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1

Technological Variations for Domestic Waste Water Heat Recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recovery and use of the heat generated by waste water is an active concern both internationally andnationally. This paper is a study on the technological alternatives used for the recovery of heat from domestic wastewater. The advantages and the technical aspects of the structural alternatives have been emphasized in the study.

GABOR Timea; T. RUSU; V. DAN

2010-01-01

2

Projection and enterprises controlling in domestic waste water econom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of the cost of communal waste water disposal is widely discussed among the population, among politicians and experts. Not only the absolute amount of the charged fees are the cause of concern, but also their increase over the last few years. As part of this thesis, the PC software SloVaKon, which facilitates project and operation decision, will be designed to apply the experience gained during the building and expansion of the waste water industry in Germany´s five new federal states to the conditions in the Slovak republic. For this, a comparison of both country´s topographical, technical, legal and economical conditions proved necessary.

Augustínová Edita; Schröder Reinhard; Franz Anselm

2000-01-01

3

Anaerobe-Aerobe Submerged Biofilter Technology for Domestic Waste Water Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water pollution in the big cities in Indonesia, especially in DKI Jakarta has shown serious problems. One of the potential sources of water pollution is domestic wastewater that is wastewater from kitchens, laundry, bathing and toilets. These problems have become more serious since the spreads of sewerage systems are still low, so that domestic, institutional and commercial wastewater cause severe water pollution in many rivers or shallow ground water. Bases on the fact that the progress of development of sewerage system is still low, it is important to develop low cost technology for individual house hold or semi communal wastewater treatment such as using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. This paper describes alternative technology for treatment of household wastewater or organic wastewater using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. Using this technology can decrease BOD, COD and Suspended Solids (SS) concentration more than 90 %. (author)

2000-01-01

4

Analysis of Nitrogen Pollution Load by Domestic Waste Water Treatment in the Tedori River Alluvial Fan Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation of the environment nitrogen pollution load with regard to domestic waste water treatment on the Tedori River Alluvial Fan Areas was conducted. The literature-based water quality data collected before and after the treatment and the basic outflow pollution unit was determined for the several water treatment systems. Next these data were applied for the entire alluvial fan areas resulting in an estimated total nitrogen pollution load of as 186 ton/year. 58% of the total nitrogen pollution load was estimated to be from the private residences that were not connected to the public sewage system (connecting ratio 90.5%) which thus had relation to the pollution of groundwater and water quality in the drainage canal in the region under consideration. The nitrogen pollution load was higher in the urban area more than the rural. The rural domestic waste water system accounted for about 17.9% of the total pollution load, which carried a high probability of groundwater pollution because of seepage or percolation. The pollution load from the direct flow of the public sewage treatment water to the middle stream of the Tedori River, together with the water from small companies and untreated water from local family dwellings made up about 3-10% of total pollution.

Maruyama, Toshisuke; Noto, Fumikazu; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchihara, Takeo; Tanaka, Tadashi

5

Biogas-centred domestic waste recycling system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In fast developing suburban towns, there is an urgent need for an integrated system for waste recycling and energy and fertiliser supply on a single house basis. This is because even though toilet waste is handled by a septic tank-soak pit arrangement, kitchen and bathroom water and solid organic wastes have to be discharged outside the house. A biogas based domestic waste recycling system has been designed and constructed and has been successfully working. Some salient features of this plant are discussed here.

Gupta, C.L.

1983-04-01

6

Kleinschalige Anaerobe Zuivering van Huishoudelijk Afvalwater Praktijkproef met Drie UASB-Reaktoren. Interimrapport 3 (Small Scale Anaerobic Purification of Domestic Waste Water. Experience Using Three UASB-Reactors. Interim Report 3).  

Science.gov (United States)

In The Netherlands approximately 400,000 objects, like farms and recreation facilities etc., discharge their (nearly untreated) domestic waste water into the soil and the surface water. The total amount of pollution of these small scale emissions is about...

J. J. Bogte A. M. Breure J. G. van Andel

1989-01-01

7

Plant for collecting and briquetting domestic waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the plant for collecting and briquetting domestic waste the housing has loading and discharge openings and coaxially accommodates therein a chamber for forming domestic waste into briquettes and a conveyer screw for compacting the domestic waste , operatively connected to a reversible drive. The chamber adjoins the screw and has mounted therein an abutment spanning the cross-sectional area of the chamber. The abutment is mounted in the chamber for motion therein under the action of the domestic waste being formed into a briquette and being advanced by the effort of the rotating conveyer screw. The chamber is operatively connected with a drive for being moved axially to release a briquette that has been formed and for being returned into the initial position.

Alexandrov, A.M.; Alexeev, G.M.; Bairon, G.V.; Matveev, V.M.; Minin, O.D.; Provalsky, G.B.; Slavinsky, V.N.; Tsimbler, J.A.; Vasiliev, V.A.

1980-10-28

8

Experience on domestic waste segregation in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollution from domestic wastes is a major environmental challenge in Ghana and many developing countries. Most of these countries depend almost entirely on landfills for waste management, which has proved to be expensive, inefficient and unsustainable. A sustainable solution to this problem is productive use of waste such as recycling. The main challenge that may limit recycling in Ghana and some of these countries is that a chunk of the wastes are littered on the environment, and the rest is collected in bulk in the same waste bin, thereby mixing them. The cost of collecting littered wastes, or separating mixed wastes could be prohibitive, making recycling uneconomical. In order to productively utilize wastes, adequate and separate waste bins must be provided for collecting the different components of wastes. However, budgetary constraints may not allow many countries to purchase expansive waste bins for the different components of wastes. Consequently, a simple waste bin, comprising a metal frame on which polypropylene sack (pp-sack) can be hanged to collect inorganic wastes has been developed by the author. The waste bin (new bin) can be manufactured industrially using plastic or fabricated by local artisans at an affordable price. This document describes the new bin. Experience in collecting organic and inorganic wastes generated in a house in separate waste bins (waste segregation) for the past 16 years is also highlighted.

Osei Bonsu Patterson

2013-01-01

9

Anaerobic biogasification of domestic wastes and direct solar energy use to produce biogas, biofertilizer and distilled water in a city - a pilot plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Domestic wastes are a source of gas of high calorific value as well as biofertilizer and distilled water. A pilot project undertaken by the Tata Electric Cos., Bombay on recycling sewage, garbage and garden wastes of a community by converting them into biogas, organic fertilizer and distilled water is described. Techniques used are anaerobic fermentation and Solar drying using Solar stills. A fish pond also can be fed the output slurry as feed material. In this pilot plant, 1 to 2 m/sup 3/ raw sewage and one to two tons of processed garden wastes and garbage would be input daily into the digester. The production is expected to be about 100 m/sup 3/ of gas per day, along with about 1500 litres of slurry from which organic fertilizer of 100 200 Kgs can be bagged and transported as well as distilled water of about 500 to 1000 litres Laboratory studies and studies on an approximate scale model of the plant are described. Scaling up to a pilot plant by about 2000 times would increase the efficiency of the rate of gas production as has been found by other workers. These tests and studies have shown that the project is technically and eonomically viable. Applications of the process on a mass scale would result in increasing replacement of fossil energy intensive processes with negentropic methods of economic and social activities.

kumar, R.A.; Pandya, N.H.; Patil, A.M.; Annamalai, M.; Iyer, M.V.; Nirmala, K.A.; Venkatesh, P.; Prasad, C.R.; Subramani, C.

1982-01-01

10

Domestic Waste Disposal Practice of Sylhet City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focuses the analysis of current practices of household waste disposal, problems faced by the residents during waste disposal and their views for improvement of the waste management system. However, it has been found that traditional concepts and technologies usually adopted in waste collection is becoming insufficient and ineffective causing more than half of the generated wastes (44%) remain uncollected and disposed of locally, which results in adverse impacts like water pollution, drainage congestion and finally, the degradation of the overall urban environment.

Md. Tauhid-Ur-Rahman

2006-01-01

11

Residential conservation demonstration program: domestic hot water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four types of domestic hot water (DHW) systems installed in 80 homes throughout Florida are currently monitored by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) under a demonstration program for the Florida Public Service Commission. DHW systems selected for the program are located in four major population areas of Florida: Jacksonville, Orlando/Brevard County, North Palm Beach/Ft. Lauderdale, and the Tampa Bay region. Twenty systems of each DHW type - conventional electric water heaters, heat pump water heaters, solar hot water systems, and waste heat recovery units - are metered to determine electricity use and hot water energy production. A microcomputer-based data acquisition system collects 15-minute interval data at each site and returns it to FSEC over the telephone network semi-weekly. The data is analyzed to determine the average system efficiency and the time-of-day water and electricity demand profiles. Analysis for the Florida warm season of 1982 indicates that the solar systems and heat recovery units operated with the highest efficiency while the heat pumps performed approximately twice as efficiently as the conventional electric water heaters. The average electrical demand profiles of the solar and heat recovery groups were considerably lower than those for the conventional and heat pump water heaters. The profiles of the latter two systems were similar although the heat pump sample used more hot water than the conventional group. When completed in 1983, the study data will provide a full year comparison of the energy savings and time-of-day impact of each DHW system type.

Merrigan, T.

1982-01-01

12

The Application of Microorganism for Swine Farm and Domestic Waste water Biodegradation and Enzyme Increasing by Radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Bacillus sp. And mixed culture were carried out for biodegradation of domestic wastewater (in front of Office od Atoms for Peace) was found that 1%, 12 hours. Bacillus sp. and 1%, 12 hours. mixed culture had maximum removal efficiency in term of COD at 93.48%. Bacillus. alone could reduce COD in small amount. Gamma Radiation improvement efficiency of enzyme production of Bacillus sp. had been studied. The result indicated that Bacillus (Bs.), Bacillus pumilus megaterium (Bm) and Bacillus cereus (Bc) had no proteinase enzyme except Bm. After irradiation of 4 isolates, they all showed high proteinase increasing. The ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter of Bs, Bc, and Bp at 1 - 10 kGy showed more proteinase. After irradiation at 6, 2, 6 and 8 kGy, all Bs, Bc, Bm and Bp showed maximum ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter at 9, 9, 10 and 14 respectively. Thus irradiation of all 4 isolate effectively enhance proteinase production. But amylase could not increase; while lipase showed decreased effect in Bp, and no change in Bs. After irradiation of B13, B16, B35, B50 and B68 at 2, 6, 4, 10 and 10 kGy, the ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter were at 7,4 ,4, 5 and 4 respectively, Proteinase could effectively increase by radiation. According to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc), proteinase increases with the ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter were at 11.

2006-01-01

13

Waste water treatment by flotation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues), food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water, which is in the atmospheric equilibrum, is introduced in a closed space where the depression is 0,3 – 0,5 bar. Our paper presents the hypobaric flotation cell and the technological flow of cleaning of domestic waste waters

Romulus Sarbu; Camelia Badulescu; Lorand Toth

2005-01-01

14

Energy and raw materials from domestic waste won by pyrolysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apart from the pyrolysis of heterogeneous domestic waste experts deal here with the pyrolisis of homogeneous industrial waste. The object is to recover energy or raw materials. Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Quack from the Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen at Stuttgart University presided over the discussion. After having asked the participants about their expectations regarding the discussion and after having given them the opportunity to explain their special interests the discussion concentrated on the characteristics of pyrolysis, its advantages and the different types of plants. Plant designs or pilot-scale plants prevail. The problem of environmental pollution, i.e. by waste water, and how it is solved by different methods was discussed at length.

Nels, C.; Boeder, W.; Bracker, G.P.; Michel, E.; Herrmann, M.; Lenz, S.; Schmidt, R.; Timmann, H.; Hillekamp, K.; Quack, R.

1980-01-01

15

Bituminization process of radioactive liquid wastes by domestic bitumen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A study has been carried out of the incorporation of intermediate level wastes in bitumen. Two kinds of wastes: a) an evaporator concentrate from a PWR (containing boric acid), b) second cycle wastes from the Purex process (containing sodium salts), were satisfactorily incorporated into a mixture of straight and blown domestic bitumen, to yield a product containing 50wt% solids. The products were stable to radiation exposure of 5'8x108 rads. Leach rates were measured in both distilled and sea water over periods up to 200 days at 50C and 250C and at both 1 atm and 8 atm pressure. Results confirmed that long term storage of the products would be satisfactory

1977-01-01

16

Water potential characteristics of domestic bentonite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review was made for the measurement techniques of water potential to select an appropriate technique applicable to highly dense bentonite buffer. With an domestic bentonite, an investigation was made in the effect of water content, dry density, and temperature on water potential. Also, measured water potentials were fitted to van Genuchten expression to determine its parameters A and B

2010-01-01

17

Domestic smoke detectors - a radioactive waste problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A common form of domestic smoke detector is the ionization chamber smoke detector. A small radioactive source provides the ionization and when smoke enters the sensitive volume the change in voltage is sensed electronically. The use of domestic ionization chamber smoke detectors is widespread and is recommended by fire authorities and insurance companies. That one million such detectors were imported into New South Wales in 1994 is an indication of the numbers involved. The typical radioactive source in a domestic smoke detector is Am 241, which is regarded as one of the more hazardous radionuclides. If it is such a hazardous material, should it be allowed in the normal household without any control? Or, in a smoke detector, is it in a less hazardous form than assumed in the ICRP recommendations and do its benefits outweigh its possible risks? In spite of the apparent hazard of Am 241, the possession of the radioactive source in smoke detectors is generally exempt from any form of regulation. Waste regulations, however, set requirements for the disposal of Am 241 and these regulations can be interpreted as applying to smoke detectors. We appear to have a situation where a home owner can legally purchase any number of smoke detectors but when they fail there are codes of practice that prevent them being disposed of. On the other hand, smoke detectors have a direct life saving function and reports indicate that smoke detectors can reduce both injury and property damage by up to 50%. Do these benefits from the use of smoke detectors compensate for any radiological risk? (author).

1996-01-01

18

Domestic organic food waste treatment method and treatment equipment  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a domestic organic food waste treatment method and domestic organic food waste treatment equipment. The treatment method comprises the following steps of: a, performing solid-liquid separation on domestic organic food wastes on the spot b, treating solid wastes, namely, putting the solid wastes produced in crushing into a fermentation machine and adding more than one microorganism for deodorization, fermentation and decomposition to obtain a primary bio-organic fertilizer and c, treating waste liquor, namely, adding more than one microorganism into the waste liquor produced in dehydration and performing degreasing and purification treatment. The treatment equipment comprises a dehydration platform, a crusher, a waste liquor purification tank and the fermentation machine, wherein the crusher is positioned below the dehydration platform. Through the method and the device, before rotten, the domestic organic food wastes are treated to produce the primary bio-organic fertilizer, which reduces waste flow links, and the harmless in-place treatment of the domestic organic food wastes is realized.

YUEQING ZHANG

19

Water-Using Equipment: Domestic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water management is an important aspect of energy engineering. This article addresses water-using equipment primarily used for household purposes, including faucets, showers, toilets, urinals, dishwashers, and clothes washers, and focuses on how the equipment can be optimized to save both water and energy. Technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes are the primary methods discussed for water and energy conservation. Auditing to determine current consumption rates is also described for each technology.

Solana, Amy E.; McMordie-Stoughton, Katherine L.

2006-01-24

20

Production of fuel pellets based on domestic wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A prospective analysis concerning a pellet making machine from domestic wastes in the county of Vestfold (Norway) has been worked out. The machine is under construction and is expected to be in operation during September 1985. 3 drawings, 2 tables.

Nilsen, E.; Johansen, A. (eds.)

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Thermal power control process in a domestic wastes incinerator and its equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simple control process of the thermal output of a domestic wastes incinerator is described. Particles of coal (diameter up to 6 mm) are injected in the furnace, above the combustion matters, at a rate that is automatically controlled as a function of the hot water or vapour production needed, and as a function of the variations in the flow rate of the wastes or the variations in the calorific value of the wastes.

Bardou, M.M.; Lefebvre, G.

1987-01-09

22

Emissions of PCDD/F from uncontrolled, domestic waste burning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) result from inefficiencies of combustion processes, most typically waste combustion. Uncontrolled combustion, such as occurs during so-called "backyard burning" of domestic waste, may therefore produce optimal conditions for formation and emission of PCDD/F. However, few assessments of PCDD/F emissions are available from these sources. This work describes the first known comprehensive assessment of PCDD/F emissions from uncontrolled, domestic waste burning. Emissions were copious, but highly variable, ranging over several orders of magnitude. The potential for emissions appears to be related primarily to combustion parameters and concentrations of various gas-phase species, the latter which may be affected by changes in waste composition, waste orientation, and/or combustion conditions.

Gullett BK; Lemieux PM; Lutes CC; Winterrowd CK; Winters DL

2001-05-01

23

WASTE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A waste water treatment process for treatment of liquid waste derived from animal processing plants, food processing plants, agricultural waste and municipal sewage by separating biosolid byproducts from the waste water preferably by filtration devices and other solids separation means(12). The biosolid byproducts are blended(14) with organic material and the mixture undergoes aerobic composting(16) which is then subjected to vermiculture(18) and converted to a solid component comprising worm castings and compost and a liquid component comprising liquid worm castings.

WALKER Robert John

24

Voltammetric methods for the determination of heavy metals in domestic waste and compost produced from it  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods of sampling and preparation of waste and compost samples for analysis are described. A voltammetric method has been used for the determination of the contents of toxic heavy metals (one of the most important criterion for compost quality evaluation) in domestic waste and in compost produced from it. A novel method was proposed for the UV mineralisation of water extracts obtained during leaching of waste and compost samples. Copper, lead, zinc and cadmium were determined in wet-digested samples of domestic waste, compost and its extracts by anodic stripping voltammetry. Nickel and cobalt were determined by adsorption voltammetry. The determination of five metals in one sample over a wide range of concentrations and the low cost of the apparatus used are the main advantages of the analytical method described. This has been shown by the determination of the metals in fractions of domestic waste, in compost produced of that waste and in compost mixed with sewage sludge. Special attention has been paid to investigations of the mobilisation of metals from waste and compost during the leaching test. (orig.)

Golimowski, J. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Dept. of Chemistry); Tykarska, A. (Research and Experimental Center of Utilisation and Neutralisation of Waste, Municipal Cleaning Enterprise, Warsaw (Poland))

1994-07-01

25

Methane production from agricultural and domestic wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book describes the basis of the biological and engineering problems involved in the design and the running of digesters and how laboratory and pilot plant work is being developed into full-scale plant for commercial production of biogas. The potential for anaerobic digestion of wastes as diverse as sewage to fruit processing effluents is reviewed.

Hobson, P.N.; Bousfield, S.; Summers, R.

1981-01-01

26

Waste Water Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data of the Waste Water Treatment. This site is developed to provide information on wastewater engineering, including features such as basic concepts of...

Kumaraswamy, Mohan

27

Solar domestic hot water systems with closed circuit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Turkey, the common use of solar energy is domestic hot water heating through open circuit solar systems. Since there is no regulation, such systems are causing visual pollution. In this study, a central, shared and closed circuit domestic hot water system is proposed. (orig.)

Dagsoez, A.K.; Yueksel, H.M. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey)

1996-12-31

28

Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

Yilmaz O; Ertugrul M; Wilson RT

2012-04-01

29

Reduction of the waste from domestic production of the orange  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research subject is (reduction of the waste from domestic production of orange) we find there is a lot of wastage after harvest, because the process of packaging, loading, transportation, and store is not adequate. The purpose of this research is to solve this problem of wastage by following a number of steps after harvesting and pre-harvest process. This process is called COLD CHAIN. Cold chain is: cold store in production place, cold vehicles for transportation, cold room in the market, cold car for distribution, cold and freezer refrigerator home. After adopting the cold chain we achieved the following results: orange wastage is reduced, the orange quality improved. (Author)

2010-01-01

30

Inorganic chemicals in domestic water of the United Arab Emirates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of selected inorganic chemicals was determined for 396 samples of bottled water, desalinated water, and groundwater used for drinking and domestic purposes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of inorganic chemicals in different domestic water types used in the UAE with the World Health Organization (WHO) limits for drinking water. Results of the present study revealed a wide variation in the concentrations of major, minor, and trace inorganic chemicals in domestic water of the UAE. For example, the bottled water sold for drinking is depleted in major ions and the total dissolved solids (TDS) in some brands do not exceed 100 mg/l. On the other hand, some of the domestic water used may contain as much as 3,000 mg/l TDS, which is above the WHO recommended limit for drinking water (500-1,500 mg/l TDS). Similarly, while bottled water is almost free of trace ions and minor constituents, some natural groundwater may have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limits for drinking water. The cause of this variation is related to the different water sources and the large number of companies producing and distributing drinking and domestic water. Moreover, it is clear that the current controls on domestic water quality in some areas, namely conformance of pH and electrical conductivity measurements with prescribed ranges of values, are currently inadequate. These two parameters are not enough to judge if water is suitable for drinking or not and some consumers may receive domestic water of uncertain quality. PMID:18266056

Rizk, Zeinelabidin S

2008-02-12

31

Inorganic chemicals in domestic water of the United Arab Emirates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concentration of selected inorganic chemicals was determined for 396 samples of bottled water, desalinated water, and groundwater used for drinking and domestic purposes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of inorganic chemicals in different domestic water types used in the UAE with the World Health Organization (WHO) limits for drinking water. Results of the present study revealed a wide variation in the concentrations of major, minor, and trace inorganic chemicals in domestic water of the UAE. For example, the bottled water sold for drinking is depleted in major ions and the total dissolved solids (TDS) in some brands do not exceed 100 mg/l. On the other hand, some of the domestic water used may contain as much as 3,000 mg/l TDS, which is above the WHO recommended limit for drinking water (500-1,500 mg/l TDS). Similarly, while bottled water is almost free of trace ions and minor constituents, some natural groundwater may have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limits for drinking water. The cause of this variation is related to the different water sources and the large number of companies producing and distributing drinking and domestic water. Moreover, it is clear that the current controls on domestic water quality in some areas, namely conformance of pH and electrical conductivity measurements with prescribed ranges of values, are currently inadequate. These two parameters are not enough to judge if water is suitable for drinking or not and some consumers may receive domestic water of uncertain quality.

Rizk ZS

2009-02-01

32

POSSIBILITY OF REDUCING DOMESTIC WATER SHORTAGE DURING DROUGHT BY POPULARIZATION OF WATER SAVING APPLIANCES  

Science.gov (United States)

I studied possibility of reducing domestic water shortage during drought by popularization of water saving appliances. Dometic water demand can be reduced by 30% by popularization of water saving appliances. If domestic water demand is reduced by 25%, domestic water don't run short in case of drought equal to drought in 1994. If water demand is reduced by 15%, shortage of domestic water is allowable. If subsidy policy is adopted to reduce water demand by 15% within 10 years, every residents must pay 200 yen every month for operating fund.

Tsuda, Morimasa

33

Production of biogas from municipal solid waste with domestic sewage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the production of biogas from municipal solid waste (MSW) and domestic sewage by using anaerobic digestion process. The batch type of reactor was operated at room temperature varying from 26 to 36 deg. C with a fixed hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25 days. The digester was operated at different organic feeding rates of 0.5, 1.0, 2.3, 2.9, 3.5 and 4.3 kg of volatile solids (VS)/m3 of digester slurry per day. Biogas generation was enhanced by the addition of domestic sewage to MSW. The maximum biogas production of 0.36 m3/kg of VS added per day occurred at the optimum organic feeding rate of 2.9 kg of VS/m3/day. The maximum reduction of total solids (TS) (87.6%), VS (88.1%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (89.3%) occurred at the optimum organic loading rate of 2.9 kg of VS/m3/day. The quality of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion process was 68-72%.

