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1

Rebooting the Brain: Using Early Childhood Education to Heal Trauma from Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

Abused and neglected children live in a world that usually includes some sort of violence, chaos, and tremendous physical and mental stress. This toxic environment wreaks havoc on a child's developing brain. This article discusses how to use early childhood education to heal trauma from abuse and neglect. It shares the story of two children, Bryce…

McLintock, Ben

2011-01-01

2

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

Evrim Aktepe

2009-08-01

3

Combating Violence against Children: Jordanian Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Perceptions towards Child Abuse and Neglect  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood teachers play major roles in defying child abuse and neglect and alleviating its detrimental effects on young children. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring how Jordanian pre-service early childhood teachers define and perceive violence against children and their role in child abuse detection and prevention. Furthermore, the…

Fayez, Merfat; Takash, Hanan Mahmoud; Al-Zboon, Eman Khleif

2014-01-01

4

Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

Briggs, Freda

2014-01-01

5

Sexual Dysfunctions: Relationship to Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Family Experiences in a Nonclinical Sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…

Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

1995-01-01

6

Physical and sexual abuse in childhood as predictors of early onset cardiovascular events in women  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Although child abuse is widespread and has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, its association with CVD events is not established. Methods and Results We examined associations of child abuse with CVD events among 66,798 women in the Nurses’ Health Study 2. Proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for myocardial infarction (n=262), stroke (n=251), and total CVD (n=513). Severe physical abuse was reported by 9% and forced sex by 11% of participants. Adjusting for age, race, childhood body type, parental education and family CVD history, the HR for CVD events was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.70–1.17) for mild physical abuse, 1.02 (0.82–1.26) for moderate physical abuse, and 1.46 (1.11–1.92) for severe physical abuse compared to none. Compared to women without childhood sexual abuse, the HR was 1.10 (0.88–1.35) for unwanted sexual touching, and 1.56 (1.23–1.99) for forced sex. After adjustment for adult lifestyle and medical risk factors, the HR for severe physical abuse was 1.13 (0.85–1.51) and that for forced sex was 1.25 (0.98–1.60); these intermediates accounted for much of the association of severe child abuse with CVD. Associations were similar for retrospectively and prospectively reported events. Women with abuse were less likely to release medical records. The associations were stronger for unconfirmed self-reported events than endpoints which were corroborated with additional information or medical record review. Conclusions Severe child abuse is a prevalent risk for early adult CVD that is partially mediated by preventable risk factors. PMID:22787111

Rich-Edwards, J.W.; Mason, S.; Rexrode, K.; Spiegelman, D.; Hibert, E.; Kawachi, I.; Jun, H.J.; Wright, R.J.

2012-01-01

7

The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc

2014-01-01

8

The consequences of childhood abuse on subjective well-being and self-esteem in early adulthood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The presentation examines the consequences of childhood abuse on subjective well-being and self-esteem in early adulthood. This period of the lifecycle may often be a vulnerable time, since there are many developmental tasks to be solved from youth to adulthood (Erikson, Levinson, Arnett, Marcia). A biography including childhood abuse must therefore be seen as a psychological burden with negative impact on the developmental challenges. For this reason, the presentation examines the possible links between childhood abuse and subjective well-being and self-esteem. By using information from the West Jutland Cohort Study (n=3,054), it is shown that 2.8% (n=86) of the participants reported having experienced childhood abuse. The results of the study show that those having been abused have significantly lower levels of self-esteem and a higher risk of lower subjective well-being. These results illuminate an unexplored aspect of the connection between childhood and adulthood. Earlier studies have shown an association between childhood abuse and psychological problems and psychiatric diagnoses whereas few studies have examined the potential negative consequences of childhood abuse on more vague – but still important - parameters such as subjective well-being and self-esteem.

Hansen, Claus D.; Olsen, Jan BrØdslev

9

Does Physical Abuse in Early Childhood Predict Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prospective longitudinal data from 535 families were used to examine parents’ reports of child physical abuse in the first five years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first five years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls’ substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substanc...

Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

2010-01-01

10

Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

Karakus, Ozlem

2012-01-01

11

Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

Evrim Aktepe

2009-01-01

12

PSYCHOTHERAPY AND CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE  

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Childhood sexual abuse may have a significant impact on psychological well being in later life. In this report, we describe 5 women who had a variety of psychological symptoms that were related to childhood sexual trauma. These factors were explored during psychotherapy. Persistent feeling of depression, anxiety and problems in socio-sexual functioning, were prominent. Therapy varied from counselling and ventilation, to prolonged dynamically oriented therapy.

Jain, Sanjeev; Vythilingam, Meena; Eapen, Valsa; Reddy, Janardhan

1992-01-01

13

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

... 158) 5 2 Linking Childhood Sexual Abuse to Suicide and Suicidal Behavior o “…the risk of suicide becomes greater as ... attempts among junior and senior high school youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 358-372. 1011 Fergussen, D., Horwood, L. ...

14

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Early Cannabis Use, and Psychosis: Testing an Interaction Model Based on the National Comorbidity Survey  

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Previous research investigating the etiology of psychosis has identified risk factors such as childhood sexual abuse and cannabis use. This study investigated the multiplicative effect of these variables on clinically assessed diagnoses of psychosis based on a large community sample (the National Comorbidity Survey). Demographic variables (sex, age, urbanicity, ethnicity, education, employment, and living arrangements) and depression were used as predictors in the first block of a binary logi...

Houston, James E.; Murphy, Jamie; Adamson, Gary; Stringer, Maurice; Shevlin, Mark

2008-01-01

15

Expressive Education in Early Childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a concise overview of early childhood music education in Japan. Japanese early childhood education stresses the natural development of childhood, as well as cultivation of expressive activities. Discusses teaching methods, creative activities, and educational guidelines (MJP)

Mori, Kimie

1996-01-01

16

The nurse face childhood sexual abuse diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article discuss nursing diagnosis face sexual abuse victim child, considering magnitude problem in health and psychosexual development repercussions. The objective is reflect about nurse action face childhood sexual abuse situations. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, using bibliographic survey about nurse participation in childhood sexual abuse diagnosis. We believe that is necessary to sensitize nurse about detection responsibility of determinants aspects, attempting for social, cultural and economical children's family context. The result point to the necessity of an efficient and quality nursing assistance, witch is able to identify and recognize psychosocial indicators, having focus in child protection and damage reduction

Lia Leão Ciuffo

2008-03-01

17

The nurse face childhood sexual abuse diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article discuss nursing diagnosis face sexual abuse victim child, considering magnitude problem in health and psychosexual development repercussions. The objective is reflect about nurse action face childhood sexual abuse situations. Methodology: this is a descriptive and exploratory study, using bibliographic survey about nurse participation in childhood sexual abuse diagnosis. We believe that is necessary to sensitize nurse about detection responsibility of determinants aspects, attempting for social, cultural and economical children's family context. The result point to the necessity of an efficient and quality nursing assistance, witch is able to identify and recognize psychosocial indicators, having focus in child protection and damage reduction.

Lia Leão Ciuffo

2008-04-01

18

Factors influencing recall of childhood sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selective literatures providing perspective on recall of childhood sexual abuse memories are reviewed. These include known patterns of autobiographical memories in adulthood, metacognitive mechanisms, interpersonal influences, and automatic cognitive processing which can influence judgments and reports of memory recall in children and adults. Some factors in adult experience such as mood state, presence of emotional disorders, past and current relationships, and participation in psychotherapy which can influence autobiographical memory and recall of childhood events are delineated. Available studies directly exploring recovered memories of childhood abuse are considered in light of these studies. Finally, some applications to clinical work and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:8564279

Rogers, M L

1995-10-01

19

Childhood Abuse and Harmful Substance Use among Criminal Offenders  

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Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with s...

Swogger, Marc T.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.

2011-01-01

20

Early Childhood Education: Policy Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Policy issues in the area of early childhood education are discussed in this document prepared for the Chief State School Officers of the Northwest and Pacific. Particular attention is given to: (1) the scope of early childhood education; (2) academic, developmental, economic, and political purposes of early childhood education; (3) targeted…

Hansen, Kenneth H.

 
 
 
 
21

Identifying and Evaluating Teachers' Knowledge in Relation to Child Abuse and Neglect: A Qualitative Study with Australian Early Childhood Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…

Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann

2008-01-01

22

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Work Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors explored the relationship among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), physical and mental health work barriers, and employment outcomes using a large panel study of current and former welfare recipients. Controlling for human capital and demographic characteristics, they found CSA was associated with significantly fewer months worked over the…

Lee, Shawna J.; Tolman, Richard M.

2006-01-01

23

Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent's gender and timing of childhood abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mothers) from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect who completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The results showed that fathers had lower current potential risk of becoming physical abuse perpetrators with their children than mothers although they did not differed in their physical victimization history. Moreover, the risk was higher in parents (both genders) with continuous history of victimization than in parents without victimization. Prediction models showed that for fathers and mothers separately similar socio-demographic variables (family income, number of children at home, employment status and marital status) predicted the potential risk of becoming physical abuses perpetrators. Nevertheless, the timing of victimization was different for fathers (before 13 years old) and mothers (after 13 years old). Then our study targets specific variables (timing of physical abuse, parents' gender and specific socio-demographic variables), which may enable professionals to select groups of parents at greater need of participating in abuse prevention programs. PMID:24269330

Romero-Martínez, A; Figueiredo, B; Moya-Albiol, L

2014-03-01

24

The Relationship of Exposure to Childhood Sexual Abuse to Other Forms of Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction during Childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

This retrospective cohort study assessed the relationship of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to other categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and parental separation/divorce. Adults reporting CSA experienced a 1.6- to 3.4-fold greater likelihood of experience each category of ACE. The ACE score was also…

Dong, Maxia; Anda, Robert F.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.; Felitti, Vincent J.

2003-01-01

25

Childhood abuse in Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined (1) the relative prevalence of childhood abuse and other pathological childhood experiences in China reported by outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), with other personality disorders, and without personality disorders; and, (2) whether the primary predictors of BPD in North America are associated with the development of BPD in China. The childhood experiences of 203 outpatients with BPD, 109 outpatients with other personality disorders, and 70 outpatients without Axis II diagnoses were assessed with the Chinese version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). Patients with BPD reported significantly more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse than either comparison group. Four types of childhood experiences were significant predictors of BPD: maternal neglect, paternal antipathy, sexual abuse, and maternal physical abuse. The findings suggest that maternal physical abuse is as strong a predictor of BPD in China as sexual abuse, a finding not replicated in North America. PMID:22486453

Huang, Jianjun; Yang, Yunping; Wu, Jiang; Napolitano, Lisa A; Xi, Yingjun; Cui, Yonghua

2012-04-01

26

Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

2012-01-01

27

Association of Childhood Abuse with Homeless Women's Social Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…

Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.

2012-01-01

28

Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

2009-01-01

29

Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

2009-01-01

30

The Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire (ARBQ), designed to assess abuse-related beliefs among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Study 1 examined the structure of the scale, and Study 2 evaluated its reliability and validity. Method: One hundred and seventy female…

Ginzburg, Karni; Arnow, Bruce; Hart, Stacey; Gardner, William; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C.; Giese-Davis, Janine; Spiegel, David

2006-01-01

31

Childhood physical abuse and differential development of paranormal belief systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood. PMID:16699384

Perkins, Stefanie L; Allen, Rhiannon

2006-05-01

32

Culture and the Early Childhood Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents the definition of culture within the context of early childhood curricula and briefly outlines the history of early childhood education. Claims that culture and child development are closely related. Examines early childhood education programs around the world and describes how the culture of each country influences the content of early

Spodek, Bernard; Saracho, Olivia N.

1996-01-01

33

The relationship between childhood abuse and adult personality disorder symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed personality disorder symptomatology in a community sample of healthy adults without diagnosable DSM-IV-TR Axis I psychiatric disorders who reported a history of childhood abuse. Twenty-eight subjects with a history of moderate to severe physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse according to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared to 33 subjects without an abuse history on symptoms of personality disorders. Subjects in the Abuse group were more likely to report subclinical symptoms of paranoid, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, obsessive compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. These findings link reports of childhood abuse with symptoms of personality disorders in the absence of Axis I psychiatric disorders in a community sample of healthy adults. PMID:17685839

Grover, Kelly E; Carpenter, Linda L; Price, Lawrence H; Gagne, Gerard G; Mello, Andrea F; Mello, Marcelo F; Tyrka, Audrey R

2007-08-01

34

Early Childhood Education as a Resilience Intervention for Maltreated Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…

Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine

2014-01-01

35

Variables in delayed disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a study of 41 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the level of childhood traumatization was found to have contributed to delayed disclosure of the abuse. Other delaying variables included: belief in the importance of obedience to grownups, mistrust of people, fear of social rejection, and fear of the criminal justice system. Variables such as media attention to similar cases and experiences of personal achievement were inversely related to the age at disclosure. Recommendations for policy are discussed. PMID:11495335

Somer, E; Szwarcberg, S

2001-07-01

36

Some additional light on the childhood sexual abuse-psychopathology axis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This exposition is an attempt to unravel the complexities of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult psychopathology. Four facets of the relationship are examined in some detail: (a) the extent of childhood sexual abuse; (b) the probability that sexual abuse in childhood will result in psychopathology in the adult; (c) the reliability of early life memories in later life; and (d) the role of recovered memory of trauma in the healing process. The conclusions of this logico-empirical analysis are that first, government statistics tend to underestimate the extent of childhood sexual abuse, whereas independent surveys tend to overestimate it. Estimating prevalence is further complicated by variations in the definitions of key terms. Possibly the only safe conclusion is that true prevalence cannot be reliably determined. Second, empirical investigations of childhood sexual abuse conclude that not all victims are emotionally injured. A substantial number of these investigations find that a majority of victims suffer no extensive harm. Other variables such as family dynamics are involved; there may be only a few cases in which emotional harm results from sexual abuse as a single factor. Third, memory research suggests that memory in general is a dynamic, reconstructive process and that recall of childhood events is particularly vulnerable to distortion. Memory cannot dependably produce historical truth. Last, there is some clinical evidence that abreaction of a traumatic event in adulthood may have a remediative effect. Similar evidence for childhood trauma is lacking. The belief in the healing effect of recalling and reliving a childhood trauma depends on the therapist's orientation. PMID:7737760

Levitt, E E; Pinnell, C M

1995-04-01

37

The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Teenage Pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)

Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo

1997-01-01

38

The Early Childhood Coaching Handbook  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence-based and highly effective, "coaching" helps early childhood practitioners support other professionals and families as they enhance existing knowledge, develop new skills, and promote healthy development of young children. This hands-on guide shows professionals how to conduct skillful coaching in any setting--home, school, or community.…

Rush, Dathan D.; Shelden, M'Lisa L.

2011-01-01

39

Physical Education in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the incidence and quality of physical activity instruction during early childhood. Although the positive effect of physical activity on the cognitive, social, and physical development of young children is generally acknowledged, there is little emphasis nationally on ensuring appropriate physical educational experiences…

Stork, Steve; Sanders, Stephen W.

2008-01-01

40

Taiwanese Early Childhood Educators' Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed based on a qualitative paradigm to explore the professional development of Taiwanese early childhood educators. The method of phenomenology was employed. The main research question addressed was "How do early childhood educators construe their professional development experience?" Seven Taiwanese early childhood educators…

Hsu, Ching-Yun

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Early Childhood Education: The Case of Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now widely recognized that early childhood education has paramount significance for the well-being of societies. In this study, the current situation of early childhood education in Turkey is discussed mainly in terms of its perception by the government, the school enrollment rate and the quality of early childhood education programs. The…

Usakli, Hakan

2010-01-01

42

Childhood Emotional Abuse and Attachment Processes in the Dyadic Adjustment of Dating Couples  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to improve understanding of the mechanisms that link early maltreatment to later outcomes, this study investigated the mediation effects of adult attachment processes on the association between childhood emotional abuse and later romantic relationships among heterosexual couples. College students and their dating partners (N = 310;…

Riggs, Shelley A.; Cusimano, Angela M.; Benson, Karen M.

2011-01-01

43

Relation between childhood abuse and self esteem in adolescence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to examine the connection between childhood abuse and self esteem in adults and reveal the potential of childhood abuse determining self esteem. Sampling of this study comprised 915 secondary school students from Konya city’s central district who were randomly selected. 583 of the sample students (%58.3) were females while 382 were males (%41.7). As a result of this study, it has been determined that there is a significant negative correlation between childhood abu...

Özlem Karaku?

2012-01-01

44

Does Childhood Sexual Abuse Set in Motion a Cycle of Violence Against Women? What We Know and What We Need to Learn  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews evidence for the deleterious effects of childhood sexual abuse on female development in both the acute and long-term phases. Taken in aggregate, there is evidence to suggest a persistent cycle of violence perpetrated against women that begins in childhood in the form of sexual abuse, reemerges later in adolescence and early

Noll, Jennie G.

2005-01-01

45

Impact of childhood abuse and neglect on substance abuse and psychological distress in adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship of childhood trauma, educational level, and the use of avoidant coping on substance abuse and psychological distress in a community sample of 285 women. Results indicated that self-reported childhood trauma was significantly related to greater substance abuse and psychological distress, through educational attainment and avoidant coping strategies. Lower level of education affected substance abuse through greater use of avoidant coping, but had no significant relationship with psychological distress. Greater use of avoidant coping was related to increased substance abuse and greater psychological distress. Findings indicate the need for supportive educational strategies and interventions to teach coping skills in preventing substance abuse and longer-term psychological distress in children exposed to trauma. PMID:17955535

Min, Meeyoung; Farkas, Kathleen; Minnes, Sonia; Singer, Lynn T

2007-10-01

46

Survivors of childhood sexual abuse: implications for perinatal nursing care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse has a lifelong impact on its survivors and may affect the childbearing experience in a variety of ways. Nurses caring for women during the perinatal period can benefit from understanding the phenomenon of child sexual abuse, its prevalence, and the sequelae experienced by childbearing women. Signs, symptoms, and correlates of prior sexual abuse manifested during the perinatal period are described, and nursing care responses are suggested. Nurses may be able to use this information to recognize survivors and facilitate both a positive childbirth experience and the healing process, by helping the survivor learn to trust, respect, and care for her body. PMID:15346674

Hobbins, Debra

2004-01-01

47

Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

2011-01-01

48

The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Anorexia Nervosa  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…

Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake

2006-01-01

49

Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care  

Title: Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care ...Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care UNITED KINGDOM (ENGLAND) ...Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care: United Kingdom (England)2012

50

Moving beyond Colorblindness in Early Childhood Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Countering the position that colorblindness is desirable for teachers and children, this article encourages early childhood education teachers to engage in conversations about race and racism with young children. We discuss why the early childhood years are important for interrupting racism and make suggestions for helping children develop tools…

Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Powers-Costello, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

51

Accessible Family Involvement in Early Childhood Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Family involvement in early childhood classrooms benefits children, school staff, and families. The development of a strong relationship between early childhood programs and families is a critical component of developmentally appropriate practices. What strategies enable families to be full and active participants in their young children's…

Morrison, Johnetta W.; Storey, Pamela; Zhang, Chenyi

2011-01-01

52

Conference on Reading and Early Childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Collected in this document are seven papers presented at the Ohio Conference on Reading and Early Childhood: (1) "Kids," Jerome Kagen; (2) "Parents as Partners," Christine F. Branche; (3) "When the Young Child Finds Importance in Reading," Leland B. Jacobs; (4) "Four Questions on Early Childhood Education," Lilian G. Katz; (5) "How to Teach Poor…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

53

The Economics of Early Childhood Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

What, pray tell, might the so-called "dismal science" of economics have to say about public investment in early childhood programs? Quite a bit, as it turns out. This report from the RAND Corporation takes an economic perspective on such investments, and its intent is to provide policymakers with a primer about "how economic analysis can help set agendas for early childhood policy and identify the economics benefits of targeting certain groups for help." Released in May 2008, the 48-page report draws on concepts including human capital theory and monetary "payoffs" from investments in early childhood programs. The report is divided into four chapters, including "Human Capital Theory" and "Implications for Early Childhood Policy". It's quite a compelling read, and it will be of interest to a broad range of persons working in fields such as early childhood development, economics, and public policy.

2008-01-01

54

The Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator's Role in Teaching Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a strong likelihood that at least one participant in any Lamaze childbirth education class has had personal experience with childhood sexual abuse. Using the wisdom of Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators and respected authors in the field of childhood sexual abuse, this column enlightens the childbirth educator in three ways: understanding the incidence of female and male childhood sexual abuse; understanding the effects of sexual, emotional, physical, and verbal abuse on the pregnant and parenting family; and facilitating classes that are sensitive to the needs of survivors of childhood sexual abuse as well to all expectant parents. PMID:23449947

Hotelling, Barbara A.

2012-01-01

55

The Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator's Role in Teaching Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a strong likelihood that at least one participant in any Lamaze childbirth education class has had personal experience with childhood sexual abuse. Using the wisdom of Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators and respected authors in the field of childhood sexual abuse, this column enlightens the childbirth educator in three ways: understanding the incidence of female and male childhood sexual abuse; understanding the effects of sexual, emotional, physical, and verbal abuse on the pregnant and parenting family; and facilitating classes that are sensitive to the needs of survivors of childhood sexual abuse as well to all expectant parents. PMID:23449947

Hotelling, Barbara A

2012-01-01

56

Acute leukemia in early childhood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

M. Emerenciano

2007-06-01

57

Emotional abuse in childhood is a differential factor for the development of depression in adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluate the association between subtypes of early life stress (ELS; sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect) and psychiatric disorders in adults. The sample was composed of 81 adult psychiatric patients treated at the Day Hospital Unit in Brazil. The patients were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview according to diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The presence of ELS was confirmed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which investigates abuse and neglect subtypes. The patients were also evaluated for the severity of psychiatric symptoms through self-report questionnaires. A total of 71.6% of the patients experienced some type of severe ELS compared with 28.4% of the patients without ELS. Of these, 55.5% reported having experienced emotional abuse; 48.1%, physical neglect; 45.7%, emotional neglect; 39.5%, physical abuse; and 27.2%, sexual abuse. Our data showed that, among the ELS subtypes, emotional abuse was positively associated with psychopathology in adults, particularly with mood disorders (p < 0.05). The patients with a history of emotional abuse had higher severity scores in all symptoms, such as depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, anxiety, and impulsivity. These data demonstrate the impact of ELS, especially in cases of emotional abuse, as a trigger for psychiatric disorders and indicate that the severity of ELS is associated with severity of psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, further studies are needed to assess the importance of emotional abuse as a risk factor of severe psychopathology in adults. PMID:25268154

Martins, Camila Maria Severi; Von Werne Baes, Cristiane; de Carvalho Tofoli, Sandra Marcia; Juruena, Mario Francisco

2014-11-01

58

The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…

Finkelhor, David

2009-01-01

59

Childhood Abuse and Current Psychological Functioning in a University Counseling Center Population.  

Science.gov (United States)

University counseling center clients self-reporting childhood physical, sexual, or emotional abuse (n=30) or no childhood abuse (n=54) completed measures of psychological functioning. Abused clients were more depressed, had more symptomatology, and scored higher on Borderline Personality scale of Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory. (Author/NB)

Braver, Melora; And Others

1992-01-01

60

Shame and Guilt in Men Exposed to Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…

Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Intergenerational associations between a consensual childhood sexual experience and adult substance abuse among Latina mothers and daughters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patria Rojas2,3, Sunny Kim4, Mario De La Rosa2,3, Frank R Dillon2,3, Theophile Niyonsenga1,31Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 2School of Social Work, 3Center for Research on US Latinos HIV/AIDs and Drug Abuse, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Davis, CA, USAPurpose: Early onset of sexual activity has been linked to later substance abuse. Our study aimed to further describe the associations between Latina mothers’ and daughters’ early sexual activity and adult substance abuse.Methods: A survey was conducted with 92 Latina mother–daughter dyads whose members never experienced sexual abuse. Childhood sexual experience was defined as the occurrence of a consensual sexual encounter at the age of 15 years or younger. Substance abusers were identified by the extent of substance use during the 12 months prior to the interview. Path analysis was used to fit our conceptual models to the data.Main findings: Daughters’ current, adult substance abuse was associated independently with: their own childhood sexual experience (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 and mothers’ current, adult substance abuse (OR = 2.0. Compared with daughters who first experienced sex after the age of 19, the odds of using substances were 17.7 times higher among daughters who had childhood sexual experience and 3.8 times higher among daughters who first experienced sex between the age of 16–19 years. Explicitly, sexual experiences between the ages of 16–19 years were also risk factors for later adult substance abuse. Mothers’ childhood sexual experience (OR = 7.3 was a strong predictor for daughters’ childhood sexual experience.Conclusions: Our study supported a link between mother and daughter childhood sexual experience among Latinas, and indicated it is a correlate of adult substance abuse. Family based substance abuse prevention efforts and future longitudinal studies should consider maternal childhood sexual experience as a potential indication of risk for Latina daughters.Keywords: early sex, child sex, Latina, substance abuse

Patria Rojas

2010-02-01

62

Physical Punishment, Childhood Abuse and Psychiatric Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Physical punishment, as a means of disciplining children, may be considered a mild form of childhood adversity. Although many outcomes of physical punishment have been investigated, little attention has been given to the impact of physical punishment on later adult psychopathology. Also, it has been stated that physical punishment by a…

Afifi, Tracie O.; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Cox, Brian J.; Sareen, Jitender

2006-01-01

63

Spiritual coping tools of religious victims of childhood sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study surveys religious victims of CSA from three Christian universities with regard to general coping strategies, religious practices used in the healing process, and self-report of current life satisfaction. About twenty percent of the respondents acknowledged some type of childhood sexual abuse. The study identified negative correlations between both professional and church based counseling and positive life satisfaction ratings. When specific spiritual practices were used there was positive correlation between forgiveness and life satisfaction. PMID:25241481

Redmond, Larry W

2014-01-01

64

The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Forms of Childhood Adversity on Adulthood Parenting  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child…

Barrett, Betty

2009-01-01

65

Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood mental health consultation is a relationship-based intervention that promotes children's social and emotional development. Benefits include improved childhood behaviors, improved staff self-efficacy, and lowered parental stress. Child care center directors are more likely to be satisfied with consultation when they are involved in…

Bernzweig, Jane; Ramler, Malia; Alkon, Abbey

2009-01-01

66

The World Bank's View of Early Childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores World Bank's view of early childhood as an example of the globalization of childhood, arguing that the Bank's policies exacerbate the gap between rich and poor nations and between rich and poor within countries, and affect children's lives adversely. Explores inherent contradictions of policies that draw on traditional Anglo-American…

Penn, Helen

2002-01-01

67

Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse  

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Maternal care influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in the rat through epigenetic programming of glucocorticoid receptor expression. In humans, childhood abuse alters HPA stress responses and increases the risk of suicide. We examined epigenetic differences in a neuron-specific glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) promoter between postmortem hippocampus obtained from suicide victims with a history of childhood abuse and those from either suicide victims with no childhood abuse o...

Mcgowan, Patrick O.; Sasaki, Aya; D’alessio, Ana C.; Dymov, Sergiy; Labonte?, Benoit; Szyf, Moshe; Turecki, Gustavo; Meaney, Michael J.

