other approaches (National Research Council. 2001). At the same time, historically it looks like people think there is a specific programme that will solve all problems and guarantee a high quality in early years education, since different…

  4. What Matters Most for Early Childhood Development : A Framework Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle J. Neuman; Devercelli, Amanda E.

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, inequalities in child development are stark. These inequalities often begin before birth and expand during a child's early years. A child's earliest years present a window of opportunity to address inequality and improve outcomes later in life. The potential benefits from supporting early childhood development (ECD) include: improved cognitive development, better schoolin...

  5. Handwriting in Early Childhood Education: Current Research and Future Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura H.

    2015-01-01

    Early fine motor writing skills are quickly becoming recognized as an important school readiness skill associated with later academic success (Dinehart and Manfra, 2013; Grissmer et al., 2010; Son and Meisels, 2006). Yet, little is known about the development of handwriting, the extent to which it is of value in the early childhood classroom and…

  6. Mauritius Early Childhood Development : SABER Country Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the early childhood development (ECD) programs and policies which affect young children in Mauritius. It is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the systems approach for better education results (SABER)-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition, and social and child protection policies and interventi...

  7. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  8. The Democratic Republic of Congo Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the early childhood development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in the Democratic Republic of Congo and recommendations to move forward. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the systems approach for better education results (SABER) - ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, ...

  9. Where Is the (Postmodern) Child in Early Childhood Education Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Melanie D.

    2008-01-01

    Within early years education research there is a lack of research that focuses on the child and that constructs the child as co-constructor of knowledge, culture and identity. Although there is much writing on early childhood education with regard to teacher practice, pedagogy and curriculum, these discussions are rarely informed by the…

  10. Online Professional Development: Choices for Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heather; Donaldson, Ana J.; Hudson, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood educators are responsible for providing young children with the best possible early care and education. Research on child care workers' education has shown that professional preparation makes a significant impact on children's cognitive and emotional development (National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC],…

  11. Harmony between Turkish Early Childhood and Primary Mathematics Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan Dedeoglu, Nuray; Alat, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the spiral relation and the congruency between mathematics standards listed in the Early Childhood and First Grade curricula in Turkey. A descriptive content analysis was conducted on Early Child Education Curriculum (OOEP) for 36-72 months old children and Math Curriculum for the Grades 1-5 (IMOP), both…

  12. Development of Entrepreneurship Learning Model for Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Christianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is an early pace in the research development of entrepreneurship learning model for early childhood. This study aims to explore how learning entrepreneurship that has been done in the early childhood; to know whether parents, teachers, and principals support the entrepreneurship learning; and what kind of values of entrepreneurship can be developed for early childhood. The results of this research are useful to create early childhood entrepreneurial learning design. The research conducts in the form of interviews, observation, and documentation. The result shows that the school which has been developing entrepreneurship has no clear guidance of learning to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship; all teachers and principals in the research agree that entrepreneurship learning developed from an early age. However, there are 90.79% of parents agreed that from an early age has begun to develop the spirit of entrepreneurship and 9.21% said they did not agree; and the values of entrepreneurship that are able to be developed since they are in early age are self-confidence, honesty, independence, responsibility, creative, never give up/hard work, caring for the environment, teamwork, discipline, and respect.

  13. Early Childhood Teacher Education: The Case of Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

    2011-01-01

    For early childhood, the domain of geometry and spatial reasoning is an important area of mathematics learning. Unfortunately, geometry and spatial thinking are often ignored or minimized in early education. We build a case for the importance of geometry and spatial thinking, review research on professional development for these teachers, and…

  14. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  15. Directory of Selected Early Childhood Programs, 1990-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Marcia J., Ed.

    This directory of selected early childhood programs includes project grants in three categories administered by the Office of Special Education Programs and funded under the Early Education Program for Children with Disabilities. The program categories include the Division of Innovation and Development, the Division of Personnel Preparation, and…

  16. THE ROLE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN ACHIEVING CHILD RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaykumar R. Londhe; B. Yuvakumar Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, more than 200 million children aged under five do not reach their full developmental potential due to the absence of early childhood care programmes. Education is the mainstay of a development of a human being. Childhood education lays foundation of the child leading to awareness of child rights and empowerment. The awareness about child rights is even more necessary in lieu of various crimes being committed against children. Qualitative school education should not m...