2007-03-06

34

Production of biogas from municipal solid waste with domestic sewage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the production of biogas from municipal solid waste (MSW) and domestic sewage by using anaerobic digestion process. The batch type of reactor was operated at room temperature varying from 26 to 36 deg. C with a fixed hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25 days. The digester was operated at different organic feeding rates of 0.5, 1.0, 2.3, 2.9, 3.5 and 4.3 kg of volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} of digester slurry per day. Biogas generation was enhanced by the addition of domestic sewage to MSW. The maximum biogas production of 0.36 m{sup 3}/kg of VS added per day occurred at the optimum organic feeding rate of 2.9 kg of VS/m{sup 3}/day. The maximum reduction of total solids (TS) (87.6%), VS (88.1%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (89.3%) occurred at the optimum organic loading rate of 2.9 kg of VS/m{sup 3}/day. The quality of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion process was 68-72%.

Elango, D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Hindustan College of Engineering, Padur 603 103 (India); Pulikesi, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Baskaralingam, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Ramamurthi, V. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Sivanesan, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)]. E-mail: sivanesh@yahoo.com

2007-03-06

35

The domestic wastes incinerators; Les incinerateurs d'ordures menegares: quels risques? quelles politiques?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the opinion of the Committee of Prevention and Precaution (CPP), on the domestic wastes incinerators, in the framework of the global wastes policy. The seven chapters detail and bring advices on the following topics: the elements which are going in and out of the incinerators, the technical processes, the occupational activities and the risks bound to the incinerators use, the transfer modes towards the different environmental areas, the exposure estimation, the risks of people living near the domestic wastes incinerators compared to the other concerning a cancer development, the legislation concerning the domestic wastes and the social acceptability of the incinerators. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-10-01

36

Quality of ground water from private domestic wells  

Science.gov (United States)

This article highlights major findings from two USGS reports: DeSimone (2009) and DeSimone and others (2009). These reports can be accessed at http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa. This article is followed by a summary of treatment considerations and options for owners of private domestic wells, written by Cliff Treyens of the National Ground Water Association.

DeSimone, Leslie A.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Gilliom, Robert J.

2009-01-01

37

Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

2011-11-01

38

Legionella and domestic hot water systems; Legionella en huishoudelijke warmtapwatersystemen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a need to assess the risk of health problems caused by the legionella bacteria in domestic hot water systems (conventional, mainly gas-fired, heaters and solar boilers) in order to weigh the risks against the disadvantages in terms of energy consumption of having to heat the water up to 60C. The results of a literature study are discussed. 32 refs.

Warmerdam, J.M.; Van der Leun, C.J. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

1996-12-01

39

Legionella and domestic hot water systems; Legionella en huishoudelijke warmtapwatersystemen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a need to assess the risk of health problems caused by the legionella bacteria in domestic hot water systems (conventional, mainly gas-fired, heaters and solar boilers) in order to weigh the risks against the disadvantages in terms of energy consumption of having to heat the water up to 60C. The results of a literature study are discussed. 4 refs.

Warmerdam, J.M.; Van der Leun, C.J. [Ecofys Energy and Environment, Utrecht (Netherlands)

1999-01-01

40

Economic re-assessment of solar domestic water heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic assessments of solar domestic water heating are discussed. A comparison is made between individual investments in solar water heaters and leaving the money in a bank. Viability, defined here as the potential for perpetual renewal, i.e. the accumulation of savings sufficient to replace the system at its life's end at the inflated price, is discussed. (MJF)

Pallis, S.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Feasibility of biomass domestic water heating: a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a feasibility study of a biomass-powered hot water heater for domestic or small-scale use. A biomass reactor was designed and built to serve individuals at a golf course in Florida. The study found small-scale biomass reactor-powered heat exchangers to be useful as retrofitted preheaters to existing home water heating systems. (Author)

1999-01-01

42

Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes). In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I), industrial waste water (group II), sewage treatment hub (group III), unorganized collected waste water (group IV) and old residential waste collection center (group V), of Bikaner city (Rajasthan, India) was carried out from February, 2010 to May, 2010. Water samples were taken from surface only owing to low depth and investigated for various abiotic factors (viz. transparency, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, total alkalinity, total hardness, salinity, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, nitrate, silica, and inorganic phosphorous) and biotic factors (viz. number and diversity of bacteria). The domestic sewage water causes major water borne diseases basing upon Total Bacterial Count (TBC) and coliform Count (CC). The coliform count in the present study ranged from 2.5 to 5.12 MPN/mL. Comparision of microbial population in sewage water from all different Groups was done and the higher values of TBC and CC were recorded only in Sewage treatement hub (Group III).

Dau Lal Bohra; Vikas Modasiya; Chandan Kumar Bahura

2012-01-01

43

Domestic Hot Water Usage in Hotels; Tappvarmvattenanvaendning paa hotell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Historically, design curves for domestic hot water, have been well sized and therefore also the components oversized. The Swedish district heating companies have noticed this and some companies replace large valves with customer-required valves, which give several advantages. There are several reasons why valves and heat exchangers can be customer-required and still the customers demand for hot water comfort can be fulfilled. The domestic hot water flow is composed, the taps are often short, large simultaneous taps are not very likely. Also, the dimensioning flows occur in the winter period, while the components are dimensioned for the summer case. The water pipes level off temporary temperature drops and the user seldom notices these because water with 55 deg C is not used in the tap. For residential buildings there are dimensioning recommendations on domestic hot water flow, but not for hotels. The purpose of this project has been to evaluate the domestic hot water use in relation to size and number of occupied beds. If the patterns of the chosen hotels coincide regarding to the sizes, dimensioning curves for domestic hot water use can be suggested. They can be used when hotels, or buildings with the same use pattern, are being built or restored. Measurements on 3 hotels with different sizes have been made. The hotels have 36, 52 and 158 rooms. The hotels are situated in the cities of Boraas and Kinna in Sweden. A short period of measurements from another hotel in the city of Gaevle (199 rooms) has also been included in this project. The measurements show that large hot water taps in hotels are rare and short. For the hotels, relative, cumulative relative frequencies and likely extreme values have been estimated. For residential buildings, The Swedish District Heating Association have recommendations for dimensioned domestic hot water flows. Formerly, these recommendations have been levelled so a cumulative relative frequency of 1 %, is reached, i.e. 99 % of all hot water taps are below this flow. The new recommended dimensioning curve for residential buildings involve a cumulative relative frequency of 7 %. This can not be directly transferred to hotels due to variations in number of occupied beds during the period of measurements. This project has shown that maximum domestic hot water flow not necessarily occurs when the hotel is fully occupied. Instead, it indicates likely maximum flows for the three hotels. These recommendations are for heat exchangers and primary valves dimensioning. The water pipes in the houses are included in a special dimensioning.

Petersson, Stefan; Werner, Sven [FVB Sverige AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Sandberg, Martin; Wahlstroem, Aasa [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

2004-06-01

44

Sludge accumulation and conversion to methane in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the septic tank is the most applied on-site system for wastewater pre-treatment, limited research has been performed to determine sludge accumulation and biogas production in the tank. Therefore a dynamic mathematical model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was developed for anaerobic digestion of the accumulated sludge in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water. The results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the tank mainly control the filling time with sludge, while operational temperature governs characteristics of the accumulated sludge and conversion to methane. For obtaining stable sludge and high conversion, the tank needs to be operated for a period more than a year without sludge wasting. Maximum conversion to methane in the tank is about 50 and 60% for domestic wastewater and black water, respectively. The required period for sludge wasting depends on the influent COD concentration and the HRT, while characteristics of the wasted sludge are affected by operational temperature followed by the influent COD concentration and the HRT. Sludge production from the tank ranges between 0.19 to 0.22 and 0.13 to 0.15 L/(person.d), for the domestic wastewater and black water, respectively.

Elmitwalli T

2013-01-01

45

Waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Waste water containing over 2 ppm Mo and at least one heavy metal impurity selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, and also containing cyanide ion (CN) is treated by passing waste water having an adjusted pH value ranging from about 3 to 4 through an ion-exchange resin column selective to the removal of Mo and provide an ion-exchange effluent containing at least one of said heavy metal impurities and said cyanide ion. The ph value of the effluent is then adjusted to a range of about 7 to 11 sufficient to precipitate the heavy metal impurity having the highest pH requirement for precipitation, following which the precipitate is flocculated and the effluent containing the flocculated precipitate then subjected to electrolysis using insoluble electrodes to form electrolytic oxygen and hydrogen and effect electroflotation of the flocculated precipitate and form a froth thereof which is separated from the effluent by skimming

1980-01-01

46

Waste water treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste water containing over 2 ppm Mo and at least one heavy metal impurity selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, and also containing cyanide ion (CN) is treated by passing waste water having an adjusted pH value ranging from about 3 to 4 through an ion-exchange resin column selective to the removal of Mo and provide an ion-exchange effluent containing at least one of said heavy metal impurities and said cyanide ion. The ph value of the effluent is then adjusted to a range of about 7 to 11 sufficient to precipitate the heavy metal impurity having the highest pH requirement for precipitation, following which the precipitate is flocculated and the effluent containing the flocculated precipitate then subjected to electrolysis using insoluble electrodes to form electrolytic oxygen and hydrogen and effect electroflotation of the flocculated precipitate and form a froth thereof which is separated from the effluent by skimming.

Laferty, J.M.; Van Riper, G.G.; Zundel, W.P.

1980-02-19

47

The Status of Domestic Water at Velezizweni, Swaziland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the sources of domestic water and its status in terms of quality at Velezizweni, a rural area in Swaziland. A questionnaire was developed and administered to 190 homesteads that were randomly selected from a total of 360 homesteads in the study area. The information solicited by the questionnaire included sources of domestic water, perception of community members on degradation of water resources and measures taken to purify drinking water. Water samples were taken from 14 water sources during the month of January 2011, and analysed for total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Faecal streptococci (F. streptococci). The sources of domestic water with the proportion of respondents accessing water from each one of them were (piped water, 45%), rivers and streams (31%), unprotected wells (24%), boreholes (15%), roof-water harvesting (8%) and dams (0.5%). Each homestead accessed water from more than one source in most cases. The piped water was diverted from rivers/streams, springs and wells and piped to homesteads or within the vicinity of the homesteads. However the water was not potable as it was not treated. Water from boreholes was suitable for drinking as no E. coli or F. streptococci were detected. However water from the other sources was not suitable for drinking as E. coli and F. streptococci were detected. Total coliform was also present in amounts above the acceptable limit of 10 counts per 100 mL of water. The communities were exposed to waterborne diseases such as cholera and diarrhea, especially because only 6% of the respondents reported that they boiled water before drinking.

A.M. Manyatsi; S.S. Tfwala

2012-01-01

48

Fibre reinforced concrete using domestic waste plastics as fibres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is a composite material consisting of cement based matrix with an ordered or random distribution of fibre which can be Steel, Nylon, Polythene etc. The addition of steel fibre increases the properties of concrete, viz., flexural strength, impact strength and shrinkage properties to name a few. A number of papers have already been published on the use of steel fibres in concrete and a considerable amount of research has been directed towards studying the various properties of concrete as well as reinforced concrete due to the addition of steel fibres. Hence, an attempt has been made in the present investigations to study the influence of addition of polythene fibers (domestic waste plastics) at a dosage of 0.5% by weight of cement. The properties studied include compressive strength and flexural strength. The studies were conducted on a M20 mix and tests have been carried out as per recommended procedures of relevant codes. The results are compared and conclusions are made.

R. Kandasamy; R. Murugesan

2011-01-01

49

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

1981-04-01

50

Digital simulation of domestic hot water solar energy plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper analyzes the main aspects associated with the preliminary design and verification of the performances of domestic hot water solar energy plants. A parametric analysis performed by means of digital simulation calculation programs is presented. Furthermore, the results of simplified methods are compared with those of simulation calculations.

Agricola, B.; Cumo, M.; Iovino, G.

1981-09-01

51

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

1981-01-01

52

A waste-free thermal power station firing domestic wastes with the use of new combustion technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors causing an extremely negative situation with respect to the environment in cities of Russia that has been created continuously over the last 40 years by numerous storage sites of domestic wastes, which at the same time are a considerable resource of renewable (inexhaustible) fuel, are considered. A combustion theory for multicomponent and high-moisture domestic wastes as nontraditional fuel is developed, and technology for their thermal reprocessing is developed on the basis of this theory.

Purim, V. R.

2009-11-01

53

Purification of burned gases of domestic wastes; Moderna purificacion de gases quemados de las basuras domesticas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author presents the technology to reduce the emission from the burned gases purification of domestic wastes combustion. The technology was demonstrated in Hobec, Denmark, and developed in Germany. (Author)

Gottschalk, J.; Buttman, P.; Johansson, T.

1997-09-01

54

Waste water immersion probe  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a waste water immersion probe (10) comprising a liquid-tight housing (11), a sensor (18) which is disposed in the housing (11) and a sensor window (20) formed on the housing (11). A wiper element (22) for cleaning the sensor window (20) is arranged on the outside of the sensor window (20), and the wiper element (22) is driven by a drive motor (24) which is arranged essentially in the housing (11). The housing is devoid of openings. A magnetic element (36, 37) is associated with the drive motor (24) and a magnetic element (34, 35) is associated with the wiper element (22) in such a manner that the magnetic drive motor element (36, 37) produces a magnetic field which transverses the housing wall and transmits a drive torque to the wiper element (22) without a shaft.

BATTEFELD MANFRED; JONAK ANDREAS; HEIDEMANNS LOTHAR; LEYER AXEL; SCHUSTER MICHAEL

55

[Scientific rationale for a scheme for the environmental and hygienic assessment of a solid domestic waste burial ground  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A scheme for the environmental and hygienic assessment of a functioning solid domestic waste (SDW) burial ground was experimentally tested, by taking into account regional features. The study involved the assessment of climatic, geological, and hydrogeological features of the region, the sanitary-and-hygienic assessment of the activity of a SDW burial ground, and the hygienic assessment of ambient air, soil, and water in the SDW burial ground functioning area. The developed scheme may be used to modify a manufacturing inspection program.

Latyshevskaia NI; Bobunova GA

2010-03-01

56

Process for waste water purification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is an improved process for purifying waste water in which a waste water containing contaminants, including dispersed solids, water-immiscible organic materials, and metallic cations, is first introduced to a sedimentation zone to remove waterinsoluble materials having a density higher than that of water, then to a flotation zone to separate as an upper layer waterinsoluble and water-immiscible materials having densities lower than that of water. The waste water stream is then introduced to an adsorption zone, where activated carbon particles are added to adsorb remaining water-insoluble and water-immiscible materials, following which the solids are removed in a liquid-solids separation zone. The aqueous phase from the last zone is then passed through a cation exchange zone to remove cations.

Medina, M.

1983-02-15

57

Energy requirements for waste water treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant.

Svardal K; Kroiss H

2011-01-01

58

Diffusion with conveyance of waste water into coastal water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The geographic situation of the capital of Gambia, Banjul, and the resulting seaward currents in the estuary of the Gambia River favour the construction of a sea-outfall for disposal of the domestic waste waters of Banjul. On the basis of extensive oceanographic investigations in the estuarine region the outfall mouth could be identified at 750 m distance from the coast line in 18 m depth. The paper provides a calculation method for the range of small discharge rates (the true lift force), where the application of existing formulas would either create fundamental physical contradictions or where the application of existing nomograms failed to produce double extrapolation results.

Bergen, G.

1980-01-01

59

Method for treating waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method useful for treating waste water is disclosed wherein waste water is collected in a first vessel and a portion of the large solid particles are filtered from said waste waters. The liquid waste including suspended solid particles is combined with a solids coagulant, effective in coagulating solid particles, and the waste is disinfected. In one embodiment, coagulation and disinfection occurs simultaneously in a single treatment vessel. In the treatment vessel, the disinfectant and the coagulant are reacted with the waste waters to form gas bubbles and coagulated solid particles. The reaction of the disinfectant causes a substantial portion of the coagulated solids contained in the treatment vessel to float to the upper portion of the treatment vessel as a result of being carried to the surface by the gas bubbles. The clarified waste water is then removed from an outer chamber in the treatment vessel. In another embodiment, waste water is disinfected by radiation so that gas bubbles are not formed by the disinfection reaction. In this embodiment the coagulated solids are floated to the surface of the treatment vessel by providing small gas, i.e., air, bubbles in the treatment vessel generated from an extraneous source.

Helke, R.C.

1980-12-02

60

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Bacterial colonization of domestic reverse-osmosis water filtration units.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have analyzed the bacterial content of water from the reservoirs of 300 reverse-osmosis units installed in households. The heterotrophic plate counts on R2A medium (20 and 35 degrees C) ranged from 0 to 10(7) colony forming units per millilitre (cfu/mL). Most reservoirs contained water with bacterial counts between 10(4) and 10(5) cfu/mL. The bacteria identified were Pseudomonas (not aeruginosa), Alcaligenes or Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Chromobacterium. This report emphasizes the importance of bacterial colonization by heterotrophic bacteria in water reservoirs from domestic reverse-osmosis units.

Payment P

1989-11-01

62

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information concerning the concentrations of uranium in 89,994 US surface, ground, and domestic waters is summarized. Sources surveyed included the open literature, state health departments, Federal agencies, and personal contacts. For each state, samples were geographically located, identified by type and use, and tabulated by decreasing uranium concentration. Histograms covering 14 concentration ranges were prepared for all surface, ground, and domestic water samples of each state and for the entire United States. Estimates were made of the population-weighted average concentrations of uranium in domestic waters of each state. Based on these averages, alpha radiation bone doses were computed for lifetime consumptions of each water. In addition, the fractions of water supplies in each state producing water containing uranium in excess of 1, 5, 10, and 20 pCi/L were estimated. An extensive discussion of analytical methods used to determine uranium in surface and ground waters is also included. The concentrations of uranium in 34,561 US surface waters ranged from 0.01 to 582.38 pCi/L and averaged 1.06 pCi/L. The median and modal concentration ranges for these samples were 0.1 to 0.2 pCi/L and 0.2 to 0.5 pCi/L, respectively. In 55,433 US ground water samples the concentrations of uranium ranged from 0.01 to 652.80 pCi/L and averaged 3.18 pCi/L. The median and modal concentration ranges were 0.2 to 0.5 pCi/L and 2 to 5 pCi/L, respectively. Of the listed sample sites 28,239 were identified as domestic water sources. Uranium in these samples ranged from 0.07 to 652.80 pCi/L and averaged 1.73 pCi/L. Using state totals, it is estimated that 15% to 24% of all US water supplies would have uranium concentrations in excess of 1 pCi/L; 4% to 8%, in excess of 5 pCi/L; 0.1% to 3%, in excess of 10 pCi/L; and 0.04% to 1%, in excess of 20 pCi/L

1981-01-01

63

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Published information concerning the concentrations of uranium in 89,994 US surface, ground, and domestic waters is summarized. Sources surveyed included the open literature, state health departments, Federal agencies, and personal contacts. For each state, samples were geographically located, identified by type and use, and tabulated by decreasing uranium concentration. Histograms covering 14 concentration ranges were prepared for all surface, ground, and domestic water samples of each state and for the entire United States. Estimates were made of the population-weighted average concentrations of uranium in domestic waters of each state. Based on these averages, alpha radiation bone doses were computed for lifetime consumptions of each water. In addition, the fractions of water supplies in each state producing water containing uranium in excess of 1, 5, 10, and 20 pCi/L were estimated. An extensive discussion of analytical methods used to determine uranium in surface and ground waters is also included. The concentrations of uranium in 34,561 US surface waters ranged from 0.01 to 582.38 pCi/L and averaged 1.06 pCi/L. The median and modal concentration ranges for these samples were 0.1 to 0.2 pCi/L and 0.2 to 0.5 pCi/L, respectively. In 55,433 US ground water samples the concentrations of uranium ranged from 0.01 to 652.80 pCi/L and averaged 3.18 pCi/L. The median and modal concentration ranges were 0.2 to 0.5 pCi/L and 2 to 5 pCi/L, respectively. Of the listed sample sites 28,239 were identified as domestic water sources. Uranium in these samples ranged from 0.07 to 652.80 pCi/L and averaged 1.73 pCi/L. Using state totals, it is estimated that 15% to 24% of all US water supplies would have uranium concentrations in excess of 1 pCi/L; 4% to 8%, in excess of 5 pCi/L; 0.1% to 3%, in excess of 10 pCi/L; and 0.04% to 1%, in excess of 20 pCi/L.

Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

1981-04-01

64

MIXER TRUCK FOR IMPROMPTU COMPOSTING OF FOOD WASTE AND AGRICULTURAL AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS ORGANIC WASTE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A mixer truck for impromptu compositing is provided, to making compost from the food waste and the agricultural and domestic animals organic waste on the spot. CONSTITUTION: The mixer truck(100) comprises a quick lime store tank(33) a crane(36) which transfers the organic waste, the quick lime store tank and a cover a crane control device(37) an auxiliary pressure valve(39a,39b) for controlling the internal pressure of a mixer drum(40), a thermometer(55) for measuring and displaying the internal temperature of the mixer drum and a pressure gauge(56) for measuring and displaying the internal pressure of the mixer drum a guide groove and a guide projection formed alternatively so as to them to be combined with the cover a guide groove and a guide projection combined with the guide groove and the guide projection and a main pressure automatic control valve for controlling the internal pressure of the mixer drum when the organic waste reacts with quick lime.

IM JONG WAN

65

Estimated Domestic, Irrigation, and Industrial Water Use in Washington, 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey has published a series of Circulars and other reports on the estimated use of water in the United States at 5-year intervals. This report presents State, regional, and county estimates of the amount of water used for domestic, irrigation, and industrial purposes in the State of Washington during the year 2000. Domestic water use was estimated to be 674 million gallons per day and the per-capita rate, 114 gallons per day. Crop-irrigation water use was estimated to be 3,005 million gallons per day and the application rate, 2.2 acre-feet per acre per year, or feet per year. Golf-course irrigation water use was estimated to be 23.6 million gallons per day and the application rate, 1.4 feet per year. Industrial water use was estimated to be 681 million gallons per day. Historically, these core categories account for about 92 percent of the estimated offstream water used in Washington.

Lane, R. C.

2004-01-01

66

MUST Waste Water Treatment System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this program was to develop a second-generation water treatment unit that would treat liquid wastes (except human) from the MUST Hospital and produce (1) water, safe for ground discharge, and (2) potable water. As the previous flotation sys...

C. A. Bryce J. A. Heist R. Leon R. J. Daley R. D. Holyer Black

1973-01-01

67

Space, Identity and Health Risks: a study of domestic waste in Ibadan, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor waste management has characterized Ibadan’s modern and historical identity.  As a consequence, residents of Ibadan (indigenes) hold diverse views about the city's image, while non-indigenes label it "filthy" and "dirty".  These perceptions, spatial and cultural, are deep rooted, intertwining with the political and cultural plane of Nigerian society. A distinction between “self” and “others” is seen to mark a discourse and counter discourse in the perception of health risks associated with domestic waste in the Ibadan.  Through survey and descriptive ethnography, our paper examines the nature and extent of domestic waste in Ibadan, as a physical, community and psychological reality, where we seek to explain how generation and poor waste management  impacts on these spaces and the very mechanics of identity. Different perceptions of health risks are observed as well the vulnerability to diseases associated with domestic waste and poor hygiene, bringing into play the socioeconomic variables and residential patterns which constitute the daily reality of this city.  Our study establishes that the increase in urban population, the low economic status, the indiscriminate setting up of artisans’ shops or outlets and the overall inability of government agencies to monitor the menace of domestic waste and its attendant health risks, are central factors to the problem generically deemed one of “waste”.