2009-01-01

68

Coping and Dissociation among Female College Students: Reporting Childhood Abuse Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationship among coping strategies, dissociation, and childhood abuse experiences of female college students. Results provided support for the theoretical links between 3 types of child abuse experience (sexual abuse, physical abuse, and negative home environment) and coping style and dissociation. The study's results add…

Gipple, Deborah Ellen; Lee, Sang Min; Puig, Ana

2006-01-01

69

Early Childhood Intervention: Evolution of a System.  

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This article examines the evolution of the early childhood system, characterizing the stressors facing families of children with developmental disabilities that can adversely affect a child's development and examining the response of the early intervention system to those stressors. Discussion of future directions for the early intervention system…

Guralnick, Michael J.

2000-01-01

70

A history of drug use and childhood sexual abuse among incarcerated males in a county jail.  

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This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and drug use among incarcerated males. A retrospective, self-reported survey was administered over an 8-week period (September and October 2001) to a random sample of 100 men who were incarcerated in a county jail. The survey included questions about childhood sexual experiences before and after puberty, drug history and use, and sexual risk-taking behaviors. Overall, 59% of this sample of male inmates reported some form of childhood sexual abuse, and all such instances occurred before or at the age of 13. Statistically significant relationships were found between drug use and childhood sexual abuse, with those who experienced childhood sexual abuse reporting drug use at percentages as much as 30% higher than those denying histories of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:15770885

Johnson, Regina J; Ross, Michael W; Taylor, Wendell C; Williams, Mark L; Carvajal, Raul I; Peters, Ronald J

2005-01-01

71

Contemporary Perspectives on Early Childhood Curriculum. Contemporary Perspectives in Early Childhood Education.  

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Noting that the curriculum in early childhood education is dramatically different from that at other levels of education, this volume seeks to clarify some of the issues related to early childhood curriculum development and its bases in both personal knowledge and knowledge from the different disciplines to achieve a "balanced curriculum."…

Saracho, Olivia N. Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.

72

Issues in Early Childhood Curriculum. Yearbook in Early Childhood Education, Volume 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

A curriculum is a repertoire of learning experiences, planned and organized according to the program's educational goals. The curriculum development process of early childhood education differs in many ways from that of other levels of education. Intended for curriculum planners, education policy-makers and other early childhood education…

Spodek, Bernard, Ed.; Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.

73

When Early Childhood and School Meet: Exploring Potential within Early Childhood-School Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent policy shifts have re-positioned early childhood within educational processes aimed at fostering coherence for children across the different phrases of education. In turn, this has placed a necessary demand on the early childhood-school relationship, drawing attention to existing tensions within the relationships. This paper explores…

Henderson, Linda

2014-01-01

74

Childhood Sexual Abuse Severity Reconsidered: A Factor Structure of CSA Characteristics  

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To address the lack of empirically grounded measures of childhood sexual abuse severity, a survey of self-report items was developed following a thorough review of the childhood sexual abuse literature. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from a convenience sample of college students that included 275 females and…

Young, T. Lorraine; Riggs, Matt; Robinson, Jill L.

2011-01-01

75

Childhood Abuse, Chronic Pain, and Depression in the National Comorbidity Survey  

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Objective: The current study examined the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse on reports of pain in men and women (N=1,727). Methods: Data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative sample, were utilized. Childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse were assessed, and pain reports in relation to current…

Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Hernandez, Annya

2007-01-01

76

Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?  

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The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

Elzy, Meredith B.

2011-01-01

77

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder in the Eating Disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examination of 115 women with eating disorders revealed a secondary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. A model involving background features, precipitants, and immediate and long-term psychological consequences is suggested to explain the link to childhood abuse, and implications for…

Waller, Glenn

1994-01-01

78

Number of Childhood Abuse Perpetrators and the Occurrence of Depressive Episodes in Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Although past research has documented a link between adverse childhood experiences--particularly childhood emotional (CEA), physical (CPA), and sexual abuse (CSA)--and depression, relatively few studies have examined the unique impact of each of these highly co-occurring abuse types. Moreover, relatively little is known about the…

Liu, Richard T.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Gibb, Brandon E.

2012-01-01

79

Sarah's Story: Using Ritual Therapy to Address Psychospiritual Issues in Treating Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an individual's healing from the trauma of childhood sexual abuse through counseling, spiritual growth, and the use of therapeutic ritual. Explores relationships between the psychospiritual issues associated with childhood sexual abuse and commonly designated treatment goals. Claims that addressing psychospiritual issues is crucial in…

Parker, Radha J.; Horton, H. Shelton, Jr.; Watson, Terri

1997-01-01

80

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Mediate the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury  

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Prior research consistently has shown a strong relation between childhood abuse and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), yet it is unclear why this relation exists. The authors examined 2 specific posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters as potential mechanisms through which childhood abuse may be related to NSSI. Participants were 86…

Weierich, Mariann R.; Nock, Matthew K.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization and Alcohol Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age and sex-stratified population survey of Olmsted County, MN residents (n=610), we developed a sexual abuse severity score (SASS). The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included: age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, sever...

Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa M.; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

2009-01-01

82

Anogenital Warts in Childhood - Always a Marker for Sexual Abuse?  

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Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are common pathogens associated with a wide range of cutaneous and mucosal infections in childhood. Different HPV types can cause common warts and anogenital warts. Condylomata acuminata in children may be, but are not necessarily, an indicator of sexual abuse. Each individual case therefore requires careful examination, with consideration of other possible means of transmission. Diagnosis of anogenital warts is generally by means of clinical examination. Additional histological, serological or molecular genetic investigation may be indicated occasionally. The high rate of spontaneous remission and the rate of recurrence after treatment should be considered. The available topical and surgical treatment options are discussed.

Bussen, S.; Sutterlin, M.; Schmidt, U.; Bussen, D.

2012-01-01

83

Early Intervention: Critical Roles of Early Childhood Service Providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews trends in service provision to children with special needs and demonstrates the research-based efficacy of early intervention in family-centered inclusive contexts in early educational and care settings. Argues that changing roles of early childhood teachers need to be strengthened, because teachers possess skills to coordinate and…

Talay-Ongan, Ayshe

2001-01-01

84

Reduced gray matter volume in psychotic disorder patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood trauma is associated with smaller gray matter volume, similar to the pattern seen in psychotic disorders. We explored the relationship between childhood abuse, psychosis, and brain volume in a group of 60 individuals with a psychotic disorder and 26 healthy control subjects. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to quantify gray and white matter volume and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to measure childhood abuse. Within the psychotic disorders group, total gray matter volume was inversely correlated with the severity of childhood sexual abuse (r=?.34, p=.008), but not other types of abuse. When the 24 patients with sexual abuse were compared with demographically matched samples of 23 patients without sexual abuse and 26 control subjects, only patients with a history of sexual abuse had reduced total gray matter volume (t(48) = 2.3, p = .03; Cohen’s d = .63). Voxel-based analysis revealed a cluster in the prefrontal cortex where volume was negatively correlated with sexual abuse severity. Voxel based comparison of the three matched groups revealed a similar pattern of results, with widespread reductions in psychosis patients with sexual abuse relative to controls that were not found in psychosis patients without sexual abuse. These findings indicate that some of the variance of gray matter volume in psychotic disorders can be explained by a history of sexual abuse. PMID:23178105

Sheffield, Julia M.; Williams, Lisa E.; Woodward, Neil D.; Heckers, Stephan

2012-01-01

85

Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

Bach K

2014-06-01

86

Hardiness as a Moderator of Shame Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys an adult female sample of childhood sexual abuse survivors to determine if hardiness was effective in moderating the negative effects of perceived trauma and severity of the sexual abuse and internalized shame on relationship intimacy. Results indicate that perception and severity of abuse, and shame were significantly and negatively…

Feinauer, Leslie; Hilton, H. Gill; Callahan, Eddy Howard

2003-01-01

87

45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Education and early childhood development. 1304.21 Section 1304.21 ...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.21...

2010-10-01

88

Competency-Based Early Childhood Teacher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the competency-based early childhood preservice program at Iowa's Mount Mercy College, which is for people working with children from birth through age 8, including children with special needs. Program content encompasses five competency areas: child growth and development; developmentally appropriate learning; health, safety,…

Rosberg, Merilee

89

Trajectories of Autism Severity in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Relatively little is known about trajectories of autism severity using calibrated severity scores (CSS) from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, but characterizing these trajectories has important theoretical and clinical implications. This study examined CSS trajectories during early childhood. Participants were 129 children with autism…

Venker, Courtney E.; Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

2014-01-01

90

Early Childhood Curriculum: Planning, Assessment, and Implementation  

Science.gov (United States)

"Early Childhood Curriculum" addresses current approaches to curriculum for infants, toddlers and young children, ages birth to eight. It provides a comprehensive introduction to the curriculum issues that student teachers and emerging practitioners will face and equips them with the decision-making tools that will ultimately enhance and promote…

McLachlan, Claire; Fleer, Marilyn; Edwards, Susan

2010-01-01

91

Foucault and the Early Childhood Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Foucault's notion of "regimes of truth" (MacNaughton 2005, 30) provides an understanding of how some discourses operate and network together to reinforce a particular powerful view of the world. These can be in oral or written forms. Early childhood education practices are drawn on the discourse of a document developed by the National Association…

Cohen, Lynn E.

2008-01-01

92

Iowa Early Childhood Special Education Handbook.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide is intended to provide parents, administrators and service providers in Iowa with information needed to access and implement early childhood special education (ECSE) programs and services for children with disabilities from birth through age five. Section 1 provides an overview of ECSE in Iowa, including the program rationale, program…

Edmiaston, Rebecca; Hansen, Debra Rice; House-Deere, Deb; Milburn, Penny

93

Independence and Interdependence in Early Childhood Services  

Science.gov (United States)

It is through culture that children make sense of their worlds (Trevarthen, 1998). Cross- cultural models show that families are likely to primarily foster either independence or interdependence in their children (Gonzalez-Mena, 1997; Greenfield, 1994). Young children are likely to pay the "price of acculturation" when they enter early childhood

Whitington, Victoria

2004-01-01

94

Transforming Early Childhood Education through Critical Reflection  

Science.gov (United States)

There is tension growing in early childhood education between an emphasis on higher learning standards, teacher-directed activities, and evidence-based instructional methods and maintaining active, dynamic and integrated learning experiences for young children. This short essay highlights the ways in which our existing values and beliefs,…

Anderson, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

95

Report of Early Childhood Evaluation Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Louisiana, the Early Childhood Evaluation Project undertook to study the feasibility of screening preschool children for potential handicaps in rural and urban areas using relatively untrained university students and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of different screening instruments. Findings showed that the largest number of children were…

Hetrick, Ethel

96

Early Childhood in the New China: Suzhou  

Science.gov (United States)

Suzhou is one hour to the West of Shanghai, and one of China's most interesting cities, famous for its silks, canals, and scholar gardens. According to a popular legend, Marco Polo is reputed to have said, "In heaven there is paradise, and on earth, Hangzhou and Suzhou." As the city rapidly expands, the issue of early childhood education is a…

Kalinowski, Michael

2010-01-01

97

An Approach to Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an early childhood program for 120 disadvantaged students, ages three to five, developed by the Green County of Eutaw, Alabama, funded under Title III, E.S.E.A., and based on a three component model: community, inservice, and instruction. (JM)

Gantt, Walter N.; Yawkey, Thomas D.

1973-01-01

98

Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function  

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Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

2014-01-01

99

The Importance of Music in Early Childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys some of the research in music education that validates the inclusion of music for its own sake in models for early childhood learning. Focuses on topics that include, but are not limited to, child and vocal development, the importance of movement for children, and adult involvement in music education. (CMK)

Levinowitz, Lili M.

1998-01-01

100

Reliability and Comparability of Psychosis Patients' Retrospective Reports of Childhood Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

An increasing number of studies are demonstrating an association between childhood abuse and psychosis. However, the majority of these rely on retrospective self-reports in adulthood that may be unduly influenced by current psychopathology. We therefore set out to explore the reliability and comparability of first-presentation psychosis patients’ reports of childhood abuse. Psychosis case subjects were drawn from the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (ÆSOP) epidemiological study and completed the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire to elicit abusive experiences that occurred prior to 16 years of age. High levels of concurrent validity were demonstrated with the Parental Bonding Instrument (antipathy: rs = 0.350–0.737, P < .001; neglect: rs = 0.688–0.715, P < .001), and good convergent validity was shown with clinical case notes (sexual abuse: ? = 0.526, P < .001; physical abuse: ? = 0.394, P < .001). Psychosis patients’ reports were also reasonably stable over a 7-year period (sexual abuse: ? = 0.590, P < .01; physical abuse: ? = 0.634, P < .001; antipathy: ? = 0.492, P < .01; neglect: ? = 0.432, P < .05). Additionally, their reports of childhood abuse were not associated with current severity of psychotic symptoms (sexual abuse: U = 1768.5, P = .998; physical abuse: U = 2167.5, P = .815; antipathy: U = 2216.5, P = .988; neglect: U = 1906.0, P = .835) or depressed mood (sexual abuse: ?2 = 0.634, P = .277; physical abuse: ?2 = 0.159, P = .419; antipathy: ?2 = 0.868, P = .229; neglect: ?2 = 0.639, P = .274). These findings provide justification for the use in future studies of retrospective reports of childhood abuse obtained from individuals with psychotic disorders. PMID:19776204

Fisher, Helen L.; Craig, Thomas K.; Fearon, Paul; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Lappin, Julia; Hutchinson, Gerard; Doody, Gillian A.; Jones, Peter B.; McGuffin, Peter; Murray, Robin M.; Leff, Julian; Morgan, Craig

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Fostering Democratic Values in Inclusive Early Childhood Settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the role of democracy in education and its importance in early childhood education programs, including benefits to children. Discusses implications for early childhood education programs that include children with disabilities, makes suggestions for promoting democracy in inclusive early childhood environments, and identifies…

Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Kipness, Noreen A.

1997-01-01

102

Breaking Bread: Spirituality, Food and Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The spiritual aspect of early childhood education is supported by the early childhood curriculum in Aotearoa New Zealand, "Te Whariki". Research in three different early childhood settings presents new perspectives on the everyday experiences of children in terms of spirituality. Each setting formed a case study that included the voices of…

Bone, Jane

2005-01-01

103

Changing Curriculum for Early Childhood Education in England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines early childhood curriculum in England. Traditional early childhood education in England has been child centered, in contrast to approaches that are subject centered and teacher directed, emphasizing individual children?s interests, free play, firsthand experience, and integrated learning. However, recently, the government introduced a framework for an early years curriculum, redefined the child-centered educational model, and initiated reforms for raising standards. In order to identify the nature of early childhood curriculum in England, this article examines the historical development and philosophical underpinnings of early childhood education, including recent developments. The article then investigates and describes the early childhood curriculum in England today.

Young-Ihm Kwon

2002-01-01

104

Overcoming sequelae of childhood sexual abuse with stress management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immense stress associated with experiencing and surviving childhood sexual abuse directly influences coping, immune function and overall health. Lifelong overuse of maladaptive coping strategies results in impaired adjustment to stress. The purpose of this research was to re-examine if stress management education would be effective in improving coping skills for this population. Two 4-week series of stress management workshops were completed by 32 adult survivors who completed the ways of coping questionnaire before and after the training. Four categories of coping showed significant change. Stress management education is an effective and cost-efficient approach that gives adult survivors an empowering set of tools for their healing journey. PMID:22070354

Wilson, D R; Vidal, B; Wilson, W A; Salyer, S L

2012-09-01

105

Linking Childhood and Adult Criminality: Using a Life Course Framework to Examine Childhood Abuse and Neglect, Substance Use and Adult Partner Violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children’s life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1 patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2 cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed.

Patricia O'Campo

2013-10-01

106

Helping Yourself Heal: A Recovering Man's Guide to Coping with the Effects of Childhood Abuse  

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... Information, http://www.healthyminds.org ? American Psychological Association Psychology Help Center, http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/index. ... 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2012 Document Outline Introduction What Is Childhood Abuse? What Symptoms Could You ...

107

BDNF in late-life depression: effect of SSRI usage and interaction with childhood abuse.  

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Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) serum levels are abnormally low in depressed patients as compared to healthy controls and normalize with SSRI treatment. The aim of this study is to examine serum BDNF levels in late-life depression, stratified for SSRI usage, and to explore the relation between BDNF levels and specific depression characteristics as well as between BDNF levels and early and recent life stressors in late-life depression. We assessed serum BDNF levels in 259 depressed patients not using an SSRI, 99 depressed patients using an SSRI and 119 non-depressed controls (age range 60-93 years). Depressive disorders were diagnosed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, version 2.1). Serum BDNF levels were significantly higher in depressed patients who used an SSRI compared to depressed patients not using SSRIs and compared to non-depressed controls, when adjusted for age, sex, life style characteristics, cognitive functioning and somatic comorbidity. Recent life-events, assessed with the List of Threatening Events-Questionnaire, were significantly associated with lower BDNF levels in non-depressed subjects only. Although a summary score of early traumatization (before the age of 16 years) was not associated with serum BDNF levels in any of the three groups, we found an interaction between a history of severe physical abuse and SSRI usage in the depressed group. Interestingly, higher serum levels of BDNF in depressed patients using SSRIs were only found in those patients without a history of severe childhood abuse and not in those with a history of severe childhood abuse. PMID:24703173

van der Meij, Annemarie; Comijs, Hannie C; Dols, Annemieke; Janzing, Joost G E; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

2014-05-01

108

Best clinical practices for male adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: "do no harm".  

Science.gov (United States)

The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in communication, locus of control, and consent/permission before and during physical examinations and procedures. The intent of this article is to act as a catalyst for improved patient care and more research focused on the identification and optimal responses to the needs of men with adverse childhood experiences in the health care setting. PMID:25106042

Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

2014-01-01

109

Substance Use, Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Women in Methadone Treatment  

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Substance use and a history of childhood sexual abuse have both been identified as risk factors for unprotected sex among women, yet questions remain as to how their combined influence may differentially affect sexual risk behavior. In the current study a Generalized Linear Mixed Model was used to examine the interaction effect between current cocaine and opioid use and a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on number of unprotected sexual occasions (USO) in a sample of 214 sexually active...

Cohen, Lisa R.; Tross, Susan; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-chen; Campbell, Aimee N.; Nunes, Edward V.

2009-01-01

110

Early Childhood Interventions: Proven Results, Future Promise  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant amount of intellectual hand wringing has gone on as of late regarding the nature and importance of early childhood intervention programs. Some have claimed that such programs (including Head Start) are inherently a waste of money, while others tout their apparent ability to increase future educational and life opportunities, particularly for the under-privileged. This intriguing research report from the RAND Corporation, authored by Rebecca Kilburn and Jill Cannon, provides compelling evidence suggesting that well-designed programs for disadvantaged children age four and younger can produce economic benefits that are quite significant. The report contends that high quality early childhood programs can "keep children out of expensive special education programs; increase high school graduation rates; reduce juvenile crime, and increase the number of students who go on to college." Stimulating in its approach and its scholarly rigor, this report will be quite useful and helpful to persons interested in such policy issues.

Cannon, Jill S.; Karoly, Lynn A., 1961-; Kilburn, M. R.

2005-01-01

111

Childhood Sex Abuse May Be Linked to Heart Disease Risk in Women  

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... JavaScript. Childhood Sex Abuse May Be Linked to Heart Disease Risk in Women Researchers found more signs of ... 17, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Sexual Abuse Heart Disease in Women THURSDAY, July 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

112

Group Work with Adult Survivors of Childhood Abuse and Neglect: A Psychoeducational Approach  

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In this article, the authors describe a psychoeducational group model for adult survivors of childhood abuse and neglect. The model is specifically designed to assist group members to receive support and validation, to identify the effects of abuse on present functioning, and to learn new life skills.

Choate, Laura Hensley; Henson, Annemieke

2003-01-01

113

The Process of Coping with Domestic Violence in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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Research suggests that the use of disengaged or avoidant strategies to cope with interpersonal violence contributes to the development of depressive symptoms and other psychological difficulties. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who are exposed to subsequent episodes of abuse may be more likely to rely on disengaged coping strategies,…

Griffing, Sascha; Lewis, Carla S.; Chu, Melissa; Sage, Robert; Jospitre, Tania; Madry, Lorraine; Primm, Beny J.

2006-01-01

114

Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse  

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This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

2009-01-01

115

Gender in Suicide Attempt Rates and Childhood Sexual Abuse Rates: Is There an Interaction?  

Science.gov (United States)

Two competing explanations for higher rates of attempted suicide in women than men were compared. Because childhood sexual abuse is more prevalent in girls than boys, one explanation of higher rates of suicide attempts in women is that it is a direct result of the higher incidence of sexual abuse in girls. Alternatively, higher rates of suicide…

Roy, Alec; Janal, Malvin

2006-01-01

116

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

2009-01-01

117

The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Male Sexual Dysfunction.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment found that childhood sexual abuse did not predict sexual dysfunction in the men. Unemployment was the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Differences between the sexual abuse experiences of the male victims compared to female victims (n=73) are discussed. (Author/CR)

Sarwer, David B.; And Others

1997-01-01

118

Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories  

Science.gov (United States)

Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…

You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.

2012-01-01

119

Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…

Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

2009-01-01

120

Patients Reporting Ritual Abuse in Childhood: A Clinical Syndrome. Report of 37 Cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-seven adult dissociative disorder patients who reported ritual abuse in childhood by satanic cults are described. A clinical syndrome is presented that includes dissociative states with satanic overtones, posttraumatic stress disorder, survivor guilt, unusual fears, and substance abuse. Questions concerning reliability, credibility, and…

Young, Walter C.; And Others

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

2007-01-01

122

Trajectories of Childhood Aggression and Inattention/Hyperactivity: Differential Effects on Substance Abuse in Adolescence  

Science.gov (United States)

335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…

Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

2008-01-01

123

Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Breast Cancer: The Role of Childhood Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The present study investigated relations between reported childhood abuse and recent traumatic stress symptoms in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 330). Methods: As part of a larger ongoing study, patients from eight public and private hospitals were referred by their physicians and completed the Childhood Trauma…

Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Jandorf, Lina; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Amend, Kandace L.; Stoudt, Brett G.; Rini, Christine; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred; Reilly, James J.; Tartter, Paul I.; Feldman, Sheldon M.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

2010-01-01

124

Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

2010-01-01

125

Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study  

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This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

2011-01-01

126

A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality  

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The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...

Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

2003-01-01

127

Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood  

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Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of ...

Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

2007-01-01

128

Cognitive function is preserved in older adults with a reported history of childhood sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with mood and cognitive deficits in children and young adults. Evidence suggests that the effects of early-life adversity persist throughout adulthood; however, the impact of CSA on cognition in older adults is largely unknown. This study investigated cognitive function in older adults with a reported history of CSA. Data are from a population-based study (The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing) of 6,912 adults aged 50 years and older. Participants answered questions about CSA as part of a stressful life events questionnaire. Global cognition, executive function, memory (both objective and self-rated), attention, and processing speed were measured via a comprehensive battery of tests. Anxiety and depression, other childhood adversity, health behaviours, chronic disease, and medication use were also assessed. Of the total sample, 6.5% reported CSA. These individuals were more likely to have experienced other forms of childhood adversity and to exhibit poor mental health compared to those who reported no history of CSA. Multivariate regression analyses revealed, however, that CSA was associated with better global cognition, memory, executive function, and processing speed, despite poorer psychological health in this group. Future studies should aim to investigate possible reasons for this finding. PMID:24265204

Feeney, Joanne; Kamiya, Yumiko; Robertson, Ian H; Kenny, Rose Anne

2013-12-01

129

The Impact of Shame on Health-Related Quality of Life Among HIV-Positive Adults with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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Childhood sexual abuse is prevalent among people living with HIV, and the experience of shame is a common consequence of childhood sexual abuse and HIV infection. This study examined the role of shame in health-related quality of life among HIV-positive adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse. Data from 247 HIV-infected adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse were analyzed. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to assess the impact of shame regarding both sexual abus...

Persons, Elizabeth; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.

2010-01-01

130

Perceived discrimination and early substance abuse among American Indian children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated internalizing and externalizing symptoms as potential mediators of the relationship between perceived discrimination and early substance abuse among 195 American Indian 5 through 8 graders from three reservations that share a common culture (e.g., language, spiritual beliefs, and traditional practices) in the upper Midwest. The findings indicated that, although perceived discrimination contributed significantly to internalizing symptoms among the adolescents, internalizing symptoms were unrelated to early substance abuse. Rather, the effects of perceived discrimination on early substance abuse were mediated by adolescent anger and delinquent behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of the consequences of perceived discrimination on the development of American Indian early adolescents. PMID:11831140

Whitbeck, L B; Hoyt, D R; McMorris, B J; Chen, X; Stubben, J D

2001-12-01

131

The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

Mohammad Narimani

2012-10-01

132

Mediators of the childhood emotional abuse-hopelessness association in African American women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is an association between experiencing childhood emotional abuse and feeling hopeless as an adult, it is critical to understand the factors that may be protective in this relationship. The goal of this study was to determine if two protective factors, namely spiritual well-being, including both religious and existential well-being, and positive self-esteem, served to mediate the association between childhood emotional abuse and adult hopelessness. The sample for this investigation was low-income African American women suicide attempters who were abused by a partner in the prior year (N=121). A path analysis revealed that in this sample, the childhood emotional abuse-hopelessness link was mediated by existential well-being and positive self-esteem, as well as by the two-mediator path of emotional abuse on existential well-being on self-esteem on hopelessness. Results suggested that existential well-being may be a more salient protective factor for hopelessness than religious well-being among abused, suicidal African American women who experienced childhood emotional abuse. Findings highlight the value of culturally relevant strategies for enhancing existential well-being and self-esteem in this at-risk population to reduce their vulnerability to feelings of hopelessness. PMID:24360716

Lamis, Dorian A; Wilson, Christina K; Shahane, Amit A; Kaslow, Nadine J

2014-08-01

133

The clinical utilization of early childhood memories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood memories (EMs) are discussed as an individual's unique psychological product, capable of revealing basic fantasies around which the individual's character structure is organized. Major theoretical approaches to understanding EMs are surveyed including early Freudian, Adlerian, and Ego Psychological. The more recent Cognitive-Perceptual perspective is also discussed. As EMs are viewed as a projective technique, methods of retrieval and interpretation are described. Case material is presented to demonstrate the utilization of EMs in the course of psychotherapy. In the early phase of therapy, EMs are shown to be of use in establishing therapeutic focus and elucidating dynamic patterns. Within the process of therapy, illustrations are given to demonstrate the use of EMs as an interpretive aid and as a means of monitoring therapeutic change. PMID:9327105

Last, J M

1997-01-01

134

Professional Growth Reconceptualized: Early Childhood Staff Searching for Meaning  

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This paper challenges traditional perspectives of professional development through a reconceptualization of early childhood professional growth. A review of the early childhood professional development literature reveals the problematic nature of the linear perspectives and deficit models of staff development prevalent in the early childhood field. In contrast to these models, the paper proposes alternative perspectives that recognize staff as empowered learners who build their working knowle...