  17. Mothers who were sexually abused during childhood are more likely to have a child victim of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consisting of 82 mothers of non-sexually abused children. History of exposure to CSA was evaluated by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ and we used a logistic regression model to estimate the prediction values regarding having or not a child exposed to sexual violence. Results: Mothers of sexually abused children had significantly higher scores on CTQ, especially on the sexual abuse subscale (SA. According to our logistic regression model, higher scores on the CTQ significantly predicted the status of being a mother of children exposed to sexual violence in our sample (Wald = 7.074; p = 0.008; Exp(B = 1.681. Years of formal education reduced the likelihood of having a child victim of sexual violence (Wald = 18.994; p = 0.001; Exp(B = 0.497. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of a possible intergenerational effect of sexual abuse. Family intervention and prevention against childhood maltreatment should take this issue in account.

  18. Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Long-term social and psychiatric aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1.5 perpetrators. A quarter of the women had been subjected to violence in connection with the sexual abuse. The likelihood of violence having occurred rose significantly if there was more than one perpetrator and/or if penetration had been part of the sexual abuse. Violence was less common if the perpetrator was a brother. The women suffered from a broad spectrum of psychiatric symptoms and illnesses. More than half of the women had previously received psychiatric treatment. Compared to a random sample of the general female population, these women were less advantaged with regards to education, financial circumstances and cohabitation. The results emphasize the importance of offering comprehensive social and psychiatric intervention to help reducing the problems following CSA in women. PMID:17454726

  19. Integrating emotional competences in the Early Childhood Education curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Guil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The current Spanish education legislation has started to highlight the need to work on emotional education since early childhood Education. The Spanish Education Law 2/2006 May 3rd (known as LOE, and all decrees and orders currently regulating the curriculum and teaching in Early Childhood Education include contents and objectives related to the Emotional Intelligence framework developed by Mayer & Salovey (1997. Because all these laws and regulations give teachers autonomy for both designing and programming the curriculum in Early Childhood Education and because important relationships have been established between social and emotional competence and school adaptation, we argue in this paper that the training of future teachers in Early Childhood Education should include the development of emotional intelligence abilities and skills.This article presents an emotional education proposal for its integration in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education (children aged 3 to 6 years old. This proposal is based on Mayer and Salovey’s model (1997 of emotional intelligence. This model is the only one in which emotional abilities are considered cognitive-emotional capacities which can be developed and it matches the general goal of this educational stage and also the general aims and curricular contents included in the abovementioned legislation.

  20. Early Childhood Care and Education in Curacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Paul; Kook, Hetty

    1993-01-01

    Examines the quality of care and education for Curacao's children under the age of four. Notes that, whereas the children's health situation is generally good and stable, child abuse and negligence are on the rise, and there is a growing need for good quality child-care centers. (TJQ)

  1. Early childhood risk and resilience factors for behavioural and emotional problems in middle childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Cabaj, Jason L; McDonald, Sheila W.; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental disorders in childhood have a considerable health and societal impact but the associated negative consequences may be ameliorated through early identification of risk and protective factors that can guide health promoting and preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to inform health policy and practice through identification of demographic, familial and environmental factors associated with emotional or behavioural problems in middle childhood, and the predi...

  2. [Emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouras, G; Lazaratou, E