Aderemi Suleiman Ajala

2011-01-01

68

Compliant lining material for domestic water storage tanks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new product -- Pre-Krete-Tankliner-61 -- designed exclusively for lining the inside of domestic water storage tanks that meets NSF (National Sanitation Foundation) Standard 61 is described. NSF Standard 61 is designed to ensure that drinking-water contact materials and components will not add harmful levels of contaminants to drinking-water. The Pre-Krete-61 liner was developed in June 1999 as lining for installation in hot and cold potable water tanks. It is a hydraulic cement, formulated with a bauxite based binder, graded aggregate, and specialty ingredients designed to provide effective protection against the corrosive effects of hard and soft water. Tankliner 61 can be used to line new tanks or to repair and restore existing tanks. It can also be applied over rusted surfaces, provided there is no lamination of the oxidized metal. NSF Standard 61 is also used in Canada; it has been adopted by the Canadian Standards Association as their conformance criteria.

Anon

2002-11-01

69

Appraisal of domestic solid waste generation, components, and the feasibility of recycling in Erbil, Iraq.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid waste collection and disposal are among the most vital services provided to about 700 770 residents of the city of Erbil in northern Iraq. As such, proper waste management systems that consider both the quantity and composition of domestic solid waste are strongly required to address the increasing amount of solid waste. Unfortunately, these essential data are not easily available. The present study sought to gather data on the quantity and composition of domestic solid waste collected from different quarters in Erbil, and the feasibility of recycling these wastes. The solid waste generation rate (GR), uncompacted density, and weight percentages of combustible and incombustible materials were determined based on the collected materials (i.e., food, plastic, paper, metal, glass and cloth). The results show that the average GR and uncompacted density were 0.654 kg capita(-1) day(-1) and 175.72 kg m(-3), respectively. The weight percentages of food, plastic, paper, metal, glass, and cloth as components of domestic solid waste were 79.34, 6.28, 5.9, 3.6, 3.42 and 1.45%, respectively. PMID:21242179

Shuokr Qarani Aziz; Hamidi Abdul Aziz; Mohammed Jk Bashir; Mohd Suffian Yusoff

2011-01-17

70

Citrus processing waste water treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process utilizes biological treatment to decompose organic matter and decreases the COD to a value of 230 ppm, using 161 of air per 1 of treated waste water for a contact time of 2.5 h. Ozone is used subsequently for further purification of the waste water by destroying refractory organics. This reduces the COD to a value of 40 ppm, and consequently also lowers the BOD. Ozone also effectively removed the yellow-brown colour due to humic substances in dissolved or colloidal form; their oxidation leaves the water sparkling. Iron and manganese are also eliminated.

Hawash, S.; Hafez, A.J.; El-Diwani, G.

1988-02-01

71

Treating water-reactive wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated.

Lussiez, G.W.

1993-01-01

72

Treating water-reactive wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated.

Lussiez, G.W.

1993-05-01

73

Domestic Separation and Collection of Municipal Solid Waste: Opinion and Awareness of Citizens and Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The state of the art on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is based on the domestic separation of materials produced. After domestic separation, the resident has to transfer the separated materials to the MSW manager through the hands of collection workers. It is exactly at this stage that an end-use product changes its status and property becomes waste. This paper analyzes and compares the opinions and awareness of citizens and kerbside collection workers on this subject by means of two structured questionnaires in the city of Mercato San Severino (about 22,000 people), in Southern Italy.

Giovanni De Feo; Sabino De Gisi

2010-01-01

74

Thermal testing of stores for solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to characterise the thermal behaviour of stores for solar domestic hot water systems (SDHW), the thermal parameters of the stores must be known. Therefore a test procedure for thermal stores is being developed at the ITW. This test procedure allows, in combination with a numerical model, a detailed characterisation of the thermal behaviour of a store. After a brief explanation of the parameters that are necessary to characterise the thermal behaviour of a SDHW store, the test procedure for the determination of these parameters is explained. Finally some results of store tests performed are discussed with respect to reproducibility and accuracy of the test results. (orig.)

Drueck, H.; Hahne, E. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (ITW) (Germany)

1996-12-31

75

Experimental study of the splitted domestic hot water system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted to determine the theoretical advantages of a domestic hot water (DHW) system split into two (or more) series-connected sections. A simplified pulse mode simulation model was used in the study. A parallel test of two DHW systems, one conventional and one split, with natural thermosyphon circulation, was carried out in conditions which were prevailing in Estonia from May to June 1997. Both systems were single-loop systems with water as a heat carrier. Both systems were exposed to similar conditions such as equal active collector areas, stored and extracted water masses, the same solar irradiation and ambient temperature. Results showed that the gain of the split DHW system compared with the conventional type was about 15-20 per cent for the transient performance and the continuous performance under limited solar conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs.

Tomson, T.; Nova, A.; Pajumets, E. [Estonian Energy Research Inst., Tallinn (Estonia)

1998-05-01

76

Concrete Production Using Technogenical, Constructional and Domestic Waste Technogenini?, statybini? ir buitini? atliek? naudojimas gaminant beton?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes investigations carried out by the scientists from various countries in order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. The grained rubber of tyres, modified sawdust, crushed ceramic bricks, plastic waste and remains of glass are utilised to produce concrete mixtures. The results of research conducted by the scientists show that in the process of producing concrete we can use different types of waste to change natural aggregates and to get concrete with specific properties. Currently, waste handling and utilization are burning ecological problems. Therefore, intensive investigations are carried out in order to utilise technogenical, constructional and domestic waste for concrete mixtures. Article in Lithuanian

Marija Vai?ien?

2009-01-01

77

Waste water and sewage sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The monitoring of waste water and sewage sludge within the framework of environmental radioactivity monitoring is based on samples taken from sewage treatment plants and from sewer systems. Its main purpose is surveillance of emissions from potential polluters, making use of the fact that most of the radioactive nuclides are discharged with the waste water, and detection is more easy with large amounts of waste water available for treatment and sampling, (enrichment of ? and ? activities and of I-131 in large volumina). Municipal sewage treatment plants need not be generally monitored for radionuclides in the sewage sludge destined for use in agriculture, as emissions of long-lived isotopes are extremely low. (orig./DG)

1985-01-01

78

Investigation of toxic influence of Ignalina NPP waste water on Spirodela polyrrhiza culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of Ignalina NPP waste waters and of water taken in different biotop of lake Drukshiai on Spirodela polyrrhiza culture (growth intensity, biomass and morphological changes) was investigated. It was revealed that most polluted waters formed by Ignalina NPP outcomes were from industrial - rain sewerage and economic - domestic waste waters. Toxicity of all investigated waters was higher in autumn (October) than it was in spring (March -April). Comparative analysis of the data obtained in 1992-1994 indicated the growing tendency of toxicity in Ignalina NPP waste waters as well as lake Drukshiai water. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs.

1995-01-01

79

Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discussed recent research related to the use of peat in removing contaminants from domestic wastewater, oil-contaminated water, and soil. The review also discussed methods of pretreating peat before its application to polluted area. Pretreatment processes are needed to remove components in peat that interfere with treatment mechanisms. Polymers are added to peat in order to encourage the aggregation of the peat particles into larger colloidal particles that are easy to dewater. Phosphoric acid treatments are also applied to increase the swelling capacity of peat. Hydrogen peroxide is used to break down oil-contaminated peat in order to facilitate its subsequent decomposition. Experiments have demonstrated that peat is an effective adsorbent for many different types of oil. Studies have demonstrated that the removal rate for standard mineral and crude oils from wastewater using peat was 83 and 70 per cent. Applications of commercial peat to the surface of oily contaminated waters resulted in oil removal efficiencies of 99.998 per cent. It was concluded that peat is an effective, low-cost material for removing contaminants from domestic waste water and oil-contaminated water. The peat can also be used as a secondary energy source after the sorption process. While peat is an abundant resource in Canada, the resource is found mainly in wetlands. Effective harvesting strategies should be used to ensure the environmental sustainability of peat filtration systems. 38 refs., 1 tab.

2008-01-01

80

The estimation of radiological impact from the disposal of radionuclides with domestic and commercial wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the UK, limited quantities of radionuclides are disposed of with non-radioactive domestic and commercial wastes under the terms of Exemption Orders or Authorisations granted by the Radiochemical Inspectorate. This report presents a methodology and basis for the calculation of individual and collective doses to workers and to members of the public from such disposals. (author)

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Radiation treatment of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation treatment of waste water is reviewed. The aspects considered are: effect on chemical oxygen demand or biochemical oxygen demand; effect on specific pollutants; effect on sewage sludge; disinfection. The basic radiation interactions are given. Potential radiation sources -accelerators or radioisotopes - are considered, and operating pilot plant systems are described. (U.K.).

1976-06-11

82

Maximum use of resources present in domestic "used water".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Environmental protection and the sustainable management of natural resources stand at the foreground of economic and technological activities worldwide. Current sewage technologies, however, deal with diluted wastes and do not focus on recovery and are therefore not sustainable. Here, the most promising methods available for the recovery of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus), organic material and energy from "used waters" are examined both at the decentralised and centralised level. Novel approaches for water processing, not implementing aerobic biological treatment as a core technology, are conceived and critically evaluated regarding efficiency, diffuse emissions and requisite costs. By implementing up-concentration of dilute wastewaters, the concentrated stream becomes suitable for the waste-to-energy strategy. The approach of up-concentration of municipal effluent at arrival at the water treatment plant followed by anaerobic digestion of organics and maximal reuse of the mineral nutrients and water is estimated to have a total cost of the order 0.9 euros/m(3); the latter is comparable to that of conventional aerobic treatment technologies which has little or no reuse. It is argued that in view of the fact that recovered nutrients will become of increasing economic and ecological value, this new conceptual design for the treatment of "used water" will become feasible in the next decade.

Verstraete W; Van de Caveye P; Diamantis V

2009-12-01

83

Flotation process for purification of waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a flotation method for purification of industrial or municipal waste water, waste water comes in contact with electrodes having an electrical potential capable of electrolytically decomposing a portion of the waste water, thereby creating an ascending stream of gas bubbles. The waste water is mixed before or during the electrolytic decomposition with wettable particles of polymer material which are practically insoluble in water and have an absolute density of 1.3 g/cm3 at the most. Polymeric materials, especially polyalkane fibrids, are suitable for use as particles. This process makes it possible to purify oil-containing waste water by electroflotation without forming an oil film on the electrodes.

Julke, E.

1982-01-19

84

Energy conscious waste water treatment plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste water treatment plants are normally large consumers of energy. This article describes how a waste water treatment plant in the west of Sweden is a net producer of energy, using heat pumps, combined heat power engines operated on biogas and hydropower. Over 20% of the energy for district heating in Gothenburg is produced from the waste water treatment and heat pump plants. (author)

Balmer, Peter [Gothenburg Regional Sewage Works (Sweden)

1997-06-01

85

A design method for thermosyphon solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A modification to the f-Chart method has been developed to predict monthly and annual performance of thermosyphon solar domestic hot water systems. Stratification in the storage tank is accounted for through use of a modified collector loss coefficient. The varying flow rate throughout the day and year in a thermosyphon system is accounted for through use of a fixed monthly ''equivalent average'' flow rate. The ''equivalent average'' flow rate is that which balances the thermosyphon buoyancy driving force with the frictional losses in the flow circuit on a monthly average basis. Comparison between the annual solar fraction predicted by the modified design method and TRNSYS simulations for a wide range of thermosyphon systems shows an RMS error of 2.6 percent.

Malkin, M.P.; Klein, S.A.; Duffie, J.A.; Copsey, A.B.

1987-05-01

86

Waste Water Treatment Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

2004-01-01

87

Departmental plans of domestic wastes management - evaluation 2002; Plans departementaux d'elimination des dechets menager assimiles - bilan 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The departmental plans of domestic wastes management are official documents which manage the actions needed to realize the legislative and regulation objectives concerning the domestic wastes and related wastes. A first evaluation has been realized in 1997 for 47 edited plans. In the context of the new wastes policy a new evaluation has been realized by the ADEME in 2002 for 98 plans. It provides the methodology of the study, the analysis of the plans, the sites and management of wastes, economic data, the equipment and investments. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-03-01

88

Features of waste water quality in Zongguan water plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper takes waste water from Zongguan waterworks as a research object. The waste water was monitored consecutively and found that: the SS of waste water was more than 90 times of which in original water, COD was more than 30 times, and Fe was 58 times. The SS and turbidness showed no linear relation except when they were lower. The SS and Fe accord with linearity relation was better. The difference between waste water that from overhead crane at the beginning and in the end was wide. Although the flux of backwash wastes was small but the impact of it over the quality of water was very high.

Hadi Naba Shakir

2008-01-01

89

Sorting and recycling of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to reduce the strain on the environment from the deposition of waste in landfills and combustion at incineration plants, several governments throughout the industrialized world have planned greatly increased recycling of domestic waste by the turn of the millennium. To implement the plans, new waste recycling facilities are to be built and the number of workers involved in waste sorting and recycling will increase steadily during the next decade. Several studies have reinforced the hypothesis that exposure to airborne microorganisms and the toxic products thereof are important factors causing a multitude of health problems among workers at waste sorting and recycling plants. Workers at transfer stations, landfills and incineration plants may experience an increased risk of pulmonary disorders and gastrointestinal problems. High concentrations of total airborne dust, bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria and fungal spores have been reported. The concentrations are considered to be sufficiently high to cause adverse health effects. In addition, a high incidence of lower back injuries, probably due to heavy lifting during work, has been reported among workers at landfills and incineration plants. Workers involved in manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste, as well as workers at compost plants experience more or less frequent symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) (cough, chest-tightness, dyspnoea, influenza-like symptoms such as chills, fever, muscle ache, joint pain, fatigue and headache), gastrointestinal problems such as nausea and diarrhoea, irritation of the skin, eye and mucous membranes of the nose and upper airways, etc. In addition cases of severe occupational pulmonary diseases (asthma, alveolitis, bronchitis) have been reported. Manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste may be associated with exposures to large quantities of airborne bacteria and endotoxin. Several work functions in compost plants can result in very high exposure to airborne fungal spores and thermophilic actinomycetes. At plants sorting separated domestic waste, e.g. the combustible fraction of waste composed of paper, cardboard and plastics, the workers may have an increased risk of gastrointestinal symptoms and irritation of the eyes and skin. At such plants the bioaerosol exposure levels are in general low, but at some work tasks, e.g. manual sorting and work near the balers, exposure levels may occasionally be high enough to be potentially harmful. Workers handling the source-sorted paper or cardboard fraction do not appear to have an elevated risk of occupational health problems related to bioaerosol exposure, and the bioaerosol exposure is generally low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Poulsen OM; Breum NO; Ebbehøj N; Hansen AM; Ivens UI; van Lelieveld D; Malmros P; Matthiasen L; Nielsen BH; Nielsen EM

1995-05-01

90

Control strategies for domestic hot water recirculation systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of a domestic hot water (DHW) recirculation system is to decrease the time spent waiting for the water to be delivered at acceptable temperatures when called for and also decrease the subsequent water consumption. The research detailed in this paper considered whether it is necessary to continuously run these recirculation pumps, as is general practice, or whether it is possible to reduce DHW system energy consumption by operating these pumps with some type of control strategy. Three different control strategies were evaluated by employing detailed monitoring. The different operating modes were: (1) base case (continuous operation), (2) shutdown during the overnight period, (3) shutdown during the peak morning and evening periods, and (4) cycling by a return line aquastat set at 110 F (61 C). In order to accomplish the research, six sites each had an aquastat installed onto the DHW return line and a programmable timeclock wired into the pump. The analysis identifies the relative energy use for each of the strategies during four round-robin rounds of two weeks each during the spring, summer, fall, and winter periods. When compared to the base case, (pump running 24 hours per day), Strategy B saves an average of 6%, Strategy C saves 6%, and Strategy D saves 11% of the DHW portion of a building's DHW energy requirements annually. This is significant in that for Strategy D, this translates into a savings of 4% of the building's total annual fuel bill. All of the control strategies evaluated were simple and employed low-cost devices (under $250 installed), which should help in achieving an extremely large implementation rate for the control strategy recommended. Tenant water quality survey questionnaires show that there was always an acceptable level of satisfaction, regardless of system control strategy.

Goldner, F.S.

1999-07-01

91

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01

92

Foliar response of wild and domesticated Phaseolus vulgaris L. to water stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is surmised that domestication has reduced genetic variability in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). However, little is known about leaf anatomy responses to water stress in wild or domesticated forms of P. vulgaris. In this study, anatomical variation was evaluated in watered and water stressed plants of wild and domesticated genotypes of P. vulgaris from Mexico, growing under greenhouse conditions. Five terminal leaflets of completely expanded leaves were used to evaluate leaf area (LA) and their middle-regions to evaluate leaf thickness (LT), and various anatomical features. Domesticated genotypes showed bigger LA than that of the wild ones; there was an effect due to the origin of materials, LA being bigger in genotypes from warm and humid lands that those from dry and temperate ones. No differences were detected in LT among materials; however, in domesticated plants the palisade parenchyma predominated over the spongy one, contrasting with the wild genotypes. Under drought conditions, stomatal abortion was observed in wild and domesticated genotypes, especially on the abaxial surface. We conclude that, in fact, there are contrasting differences in leaf anatomy among wild and domesticated forms of Mexican Phaseolus vulgaris. Results suggest that domestication not only favours the enlargement of the LA, but also an increase in palisade parenchyma, suggesting a divergence toward assimilation in domesticated forms, in contrast with a better internal gas diffusion in wild forms. Domestication seems to have accentuated stomatal abortion as means of a transpirational control mechanism to counteract the effects of drought.

Navea C; Terrazas T; Delgado-Salinas A; Ramirez-Vallejo P

2002-04-01

93

System for cultivating microalgae with waste water  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a system for cultivating microalgae with waste water, comprising a water source heat pump, a temperature control device, a heat exchange pipeline, and a waste water treatment device, wherein the water source heat pump is used for obtaining heat energy from the input waste water and storing, and the heat energy from the input waste water is used for heating or refrigeratingthe input water the temperature control device is used for detecting environment temperature of a microalgae cultivation room and effluent water temperature the heat exchange pipeline is used for accepting the water output by the water source heat pump and carrying out heat exchange with the microalgae cultivation room and the waste water treatment device is used for carrying out further treatment on the waste water flowing out of the water source heat pump, the heat exchange pipeline and/or a water curtain and inputting to each photobioreactor. The invention realizes utilizing waste waterto control the proper temperature range of microalgae cultivation and inputting to each photobioreactor, and utilizing waste water to provide culture solution for microalgae cultivation.

JINYANG ZHANG; PENGPENG GUO; JINFENG GENG; XINXIN MA; MINSHENG LIU

94

Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy [Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh_thermal)] for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goal is attainable and prioritize R&D for cold-climate SDWH, life-cycle analyses were done with hypothetical lower-cost components in glycol, drainback, and thermosiphon systems. Balance-of-system (BOS, everything but the collector) measures included replacing metal components with polymeric versions and system simplification. With all BOS measures in place, Csav could be reduced more than 50% with a low-cost, selectively-coated, glazed polymeric collector, and slightly less than 50% with either a conventional selective metal-glass or a non-selective glazed polymer collector. The largest percent reduction in Csav comes from replacing conventional pressurized solar storage tanks and metal heat exchangers with un-pressurized polymer tanks with immersed polymer heat exchangers, which could be developed with relatively low-risk R&D.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

2005-11-01

95

Feasibility analysis of domestic hot water systems using TRNSYS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted in which 17 conventional and solar-based domestic hot water (DHW) systems were simulated using the TRYNSYS simulation model, and their results were compared. According to Natural Resources Canada, DHW heating currently accounts for 25 per cent of Canadian residential energy consumption and 25 per cent of Canadian residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate the fuel consumption of DHW systems, their GHG emissions and 30-year life cycle costs. Another aspect of the study was to model and analyze the effect of time of use (TOU) electricity pricing which was developed by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) to provide stable and predictable electricity pricing. TOU electricity pricing also promotes energy conservation. In addition, the TOU electricity price charged per kilowatt-hour changes throughout the day to reflect the changes in cost to produce electricity at different times of the day. The Ontario government plans to equip all homes and businesses with smart meters using TOU pricing by 2010. Therefore, this study also investigated the effects of the TOU feature by optimizing its use in the effort to reduce overall energy costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results revealed that a DHW system with solar pre-heat and electrical back-up is the best system for energy conservation and GHG reduction. The best system in terms of 30-year life cycle cost is a high efficiency DHW system with an on demand modulating gas combo boiler with gray water heat recovery. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

2008-01-01

96

Feasibility analysis of domestic hot water systems using TRNSYS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted in which 17 conventional and solar-based domestic hot water (DHW) systems were simulated using the TRYNSYS simulation model, and their results were compared. According to Natural Resources Canada, DHW heating currently accounts for 25 per cent of Canadian residential energy consumption and 25 per cent of Canadian residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate the fuel consumption of DHW systems, their GHG emissions and 30-year life cycle costs. Another aspect of the study was to model and analyze the effect of time of use (TOU) electricity pricing which was developed by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) to provide stable and predictable electricity pricing. TOU electricity pricing also promotes energy conservation. In addition, the TOU electricity price charged per kilowatt-hour changes throughout the day to reflect the changes in cost to produce electricity at different times of the day. The Ontario government plans to equip all homes and businesses with smart meters using TOU pricing by 2010. Therefore, this study also investigated the effects of the TOU feature by optimizing its use in the effort to reduce overall energy costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results revealed that a DHW system with solar pre-heat and electrical back-up is the best system for energy conservation and GHG reduction. The best system in terms of 30-year life cycle cost is a high efficiency DHW system with an on demand modulating gas combo boiler with gray water heat recovery. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

Gill, G.S.; Fung, A.S. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

2008-07-01

97

Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

Bradley, D.E.

1997-12-31

98

Additional purification of drilling waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was made of additional purification of drilling waste water with the help of active charcoal of brand AG-3 and BAU. The advantage of BAU charcoal over AG-3 with adsorption of high-molecular substances from the waste water is established. The necessary time for contact between water and adsorbent was determined.

Striletskiy, I.V.

1982-01-01

99

A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

100

Waste water treatment in power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the types of waste water obtaining in a power plant and presents treatment methods. Individual types are dealt with cooling water, boiler feedwater, ion exchanger regenerates, cleaning and preservation concentrates, and effluents from flue gas treatment.

Sieth, J.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Waste water reduction at Canadian paperboard mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A feasibility study for the implementation of waste water and energy minimisation strategies for an existing paperboard mill in Canada was performed. The mill process, the methodology adopted for the analysis and the modifications proposed to the process water system are described. Process simulations were carried out to determine the potential effects on paper quality, corrosion and process operation. The results show a potential waste water reduction of 66%. These savings could be obtained by minor process changes and would allow the mill to close its water system and eliminate its biological treatment, since the remaining waste water could be treated by a small evaporation unit. Operating cost reductions would be substantial. (author)

Lambert, J. [CEDRLC-CANMET (Canada)]|[Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada)

1997-06-01

102

Domestic water uses: characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:23685370

Matos, Cristina; Teixeira, Carlos A; Duarte, A A L S; Bentes, I

2013-05-17

103

Domestic water uses: characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics.