Alma Fleet; Catherine Patterson

2001-01-01

135

Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report on the long-term health effects of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), whereas it is only 126 mm Hg among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, whereas none in the treatment group are affected. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. PMID:24675955

Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi

2014-03-28

136

[Ethological methods exemplified by early childhood autism].  

Science.gov (United States)

When humans are primarily impaired or overtaxed in their more elaborate abilities of coping with the social environment they seem to fall back on more primitive coping behaviours known from other mammals in severe conflict situations. This seems true for some behaviours in early childhood autism. Ethology has specialized in analyzing such non-verbal behaviour. Ethological motivation analysis, the study of context dependence and of the development of such behaviours in the individual patient should be exploited for their interpretation. Mere description of behaviour is not likely to contribute much. Psychiatric thinking on the interaction of genetic and environmental factors does not fully agree with ethological and biological views. PMID:2431466

Kummer, H

1986-01-01

137

Language and Literacy in Early Childhood Education. Yearbook in Early Childhood Education, Volume 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

As classrooms have become more culturally and linguistically diversified, the theories and methods of teaching reading to young children have changed. Early childhood educators must explore new methods of instruction in order to involve and expand the language abilities of young children and must provide engaging activities that will create more…

Spodek, Bernard, Ed.; Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.

138

Multiple Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education. SUNY Series, Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book provides research in the area of educational play for early childhood teachers and teacher educators. Following an introduction by the editors, the chapters of the book are: (1) "A Historical Overview of Theories of Play" (Olivia Saracho and Bernard Spodek); (2) "Playing with a Theory of Mind" (Angeline Lillard); (3) "The Social Origins…

Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.

139

Studying Teachers in Early Childhood Settings. Contemporary Perspectives in Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

These papers reflect the impact that early childhood teachers have on their students when they "stand in front of the classroom" and the effect their performance and characteristics have on children. After "Introduction: Factors that Impact Teacher Quality" (Olivia N. Saracho and Bernard Spodek), 11 papers include: (1) "The Preparation of Teachers…

Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.

140

Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

Axton, J. H. M.

142

The effects of childhood abuse on symptom complexity in a clinical sample: mediating effects of emotion regulation difficulties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to first examine whether childhood abuse predicts symptom complexity, as indicated by the number of clinically elevated scales on the MMPI-2 in an adult clinical sample. Secondly, we investigated whether emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and symptom complexity. A total of 162 adult outpatients not presenting with psychotic symptoms completed the Korean Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (K-CTQ), Life Events Checklist (LEC), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and Korean Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Partial correlation analysis results indicated that after controlling for the presence of adulthood trauma, childhood abuse was associated with more symptom complexity, or more clinically elevated scales on the MMPI-2. Furthermore, structural equation modeling results showed that emotion regulation difficulties partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and symptom complexity. These findings indicate that individuals who had experienced childhood abuse evidence simultaneous presentation of diverse clinical symptoms. PMID:24841063

Choi, Ji Young; Choi, Young Min; Gim, Min Sook; Park, Jun Hyun; Park, Soo Hyun

2014-08-01

143

Associations between childhood abuse and interpersonal aggression and suicide attempt among U.S. adults in a national study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to examine associations among childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse and violence toward self (suicide attempts [SA]) and others (interpersonal aggression [IA]). Data were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Waves 1 and 2 (n=34,653). Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between type of childhood abuse and violence categories, adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of reported childhood abuse was 4.60% for physical abuse, 7.83% for emotional abuse, and 10.20% for sexual abuse. Approximately 18% of adults reported some form of violent behavior, distributed as follows: IA, 13.37%; SA, 2.64%; and SA with IA, 1.85%. After adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and psychiatric disorders, each type of childhood abuse was significantly related to increased risk for each violence category as compared with the no violence category. Furthermore, the odds ratio of childhood physical abuse was significantly higher for SA with IA when compared with IA, and the odds ratio of childhood sexual abuse was significantly higher for SA and SA with IA when compared with IA. Childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse is directly related to the risk for violent behaviors to self and others. Both internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders impact the association between childhood abuse and violence. The inclusion of suicidal behaviors and interpersonal aggression and internalizing/externalizing psychiatric disorders within an integrated conceptual framework will facilitate more effective interventions for long-lasting effects of child abuse. PMID:24656711

Harford, Thomas C; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Grant, Bridget F

2014-08-01

144

Effects of childhood abuse on adult obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Controversy exists surrounding the role of childhood abuse in obesity development. This is a meta-analysis of observational studies on the role of childhood abuse in adult obesity. Systematic searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, Medline and CINAHL resulted in 23 cohort studies (4 prospective, 19 retrospective) with n?=?112,708 participants, containing four abuse types (physical, emotional, sexual, general). Four studies reported dose-response effects. A random effects model was used to quantify effect sizes, meta-regression/subgroup analysis for identifying potential moderating variables and Egger's test for publication bias. Adults who reported childhood abuse were significantly more likely to be obese (odds ratio [OR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-1.45, P?obesity: physical (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.46), emotional (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.71), sexual (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.13-1.53) and general abuse (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.25-1.69). Severe abuse (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.27-1.77) was significantly more associated with adult obesity (P?=?0.043) compared with light/moderate abuse (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.91-1.41). We found no significant effects of study design (prospective vs. retrospective, P?=?0.07), age (P?=?0.96) or gender (P?=?0.92). Publication bias was evident (Egger's test P?=?0.007), but effect sizes remained statistically significant in sensitivity analyses. Childhood abuse was clearly associated with being obese as an adult, including a positive dose-response association. This suggests that adverse life experiences during childhood plays a major role in obesity development, potentially by inducing mental and emotional perturbations, maladaptive coping responses, stress, inflammation and metabolic disturbances. PMID:25123205

Hemmingsson, E; Johansson, K; Reynisdottir, S

2014-11-01

145

The Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Heart Disease in Adulthood: Findings from a Representative Community Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Although, the relationship between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease has been documented, very few studies have controlled for many of the known risk factors for heart disease. The objective of the current study, therefore, was to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease while…

Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Frank, John

2010-01-01

146

Traumagenic Dynamics in Adult Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse vs. Adolescent Male Sex Offenders with Similar Histories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female childhood sexual abuse survivors and adolescent male sexual offenders with a history of childhood sexual abuse were assessed using the Trauma-Related Beliefs Questionnaire. Results suggested that male sex offenders hold high levels of traumagenic beliefs common in females, especially related to trust and betrayal. (Author)

Edwards, Carla; Hendrix, Rebecca

2001-01-01

147

The Relationship among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Alcoholism, Family Environment and Suicidal Behavior in Female College Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the relationship among childhood sexual abuse and parental alcoholism, retrospective reports of family functioning, and having had a history of either suicidal ideation or suicide attempts. Subjects (n=420) were drawn from a sample of undergraduate college women. Results indicate the experiences of childhood sexual abuse and parental…

Yama, Mark F.; And Others

1995-01-01

148

Assessing the association between childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual experiences in women with sexual difficulties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-report instruments for assessing sexual well-being in women with sexual difficulties have not to date been explicitly validated among women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Given an extensive literature suggesting psychological differences between women with and without a history of CSA, it is possible that sexual well-being has a different meaning for these groups. Without validated scales, it is difficult to evaluate the impact of early sexual trauma on adult sexuality. The present study assessed whether the factor structure of widely used measures of sexual well-being were consistent across women experiencing sexual difficulties, with and without an abuse history, and to estimate effect sizes for the statistical effect of CSA on sexual well-being in this population. A sample of women with and without a history of CSA (N = 238) completed the Female Sexual Function Index and the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women. Structural equation models indicated generally consistent factor structures across groups, suggesting good construct validity. Effect size estimates indicated medium to large (0.53-0.72) effects of CSA on sexual well-being for women with sexual difficulties. These findings support and extend research regarding the potential effects of CSA that may inform treatment for this population. PMID:24948536

Stephenson, Kyle R; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

2014-06-01

149

Researching Early Childhood Policy and Practice. A Critical Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…

Urban, Mathias

2012-01-01

150

Using Online Psychological Consultation in Early Childhood Student Teacher Preparation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the incorporation of online psychological consultation regarding child behavior in an early childhood teacher education program. The authors discuss psychological consultation in terms of current theory and philosophy in early childhood teacher education in general, and in terms of the professional objectives of this specific…

Epstein, Ann; Dygdon, Judith A.

2006-01-01

151

Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice. Second Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…

Morgan, Harry

2010-01-01

152

Early Childhood Music Education in Taiwan: An Ecological Systems Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

The author examines early childhood music education in Taiwan through Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Factors in the microsystem level that influenced the musical development of children included adult perception of children, child-adult interactions, Taiwanese family structure, and the existing early childhood education system. The…

Leu, Jennifer Chau-Ying

2008-01-01

153

Promoting School and Life Success through Early Childhood Family Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.

Swick, Kevin J.

2009-01-01

154

Early Childhood Education Programs in Kenya: Challenges and Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education in Kenya serves the critical purpose of preparing young children for primary education. Notwithstanding the associated benefits for society as a whole, the government of Kenya is involved minimally. Indeed, parents are responsible for planning, developing and managing different early childhood programs. Consequently,…

Nganga, Lydiah W.

2009-01-01

155

Early Childhood Teacher Education in Pakistan: Time for Action  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a critical account of early childhood education (ECE) in Pakistan. It moves from a general review of the benefits of ECE to focus on the issues and challenges connected to the professional development of early childhood teachers. It highlights problems encountered in developing practitioners who are highly skilled in the…

Zada, Khan

2014-01-01

156

When Fewer Is More: Small Groups in Early Childhood Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Small group instruction is important yet it is one of the most underused strategies in early childhood classrooms. This paper presents guidelines based on research-based best practices for using small groups in early childhood. In addition, the benefits of small group instruction for both children and teachers are described. Specific suggestions…

Wasik, Barbara

2008-01-01

157

Early Childhood Teachers' Computer Attitudes, Knowledge and Practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of 250 early childhood teachers were surveyed to identify their computer attitudes. Found a general sequence of stages that early childhood teachers go through when implementing the computer into the classroom: a stage of focus on buying computers; a stage of confusion; a stage of pulling it all together; and finally, a stage of full…

Landerholm, Elizabeth

1995-01-01

158

Writing Research Articles for Publication in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…

Saracho, Olivia N.

2013-01-01

159

Early Childhood Teachers' Preparation and the Quality of Program Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue of the preparation of effective teachers becomes more critical for teachers of early childhood programs. It has been hypothesized that better program quality depends on better-educated teachers. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the importance of a high level of education for all early childhood education teachers. This…

Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

2007-01-01

160

Recent Trends and Innovations in the Early Childhood Education Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines recent trends in early childhood education practice: the education of all children in inclusive classes, the management of vertical and horizontal transitions, the emergence of early childhood education and care programs, the development of school-family-community partnerships, the emphasis on language learning and emergent literacy, the…

Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Swedish Child Care and Early Childhood Education in Transition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes recent changes in Swedish system of child care and early childhood education and analyzes them in relation to economic and socio-political context. Argues that early childhood education is an important part of the welfare society, which itself is in a state of transition, with neo-liberal ideas and economic constraints implying financial…

Kallos, Daniel; Broman, Ingegerd Tallberg

1997-01-01

162

Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

2013-01-01

163

Early Childhood Literacy and the Sense of Play  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author relates some of her experiences as a children’s book author/illustrator visiting schools, observing that in early childhood, creativity and sense of play are essential tools for teaching and learning. Believing that images and words play an equally important role in the learning process, she also includes a visual statement that early childhood literacy is empowering...

Geneviève Côté

2009-12-01

164

Competence Requirements in Early Childhood Education and Care. Final Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the findings of a European research project jointly conducted by the University of East London (UEL) and the University of Ghent (UGent). The "study on competence requirements in early childhood education and care" (CoRe) explored conceptualisations of "competence" and professionalism in early childhood practice, and…

Urban, Mathias; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Lazzari, Arianna; Van Laere, Katrien; Peeters, Jan

2012-01-01

165

Teacher Preparation for Early Childhood: Special Education in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood special education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was conducted in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood special education in Taiwan could be summarized…

Ho, Hua-Kuo

2014-01-01

166

Parental Conceptions of Quality in Greek Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers' parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the…

Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

2014-01-01

167

Stress in Early Childhood: Helping Children and Their Carers  

Science.gov (United States)

This book offers practical and effective strategies for stress management for both early childhood staff and the children in their care. Here, the author uncovers valuable insights into the causes of stress and outlines a range of activities to counteract it. Early childhood practitioners know that theirs is both a stressful and rewarding…

Thomas, Patrice

2006-01-01

168

Quality and Equity in Early Childhood Care in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The…

Izu, Regina Moromizato

2006-01-01

169

Renovating Early Childhood Education Pedagogy: A Case Study in Vietnam  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to…

Thao, Dang Phuong; Boyd, Wendy Anne

2014-01-01

170

Response to Intervention: Implications for Early Childhood Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of building strong early childhood communities of interdisciplinary practice in the application of a comprehensive curriculum framework. A curriculum framework is proposed as a means of applying and extending the principles of response to intervention (RtI) to early childhood

Jackson, Sarah; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna; Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Romani, Jeanne M.

2009-01-01

171

Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

2013-01-01

172

Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?  

Science.gov (United States)

Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood

Smith, Wyverne

2008-01-01

173

The impact of childhood abuse on inpatient substance users: specific links with risky sex, aggression, and emotion dysregulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. PMID:24521524

Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C

2014-05-01

174

Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

Adamson, Peter C. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2009-02-15

175

Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

176

People Believe it is Plausible to have Forgotten Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pezdek, Blandon-Gitlin, and Gabbay (2006) found that perceptions of the plausibility of events increase the likelihood of imagination inducing false memories of those events. Using a survey conducted by Gallup, we asked a large sample of the general population how plausible it would be for a person with longstanding emotional problems and a need for psychotherapy to be a victim of childhood sexual abuse, even though the person could not remember the abuse. Only 18% indicated that it was impla...

Rubin, David C.; Berntsen, Dorthe

2007-01-01

177

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Initiating Injection Drug Use: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective This study examined whether childhood sexual abuse predicts initiation of injection drug use in a prospective cohort of youth. Method From October 2005 to November 2010, data were collected from the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Inclusion criteria were age 14-26 years, no lifetime drug injection, and non-injection drug use in the month preceding enrollment. Participants were interviewed at baseline and semiannually thereafter. Cox regression was employed to identify risk factors for initiating injection. Results Among 395 injection-naïve youth, 81 (20.5%) reported childhood sexual abuse. During a median follow-up of 15.9 months (total follow-up 606.6 person-years), 45 (11.4%) youth initiated injection drug use, resulting in an incidence density of 7.4 per 100 person-years. In univariate analyses, childhood sexual abuse was associated with increased risk of initiating injection (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29–4.38; p=0.006), an effect that persisted in multivariate analysis despite adjustment for gender, age, Aboriginal ancestry and recent non-injection drug use (adjusted HR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.42–5.20; p=0.003). Conclusion Childhood sexual abuse places drug users at risk for initiating injection. Addiction treatment programs should incorporate services for survivors of childhood maltreatment. PMID:22954518

Hadland, Scott E.; Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Fu, Eric; Wang, Hong; Montaner, Julio S.; Wood, Evan

2012-01-01

178

Obesity and skill attainment in early childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the association between obesity and skill attainment in early childhood (aged 2-3 years). Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are used to estimate models of developmental functioning in four critical areas (verbal skills, activities of daily living, motor skills, and social skills) as a function of various measures of weight (including body mass index and obesity) controlling for a rich set of child, parent, and family characteristics. The findings indicate that, among boys, obesity is associated with reduced verbal skills, social skills, motor skills, and activities of daily living. Among girls, obesity is associated with reduced verbal skills. Further investigations show that the correlations exist even for those preschool children who spend no time in day care, which implies that the correlations cannot be due solely to discrimination by teachers, classmates, or day care providers. PMID:18678531

Cawley, John; Spiess, C Katharina

2008-12-01

179

Additive Impact of Childhood Emotional, Physical, and Sexual Abuse on Suicide Attempts among Low-Income African American Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the association between the experience of multiple forms of childhood abuse and suicidal behavior among low-income, African American women. Women who reported abuse did not complete high school, or who were unemployed were more likely to attempt suicide. Suggests clinicians working with African American women who are victims of abuse need…

Anderson, Page L.; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Price, Ann Webb; Bender, Marnette A.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2002-01-01

180

Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Homosexual Men: Prevalence and Association with Unsafe Sex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of 327 homosexual and bisexual men participating in an ongoing cohort study pertaining to risk factors for HIV infection who completed a survey regarding history of sexual abuse, 116 (35.5%) reported being sexually abused as children. Those abused were more likely to have more lifetime male partners, to report more childhood stress, to have lied in the past in order to have sex, and to have had unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past 6 months (odds ratio 2.13; 95% confidence interv...

Lenderking, William R.; Wold, Cheryl; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Goldstein, Robert; Losina, Elena; Seage, George R.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

How ineffective family environments can compound maldevelopment of critical thinking skills in childhood abuse survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high stress of childhood abuse is associated with neurobiological detriments to executive function. Child abuse survivors may also be cognitively and relationally disadvantaged as a result of being raised in emotionally impoverished families that lack cohesion, organization, flexibility, self-expression, and moral and ethical values and fail to provide opportunities for effective learning. A review of literature demonstrates how dysfunctional family of origin environments common to child abuse survivors, concomitant with the extreme stress of overt acts of abuse, can act as a barrier to the development of higher-order critical thinking skills. The article concludes by discussing ramifications of critical thinking skill deficits in child abuse survivors and highlights the importance of integrating and prioritizing critical thinking skills training in treatment. PMID:25116865

Kostolitz, Alessandra C; Hyman, Scott M; Gold, Steven N

2014-01-01

182

Serotonin Transporter (5-HTTLPR) Genotype, Childhood Abuse, and Suicide Attempts in Adult Psychiatric Inpatients  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing evidence that a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the impact of negative life events (e.g., childhood abuse) on the development of depression. However, it is unclear whether the gene x environment interaction predicts suicide attempts specifically. In addition, previous studies have not…

Gibb, Brandon E.; McGeary, John E.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Miller, Ivan W.

2006-01-01

183

Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of spiritual coping in adult survivors' responses to current life stressors. Although there has been research on general coping and adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), there has been no work done on spiritual coping behaviour and survivors' current adjustment. Method: One…

Gall, Terry Lynn

2006-01-01

184

Interpersonal Dependency among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates dependency in survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Analyses of CSA Interpersonal Dependency Inventory scores indicated that among women, CSA survivors obtained higher dependency scores than non-CSA psychiatric patients, community adults, and college students. Findings for men were less consistent. Follow-up analyses revealed…

Hill, Erica L.; Gold, Steven N.; Bornstein, Robert F.

2002-01-01

185

Female Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: An Existential Exploration and Implications for Therapists  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, annual prevalence factors indicate that 25% of women are reported survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Existential concerns and basic purposes within the physical, social, personal and spiritual dimensions of female CSA survivors' worldviews are explored. The recognition and meanings of existential purposes and concerns…

Robinson, Kathy D.; Mills, Kimberly T.; Strickland, Amanda L.

2011-01-01

186

Coping Strategies Used by Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Journey to Recovery  

Science.gov (United States)

This interpretative phenomenological analysis study explored seven adult survivors' experiences of coping with childhood sexual abuse and identified their coping strategies on the road to recovery. Data for the analysis was collected using semistructured interviews. The analytical process yielded two key theme clusters: avoidant coping strategies…

Phanichrat, Thanomjit; Townshend, Julia M.

2010-01-01

187

Posttraumatic Growth among Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Relation to the Perpetrator Identity  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to examine the extent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and posttraumatic growth in young adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse in relation to the identity of the perpetrator. Two hundred and forty-six non-clinical female university students were administered self-report…

Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne; Besser, Avi

2005-01-01

188

The Relationship between Childhood Abuse, Psychological Symptoms and Subsequent Sex Offending  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Childhood sexual and physical abuse has been related to subsequent offending behaviour in non-disabled individuals as well as people with intellectual disabilities, but there is a dearth of research examining the link between these two characteristics and psychological, behavioural and psychiatric symptoms amongst sex offenders with…

Hayes, Susan

2009-01-01

189

Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse and Eating-Disordered Cognitions and Behaviors  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective:: This study assessed links between reported childhood sexual abuse and a range of eating behaviors and attitudes, among a large sample of eating-disordered women. It tested the hypothesis that there will be links to bulimic behaviors and body dissatisfaction, rather than restriction. Method:: The sample consisted of 299 women, meeting…

van Gerko, K.; Hughes, M.L.; Hamill, M.; Waller, G.

2005-01-01

190

Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

2003-01-01

191

Childhood Abuse and Later Parenting Outcomes in Two American Indian Tribes  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To examine the relationship of childhood physical and sexual abuse with reported parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment later in life among American Indians (AIs). Methods: AIs from Southwest and Northern Plains tribes who participated in a large-scale community-based study (n=3,084) were asked about traumatic events and…

Libby, Anne M.; Orton, Heather D.; Beals, Janette; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero M.

2008-01-01

192

The Relationship between Sexual Abuse during Childhood and Parenting Outcomes: Modeling Direct and Indirect Pathways  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective:: This study examined the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and parenting outcomes including parenting stress, feelings of competence and discipline strategies. Maternal depression and current partner violence were hypothesized to be mediators of the association between CSA and parenting. Method:: This study is based on…

Schuetze, P.; Eiden, R.D.

2005-01-01

193

Hostility and childhood sexual abuse as predictors of suicidal behaviour in Borderline Personality Disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and has been previously associated with suicidal behaviour in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examined the associations between suicidal behaviour and impulsivity-related personality traits, as well as history of childhood sexual abuse, in 76 patients diagnosed with BPD using both the Structured Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) Axis-II diagnoses and the self-personality questionnaire. Impulsivity-related traits were measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). We found that hostility and childhood sexual abuse, but not impulsivity or other temperament traits, significantly predicted the presence, number and severity of previous suicide attempts. Hostility traits and childhood sexual abuse showed an impact on suicide attempts in BPD. Our results support previous findings indicating that high levels of hostility and having suffered sexual abuse during childhood lead to an increased risk for suicidal behaviour in BPD. PMID:23993466

Ferraz, Liliana; Portella, Maria J; Vállez, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Subirà, Susana

2013-12-30

194

Why Is Childhood Maltreatment Associated with Adolescent Substance Abuse? A Critical Review of Explanatory Models  

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Childhood maltreatment and adolescent substance abuse are important health issues that have been linked by research and theory for at least 50 years. Considering the intricacies of child maltreatment research, this paper aims to answer the question: which models show the most promise to explain why child maltreatment is a risk indicator for…

Hovdestad, Wendy E.; Tonmyr, Lil; Wekerle, Christine; Thornton, Tiffany

2011-01-01

195

Pathways from Childhood Abuse and Neglect to HIV-Risk Sexual Behavior in Middle Adulthood  

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Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…

Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

2011-01-01

196

Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway  

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Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

2010-01-01

197

The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study  

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Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

2012-01-01

198

Psychogenic Amnesia for Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Sexual Revictimisation in Both Adolescence and Adulthood  

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This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…

Wager, Nadia

2012-01-01

199

Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Transactional Sex in Youth Aging out of Foster Care  

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Purpose: To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. Methods: We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants…

Ahrens, Kym R.; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.

2012-01-01

200

People believe it is plausible to have forgotten memories of childhood sexual abuse.  

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Pezdek, Blandon-Gitlin, and Gabbay (2006) found that perceptions of the plausibility of events increase the likelihood that imagination may induce false memories of those events. Using a survey conducted by Gallup, we asked a large sample of the general population how plausible it would be for a person with longstanding emotional problems and a need for psychotherapy to be a victim of childhood sexual abuse, even though the person could not remember the abuse. Only 18% indicated that it was implausible or very implausible, whereas 67% indicated that such an occurrence was either plausible or very plausible. Combined with Pezdek et al.s' findings, and counter to their conclusions, our findings imply that there is a substantial danger of inducing false memories of childhood sexual abuse through imagination in psychotherapy. PMID:17972748

Rubin, David C; Berntsen, Dorthe

2007-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Parenting Origins in Patients with Opioid Abuse and Non-Abusers  

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Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. "nMethod: The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form; and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. "nResults: Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. The analysis showed that the means for schemas between opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers were different. Chi square test showed that parenting origins were significantly associated with their related schemas. "nConclusion:  The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers were more than non-opioid abusers ; and parenting origins were related to their Corresponding schemas.

Ali Reza Kakavand

2011-06-01

202

Catholicism and childhood sexual abuse: women's coping and psychotherapy.  

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The long-term effects of child sexual abuse include numerous psychological, social, and behavioral difficulties in women survivors, ranging from poor self-esteem and depression to sexual disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. The role that religious beliefs may play in the difficulties these women suffer has been largely unexplored. This qualitative study explored women's experience of healing within the context of Catholicism. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight women raised as Catholics who reported child sexual abuse and who had participated in at least two years of psychotherapy. Results suggest that Catholic identity can both compound and relieve the suffering many women experience in healing from child sexual abuse. Participants related that their Catholicism was rarely addressed during psychotherapy. These findings have implications for clinicians working with Catholic survivors of child sexual abuse. PMID:24819394

Collins, Christi M; O'Neill-Arana, Margarita R; Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Ossege, Jennifer M

2014-01-01

203

Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others  

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Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

2007-01-01

204

Repressed and silent suffering: consequences of childhood sexual abuse for women's health and well-being.  

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Research results indicate that psychological trauma in childhood caused by child sexual abuse can have serious and widespread consequences for health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences of childhood sexual abuse for women's health and well-being. The research methodology was phenomenology. Seven women with a history of childhood sexual abuse were interviewed twice with 1-6 months interval. For all the women, the abuse started when they were between 4 and 5. All of them were repeatedly violated and traumatized ever since then and were even still being victimized at the time of the interviews. The main result of the study is that time does not heal all wounds. All the women described great repressed and silent suffering in all aspects of life, and the abuse is still seriously affecting them and their loved ones. As children, they had learning problems, experienced bullying and had unexplained physical symptoms. In adulthood, they have been suffering multiple physical and psychological symptoms: five of them have fibromyalgia; all of them have been suffering chronic and widespread pain; they have all been dealing with depression and difficulty with close connections, and they all have trouble trusting others. Because they were kids, they have been using the health service to a great extent but without adequate help. It is important for health professionals to know the symptoms and consequences of childhood sexual abuse to be able to respond to adult survivors in a supportive and caring way. More effective therapeutic measures have to be developed to decrease their suffering. PMID:22849608

Sigurdardottir, Sigrun; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur

2013-06-01

205

Japan's emerging challenge for child abuse: system coordination for early prevention of child abuse is needed.  

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At the end of 2013, a Japanese newspaper reported that 4,173 children were unidentified or missing in Japan. The article concluded that child abuse was a matter of national concern. In examining the strengths and weaknesses of Japan's welfare system in regard to child abuse, it would seem that a weakness exists with regard to its ambiguity on the roles of different officers who contact suspected cases. Although three types of officer (health, welfare, and police officers) can take charge, child abuse cases might be missed because the division of labor varies between the different types of officer. However, a strength exists in the periodical pediatric health check system that is in place in each of Japan's 1,742 municipalities. To efficiently implement early intervention for child abuse, it is necessary to rearrange the division of labor among the three types of officers to clarify who should intervene in suspected cases. PMID:25224630

Takahashi, Kenzo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Sugaya, Nagisa

2014-08-01

206

Preferential association between childhood emotional abuse and bipolar disorder.  