    2012-06-01

    Trauma comes as a result of the subject's exposure to extremely negative and stressful events, such as natural or human-provoked catastrophes, wars, serious injuries, violent deaths, tortures, terrorist attacks, rapes and other sexual crimes. A child's exposure to traumatic circumstances of this level during the crucial period of self-structuring creates rather difficult conditions for its development. Moreover, if the child does not have the opportunity to elaborate and analyze all these stressful conditions and put them into words, serious consequences, both psychological and somatic, may occur in adult life. Specific factors and child characteristics, namely, the age, the developmental stage within which the trauma occurs, its type (physical or sexual abuse, neglect or traumatic social events), frequency, duration and intensity, have been proved to seriously affect the trauma's consequences. The immediate emotional impact of trauma may include isolation, fear, feeling of weakness or loss of the sense of confidence. Moreover, mood disorders such as depression and withdrawal, negative effects on cognitive ability, language development and academic performance, difficulties in creating a secure link and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also observed. The long-term consequences for the individual's mental health can be expressed through the following: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) combined or not with depression and anxiety disorder, mood disorders, personality disorders, poor control of impulsions, dissociation disorder, psychotic disorder. Finally, apart from the dramatic impact of trauma on the person itself, there is also a high social cost to be paid as a result of the individual's poor adjustment and dysfunction in the community. Early support and intervention in the child's environment may significantly minimize the negative effects of trauma. Beyond the expression of genes, good maternal care as well as psychological support, lead to normal DNA methylation and brain development. Supporting the family and break the silence that frequently covers the traumatic events and feelings, will give the opportunity for the elaboration of all these aspects which could capture and imprison the subject in a dramatic circle of psychopathology. Moreover, the effectiveness of early interventions and child psychotherapy is now a common ground, so we have to use all our clinical instruments (dialogue, symbolic play, drawing, storytelling) in order to help the child and have the best possible result. Finally, concerning clinical practice, the emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology is so frequent that mental health experts should take it into serious account while developing an appropriate clinical treatment for such patients. PMID:22796972

  3. Risk analysis of early childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Hinge, Rikke; Giwercman, Charlotte; Palmer, Colin; Silveira, Lori; Strand, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Copenhagen Study on Asthma in Childhood is a prospective clinical study of a birth cohort of 411 children born of mothers with asthma. Eczema was diagnosed, treated, and monitored at the clinical research unit, and complete follow-up for the first 3 years of life was available for 356 children. Risk...

  4. The Importance of Early Childhood Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Most poor children achieve less, exhibit more problem behaviors and are less healthy than children reared in more affluent families. We look beyond correlations such as these to a recent set of studies that attempt to assess the causal impact of childhood poverty on adult well-being. We pay particular attention to the potentially harmful effects…

  5. Precursors of Adolescent Substance Use from Early Childhood and Early Adolescence: Testing a Developmental Cascade Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using str...

  6. [Neurobiological inscriptions of psychological trauma during early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, I

    2012-06-01

    Neurodevelopment is a highly complex process, influenced by a wide range of interacting genetic and environmental factors. Recent developments in fetal, neonatal and infant behavioural genetics and brain imaging methods have allowed for more detailed investigation of the effects of early adverse environment on the developing brain. This review aims to provide background for neurobiological understanding of how the prolonged exposure to stress or trauma during early childhood affects subsequent cognitive, emotional and social development. Initially, a brief overview of brain development is provided - focusing, in particular, on the limbic system structures, which are closely linked to emotional experiences and reactions, learning and memory. Emphasis is placed on the concept of neural plasticity, which is the biological base of memory and learning - the two most important mechanisms through which the environment affects the behavior. Moreover, the concept of sensitive periods, that is to say periods of "vulnerability" or "opportunity" during which particular experiences affect brain growth, functional organization and maturation, is discussed. Brief overview of the neuroendocrine stress response system and the long-term effects of prolonged exposure to stress hormones on early brain development clarify further why children are more vulnerable than adults to the effects of stress. The section dealing with the memory, which is closely linked to the limbic system, attempts to discuss how early exposure to chronic stress or psychological trauma, through neurobiological effects and the process of learning, can lead to dysfunctional behaviors, which in its extreme form can be mental disorders. The two types of memory are discussed: (a) the implicit (nondeclarative), which develops during the prelingual stage of child's development and refers to unconscious memories of previous experiences, and (b) the explicit (declarative) memory, which is closely linked to language development and refers to memories that can be consciously recalled. Given that prenatal or postnatal early experiences can alter the course of brain development, the exposure to maltreatment, whether it takes the form of physical, sexual or emotional abuse, or the kind of extreme neglect and deprivation during the early years of life, is related to alterations in brain structure and function, which in turn contributes to development of chronic post-traumatic disorder (PTSD), anxiety, mood and attachment disorders, memory and learning problems, and other psychopathological conditions. Finally, it is pointed out that a comprehensive and detailed diagnostic assessment of young children who are referred to the child and adolescent mental health services because of presenting with behavioural and emotional disturbances should be an established good clinical practice, given that a wrong diagnosis may have further deleterious effects on the child's psychosocial development. The need for neuropsychological assessment of children who have been exposed to early trauma or stress is thought to have important implications for the recognition and the neurobiological understanding of early trauma, which in turn allows for the development and implementation of appropriate interventions. PMID:22796971

  7. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Abuse KidsHealth > Teens > Mind > Families > Abuse Print A A ... Should Someone Who's Being Abused Do? What Is Abuse? Amy's finger was so swollen that she couldn' ...