Matos C; Teixeira CA; Duarte AA; Bentes I

2013-08-01

104

Treatment system for waste water  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a wastewater treatment system, which comprises a wastewater inlet, a drainage pump, a pretreatment pot, an inactivation pot I, an inactivation pot II and a chemical dosing apparatus wherein, the pretreatment pot is respectively communicated with the inactivation pot I and the inactivation pot II through pipelines water outlets for the inactivation pot I and the inactivation pot II are communicated with the drainage pump through pipelines the drainage pump is connected with a drainage outlet the chemical dosing apparatus is communicated with the pretreatment pot, the inactivation pot I and the inactivation pot II respectively. The utility model has the advantages that: the whole system encloses pollutants hermetically, disinfects and inactivates all wastewater, waste matter and waste gas entering the system and has good safety the structure for each pot body is simple and rational and has high efficiency for treating wastewater the chemical dosing apparatus is arranged for avoiding accident for the whole system a chemical conditioning pot is arranged for adjusting pH value of wastewater therefore the whole system has stronger adaptability and more convenient operation management.

BIN TANG; QINGRONG ZHU

105

Waste water from dewatering of peat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The influence of waste water from mechanical dewatering of peat was tested on two species of stream invertebrates. We compared the effects of waste water from peat without any chemical treatment, and waste water from peat where one of the following treatments of the peat had preceded dewatering; a: acidification combined with addition of the cationic polymer Zetag 78 FS40, b: addition of aluminium in combination with the anionic polymer Magnafloc E10, c: polymerisation of the peat by acidification and addition of ferrous chloride and hydrogen peroxide. Waste water from Al/Magnafloc and from the polymerisation treatments had a higher content of suspended matter and a higher oxygen demand than those of other treatments. Total metal content of the water from all treatments was higher than in water from non-treated peat. Survival and growth of nymphs of the mayfly Heptagenia fuscogrisa and the stonefly Nemoura cinerea were compared in waste water from the different treatments. In all tests, the waste water was diluted to 5% (volume) with unchlorinated tapwater and pH was between 7.0-8.0 in all treatments during the experiment. The nymphs were fed with birch leaves that had been incubated in natural stream water for one month. Under these conditions, we did not find any significant effect of waste water on either survival or growth of these two species

1991-01-01

106

Waste water treatment today and tomorrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The papers discuss waste water treatment in the legislation of the EC, the German state, the Laender and communities, as well as water protection by preventing waste production and pollutant emissions. (EF)[de] Die Vortraege behandeln die Abwasserbehandlung im Recht der EG, des Bundes, der Laender und der Kommunen sowie Gewaesserschutz durch Vermeidung von Abwasseranfall und des Eintrags gefaehrlicher Stoffe. (EF)

1992-01-01

107

Device for biological waste water treatment  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In reactors for the biological purification of waste water, hazardous gases collect in the top. In order to reduce the amount of these gases, according to the invention they are returned to the oxygen which is admixed to the waste water to be purified.

Menges Martin Dipl. Ing.; Räbiger N. Dr. Ing.

108

Spectrographic analysis of waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Influence of sodium and calcium, up to a maximum concentration of 1000 mg/1 Na and 300 mg/1 Ca, in the spectrographic determination of Cr, Cu, Fe,Mn and Pb in waste waters using graphite spark excitation has been studied. In order to eliminate this influence, each of the elements Ba, Cs, In, La, Li, Sr and Ti, as well as a mixture containing 5% Li-50% Ti, have been tested as spectrochemical buffers. This mixture allows to obtain an accuracy better than 25%. Sodium and calcium enhance the line intensities of impurities, when using graphite or gold electrodes, but they produce an opposite effect if copper or silver electrodes are used. (Author) 1 refs.

1979-01-01

109

Definitional-mission report for a feasibility study and conceptual design for the management of domestic and industrial waste-water discharges in the city of Merida, State of Yucatan, Mexico. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recommended project provides a good opportunity for a U.S. consulting firm to initiate the much needed municipal and industrial wastewater management facilities in Merida, State of Yucatan, Mexico and institute U.S. technology as the standard of preference for pollution control design, construction and equipment. The main objectives of the project are to: Evaluate all current data regarding wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems in the study area; Develop an Industrial Wastewater Discharge Inventory; Develop an inventory of existing domestic wastewater disposal systems; Establish baseline and future conditions; Evaluate non-conventional collection, treatment and disposal systems; Evaluate alternative wastewater management scenarios and conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of all options; Investigate financing options for the proposed project's implementation plan; Investigate cost recovery options (user's rates); Recommend a step implementation plan that is compatible with the proposed financing and cost recovery methods; and Develop technical and financial outputs that meet local standards as well as those accepted by international lending institutions.

1992-08-01

110

Optimization of PWR waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 has mandated specific volume limitations for waste generators and disposal sites. This, combined with increasing cost, has caused added emphasis to be placed on waste minimization and volume reduction. Since waste streams, as well as technical specifications for water release or re-use, differ from plant to plant, this effort to minimize and reduce waste must be site specific. Over the past several years, numerous water treatment technologies have become available and have resulted in reduced waste generation. This paper discusses the combination of various technologies Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. has applied to process Indian Point II's liquid waste streams, resulting in effective waste reduction program. Included in this discussion is the station's waste reduction program history, actions and results illustrated by the change from evaporation to state-of-the-art liquid waste processing. The paper demonstrates that the Indian Point experience has direct application to other PWRs in the areas of: (1) attempting to achieve the desired results through in-plant systems, (2) evaporator availability, (3) dealing with a waste stream which fluctuates over a broad spectrum and (4) changing from total waste recovery to discharge

1988-03-03

111

Concentrating industrial waste waters by electrodialysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A promising method for reprocessing waste water and process solutions is electrodialysis in which demineralized water and concentrated solutions of valuable components are obtained at the same time. Electrodialysis is characterized by simple equipment, ease of automation, low capital and energy costs. The results of tests aimed at developing the technology for extracting and concentrating the mineral impurities found in waste water from production of ammonium nitrate are presented.

Krasnova, T.A.; Saldadze, K.M.; Kutergin, V.R.; Valov, V.G.; Fedoseeva, N.M.

1984-02-01

112

On site domestic organic waste treatment through vermitechnology using indigenous earthworm species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In India the exotic epigeic species, Eisenia fetida is mostly used for vermicomposting. The introduction of exotic species into local bio system may affect the indigenous earthworm species population. A comparative study between exotic species (Eisenia fetida) and indigenous species Perionyx sansibaricus and Perionyx excavates was performed to determine the potential of indigenous species of the area vis-à-vis the exotic species for composting of domestic organic waste blended with cattle manure. The results of the study show a significant reduction in initial C/N ratio from 55 to 13 for P. excavates and 15 for P. sansibaricus of the ready product which was within the agronomic acceptable limit (?domestic organic waste can be directly converted into high-quality hygienic stable fertilizer (vermicompost) which is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and free from pathogens.

Rajpal A; Bhargava R; Sasi SK; Chopra A

2012-03-01

113

Buffer Effects of Clay Minerals with lnterlayer Water on Toxic Elements Dissolved in Waste Water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of the domestic waste water treatment facilities adopted activated-sludge systems. Reduction of the action of bacteria by toxic influent weakens the efficiency of biological treatment. Especially the activity of nitrate-forming bacteria such as Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter is very weak due to toxic influent. Therefore, this study has developed a media by using a natural zeolite that has buffering effects against toxic influent and a porous silicate matrix. By using the media made from clay mineral with interlayer water and a porous diatomite, waste water with toxic influent can be completely nitrated. Moreover, the removal efficiencies of BOD, COD and SS have been improved by using the same media. The efficiency of this media lasts almost forever. (author). 21 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

Kang, Heon Chan; Kim, Chan Kook; Kim, Young Hun [Dong-A University, Pusan (Korea)

1998-08-31

114

Waste water reclamation device of pisciculture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a waste water reclamation device of pisciculture, consisting of a fish bowl, a pipeline, a toilet water tank and a water purifier. The upper part of the fish bowl is communicated with the water purifier by the pipeline the water purifier is communicated with the toilet water tank by the pipeline and the spillway hole of the toilet water tank is communicated with the fish bowl the toilet water tank is internally provided with a floating-ball-type water-inflow control device with a floating ball, the bottom of the toilet water tank is provided with a water flushing hole and the water inlet pipe of the fish bowl is communicated with that of the water tank by the floating-ball-type water-inflow control device. By adopting the waste water reclamation device of pisciculture, not only the waste water is reutilized for largely saving water resource, but also the water of the fish bowl can be changed at any time, and the device brings convenience for lazy people. The fish bowl improved based on the technical proposal can be called fish bowl for lazy man.

XIAOXI ZENG

115

Activated seawater waste water treatment system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A waste water treatment system for use in treating household waste water particularly for tidal coastal areas where seawater is plentiful and fresh water may be scarce. The system uses a source of seawater, preferably from a central storage location, to which hydrogen peroxide has been added. Individual households are provided with the seawater-hydrogen peroxide mixture as flush water directly into the toilet flush tanks. The discharge from each household, including wastes from toilets, bathing, wash and kitchen units, is fed to a series of two or three reaction chambers, and a filter unit before being drained back into the tidal waters. The system includes also a bypass line independent of the flushing mechanisms to provide a continuous source of the seawater-hydrogen peroxide mixture directly into the reaction chambers to insure continuous aerobic biochemical reaction with solids in the reaction chambers thus providing for continuous reaction independent of fluctuating rate of usage of the household waste systems.

Rehm, R.H.

1984-04-10

116

Waste Water Disinfection Utilizing Ultraviolet Light  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 3, NO3, NO2 and NH3 were determined using water analysis kit by Hague while the microbial analysis was carried out using the MacConkey agar plate. The UV disinfection method was found suitable for treatment of waste water. This is obvious since the treated sample of water had lower coliform count than the other waste water samples. The favourable quality of the UV disinfected water was also observed in its improved chemical properties especially ammonia and dissolved oxygen.

N.F. Oparaku; B.O. Mgbenka; C.N. Ibeto

2011-01-01

117

Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

Rudd, A.

2012-08-01

118

Determination of uranium concentration in domestic water samples by fission track method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitive and simple fission track detection technique using a dry method with Melinex-0 plastic track detector was applied for the determination of uranium concentration in samples of domestic water supply plants collected from different states of India, namely West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Delhi. The analyses show that uranium concentration of water samples collected from different types of domestic water supply plants varies from 0.6+-0.02 to 19.2+-0.6 ?g/l. The present investigations may be useful from the point of view of radiation hygiene. (author) 15 refs.; 1 tab.

1988-01-01

119

Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project will develop and implement a methodology to compare and prioritize these technologies and optimizations based on a holistic approach. This will be achieved through the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) along with cost/efficiency analysis with focus on the effects of nutrients, pathogens and micropollutants (i.e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies.

Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

120

Development of Standardized Domestic Hot Water Event Schedules for Residential Buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Building America Research Benchmark is a standard house definition created as a point of reference for tracking progress toward multi-year energy savings targets. As part of its development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has established a set of domestic hot water events to be used in conjunction with sub-hourly analysis of advanced hot water systems.

Hendron, R.; Burch, J.

2008-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Process for biological purification of waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for the biological purification of waste water in which a suspension of the surplus sludge formed during the purification is hydrolyzed in a basic medium and at elevated temperatures is described.

Dassen, B.H.

1980-12-23

122

Domestic cold water booster pump control monitoring pilot program : final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot study was conducted to determine the energy and water savings associated with domestic water booster pump controls for multi-residential high rises. With increasing utility costs, aging infrastructures and environmental awareness, Minto is looking to reduce utility costs in its High Park Village Building complex, a cluster of 7 high rise buildings in Toronto. Minto has made several improvements to the complex, including water management and domestic water pumping improvements. All existing water fixtures in the apartments were replaced with low flow water efficient fixtures. Initially, water savings proved to be lower than expected, but with further but minor modifications, water savings in every building increased 35 to 45 per cent. The payback period for this retrofit was less than 3 years. Following this program, Minto wanted to try more advanced water and energy management programs that included constant monitoring of system pressure and flow, and domestic cold water booster pump control. Two types of control systems were tested - variable speed drive (VSD) motors and variable pressure reducing valves. Veritec Consulting Inc. was hired by Minto to conduct a monitoring program which consisted of using advanced data logging equipment to record water consumption, pressure (critical, city and boosted) and booster pump energy in all 7 buildings for a 4 week period prior to the installation of a booster pump control system and then again for a 4 week period following the installation of a control system. Results showed that water savings may not always be achieved through the use of VSD technology on domestic cold water booster pumps in multi-residential high rise buildings. It was suggested that owners of high rises should monitor water use in their buildings, implement cost effective water conversions, install VSD technologies on booster pumps, monitor performance and evaluate the cost effectiveness of proper pump sizing. tabs., figs.

Lalonde, A. [Veritec Consulting Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

2001-02-01

123

Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

1994-01-01

124

Simplified sizing procedure for solar domestic hot water systems. Revision  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A procedure is presented for sizing residential solar water heating systems in Florida. The procedure involves determining hot water demand and tank size and sizing the collector according to the solar fraction. (LEW)

1984-08-01

125

Assessment of Determinants of Domestic Water Demand in Rural Areas of Swaziland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is based on a study in which questionnaire interviews were administered to investigate the determinants of domestic water demand in rural areas of Swaziland. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed in Siphofaneni area to provide primary data for this study. The study discovered that average domestic water use per person per day was only 10 L and most households had unmet water demand for most domestic uses. The results suggest that income, household size and distance from homesteads to water sources are the major determinants of domestic water demand. Households with five or less people tend to collect small amounts of water (0-100 L/day) whereas larger households (greater than five) are likely to fetch larger quantities of water (more than 100 L/day). The chi-square test results reveal that there is a highly significant association between household size and amount of water collected, while the gamma value of 0.73 led to the conclusion that the association is strong and positive. The chi-square test results also show that there is a strong positive relationship between household income and amount of water collected that was significant at 1% level of significance. There is also a strong positive relationship between amount of water collected and household monthly income with the gamma value of 0.44 being significant at 1% level. The chi-square test results show that there is no association between distance travelled to water sources and amount of water collected at p<0.05 significance level. However, gamma values show a negative moderate association between distance travelled to water sources and amount of water collected at p<0.05 significance level.

K. Gamedze; D.S. Tevera; G.B. Chemhaka

2012-01-01

126

Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled 'SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy'. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs.

127

PROCESS FOR THE INTEGRATED AUTOMATED COMPOSTING OF GREEN AND DOMESTIC WASTES FOR PRODUCING NATURAL FERTILIZERS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a process for the integrated automated composting of green and domestic wastes in order to produce natural fertilizers by processing the chopped organic residues with sizes of 0.5...1 cm and whose C/N ratio is from 20/1...40/1 whereto there are added biocomposting stimulators, pH regulating agents, 1...10 % biopreparations, 0.1...5% biodynamic preparations, afterwards the mixture is processed in three stages for a total period of 33...62 days in an automated system, at a temperature of 50...65 DEG C, 65% humidity, which finally reaches 40%, final pH between 8.5 and 5.5, to obtain a compost comprising 73...91% organic matter, 1...3% total nitrogen, 0.2...1% potassium and 0.2...0.5 % phosphorus.

ICHIM MARIA; ICHIM LIVIU IONEL

128

Willingness to Pay for Domestic Water Service Improvements in Selangor, Malaysia: A Choice Modeling Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The tasks and responsibilities of domestic water service management in Malaysia are handled by various government agencies. Sufficient water service and resources management is required for sustainable water resources conservation. In order to realized water resource conservation, economic effectiveness of water utilization (consumers), maintenance of water quality supply (source of water supply) and efficiency in allocating water resources (agencies) needs to be addressed. The objective of the study is to assess community preferences and values relating to alternative water service management with particular concentration on water service improvement. This study has applied Choice Experiment (CE) to investigate the current policies and potential alternative of water service management in Selangor. The studies are based on 230 respondents in Subang Jaya that were randomly interviewed for data collection in October to December 2008. The findings indicates that respondents are willing to pay higher for drinking water as compared to the current rate with improved in water quality (WQ), reduced the frequency of water interruption (WI) and increases in the consumer trust to tap water (CT). The finding of this study is very important in order to assists and recommends the policy makers towards efficiency of domestic water service management in Malaysia. Key words: Choice experiment; Water conservation; Consumer preference; Choice modelling; Willingness to pay

Mohd Rusli Yacob; Alias Radam; Zaiton Samdin

2011-01-01

129

Radioactivities at megalopolis waste water treatment plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In waste water treatment plants, the nuclides originated from nuclear medicine are generally detected. In the Tokyo Metropolis, the sludges in five waste water treatment plants were investigated, where the same nuclides were detected, though the concentration was different. The radioactivity was far lower than the permissible concentration level for waste water. In the aspect of environmental protection, the radioactivity contained in the resultant sludges is important. Such sludges are mostly treated by incineration. In this case, the nuclide released to the atmosphere is mainly 131I. This quantity is only slight presently. However, if the quantity of RIs used should increase largely, it will be necessary to monitor the radioactivity in the waste treatment plants. The most suitable place for the monitoring is the process of sludge treatment, preferably with Ge semiconductor detectors. (Mori, K.)

1982-01-01

130

Net energy analyses of eight technologies to provide domestic hot water heat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Net energy analyses have been carried out for eight trajectories which convert an energy source into heated domestic water. In addition, economic and metals consumed estimates have been made for three methods of producing heated domestic water. These trajectories are: (1) electricity from a mid-West coal fired power plant using western strip mined coal; (2) natural gas produced from western strip mined coal in a Lurgi high BTU gasification plant; (3) fuel oil produced from shale via an in-situ process; (4) fuel oil produced at a mid-West plant from western strip mined coal; (5) electricity from a solar power satellite; (6) electricity from a light water nuclear power plant; (7) electricity from a solar power tower; (8) direct heat from a flat plate solar collector. While some of the trajectories producing electrically heated water showed a slightly higher ratio of energy produced to energy consumed than a flat plate solar collector system, when all factors were considered (i.e. cost, quality of energy, and metals consumed), the flat plate solar collector system appears to be the system energy policy should encourage for heating domestic water, even in the cloudy inter-Lakes area of the United States. Based on only net energy factors, it seems clear that the synthetic fuels program should not be encouraged as a means of providing a fuel source for heating domestic water. 64 refs.

Bailey, R.A.

1981-10-01

131

Simulation of the Effect of Water Temperature on Domestic Biomass Boiler Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to simulate the combustion of fixed beds of biomass particles using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The models presented were used in the simulation of a domestic pellet boiler working under operating conditions and the model predictions were compared with measurements of heat transfer, temperature and species concentration. The same procedure was then used to simulate the same domestic boiler working with different values of water temperature and the influence of water temperature variations on the main variables was analyzed.

Miguel A. Gómez; Roberto Comesaña; Miguel A. Álvarez Feijoo; Pablo Eguía

2012-01-01

132

Simulation of a DHW system with a vacuum collector using TRNSYS[Domestic Hot Water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simulation of a solar domestic water heating system was carried out using TRNSTS. To apply the program to a system including a vacuum-pipes collector whose model is not provided in TRNSYS, a modification of collector was adopted. By comparing the predicted values to measured values, the validity of the simulation program and the modification are certified. And also, annual simulations of two kinds of solar domestic water heating systems with two standard meteorological data were carried out. Through the simulation results some knowledge of standard meteorological data were obtained. Also, their influence to various systems with different collectors (here flat-plate collector and vacuum-pipes collector) were discussed.

Li, Xiaoping; Saito, Teruyuki; Okumiya, Masaya; Yoshinaga, Mika

1999-07-01

133

The artificial water cycle: emergy analysis of waste water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The artificial water cycle can be divided into the phases of water capture from the environment, potabilisation, distribution, waste water collection, waste water treatment and discharge back into the environment. The terminal phase of this cycle, from waste water collection to discharge into the environment, was assessed by emergy analysis. Emergy is the quantity of solar energy needed directly or indirectly to provide a product or energy flow in a given process. The emergy flow attributed to a process is therefore an index of the past and present environmental cost to support it. Six municipalities on the western side of the province of Bologna were analysed. Waste water collection is managed by the municipal councils and treatment is carried out in plants managed by a service company. Waste water collection was analysed by compiling a mass balance of the sewer system serving the six municipalities, including construction materials and sand for laying the pipelines. Emergy analysis of the water treatment plants was also carried out. The results show that the great quantity of emergy required to treat a gram of water is largely due to input of non renewable fossil fuels. As found in our previous analysis of the first part of the cycle, treatment is likewise characterised by high expenditure of non renewable resources, indicating a correlation with energy flows. PMID:12817633

Bastianoni, Simone; Fugaro, Laura; Principi, Ilaria; Rosini, Marco

2003-04-01

134

The artificial water cycle: emergy analysis of waste water treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The artificial water cycle can be divided into the phases of water capture from the environment, potabilisation, distribution, waste water collection, waste water treatment and discharge back into the environment. The terminal phase of this cycle, from waste water collection to discharge into the environment, was assessed by emergy analysis. Emergy is the quantity of solar energy needed directly or indirectly to provide a product or energy flow in a given process. The emergy flow attributed to a process is therefore an index of the past and present environmental cost to support it. Six municipalities on the western side of the province of Bologna were analysed. Waste water collection is managed by the municipal councils and treatment is carried out in plants managed by a service company. Waste water collection was analysed by compiling a mass balance of the sewer system serving the six municipalities, including construction materials and sand for laying the pipelines. Emergy analysis of the water treatment plants was also carried out. The results show that the great quantity of emergy required to treat a gram of water is largely due to input of non renewable fossil fuels. As found in our previous analysis of the first part of the cycle, treatment is likewise characterised by high expenditure of non renewable resources, indicating a correlation with energy flows.

Bastianoni S; Fugaro L; Principi I; Rosini M

2003-04-01

135

Impact of Training Program to Rationalize Consumption of Domestic Water Usages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Reducing water consumption in terms of scarcity of water in Jordan which needs to rationalize consumption of the domestic water usages by some families in Amman-Jordan. Approach: This study aimed to decrease water consumption in household usages and to involve and encouraging the pioneer students in voluntary efforts to reduce domestic water. The study sample consisted of 121 female students of Princessâ?? Alia University College represented 121 Jordanian families in Amman. They trained to reduce flow of water and the time during usage water in kitchen; toilet; bathroom; washing cars; and to put a plastic bottle full of half liter of water in the toiletâ??s water tank. Economical and social variables of families were obtained from special questionnaire of this study, data were formed from previous measurements and information; the data analyzed throughout a simple statistical approach. Results: The families whom represented this study sample have positively responded for the proposed program; through reducing water consumption in domestic usages. The most important factor effects on rationalized water consumption are: Average monthly income, average family members, average of family members ages, the size of water tank of the toilet, size of shower used. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study concluded that the amount of preserved water in a bathroom may reach 25%, in kitchen 29, in toilet 10%, in washing cars 9%, of water consumption before implementation program at each of the previous sectors. The total amount of preserved water in Amman may reach to 11 million cubic meters annually. The study recommends implementing this simple program on the whole of Jordanian families as much as possible and encouraging the Jordanian citizens to use different tools, means, programs that may control water consumption and to recycle the used water as possible.""