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Childhood trauma has been suggested to be involved in the susceptibility to bipolar disorder. However, case-control studies are lacking, and the preferential implication and the dose-effect of different trauma subtypes remain poorly investigated. Two hundred six bipolar patients and 94 controls completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein et al., 1994). The CTQ total score was higher for bipolar patients than for controls. The presence of multiple trauma was significantly more...

Etain, Bruno; Mathieu, Flavie; Henry, Chantal; Raust, Aure?lie; Roy, Isabelle; Germain, Anne; Leboyer, Marion; Bellivier, Frank

2010-01-01

207

Assessing Thai Early Childhood Teachers' Knowledge of Inclusive Education  

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An ever-increasing number of children with and without disabilities are attending early childhood programmes and learning together. Early childhood inclusion considers all children with and without disabilities, and their families as full members of the early childhood community. Although many early childhood teachers accept the educational rights…

Agbenyega, Joseph S.; Klibthong, Sunanta

2014-01-01

208

Home visiting and the biology of toxic stress: opportunities to address early childhood adversity.  

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Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors. PMID:24187125

Garner, Andrew S

2013-11-01

209

Finnish Early Childhood Educators and Sustainable Development  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out what Finnish early childhood educators (n = 145 value on sustainability and how they assess the promotion of sustainability in their daily lives. They also wrote 495 comments about barriers to sustainable lifestyle. The data were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative methods. According to the results, the most important elements of sustainability were (a supporting of communality (including intergenerational link and trust; (b social responsibility of the consumer; and (c recycling, composting and taking care of hazardous waste. There was a statistically significant difference between all of the valued elements and the actual implementation of them. The main barriers to sustainable lifestyle were lack of time and information, the higher cost of sustainable choices, and the inconvenience of the sustainable way of life. The tendency to transfer one’s own responsibility to government, to the industry, or to the housing company was identified. A sense of agency is a core skill to be learned on a winding road towards a sustainable society.

Arto O. Salonen

2013-01-01

210

Scaffolding conceptual change in early childhood  

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The general educational literature draws our attention to the limitations of Piaget’s work and presents a number of interesting ideas that science educators and researchers could consider. Of interest are Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s writings on the zone of proximal development and the more recent writings of Jerome Bruner on scaffolding. The notion of learning as a a socially constructed process in opposition to the more individualistic orientation of Piaget has challenged much of our educational practice. This paper will briefly explore the basic tenets of constructivism and contrast the theories developed from within this paradigm to the work of Vygotsky and Bruner through an analysis of classroom discourse collected from a number of early childhood classes involved in the interactive teaching approach to science. Transcripts of teacher-child discourse are presented as evidence to support the proposition that when the teacher’s role is not clearly defined, the range of teacher-child interactions will vary enormously, and the subsequent learning outcomes for children will be quite different.

Fleer, Marilyn

1990-01-01

211

Integrating emotional competences in the Early Childhood Education curriculum  

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The current Spanish education legislation has started to highlight the need to work on emotional education since early childhood Education. The Spanish Education Law 2/2006 May 3rd (known as LOE), and all decrees and orders currently regulating the curriculum and teaching in Early Childhood Education include contents and objectives related to the Emotional Intelligence framework developed by Mayer & Salovey (1997). Because all these laws and regulations give teachers autonomy for both designi...

Rocío Guil; José Miguel Mestre; Gabriel González; Susana Foncubierta

2011-01-01

212

Psychopathology and resilience in relation to abuse in childhood among youth first referred to the psychiatrist  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Child abuse may be related to adverse psychological outcomes in adult life. However, little is known about specific clinical, family and resilience profiles of adolescents that have experienced child abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical symptoms, family functioning and resilience characteristics of adolescents with the experience of abuse, first referred to psychiatrists. Methods. The study included 84 young participants (mean age 14.90 ± 3.10, ranging from 11 to 18 years as consecutive first referrals to the Clinic for Children and Youth of the Institute of Mental Health, Belgrade, Serbia. The sample consisted of two groups, based on the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The first group included adolescents with the experience of abuse in childhood (n = 38, 13 males, 25 females, whereas the second, control group, comprised of non-abused adolescents (n = 47, 20 males, 27 females. The presence of abuse was evaluated by the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The study used the following questionnaires: Youth Self-Report (YSR, Adolescent Resilience Attitudes Scale (ARAS, and Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI. Results. Significant differences were found only among females. According to YSR, the abused girls had significantly higher scores on the Delinquent Behavior scale and marginally higher scores on Anxious/ Depressed and Social Problems scales. Analyses of the SFI showed significantly lower family functioning among the girls with the child abuse history for all scales except for the Directive Leadership. The abused girls also showed significantly lower scores on the Insight scale, and marginally lower Initiative scores at the ARAS. Conclusions. These findings may have practical application in the creation of specific preventive and treatment strategies, particularly focused on delinquent tendencies, as well as on enhancing resilience through providing positive environments within families, schools and communities.

Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica

2014-01-01

213

Tests of a direct effect of childhood abuse on adult borderline personality disorder traits: a longitudinal discordant twin design.  

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We used a longitudinal twin design to examine the causal association between sexual, emotional, and physical abuse in childhood (before age 18) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits at age 24 using a discordant twin design and biometric modeling. Additionally, we examined the mediating and moderating effects of symptoms of childhood externalizing and internalizing disorders on the link between childhood abuse and BPD traits. Although childhood abuse, BPD traits, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms were all correlated, the discordant twin analyses and biometric modeling showed little to no evidence that was consistent with a causal effect of childhood abuse on BPD traits. Instead, our results indicate that the association between childhood abuse and BPD traits stems from common genetic influences that, in some cases, also overlap with internalizing and externalizing disorders. These findings are inconsistent with the widely held assumption that childhood abuse causes BPD, and they suggest that BPD traits in adulthood are better accounted for by heritable vulnerabilities to internalizing and externalizing disorders. PMID:22686871

Bornovalova, Marina A; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Hicks, Brian M; Keyes, Margaret; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William

2013-02-01

214

Professional Growth Reconceptualized: Early Childhood Staff Searching for Meaning  

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Full Text Available This paper challenges traditional perspectives of professional development through a reconceptualization of early childhood professional growth. A review of the early childhood professional development literature reveals the problematic nature of the linear perspectives and deficit models of staff development prevalent in the early childhood field. In contrast to these models, the paper proposes alternative perspectives that recognize staff as empowered learners who build their working knowledge through spirals of engagement with many aspects of early childhood philosophy and practice over time. To illustrate the challenges to the dominant professional development paradigm, the paper discusses the professional development components of an Australian study of early childhood centers that began with off-site researcher-led inservice workshops and was followed by on-site staff-led discussion. The study involved approximately 75 staff members from 12 early childhood centers who participated in collaborative rethinking of approaches to planning and working with young children and their families. This approach to professional development was sustained by ongoing support of the researchers as critical friends who facilitated staff engagement through a sense of personal and professional agency. The approaches explored in this paper propose a constructivist view of professional growth that acknowledges the unique contribution of the personal professional knowledge of individuals and the importance of the orientation of individuals both to their work and to new ideas.

Alma Fleet

2001-01-01

215

Childhood sexual abuse, distress, and alcohol-related problems: Moderation by drinking to cope.  

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Previous studies have found relationships between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and problem alcohol use. However, few studies have explored mechanisms that may explain this relationship. The present study examined whether (a) distress mediated the relationship between CSA and both heavy drinking and alcohol consequences, (b) coping motives for drinking moderated the paths between distress and both heavy drinking and alcohol consequences, and (c) these relationships remained significant after controlling for other forms of abuse/trauma. Three hundred ninety-five undergraduate women completed survey measures of childhood abuse/trauma, alcohol use/consequences, distress, and drinking motives. Data were analyzed using path analyses. Results supported a moderated-mediation model in which distress mediated the relationship between CSA and alcohol consequences, but only among those who endorsed coping motives for drinking. After controlling for other forms of abuse/maltreatment, the moderated-mediated pathway was no longer significant, but there remained a direct path between CSA and alcohol consequences. The present study provides support for tension-reduction models of alcohol use among CSA-exposed women and demonstrates the moderating role of coping motives. The present study also highlights the need for future studies to control for other forms of abuse/trauma and suggests that other mechanisms and contextual variables need to be explored to explain the CSA/alcohol-use pathway. PMID:24955671

Smith, Kathryn Z; Smith, Philip H; Grekin, Emily R

2014-06-01

216

Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?  

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In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

2012-01-01

217

People who Expect to Enter Psychotherapy are Prone to Believing that They Have Forgotten Memories of Childhood Trauma and Abuse  

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We asked 1004 undergraduates to estimate both the probability that they would enter therapy and the probability that they experienced but could not remember incidents of potentially life threatening childhood traumas or physical and sexual abuse. We found a linear relation between the expectation of entering therapy and the belief that one had, but cannot now remember, childhood trauma and abuse. Thus, individuals who are prone to seek psychotherapy are also prone to accept a suggested memory...

Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel

2010-01-01

218

The Origins of Early Childhood Anthropometric Persistence  

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Rates of childhood obesity have increased dramatically in the last few decades. Non-causal evidence suggests that childhood obesity is highly persistent over the life cycle. However little is known about the origins of this persistence. In this paper we attempt to answer three questions. First, how do anthropometric measures evolve from birth through primary school? Second, what is the causal effect of past anthropometric outcomes on future anthropometric outcomes? In other words, how importa...

Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty

2013-01-01

219

Investigating Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Views and Intentions about Integrating and Using Computers in Early Childhood Settings: Compilation of an Instrument  

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This paper discusses the compilation of an instrument in order to investigate pre-service early childhood teachers' views and intentions about integrating and using computers in early childhood settings. For the purpose of this study a questionnaire was compiled and administered to 258 pre-service early childhood teachers (PECTs), in Greece. A…

Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis

2009-01-01

220

In-Service and Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Views and Intentions about ICT Use in Early Childhood Settings: A Comparative Study  

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This paper regards a comparative study which investigates in-service and pre-service Greek early childhood teachers' views and intentions about integrating and using computers in early childhood settings. Views and intentions were investigated via a questionnaire administered to 240 in-service and 428 pre-service early childhood teachers.…

Gialamas, Vasilis; Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Equity and Quality? Challenges for Early Childhood and Primary Education in Ethiopia, India and Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 55. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions  

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Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses on the challenges of…

Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia

2009-01-01

222

Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Victims' Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings from a National Sample of Youth  

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Objective: The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics--penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment--in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with…

Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.

2010-01-01

223

Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization  

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Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2012-01-01

224

An Exploratory Qualitative Study of the Self-Reported Impact of Female-Perpetrated Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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The limited findings on the impact of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children are often contradictory, particularly in relation to males. In this exploratory qualitative study, a sample of nine men and five women who reported that they had been sexually abused by women in their childhood were recruited from the general community. They…

Deering, Rebecca; Mellor, David

2011-01-01

225

The Impact of Childhood Abuse Among Women With Assault-Related PTSD Receiving Short-Term Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.  

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This study examined the effect of child sexual or physical abuse on brief cognitive-behavioral therapy treatments with adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We analyzed secondary data from two randomized controlled trials (Resick, Nishith, Weaver, Astin, & Feuer, 2002; Resick et al., 2008) that included women with PTSD who did or did not have child sexual abuse (CSA) or child physical abuse (CPA) histories to determine whether childhood abuse impacted dropout rate or reduction in PTSD symptoms. In Study 1, presence, duration, or severity of CSA was not associated with dropout; however, frequency of CSA significantly predicted dropout (OR = 1.23). A significant CPA Severity × Treatment Group interaction emerged such that CPA severity was associated with greater dropout for prolonged exposure (PE; OR = 1.45), but not cognitive processing therapy (CPT; OR = 0.90). Study 2 found no differences in dropout. Study 1, comparing CPT and PE among women who experienced at least 1 rape found no differences in outcome based on childhood abuse history (rp (2) s = .000-.009). Study 2, a dismantling study of CPT with women seeking treatment for adult or child sexual or physical abuse found that for those with no childhood abuse, CPT-C, the cognitive-only version of CPT, had an advantage, whereas both forms of CPT worked best for those with higher frequency of childhood abuse; the effect size was small. PMID:25322885

Resick, Patricia A; Suvak, Michael K; Wells, Stephanie Y

2014-10-01

226

Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.  

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A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

1996-01-01

227

A Behavioral Perspective of Childhood Trauma and Attachment Issues: Toward Alternative Treatment Approaches for Children with a History of Abuse  

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Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of children who have been abused. This article examines childhood trauma and attachment issues from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a theoretical basis for two alternative treatment models for previously abused children and their…

Prather, Walter; Golden, Jeannie A.

2009-01-01

228

Long-term Physical Health Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Meta-Analytic Review  

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Objective The purpose of the present article was to systematically review the literature investigating the long-term physical health consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA).?Methods?Literature searches yielded 31 studies comparing individuals with and without a history of CSA on six health outcomes: general health, gastrointestinal (GI) health, gynecologic or reproductive health, pain, cardiopulmonary symptoms, and obesity. Exploratory subgroup analyses were conducted to identify pot...

Irish, Leah; Kobayashi, Ihori; Delahanty, Douglas L.

2010-01-01

229

Trauma Centrality and PTSD Symptom Severity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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Theorists have posited that regarding a trauma as central to one's identity leads to greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. To test this hypothesis, we administered the Centrality of Events Scale (CES) to women reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse (N = 102). The CES scores were correlated with PTSD symptom severity, depression severity, and self-esteem. In addition, we conducted a principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate factors underlying the CES. The P...

Robinaugh, Donald John; Mcnally, Richard J.

2011-01-01

230

Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse Home Visitation. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

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This issue of the Juvenile Justice Bulletin provides information on the Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse Home Visitation program, designed to help low-income, first-time parents start their lives with their children on a sound course and prevent the health and parenting problems that can contribute to the early development of antisocial…

Olds, David; Hill, Peggy; Rumsey, Elissa

231

Understanding Inclusive Early Childhood Education: A Capability Approach  

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This article explores the application of current discourse in inclusive education, particularly the capability approach and its utility in early childhood education. The article highlights the tensions between a rights-based discourse that informs inclusive education practice and the right for children to have early intervention. Structural…

Underwood, Kathryn; Valeo, Angela; Wood, Rebecca

2012-01-01

232

Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective  

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State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

2011-01-01

233

Online Professional Development: Choices for Early Childhood Educators  

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Early childhood educators are responsible for providing young children with the best possible early care and education. Research on child care workers' education has shown that professional preparation makes a significant impact on children's cognitive and emotional development (National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC],…

Olsen, Heather; Donaldson, Ana J.; Hudson, Susan D.

2010-01-01

234

Digital, Hybrid, and Multilingual Literacies in Early Childhood  

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This article examines sociocultural research on early literacy development in the digital age. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of informational technology that has fundamentally shifted how we think about language and literacy in the early childhood years. Despite these trends, narrow and reductive views of literacy continue to…

Razfar, Aria; Yang, Eunah

2010-01-01

235

Early Childhood Care and Education: A Child Perspective Paradigm  

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From research we know that there is no specific early childhood education programme that is superior to other approaches (National Research Council. 2001). At the same time, historically it looks like people think there is a specific programme that will solve all problems and guarantee a high quality in early years education, since different…

Sommer, Dion; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Hundeide, Karsten

2013-01-01

236

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Health among Indigenous Kanak Women and Non-Kanak Women of New Caledonia  

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Objectives: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by comparing indigenous Kanak to non-Kanak women in…

Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Cyr, Diane; Gueguen, Alice; Lert, France

2010-01-01

237

Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peri-trauma variable of abuse severity and the post-trauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African American and Latina women with...

Sciolla, Andres; Glover, Dorie A.; Loeb, Tamra B.; Zhang, Muyu; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.

2011-01-01

238

Early childhood development and social mobility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steven Barnett and Clive Belfield examine the effects of preschool education on social mobility in the United States. They note that under current policy three- and four-year-old children from economically and educationally disadvantaged families have higher preschool attendance rates than other children. But current programs fail to enroll even half of poor three- and four-year-olds. Hispanics and children of mothers who drop out of school also participate at relatively low rates. The programs also do little to improve learning and development. The most effective programs, they explain, are intensive interventions such as the model Abecedarian and Perry Preschool programs, which feature highly qualified teachers and small group sizes. State preschool programs with the highest standards rank next, followed by Head Start and the average state program, which produce effects ranging from one-tenth to one-quarter of those of the best programs. Typical child care and family support programs rank last. Barnett and Belfield point out that preschool programs raise academic skills on average, but do not appear to have notably different effects for different groups of children, and so do not strongly enhance social mobility. In such areas as crime, welfare, and teen parenting, however, preschool seems more able to break links between parental behaviors and child outcomes. Increased investment in preschool, conclude Barnett and Belfield, could raise social mobility. Program expansions targeted to disadvantaged children would help them move up the ladder, as would a more universal set of policies from which disadvantaged children gained disproportionately. Increasing the educational effectiveness of early childhood programs would provide for greater gains in social mobility than increasing participation rates alone. The authors observe that if future expansions of preschool programs end up serving all children, not just the poorest, society as a whole would gain. Benefits would exceed costs and there would be more economic growth, but relative gains for disadvantaged children would be smaller than absolute gains because there would be some (smaller) benefits to other children. PMID:17036547

Barnett, W Steven; Belfield, Clive R

2006-01-01

239

A gale force wind: meaning making by male survivors of childhood sexual abuse.  

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This in-depth qualitative study explores how 16 resilient male survivors of serious childhood sexual abuse, representing a range of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds, made meaning from their abuse experiences. Three main types of meaning making styles were identified in the narratives: meaning making through action, using cognitive strategies, and engaging spirituality. Meaning making through action included helping others and using creative expression to describe and process the abuse. Reasoning systems that helped survivors to understand why the abuse happened included developing a psychological framework for understanding the abuser or the role of the self in the abuse, using a sociocultural explanation, or developing a philosophical view. A few men made meaning through their spirituality. Meaning making styles seem to be related to experiences with therapy; the more experience these men had had with specialized trauma therapy, the more likely they were to make meaning by attempting to understand their perpetrators. In this study, men of color, regardless of socioeconomic class, were less likely than Caucasian men to have received specialized trauma therapy. PMID:17209711

Grossman, Frances K; Sorsoli, Lynn; Kia-Keating, Maryam

2006-10-01

240

Integrating emotional competences in the Early Childhood Education curriculum  

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Full Text Available The current Spanish education legislation has started to highlight the need to work on emotional education since early childhood Education. The Spanish Education Law 2/2006 May 3rd (known as LOE, and all decrees and orders currently regulating the curriculum and teaching in Early Childhood Education include contents and objectives related to the Emotional Intelligence framework developed by Mayer & Salovey (1997. Because all these laws and regulations give teachers autonomy for both designing and programming the curriculum in Early Childhood Education and because important relationships have been established between social and emotional competence and school adaptation, we argue in this paper that the training of future teachers in Early Childhood Education should include the development of emotional intelligence abilities and skills.This article presents an emotional education proposal for its integration in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education (children aged 3 to 6 years old. This proposal is based on Mayer and Salovey’s model (1997 of emotional intelligence. This model is the only one in which emotional abilities are considered cognitive-emotional capacities which can be developed and it matches the general goal of this educational stage and also the general aims and curricular contents included in the abovementioned legislation.

Rocío Guil

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Child Maltreatment and Women’s Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Unique Risk Factor  

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This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psycholo...

Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.

2010-01-01

242

Early Childhood Care and Education in Curacao.  

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Examines the quality of care and education for Curacao's children under the age of four. Notes that, whereas the children's health situation is generally good and stable, child abuse and negligence are on the rise, and there is a growing need for good quality child-care centers. (TJQ)

Vedder, Paul; Kook, Hetty

1993-01-01

243

Childhood Risk Factors in Substance Abuse Among a Group of Abuser 20-30 Year-Old Group in Tehran  

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Full Text Available Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0. Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who were selected by DSM- IV based semi-structured diagnostic interviews for decrease memory biases in this retrospective cohart study. The patient’s parents also evaluated by DSM- IV based Semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The analysis showed significant relation between: parents control on the siblings, addiction in relatives of pt (except parents, addicted peers and friends, to be affected with the peers and friends and substance use disorder at the ages (20-30y/o. There wasn’t any association between: Disruptive childhood behaviors (under 11y/o, diagnosed medical illness (under 11y/o diagnosed Psychiatric illness (under 6 mo , family size, socio economic state and substance use disorder at the age(20-30y/0 . Finally some childhood and adolescence pathologic factors has association with Substance use disorder at the ages ( 20-30y/5 that these can be used for education all planning , prevention , design high risk group and remedical plans.

A.R. Zahiredin

2004-01-01

244

Towards Sustainable National Development Through Well Managed Early Childhood Education  

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Full Text Available This paper discusses issues relating to sustainable development and effective management of early childhood education. Thechild is the ‘owner’ of the future. The problems that confront the current generation are complex and serious that cannotbe addressed in the same way they were created. But they can be addressed. The concept of sustainable development is anattempt to shape thought in global systemic perspective as well as secure a future. The future is the children heritagewho must also understand the demands of this challenge. Early childhood education is the key to unlock the understandingrequired to inherit this future and requires effective management. The paper therefore recommends the school building,provision of appropriate instructional and infrastructural facilities; curricula reforms in line with future (economic,political, natural, social, etc demands as well as increased funding to enhance early childhood education.

Nath Abraham

2012-06-01

245

[Neurobiological inscriptions of psychological trauma during early childhood].  

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Neurodevelopment is a highly complex process, influenced by a wide range of interacting genetic and environmental factors. Recent developments in fetal, neonatal and infant behavioural genetics and brain imaging methods have allowed for more detailed investigation of the effects of early adverse environment on the developing brain. This review aims to provide background for neurobiological understanding of how the prolonged exposure to stress or trauma during early childhood affects subsequent cognitive, emotional and social development. Initially, a brief overview of brain development is provided - focusing, in particular, on the limbic system structures, which are closely linked to emotional experiences and reactions, learning and memory. Emphasis is placed on the concept of neural plasticity, which is the biological base of memory and learning - the two most important mechanisms through which the environment affects the behavior. Moreover, the concept of sensitive periods, that is to say periods of "vulnerability" or "opportunity" during which particular experiences affect brain growth, functional organization and maturation, is discussed. Brief overview of the neuroendocrine stress response system and the long-term effects of prolonged exposure to stress hormones on early brain development clarify further why children are more vulnerable than adults to the effects of stress. The section dealing with the memory, which is closely linked to the limbic system, attempts to discuss how early exposure to chronic stress or psychological trauma, through neurobiological effects and the process of learning, can lead to dysfunctional behaviors, which in its extreme form can be mental disorders. The two types of memory are discussed: (a) the implicit (nondeclarative), which develops during the prelingual stage of child's development and refers to unconscious memories of previous experiences, and (b) the explicit (declarative) memory, which is closely linked to language development and refers to memories that can be consciously recalled. Given that prenatal or postnatal early experiences can alter the course of brain development, the exposure to maltreatment, whether it takes the form of physical, sexual or emotional abuse, or the kind of extreme neglect and deprivation during the early years of life, is related to alterations in brain structure and function, which in turn contributes to development of chronic post-traumatic disorder (PTSD), anxiety, mood and attachment disorders, memory and learning problems, and other psychopathological conditions. Finally, it is pointed out that a comprehensive and detailed diagnostic assessment of young children who are referred to the child and adolescent mental health services because of presenting with behavioural and emotional disturbances should be an established good clinical practice, given that a wrong diagnosis may have further deleterious effects on the child's psychosocial development. The need for neuropsychological assessment of children who have been exposed to early trauma or stress is thought to have important implications for the recognition and the neurobiological understanding of early trauma, which in turn allows for the development and implementation of appropriate interventions. PMID:22796971

Giannopoulou, I

2012-06-01

246

Regulating Early Childhood Mathematical Provision: An Exploration Across the Sectors  

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Full Text Available Effective mathematics provision is a central goal within Early Childhood Education. However, the choices that teachers make within Centers and new entrant classrooms are influenced by deeper understandings about the kinds of arrangements that allow young students to enhance their learning. This paper explores similarities and differences with respect to the practices and processes in Early Childhood Centers and in new entrant classrooms. Drawing in Foucauldian concepts, the analysis reports that practices and processes were at odds across the two sectors. The challenge is to offer young learners a more seamless mathematical experience.

Margaret Walshaw

2013-12-01

247

Gender and teacher training in Early Childhood Education studies  

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Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a research study funded by the European Union that aims to improve early childhood teacher training in gender-related topics. Spain has made considerable headway with the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in the political agenda. However, as we point out in this paper, this issue is still not a priority in vocational training for early childhood education. A series of qualitative interviews and a quantitative questionnaire revealed a lack of training, materials and sensitivity, all needed for the introduction of gender and sexual diversity issues.

Alfonso Romero Díaz

2008-12-01

248

Early Childhood Morality In ICDS Blocks Of Haryana  

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Full Text Available The mortality risk of early childhood period has been studied in ICDS Blocks of State of Haryana. The components and causes of early childhood mortality in one block have been viewed. The existing monitoring system of vital events under the scheme is building up. The infant mortality rate of 107 per thousand, 1 to 3years mortality rate of 16.26 per thousand 3 to 6 years mortality rate of 8.08 per thousand is amenable to sample, effective and affordable and affordable technologies and interventions.

Lal Sunder

1985-01-01

249

Nomadic Research Practices in Early Childhood: Interrupting Racisms and Colonialisms  

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Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.

Veronica Pacini-Ketchabaw

2011-12-01

250

Physical symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder, and healthcare utilization of women with and without childhood physical and sexual abuse.  

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For four groups of women: no abuse, physical abuse alone, combined sexual and physical abuse, and unclear about memories of abuse, we examined the associations between childhood sexual and physical abuse, chronic physical symptoms in adulthood, PTSD, and health care utilization. Of a randomly selected sample of 600 adult femalc members of a health maintenance organization, 86 (14%) chose to participate. Women with a history of physical and sexual abuse in childhood reported significantly more cardiovascular, immune, musculoskeletal, neurologic, and reproductive symptoms than those without this history. While the Sexual/Physical Abuse group had the most chronic physical symptoms, medical visits, emergency room visits, prescriptions, and severe PTSD, the Unclear Memory group consistently ranked second on these same measures--higher than either Controls or the Physical Abuse group. Findings underscore the importance of screening for trauma history among patients seen in medical clinics, and the importance for psychotherapists of attending to patients' physical as well as psychological symptoms of childhood trauma. PMID:11824722

Farley, M; Patsalides, B M

2001-12-01

251

In their own words: the experience of mothering as a survivor of childhood sexual abuse.  