  8. A new childhood asthma phenotype: obese with early menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2016-03-01

    Three concomitant phenomena occur in the later years of childhood: increases in the incidence of asthma, obesity and early menarche. This article is an overview of the current epidemiologic, basic, genetic and epigenetic evidence about this relationship. As a consequence we propose that obese girls who have an early menarche (≤ 11 years of age) constitute a new asthma phenotype in childhood. Future studies need to be carried out in order to find the best control and treatment of this new asthma phenotype. PMID:26644272

  9. Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

  10. Adult Reports of Child and Adult Attributions of Blame for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Predicting Adult Adjustment and Suicidal Behaviors in Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 126 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (n=126) found participants reporting abuse by immediate family members and before age 10 tended make internal attributions of blame when they were children. Reports of childhood internal attributions of blame were significantly predictive of overall adult symptomatology and suicide…

  11. Adult Reports of Child and Adult Attributions of Blame for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Predicting Adult Adjustment and Suicidal Behaviors in Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 126 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (n=126) found participants reporting abuse by immediate family members and before age 10 tended make internal attributions of blame when they were children. Reports of childhood internal attributions of blame were significantly predictive of overall adult symptomatology and suicide…

  12. Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

  13. Trauma Characteristics and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Carmen P.; Morris, Sarah Herrick; Conklin, Phoebe; Jayawickreme, Nuwan; Foa, Edna B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the severity of consequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use in a sample of 83 female adolescents aged 13-18 years seeking treatment for PTSD. Nearly two-thirds of the sample (60.7%, n = 51) reported the perpetrator of the CSA was a relative. A large portion (40.5%, n = 34) of the sample reported being victimized once, while almost a quarter...

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Relationship Between Obesity and Mental Health in Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention. PMID:26541476

  15. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: What Makes them Effective in Protecting Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraizer, Sherryll; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a school-based child abuse prevention program. The program's effectiveness is evaluated in terms of prevention of sexual abuse, the age of maximum receptivity to prevention education, and implications of the evaluation for early childhood educators. (RJC)

  16. THE ROLE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN ACHIEVING CHILD RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaykumar R. Londhe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, more than 200 million children aged under five do not reach their full developmental potential due to the absence of early childhood care programmes. Education is the mainstay of a development of a human being. Childhood education lays foundation of the child leading to awareness of child rights and empowerment. The awareness about child rights is even more necessary in lieu of various crimes being committed against children. Qualitative school education should not merely confine to text books and theory, it should encompass social and societal issues touching upon the child rights. The utility of primary child education shall go a long way in achieving child rights. This article dwells on role of early childhood education in achieving child rights.

  17. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  18. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  19. History of Childhood Abuse, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior Among STD Clinic Patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women's sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants. PMID:25801476

  20. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…

  1. Self-Reported Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse among Adult Homosexual and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Lynda S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men found that 37% reported they had been encouraged or forced to have sexual contact with an older or more powerful partner before age 19. Median age at first contact was 10. Ninety-three percent of participants reporting early sexual contact were classified as sexually abused. (Author/DB)

  2. The cortisol response during physiological sexual arousal in adult women with a history of childhood sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Rellini, Alessandra H.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Delville, Yvon; Meston, Cindy M.

    2009-01-01

    Many women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience difficulties becoming sexually aroused. This study measured cortisol and physiological sexual arousal during exposure to sexual stimuli in women with and without a history of CSA. CSA survivors showed a smaller decrease in cortisol during sexual arousal than the non-sexually abused, control group potentially due to an increase in cortisol in some of the participants in the CSA group. Physiological sexual arousal was weaker i...