Mohammad Said Damanhouri

2012-01-01

136

Waste water treatment using electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The waste water treatment using electron beam is the method of oxidizing and decomposing the polluting substances in water by utilizing the activated species having high chemical reactivity arising in water by irradiation. It is suitable to the treatment of waste water which is difficult to treat by conventional water treatment techniques. It has also sterilizing effect. At present the electron accelerators of 100 kV-5 MV accelerating voltage are on the market, and their technical reliability is high, accordingly they are utilized for many fields including the heightening of heat resistance of electric cables. For water treatment, the accelerators of 1 MV or higher are necessary. The principle and the features of this process are explained. The simplest method of applying electron beam to water treatment is that by simple irradiation only. But in the case of high concentration of polluting substances in water and their complex composition, the simple irradiation requires a large dose, therefore the method of combining with other water treatment techniques for effectively utilizing electron beam has been investigated. The methods of combining with microorganism processing, coagulation and sedimentation, or ozone oxidation are described. The treatment of industrial waste water, sewage and the effluent water from garbage-filled land is explained. (Kako, I.)

1988-01-01

137

Utilization of waste water of industrial boilers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system is proposed for the thermal purification of industrial sewage which provides for non-drainage water supply to boilers and restores regenerated solutions of sodium-cation filters. The principal technical-economic operational factors of the equipment are cited for the utilization of waste water. 8 references.

Shshchenko, V.V.

1981-01-01

138

Waste water treatment in Bukkerup (VB)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In connection to the new waste water plan of Tølløse municipal the technical and environmental board has suggested that Bukkerup get a sewer system which brings the waste water to the treatment plant for Tysinge. All though the residents would like to list alternative suggestions which improve the local water environment but is still competitive.In this report the alternatives are listed, e.i. root system plants, sand filters and mini treatment plants.The conclusion is that root system plants and a combination of root system plants and sand filters are better that the sewer system.

Thomsen, Rikke; Overgaard, Morten

1999-01-01

139

Installation and operation of the Plantwide Fire Protection Systems and related Domestic Water Supply Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A safe work environment is needed to support the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission of producing special nuclear material. This Environmental Assessment (EA) assesses the potential environmental impact(s) of adding to and upgrading the Plantwide Fire Protection System and selected related portions of the Domestic Water Supply System at SRS, Aiken, South Carolina. The following objectives are expected to be met by this action: Prevent undue threat to public health and welfare from fire at SRS; prevent undue hazard to employees at SRS from fire; prevent unacceptable delay to vital DOE programs as a result of fire at SRS; keep fire related property damage at SRS to a manageable level;, and provide an upgraded supply of domestic water for the Reactor Areas. The Reactor Areas' domestic water supplies do not meet current demand capacity due to the age and condition of the 30-year old iron piping. In addition, the water quality for these supplies is not consistent with current SCDHEC requirements. Therefore, DOE proposes to upgrade this Domestic Water Supply System to meet current demand and quality levels, as well as the needs of fire protection system improvement

1991-01-01

140

Sporadic Legionnaires' disease: the role of domestic electric hot-water tanks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sporadic community-acquired legionellosis (SCAL) can be acquired through contaminated aerosols from residential potable water. Electricity-dependent hot-water tanks are widely used in the province of Quebec (Canada) and have been shown to be frequently contaminated with Legionella spp. We prospectively investigated the homes of culture-proven SCAL patients from Quebec in order to establish the proportion of patients whose domestic potable hot-water system was contaminated with the same Legionella isolate that caused their pneumonia. Water samples were collected in each patient's home. Environmental and clinical isolates were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Thirty-six patients were enrolled into the study. Legionella was recovered in 12/36 (33%) homes. The residential and clinical isolates were found to be microbiologically related in 5/36 (14%) patients. Contaminated electricity-heated domestic hot-water systems contribute to the acquisition of SCAL. The proportion is similar to previous reports, but may be underestimated.

Dufresne SF; Locas MC; Duchesne A; Restieri C; Ismaïl J; Lefebvre B; Labbé AC; Dion R; Plante M; Laverdière M

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Hot air solar collector for domestic water heating. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project consists of double-glazed, poured urethane insulation solar collectors. They will be assembled in modules of five feet; four units long for a total length of twenty feet. The heat-medium will be hot air passing over the collector plate and being returned underneath the collector plate making a complete heating cycle; the air will be doubly heated both on top and on the bottom. The heated air will then be pumped into an insulated water storage tank located in my basement where it will heat the water in the storage tank. The water in the storage tank will be used by the household occupants.

DeYarman, K.

1984-01-01

142

Emerging Forms of Social Action in Urban Domestic Water Supply in South Africa and Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts emerging forms of social action in urban domestic water supply in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Both countries represent transitional societies that are facing challenges of providing clean and safe domestic water to the black majority population, which for decades was denied basic social services because of a racist ideology. In the first instance the paper assesses whether there exists a constitutional provision that guarantees the right to water. It then turns to how that is enforced, and what happens in its absence. Lastly the paper examines whether the various interventions lead to improved access to safe water. In South Africa an awareness of the constitutional right to water backed by a supportive legislative framework, which engendered a strong sense of entitlement, caused residents to resort to the courts and direct action such as street protests. Similar initiatives were also observed in Zimbabwe. However, the absence of a conducive legal environment, and disenchantment with the state as a provider of social services, led residents to resort to self reliance in order to access water. In both countries social action was not organic –it tended to be championed if not sponsored either by civil society or party political actors. There was no evidence of improved access to safe water as a consequence of social action. The paper concludes that social action in the urban domestic water supply faces the common challenges of social mobilization in particular and social movements in general.

Emmanuel Manzungu; Lewis Jonker; Egness Madaka; Zandile Naka; Ellen Sithole; Vupenyu Dzingirai

2013-01-01

143

METHOD FOR BIOLOGICAL PURIFICATION OF WASTE WATER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for biological treatment of waste water in reservoirs connected by pipings, one of such reservoirs is aerotank containing active silt where the process of aerobic oxidation of contaminated water is carried out followed by its precipitation. After precipitation, preliminary purified waste water is supplied to a reservoir containing macrophytes and to a ballast reservoir, after that the ballast reservoir is loaded with youth of double-wing mollusc -Dreissena which is attached to artificial substrate surface, followed by performing of closed water supply between the reservoir containing macrophytes and the ballast reservoir, and after termination of water supply from the aerotank an excessive increased pressure of 20,0?26,7 kPa is formed in aerotanks by air oxygen, and sunken higher water flora, and Zannichelliapalustris L. is used as macrophytes landed in reservoirs in layers.

DOMBROVSKYI KOSTIANTYN OLEHOVY; RYLSKYI OLEKSANDR FEDOROVYCH

144

Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

1997-12-31

145

Low-energy system for domestic hot water in buildings. Legionella pneumophila and domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water Boards in the Netherlands have adopted new regulations for hot water supply systems in order to reduce risks with respect to legionnaires' disease. The systems have to operate at temperatures higher than 60 C; this leads to higher energy- and investment costs. The engineers consultancy agency Tebodin has designed a system which operates safely at lower water temperatures. This system is described. 2 figs., 3 refs.

Van Olffen, E.

1989-03-01

146

Waste water purification in the Netherlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the Netherlands are known as a country which is rich in water clean water has in practice become a scarce and precious article. This experience is one of the reasons why the Netherlands have lately been showing a growing interest in the settlement of international agreements on the discharge of sewage and wastes into the major rivers supplying water to the country, namely the Rhine, Schelde and Maas rivers.

Dekker, G.

1986-09-15

147

The concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra in domestic and imported bottled waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past few years, the use of commercially available bottled potable water has become very in vogue. Since many of the producers and/or distributors of these bottled waters claim that the water originated from natural mineral springs, there is a likelihood that some of these bottled waters could contain 226Ra and 228Ra in measurable quantities. This article presents the quantitative results obtained from the analyses of 11 domestic and imported brand named bottled waters sold commercially in retail stores in the northeastern United States. (author)

1981-01-01

148

Feed additive and/or drinking water additive for domestic animals  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a feed additive and/or drinking water additive for domestic animals, which contains at least bacteria of the strain Streptococcus faecium IMB 52 (DSM 3530), it is provided that standardized cell wall components from Bacillus sp. and/or Streptoccocus sp. and/or Bifidobacterium sp. as well as inulin are additionally contained.

BINDER JOHANN; BINDER EVA-MARIA; NITSCH SABINE; KLIMITSCH ALFRED

149

FOOD ADDITIVE AND/OR DRINKING WATER ADDITIVE FOR DOMESTIC ANIMALS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a food additive and/or drinking water additive for domestic animals, containing at least bacteria of the Streptococcus faecium IMB 52 (DSM 3530) strain, wherein additional standardised cell wall components from Bacillus sp. and/or Streptoccocus sp. and/or Bifidobacterium sp. are contained in addition to inulin.

BINDER Johann; BINDER Eva-Maria; NITSCH Sabine; KLIMITSCH Alfred

150

Factors Affecting Domestic Water Consumption in Rural Households upon Access to Improved Water Supply: Insights from the Wei River Basin, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education).

Fan L; Liu G; Wang F; Geissen V; Ritsema CJ

2013-01-01

151

Equipment for biochemical purification of waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Equipment for biochemical purification of waste waters, consisting of a cylindrical frame and installed in it a tubular charge, a cylindrical tank fixed below the charge and separated from it by a false bottom, joint connections for admission of the original waste waters, removal of purified liquid, and drainage of the precipitate, being characterized by the fact that with the aim of increasing the effectiveness of waste-water purification by means of more uniform distribution of liquid over the surface of the charge, the bottom is made in the shape of a tube panel, in the openings of which the lower ends of hte tubes of the tubular charge are fastened hermetically, and the upper edge of the charge tube is positioned in the horizontal plane. The outer surface of the tubular charge is made grooved. The tubular charge is set at a slant. Adjacent sets of charge tubes are slanted in different directions.

Shifrin, S.M.; Feofanov, Y.A.

1980-12-30

152

Process of electrochemical purification of waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is proposed for electrochemical purification of waste waters containing organic contaminants, for example lubricantcoolant (cutting) fluids, by treatment of them in the electrolyzer with soluble electrodes with introduction of the water to be purified under the electrodes and mixing of them with the ascending stream of electrolyte, being characterized by the fact that with the aim of reducing the consumption of electrolyte and accelerating the purification process, into the mixing, streams with different initial temperatures are fed. Thus, waste waters at temperatures up to 40-80/sup 0/ and electrolyte (technically pure liquid with small additions of NaC1 or HC1) are cooled at 5-15/sup 0/C. In this case the waste waters are fed directly above the electrodes which are located in the lower base of the electrolyzer, and the electrolyte is fed through the lower base as an ascending stream; in passing through the interelectrode space this stream is saturated with the products of the dissolving of the electrodes (metal hydroxides). The degree of heating and cooling of the water and electrolyte is determined by the content of contaminants in the waste waters; with increasing contaminant content the temperature gradient of the liquid is also increased. With this process the purification capacity is increased by 12-30%, and the consumption of electrolyte is reduced by a factor of 1.8-2.3.

Nazaryan, M.M.; Aksenko, A.A.; Efimov, V.T.; Kolyada, V.A.; Shamsha, L.F.

1981-01-04

153

Supercritical water oxidation of organic wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decomposition of mineral oil, fluorinated oils, silicone oil, and TBP by supercritical water oxidation was studied to evaluate the feasibility of the supercritical water treatment technology for treating radioactive organic wastes. The experiments were conducted with tube bomb reactors. The effects of temperature, reaction time, and additional agents on the decomposition efficiencies were studied. Over 99.9% of Neovac, mineral oil, and Daifloil, fluorinated oil, were decomposed by supercritical water oxidation. 99.6% of Fomblin was decomposed by supercritical water treatment. 98.9% of silicone oil and 99.8% of TBP were decomposed by supercritical water oxidation. Based on the experimental results, the process conditions for treatment of radioactive wastes are discussed. (author)

2002-01-01

154

Pesticides Removal from Drainage Waste Water Using Some Agricultural Wastes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The agricultural wastes proposed for the removal of water pollutants in this study are seeds of two Saudi date lines which are quite abundant in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, having high ion exchange capacity for organic compounds. Two goals can be achieved when using these type of date stones: the first is to evaluate the potentiality of date stones to sorb inorganic and organic pollutants from drainage water to render it suitable for irrigation of crops in the Kingdom and the second is to get rid of harmful agricultural wastes. Chemical and elemental analyses were carried out for date stones. Batch technique experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption properties of date stones to harmful pesticides such as Endrin, Lindane and Aldrin. Affecting parameters such as adsorbent weight, contact time and polluted water pH values were also studied to control and increase the efficiency of adsorption. The obtained results showed that the date stones can be considered as an efficient adsorbent for the investigated pesticides from prepared waste water. The resultant uptake efficiency was found to be more than 75% for the tested pollutants. Moreover, it was found that the adsorbed pesticides can not be disturbed from the loaded date stones. Comparative methods between the Saudi and Egyptian date stones were also studied.

Ali S. Al-Barrak; Saad M. Elsaid

2005-01-01

155

Process for the biological purification of waste water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved.

Hansen, Erik Bundgaard unknown

156

Waste water discharges into natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point.

1996-01-01

157

Domestic Water Consumption in Rural Areas: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Having different patterns of life styles, water consumption facilities, culture and type of occupation of most of the people as well as different climate conditions in the villages of our country, have created various water requirements. So, performing separate regional studies throughout the country, it is necessary to take action to determine the design factors and elements, specially the consumed water per capita that is one of important and the most varying factors. With regard to this necessity, it has been taken action, through a studying plan, to determine the liter per capita per day (lpcd) in villages of Hamadan province and the outcome results showed that the extent of average lpcd on spring, summer, fall, winter and annual for total of statistical society were 100, 138, 110.2, 89.6 and 109.6 l per day, respectively. Also, the numerical value of seasonal fluctuation coefficient in different seasons were 0.91, 1.26, 1.01 and 0.82, respectively. One of these new effective factors that raised in villages of the country is the construction of private baths in the rural houses. According to this plan, it has been considered the effect of the this factor and its results shows increase in the average lpcd as much as 20.2 l per day for each individual and shall be considered in the further plans. Also, the results showed perceptible decrease in the average lpcd with increase on number of family’s individuals.

Amir Hossein Mahvi; Hossein Ali Norouzi

2005-01-01

158

Dechlorination of waste water and cooling water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The movement toward dechlorination is propelled by a desire to escape the environmental problems associated with both the residual oxidants and halocarbons produced by chlorination. The chemistry of dechlorination is reviewed with the purpose of showing that questions remain about the environmental effects of the general use of dechlorination. Comparisons of the toxicity of chlorinated vs. chlor-dechlorinated water show that dechlorination reduces acute toxicity to aquatic organisms, but sublethal biological effects were noted in chlor-dechlorinated waters and in waters treated only with dechlorinating agents. Types of dechlorinating agents are discussed with special emphasis on the sulfur containing compounds. It is of considerable importance that dechlorinating with S(IV) compounds in the effluent. The formation of sulfonates during dechlorination is discussed, as well as the prevention of halocarbons. The effect of dechlorination on downstream trace-metal chemistry is related.

Helz, G.R.; Kosak-Channing, L.

1984-02-01

159

Method of treating waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes a process of treating water to reduce the concentration of the transuranic elements contained therein. It comprises: adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0; admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source; allowing the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration; and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture.

1989-05-09

160

Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (?2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management.

Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn

 
 
 
 
161

Method of treating waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

Deininger, J. Paul (Colorado Springs, CO); Chatfield, Linda K. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1991-01-01

162

Waste-water treatment by sand filtration. January 1977-February 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-February 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sand filtration in the treatment of waste water. Treatment systems for both domestic and industrial effluents are discussed. Designs, processes, applications and performance evaluations of sand filters, columns, and mounds as primary filtering mechanisms are included. (This updated bibliography contains 164 citations, 33 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

1989-03-01

163

Nutrient pollution in shallow aquifers underlying pit latrines and domestic solid waste dumps in urban slums.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The lack of proper on-site sanitation in unsewered low-income areas is becoming an important source of nutrient-rich wastewater leaching to groundwater and can potentially lead to eutrophication. For typical conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, the nutrient loading of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from on-site sanitation systems to aquifers is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the dissolved nutrient loads (nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4) and orthophosphate (o-PO4)) and the processes likely affecting them in aquifers underlying two on-site sanitation systems in an unsewered low-income urban slum in Kampala, Uganda; a domestic solid waste dump and a site with two pit latrines. The impact of the two types of sites was assessed by comparing the upgradient and downgradient nutrient concentrations and loads along groundwater flow lines. Significant pollution to groundwater originated from the pit latrine site with downgradient nutrient loads increasing by factors of 1.7 for NO3, 10.5 for NH4 and 49 for o-PO4. No effect of leaching of nutrients to groundwater was found from the waste dump. We estimated that approximately 2-20% of total N and less than 1% of total P mass input was lost to groundwater from the pit latrines. The bulk of N leached to groundwater was in the form of NH4. Mn-reducing conditions prevailed in the shallow aquifer which suggested that nitrification was the main process affecting NH4 concentrations. Phosphorus was likely retained in the soils by precipitating as MnHPO4 and Ca5(PO4)3(OH). Our results indicated that pit latrines in alluvial aquifer systems can be highly effective for the removal of nutrients depending on hydrological, hydrochemical and geochemical conditions in the aquifer receiving wastewater. Improvements to make the current pit latrine systems better for nutrient containment are suggested based on findings from this study.

Nyenje PM; Foppen JW; Kulabako R; Muwanga A; Uhlenbrook S

2013-06-01

164

A new inverter heat pump operated all year round with domestic hot water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a new scheme of an inverter air cooling heat pump system with domestic hot water. A water reheater is placed between the compressor outlet and the four way valve inlet to utilize the sensible heat of the superheated gas exhausted from the compressor, and a water preheater is placed between the condenser and the throttling device to use the sensible heat of the subcooled liquid flowing out of the condenser. With these two parts of heat, the domestic hot water can be heated to a temperature high enough for domestic use. In order to maintain the system efficiency in the period of part load, an inverter compressor is adopted as the substitute for the constant speed one used in the conventional heat pump system. A hot water storage tank with a circulation pump is placed in the system to reduce the peak load of the system. Compared with the traditional system, this new design is able to reduce energy consumption by 31.1% and decrease thermal pollution to the environment.

2004-01-01

165

Surgical hand scrub: Lots of water wasted  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Surgical hand scrub (SHS) is an important antisepsis measure before participating in surgical operation. It reduces the risk of microbial contamination of the surgical wound by skin flora. SHS is usually performed in a scrub sink with taps that have hand operated handles. During the scrub process large volume of water is wasted. The aim of this study was to determine the volume of water used during SHS in comparison to the actual volume necessary. Method : Unknown to them various cadreof the operation team were timed during their first scrubbing of the day for scheduled operations. Duration of scrubbing (ST) and that during which the hands were being washed with flowing water (WT) were recorded. The amount of water flowing through the tap per minute was also recorded. Using the mean ST, WT and water flow per minute the total volume of water used during scrubbing and that necessary to wash the hand were calculated. Results : Overall, the ST ranged between 3 and 7 minutes with a mean of 4.8 ± 0.5 SD minutes. Mean WT was 1.4 ± 0.4 SD minutes. The mean water flow was 4,217mls per minutes. The volume of water used per scrubbing was 20.2 litres while only 5.9 litres was used for washing the hands. Between January and December 2002, the volume of water used for scrubbing was 200,283 litres while only 58,498.5 litres (29.2%) was necessary. Conclusion : Plenty water is wasted during SHS. Reducing the amount of water flowing unused would provide cost saving to the hospital. The use of taps operated with foot pedal would reduce the waste.

Ahmed A

2007-01-01

166

Waste-Water Treatment Plant Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Carrousel is a waste-water treatment plant based on the functioning of the activated sludge process. in this biochemical process, ammonium and nitrate and/or nitrite are broken down by living biomass. The main contribution to plant operation costs is ...

K. van Schagen R. Banning A. M. J. Veersma

1996-01-01

167

Immobilized biocatalysts saccharomyces yeasts waste water treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various prepolymer methods for entrapment of enzymes and microbial cells are given. Effects of thiamine and pyridoxine on regulation of respiration and ethanol production in Saccharomyces carlsbergensis are treated. The microbiology of anaerobic digestion of waste water and biogas production by methanogenic bacteria are described.

Fiechter, A.

1984-01-01

168

Purification technology for natural and waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of the development and fundamental directions of evolution of the technology of purification of natural and waste waters, showing that in perspective the development of highly effective purification equipment with low capital investments and operating expenses and decreased energy requirement for purification is necessary.

Popescu, V.

1981-01-01

169

Anatomical root variations in response to water deficit: wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Root anatomical responses to water deficit are diverse and regulation of water uptake strongly depends on plant anatomy. The ancestors of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars are the wild common beans. Because wild beans adapt and survive well in theon atural environment, it is hypothesized that wild common bean roots are less affected than those of domesticated beans at low substrate water potential (?W). A wild common bean accession from Chihuahua Mexico a (more) nd cv. Bayomex were studied. Seedlings with a mean root length between 3 and 4 cm were maintained for 24 h in vermiculite at ?W of -0.03 (well hydrated), -0.65, -1.48 and -2.35 MPa (partially dry). Ten anatomical characteristics of differentiation and cell division in root regions were evaluated. Thickness of epidermis and protoderm diminished similarly in wild and domesticated beans growing at low substrate ?W (between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa). At the same time, parenchymatic cell area diminished by 71 % in the domesticated variety, but by only 32 % in the wild bean at -2.35 MPa. Theon umber of cells in the cortex and the thickness of the xylem wall increased in both wild and domesticated beans at low substrate ?W;on evertheless, the effect was significantly lower in the wild bean. Theon umber of xylem vessels increased in the cultivar (up to 40 %) while in the wild bean it decreased (up to 33 %). The diameter of xylem vessels and transverse root area diminished (15 and 57 %, respectively) in the cultivar, but in the wild common bean wereon ot affected. Anatomical root characteristics and their modifications in both differentiation and cell division in root regions demonstrated that the wild bean reacted quite differently to substrate ?W than the domesticated common bean.

Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana B; Meza Rangel, Joel; Juárez Muñoz, Juana; García-Nava, Rodolfo; Celis Velázquez, Raquel

2010-01-01

170

Process for treating waste water containing radioactive substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for treating waste water containing radioactive substances comprising treating the waste water by reverse osmosis in the presence of at least one organic surfactant selected from the group consisting of anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants and nonionic surfactants.

1979-01-01

171

Waste water treatment today and tomorrow. Abwasserbehandlung heute und morgen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The papers discuss waste water treatment in the legislation of the EC, the German state, the Laender and communities, as well as water protection by preventing waste production and pollutant emissions. (EF)

1992-01-01

172

The influence of a variable volume water heater on the domestic load profile  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper a variable volume water heater and a load impact model is presented. The variable volume water heater is a unique system that can be implemented as a residential demand-side management tool. The variable volume water heater can shift the electrical energy consumption, used to heat water, to off-peak time periods. The electrical energy is shifted without influencing the hot water usage of the customer. The load impact model simulates the effect of controlling the volume of stored hot water on a domestic load. The model mathematics as well as the model verification are discussed. The paper ends with a comparative case study on two residential areas. The case study indicates that the variable volume water heater can reduce the system peak as well as increase the off-peak energy consumption.