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This article reviews past research on the parenting characteristics of childhood sexual abuse survivors and presents the results of a qualitative study exploring the women's perspectives on mothering as a survivor. Grounded theory was used in the collection and analysis of the data. Data sources included the narrative responses of 79 women (mean age = 38.2 years) and in-depth interviews of a purposive sample of 15 women (mean age = 39 years). They had an average of 2.2 children, ranging in age from 5 months to young adulthood. The theoretical model identified through analysis of data using the constant comparison method was entitled "The Hard Work of Mothering as a Survivor." Processes emerged that described the ways participants managed the work of mothering in light of memories of the abuse and attempts to heal from this earlier trauma. The conditions for committing to the work included becoming aware of and accepting the reality of the abuse and how it affected one's life, and taking on the hard work of developing a mothering self. This included expanding awareness, developing and evaluating a personal model of mothering, navigating typical and abuse salient parenting challenges, mothering through the pain of recovery, and battling for balance. The findings highlighted the dynamic, multifaceted nature of recovery and resilience for these mothers and the need for an increased focus on parenting in counseling with childhood sexual abuse survivors. Provision of anticipatory guidance regarding commonly experienced stressors at varying stages of the child's development and the mother's stage of recovery and methods for coping with these challenges, would benefit these mothers and promote parenting competence. Specific implications for psychotherapy and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22559129

O'Dougherty Wright, Margaret; Fopma-Loy, Joan; Oberle, Katherine

2012-05-01

252

Early Childhood Education in Botswana: A Case of Fragmented “Fits”  

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Full Text Available Scholarly and institutional research on early childhood education is not a new phenomenon, but what is perhaps limited is extant literature that particularly focuses on revisiting current practices and their “dialogue” with the ever-changing environment that prevails especially in an African setting. The practices of providers of early childhood education are either simply “business opportunity seeking” responses to the new consumption patterns of more affluent parent (or guardian or current global trends of child education preparation. There has been a phenomenal increase in the number of early child centres in recent years but with fragmented structures. However whether or not this will reduce possibilities of tensions between the macro and micro aspects of this kind of co-evolution is one of the questions this article seeks to address. It also investigates the fit between the internal structure and processes of early childhood centers and the external environment (national framework, focusing on the challenges and prospects of early childhood education. Buoyed by the Fit/Congruence model of organizational analysis, the paper is based on findings from a content analysis of media reports and desk review of policy documents from purposively selected centres based in Gaborone. The data is analyzed using a combination of the pattern model and analytic comparison methods. In Botswana, one of the observed missing links is the absence of national framework guiding the structure and content of early childhood curriculum and instruction. It concludes that while the approaches used in these centres are relatively not similar they may be complementary particularly to the extent to which they prepare the children for an exclusionary education system in a country whose long-term vision is ironically to achieve an equitable and quality education for all. Institutional initiatives at national level have been limited and unevenly distributed with wide differences in the quality of services and lack of coherence and coordination at micro-level.

Langtone Maunganidze

2014-04-01

253

Traumatic Events and Children: How Early Childhood Educators Can Help.  

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Examines the range of children's responses to traumatic events and identifies common symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifies protective and risk factors for PTSD. Discusses ways early childhood educators can provide a sense of security and regularity in their classrooms and use classroom activities to facilitate coping with…

Alat, Kazim

2002-01-01

254

Constructions of Early Childhood Education and Care Provision: Negotiating Discourses  

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Drives to increase the number of early childhood education and care places in England have relied on a mixed economy of providers. Yet this is not a free market as policy makers have sought to create a discursive truth of an entrepreneurial provider in order to secure their initial pump priming investment. However, there remain sustainability…

Campbell-Barr, Verity

2014-01-01

255

Building Leadership Capacity in Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers  

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Building leadership capacity has emerged as a key concern within the early childhood profession in Australia as the sector responds to recent national reforms focusing on raising standards and improving quality provision of services. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion around these reforms and to make a case for changes…

Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Stamopoulos, Elizabeth; Maloney, Carmel

2014-01-01

256

Urban Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education  

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This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n = 130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were…

Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Hsieh, Chang-Ming

2012-01-01

257

The Effects of Scarcity and Abundance in Early Childhood Settings.  

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Examines the effects of scarcity and abundance as they might apply to quality in early childhood programs. Maintains that scarcity limits good teaching and suggests that well-stocked supply areas will reduce hoarding. Argues that having adequate supplies on hand reduces wasted time and stress, and enhances workplace quality of life. (KB)

Packer, Sara

2000-01-01

258

The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China  

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Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

2014-01-01

259

The Paradox of Power in Leadership in Early Childhood Education  

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Western frameworks for school improvement, including the stakeholder model and the model of decentralized leadership, have recently been promoted as solutions for school improvement. Using early childhood education in Hong Kong as an illustrative case, this article focuses on the power and authority of leadership in school decision making. The…

Ho, Dora

2012-01-01

260

Early Childhood Educational Software: Specific Features and Issues of Localization  

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The computer has now become a recognized tool in the education of young children and when used appropriately can reinforce their learning experiences. This paper reviews specific features (relating to pedagogic design, software content and user-interface design) of early childhood educational software and discusses issues in favor of its…

Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Working on the Impossible: Early Childhood Policies in Namibia  

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This article discusses the complexities of aid-giving using the example of early childhood policies in Namibia. It supports a critical view of aid processes and of World Bank endeavours in particular. Using an analysis of the World Bank funded education sector-wide improvement plan (ETSIP) in Namibia and three Namibian local case studies, it shows…

Penn, Helen

2008-01-01

262

Integrating Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives in Early Childhood Mathematics  

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Early childhood teachers around the country and the world guide children's mathematical learning through the use of manipulatives--pattern blocks, base blocks, geoboards, Unifx cubes, Cuisenaire rods, coins, clocks, and so on. Manipulatives allow concrete, hands-on exploration and representation of mathematical concepts. In the past few years,…

Rosen, Dina; Hoffman, Jo

2009-01-01

263

The Role of Media and Emerging Representation in Early Childhood  

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In these times when educational standards, assessment, and evaluation of core subjects seem to dominate the public school agenda including early childhood, the challenge for educators to provide essential art experiences for children is daunting. Examinations of the greater educational value of art media can reveal some answers. Knowing how…

Swann, Annette

2005-01-01

264

We All Belong: Making Early Childhood Programs More Culturally Sensitive.  

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Provides a sampling of culturally sensitive educational practices in early childhood education programs. Includes suggestions for classroom decor, educational materials, and the following classroom learning centers: dramatic play and prop boxes, blocks and construction, science and cooking, creative art, music and movement, and library. Asserts…

Sutherby, Linda; Sauve, Brenda

2003-01-01

265

A Long-Term Investment in Pakistan: Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the enormous demand for early childhood education care and education, it remains a privilege for young children in most of the world's nine high population countries, known as the E-9 group (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan), according to a report published by UNESCO (2003). The World…

Hunzai, Zohra Nisar

2006-01-01

266

The Advocacy of Educators: Perspectives from Early Childhood  

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This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of advocacy in raising the professional status with multiple stakeholders in diverse contexts. The article reports on findings from a phenomenological study investigating the perceptions of 12 educators working full time in long-day-care settings across Sydney, New South Wales (NSW),…

Mevawalla, Zinnia; Hadley, Fay

2012-01-01

267

Single Mothers' Religious Participation and Early Childhood Behavior  

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Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…

Petts, Richard J.

2012-01-01

268

Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care: Norway 2013  

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Early childhood education and care (ECEC) can bring a wide range of benefits--for children, parents and society at large. However, these benefits are conditional on "quality". Expanding access to services without attention to quality will not deliver good outcomes for children or long-term productivity benefits for society. This series of country…

Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly

2013-01-01

269

Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care: Japan 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education and care (ECEC) can bring a wide range of benefits--for children, parents and society at large. However, these benefits are conditional on "quality". Expanding access to services without attention to quality will not deliver good outcomes for children or long-term productivity benefits for society. This series of country…

Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly

2012-01-01

270

Tracking Club Sport Participation from Childhood to Early Adulthood  

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This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally…

Richards, Rosalina; Williams, Sheila; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I.

2007-01-01

271

The Role of Meaningful Dialogue in Early Childhood Education Leadership  

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Action research was used to study the effectiveness of Learning Organisation and Adaptive Enterprise theories for promoting organisation-wide learning and creating a more effective early childhood education organisation. This article describes the leadership steps taken to achieve shared vision via meaningful dialogue between board, management and…

Deakins, Eric

2007-01-01

272

A Four Stage Approach to Early Childhood Intervention.  

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This paper describes a model for the involvement of primary health care personnel in the identification and treatment of developmental disabilities as a part of early childhood intervention programs. The integrated multidisciplinary model is divided into four stages. During the first stage an assignment of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk…

Haber, Julian S.

273

Teachers' and Students' Cognitive Styles in Early Childhood Education.  

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Cognitive style identifies the ways individuals react to different situations. Cognitive styles include stable attitudes, preferences, or habitual strategies that distinguish the individual styles of perceiving, remembering, thinking, and solving problems. Intended for researchers, psychologists, child development specialists, and early childhood

Saracho, Olivia Natividad

274

The Role of Emotion in Early Childhood Education.  

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This discussion explores some of the emotional factors affecting teachers and children in the educational process and their relationship to early childhood education. One major area of emotional experience in the classroom is related to the child's response to the content of what is being taught. Any novel situation and, in particular, a situation…

Fogel, Alan

275

Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping  

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Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.

2007-01-01

276

Early Childhood Education: Curriculum Organization and Classroom Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed to accompany four filmstrips, this manual was developed to help early childhood educators--including curriculum specialists, administrators, teachers, and university faculty--implement a developmental program for young children. Filmstrip 1 introduces six components of curriculum organization and classroom mangement underlying a…

Day, Barbara; Drake, Kay

277

Single-Father Families: Implications for Early Childhood Educators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on research about single-father families and discusses implications for early childhood educators. Suggests that educators encourage the single-father, adapt to his schedule, cope with adult and child stress, provide parenting information, become aware of custody arrangements, and adjust the curriculum for all children. (AS)

Briggs, Beverly A; Walters, Connor M.

1985-01-01

278

The Art of Leadership: Managing Early Childhood Organizations. Volume 1.  

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The first of two volumes intended for directors of early childhood organizations, this volume compiles selected articles for center directors from the first 20 years of the journal "Child Care Information Exchange." The articles cover leadership, organizational management, and financial management. The articles are grouped into "chapters" as…

Neugebauer, Bonnie, Ed.; Neugebauer, Roger, Ed.

279

Promoting and Investing in Early Childhood Development Projects.  

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This paper describes the impact of three early childhood education research programs in Australia, Singapore, and Malaysia, and funded by the Bernard van Leer Foundation. The Mount Druitt Project in Australia has implemented institution- and home-based educational programs, which also monitor children's physical development and work closely with…

Seng, Seok Hoon

280

Greek Parents' Perceptions of Male Early Childhood Educators  

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The study reported here examined Greek parents' perceptions of barriers to men entering the early childhood education and care profession and their recommendations for recruiting more males into the field. Parents were asked to respond on a Likert scale to statements regarding males' decision to enter the profession, possible benefits for male…

Rentzou, Konstantina

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

What Do Early Childhood Practitioners Think about Young Children's Thinking?  

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This study investigates the perceptions and practices of early childhood practitioners in relation to the development of thinking in children aged 3-5 years. Five practitioners working in nursery and reception classes in England were interviewed, and sessions were observed in each setting, including discussions with the children. The results…

Robson, Sue; Hargreaves, David J.

2005-01-01

282

Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?  

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Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

Vist, Torill

2011-01-01

283

Development and Evaluation of Metacognition in Early Childhood Education  

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The aim of the present study is to provide information and suggest ways to improve and evaluate metacognition in early childhood. Metacognition is important to learning and knowledge transfer and preparing students to become lifelong learners is a main aim of schooling. The engagement of young students in metacognitive thinking is considered…

Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios

2014-01-01

284

Oregon Title 1-M Early Childhood and Elementary Education Programs.  

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Brief descriptions of Oregon Title 1-M early childhood and elementary education programs for migrant children from infants to grade 8, along with lists of contact persons for each program, include reading, pre-school skill development, English as a second language, individualized instruction, utilization of community services, and parental…

Lugo, Alfredo Morales, Comp.

285

Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities  

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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

2010-01-01

286

Communicating and Thinking through Drawing Activity in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers drawing as a meaning-making activity that takes place in certain sociocultural contexts to find evidence for its communicative potentials as well as the relationship between thought and drawing in early childhood. The researcher challenges traditional views about young children's drawing that focus on the result of the…

Papandreou, Maria

2014-01-01

287

Impacts of Family Support in Early Childhood Intervention Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to review intervention research to determine the types of family support that are reported and evaluated in early childhood. This review includes 26 articles evaluating (a) parent training programs; (b) general family-centered practice models which offer comprehensive supports; (c) peer support; (d) two-generation…

Friend, Anna C.; Summers, Jean Ann; Turnbull, Ann P.

2009-01-01

288

Being Maori: Culturally Relevant Assessment in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…

Rameka, Lesley Kay

2011-01-01

289

Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Practices and Challenges in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…

Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina

2013-01-01

290

Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

Bartik, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

291

Music's Representation in Early Childhood Education Journals: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review of literature, the author explored the representation of music in early childhood education researcher and practitioner journal articles. Thirty-eight pertinent journal articles were identified in a keyword search for "music" in eight journals. The search was limited to a 5-year period, 2005-2010. Article summaries were categorized…

Bond, Vanessa L.

2012-01-01

292

101 Ways To Build Enrollment in Your Early Childhood Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Written for administrators of early childhood program centers, this book offers tips on how to increase enrollment. The book offers suggestions rather than a theoretical overview or a comprehensive marketing strategy. Suggestions offered include: (1) Offer a quality program; (2) be aware of your target market; (3) make your program unique; (4)…

Montanari, Ellen Orton

293

Relational Aggression in Sibling and Peer Relationships during Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of siblings ("N" = 50) in the display of physical and relational aggression among peers during early childhood was explored. Specifically, sibling pairs' rates of physical and relational aggression were assessed in their independent social contexts. Findings indicated low to moderate levels of intercorrelation between physical and…

Ostrov, Jamie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Stauffacher, Kirstin

2006-01-01

294

Common Worlds: Reconceptualising Inclusion in Early Childhood Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

"Common worlds" is a conceptual framework developed to reconceptualise inclusion in early childhood communities. Common worlds take account of children's relations with all the others in their worlds--including the more-than-human others. The ethics and politics of living together in these common worlds is the central concern of this article. The…

Taylor, Affrica; Giugni, Miriam

2012-01-01

295

Children's Rights and Early Childhood Policy: A New Zealand Story  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper begins with a brief historical overview of children's rights in Aotearoa New Zealand and then examines some of the key early childhood education documents since the 1984 Labour Government's reform agenda, the great experiment (Kelsey, 1995), which not only changed the language of education but also revolutionized the sector…

One, Sarah Te

2005-01-01

296

The Role of Language in Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the role of language in early childhood education. The concept of Chomsky's generative grammar is explained briefly and the linguistic approaches of Piaget, Vygotsky and Whorf are compared with regard to the relations between cognitive structures and inner linguistic structures. An enigmatic discussion of language acquisition…

Radeloff, Deanna J.

297

Emergency preparedness-an early childhood educator's perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As early childhood educators who participated in the discussion of optimal scene management involving children and families in the event of a radiological/nuclear event, the authors would suggest consideration be given to the formal preparation for evacuation of educators and families and how to ensure that families are provided factual and updated information. (authors)

298

Reconceptualising Literacy Understanding and Practices in Early Childhood Settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reflecting upon and learning from one's working experiences in order to inform future practice is a mark of any professional. The dynamic structure of the early childhood classroom with its focus on the child within the broader context of the family and community makes the reflective process essential for all staff. This paper reports the outcomes…

Ashton, Jean; Sproats, Eira

299

A Golden Age for Early Childhood Music Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses on music education at the early childhood level, addressing materials that assist teachers in developing the reception and expression skills of children. Reviews materials such as, "First Steps in Music for Infants and Toddlers,""MusicPlay," and "Jump Right In." Includes Web sites and other resources. (CMK)

Levinowitz, Lili

2001-01-01

300

Associations Between Childhood Trauma, Childhood Sexual Abuse, and Adult Psychological Symptomatology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studien undersøker sammenhengen mellom barndomstraumer, seksuelle overgrep i barndommen (CSA) og psykiske symptomer i voksen alder. De aktuelle symptomvariablene er spesifikke posttraumatiske symptomer (PTS), generelle psykiske symptomer (GPD), interpersonlige vansker (IP) og emosjonsreguleringsvansker (ERP). Metode. Selvrapporteringsskjemaer ble benyttet for å samle data om eksponering for barndomstraumer (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form; CTQ-SF), nåværende...

Løken, Per Martin Hvam-malmedal; Reigstad, Henriette Linnea

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

An Analysis of New Zealand's Changing History, Policies and Approaches to Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

New Zealand has an internationally unique approach to early childhood education, which includes a bicultural early childhood curriculum, a robust infrastructure of organisation and management overseen by the New Zealand Ministry of Education, and a growing reputation for innovation in early childhood teaching and learning. This paper examines how…

McLachlan, Claire

2011-01-01

302

Measurement Quality of the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale: An Investigation Using Multivariate Generalizability Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight…

Chen, Dezhi; Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Li, Kejian

2014-01-01

303

Towards the Emergence of a Critical Ecology of the Early Childhood Profession in New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

A 10-year strategic plan for early childhood education introduced by the New Zealand Ministry of Education in 2002 included policies to create a teacher-led early childhood profession by 2012. This article reviews the provisions of the strategic plan and argues that it emerged from a critical ecology of the early childhood profession with a…

Dalli, Carmen

2010-01-01

304

Comparative Early Childhood Education Services: International Perspectives. Critical Cultural Studies of Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

This edited international collection re-conceptualizes the place of early childhood education and care services (ECEC) within communities and challenges traditional approaches to family involvement and partnerships in ECEC. Using a range of theoretical positions, the authors present research-based discussions from five countries which challenge…

Duncan, Judith, Ed.; One, Sarah Te, Ed.

2012-01-01

305

Early Childhood Education for the San in Namibia: The Working Group of Indigenous Minorities Early Childhood Development Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The Working Group of Indigenous Minorities in Southern Africa (WIMSA) has been working to improve conditions for San communities since 1996. San communities in Namibia have an extremely high dropout rate compared to all other populations in the country, and one of WIMSA's most important areas of focus is education. Early Childhood Development…

Haraseb, Victoria

2011-01-01

306

Childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual dysfunction: response to commentary by Rind and Tromovitch (2007).  

Science.gov (United States)

Rind and Tromovitch (2007) raised four concerns relating to our article (Najman, Dunne, Purdie, Boyle, & Coxeter, 2005. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34, 517-526.) which suggested a causal association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual dysfunction. We consider each of these concerns: magnitude of effect, cause and effect, confounding, and measurement error. We suggest that, while the concerns they raise represent legitimate reservations about the validity of our findings, on balance the available evidence indicates an association between CSA and sexual dysfunction that is of "moderate" magnitude, probably causal, and unlikely to be a consequence of confounding or measurement error. PMID:17186132

Najman, Jake M; Dunne, Michael P; Boyle, Frances M

2007-02-01

307

Maternal childhood abuse, intimate partner violence, and child psychopathology: the mediator role of mothers' mental health.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the mediator role of mothers' mental health in the relationship among maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV), and offspring's psychopathology, and explored whether mediational pathways were moderated by children's sex. Participants were 327 Spanish outpatient children, 8 to 17 years old, and their mothers. Mothers' global psychological distress and depressive symptoms mediated the associations between mothers' violence history and children's externalizing problems. However, only depressive symptoms fully mediated these relationships. Children's sex did not have a moderating role in adjusted paths. Mothers' depressive symptoms are an important mechanism by which maternal violence experiences could affect externalizing problems in Spanish children. PMID:23386668

Miranda, Jenniffer K; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

2013-01-01

308

Mendelian Randomisation Study of Childhood BMI and Early Menarche.  

Science.gov (United States)

To infer the causal association between childhood BMI and age at menarche, we performed a mendelian randomisation analysis using twelve established "BMI-increasing" genetic variants as an instrumental variable (IV) for higher BMI. In 8,156 women of European descent from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, height was measured at age 39-77 years; age at menarche was self-recalled, as was body weight at age 20 years, and BMI at 20 was calculated as a proxy for childhood BMI. DNA was genotyped for twelve BMI-associated common variants (in/near FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, GNPDA2, KCTD15, NEGR1, BDNF, ETV5, MTCH2, SEC16B, FAIM2 and SH2B1), and for each individual a "BMI-increasing-allele-score" was calculated by summing the number of BMI-increasing alleles across all 12 loci. Using this BMI-increasing-allele-score as an instrumental variable for BMI, each 1?kg/m(2) increase in childhood BMI was predicted to result in a 6.5% (95% CI: 4.6-8.5%) higher absolute risk of early menarche (before age 12 years). While mendelian randomisation analysis is dependent on a number of assumptions, our findings support a causal effect of BMI on early menarche and suggests that increasing prevalence of childhood obesity will lead to similar trends in the prevalence of early menarche. PMID:21773002

Mumby, Hannah S; Elks, Cathy E; Li, Shengxu; Sharp, Stephen J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Ong, Ken K

2011-01-01

309

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

Science.gov (United States)

... OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM...service in an early childhood education program. (a)(1...early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical...

2010-07-01

310

The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…

Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.

2009-01-01

311

Integrating Vygotsky's theory of relational ontology into early childhood science education  

Science.gov (United States)

In Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural- Historical Perspective, Wolff-Michael Roth, Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Katerina Plakitsi explore the practical application of Vygotsky's relational ontological theory of human development to early childhood science teaching and teacher development. In this review, I interrogate how Roth et al. conceptualize "emergent curriculum" within the Eurocentric cultural-historical traditions of early childhood education that evolved primarily from the works of Vygotsky and Piaget and compare it to the conceptualizations from other prominent early childhood researchers and curriculum developers. I examine the implications of the authors' interpretation of emergence for early childhood science education and teacher preparation.

Kirch, Susan A.

2014-03-01

312

Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

2011-01-01

313

International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chapter Dr. Cochran uses an empirically based overarching conceptual framework linking historical patterns, current policy goals and intervening influences as a tool for understanding the policy and program outcomes manifested in the early education programs of representative Western countries (Australia, France, Italy, Sweden). Policy…

Cochran, Moncrieff

2011-01-01

314

Substance Use and Abuse in First-Episode Psychosis: Prevalence Before and After Early Intervention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the high prevalence of substance abuse among first-episode psychosis (FEP) populations, few studies examine whether early intervention (EI) improves substance abuse. Objective: To examine the prevalence and pattern of substance use and abuse among an FEP sample over 12 months. Methods: All the participants were diagnosed with a first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The participants were followed prospectively. The prevalence rates of substance use and abuse from this sam...

Archie, Suzanne; Rush, Brian R.; Akhtar-danesh, Noori; Norman, Ross; Malla, Ashok; Roy, Paul; Zipursky, Robert B.

2007-01-01

315

Mediators of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) increases the risk of suicidal behavior and the lifetime number of suicide attempts in adults with BPD. Despite a strong association, specific variables mediating the relationship between CSA and adult suicidal behavior in BPD have not been identified. This study examined risk factors for suicidal behavior as potential mediators of the relationship between CSA and suicide attempts in 151 men and women with BPD. Diagnostic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors, as well as CSA, and suicidal behaviors, were assessed by standardized interviews or self-rated measures. Psychotic and schizotypal symptoms, and poor social adjustment, were associated with both CSA and suicidal behavior, and partially mediated the relationship between CSA and attempter status. Psychotic and schizotypal symptoms in BPD define a vulnerability to cognitive and perceptual distortions under stress. They increase the likelihood of suicidal behavior in BPD, especially in the absence of mitigating social support. A theoretical model for suicidal behavior in BPD is presented which integrates direct, mediated, and moderated pathways between childhood sexual abuse and temperament, adolescent and adult risk factors, and suicidal behavior. PMID:18540795

Soloff, Paul H; Feske, Ulrike; Fabio, Anthony

2008-06-01

316

Childhood sexual abuse in relation to neurobiological challenge tests in patients with borderline personality disorder and normal controls.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether abnormal responses to neurobiological challenge tests in borderline personality disorder (BPD) are related to a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). We compared patients meeting BPD criteria (n=24), with and without histories of CSA, with normal controls (n=12) on the results of challenges with meta-chlorphenylpiperazine (m-CPP), pyridostigmine and clonidine. No differences were found between abused and non-abused patients with BPD. These results do not support the hypothesis that CSA is directly related to neurobiological abnormalities in BPD. PMID:16497388

Zweig-Frank, Hallie; Paris, Joel; Ng Ying Kin, N M K; Schwartz, George; Steiger, Howard; Vasavan Nair, N P

2006-03-30

317

Diversity and Difference in Early Childhood Education: Issues for Theory and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood professionals are often required to work with children and families from a range of diverse backgrounds. This book goes beyond simplistic definitions of diversity, encouraging a much broader understanding and helping early childhood educators develop a critical disposition towards assumptions about children and childhood in…

Robinson, Kerry; Diaz, Criss Jones

2005-01-01

318

"Planting the Seeds of Science." Development and Evaluation of a New Flexible and Adaptable Early Childhood Science Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

"Planting the Seeds of Science" is a new early childhood science resource developed through a collaboration between science/engineering academics, early childhood teacher educators and early childhood pre-service teachers, with funding from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council. Based on best practice early childhood principles, the…

Howitt, Christine

2011-01-01

319

Long-term effects of early childhood care and education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper critically reviews what we know about the long-term effects of parental leave and early childhood education programs. We find only limited evidence that expansions of parental leave durations improved long-run educational or labor market outcomes of the children whose parents were affected by them, perhaps because benefits are hard to measure or confined to sub-groups, or because leave entitlements were sufficiently long, even before recent extensions, to yield most potential benef...

Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

2011-01-01

320

Early childhood education and care partnership in Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the study was to describe and find Early Childhood Education and Care partnership (ECEC) in a certain day-care of Finland. The objective of the study was to find answers to two questions: 1) what is ECEC partnership and how does it work in Finland; and 2) what are parents’ opinions and suggestions regarding the ECEC partnership. The thesis is based on qualitative research. Unstructured interview was conducted with five different parents for obtaining the data. The design...

Kc, Anupama

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Childhood sexual abuse and the risk for recurrent major depression in Chinese women  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Studies in Western countries have repeatedly shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in China? Method Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression and regression coefficients by linear or Poisson regression. Results Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD [OR 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95–5.45]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.17–5.23), genital (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.32–5.83) and intercourse (OR 13.35, 95% CI 1.83–97.42). The association between any form of CSA and MD remained significant after accounting for parental history of depression, childhood emotional neglect (CEN), childhood physical abuse (CPA) and parent–child relationship. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and an increased risk for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.39–2.66) and dysthymia (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.52–3.09). Conclusions In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and increased co-morbidity with GAD and dysthymia. Although reporting biases cannot be ruled out, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, as in Western countries, CSA substantially increases the risk for MD in China. PMID:21835095

Cong, E.; Li, Y.; Shao, C.; Chen, J.; Wu, W.; Shang, X.; Wang, Z.; Liu, Y.; Liu, L.; Gao, C.; Li, Y.; Wu, J.; Deng, H.; Liu, J.; Sang, W.; Liu, G.; Rong, H.; Gan, Z.; Li, L.; Li, K.; Pan, J.; Li, Y.; Cui, Y.; Sun, L.; Liu, L.; Liu, H.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, R.; Chen, Y.; Wang, X.; Li, H.; Chen, Y.; Lin, Y.; Kendler, K. S.; Flint, J.; Shi, S.