  3. The prevalence of coping behaviour, posttraumatic growth and psychological well-being in women who experienced childhood sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley J. Walker-Williams; Chrizanne van Eeden; Karen Van der Merwe

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of coping behaviour, posttraumatic growth and psychological well-being in adult South African women (n=60, mean age=32, ethnicity=70% European, 28% African and 2% Asian descent). Specifically, the study considered the prevalence of constructive coping, posttraumatic growth and psychological well-being with a history of childhood sexual abuse. All participants self-reported being sexually abused before the age of 18 years. They completed measures of copin...

  4. Delineating Selection and Mediation Effects among Childhood Personality and Environmental Risk Factors in the Development of Adolescent Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; DURBIN, C. EMILY; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96% European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample—socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)—and the environmenta...

  5. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  6. Early Childhood Schooling and Socialization at French Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Eric; Rayna, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose to examine the question of the French early childhood schooling in terms of the socialization processes. The authors start by presenting briefly the main characteristics of the French nursery school. They then discuss socialization processes through sociological perspectives on historical and anthropological…

  7. The Gymnasium of the Mind: Teaching Chess in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Patrick J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The central aim of this paper is to undertake a critical review of arguments which propose that chess should be taught in schools and other educational settings. In particular, I offer an answer to the question: "Should chess be taught in early childhood?" Many claims have been made about the educational benefits of chess instruction. In…

  8. Intraneural perineurioma of the sciatic nerve in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John R; Smith, Torben; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian

    2009-01-01

    . Initially, peroneal neuropathy was suspected. The case illustrates that sciatic intraneural perineuriomas do occur in early childhood, and that traction on the sciatic nerve may result in earlier damage to the peroneal nerve than to the tibial nerve, thus mimicking a more peripheral lesion....

  9. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  10. Accountability Shovedown: Resisting the Standards Movement in Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, J. Amos

    2002-01-01

    Identifies and discusses several reasons why the proliferation of standards for early childhood education is harmful to children and teachers: Pressure on children and teachers, narrowing of experience, accountability as punishment, teacher deprofessionalization, performance over learning, individual devaluation, corporate mentality. (Contains 34…

  11. Oregon Title 1-M Early Childhood and Elementary Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Alfredo Morales, Comp.

    Brief descriptions of Oregon Title 1-M early childhood and elementary education programs for migrant children from infants to grade 8, along with lists of contact persons for each program, include reading, pre-school skill development, English as a second language, individualized instruction, utilization of community services, and parental…

  12. Music's Representation in Early Childhood Education Journals: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Vanessa L.

    2012-01-01

    In this review of literature, the author explored the representation of music in early childhood education researcher and practitioner journal articles. Thirty-eight pertinent journal articles were identified in a keyword search for "music" in eight journals. The search was limited to a 5-year period, 2005-2010. Article summaries were categorized…

  13. Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: A Reality or a Mirage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Hannah O.

    2008-01-01

    Education is the right of every child and must not be denied it for any reason. This has been the assertion of the World Summit on the state of global children, which has led to the inclusion and expansion of early childhood care and education in the global Education for All programme (EFA). As Nigeria has pledged its commitment to this, with the…

  14. Developmentally Appropriate Technology Use and Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Dina B.; Jaruszewicz, Candace

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood teacher education methods classes often emphasize the application of developmentally appropriate practices (DAP). In today's digital age, it is important for teacher educators and their students to think about how to extend DAP to technology use. In this article, two contrasting classroom scenarios are provided to illustrate…

  15. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  16. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  17. Incremental Validity in the Clinical Assessment of Early Childhood Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhou, Xiaobin; Lackaff, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the increment of clinical validity in early childhood assessment of physical impairment (PI), developmental delay (DD), and autism (AUT) using multiple standardized developmental screening measures such as performance measures and parent and teacher rating scales. Hierarchical regression and sensitivity/specificity analyses…

  18. The Use of Personal Data Assistants in Early Childhood Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Yoder, Noreen N.; Hanes, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Four early childhood education teachers, two veteran and two newer teachers, were asked to pilot the use of handheld Personal Data Assistants loaded with Childchart assessment software. The participants were observed in their use of the electronic devices for monitoring student performance and interviewed regarding the use of the devices and their…