Lemmer, E.F.; Delport, G.J.

1999-12-01

173

Experimental observations on a continuous flow type domestic solar water heater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operation of a continuous flow type domestic solar water heater is explained with the help of a schematic diagram. Steady state thermal analysis of such a water heater is carried out. A water heater of this type with a collector area of 1 m{sup 2} is subjected to tests. The experimental results have also been compared with those obtained from a water heater operating on thermosiphon flow. The performance of the continuous flow type water heater is shown to be comparable to that of the thermosiphon flow type. It is concluded that, in the Indian context, the continuous flow type water heater has more advantages than the thermosiphon flow type water heater in view of its low capital cost and the ease of operation and maintenance. (author)

Venkatesh, A. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1994-12-01

174

Hybrid PV/T solar systems for domestic hot water and electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems can simultaneously provide electricity and heat, achieving a higher conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation than standard PV modules. When properly designed, PV/T systems can extract heat from PV modules, heating water or air to reduce the operating temperature of the PV modules and keep the electrical efficiency at a sufficient level. In this paper, we present TRNSYS simulation results for hybrid PV/T solar systems for domestic hot water applications both passive (thermosyphonic) and active. Prototype models made from polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV module types combined with water heat extraction units were tested with respect to their electrical and thermal efficiencies, and their performance characteristics were evaluated. The TRNSYS simulation results are based on these PV/T systems and were performed for three locations at different latitudes, Nicosia (35 deg.), Athens (38 deg.) and Madison (43 deg.). In this study, we considered a domestic thermosyphonic system and a larger active system suitable for a block of flats or for small office buildings. The results show that a considerable amount of thermal and electrical energy is produced by the PV/T systems, and the economic viability of the systems is improved. Thus, the PVs have better chances of success especially when both electricity and hot water is required as in domestic applications.

2006-01-01

175

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls from uncontrolled burning of garden and domestic waste (backyard burning).  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess emissions of dioxins (chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) and PCB from uncontrolled domestic combustion of waste ("backyard burning"), test combustions in barrels and open fires were monitored. The waste fuels used were garden waste, paper, paper and plastic packaging, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), PVC, and electronic scrap. Combustions including PVC and electronic scrap emitted several orders of magnitude more dioxins than the other waste fuels. Emissions from the other fuels had considerable variations, but the levels were difficult to relate to waste composition. Emission factors of PCDD/F and PCB from the backyard burning ranged from 2.2 to 13 000 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg. The levels found in ash usually were less than 5% of the total. For assessment of total emissions of dioxins and PCB from backyard burning of low and moderately contaminated wastes, an emission factor range of 4-72 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg is suggested. These figures implythat combusting waste in the backyard could contribute substantially to total emissions, even if the amounts of fuel involved are equivalent to just a few tenths of a percent of the amounts combusted in municipal waste incinerators. PMID:16323778

Hedman, Björn; Näslund, Morgan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

2005-11-15

176

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls from uncontrolled burning of garden and domestic waste (backyard burning).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To assess emissions of dioxins (chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) and PCB from uncontrolled domestic combustion of waste ("backyard burning"), test combustions in barrels and open fires were monitored. The waste fuels used were garden waste, paper, paper and plastic packaging, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), PVC, and electronic scrap. Combustions including PVC and electronic scrap emitted several orders of magnitude more dioxins than the other waste fuels. Emissions from the other fuels had considerable variations, but the levels were difficult to relate to waste composition. Emission factors of PCDD/F and PCB from the backyard burning ranged from 2.2 to 13 000 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg. The levels found in ash usually were less than 5% of the total. For assessment of total emissions of dioxins and PCB from backyard burning of low and moderately contaminated wastes, an emission factor range of 4-72 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg is suggested. These figures implythat combusting waste in the backyard could contribute substantially to total emissions, even if the amounts of fuel involved are equivalent to just a few tenths of a percent of the amounts combusted in municipal waste incinerators.

Hedman B; Näslund M; Nilsson C; Marklund S

2005-11-01

177

Environmental assessment for the domestic water supply upgrades and consolidation on the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The domestic water systems on the Savannah River Site (SRS) are currently in need of upgrading to ensure compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Drinking Water Regulations. The SRS has 28 separate goundwater-based drinking water systems in use across the site. These aging systems were designed and constructed in the 1950s and are now facing increasing difficulties in meeting cur-rent regulations. Audits of the systems conducted by SCDHEC in 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1993 identified shortfalls in meeting the requirements for secondary maximum containment levels (MCLS) and SCDHEC design standards. Secondary MCLs are those items, such as odor or appearance, that do not pose a direct health impact. SRS has committed to SCDHEC to correct the drinking water discrepancies and construct two new consolidated inter-area drinking water systems. Upgrading the SRS drinking water systems would be necessary to support site activities regardless of the makeup or the mission at SRS. As such, the proposed upgrade and consolidation of SRS domestic water systems is treated as part of the ``No Action`` alternative for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Reconfiguration of the Nuclear Weapons Complex .

1994-06-01

178

Domestic hot water production in a net zero energy triplex in Montreal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A domestic hot water system in a net zero energy triplex in Montreal was described. The system was comprised of 10 m{sup 2} of evacuated tube solar collectors; two 600 litre storage tanks; a grey water heat recovery unit; and desuperheaters from ground-source heat pumps. A low-flow recirculation pump was also used to circulate hot water to the 3 condos continuously. Annual energy consumption of the pump was 175 kWh. Standard components from TRYNSYS and the TESS library were used to model all components except for the grey water heat recovery and the desuperheater. DHW and space conditioning simulations were de-coupled, and results from conditioning simulations were read as inputs into the DHW simulations. Inputs included weather data; mains water temperature; and daily DHW consumption. Data were used to generate 1-minute domestic hot water profiles. Simulations were run with a 30 second time step to reflect typical hot water consumption and to characterize phenomena occurring in the grey water heat recovery device. Results of the study showed that in order to increase the solar fraction in winter, the solar collector area needed to be oversized. It was concluded that excess energy can be recuperated by installing a second reservoir and selling the extra thermal energy to adjacent buildings. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs.

Picard, D.; Bernier, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Charneux, R. [Pageau, Morel et Associes, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

2007-07-01

179

The micro-electrolysis technique in waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The micro-electrolysis is one of the efficient methods to treat some kinds of waste water. The experiments have shown its high efficiency in sewage treatment and some kinds of industrial waste water. It is suitable for pre-treatment of high concentrated waste water and deep treatment of waste water for reuse purpose. The disadvantage of micro-electrolysis is its high energy consumption in case of high electrolyte concentration. (author) 2 figs., 11 tabs., 2 refs.

1997-01-01

180

Waste water treatment technique for a uranium tailings pond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Compositions of waste water from a uranium tailings pond and main pollution factors were analyzed. A method of treating the waste water was determined through experiments, that is, neutra-lization with milk of lime-adsorption with manganese sand method, and the waste water was treated by the method. Contents of U, Ra and Mn, and pH value in the treated waste water meet the national discharge standard. (authors)

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study has been undertaken to evaluate performance efficiency of a waste water treatment plant. A sewage treatment plant operating on biological treatment method (Activated Sludge Process) with an average wastewater inflow of 23MLD bas been considered for case study. Waste water samples were collected at different stages of treatment units and analysed for the major water quality parameters, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS). Theperformance efficiency of each unit in treating the pollutants was calculated. Overall performance of the plant also has been estimated. The obtained results were very much useful in identification and rectification of operational and maintenance problems as well as the future expansion to be carried out in the plant to meet the increased hydraulic and organic loadings.

K. SUNDARA KUMAR; P. SUNDARA KUMAR,; Dr. M. J. RATNAKANTH BABU

2010-01-01

182

Neutron Activation analysis of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 1013 cm-2 s-1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

1997-01-01

183

Biofilter for purification of waste waters and method therefor  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apparatus for the purification of waste water and/or waste gas using a biofilter containing a filtering material, wherein the waste water move downwardly thereinto while the waste gas move upwardly or downwardly thereinto, is disclosed. Also disclosed is an apparatus for simultaneous purification of waste water and waste gas, comprising a filtering material comprised of a succession of layers. More conveniently, the apparatus comprises sufficient filtering material between the gas inlet and water outlet to ensure that the water coming out of the apparatus has not been substantially contaminated by the upwardly moving waste gas. In a preferred embodiment, the upper layer of filtering carrier material has a substantially lower filtration capacity than a lower layer of filtering carrier material, to prevent clogging of the filtering material upon downward flow of the waste water. Further disclosed is an apparatus for simultaneous purification of waste water as waste gas moving both downwardly. A filtering composition for purification of waste water and/or waste gas is also disclosed. Finally, the invention relates to an apparatus and a filtering composition for the purification of various types of waste water and waste gas.

BUELNA GERARDO

184

The Use of Solar Energy for Preparing Domestic Hot Water in a Multi-Storey Building  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses the possibilities of solar collectors used for a domestic hot water system and installed on the roofs of modernized multi-storey buildings under the existing climate conditions. A number of combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors with accumulation tank systems of various sizes have been examined. Heat from the district heating system is used as an additional heat source for preparing domestic hot water. The paper compares calculation results of energy and economy regarding the combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors and the size of the accumulation tank. The influence of variations in the main indicators on the final economic results has also been evaluated. Research has been supported applying EC FP7 CONCERTO program (‘‘Sustainable Zero Carbon ECO-Town Developments Improving Quality of Life across EU - ECO-Life’’ (ECO-Life Project) Contract No. TREN/FP7EN/239497/”ECOLIFE”).Article in Lithuanian

Giedrius Šiupšinskas; Solveiga Adom?nait?

2012-01-01

185

Solar heating systems for domestic hot water and space heating. [Denmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the work with solar systems for domestic hot water and for combined space heating and domestic water heating. The research and development that have been carried out at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory during the last 8-10 years have given some very positive results that have attracted a lot of attention, nationally as well as inter- nationally. The basis of the work was a series of 1st generation showcase systems on which detailed mesurements were carried out. The performance of these systems was not satisfactory, but analyses of the collected data and the operating experiences made it possible to identify the weak points in the design and thus to develop improved systems. Since 1980 several different reserch and showcase systems with an annual performance of 300 -400 kWh/m2 solar collector have been built. Common denominators for the new solar systems are simple design, high reliability and lower cost.

Ellehauge, K.

1984-05-01

186

Careful planning guarantees success. Anaerobic purification of chemical waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An 'upflow anaerobic sludge blanket' helps not only to reliably clean waste waters of the food industry, but it was also proven to be efficient in cleaning chemical waste waters. This, however, requires a careful feasibility study. The suitability of the biothane method was investigated at the example of waste water treatment in a phenol producing factory.

Eggert, W.; Borghans, A.J.M.L.; Driel, A. van

1988-06-01

187

Management and destruction of all the wastes produced during the water purification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technology evolution in the heat field, applied to the fluidized bed kilns and to the smoke treatments, allows now to ``Degremont`` to propose incineration lines suited to treat all the wastes, stem from one urban water purification station. In the high valorization energy way, this firm can propose gradual evolutions towards incineration channel. A proper drying may constitute a first stage allowing the simultaneous presence of incineration and agricultural valorization solutions. ``Degremont`` proposes in the same aim the sludge and domestic waste incineration. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

Lesoille, M.; Bourdelot, J.C. [Societe Degremont, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1994-12-01

188

Domestic wastes incineration in France situation in 2000 evolution and perspectives the 31.12.2002; Incineration des dechets menagers en France situation en 2000 evolution et perspectives au 31.12.2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the analysis and the conclusions of a working group, concerning the domestic wastes incineration. It presents successively the place of the domestic wastes in the wastes management approach, the regulations, the methodology and the corresponding results of an inquiry realized in 2000 and the research programs on the incineration as the Best Available Techniques, the sanitary impacts of the UIOM (domestic wastes incineration plants), the vitrification, the greenhouse effect. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2003-07-01

189

Quality of Water from Domestic Wells in Principal Aquifers of the United States, 1991-2004: Overview of Major Findings  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 43 million people - about 15 percent of the U.S. population - rely on domestic wells as their source of drinking water (Hutson and others, 2004). The quality and safety of water from domestic wells, also known as private wells, are not regulated by the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act or, in most cases, by state laws. Rather, individual homeowners are responsible for maintaining their domestic well systems and for monitoring water quality. The lack of regular monitoring of domestic wells makes periodic assessments at national, regional, and local scales important sources for providing information about this key source of drinking water. This study from the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assesses water-quality conditions for about 2,100 domestic wells. The sampled wells are located in 48 states and in parts of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for water supply in the United States. As many as 219 properties and contaminants, including pH, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were measured. Fecal indicator bacteria and additional radionuclides were analyzed for a smaller number of wells. The large number of contaminants assessed and the broad geographic coverage of the present study provides a foundation for an improved understanding of the quality of water from the major aquifers tapped by domestic supply wells in the United States.

DeSimone, Leslie A.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Gilliom, Robert J.

2009-01-01

190

The use of helical heat exchanger for heat recovery domestic water-cooled air-conditioners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study on the performance of a domestic water-cooled air-conditioner (WAC) using tube-in-tube helical heat exchanger for preheating of domestic hot water was carried out. The main aims are to identify the comprehensive energy performance (space cooling and hot water preheating) of the WAC and the optimum design of the helical heat exchanger taking into account the variation in tap water flow rate. A split-type WAC was set up for experimental study at different indoor and outdoor conditions. The cooling output, the amount of recovered heat, and the power consumption for different hot water flow rates were measured. The experimental results showed that the cooling coefficient of performance (COP) of the WAC improves with the inclusion of the heat recovery option by a minimum of 12.3%. This can be further improved to 20.6% by an increase in tap water flow rate. Same result was observed for the comprehensive COP of the WAC. The maximum achievable comprehensive COP was 4.92 when the tap water flow rate was set at 7.7 L/min. The overall heat transfer coefficient of the helical heat exchanger under various operating conditions were determined by Wilson plot. A mathematical model relating the over all heat transfer coefficient to the outer pipe diameter was established which provides a convenient way of optimising the design of the helical heat exchanger.

2009-01-01

191

Investigating the Effectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV) Water Purification as Replacement of Chlorine Disinfection in Domestic Water Supply  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domestic water supply to residential buildings through hand-dug wells has been widely accepted as a reliable substitute to government owned municipal water supply system in Nigeria. This Paper investigates theeffectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV) Water Sterilizers as a suitable replacement of chlorine disinfection in the removal of microbiological contaminants in domestic water supply. Water from an established contaminated well in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, were subjected, simultaneously and in parallel, to chlorine dosing and contact withUV light, over a period of seven (7) days without pre-filtration, and additional seven (7) days with pre-filtration. Pre-filtration was accomplished by the use of a calibrated pressure filter. Effluent water samples were taken daily for the two (2) scenarios to the laboratory for physical, chemical and biological analyses. The resultsindicated that UV water purification method was more effective only when pre-filtration of raw water was introduced. With monitored prefiltration prior to ultraviolet purification, the colony count, MPN Coliform Organisms and MPN E. Coli Organisms recorded seven day-average values of 1, 0 and 0, respectively. In both scenarios, it was confirmed that UV method produced no bi-products and did not alter the taste, pH or other properties of water, in contradistiction to chlorine disinfection method

Adegbola; Adedayo Ayodele; Olaoye; Rebecca Adepate

2012-01-01

192

Yeasts and yeast-like fungal contaminants of water used for domestic purposes in Jos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water used for domestic purposes is ideally required to be free from contaminants. Various contaminants have frequently affected the quality of such water. Water samples were obtained from 150 sources including 72 wells, 60 streams, 17 taps, and one borehole, randomly selected from five residential areas in Jos, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires and one-to- one interview was used to obtain information on features of location and use of facilities in each area. Eighty (53.3%) water sources were contaminated, predominantly wells (70.8%). The locations (identified in code) with the highest number of contaminated sources were AGO (60.0%), GBU (56.7%) and FGD (56.7%). AGD and FGD also had the highest ratio of households to one water source (25:1). Eighty- two fungi were isolated, predominantly Candida tropicalis (23.2%), Candida lipolytica (10.9%) and Rhodotorula sp (9.7%). Candida lipolytica was the highest (42.9%) contaminant in tap water. Rhodotorula sp was found in all types of water sources sampled. Type of water source had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the presence of some fungi in the water. The residential area (Location) had a significant effect on contamination of water sources by some yeasts. Water sources for domestic use in Jos are contaminated by yeasts and yeast-like fungi. Frequency of use, exposure of the facility to dirt, and contaminations of surroundings contribute to the occurrence of fungi in water sources and, by implication, the prevalence of fungal infections.

Grace Mebi Ayanbimpe; Victoria Eyiojo Abbah; Clement Akpenpuun Ior

2012-01-01

193

Environmental sustainability of ozonating municipal waste water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and endocrine disrupters). As part of this work a holistic based prioritisation among technologies and optimisations is to be done. Tools for this prioritisation include life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost/efficiency. The LCA is performed as a comparative LCA and the concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts is introduced in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) part. Furthermore, as novel approaches, potential ecotoxicity impact from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impact from pathogens (and whole effluent toxicity) are to be included. In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation.

Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

194

Environmental sustainability of waste water ozonation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and endocrine disrupters). As part of this work a holistic based prioritisation among technologies and optimisations have been done. Tools for this prioritisation include life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost/efficiency. The LCA is performed as a comparative LCA and the concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts is introduced in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) part. A relatively high number of micropollutants, especially pharmaceuticals, have been included. Furthermore, as novel approaches, preliminary methodologies for impact categories on pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been developed. About 15 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies (or combinations) have been assessed. This paper will present the LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation.

Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

195

Waste water recycling in steam flood operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot waste water recycling project was conducted at Conoco's Cat Canyon Field, Santa Barbara County, California. The project developed a process to treat the field's high silica produced water for reuse in steam generation. The treatment of produced water was found to be more complex than conventional fresh water treatment techniques currently employed in the field. Oil, solids, and iron were each removed from the process stream before softening the water. Softening was then conducted in a two-stage process consisting of strong acid primary softeners followed by a weak acid polisher. Continuous operation of this pilot recycling plant virtually eliminated scale deposition inside a test steam generator.

Burton, R.

1983-03-01

196

Radiation purification of waste water from cyanides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A possibility of using a radiation method for purification of waste water from cyanides of nitrile department of acrylic acid containing 15-100 mg/l CN-ions is investigated. Irradiation of samples has been executed by a source of ?-radiation Cs137. Dose rate is equal to 65 rad/s. 90% degree of cyanide decomposition is attained at the dose of 0.45 Mrad. Radiolysis of waste waters has been conducted under heating for increase of the degree of purification and decrease of absorbed radiation dose. At temperature growth up to 90 deg C complete decomposition of cyanides has been attained at the dose of 0.5 Mrad. Cyanates, carbonates and ammonium ions are shown to be formed as the main products of radiolysis

1984-01-01

197

Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study focus on the analysis, modeling and simulation of solar domestic hot water(DHW) systems. Problems related to the system operation such as input weather data and hot water load conditions are also investigated.In order to investigate the heat loss as part of the total heat load, dynamic model of distribution network is developed and simulations are carried out for typical designed circulation type of distribution networks. For dynamic simulation of thermosyphon and drain-back solar DHW systems, thermosyphon loop model and drain-back tank model are put forward. Based on the simulations, several recommendations are given for optimum design of such types of systems.

Qin, Lin

1999-01-01

198

Thermosyphon solar domestic hot water systems: development of a method of seasonal thermal performance prediction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer simulation program that predicts the seasonal thermal performance of thermosyphon domestic hot water systems was developed. This report summarizes the development of the simulation program and includes mathematical modelling assumptions applicable to the computer model. The program (SYPHON) has been documented elsewhere and written in interactive form to facilitate general use. It models water, glycol, and refrigerant loop systems. Comparison of simulted system performance to experimental results, reported in the literature, indicated good accuracy but further testing is required. 19 refs., 12 figs.

Carpenter, S.C.; Chamberlain, M.J.

1983-08-01

199

Comparison of the experimental and numerical studies on domestic water boilers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Domestic hot water heaters are used usually as heating source for residence. Fossil fuels are fired in furnace. One of the walls surrounded the furnace may be lined with refractors. Heat from hot gas to the surfaces is transferred by radiation in furnace and by convection in fire tubes. The presented paper consists of two parts, experimental study and Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code application on a 20 000 kcal/h hat capacity hot water heater. The predictions are in good agreement with the measured values. (authors)

Erhan, Boke; Nedim, Turmen; Ahmet, Ansoy [Istanbul Technical Univ., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey)

2000-07-01

200

Features of waste water purification by electroflotation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods are described and results are presented for studies of the dependence of the effect of purification and sterilization of waste waters of the Novograd-Volynskii meat packing plant on the current density and duration of treatment of them on a semiproduction electroflotation machine. Optimal values of the current density (10mA/cm/sup 2/) and process time (10 min) were determined. Recommendations are given for increasing the sterilization effect.

Kucherenko, G.S.; Golovash, E.A.; Salyuk, A.I.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Method of tungsten separation from waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Method of tungsten separation from waste waters by means of treatment with sodium dithionite at tungsten-dithionite-ion weight ratio 1:0.5 - 1.5 and pH 1-0 is presented. The technologically simple method suggested permits to attain a high degree of precipitation and the final product after the precipitate calcination at 650 deg C is prepared in the form of practically pure WO3.

1983-01-01

202

Quantitative Assessment of Water Use Efficiency in Urban and Domestic Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential of water savings at property, household and urban levels, through the application of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs), as well as their quantification using the software Wise Water. Household centered measures are identified that allow for significant reduction of drinking water consumption with comparatively small effort, and without limitation of comfort. Furthermore, a method for the estimation of water recycling, for rainwater harvesting and for the utilization potential as locally available renewable freshwater is presented. Based on this study, the average drinking water consumption in urban households of industrialized countries could be reduced by approximately one third, without significant investment costs, either within the framework of new constructions or by the remodeling of water and sanitation systems in residential buildings. By using a secondary water quality, the drinking water demand could even be reduced by 50%. In the case of an area-wide application, the overall fresh water demand of cities and the exploitation of fresh water resources could be significantly reduced. Due to the comparability of the domestic water use of the investigated households, the findings are internationally transferable, for example to countries in Europe, Asia, and also the USA.

Thorsten Schuetze; Vicente Santiago-Fandiño

2013-01-01

203

Estimate of the pollution removed by leaching of standard domestic waste: mass assessments carried out in batches and columns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Batch and column tests allowed estimation of the mobilization of pollution of standard domestic waste in leachate and biogas. Three laboratory tests (biochemical methane potential (BMP), tank leaching test (TLT), and column tests) have been applied to evaluate the emission of pollutants in liquid and/or gas phase from reconstituted municipal solid waste (MSW) on the basis of French waste. In the case of the batch tests (BMP and TLT), BMP tests indicated a maximum organic carbon share produced by waste (biogas potential) equal to 59% of the initial carbon. The maximum quantity of carbon likely to be leached by the waste (TLT) corresponded to 6% of the carbon contained in the waste. On the other hand, during column tests, 3.3% of carbon was leached and 8% of carbon was evacuated in biogas at the end of a 440-day follow-up. It thus appears that the test conditions have a great influence on the remobilization of pollution. In particular it has been proven than the greater the optimization of the liquid/solid ratio, the agitation, the sowing, and the temperature, the greater the pollutant is leached. This study highlights the possible use of batch and column tests to evaluate the pollution risk of a landfill. PMID:19189751

Feuillade, Geneviève; Francois, Véronique; Matejka, Guy; Skhiri, Nathalie; Lagier, Thomas

2008-12-01

204

FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 5 - Water, Plumbing & Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

... FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 5 - Water, Plumbing & Waste. ... 5-4 Sewage, Other Liquid Waste, And Rainwater. Subparts. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

205

Domestic wastes and related products management: transport and logistic; Gestion des dechets menagers et assimiles: transport et logistique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a recall of the regulatory framework and of the plans elaboration modalities, it presents the main transports challenges and the domestic wastes logistic, at a local and national scale. It offers a synthesis of data in matter of the first collecting and processing management, the transfer and the transport management and the collecting and transport facilities. The technical aspects are presented as the economical conditions of exploitation and evaluation of the environmental impacts. Ten cases studies illustrate the possible solutions. (A.L.B.)