2012-01-01

322

Childhood sexual abuse is associated with cortisol awakening response over pregnancy: Preliminary findings  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in non-pregnant samples. However, it is not yet known whether CSA is associated with HPA dysregulation over pregnancy. In the present study we assessed whether maternal cortisol levels across pregnancy differed in women with CSA histories compared to women with histories of non-sexual child abuse (CA) and no abuse (NA). Methods 135 pregnant mothers (CSA=30, CA=58, NA=47) provided salivary cortisol samples at wakeup, wake +30 minutes, and bedtime for 3 consecutive days at 1–3 time points over second and third trimester. Cortisol awakening responses and slopes were computed. Results Women with CSA histories displayed increasing cortisol awakening response over pregnancy compared to women with CA and NA histories. Group differences were not observed for slope. Conclusions This is the first study to show that cortisol awakening responses increase over pregnancy in women with CSA histories compared to women with CA and NA histories. PMID:22341730

Bublitz, Margaret Hanson; Stroud, Laura R.

2012-01-01

323

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency in early childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), which predisposes liver disease in children, is often undiagnosed. Isoelectric focusing in 161 infants with liver dysfunction revealed 14.7% severe and 12.2% moderate AATD. Positive PAS-D and immunohistochemical staining was found in 60% of severe AATD, but in moderate AATD, only immunohistochemistry was positive in 100%. Bilirubinostasis, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, cholestasis, hepatomegaly associated with cholestasis, acholia, high transaminases, and low birthweight were significantly more frequent in severe than in moderate AATD. Both AATDs showed significant portal inflammation, hepatic fibrosis, and viral infection. Early screening in children with liver dysfunction can contribute to the successful detection of AATD. PMID:21609162

Topic, Aleksandra; Prokic, Dragan; Stankovic, Ivica

2011-01-01

324

Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to Predict Long Term Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS).…

Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L.; Brewer, Neil

2014-01-01

325

Cost Study of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program. Technical Report  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2008, the Minnesota Early Learning Foundation created the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program, a pilot program to provide families with scholarships to cover the cost of high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs. Although there is a large body of research about the benefits of preschool specifically and early learning…

Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.

2011-01-01

326

There Are Alternatives! Markets and Democratic Experimentalism in Early Childhood Education and Care. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, Number 53  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper Peter Moss, a Professor of Early Childhood Provision at the University of London, challenges the hegemony of the market model in early childhood education and care. He shows how the market model embodies the values of neoliberalism and, drawing on the work of the Brazilian social theorist Roberto Unger, discusses "democratic…

Moss, Peter

2009-01-01

327

Early Childhood Staff and Families' Perceptions: Diverse Views about Important Experiences for Children Aged 3-5 Years in Early Childhood Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing body of literature about the potential for early childhood settings to serve as community hubs to develop relationships with families. However, there is limited information about the ways in which families and early childhood staff interface in defining what constitutes "quality" within settings. Researchers have rarely studied…

Hadley, Fay

2012-01-01

328

Mediators of Childhood Sexual Abuse and High-Risk Sex among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Mediators of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behavior were examined for men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Method: Data from a dual frame survey of urban MSM (N = 1078) provided prevalence estimates of CSA, and a test of two latent variable models (defined by partner type) of CSA-risk behavior mediators. Results: A 20%…

Catania, Joseph A.; Paul, Jay; Osmond, Dennis; Folkman, Susan; Pollack, Lance; Canchola, Jesse; Chang, Jason; Neilands, Torsten

2008-01-01

329

The Relationship of Child Maltreatment and Self-Capacities with Distress when Telling One's Story of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the impact of telling one's story of childhood sexual abuse and its relationship with the survivor's self-capacities and history of other child maltreatment. The baseline data were collected from 134 female CSA survivors who were participating in a large intervention study. Participants were given 10 minutes to describe their…

Palesh, Oxana Gronskaya; Classen, Catherine C.; Field, Nigel; Kraemer, Helena C.; Spiegel, David

2007-01-01

330

Affect and State Dysregulation as Moderators of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant problem in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Affect and state dysregulation are frequently observed in survivors of childhood sexual abuse and in those who engage in NSSI. Both have been found to predict NSSI, and affect regulation has also been modeled as a mediator of NSSI. This study…

Bolen, Rebecca M.; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Hodges, Liz

2013-01-01

331

Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…

McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

2005-01-01

332

The Contribution of Childhood Emotional Abuse to Teen Dating Violence among Child Protective Services-Involved Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional…

Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Wall, Anne-Marie; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael; Trocme, Nico; Waechter, Randall

2009-01-01

333

The Impact of Childhood Abuse History and Domestic Violence on the Mental Health of Women in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV…

Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko

2010-01-01

334

Examining the Relationship between a Childhood History of Sexual Abuse and Later Dissociation, Breast-Feeding Practices, and Parenting Anxiety  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to compare Mexican American adolescent mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories to examine the influence of CSA on dissociation, selection of infant feeding method, and intimate parenting anxiety. Participants are 78 English-speaking adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age and recruited from…

Bowman, Katherine Gail; Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Becker, Heather

2009-01-01

335

Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Interpersonal Violence in Adulthood: A Cumulative Impact on Depressive Symptoms in Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the cumulative impact of sexual abuse in childhood and adult interpersonal violence in the past year on depressive symptoms in a nonclinical sample of 265 primarily African American (74%) women. The frequency of depressive symptoms, measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), was highest for…

McGuigan, William M.; Middlemiss, Wendy

2005-01-01

336

Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Victimization in a Representative Sample in Hong Kong Chinese  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The current study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual victimization (ASV) in Hong Kong, China. This study also examines correlates of demographic characteristics, depression, suicidal ideation, and self-esteem with ASV. Methods: A total of 5,049 Chinese adult respondents were…

Chan, Ko Ling

2011-01-01

337

Emotional support and adult depression in survivors of childhood sexual abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of emotional support from friends and parents at two time points (adolescence and adulthood) on adult depression in a nationally representative sample of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and examine whether the associations were moderated by the identity of the perpetrator (parent/caregiver vs. not). Data were taken from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study sample included 1,238 Add Health participants with a history of CSA and an equivalently sized comparison group of individuals with no history of CSA. Parental support was measured using four items from each wave that assessed the warmth of participants' relationships with their parents and their satisfaction with those relationships. Friend support in adolescence was measured using participants' perceptions of how much their friends cared about them and in adulthood using participants' self-reported number of close friends. Depression was measured using a 10-item subscale of the CES-D. Logistic regressions showed that support from friends and parents in adulthood were significantly associated with lower odds of adult depression in CSA survivors who reported non-parent/caregiver abuse. Among survivors of parent/caregiver abuse, emotional support was not significantly associated with adult depression regardless of when or by whom it was provided. In conclusion, emotional support in adulthood from friends and parents is associated with reduced odds of adult depression in CSA survivors, but only in cases where the abuse was perpetrated by someone other than a parent or caregiver. PMID:24630442

Musliner, Katherine L; Singer, Jonathan B

2014-08-01

338

Defending Childhood: Keeping the Promise of Early Education. Early Childhood Education Series  

Science.gov (United States)

This book brings together a group of extraordinary educators and scholars who offer important insights about what we can do to defend childhood from societal challenges. The authors explain new findings from neuroscience and psychology, as well as emerging knowledge about the impact on child development of cultural and linguistic diversity,…

Falk, Beverly, Ed.

2012-01-01

339

Changing early childhood development through educational intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major issue in child development is the extent to which educational intervention can impact the pattern of growth. The High/Scope Perry Preschool study, which began in 1962, has now reported results through age 27. These findings indicate significantly improved social responsibility and educational performance in adult life by children who participated when compared with the randomly assigned nonparticipating group of children. A benefit-cost study found a return of $7.16 for each dollar invested. However, such outcomes are found only from specific, high-quality operations. The longitudinal High/Scope Curriculum Comparison study found that children who had experienced a highly intensive academic program were significantly less socially responsible at age 23 than were children from programs that encouraged individual choice and initiative. These studies indicate that children at ages 3 and 4 are at a sensitive period in their development toward stable adult-behavior patterns. High-quality early education programs can significantly improve adult adjustment and performance. However, such programs need to involve the child in active experiences and independent decision-making to be effective. PMID:9579001

Weikart, D P

1998-01-01

340

Posttraumatic stress disorder in early childhood: classification and diagnostic issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 0–3 diagnostic classification of infant mental health, on the basis of DSM-IV-R, describes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as a pattern of symptoms that may be shown by children who have experienced a single traumatic event, a series of connected traumatic events, or chronic, enduring stress situations. This definition, related to young children, needs the consideration of several factors to understand the child's symptoms, organize the diagnostic process, and realize clinical interventions. In this sense, the clinician must appreciate the classification criteria of PTSD in early childhood in the context of the child's age, temperament, and developmental level. This report presents a review of the research in the domain of the PTSD in early childhood with particular attention to the developmental considerations to define critical diagnostic criteria, specifically organized on the child characteristics, competences, and needs. Along this line, it will describe two proposed modifications of the diagnostic classification in childhood: the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Alternative Algorithm (PTSD-AA and the definition of developmental trauma disorder (DTD.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

Alessandra Simonelli

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

ADHD, stimulant treatment in childhood and subsequent substance abuse in adulthood - A naturalistic long-term follow-up study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of the study was to estimate the risk of substance use disorder (SUD) and alcohol abuse in adulthood among children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to the background population. Furthermore, to examine whether the age at initiation and duration of stimulant treatment in childhood predicts SUD and alcohol abuse in adulthood. 208 youths with ADHD (183 boys; 25 girls) were followed prospectively. Diagnoses of SUD and alcohol abuse were obtained from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The relative risk (RR) of SUD and alcohol abuse for cases with ADHD, compared to the background population was 7.7 (4.3-13.9) and 5.2 (2.9-9.4), respectively. Female gender, conduct disorder in childhood and older age at initiation of stimulant treatment increased the risk of later SUD and alcohol abuse. Our results warrant increased focus on the possibly increased risk of substance abuse in females with ADHD compared to males with ADHD.

Dalsgaard, SØren; Mortensen, Preben Bo

2014-01-01

342

The prognosis of benign localized epilepsy in early childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Onset of seizures during early childhood is a not infrequent possibility in benign partial (localization-related) epilepsy (BPEC) when all these syndromes and not only benign partial epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes are considered. In patients followed up for long periods of time, temporal changes in the EEG often make impossible a distribution into discrete syndromes. The electroclinical patterns overlap and the determining factor is not the location but the morphology of the sharp waves. A complete remission is observed in all patients, with rolandic and/or extrarolandic foci. In rare patients, seizures occur during adolescence or later and an early onset is a possible risk factor for such an outcome. It is not a relapse of BPEC but another epileptic syndrome, usually a generalized idiopathic epilepsy. BPEC may be considered as a risk factor for late epilepsy. Patients with an early onset of BPEC tend to have a longer active period of epilepsy and a higher total number of seizures, whatever is the EEG pattern. But neither frequent seizures nor a long seizure period impair the children's abilities. Nonetheless, when BPEC begins in early childhood, the patient is prone to experience frequent seizures during several years. Drug therapy is advisable more often than in BPEC with a later onset. PMID:1418495

Loiseau, P; Duché, B; Cohadon, S

1992-01-01

343

Childhood abuse and aggression in girls: the contribution of borderline personality disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors tested whether emerging borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms mediated the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and aggression among incarcerated girls. Participants were 121 incarcerated adolescent girls (13-19 years old). Three forms of aggression (relational, overt, and violent offending behavior) and exposure to CPA by a parental figure were assessed using self-report inventories, whereas BPD symptoms were evaluated using a structured interview. Mediation models, including tests of indirect effects, were conducted in which each form of aggression was predicted from CPA with BPD symptoms entered as a mediator. A divergent pattern emerged in which BPD symptoms mediated the relationship between CPA and violent offending, but not less severe forms of overt aggression. Relational aggression, although correlated with CPA, was not associated with BPD symptoms. Implications for the conceptualization and treatment of girls' aggression within the context of interpersonal functioning are discussed. PMID:19144235

Burnette, Mandi L; Reppucci, N Dickon

2009-01-01

344

Preparing Early Childhood Educators for Global Education: The Implications of Prior Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines the increasing cultural diversity of Australia's education settings and explicates the global education movement and the new Australian Early Years Learning Framework. It discusses the implication of these factors for early childhood education practice and early childhood teacher education. The key research question considered…

Horsley, Mike W.; Bauer, Kathy Anne

2010-01-01

345

Using Sound in Teaching Reading in Early Childhood Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early childhood is as charming as ever. It is an age of imagination and fantasy. Therefore, it is natural that education at this stage should develop the child’s imagination through literacy materials such as folk-tales, rhymes and songs etc. This paper is therefore intended to enthuse to the psychological view that children’s success in life depends on the preparation they receive when younger. The paper upholds the view that a good preparation of children for life entails giving them the ability to read and write. The importance of literacy is measurable. Literacy is instrumental to the attainment of success of individuals in both career aspirations and quality of life. It is fundamental for learning in school. It impacts on individuals the ability to participate in society and understand important public issues. It also provides foundation upon which skills in the labour industry are built, etc. The paper concludes that literacy, which should start from infancy, could be better taught using the phonics methodology. This is because, in early childhood, education should involve more of playing, singing, clapping, etc, and that is the focal objectives of phonics method. This should be so to support the idea that literacy should not be boring but enjoyable especially as early as infancy, because it is a panacea for achieving life’s goals.

Hanna Onyi Yusuf

2012-07-01

346

[Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among 2508 college students in 6 provinces of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in college students and to explore the association of CSA with youth mental health problem. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted among 2508 students (females 1360, males 1148) in Nov. 2003 to Mar. 2004. The students were from 6 colleges/universities in Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangsu, Shaanxi and Anhui provinces of China. RESULTS: Of the 2508 students, 24.8% of females and 17.6% of males reported one or more types of nonphysical contact CSA (females 20.0% vs. males 14.6%) or/and physical contact CSA (females 14.1% vs. males 7.8%) before the age of 16 years. Risk of any CSA was not associated with the existence of siblings (one-child vs. two-or more child families), rural/non-rural residence during childhood, or parental education. Compared with their peers who had no CSA, the students with CSA showed significantly higher mean scores of psychological symptoms of somatization, obsessiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. CONCLUSION: The problem of CSA was not uncommon and there was a significant correlation between CSA experience and students mental health problems. More attention should be paid on CSA prevention and provision of health services for the victims. PMID:21162984

Chen, Jing-Qi; Han, Ping; Lian, Guang-Li; Dunne, Michael P

2010-08-01

347

Early deaths from childhood cancer. A report from the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont, Italy, 1967-1998.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The population-based Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont (CCRP) has collected data on incidence since 1967. The occurrence of early death (i.e. within 30 days of diagnosis) was investigated in 3006 cases of childhood cancer diagnosed during the period 1967-1998. The proportion of early deaths (178 of the 3006 cases) was analysed by period of diagnosis (three decennial periods), age group, major diagnostic group and hospital category, with univariate statistics and logistic regression. The p...

Merletti, Franco; Maule, Milena Maria

2004-01-01

348

Prenatal exposure to PFOA and PFOS and risk of hospitalization for infectious diseases in early childhood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To examine whether prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is associated with the occurrence of hospitalization for infectious diseases during early childhood.

Fei, Chunyuan; McLaughlin, Joseph K

2010-01-01

349

A Look at Children's Adjustment to Early Childhood Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot project during which the author visited different early childhood classrooms and used a handheld video camera to record how children adjust to new programs. The objectives were (1 to describe how children adjust to new programs or classes, (2 to sensitize teachers to the issues involved in those adjustments, (3 to collect data using a handheld video camera, and (4 to encourage teachers to view themselves as classroom researchers. Included in the paper are video clips, brief descriptions of selected children, and a discussion of issues raised by the children's behavior in the videos, related research, and implications for practice.

Carol R. Keyes

2006-01-01

350

Women’s Status and Early Childhood Mortality in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available In this article , an attempt has been taken to focus light on the status of women in Bangladesh and also see its effect on early childhood mortality controlling the effect of other associated determinants. This paper examines the proposition that constraints on women’s status adversely affect the survival of their children. BDHS 2007 data have been used to construct indices of women’s household autonomy and authority , which are then linked to longitudinal data on survival of their neonates.

Md. Mortuza Ahmmed

2014-06-01

351

Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Early Childhood: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterium that usually affects immunocompromised patients, causing infections whose signals and symptoms are related to the affected organ. The patient presented in this article was infected when he was 9 months old. Such condition led to certain alterations like dental improperly positioned teeth, retained deciduous teeth, hipodonty of permanent teeth, atrophy of the upper jaw and dental crowding. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to report the case of a patient affected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the early childhood and to describe the dental development disorders as consequence of this fact.

Roberto Braga de CarvalhoVianna

2008-01-01

352

Early loss of teeth after treatment for childhood leukemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: only few reports of effects of radiotherapy in childhood on the dental apparatus are available in the literature. The basis for early loss of teeth appears to be a reduction of the root surface area after radiation exposure. These effects in the periodontium are a consequence of combined radiochemotherapy usually applied for treatment of childhood neoplasia. Chemotherapy alone also results in changes of periodontal development. Case report: a 33-year-old patient is reported, who, at the age of 11 years, received high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy of neuroaxis and cranium for acute lymphatic leukemia with relapse. The patient consulted the Implant Section of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery because of severe dental changes and tooth loss despite adequate dental care and oral hygiene. Radiation doses given to the superior maxilla and mandible at the age of 11 were estimated to be in the range of 8-25 Gy. Conclusion: intense, life-long dental care and follow-up of patients cured from malignant disease in childhood must hence be postulated in order to minimize dental treatment sequelae by supportive measures, but also to initiate timely adequate dental and prosthetic management. (orig.)

353

Moderation of Adult Depression by a Polymorphism in the FKBP5 Gene and Childhood Physical Abuse in the General Population  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood maltreatment and depressive disorders have both been associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. The FKBP5 gene codes for a co-chaperone regulating the glucocorticoid-receptor sensitivity. Previous evidence suggests that subjects carrying the TT genotype of the FKBP5 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 have an increased susceptibility to adverse effects of experimental stress. We therefore tested the hypothesis of an interaction of childhood abuse with rs1360780 in predicting adult depression. In all, 2157 Caucasian subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania (German general population) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) was assessed by interview. Genotypes of rs1360780 were taken from the Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0. Significant interaction (p=0.006) of physical abuse with the TT genotype of rs1360780 was found increasing the BDI-II score to 17.4 (95% confidence interval (CI)=12.0–22.9) compared with 10.0 (8.2–11.7) in exposed CC/CT carriers. Likewise, the adjusted odds ratio for MDD in exposed TT carriers was 8.2 (95% CI=1.9–35.0) compared with 1.3 (0.8–2.3) in exposed subjects with CC/CT genotypes. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) analyses confirmed a significant additive interaction effect (RERI=6.8; 95% CI=0.64–33.7; p<0.05). In explorative analyses, the most severe degree of sexual and emotional abuse also yielded significant interaction effects (p<0.05). This study revealed interactions between physical abuse and rs1360780 of the FKBP5 gene, confirming its role in the individual susceptibility to depression. Given the large effect sizes, rs1360780 could be included into prediction models for depression in individuals exposed to childhood abuse. PMID:21654733

Appel, Katja; Schwahn, Christian; Mahler, Jessie; Schulz, Andrea; Spitzer, Carsten; Fenske, Kristin; Stender, Jan; Barnow, Sven; John, Ulrich; Teumer, Alexander; Biffar, Reiner; Nauck, Matthias; Volzke, Henry; Freyberger, Harald J; Grabe, Hans J

2011-01-01

354

The role of depression and dissociation in the link between childhood sexual abuse and later parental practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has yielded contradictory results on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and later parental functioning. This study was undertaken to specify the link between childhood sexual abuse and maternal parenting, while taking into account mothers' childhood physical and emotional traumas and current depressive and dissociative symptoms. Data were collected through self-report measures completed by 93 French-speaking Canadian mothers of children aged 6 to 11 years referred to Youth Protection Services. Parental behaviors examined included involvement with the child, use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Mothers' perception of the quality of the relationship with her child was also assessed. In addition, history of abuse and neglect, depression and dissociation were respectively measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Simplified, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The short-form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale was used to control for respondent bias aimed at minimizing their problems. Mothers' current depressive symptoms were not found to predict any of the parental dimensions measured. Results from multiple hierarchical regressions pointed to dissociative symptoms as the key predictor of parental practices and attitudes. More specifically, dissociative symptoms predicted the use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Dissociation also mediated the association between childhood maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse and neglect) and inconsistency in applying discipline. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:16150686

Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Cyr, Mireille; Pauzé, Robert; McDuff, Pierre

2005-01-01

355

Reported physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adult HIV risk behaviour in three African countries: findings from Project Accept (HPTN-043).  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked to adolescent and adult risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut, an increased number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use during sex and sexual violence. This paper explores these relationships among both men and women who report histories of childhood abuse from representative samples of communities in three countries in southern and eastern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). Data were collected as part of a 3-year randomized community trial to rapidly increase knowledge of HIV status and to promote community responses through mobilisation, mobile testing, provision of same-day HIV test results and post-test support for HIV. The results indicate that reported childhood sexual and physical abuse is high in all three settings, also among men, and shows strong relationships with a range of sexual risk behaviors, including age at first sex (OR -0.6 (CI: -0.9, -0.4, p < 0.003)-among men, OR -0.7 (CI: -0.9, -0.5, p < 0.001)-among women), alcohol (OR 1.43 (CI: 1.22, 1.68, p < 0.001)-men, OR 1.83 (CI: 1.50, 2.24, p < 0.001)-women) and drug use (OR 1.65 (CI: 1.38, 1.97, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.14 (CI: 1.95, 5.05, p < 0.001)-women) and two forms of partner violence-recent forced sex (OR 2.22 (CI: 1.66, 2.95, p < 0.001)-men, OR 2.76 (CI: 2.09, 3.64, p < 0.001)-women) and ever being hurt by a partner (OR 3.88 (CI: 2.84, 5.29, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.06 (CI: 2.48, 3.76, p < 0.001)-women). Individuals abused in childhood comprise between 6 and 29 % of young adult men and women living in these African settings and constitute a population at high risk of HIV infection. PMID:23474641

Richter, Linda; Komárek, Arnošt; Desmond, Chris; Celentano, David; Morin, Steve; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Gray, Glenda; Mbwambo, Jessie; Coates, Tom

2014-02-01

356

Visão atual do abuso sexual na infância e adolescência / Current view of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e L [...] ILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005), aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, u [...] sing abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005), in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.

Luci, Pfeiffer; Edila Pizzato, Salvagni.

357

Visão atual do abuso sexual na infância e adolescência Current view of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e LILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005, aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual.OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, using abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005, in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.

Luci Pfeiffer

2005-11-01

358

Visão atual do abuso sexual na infância e adolescência / Current view of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e L [...] ILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005), aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, u [...] sing abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005), in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.

Luci, Pfeiffer; Edila Pizzato, Salvagni.

2005-11-01

359

Increasing Choice or Inequality? Pathways through Early Education in Andhra Pradesh, India. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 58. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions  

Science.gov (United States)

This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for a sample…

Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin

2011-01-01

360

Continuity and Respect for Diversity: Strengthening Early Transitions in Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 56. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions  

Science.gov (United States)

This working paper is part of a series on early transitions from "Young Lives," a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores the diverse experiences of 28 children from four contrasting communities in Peru as they start school. These detailed case studies highlight common problems: exclusion…

Ames, Patricia; Rojas, Vanessa; Portugal, Tamia

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Fathers' integration in Quebec's perinatal and early childhood public policies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mothers' physical and mental health, as well as their socio-economic status, are currently acknowledged as determining factors in the health and development of young children in Quebec. It is thus not surprising to find that the majority of government perinatal and early childhood initiatives are directed toward mothers. Yet, fathers today are increasingly involved in the care and education of their children, and scientific studies have shown that their involvement is just as crucial as that of mothers. It is recognized that a father's involvement optimizes the physical, cognitive, affective and social development of his children. The purpose of this text is to examine how fathers are taken into account in two public perinatal and early childhood policies. It has been found that fathers are virtually absent from Quebec government's objectives and orientations, and when they do appear, no concrete means are offered to reach them. Considering that health care workers have difficulty offering truly inclusive services to fathers, recommendations with regard to inclusion of fathers in public policies are necessary in order to optimize the health of children and their families. PMID:24735694

St-Arneault, Kate; De Montigny, Francine; Villeneuve, Raymond

2014-01-01

362

Mapping Knowledge: Concept Maps in Early Childhood Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Graphic organizers such as webs, time lines, Venn diagrams, flowcharts, and concept maps are well known and widely used instructional and learning tools. They help teachers and students not only to identify and visually represent their views and knowledge but also to recognize and depict relationships among concepts. This article discusses the use of concept maps in early childhood education. In light of a theory that suggests that information is processed and stored in memory in both linguistic and visual forms, it is argued that concept maps can be used in early childhood classrooms to help children organize and spatially represent both what they know and what they are thinking. Once children learn how to “read” and make concept maps, teachers can also use them to identify children’s preexisting knowledge or misconceptions as well as use them as an evaluation tool. The article also considers the role of concept maps in teacher planning. Concept maps can help teachers to plan, structure, and sequence the content of their teaching. Finally, the article illustrates some of the issues involved in using concept maps with preschool children and suggests ways of introducing children to the process of constructing their own concept maps.

Maria Birbili

2006-01-01

363

Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on inpatient treatment for early sexually abused adults  

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Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the possible predictors of treatment outcome in early chronically sexually abused adults. The current study aimed to investigate what impact initial levels of dissociation and pre-treatment negative change in interpersonal functioning have on treatment response after 3 months of first-phase trauma inpatient treatment as well as after a period of 1 year the patients returned to their usual lives. Methods: The sample comprised 48 inpatients with childhood sexual abuse histories and mixed trauma-related disorders who were examined at discharge and prospectively followed up for a period of 1 year under naturalistic conditions. Outcome variables were general psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems as measured with the Symptom Check List-Revised (SCL-R and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP Circumplex. Results: The central findings were that pathological dissociation and deterioration in interpersonal functioning prior to admittance predicted general psychiatric symptom levels and interpersonal problems at the end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Pathological dissociation, involving memory and identity problems, alone predicted negative outcome at the end of treatment. The findings at 1-year follow-up indicate that it is not pathological dissociation in isolation that affects outcomes, but rather the interaction between dissociation and change in interpersonal functioning prior to treatment. Conclusion: These findings indicate the need of addressing dissociation and interpersonal problems in treatment planning and favor an integrated treatment approach for complex trauma patients. Future research should investigate whether and how this leads to better outcome, including long-term maintenance of gains after the end of treatment.