  19. Being Maori: Culturally Relevant Assessment in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameka, Lesley Kay

    2011-01-01

    Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…

  20. Sustained Attention and Age Predict Inhibitory Control during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2011-01-01

    Executive functioning skills develop rapidly during early childhood. Recent research has focused on specifying this development, particularly predictors of executive functioning skills. Here we focus on sustained attention as a predictor of inhibitory control, one key executive functioning component. Although sustained attention and inhibitory…

  1. Development and Evaluation of Metacognition in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide information and suggest ways to improve and evaluate metacognition in early childhood. Metacognition is important to learning and knowledge transfer and preparing students to become lifelong learners is a main aim of schooling. The engagement of young students in metacognitive thinking is considered…

  2. More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

  3. Early Childhood Leadership through the Lens of Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikka, Johanna; Hujala, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education (ECE) context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how ECE stakeholders, e.g. teachers, ECE centre directors and administrative ECE leaders in municipalities perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus…

  4. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  5. Financing Early Childhood Education Programs: State, Federal, and Local Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific…

  6. Early Childhood Discipline: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.

    2008-01-01

    In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…

  7. Teaching Children with ADHD: Icelandic Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    Medication for the treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increased tremendously in Iceland during the last decade and the country has now the highest prescription rates for methylphenidate in the world. This study examines Icelandic early childhood teachers' experiences and perspectives of children with behavioural…

  8. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

  9. Early Childhood Education: Policy Issues for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A., Ed.

    Noting the separation of child-related policy makers from practitioners who know best what is good and appropriate for children, this anthology is designed as a guide for child-related policy development. The book's chapters are as follows: (1) "Early Childhood Policy" (Dolores A. Stegelin), providing an historical context and identifying eight…

  10. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  11. Relational Aggression in Sibling and Peer Relationships during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Stauffacher, Kirstin

    2006-01-01

    The role of siblings ("N" = 50) in the display of physical and relational aggression among peers during early childhood was explored. Specifically, sibling pairs' rates of physical and relational aggression were assessed in their independent social contexts. Findings indicated low to moderate levels of intercorrelation between physical and…

  12. Changing Roles of Paraeducators in Early Childhood Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadian, Azar; Yssel, Nina

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of survey responses of 70 paraeducators working in early-childhood settings found paraeductors engaged in 30 different tasks of instructional and/or clerical nature, yet only 30% had received training. Data support other findings indicating a lack of adequate training, few opportunities for career advancement, low wages, and poorly…

  13. Acting with the Clock: Clocking Practices in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses intra-actions that take place among humans and non-human others--the physical world, the materials--in early childhood education's everyday practices. Her object of study is the clock. Specifically, she provides an example of what it might mean to account for the intra-activity of the material-discursive…

  14. Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The rise in the occurrence of childhood obesity during the last decades in many populations indicates an important role of environmental exposures, which may operate very early in life. We aimed to examine the association between bereavement during the first 6 years of life, as a stress...

  15. Early Childhood Autism and Structural Therapy: Outcome after 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the effect of three years of structural therapy on inpatient cases of early childhood autism (ECA). Treatment resulted in the discharge of 12 patients. Results indicate that high stimulation, physically intrusive, gamelike, novelty filled, and developmentally oriented treatment of structural therapy can produce significant improvement in…

  16. Urban Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n = 130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were…

  17. Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Practices and Challenges in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…

  18. Recognizing Postmodern Intersectional Identities in Leadership for Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Julie; Maniates, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Current interest in the development of leadership capacity within the early childhood profession provides an important opportunity to critically examine our field's conceptualizations of leadership. Modernist binary leader/follower conceptions are not reflective of contemporary scholarship describing identities as multiple, dynamic, socially…

  19. Curriculum for the Special Education Early Childhood Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others

    This document presents Jackson County (Michigan) Intermediate School District's Special Education Early Childhood Center's 1988 curriculum. Sections focus on: (1) the center's program; (2) play observation; (3) eligibility; (4) classroom structure and function; (5) the importance of play; (6) developmental milestones; (7) planning and teaching…

  20. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…