NONE

1998-07-01

206

Process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from nuclear power stations is proposed, characterized by the fact that the water is taken continuously through a water decomposition cell. If the water does not have sufficient conductivity itself, a substance raising the electrical conductivity is added to the water to be treated. The electrolysis is situated in the waste water tank. (orig./RB)

1980-11-24

207

[Changes of bacterial community structure on reusing domestic sewage of Daoxianghujing Hotel to landscape water].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 16S rDNA library was used to evaluate the bacterial diversity and identify dominant groups of bacteria in different treatment pools in the domestic sewage system of the Beijing Daoxianghujing Hotel. The results revealed that there were many types of bacteria in the hotel domestic sewage, and the bacterial Shannon-Weaver diversity index was 3.12. In addition, epsilon Proteobacteria was found to be the dominant group with the ratio of 32%. In addition, both the CFB phylum, Fusobacteria, gamma Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were also reached to 9%-15%. After treated with the reclaimed water station, the bacterial Shannon-Weaver diversity index was reduced to 2. 41 and beta Proteobacteria became the dominant group and occupied 73% of the total clones. However, following artificial wetland training, the bacterial Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the sample increased to 3.38, Actinobacteria arrived to 33% and became the most dominant group; Cyanobacteria reached to 26%, and was the second dominant group. But, the control sample comprised 38% Cyanobacteria, and mainly involved in Cyanobium, Synechoccus and Microcystis, with ratios of 47.1%, 17.6% and 8.8%, respectively. Some bacteria of Microcystis aenruginosa were also detected, which probably resulted in the light bloom finally. Therefore, the bacterial diversity and community structures changed in response to treatment of the hotel domestic sewage; there was no cyanobacteria bloom explosion in the treated water. This study will aid in investigation the changes of microbial ecology in different types of water and providing the useful information for enhancing the cyanobacteria blooms control from ecological angle. PMID:20623868

Zhu, Jing-nan; Wang, Xiao-dan; Zhai, Zhen-hua; Ma, Wen-lin; Li, Rong-qi; Wang, Xue-lian; Li, Yan-hong

2010-05-01

208

[Changes of bacterial community structure on reusing domestic sewage of Daoxianghujing Hotel to landscape water].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 16S rDNA library was used to evaluate the bacterial diversity and identify dominant groups of bacteria in different treatment pools in the domestic sewage system of the Beijing Daoxianghujing Hotel. The results revealed that there were many types of bacteria in the hotel domestic sewage, and the bacterial Shannon-Weaver diversity index was 3.12. In addition, epsilon Proteobacteria was found to be the dominant group with the ratio of 32%. In addition, both the CFB phylum, Fusobacteria, gamma Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were also reached to 9%-15%. After treated with the reclaimed water station, the bacterial Shannon-Weaver diversity index was reduced to 2. 41 and beta Proteobacteria became the dominant group and occupied 73% of the total clones. However, following artificial wetland training, the bacterial Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the sample increased to 3.38, Actinobacteria arrived to 33% and became the most dominant group; Cyanobacteria reached to 26%, and was the second dominant group. But, the control sample comprised 38% Cyanobacteria, and mainly involved in Cyanobium, Synechoccus and Microcystis, with ratios of 47.1%, 17.6% and 8.8%, respectively. Some bacteria of Microcystis aenruginosa were also detected, which probably resulted in the light bloom finally. Therefore, the bacterial diversity and community structures changed in response to treatment of the hotel domestic sewage; there was no cyanobacteria bloom explosion in the treated water. This study will aid in investigation the changes of microbial ecology in different types of water and providing the useful information for enhancing the cyanobacteria blooms control from ecological angle.

Zhu JN; Wang XD; Zhai ZH; Ma WL; Li RQ; Wang XL; Li YH

2010-05-01

209

Control of organic substances in water and waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presence of organic substances of industrial origin in waste waters, storm runoff, and in surface and groundwaters may not always be an unmitigated evil--but, it is safe to say, it never is good. In 1976, EPA was required to give special emphasis to 129 priority pollutants that present probable hazard in the water resource. Of these 129 priority pollutants, 114 are organic. This document is comprised of 14 chapters, each prepared by a specialist. Chapter 1, Fundamental Considerations in the Removal of Organic Substances in Water is, in essence, an examination of a wide spectrum of physical-chemical principles that are being used, are under study, or may in the future be adapted for use in the separation of organic pollutants in waters.

Berger, B.B.

1983-04-01

210

Simulation study on energy conservation of home lifestyle by solar domestic hot water system (SDHW)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy conservation is important for both economic and environmental reasons. The effective use of solar energy presents opportunities for an alternative energy source which may offer economic savings as well as environmental protection. The social benefits of investing in energy conservation include the creation of jobs in energy-related services such as manufacturing or the installation of energy saving equipment. In addition, homes and workplaces would be heated more easily and inexpensively, thereby contributing to a better standard of living and comfort, particularly for low income families. This study presented a method to conserve conventional fuels by switching to a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system where municipal water is feed directly by pressure flow into a copper coil heat exchanger. For a given energy demand pattern, energy can be saved by substituting the solar hot water system for domestic applications such as cooking and washing. The amount of conserved energy was calculated in this study by simulating the thermal efficiency based on experimental data and climatic conditions. The study demonstrated that a SDHW system with a heat exchanger had an obvious influence on energy conservation. The annual energy savings was in the order of 6609 MJ with an average yearly conversion efficiency of 67 per cent. As such, SDHW systems are expected to play a greater role in Japanese housing development in the coming decades. 7 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

Xu, P.; Gao, W.; Xuan, J. [Kitakyushu Univ., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Environment Engineering

2007-08-09

211

Assessment of relation between C-14 discharge and water chemistry of domestic PHWRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To investigate the relation between the maintenance of IX columns and the amount of C-14 release, we reviewed the operation records and chemical analysis data of Moderator and Moderator Cover Gas systems of all the four units of Wolsong NPPs, the domestic Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. According to the result of the present surveys, it is suggested that the IX columns be changed at least every 80 days and not be re-used during the normal operations of reactors if they have been already used in the course of Gadolinium level control in the Moderator for the reactivity control before and after the reactor shutdown

2001-01-01

212

Solar heated domestic hot water by a storage unit containing two grade phase change material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of a two-grade heat storage system for domestic solar hot water systems was discussed. The new system is based on calcium chloride hexahydrate and calcium chloride tetrahydrate. Changes in storage capacity during different cycles are described. Difficulties of heat storage in solar water heating arise from the difference in the available solar gain and the time schedule of hot water consumption. Having a phase change material (PCM) with a melting point near the maximum of the available temperature means that the excess solar gain can be accumulated without an increase in temperature. The capacity of the system is limited by the latent heat and the mass of the PCM. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Bajnoczy, G.; Gagyi Palffy, E.; Prepostffy, E.; Zold, A. [Technical Univ. of Budapest, Budapest (Hungary)

1998-05-01

213

Issues of norm-setting for surface waste water quality / ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ???  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors consider the specific features of practical norm-setting for the parameters of surface (rain and melt) waste water from the point of view of valuation of this waste water category impact on the state of natural and man-made water bodies. / ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? (???????? ? ?????) ??????? ??? ? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????.

Kichev D. S. / ????? ??????? ?????????????; Kicheva T. D. / ?????? ?????? ?????????

214

Sound-proofing wall unit - made of recycled waste materials, providing screening effect and reducing loading of ground water  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soundproofing units have (a) load bearing compartments or plant trays of recycled safety fence beams; (b) waste material fillings in the form of compost as nutrient carrier in the plant trays and old tyre rubber chips acting partly as absorbing component and, when mixed with compost, as planting medium; (c) statically loaded cores provided in the steep banking and consisting of washery tailings from coal extn.); (d) a solar energy system for operating pumps for forced watering of the soundproofing wall; (e) a heated industrial or domestic waste water supply for the watering process; (f) a fleece cover, for the absorbent rubber chip layer in the compost mixt., through which young plants are planted; and (g) an additional ecological environmental effect obtained by use of heated water. ADVANTAGE - The soundproofing wall is inexpensive, employs waste materials, provides a screening effect, can be planted and produces reduced loading of ground water. (20pp Dwg.No.13/22)

UNTERLAENDER ROSWITHA

215

Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

Cooper, Robert C.

1975-01-01

216

Treatment of waste water from refuse incineration plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The waste-water purification systems used at the Bamberg waste incinerator are described as an example of how easily such critical waste water can be treated. Water from flue gas scrubbers and ash washing which contains mercury, heavy metals and salts is precipitated with lime and trimercaptotriazine (TMTl5) in two stages to produce an effluent that meets the strong discharge standards of the F.R.G. (Refs. 12).

Reimann, D.O.

1987-01-01

217

Risk factors for contamination of domestic hot water systems by legionellae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To assess risk factors associated with the contamination of the domestic environment by legionellae, 211 houses in the Quebec City area were randomly selected and water samples were collected from the hot water tank, the shower heads, and the most frequently used faucet. After centrifugation, concentrated samples were seeded in triplicate on BCYE and GPV media. Data on the characteristics of the hot water system and plumbing in the house and on the personal habits of the occupants were collected for each house. Among these 211 houses, hot water was provided by either an oil or gas heater in 33 and by an electric heater in 178. Legionellae were isolated from none of the samples from houses with oil or gas heaters and from 39% (69 of 178) of those with electric water heaters (P less than 0.0001). This association remained highly significant after control for water temperature and other variables in a stratified analysis. In the 178 houses with an electric heater, 12% of the faucets, 15% of the shower heads, and 37% of the water heaters were contaminated. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 2 and 4 were the most frequently isolated strains. Logistic regression showed that factors associated with electric water heater contamination were (i) location of the house in older districts of the city (P less than 0.0001), (ii) old age of the water heater (P = 0.003), and (iii) low water temperature (P = 0.05). Contamination of the water heater was the only factor significantly associated with the contamination of peripheral outlets (P less than 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Alary M; Joly JR

1991-08-01

218

On the Possibilities of Producing Hydrogen by High Temperature Electrolysis of Water Steam Supplied from Biomass or Waste Incineration Units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incineration of biomass and waste is considered to produce water steam, which then would feed the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process in order to produce hydrogen. For these energy sources, in a French context, results show that water steam production cost could be in a range of 0.02 to 0.06 euros per steam kilogram. Potentially 78 million vehicles could be fed with hydrogen coming from the steam produced by the incineration of the currently non valorized biomass and domestic waste. Furthermore, for each energy source the optimized hydrogen production cost estimation has been performed, including investment and operation costs. (authors)

2008-01-01

219

On the Possibilities of Producing Hydrogen by High Temperature Electrolysis of Water Steam Supplied from Biomass or Waste Incineration Units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The incineration of biomass and waste is considered to produce water steam, which then would feed the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process in order to produce hydrogen. For these energy sources, in a French context, results show that water steam production cost could be in a range of 0.02 to 0.06 euros per steam kilogram. Potentially 78 million vehicles could be fed with hydrogen coming from the steam produced by the incineration of the currently non valorized biomass and domestic waste. Furthermore, for each energy source the optimized hydrogen production cost estimation has been performed, including investment and operation costs. (authors)

Rivera-Tinoco, R.; Bouallou, C. [Ecole Natl Super Mines, Ctr Energet et Procedes, F-75006 Paris, (France); Rivera-Tinoco, R.; Mansilla, C.; Werkoff, F. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

2008-07-01

220

Diagnosis of small capacity reverse osmosis desalination unit for domestic water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tunisian norm of drinking water tolerates a maximum TDS of 1.5 g/L, and the domestic water presents usually a salinity grater than 500 mg/L. In the last years, several small capacity reverse osmosis desalination prototypes have been marketed. They are used to desalinate brackish water with TDS lower than 1.5 g/L. This RO unit, tested with tap waters during four years, was diagnosed. The RO unit produces 10-15 L/Hour with a recovery rate between 25 and 40 pour cent and salt rejection in order of 90 pour cent. The salinity of the tested domestic water is located between 0.4 and 1.4 g/L. Water pretreatment is composed of three filtration operations (cartridge filter, granulate active carbon filter and 5 =m cartridge filter). Pretreated water is pumped through RO membrane with maximum pressure of 6 bars. At the 4th year, the RO unit performances were substantial decreased. Recovery rate and salt rejection fall down more than 50 and 100% respectively and the pressure drop increase from 1 to 2.1 bar The membrane regeneration allowed only the rate recovery restoration. The membrane selectivity was not improved. The membrane seems irreversibly damaged by the tap water chlorine none retained by the deficient pretreatment. An autopsy of the used RO membrane was done by different analysis techniques as SEM/EDX, AFM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of membrane (proper and used) surfaces show a deposit film on the used membrane witch evaluated to environ 2 =m, it indicates a fooling phenomenon. The SEM photos show deterioration on the active layer material of the membrane witch seems attacked by the tap water chlorine. The X Rays Diffraction and FTIR show that the deposit collected on the used membrane contains organic and mineral (Gypsum, SiO2 and clays) materials. Silicates and clays can exist in tap waters and reach the RO membrane when the pretreatment micro-filter became deficient. The Gypsum presence is due only to germination on the membrane.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Biology of waste water purification. 4. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the aid of biological waste water purification processes, organic and inorganic pollutants can be removed from household service water and industrial water with great efficiently, and the purified water can be led back into the natural cycle. This successful textbook and manual of biological waste water purification explains biological fundamentals and mechanisms and the technical aspects of purification processes in an easily intelligible manner. The new, revised version reflects the latest state of knowledge. (orig.).

1994-01-01

222

Comparison of the dynamic and input-output methods in a solar domestic hot water system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this work is to present a comparison between two standardized test methods for the evaluation of the energy performance of Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems. The approaches investigated concern the Dynamic method (DST) and the Input-Output method (CSTG). These methods have been officially established as ISO standards, thus they have found wide dissemination, and their results are supposed to be equivalent to one another. A description of the operation principle of each method and the corresponding test procedures is presented, focusing on the aspects related to the practical implementation of these methods on a laboratory level. A Solar Domestic Hot Water system is tested according to both methods. On the basis of the measurements, the characteristic parameters of the SDHW system are calculated for each method and the long-term performance under typical meteorological conditions is estimated. Consequently, a comparative evaluation and analysis of the observed deviations between the results of the two methods are performed. Besides the quantitative comparison, this work has attempted to evaluate the two methods on a qualitative basis as well, by focusing on their functionality, their requirements regarding the number of test days considered and the physical interpretation of the results. (author)

Kaloudis, E.; Mathioulakis, E.; Belessiotis, V. [Solar and other Energy Systems Laboratory, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece); Caouris, Y.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University Campus, University of Patras (Greece)

2010-07-15

223

Simulation programs for ph.D. study of analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in the solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. One of the main objects of the Ph.D. study of `Analysis, Modelling and optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems` is to develop and verify programs for carrying out the simulation and evaluation of the dynamic performance of solar DHW systems. During this study, simulation programs for hot water distribution networks and for certain types of solar DHW systems were developed. (au)

Lin Qin

1998-12-31

224

Temperature levels in domestic hot water systems and growth of Legionella  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper is studied how Legionella develops in a domestic hot water (DHW) system at various conditions. The investigations are done through dynamic simulations and other theoretical calculations. A simple model for growth/dying of Legionella is described. It is shown that if Legionella is released in a limited part of a DHW system that, apart of this, is properly working the risk of getting large concentrations of Legionella at the taps is very small. The main reason for this is that the infected water in the return pipes will be mixed with water from other parts of the system before reaching the taps so that the concentration is decreased greatly. High concentrations of Legionella at the taps are primarily obtained if infected water flows directly to a tap without being mixed with water from other parts of the system. Such situations can for instance arise if the temperature level in the supply pipes is so low that Legionella can multiply in the biofilm in the supply pipes, if a dead end pipe supplies bacteria to a DHW riser, or if Legionella grows in a DHWC riser and the water for some reason flows in the opposite direction (towards the taps). (orig.)

Persson, T.; Wollerstrand, J. [Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund (Sweden)

2004-07-01

225

Development of heat pumps for space and domestic water heating. Design report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A two-speed, air-to-air heat pump designed for space heating has been modified to include a water-cooled condenser and a liquid subcooling heat exchanger to provide domestic water heating. This experimental system heats water while space heating or cooling, and on a water heating only cycle when neither space heating or cooling is required. This interim design report describes the experimental system design. It also projects the performance of this system in comparison to a conventional single-speed, space-heating heat pump system combined with an electric-resistance hot water tank. The higher capacity experimental two-speed heat pump's projected seasonal coefficient of performance, including the compressor, outdoor fan, indoor fan, and circulating pump input, is 2.22 or 28% higher than the conventional heat pump. Adding the supplementary electric-resistance space and water heating energy input, the experimental heating system's performance factor (output/input) was projected at 1.73 or 31% higher than for the conventional heat pump heating system. This represents a 24% reduction in the energy input requirements. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

1981-06-01

226

Pore water chemistry of domestic bentonite for the buffer of a repository: analysis of experimental data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were conducted using synthetic ground water and domestic bentonite. Upon reaction of the bentonite and ground water, ionic concentration, ph and Eh nearly reached a steady-state within a few days. The pore water chemistry was dominated mainly by the mineralogical composition of bentonite. Analytic results showed that sodium, sulfate, and carbonate were major ions, and their concentrations increased to about 4-5 times those of original ground water. The ph increased from 8.1 to 8.9, and the Eh were between 365 mV and 375 mV. The concentration of most dissolved ions increased with increasing bentonite-to-ground water ratio. On the contrary, the ph and Eh were little affected by bentonite-to-ground water ratio. The dependence of ionic concentration upon temperature had different trends with different ions. Little change in the ph occurred up to 80 dg C, and decreased beyond the value of temperature. The Eh rather increased beyond 80 dg C on contrary to ph. (Author). 21 refs., 4 tabs., 18 figs.

Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung

1999-04-01

227

[Psychosocial factors associated with domestic water consumption in a semidesert region].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychosocial factors related with domestic water consumption in Hermosillo, Sonora, a semidesert region in northwestern Mexico. An intentionally selected sample of 198 people (79 men and 119 women) from a higher education institution was used to evaluate the theories of rational action and self-efficacy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A scale with the psychosocial factors to be analyzed and Likert-type items was applied. RESULTS: The age mean was 35 years old. A positive moderate association was found between the diverse factors, particularly between intention-norm, beliefs-intention, beliefs-self-efficacy, attitude-intention, attitude-self-efficacy, and self-efficacy-intention. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that the sample characteristics do not allow results to be generalized, the study shows the usefulness of the psychosocial factors that were analyzed and suggests the possibility of including them in educational programs that promote careful water use at home.

Arreguín-Moreno RH; Román-Pérez R; Laborín-Alvarez JF; Moreno JL; Valdez EA; Valenzuela B

2009-07-01

228

Factors Affecting Domestic Water Consumption in Rural Households upon Access to Improved Water Supply: Insights from the Wei River Basin, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education). PMID:23977190

Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

2013-08-16

229

Risk management in waste water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the continuous restructuring of the water market due to liberalisation, privatisation and internationalisation processes, the requirements on waste water disposal companies have grown. Increasing competition requires a target-oriented and clearly structured procedure. At the same time it is necessary to meet the environment-relevant legal requirements and to design the processes to be environment-oriented. The implementation of risk management and the integration of such a management instrument in an existing system in addition to the use of modern technologies and procedures can help to make the operation of the waste water treatment safer and consequently strengthen market position. The risk management process consists of three phases, risk identification, risk analysis/risk assessment and risk handling, which are based on each other, as well as of the risk managing. To achieve an identification of the risks as complete as possible, a subdivision of the kind of risks (e.g. legal, financial, market, operational) is suggested. One possibility to assess risks is the portfolio method which offers clear representation. It allows a division of the risks into classes showing which areas need handling. The determination of the appropriate measures to handle a risk (e.g. avoidance, reduction, shift) is included in the concluding third phase. Different strategies can be applied here. On the one hand, the cause-oriented strategy, aiming at preventive measures which aim to reduce the probability of occurrence of a risk (e.g. creation of redundancy, systems with low susceptibility to malfunction). On the other hand, the effect-oriented strategy, aiming to minimise the level of damage in case of an undesired occurrence (e.g. use of alarm systems, insurance cover). PMID:16477971

Wagner, M; Strube, I

2005-01-01

230

Risk management in waste water treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the continuous restructuring of the water market due to liberalisation, privatisation and internationalisation processes, the requirements on waste water disposal companies have grown. Increasing competition requires a target-oriented and clearly structured procedure. At the same time it is necessary to meet the environment-relevant legal requirements and to design the processes to be environment-oriented. The implementation of risk management and the integration of such a management instrument in an existing system in addition to the use of modern technologies and procedures can help to make the operation of the waste water treatment safer and consequently strengthen market position. The risk management process consists of three phases, risk identification, risk analysis/risk assessment and risk handling, which are based on each other, as well as of the risk managing. To achieve an identification of the risks as complete as possible, a subdivision of the kind of risks (e.g. legal, financial, market, operational) is suggested. One possibility to assess risks is the portfolio method which offers clear representation. It allows a division of the risks into classes showing which areas need handling. The determination of the appropriate measures to handle a risk (e.g. avoidance, reduction, shift) is included in the concluding third phase. Different strategies can be applied here. On the one hand, the cause-oriented strategy, aiming at preventive measures which aim to reduce the probability of occurrence of a risk (e.g. creation of redundancy, systems with low susceptibility to malfunction). On the other hand, the effect-oriented strategy, aiming to minimise the level of damage in case of an undesired occurrence (e.g. use of alarm systems, insurance cover).

Wagner M; Strube I

2005-01-01

231

Use of surfactants and polyelectrolytes to purify borehole waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is demonstrated that the use of the polyelectrolyte VA-2 and chloride of alkylbenzyldimethylammonia yields a positive effect of purifying waste water from oil boreholes. The oxidizability and quantity of petroleum products is significantly reduced as compared to the original waste water. A study is made of the dependence of the waste water purification process on temperature and pH of the medium, as well as the rate of settling admixtures on the concentration of flocculant. Optimal doses of reagents are established for purifying borehole water. It is suggested that the purified water be used for practical needs of boreholes, in particular, for preparing drilling solutions.

Rudin, V.P.; Markovskiy, B.I.; Streletskiy, I.V.