Ellen K. K. Jepsen

2013-12-01

364

Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

Fitzpatrick Caroline

2012-07-01

365

A Laboratory-Based Study of the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Experiential Avoidance among Inner-City Substance Users: The Role of Emotional Nonacceptance  

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Despite the theorized centrality of experiential avoidance in abuse-related psychopathology, empirical examinations of the relationship between childhood abuse and experiential avoidance remain limited. The present study adds to the extant literature on this relationship, providing a laboratory-based investigation of the relationships between…

Gratz, Kim L.; Bornovalova, Marina A.; Delany-Brumsey, Ayesha; Nick, Bettina; Lejuez, C. W.

2007-01-01

366

Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... hard to make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...

367

Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses of Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual function and (2) sexual satisfaction utilizing validated measures, and reporting on the relationship between sexual self-schemas and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography), subjective, and affective responses during laboratory exposure to sexual stimul...

Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.

2011-01-01

368

The Early Childhood Educator in a Critical Learning Community: Towards Sustainable Change  

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The action research project Sustainable Change in a Critical Learning Community was conducted in the Netherlands (2007-08) to improve quality in early childhood by enhancement of critical reflection at all levels in early childhood organisations: educators individually and collectively, pedagogical leaders and coaches, and (middle) management. The…

van Keulen, Anke

2010-01-01

369

Measuring Early Childhood Teacher Candidates' Conceptualizations of a Culturally Responsive Classroom Ecology  

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With the increase of Latino preschoolers, it is pressing that early childhood teachers are prepared to create a high quality environment in which all children can succeed. Using the frameworks of cultural responsiveness and classroom management, we developed the Early Childhood Ecology Scale (ECES) as an observational and reflective tool to…

Flores, Belinda Bustos; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

2009-01-01

370

Vouchers in Hong Kong: A New Milestone of Early Childhood Education?  

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The Hong Kong government has recently introduced a voucher system to early childhood education, indicating that the new policy is a milestone in the field. The overall goal of the policy is to improve the provision of early childhood education for the benefit of the children. Public debates reveal the unfamiliar nature of the subject to the local…

Yuen, Gail W. K.

2007-01-01

371

Major Trends and Issues in Early Childhood Education: Challenges, Controversies, and Insights. (Second Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that understanding the contexts, continuities, and controversies of early childhood education is especially challenging because of the diversity in the field, this book provides a critical examination of the issues and controversies surrounding early childhood practices, policies, and professional development. Following an introduction…

Isenberg, Joan Packer, Ed.; Jalongo, Mary Renck, Ed.

372

Technological Funds of Knowledge in Children's Play: Implications for Early Childhood Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

The technological knowledge the children bring with them into early childhood settings is not well documented or understood. This article discusses the technological knowledge and understanding of the nature of technology present within children's collaborative play in two New Zealand early childhood settings. The children incorporated a wide…

Mawson, Brent

2011-01-01

373

Early Childhood Inservice and Preservice Teachers' Perceived Levels of Preparedness to Handle Stress in Their Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports a study that investigated preservice and inservice early childhood teachers' perceived levels of preparedness to handle stress in early childhood and elementary education students. A survey that included vignettes was used to collect data. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and statistically, using one-way ANOVA, "t"-test,…

Onchwari, Jacqueline

2010-01-01

374

Examining Different Forms of Implementation and in Early Childhood Curriculum Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine different approaches to assessing implementation in an early childhood curriculum research study. Early childhood teachers in 51 preschool classes located at nationally dispersed sites implemented the Children's School Success curriculum for a school year. Structural (proportion of curriculum delivered) and…

Odom, Samuel L.; Fleming, Kandace; Diamond, Karen; Lieber, Joan; Hanson, Marci; Butera, Gretchen; Horn, Eva; Palmer, Susan; Marquis, Janet

2010-01-01

375

Preschool Teacher Competence Viewed from the Perspective of Students in Early Childhood Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines contemporary issues in early childhood teacher education in Sweden. The aim of the study was to explore dimensions of the construct of preschool teachers' competence as reported by 810 students enrolled in early childhood teacher education at 15 Swedish universities. The results showed that students' definitions of…

Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia

2014-01-01

376

Early Childhood Adversities and Trajectories of Psychiatric Problems in Adoptees: Evidence for Long Lasting Effects  

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The aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984 international adoptees was followed (955 males and 1029 females;…

van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2009-01-01

377

Early Childhood Teachers' Perceptions of the Educational Needs of Military Dependent Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Military dependent children remain a largely unexplored subject, particularly in early childhood education. In an effort to fill the gap in the current literature, this research study focuses on how early childhood teachers perceive the educational needs of military dependent children. Previous research in the areas of geographic mobility,…

Stites, Michele Lee

2012-01-01

378

Job Stress and Coping Strategies among Early Childhood Teachers in Central Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the association between job stress and coping strategies in early childhood teachers in Central Taiwan. A quantitative approach was utilized, and data were collected from 314 participants. The results of the present study suggest that (1) early childhood teachers believed that their job stress was due to a…

Hung, Chih-Lun

2012-01-01

379

An Early Childhood Intervention Programme and the Long-Term Outcomes for Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood education has increasingly been identified as a mechanism to alleviate educational disadvantage in areas of social exclusion. This study aims to add to the understanding of the nature and distribution of long-term benefits from early childhood intervention programmes and provides a detailed analysis of both the cognitive and…

Martin, Shirley

2010-01-01

380

Meeting Children Where They Are: Culturally Adapted Models of Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has proven the many benefits of early childhood education and development programs. Although much progress has been made in the last decade, many young children still do not have access to high-quality early childhood education. In many countries where government programs have failed, nongovernmental organizations and community groups…

Modica, Sarah; Ajmera, Maya; Dunning, Victoria

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Our Inquiry, Our Practice: Undertaking, Supporting, and Learning from Early Childhood Teacher Research(ers)  

Science.gov (United States)

Through "teacher research", teachers engage in the systematic study of their own practice to answer questions they have about teaching and learning, and their own effectiveness. This book explores what teacher research in the early childhood setting looks like, why it is important to the field of early childhood education, and how teacher…

Perry, Gail, Ed.; Henderson, Barbara, Ed.; Meier, Daniel R., Ed.

2012-01-01

382

Constructions of Social Inclusion within Australian Early Childhood Education and Care Policy Documents  

Science.gov (United States)

Social inclusion discourses have been powerful in informing early childhood policy contexts, both internationally and in Australia (the context of the current study) for the past decade or so. But little research has examined the productive aspects of social inclusion discourses particularly within early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy…

Wong, Sandie; Turner, Kay

2014-01-01

383

Early Childhood Malaria Prevention and Children's Patterns of School Leaving in the Gambia  

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Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood

Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.

2014-01-01

384

More than "Just" Changing Diapers: The Experiences of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers in Infant Field Placements  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the fact that early childhood preservice teachers are typically being prepared to work with children from birth through age 8, preservice field experiences with infants continue to be largely missing in early childhood teacher preparation programs Since the education and care of infants often takes place in vastly different settings than…

Beck, Lisa Marie Powell

2010-01-01

385

"On the Shoulders of Giants": Exploring the Traditions of Early Childhood Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses trends in early childhood education rooted in much older traditions, such as the project approach and Reggio Emilia approach, as well as the history of Head Start, and other changes in early childhood programs and services. Considers the need for practitioners to understand the theoretical and ideological foundations of pedagogical…

Spodek, Bernard; Saracho, Olivia N.

2003-01-01

386

Critically Redefining and Repositioning Media Texts in Early Childhood Teacher Education: What If? And Why?  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the prevalence of popular media in the lives of young children today, early childhood teacher education stands to benefit from fostering critical media literacy practices. Through the use of critical media literary practices, early childhood teacher educators can facilitate a process whereby preservice teachers learn how to critically…

Souto-Manning, Mariana; Price-Dennis, Detra

2012-01-01

387

Capture the Moment: Using Digital Photography in Early Childhood Settings. Research in Practice Series  

Science.gov (United States)

The Research in Practice Series has been developed to provide practical, easy to read, up-to-date information and support to a growing national readership of early childhood workers. Digital photography opens a whole new world of communication within early childhood settings, giving scope for devising more effective ways of engaging children,…

Walters, Kim

2006-01-01

388

Considerations in the Personnel Preparation of Itinerant Early Childhood Special Education Consultants  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on changes in the delivery of early childhood special education (ECSE) services, an argument is made for including content related to the purposes and models of consultation as well as collaborative process skills in personnel preparation programs for early childhood special educators. The content of current personnel preparation programs…

Klein, M. Diane; Harris, Kathleen C.

2004-01-01

389

Coaching and Professional Development in Early Childhood Classrooms: Current Practices and Recommendations for the Future  

Science.gov (United States)

Coaching is one of several professional development approaches being used in early childhood to facilitate improved teacher instruction to promote child outcomes. Despite its use, little is known about how coaching promotes teacher knowledge and skills (Sheridan, Edwards, Marvin, & Knoche, 2009). We reviewed the early childhood coaching literature…

Gupta, Sarika S.; Daniels, Janese

2012-01-01

390

Early Childhood Development Policy and Programming in India: Critical Issues and Directions for Paradigm Change  

Science.gov (United States)

The critical importance of the early childhood years and the rights perspective to human development has made policy and programming for early childhood development an imperative for every nation. In India, poverty, changing economic and social structures resulting in the breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms and family care systems, and the…

Sharma, Adarsh; Sen, Rekha Sharma; Gulati, Renu

2008-01-01

391

Synchronising Pedagogy and Musical Experiences in Early Childhood: Addressing Challenges in Preschool Music Education in Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines pedagogy in early childhood music education and the resultant learning experiences in music for children in Kenyan preschools. Two important principles proposed for the synchronisation of teaching and learning in early childhood music education are cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. These terms are…

Andang'o, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

392

An Analysis of Caring Behaviour among Early Childhood Teachers and Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this research project is to analyse the manifestation of caring behaviours in early childhood teachers and students. Thirty-two early childhood education major pre-service teachers served as observers. For data collection they used checklists previously prepared by the classroom instructor and kept a journal with anecdotal…

Nowak-Fabrykowski, K. T.

2012-01-01

393

Modeling the Effects of Early Childhood Intervention Variables on Parent and Family Well-Being  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered…

Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Brookfield, Jeffri

2007-01-01

394

Promoting High Quality Early Childhood Education and Care Services: Beyond Risk Management, Performative Constructions of Regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Whilst regulation is utilized by governments in Australia and internationally as a means of promoting quality standards in early childhood education and care (ECEC) services, a growing body of literature is critical of the detrimental effect of this regulation. Drawing on our investigation into early childhood teachers' perceptions of the impact…

Fenech, Marianne; Sumsion, Jennifer

2007-01-01

395

Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates  

Science.gov (United States)

Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

2011-01-01

396

A Review and Analysis of the Current Policy on Early Childhood Education in Mainland China  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared with the former policies on early childhood education, the policies recently issued in mainland China clearly defined early childhood education as an integral part of education and social public welfare and stipulated the responsibilities of the government in its development, shifting the developmental orientation to promoting social…

Liu, Yan; Pan, Yue-Juan

2013-01-01

397

Matters of Size: Obesity as a Diversity Issue in the Field of Early Childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that obesity is the primary reason for peer rejection in America; examines effects of obesity on wellness, self-esteem, peer relationships, and social status of children/families and early childhood teachers. Suggests that early childhood educators: (1) educate all stakeholders about nutrition and body size issues; (2) speak out against…

Jalongo, Mary Renck

1999-01-01

398

Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

2014-01-01

399

Contemplative Practices in Early Childhood: Implications for Self-Regulation Skills and School Readiness  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the development of self-regulation skills in early childhood and the possibilities of children's contemplative practices as a viable tool to facilitate this development. Current research indicates that self-regulation skills in early childhood education make a significant contribution to school readiness, and long-term…

Willis, Elizabeth; Dinehart, Laura H.

2014-01-01

400

Theorizing an Early Childhood Educator's Authority for the Advancement of Social Goods  

Science.gov (United States)

Authority is an uncomfortable subject for early childhood educators. This article outlines some tensions between the theory and practice of an early childhood educator's authority and the implications of these tensions for educators themselves and the social changes they envisage. Drawing on a range of feminist educational philosophers and…

Langford, Rachel

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

The Effects of a Teaching Methods Course on Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effectiveness of an educational methods course for changing early childhood preservice teachers' instructional beliefs. The teaching methods course emphasized constructivist teaching principles. Seventy-eight of the early childhood education preservice teachers who were enrolled in this course filled out the Teacher Belief…

Isikoglu, Nesrin

2008-01-01

402

Future Professionals' Perceptions of Play in Early Childhood Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the perceptions of 207 college students in early childhood education and child and family studies (future professionals) regarding the role of play in early childhood classrooms. The results indicate that future professionals in their freshman and sophomore years in college held relatively positive perceptions of play in…

Jung, Eunjoo; Jin, Bora

2014-01-01

403

Assessing the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment among Early Childhood Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment among early childhood educators. Organizational commitment and its established precursor, job satisfaction, have gained relevance because turnover within early childhood education has fluctuated between 25% and 40% for…

Shepherd-Osborne, Tracie

2009-01-01

404

Exploring a Comprehensive Model for Early Childhood Vocabulary Instruction: A Design Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Addressing a critical need for effective vocabulary practices in early childhood classrooms, we conducted a design experiment to achieve three goals: (1) developing a comprehensive model for early childhood vocabulary instruction, (2) examining the effectiveness of this model, and (3) discerning the contextual conditions that hinder or facilitate…

Wang, X. Christine; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

2014-01-01

405

The Quality of Early Childhood Educators: Children's Interaction in Greek Child Care Centers  

Science.gov (United States)

Though quality in early childhood education and care has attracted last decades enormous research interest there is still not a unanimous agreement about its definition. Yet, almost all definitions attempted include interaction, group size, adult:child ratio and early childhood educators' level of education, as important indices of quality.…

Rentzou, Konstantina; Sakellariou, Maria

2011-01-01

406

A neurocognitive model of borderline personality disorder: effects of childhood sexual abuse and relationship to adult social attachment disturbance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a paradigmatic disorder of adult attachment, with high rates of antecedent childhood maltreatment. The neurocognitive correlates of both attachment disturbance and maltreatment are both presently unknown in BPD. This study evaluated whether dimensional adult attachment disturbance in BPD is related to specific neurocognitive deficits, and whether childhood maltreatment is related to these dysfunctions. An outpatient BPD group (n=43) performed nearly 1 SD below a control group (n=26) on short-term recall, executive, and intelligence functions. These deficits were not affected by emotionally charged stimuli. In the BPD group, impaired recall was related to attachment-anxiety, whereas executive dysfunction was related to attachment-avoidance. Abuse history was correlated significantly with executive dysfunction and at a trend level with impaired recall. Neurocognitive deficits and abuse history exhibited both independent and interactive effects on adult attachment disturbance. These results suggest that (a) BPD patients' reactivity in attachment relationships is related to temporal-limbic dysfunction, irrespective of the emotional content of stimuli, (b) BPD patients' avoidance within attachment relationships may be a relational strategy to compensate for the emotional consequences of frontal-executive dysregulation, and (c) childhood abuse may contribute to these neurocognitive deficits but may also exert effects on adult attachment disturbance that is both independent and interacting with neurocognitive dysfunction. PMID:18211741

Minzenberg, Michael J; Poole, John H; Vinogradov, Sophia

2008-01-01

407

Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women  

Science.gov (United States)

A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peri-trauma variable of abuse severity and the post-trauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African American and Latina women with histories of CSA. After controlling for non-sexual childhood adversity and adult burden (i.e., chronic stress), severe CSA overall was associated with higher depression scores, especially among Latinas who disclosed their abuse. Depression symptoms among African American women were highest in those who disclosed and reported high levels of self-blame at the time of the incident. The link between depression and specific peri- and post-CSA factors in minority women may help guide future interventions. PMID:21716061

Sciolla, Andres; Glover, Dorie A.; Loeb, Tamra B.; Zhang, Muyu; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.

2011-01-01

408

AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATES OF CHILDHOOD ACCIDENT, ASSAULT AND CHILD ABUSE INJURIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction This study examines the relationships of population and environmental characteristics to hospital discharges for childhood accident, assault, and child abuse injuries among youth from 0 to 17 years of age. Methods The analysis uses aggregate data on populations and environments in 1646 California zip code areas that were collected for the year 2000. Zero inflated negative binomial models were used to assess ecological relationships between these characteristics and numbers of hospital discharges for childhood injuries from accidents and assaults; negative binomial models were used to assess these relationships for injuries related to child abuse. Results A number of different characteristics were related to the different injury outcomes. Childhood accident injuries were related to measures female headed households, adult to child ratio and non-alcohol retail establishments (e.g., numbers of gas stations). Assault injuries were related to measures of poverty and vacant housing. All three outcomes were directly related to percent of female-headed households, percent African American residents, and density of off-premise alcohol outlets. Conclusion The results demonstrate that both population and environmental characteristics are significantly correlated with rates of childhood injuries. These results suggest that some environmental characteristics, in particular the presence of many off-premise alcohol outlets in neighborhoods, may reduce the overall level of guardianship of children’s activities in zip code areas, resulting in harm to their children. PMID:18782339

Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ring, Lori; LaScala, Elizabeth A

2008-01-01

409

Early childhood obesity prevention in low-income, urban communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the disproportionately high rates of obesity-related morbidity among low-income, ethnic minority youth, obesity prevention in this population is critical. Prior efforts to curb childhood obesity have had limited public health impact. The present study evaluates an innovative approach to obesity prevention by promoting foundational parenting and child behavioral regulation. This pre-post intervention study evaluated an enhanced version of ParentCorps with 91 families of pre-Kindergarten students in low-income, urban communities. Assessments included tests of knowledge and parent report. Consistent with findings from two randomized controlled trials of ParentCorps, parent knowledge and use of foundational parenting practices increased and child behavior problems decreased. Child nutrition knowledge and physical activity increased and television watching decreased; for boys, sleep problems decreased. Comparable benefits occurred for children at high risk for obesity based on child dysregulation, child overweight, and parent overweight. Results support a "whole child," family-centered approach to health promotion in early childhood. PMID:24702665

Dawson-McClure, Spring; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Theise, Rachelle; Palamar, Joseph J; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Barajas, R Gabriela; Calzada, Esther J

2014-01-01

410

Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: The rise in the occurrence of childhood obesity during the last decades in many populations indicates an important role of environmental exposures, which may operate very early in life. We aimed to examine the association between bereavement during the first 6 years of life, as a stress indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children. Methods: We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years of life. We compared BMI levels, changes in BMI, and the prevalence of overweight at 7-13 years of age between bereaved and non-bereaved children. Results: Between bereaved children and non-bereaved children, there were no differences in average BMI levels at any age or changes in BMI at 7-13 years of age. Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age. Conclusion: This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Li, Jiong; Olsen, JØrn

2012-01-01

411

Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ?25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ?30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.

Sidsel H. Karsberg

2012-06-01

412

The Development and Support of Creativity in Early Childhood Period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Creativity is a talent that has existed since the day man was created and exists in every human being. Creative thinking is a force. When the studies on creativity are examined, it can be seen that they are usually on who we are as creative individuals, what we do and what product we create in the end, so far. From the perspective of development, the development of creativity in other areas of development are different but closely related to each area of development is to be seen. To support creativity, the child’s development should be taken as a whole and game playing, which is the most significant task for the child, and imitation, one of the most important methods of learning, should be used. In this article, especially to improve the creativity of children in early childhood characteristics of creative people, creative abilities and creative utilization of mobile games should be emphasized.

H. Elif DA?LIO?LU

2011-08-01

413

Creativity Expressed through Drawings in Early Childhood Education  

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Full Text Available In our research we formulated the hypothesis that children create different meanings at theirdrawings through pictures of art and that these meanings are more original when the stimulusis a picture of art that belongs to the abstract art. The research was conducted with 28children aged 4.5 to 6.5 attending two early childhood classes in Volos, Greece. Our studyinvolved asking children to study paintings and create opportunities for them to express theirideas through drawings. In their drawings, children in a way try to imitate the way that thepicture of art is designed, but at the same time they are creative by thinking of new ideas andways of doing things. The tools used were three pictures of art. The purpose of the study wasto use these particular works of art as an opportunity for each young child to express hiscreativity within the school setting.

Aikaterini Michalopoulou

2014-04-01

414

Psychological pathways from childhood sexual and physical abuse to HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among homeless women: the role of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the psychological factors linking childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among 190 single homeless women in New York City. Participants were assessed for mental health symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Findings indicate that the relationship between childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection diagnoses during adulthood is mediated by a combination of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Screening single homeless women who report childhood abuse histories for symptoms of both disorders may aid in the identification of individuals particularly vulnerable for HIV infection. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:23180873

Houston, Eric; Sandfort, Theo G M; Watson, Kalycia T; Caton, Carol L M

2013-10-01

415

Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting (MECSH trial: design, method and sample description  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Home visiting programs comprising intensive and sustained visits by professionals (usually nurses over the first two years of life show promise in promoting child health and family functioning, and ameliorating disadvantage. Australian evidence of the effectiveness of sustained nurse home visiting in early childhood is limited. This paper describes the method and cohort characteristics of the first Australian study of sustained home visiting commencing antenatally and continuing to child-age two years for at-risk mothers in a disadvantaged community (the Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting trial. Methods and design Mothers reporting risks for poorer parenting outcomes residing in an area of socioeconomic disadvantage were recruited between February 2003 and March 2005. Mothers randomised to the intervention group received a standardised program of nurse home visiting. Interviews and observations covering child, maternal, family and environmental issues were undertaken with mothers antenatally and at 1, 12 and 24 months postpartum. Standardised tests of child development and maternal-child interaction were undertaken at 18 and 30 months postpartum. Information from hospital and community heath records was also obtained. Discussion A total of 338 women were identified and invited to participate, and 208 were recruited to the study. Rates of active follow-up were 86% at 12 months, 74% at 24 months and 63% at 30 months postpartum. Participation in particular data points ranged from 66% at 1 month to 51% at 24 months postpartum. Rates of active follow-up and data point participation were not significantly different for the intervention or comparison group at any data point. Mothers who presented for antenatal care prior to 20 weeks pregnant, those with household income from full-time employment and those who reported being abused themselves as a child were more likely to be retained in the study. The Miller Early Childhood Sustained Home-visiting trial will provide Australian evidence of the effectiveness of sustained nurse home visiting for children at risk of poorer health and developmental outcomes. Trial registration ACTRN12608000473369

Anderson Teresa

2008-12-01

416

Early markers of obesity-related renal injury in childhood.  

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Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. Recent epidemiological data suggest that obesity is associated with increased risk of renal injury in children. The onset of obesity-associated renal disease is insidious and asymptomatic, so early markers will be extremely useful in its prevention and treatment. Biomarker discovery can be focused on unbiased or biased (candidate) approaches. Unbiased approaches using innovative technologies, such as proteomics and metabolomics, have uncovered candidates that are emerging as plausible biomarkers for such renal disorders as obstructive uropathy and diabetic nephropathy. Biased approaches are based on hypotheses related to glomerular or tubular injury pathophysiology in obesity. Goknar et al. (Pediatric Nephrology 2014; doi: 10.1007/s00467-014-2829-0 ) recently evaluated early urine renal injury markers, namely, microalbuminuria, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, in obese children. They reported that obese children had higher urinary NAG and KIM-1 levels than healthy controls. Longitudinal observation studies are needed to evaluate whether these tubular damage markers are useful as early markers of renal injury in obese children. PMID:25322907

Ding, Wei; Mak, Robert H

2015-01-01

417

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Acute Alcohol Effects on Men's Sexual Aggression Intentions  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men’s perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions. Method After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. Results Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. Conclusions Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication. PMID:22754720

Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kiekel, Preston A.

2012-01-01

418

Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols. PMID:23379783

Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

2014-02-01

419

Re-Envisioning the Role of Universities in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Community Partnerships for 21st-Century Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite contrasting views on the overlap of early childhood education and teacher education, opportunities abound for expanding the role of early childhood educators in broader teacher education discourse. University-based early childhood education and kindergarten-through-grade-12 teacher education share purposes, philosophies, and resources that…

Kennedy, Adam S.; Heineke, Amy

2014-01-01

420

"..., But I Cannot Do Research": Action-Research and Early Childhood Teachers. A Case Study from Greece  

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Although action-research is a well-known research methodology in the field of education, in the case of Greece there are few actions-researches carried out by early childhood teachers. The absence of action-research in early childhood education settings is related to the way many early childhood teachers shape their professional role as well as…

Magos, Kostas

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Make-Believe Play versus Academic Skills: A Vygotskian Approach to Today's Dilemma of Early Childhood Education  

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The article focuses on the Vygotskian approach to high quality early childhood education in light of the challenges facing early childhood educators in Russia and in the West. One of these challenges is the constant pressure to start teaching academic skills at a progressively younger age at the expense of traditional early childhood activities.…

Bodrova, Elena

2008-01-01

422

MODELING THE EFFECTS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD INTERVENTION VARIABLES ON PARENT AND FAMILY WELL-BEING  

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Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered early intervention practices had direct and indirect positive effects, perceived program control appraisals had direct and indirect positive effects, ...

Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Brookfield, Jeffri

2007-01-01

423

Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?  

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Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16–18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-c...

Parkes, A.; Waylen, A.; Sayal, K.; Heron, J.; Henderson, M.; Wight, D.; Macleod, J.

2014-01-01

424

Critical viewpoint to early childhood education teachers’ well-being at work  

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Full Text Available Early childhood education teachers’ happiness at work reflects in children. Finnish day care system has faced plenty of changes and they can also reflect in well-being at day care. The aim of this article to dissect the state of well-being and thriving at work in Finnish day care centers from early childhood education teachers’ point of view and to discuss how well-being could be promoted. The data comprises group interviews (N=9 collected with memory-work method among North-Finnish early childhood education teachers (N=4. The results revealed that several factors were reported as threatening early childhood education teachers’ well-being. These kinds of factors were, among others, increasing amount of administrative tasks as well as concern about their educational task becoming narrower, the sufficiency of one’s own resources, and how the economic measures for efficiency have started to extend to day care as well. Perceived well-being increases when early childhood education teachers have time to encounter an individual child and concentrate on their basic work, rearing and teaching children. Based on the findings, suggestions how to enhance early childhood education teachers’ well-being are discussed. Promotion of well-being necessitates development actions both at the level of society, day care system and early childhood education teachers’ personal level. In this article, we highlight how organizational structures enhance or hinder well-being.

Outi Ylitapio-Mäntylä

2012-02-01

425

PROMOTING CHILDREN’S AGENCY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION  

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Full Text Available Using conversation analysis (CA, this study identifies features of teacher-child interactions that enable opportunities for children’s active participation in early learning environments, specifically, how teachers promote children’s agency in the resolution of their peer disputes. The analysis focuses on two particular episodes of teacher intervention selected from a total of 28 hours of video-recorded observations in two early childhood education settings with three- to five-year-old children. The first demonstrates how a teacher can facilitate the collaborative resolution of a dispute; the second demonstrates how a teacher can respond to a child’s report of conflict by positioning herself as a non-participant. While different strategies were utilized in each of these episodes, redirecting responsibility to the children themselves was found to be the key practice in facilitating children’s agency in these interventions. Knowledge and insights gained through conversation analysis contribute to our understanding of how teachers and children collaboratively achieve opportunities for agency.

Angela MASHFORD-SCOTT

2011-04-01

426

Early Life Factors and Risk of Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma  

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Although little is known about etiology of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), early life factors are suspected in the etiology. We explored this hypothesis using linked data from the California Cancer Registry and the California birth rolls. Incident cases were 359 children rolls. We examined association of birth characteristics such as birth weight, size for gestational age, and timing of prenatal care with all-type RMS, embryonal, and alveolar subtypes. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. In contrast to a previous study, we observed statistically non-significant association for embryonal subtype among high birth weight (4000–5250?g) children for term births [OR (95% CI): 1.28 (0.85, 1.92)] and all births adjusted for gestational age [OR (95% CI): 1.21 (0.81, 1.81)]. On the other hand, statistically significant 1.7-fold increased risk of alveolar subtype (95% CI: 1.02, 2.87) was observed among children with late or no prenatal care and a 1.3-fold increased risk of all RMS subtypes among children of fathers ?35?years old at child birth (95% CI: 1.00, 1.75), independent of all covariates. Our finding of positive association on male sex for all RMS types is consistent with previous studies. While we did not find a convincingly positive association between high birth weight and RMS, our findings on prenatal care supports the hypothesis that prenatal environment modifies risk for childhood RMS. PMID:24350186

Shrestha, Anshu; Ritz, Beate; Ognjanovic, Simona; Lombardi, Christina A.; Wilhelm, Michelle; Heck, Julia E.

2013-01-01

427

Building Equitable Staff-Parent Communication in Early Childhood Settings: An Australian Case Study  

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Full Text Available International research has consistently found that good staff-parent relationships in early childhood centers benefit children, staff, and parents. Given these findings, the Australian federal government's Quality Improvement and Accreditation Scheme (QIAS requires centers to involve parents in their programs. However, international research has also found that early childhood staff are anxious about their relationships with parents. This article describes a study in which early childhood staff in Australia were asked about their experiences with parent involvement. It draws on those interviews to consider communication strategies to create equitable relationships between staff and parents.

Patrick Hughes

2001-01-01

428

Warning--Television Viewing May Harm Your Child's Health: Parent Perceptions of Early Childhood Viewing Habits  

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In 2009, the Australian Government introduced the Get Up and Grow (Commonwealth Government, 2009) guidelines for healthy eating and exercise in early childhood as one element of a range of initiatives aiming to curb childhood obesity, a problem affecting an increasing proportion of Australia children. Included in the policy recommendations are…

Garvis, Susanne; Pendergast, Donna

2011-01-01

429

Not Weaving but Drowning? The Child.com in New Zealand Early Childhood Pedagogies  

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The article critiques the innovative policy documents constructing New Zealand early childhood pedagogies since the advent of the first curriculum "Te Whariki" (1996) and argues that the two most compelling of these reflect the consumerist experiences of childhood today. The acclaim which followed the publication of "Te Whariki" has led to many…

Cederman, Kaye

2008-01-01

430

Early Childhood Brain Development and Elementary Music Curricula: Are They in Tune?  

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This article examines elementary music curricula. It presents an overview of research on childhood mental development; the importance of the early experiences of children on childhood development; the impact of environmental factors on language development; children's acquisition of music ability; enhancing elementary music curriculum; and…

Scott, Larissa K.

2004-01-01

431

Parenting and Child Characteristics in the Prediction of Shame in Early and Middle Childhood  

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We examined individual differences in shame responding in early childhood and predictive relations with shame proneness in middle childhood. Child shame responding, parental shaming, and child temperamental inhibition were assessed at Time 1 (n = 225, aged 3-4 years), shame responding was reassessed at Time 2 (n = 199, aged 5-7 years), and shame…

Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Lall, Debra I. K.; De Jaeger, Amy E.

2010-01-01

432

Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse  

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Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

2012-01-01

433

Maltreatment in early childhood: a scoping review of prevention, detection and treatment  

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Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years. Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on detection, prevention and treatment strategies in different situations of child maltreatment. Sexual abuse was excluded. The search spanned from 2002 to 2012, in English and Spanish. Results. Of 105 articles, 36 met the selection criteria. In prevention, the best evaluated strategies were parenting programs based on cognitive or cognitive-behavioral approach and interactive learning strategies. In detection, only two instruments were identified with optimum specificity and positive predictive value. In treatment, a variety of treatment strategies were identified with favorable effects on behavioral, functional and psycho affective indicators. The population relevance of these interventions is unclear, as the differential effectiveness of these therapeutic approaches. Conclusions. There are many child maltreatment prevention strategies at the individual and family level. The instruments used for detection are not reliable for use at the collective level. Insofar as therapy, not enough evidence was found both in quality and quantity to favor one intervention over another. It is recommended to understand the problem from the public health perspective and to generate multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches.

Luis Lefio Celedón

2013-08-01

434

First Impressions (Primeras Impresiones): Report of the Task Force on Early Childhood and Elementary Education [with] Executive Summary (Sintesis Ejecutiva).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Task Force on Early Childhood and Elementary Education, created by the Texas State Board of Education in January 1993, found that the current system of early childhood and elementary education is struggling to meet the challenges of childhood in today's Texas. This report summarizes the task force's call for schools to reconfigure themselves…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

435

Early childhood wheezing: various natural courses and their relationship to later asthma  

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Full Text Available Wheezing is one of the most frequent complaints that lead to the use of medical resources in younger children. Generally, wheezing is caused by bronchiolitis and resolves spontaneously without recurrence, but sometimes, wheezing can progress into asthma. Early data on the natural history of childhood wheezing was mostly obtained from retrospective reviews of medical records or from questionnaires, which made it difficult to exclude biases. Now that many cohort studies are available, reviewing the results of birth cohort studies makes it possible to understand the natural course of early childhood wheezing and the risk factors for asthma. In this study, we have reviewed the various phenotypes of early childhood wheezing and their natural courses to help select the most appropriate management modalities for the different types of early childhood wheezing.

Dong In Suh

2012-08-01

436

34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.  

Science.gov (United States)

... OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM...Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program. (a)(1...1998, if the cancellation benefits provided under this...

2010-07-01

437

Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice. PMID:24723953

Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter

2014-01-01

438

Inclusionary practices and early childhood education: a case study  

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Full Text Available The inclusionary practices emerged in the 80’s, based on the movement of social inclusion and proposed a new paradigm for the care of children with special educational needs. The literature indicates a great difficulty concerning to the implementation of projects for inclusionary practices, and there are only few studies in the national literature about the integration of children with special educational needs in day nurseries (Early Childhood Education. The objective of this study was to develop a research, according to teachers’ perspective, about children with special educational needs inserted in day nurseries of the municipal net of the city of Catanduva, state of São Paulo, and also to identify the conception of the day nurseries principals about the school inclusion. This research was performed with the participation of 54 teachers and 15 principals; the teachers filled in the Instrument of Identification of Children with Special Educational Needs and the principals were interviewed. The results based on the teachers’ conceptions showed that 40 children with special educational needs are included in the day nurseries of the city, most of them were boys aged between two to three years old, and 27.5% of them were identified as in a risk situation. This study also revealed a superficial knowledge about inclusionary practices by the day nurseries principals, who prioritized the practical aspects.

Paulo Celso Pereira

2013-01-01

439

International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education: Lessons from My Travels  

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Full Text Available Noting that working with early childhood colleagues in other countries can be enlightening and enriching, this paper offers seven insights gained from the experience: (1 "What It Feels Like To Be a Teacher" discusses observations of student and teacher behavior and attitudes in classrooms in China, a Caribbean island, and India; (2 "Similarities across Countries" notes that teachers? roles may be more powerful determinants of their ideas, ideals, ideologies, concerns, and beliefs than are the larger political, social, and cultural contexts in which they work; (3 "Problems with Comparative Studies" discusses the difficulties inherent in comparing educational provisions and effectiveness across countries; (4 "The Spread of Ideas across Borders" discusses the influence of the British Infant School approach in the 1960s and 1970s, the influence of the innovative province-wide reform work of British Columbia, Canada, in the 1980s, and most recently the influence of the Reggio Emilia approach; (5 "Issues Unique to the U.S." explores interests that appear of concern only in the United States, such as the development of self-esteem in children; (6 "Self-criticism in the U.S." discusses one American habit ? self-deprecation; and (7 "U.S. Leadership in Anti-bias and Multicultural Awareness" notes that the United States deserves a great deal of credit for leadership in addressing anti-bias and multicultural issues.

Lilian G. Katz

1999-01-01

440

Trauma in early childhood: empirical evidence and clinical implications.  

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Children in the birth to 5 age range are disproportionately exposed to traumatic events relative to older children, but they are underrepresented in the trauma research literature as well as in the development and implementation of effective clinical treatments and in public policy initiatives to protect maltreated children. Children from ethnic minority groups and those living in poverty are particularly affected. This paper discusses the urgent need to address the needs of traumatized young children and their families through systematic research, clinical, and public policy initiatives, with specific attention to underserved groups. The paper reviews research findings on early childhood maltreatment and trauma, including the role of parental functioning, the intergenerational transmission of trauma and psychopathology, and protective contextual factors in young children's response to trauma exposure. We describe the therapeutic usefulness of a simultaneous treatment focus on current traumatic experiences and on the intergenerational transmission of relational patterns from parent to child. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of current knowledge about trauma exposure for clinical practice and public policy and with recommendations for future research. PMID:23786685

Lieberman, Alicia F; Chu, Ann; Van Horn, Patricia; Harris, William W

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
441

TRIAL-BASED FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS AND FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION TRAINING IN AN EARLY CHILDHOOD SETTING  

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Problem behavior is common in early childhood special education classrooms. Functional communication training (FCT; Carr & Durand, 1985) may reduce problem behavior but requires identification of its function. The trial-based functional analysis (FA) is a method that can be used to identify problem behavior function in schools. We conducted trial-based FAs and FCT with 3 children in an early childhood special education setting. All trial-based FAs resulted in identification of behavioral func...

Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Irvin, Jennifer

2012-01-01

442

“Unintended Consequences”—A Life in Early Childhood Education: An Interview with Bernard Spodek  

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ECRP associate editor Jean Mendoza met with Dr. Bernard Spodek, Professor Emeritus of Early Childhood Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in December 2008 in his home in Champaign, Illinois, USA. Dr. Spodek's contributions to early childhood education have spanned six decades, during which his teaching, mentoring, and writing have influenced many around the world who are working in the field today. It all began in the 1950s, as he tells ECRP, when as an undergraduate ...

Jean Mendoza

2009-01-01

443

Debates on Early Childhood Policies and Practices: Global Snapshots of Pedagogical Thinking and Encounters  

Science.gov (United States)

Globally, early years policies and documents have set out aspirational outcomes and benefits for children, their families and the wider society. These policies have emphasised the place of early childhood provision within the wider global agenda, by tackling inequality and disadvantage early on in children's lives. However, these strategies have…

Papatheodorou, Theodora, Ed.

2012-01-01

444

Ten Tips for Getting and Keeping Business Involved: An Illustrated Guide for Early Childhood Leaders.  

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As national, state, and community attention focuses increasingly on school readiness and early literacy, more state and community leaders realize that business partners can contribute to creating early learning opportunities for all children in many important ways. This guide is intended to help early childhood leaders work effectively with…

O'Donnell, Nina Sazer; McJunkin, Carter

445

Greek Male Early Childhood Educators: Self and Societal Perceptions towards Their Chosen Profession  

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In choosing to become early years teachers, men are positioned in a context which is numerically dominated by women. Male early years teachers may feel they experience difficulties, being induced into a predominantly female culture. The present study intended to examine whether Greek male early childhood educators experience difficulties. More…

Rentzou, Konstantina; Ziganitidou, Kiriaki

2009-01-01

446

Early Family Environments and Traumatic Experiences Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessed childhood trauma experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, witnessed violence, early separation) and family environment characteristics of 17 depressed female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 19 without BPD. Significantly, more BPD subjects reported histories of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessed violence.…

Weaver, Terri L.; Clum, George A.

1993-01-01

447

Body Satisfaction, Eating Disorders and Suicide Ideation in an Internet Sample of Self-harmers Reporting and Not Reporting Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: This study examined differences between self-harmers who had and who had not been sexually abused in childhood with regards to other risk factors and associated behaviours commonly identified in the research literature as being related to self-harm. Methods: Participants (N=113, Mean age=19.92 years) were recruited via self-harm internet discussion groups and message boards, and completed a web questionnaire assessing measures of body satisfaction, eating disorders, childhood trau...

Murray, Craig; Macdonald, Sophie; Fox, Jezz

2008-01-01

448

The influence of childhood sexual abuse on adolescent outcomes: the roles of gender, poverty, and revictimization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on child sexual abuse has focused on adult revictimization and outcomes. This article examines the rate of child maltreatment revictimization among male and female children reported to child protective services for child sexual abuse and whether revictimization impacts outcomes. Using longitudinal administrative data, Cox regressions were used to examine relationships between initial report of child sexual abuse, maltreatment revictimization, and adolescent outcomes among children from poor and nonpoor families. Despite no significant differences in child sexual abuse rates between poor and nonpoor families, poor child sexual abuse victims were significantly more likely to have re-reports for maltreatment. Children with multiple reports were more likely to have negative outcomes. Interventions for child sexual abuse survivors should focus on preventing maltreatment recurrence generally and not ignore needs of male victims. PMID:24641766

Matta Oshima, Karen M; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Seay, Kristen D

2014-01-01

449

Relationship of Pessimistic Attitude with Childhood Abuse among the Female Prisoners of Punjab Prisons  

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Full Text Available The study explores the relationship between the experience of abuse and pessimistic attitude among the female prisoners. This area of research has never been explored in Pakistan. Participants included 400 females both the convicts and under trials from the four Central Prisons of Punjab Prisons. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire. House Tree Person Test was also administered for rapport building. It was hypothesized that female prisoners having the experience of abuse were also having pessimistic attitude towards the life. Findings showed significant co-relation between experience of abuse and pessimistic attitude. Pearson correlation co-efficient was calculated between experience of abuse and pessimisms. In order to further understand the level of abuse; it was divided into emotional, physical and sexual abuse. This study highlighted the need to attend emotional problems of female criminals.

Sarwat Inayat Mirza

2011-12-01

450

An Ecological Footprint for an Early Learning Centre: Identifying Opportunities for Early Childhood Sustainability Education through Interdisciplinary Research  

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In this study, engineers and educators worked together to adapt and apply the ecological footprint (EF) methodology to an early learning centre in Brisbane, Australia. Results were analysed to determine how environmental impact can be reduced at the study site and more generally across early childhood settings. It was found that food, transport…

McNichol, Heidi; Davis, Julie Margaret; O'Brien, Katherine R.

2011-01-01

451

Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C  

Science.gov (United States)

Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

2012-01-01

452

Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.  

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Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed. PMID:24070695

Easton, Scott D

2014-02-01

453

Childhood Sexual Abuse and the Development of Recurrent Major Depression in Chinese Women  

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Background Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? Method Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.19–5.24]). This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58–3.15), genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52–8.15) and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56–23.71). Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11–2.27) and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09–1.80). Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20–1.89) and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02–2.02). Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66–8.22), use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05–3.82) and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20–1.64) were significantly associated with recurrent MD. Conclusions In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD. PMID:24489940

Chen, Jing; Cai, Yiyun; Cong, Enzhao; Liu, Ying; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Shi, Shenxun; Flint, Jonathan

2014-01-01

454

Flame retardant exposures in California early childhood education environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infants and young children spend as much as 50h per week in child care and preschool. Although approximately 13 million children, or 65% of all U.S. children, spend some time each day in early childhood education (ECE) facilities, little information is available about environmental exposures in these environments. We measured flame retardants in air and dust collected from 40 California ECE facilities between May 2010 and May 2011. Low levels of six polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and four non-PBDE flame retardants were present in air, including two constituents of Firemaster 550 and two tris phosphate compounds [tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP)]. Tris phosphate, Firemaster 550 and PBDE compounds were detected in 100% of the dust samples. BDE47, BDE99, and BDE209 comprised the majority of the PBDE mass measured in dust. The median concentrations of TCEP (319ngg(-1)) and TDCIPP (2265ngg(-1)) were similar to or higher than any PBDE congener. Levels of TCEP and TDCIPP in dust were significantly higher in facilities with napping equipment made out of foam (Mann-Whitney p-values<0.05). Child BDE99 dose estimates exceeded the RfD in one facility for children<3years old. In 51% of facilities, TDCIPP dose estimates for children<6years old exceeded age-specific "No Significant Risk Levels (NSRLs)" based on California Proposition 65 guidelines for carcinogens. Given the overriding interest in providing safe and healthy environments for young children, additional research is needed to identify strategies to reduce indoor sources of flame retardant chemicals. PMID:24835158

Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Gaspar, Fraser; Nishioka, Marcia; Colón, Maribel; Weathers, Walter; Egeghy, Peter P; Maddalena, Randy; Williams, Jeffery; Jenkins, Peggy L; McKone, Thomas E

2014-12-01

455

MODELING THE EFFECTS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD INTERVENTION VARIABLES ON PARENT AND FAMILY WELL-BEING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered early intervention practices had direct and indirect positive effects, perceived program control appraisals had direct and indirect positive effects, and early intervention program service intensity had direct negative effects on either or both self-efficacy beliefs and parent and family well-being. Findings are discussed in terms of the benefits and limitations of different features of early childhood intervention and the use of SEM for program evaluation.

Carl J. DUNST

2007-09-01

456

Integrating Policies and Systems for Early Childhood Education and Care: The Case of the Republic of Korea. Early Childhood and Family Policy Series.  

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Noting that young children in the Republic of Korea have received institutional education and care for more than 100 years, this report provides an in-depth analysis of Korea's reform of its early childhood education and care (ECEC) system. The analysis focuses on how ECEC has evolved, the current system, why Korea has attempted to reform the…

Na, Jung; Moon, Mugyeong

457

Program Evaluation: Infant and Early Childhood Education. A Comprehensive Toolkit for the Evaluation and Improvement of Infant and Early Childhood Programs.  

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Recognizing the need to support the work of educators and others in evaluating the quality of early childhood programs, this toolkit provides a framework for continuous program improvement based on a 6-phase planning process focused on assessing childrens progress and on analyzing the quality of teaching and organizational effectiveness. The guide…

Edwards, Betty; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen

458

Weaknesses and Strengths in Assessing Early Childhood Programmes: An Assessment of an Early Childhood Spanish Trilingual Programme in Two- to Three-Year-Old Children  

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This article gives an account of the results from an assessment of an early childhood education programme, conducted over the course of two academic years (1999-2000 and 2000-2001), in a centre in northeastern Spain. The purpose of the assessment was to discover how a particular educational programme contributed to the short-term competency levels…

Rivas, Sonia; Sobrino, Angel; Peralta, Felisa

2010-01-01

459

Investigating the Association Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Alcohol Use Disorders in Women: Does It Matter How We Ask About Sexual Abuse?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the type of questions used to assess childhood sexual abuse (CS A) introduces systematic bias into estimations of the magnitude of the association between CSA and alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Method: The Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism was administered by telephone to 3,787 female twins ages 18–29 years (14.6% African American, 85.4% White). Interviews included questions regarding sexual abuse experiences described in behavioral terms and a standard trauma checklist (in a separate section) with the items “rape” and “sexual molestation,” with definitions provided in respondent booklets. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnoses of alcohol abuse and dependence, parental history of alcohol-related problems, and psychiatric conditions associated with AUDs were also assessed. Results: The majority of women who endorsed one question type also endorsed the other type. Rates of psychiatric risk factors for AUDs did not vary by pattern of CSA question endorsement. Separate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using CSA variables derived from behavioral questions (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.67, 95% CI [1.27, 2.19]) and checklist items (HR = 1.41,95% CI [1.08, 1.84]) each revealed elevated risk for AUDs associated with CSA, and HRs did not differ significantly across models. However, a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis predicting AUD from the pattern of CSA question endorsements revealed a significantly higher risk for AUDs among women who endorsed only behavioral questions (HR = 3.26, 95% CI [1.72, 6.21]) than for all other groups. Conclusions: Findings underscore the importance of querying CSA in studies of alcohol-related problems and highlight some of the limitations of assessment methods that can be integrated into studies covering a wide range of psychosocial domains. PMID:22846238

Sartor, Carolyn E.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Heath, Andrew C.

2012-01-01

460

Fatal child abuse in Georgia: the epidemiology of severe physical child abuse.  

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Decisions about the occurrence of child abuse are increasingly difficult to make because concepts of what qualifies as reportable child abuse may be broadening. We examined this question by comparing 51 fatal child abuse cases occurring in Georgia between July 1975 and December 1979 to non-fatal cases and to the Georgia population. Overall rates of fatal child abuse were higher for male perpetrators compared with female and black perpetrators compared with white. However, the latter finding varied with economic and geographic status. The highest child abuse fatality rates were found in poor, rural, white families (3.3/100,000 children) and in poor, urban, black families (2.4/100,000 children). Risk factors for fatal abuse included early childhood (RR 6:1), parental teenage childbearing (RR 4:1), and low socioeconomic status. These characteristics were similar to those of the severe child abuse cases noted in the early child abuse literature. Non-fatal cases did not clearly share these risk factors. Severe abuse, here represented by fatal cases, is a distinct subset of reported child abuse, but characteristics associated with it are frequently attributed to all reportable child abuse. Medical personnel should be aware that they cannot rely on the presence or absence of these characteristics in screening for risk of reportable child abuse. Child abuse research should use restricted, stated case definitions. When intervention and prevention programs are being organized, they should not generalize research findings to all forms of child abuse. PMID:6605181

Jason, J; Andereck, N D

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
461

Accounting for Sex Differences in Depression through Female Victimization: Childhood Sexual Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depression is nearly twice as prevalent in women as men. Reviews research suggesting that child sexual abuse, also more common for women than for men, can account for a significant portion of the differences in depression rates for men and women and discusses how such abuse affects men and women differently. (CJS)

Cutler, Susan E.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

1991-01-01

462

Childhood Abuse, Nonadherence, and Medical Outcome in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients  

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Objective: The study assessed the relationship between a history of child abuse, nonadherence to medications, and medical outcome in children who had a liver transplant. Method: Abuse history for children and adolescents ages 8 to 21 who underwent a liver transplantation at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York was obtained in interviews in 2002.…

Shemesh, Eyal; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Yehuda, Rachel; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Hutson, Carolyn; Cohen, Judith A.; Briere, John; Gorman, Jack M.; Emre, Sukru

2007-01-01

463

Association between early childhood exposure to malaria and children’s pre-school development: evidence from the Zambia early childhood development project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite major progress made over the past 10?years, malaria remains one of the primary causes of ill health in developing countries in general, and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Whilst a large literature has documented the frequency and severity of malaria infections for children under-five years, relatively little evidence is available regarding the impact of early childhood malaria exposure on subsequent child development. Methods The objective of the study was to assess the associations between early childhood exposure to malaria and pre-school development. Child assessment data for 1,410 children in 70 clusters collected through the 2010 Zambian Early Childhood Development Project was linked with malaria parasite prevalence data from the 2006 Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey. Linear and logistic models were used to estimate the effect of early childhood exposure to malaria on anthropometric outcomes as well as on a range of cognitive and behavioural development measures. Results No statistically significant associations were found between parasite exposure and children’s height and weight. Exposure to the malaria parasite was, however, associated with lower ability to cope with cognitive tasks administered by interviewers (z-score difference ?1.11, 95% CI ?2.43–0.20, as well as decreased overall socio-emotional development as assessed by parents (z-score difference ?1.55, 95% CI ?3.13–0.02. No associations were found between malaria exposure and receptive vocabulary or fine-motor skills. Conclusions The results presented in this paper suggest potentially large developmental consequences of early childhood exposure to malaria. Continued efforts to lower the burden of malaria will not only reduce under-five mortality, but may also have positive returns in terms of the long-term well-being of exposed cohorts.

Fink Günther

2013-01-01

464

Effect of criminal defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse and personality disorder diagnosis on juror decision making.  

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This study investigated whether a defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and/or personality disorder (PD) diagnosis affected juror decision making in a child sexual abuse trial. The PDs in the study were borderline PD and antisocial PD. Participants were 385 college students, 121 men and 264 women, who read a summary of a mock criminal trial and then made various juror decisions. Trial summaries were prepared by the principal investigator and were all uniform in content, length and detail. For the trial, both the defendant's gender and victim's gender were specified. The defendant was male, and the alleged victim was female. When the verdict was assessed, the results yielded that when the defendant's CSA history was presented, juror guilt ratings were higher than when there was no history of CSA. Similarly, when the defendant had a PD diagnosis, there were higher guilt ratings than when there was no PD diagnosis. CSA history and PD diagnosis were significant predictors of guilt ratings, suggesting that jurors perceive defendants more negatively if they have either been sexually abused as a child or have borderline or antisocial PD. PMID:24753498

Butler, Ebony; Jacquin, Kristine

2014-08-01

465

Mediators of the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Risk Behavior: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Frameworks  

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Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants were 481 women attending an STI clinic (66% African American) who completed a computerized survey as well as behavioral simulations assessing condom application and sexual assertiveness skills. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for CSA and CSA was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. In multiple mediator models, the TD constructs mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners whereas the IMB constructs mediated the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. In addition, the TD constructs better mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners; the TD and IMB constructs did not differ in their ability to mediate the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. Sexual risk reduction interventions for women who were sexually abused should target not only the constructs from health behavior models (e.g., motivation and skills to reduce sexual risk), but also constructs that are specific to sexual abuse (e.g., traumatic sexualization and guilt). PMID:22282323

Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

2012-01-01

466

Is Everybody Ready? Readiness, Transition and Continuity: Reflections and Moving Forward. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, Number 41  

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This working paper considers ways to tackle the critical issue of early drop-out and under-achievement of children at school. It draws on evidence of the benefits of early childhood programmes to children's learning and success in school. It particularly examines how well-designed early childhood programmes can effectively address poverty and…

Arnold, Caroline; Bartlett, Kathy; Gowani, Saima; Merali, Rehana

2007-01-01

467

Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

2008-01-01

468

Sensation Seeking and Risk-Taking Propensity as Mediators in the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and HIV-Related Risk Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Although a wealth of literature suggests that childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse are related to later-life HIV-related risk behaviors, few studies have explored disinhibition (e.g., impulsivity, risk-taking propensity, and sensation-seeking) as a risk factor in this relationship. Method: This cross-sectional study examined…

Bornovalova, Marina A.; Gwadz, Marya A.; Kahler, Christopher; Aklin, W. M.; Lejuez, C. W.

2008-01-01

469

Women who experience domestic violence and women survivors of childhood sexual abuse: a survey of health professionals' attitudes and clinical practice.  

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Health professionals do not wish to routinely screen women for a history of domestic violence or childhood sexual abuse. However, over 80% believe that these are significant health care issues. Routine screening should not be prioritised until evidence of benefit has been established.

Richardson, J.; Feder, G.; Eldridge, S.; Chung, W. S.; Coid, J.; Moorey, S.

2001-01-01

470

Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: a study of role-played enactments.  

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This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after