1981-01-01

232

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC SOLID WASTE IN A BORDER MUNICIPALITY OF MEXICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the behavior in the generation of DSW in an urban community (Ensenada) and two rural communities (San Quintin and Vicente Guerrero) in Baja California, Mexico, during a seasonal period. The analyzed waste came directly from the municipal garbage trucks, taking samples for a week. Per capita generation was determined considering the waste collected and the number of inhabitants; the composition was determined according to standard NMX-AA-015-1985 and the procedure proposed by Ojeda-Benitez et al. (2003). The main components of waste are food waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, and disposable diapers. It is showed that there are significant differences in the composition of DSW between urban and rural populations, despite the geographical proximity. The composition and waste respond to different variables, so that, in order to generalize these settings in rural and urban areas in a region, it is a need to count with more characterization studies.

Paúl A. Taboada-González; Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen; Sara Ojeda-Benitez

2011-01-01

233

Analysis of black fungal biofilms occurring at domestic water taps. II: potential routes of entry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Formation of tenacious and massive black biofilms was occasionally observed at the water-air interphase of water taps and in associated habitats at several locations in Germany. Exophiala lecanii-corni was proven to be the dominant component of these biofilms. Water utility companies were interested to understand by which route fungi building these black biofilms enter their habitat at affected sites in domestic sanitary. A wide variety of fungi is known to be common in wet indoor environments, as well as in the drinking water resources. Two possible routes of entry are therefore considered as follows: (a) distribution by the drinking water system or (b) a retrograde route of colonisation. Previous compositional analysis revealed that the black constituents of biofilms primarily belong to the herpotrichiellaceous black yeast and relatives. Therefore, a systematic search for black fungi in the drinking water system was performed using Sabouraud's glucose agar medium with chloramphenicol and erythritol-chloramphenicol agar as isolation media. Cadophora malorum was the dominant fungus in the investigated drinking water systems, and samples taken from the house connections (n = 50; 74 %, <200 cfu/L), followed by a so far undescribed Alternaria sp. (28 %; <10 cfu/L) and E. castellanii (26 %; <10 cfu/L). Of note, C. malorum was not present in any previously analysed biofilm. Since E. lecanii-corni was not found in any water sample from the distribution system tested, but represented the most abundant species in dark biofilms previously analysed, a retrograde route of contamination in case of E. lecanii-corni can be assumed.

Heinrichs G; Hübner I; Schmidt CK; de Hoog GS; Haase G

2013-06-01

234

Analysis of black fungal biofilms occurring at domestic water taps. II: potential routes of entry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of tenacious and massive black biofilms was occasionally observed at the water-air interphase of water taps and in associated habitats at several locations in Germany. Exophiala lecanii-corni was proven to be the dominant component of these biofilms. Water utility companies were interested to understand by which route fungi building these black biofilms enter their habitat at affected sites in domestic sanitary. A wide variety of fungi is known to be common in wet indoor environments, as well as in the drinking water resources. Two possible routes of entry are therefore considered as follows: (a) distribution by the drinking water system or (b) a retrograde route of colonisation. Previous compositional analysis revealed that the black constituents of biofilms primarily belong to the herpotrichiellaceous black yeast and relatives. Therefore, a systematic search for black fungi in the drinking water system was performed using Sabouraud's glucose agar medium with chloramphenicol and erythritol-chloramphenicol agar as isolation media. Cadophora malorum was the dominant fungus in the investigated drinking water systems, and samples taken from the house connections (n = 50; 74 %, <200 cfu/L), followed by a so far undescribed Alternaria sp. (28 %; <10 cfu/L) and E. castellanii (26 %; <10 cfu/L). Of note, C. malorum was not present in any previously analysed biofilm. Since E. lecanii-corni was not found in any water sample from the distribution system tested, but represented the most abundant species in dark biofilms previously analysed, a retrograde route of contamination in case of E. lecanii-corni can be assumed. PMID:23385953

Heinrichs, Guido; Hübner, Iris; Schmidt, Carsten K; de Hoog, G Sybren; Haase, Gerhard

2013-02-06

235

Development of a process to neutralize water-reactive wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mixed waste storage area at Los Alamos National Laboratory contains a considerable amount of lithium hydride and other water-reactive wastes. A process to neutralize these wastes by controlled hydration in an atmosphere of humid nitrogen is being developed. The kinetics of reaction of lithium hydride with water vapor has been studied at bench scale. The reaction progress can be predicted using the Unreacted Shrinking Core Model for noncatalytic solid-fluid reactions. This model will be utilized in designing of a skid-mounted treatment unit to neutralize water-reactive wastes.

Lussiez, G.; Dziewinski, J.

1994-02-01

236

Treatment of contaminated waste water by reverse osmosis membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper present the results obtained in treatment by reverse osmosis membrane of waste waters containing radioactive elements and other dissolved heavy or rare metals. Cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membranes were used for removal and recovery uranium from mine waters, pond waters and the other waste waters from ore processing. The flux permeate and rejection for solutes presented in solution were determined. The experiments were performed at laboratory scale. The operation conditions are described.

1999-08-08

237

Microwave treatment of industrial waste water sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steel mills in the US generate approximately 1 million tons of sludge annually. This is mainly a residue of cooling water, lubricating oils, and metallic fines from hot strip rolling mills and other operations. At present the separation of sludge from the liquid requires large settling tanks, takes several hours of time, and produces a residue that must be disposed of at high cost. The EPRI Center for Materials Production, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has supported development of a microwave based treatment system. This new process, developed by Carnegie Mellon Research Institute of Carnegie Mellon University, and patented by EPRI is 30 times faster, requires 90% less space, and eliminates land-filling by producing materials of value. Electricity usage is only 0.5 kWh per gallon. A review by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Waste Recycle Technology Task Force of this and various other approaches, concluded that further work on the microwave technology was justified. Subsequently additional work was undertaken toward optimizing the process for treating metallic waste sludges containing lime and polymers. This effort cofunded by EPRI and the AISI was successfully concluded in late 1994. Next a two phase program is being developed to commercialize the process. Phase 1 will demonstrate the technology in a large scale batch mode. Phase 2 will be a commercial scale continuous installation at a steel mill site projected for 1996.

Goodwill, J.E. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

238

Radioactive waste management practices with KWU-boiling water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Kraftwerk Union boiling water reactor is used to demonstrate the reactor auxiliary systems which are applied to minimize the radioactive discharge. Based on the most important design criteria the philosophy and function of the various systems for handling the off-gas, ventilation air, waste water and concentrated waste are described. (orig.)

1976-09-06

239

Radioactivity in waste water samples from COGEMA supplied by Greenpeace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental organization Greenpeace sampled waste water from the reprocessing plant COGEMA in La Hague, France, in May 1999. On request of the Inspection Environmental Hygiene, The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) determined the radioactivity of the waste water samples. 5 refs.

1999-01-01

240

Waste water treatment of hydrometallurgical mill in mine No. 754  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The author briefly introduces some measures to waste water treatment of hydrometallurgical mill of Uranium Mine No. 754. It is shown in practice that making rational use of waste water is advantageous to production, reducing qcost and lightening environment pollution

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Design, Simulation, and Analysis of Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems in Phoenix, Arizona  

Science.gov (United States)

Research was conducted to quantify the energy and cost savings of two different domestic solar water heating systems compared to an all-electric water heater for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona. The knowledge gained from this research will enable utilities to better align incentives and consumers to make more informed decisions prior to purchasing a solar water heater. Daily energy and temperature data were collected in a controlled, closed environment lab. Three mathematical models were designed in TRNSYS 17, a transient system simulation tool. The data from the lab were used to validate the TRNSYS models, and the TRNSYS results were used to project annual cost and energy savings for the solar water heaters. The projected energy savings for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona are 80% when using the SunEarthRTM system with an insulated and glazed flat-plate collector, and 49% when using the FAFCO RTM system with unglazed, non-insulated flat-plate collectors. Utilizing all available federal, state, and utility incentives, a consumer could expect to recoup his or her investment after the fifth year if purchasing a SunEarth RTM system, and after the eighth year if purchasing a FAFCO RTM system. Over the 20-year analysis period, a consumer could expect to save 2,519 with the SunEarthRTM system, and 971 with the FAFCORTM system.

De Fresart, Edouard Thomas

242

A study of plastic shallow solar pond water heater for domestic applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The idea of a shallow solar pond (SSP) water heater was derived from the plastic bag water heater which was conceived by the Japanese as early as 1930. Essentially, it consists of a plastic bag made of a black PVC film acting as an absorber and a transparent cover sealed together along its edges with the provision of an inlet and outlet for draining the water in and out at both ends. In view of the domestic applications of small Indian families, the system was experimented upon continously for a week to study its performance for two different modes of operations viz. nonwithdrawal and intermittent withdrawal of hot water. An analysis of such a system was developed earlier. The same analysis has been utilized to compare the results of the experimental measurements with the corresponding numerical calculations. Subsequently, in order to see the utility of such a system, an economic analysis in terms of the cost of useful energy has also been made and compared with that of the conventional systems.

Sodha, M.S.; Bansal, N.K.; Bansal, P.K.; Hirishikeshan, D.S.

1985-01-01

243

Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively.

Muhammad BG; Jaafar MS; Azhar AR; Akpa TC

2012-04-01

244

Fermentation of household wastes and industrial waste water; Vergaerung von haeuslichen Abfaellen und Industrieabwaessern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive brochure reviews various technologies for the environment-friendly treatment of organic wastes and residues. The principles of anaerobic digestion are discussed. Authorities, planners and engineers concerned with waste treatment are provided with an overview of current technology in the organic wastes area. The brochure emphasises the importance of fermentation processes in waste treatment, discusses the legal pre-requisites for biogas production, lists the biological and process-oriented fundamentals of fermentation and examines the energy potential of biogenic wastes and waste water. Further, details are given on the treatment of both industrial waste water and solid organic wastes and, finally, the economics of fermentation is examined. Useful data is presented in table form and the various processes described are illustrated by schematics and flow diagrams. An appendix lists suggestions for further reading on the subject.

Edelmann, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie ' arbi' , Maschwanden (Switzerland); Engeli, H. [Probag AG, Dietikon (Switzerland); Glauser, M. [Biol-Conseils SA, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Hofer, H. [HTH-Verfahrenstechnik, Winterthur (Switzerland); Membrez, Y. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Meylan, J.-H. [Lausanne (Switzerland); Schwitzguebel, J.-P. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Genie biologique, Lausanne (Switzerland)

1993-07-01

245

Integration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila in drinking water biofilms grown on domestic plumbing materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drinking water biofilms were grown on coupons of plumbing materials, including ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (EPDM) rubber, silane cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X b), electron-ray cross-linked PE (PE-X c) and copper under constant flow-through of cold tap water. After 14 days, the biofilms were spiked with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila and Enterobacter nimipressuralis (10(6)cells/mL each). The test bacteria were environmental isolates from contamination events in drinking water systems. After static incubation for 24h, water flow was resumed and continued for 4 weeks. Total cell count and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) of biofilms were monitored, and P. aeruginosa, L. pneumophila and E. nimipressuralis were quantified, using standard culture-based methods or culture-independent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). After 14 days total cell counts and HPC values were highest on EPDM followed by the plastic materials and copper. P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila became incorporated into drinking water biofilms and were capable to persist in biofilms on EPDM and PE-X materials for several weeks, while copper biofilms were colonized only by L. pneumophila in low culturable numbers.E. nimipressuralis was not detected in any of the biofilms. Application of the FISH method often yielded orders of magnitude higher levels of P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila than culture methods. These observations indicate that drinking water biofilms grown under cold water conditions on domestic plumbing materials, especially EPDM and PE-X in the present study, can be a reservoir for P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila that persist in these habitats mostly in a viable but non-culturable state.

Moritz MM; Flemming HC; Wingender J

2010-05-01

246

Effect of color removal agent on textiles waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of color removal agent (CRA) on textile waste water has been studied. The aim of this work is to determine the optimum condition for CRA to react on the textile waste water and to see the effect of CRA on waste water with different Chemical Oxygen Demand. 8 ml CRA was used to treat 800 mls of sample with various COD ranging between 2500 mg/ l-500 mg/ l. The results showed that CRA totally remove the colour of textile waste water at pH ranging from 6 to 8. At an optimum condition CRA works efficiently on waste water with COD 2300 mg/ l for reduction of suspended solid and turbidity. It also observed, sludge accumulation was depended on COD concentration. Color removal curves for different initial COD concentration also obtained. (author)

2010-01-01

247

Use of ionizing radiation in waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A survey is presented of methods and possibilities of applying ionizing radiation in industrial waste water treatment. The most frequently used radiation sources include the 60Co and 137Cs isotopes and the 90Sr-90Y combined source. The results are reported and the methods used are described of waste water treatment by sedimenting impurities and decomposing organic and inorganic compounds by ionizing radiation. It was found that waste water irradiation accelerated sedimentation and decomposition processes. The doses used varied between 50 and 500 krads. Ionizing radiation may also be used in waste water disinfection in which the effects are used of radiation on microorganisms and of the synthesis of ozone which does not smell like normally used chlorine. The described methods are still controversial from the economic point of view but the cost of waste water treatment by irradiation will significantly be reduced by the use of spent fuel elements. (J.B.)

1976-01-01

248

Discussing simply waste water treatment in building green mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Analysis simplfy it is important and necessary that uran ore enterprise build the green mine .According to focusing on waste water treatment in building green mine of some uran ore enterprise,analysis the problem in treating mine water, technics waste water, tailings water before remoulding the system of waster water treatment, evaluate the advanced technics, satisfy ability, steady effect, reach the mark of discharge. According to the experimental unit of building the green mine,some uran ore enterprise make the waster water reaching the mark of discharge after remoulding the system of waster water treatment.It provides valuable experienceto uran ore enterprise in building green mine. (authors)

2010-01-01

249

Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

Dennehy, G

1983-04-01

250

The Design and Management of Intelligent Systems in Mechanical Domestic Water Meters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The design and implementation of mechanical domestic water meters in current industrial organization and intellectual properties have been registered as an invention to solve the problems of current meters. The device operation includes inquiry of printing, subscription connection and disconnection in an emergency. This system includes a software and hardware parts on the users and the control center connecting with two-way mobile phone. Central control software sends the message through the wireless telecommunication lines to the user’s software, requesting the desired information and also provides the commands needed to be sent through the same. The same information can also be submitted to the control center. Through the same way, some of advantages of this method are as follows: installing on existing meters, cheap cost of inquiry call meter, the possibility of declaring illegal manipulation to the control center, the exchange of information using information encoding, and manipulating digital meters applying minor changes.

Majid Meghdadi; Saeed Ghasemi

2011-01-01

251

Microbial growth in domestic hot water systems with special emphasis on connections to district heating networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is by now well-estalished that domestic hot water systems often harbour Legionella bacteria. Measurements into a number of Danish systems have revealed many other bacteria, among them the thermophilic species Thermus, which is predominantly found on heating coils, where local temperatures are higher. This bacterium not only hampers heat transfer due to fouling, but may also be pathogenic, due to release of endotoxins. Its presence may explain a wide spectrum of symptoms experienced by people after hot baths, such as rashes and itching. The paper summarizes these findings, and on this basis engineering and microbiological considerations are presented in an effort to find ways of future control strategies that go beyond Legionella prevention. Special attention is given to district heating connections, in which low supply and return temperatures are generally wanted in the primary circuit. (author) 16 refs.

Frederiksen, S. (Lund Institute of Technology, Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund (SE)); Krongaard Kristensen, K. (Regional Food and Hygiene Authority, Koebenhavns Amt Vest, Glostrup (DK))

1991-01-01

252

An investigation of photovoltaic powered pumps in direct solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of photovoltaic powered pumps in direct solar domestic hot water (PV-SDHW) systems has been studied. The direct PV- SDHW system employs a photovoltaic array, a separately excited DC- motor, a centrifugal pump, a thermal collector, and a storage tank. A search methodology for an optimum PV-SDHW system configuration has been proposed. A comparison is made between the long-term performance of a PV-SDHW system and a conventional SDHW system operating under three control schemes. The three schemes are: an ON-OFF flow controlled SDHW system operating at the manufacturer-recommended constant flow rate, and a linear proportional flow controlled SDHW system with the flow proportional to the solar radiation operating under an optimum proportionality. 13 refs., 6 figs.

Al-Ibrahim, A.M.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Beckman, W.A.

1996-09-01

253

Cost and performance comparison of drainback and integral collector storage systems for residential domestic hot water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work performed in FY 1984 at the Solar Energy Research Institute as part of the continuing effort to lower the delivered energy cost of solar domestic hot water and space heating systems. In this work, a cost and performance comparison of drainback and integral collector storage (ICS) systems was conducted. Cost data for installed system costs were developed for both systems. Performance for the systems was generated using either accepted design tools (FCHART for drainback systems) or new methodologies (for the ICS systems). The cost and performance data were used to calculate discounted payback as a means for comparing the two systems and for assessing their market potential. The results of this economic analysis show that ICS systems have lower discounted paybacks than commercially available drainback systems. Low-cost drainback systems using new, low-cost components have about the same discounted payback as ICS systems.

Lewandowski, A.; Leboeuf, C.M.; Kutscher, C.F.

1985-11-01

254

Influence of domestic hot water parameters on the energy consumption of large buildings in Senegal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates the effects of domestic hot water (DHW) parameters on the energy consumption of large buildings in Senegal. Three types of reference buildings have been selected and developed (residence, office and hotel), and for each of them, the standard values of the three studied parameters (distribution temperature, flow rate and heat tank losses) are defined. The DOE-2.1E building energy program has been employed for computer simulations. It has been found that if the magnitude of their positive incremental impact is considered, the DHW parameters can be classified according to the following decreasing order: 1. heat tank losses, 2. flow rate and 3. distribution temperature. Then, for each of the three types of buildings, we established a discrete series of options of electricity consumption reduction by limitation of the DHW parameters values. For further developments, these options can be employed by researchers to build an Energy Efficiency Code applicable to large buildings in West Africa. (Author)

Ndoye, Banda; Sarr, Mamadou [Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Lab. de Thermodynamique et Energetique, Thies (Senegal)

2003-09-01

255

Influence of domestic hot water parameters on the energy consumption of large buildings in Senegal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper investigates the effects of domestic hot water (DHW) parameters on the energy consumption of large buildings in Senegal. Three types of reference buildings have been selected and developed (residence, office and hotel), and for each of them, the standard values of the three studied parameters (distribution temperature, flow rate and heat tank losses) are defined. The DOE-2.1E building energy program has been employed for computer simulations. It has been found that if the magnitude of their positive incremental impact is considered, the DHW parameters can be classified according to the following decreasing order: 1. heat tank losses, 2. flow rate and 3. distribution temperature. Then, for each of the three types of buildings, we established a discrete series of options of electricity consumption reduction by limitation of the DHW parameters values. For further developments, these options can be employed by researchers to build an Energy Efficiency Code applicable to large buildings in West Africa

2003-01-01

256

REVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE WASTE WATER TREATMENT OPTION FOR URBAN SANITATION FACILITIES IN DEVELOPING COUTRIES, CASE STUDY: UPPER BHIMA BASIN, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generation and accumulation of domestic waste from fast growing human settlements is becoming a major environment and health problem in developing country like India. The problem is becoming very acute in urban areas. Appropriate management of these wastes is very important for a positive improvement in the quality of life in cities. With unprecedented growth of cities, the present waste management facilities have been found to be very haphazard and inadequate. Conventional methodologies like conventional sewerage systems presently in use are grossly inadequate to manage the generated waste. As a result, untreated domestic waste finds direct access to water systems or lies untreated on the land surface. Solid waste management also is a major problem in virtually all the cities. This is grossly detrimental to the environment and to the health of the community. Therefore, it becomes necessary to take an overview of the existing situation and to think about appropriate solutions and alternative technologies for the management of these wastes. This paper will highlight one of such treatment option that has been employed in Pune District of Maharashtra State (India).

SAMEER SHASTRI; P.M. RAVAL; S.V. MAPUSKAR

2010-01-01

257

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Science.gov (United States)

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2009-07-01

258

The determinants of domestic water demand. Empirical evidence from Emilia-Romagna municipal data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents empirical evidence on the determinants of water demand for domestic use in one Italian region, the Emilia Romagna, by using municipal data. Two main stems in urban/domestic demand analysis cab be found in the empirical literature. The first deals with the estimation of price or income demand elasticities in the short and the long run. The price demand elasticities can be used for water demand managements purpose while the income price elasticities can be useful in the forecasting process of the water requirements. The second one deals with the estimate of customer willingness to pay increasing in water service quality in holistic sense or concerning single characteristics of the service: safety, flavour, continuity, appearance, pollution rate and cost. The aim of the analysis in this case the elicitation of the direct use, indirect use and non-use values associated to the water resource consumption, by means of direct or indirect techniques. In this paper we focused the analysis in the first stem of the empirical literature in which a cross section data set is required. The paper explores the topic problems of the estimating process whit the analysis of the empirical literature (with particular regard to investigations that use municipal data) and with the analysis of the econometric problems related to the demand estimate. The theoretical model for the water demand analysis is also presented and discussed. Two datasets have been implemented: one with 125 municipalities and four years, the other with 40 municipalities and eleven years. Both the databases bring together municipal water consumption and tariffs data provided by local water utilities and other municipal data (inhabitants, surface, household, income, etc.) stemming from official sources. The econometric analysis is based on both fixed effects, performing better than random effects models, and dynamic panel models. The estimated coefficient of the tariff variable arises always significant and with negative sign: the water demand price elasticity is negative with a value between -0.88 and -1.11, but not significantly different from one, considering the different specifications. The results for the income variable are quite different: in the basic model specification the estimated coefficient is positive and significant while the introduction of the other socio-economic variables change the significance level and sometimes the sign. This applied study is an important starting point for the Italian environment, which lacks structured integrated datasets and consequently reliable estimates on elasticities concerning micro-economic oriented water demand studies. However, further analyses with more municipalities and more years have to be carried out to generalise and made results more robust, since the estimation of price elasticity and the investigation on the determinants of water demand is necessary information for both private and private-public management of water resources.

2004-01-01

259

Comparative health risks of domestic waste combustion in urban and rural Slovakia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper addresses the health risk incurred by two alternative waste management schemes: open burning of household waste in barrels practiced in rural Slovakia and controlled municipal waste combustion in the city of Bratislava. Using agricultural land use data and village population data we formulate three prototype villages, each representing about one-third of the rural population. The two configurations of the controlled combustion are an outdated municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a modern waste-to-energy (WTE) plant equipped with modern air pollution control devices. These configurations actually exist(ed) in Bratislava, Slovakia at the same site, but in different time frames. The CALPUFF model provides direct exposure data and the EMERAM software (developed in this paper) computes indirect exposure. A major source of uncertainty is that of the fraction of waste burned in the open. The analysis presented here assumed 10%. At this level, the cancer risk from open burning ranges from 10 to 80 times the commonly regarded de minimus value of one in a million. This means that underthe U.S. contemporary regulatory culture, some regulatory action to control or enforce the burning ban would be expected. Cancer risks from the incinerator ranged from 7 to 371 in a million while the WTE risks were below 1 in a million. Cancer risks from open burning are higher than those of the WTE plant and at the same time affect a larger portion of concerned population.

Krajcovicová J; Eschenroeder AQ

2007-10-01

260

Comparative health risks of domestic waste combustion in urban and rural Slovakia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the health risk incurred by two alternative waste management schemes: open burning of household waste in barrels practiced in rural Slovakia and controlled municipal waste combustion in the city of Bratislava. Using agricultural land use data and village population data we formulate three prototype villages, each representing about one-third of the rural population. The two configurations of the controlled combustion are an outdated municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a modern waste-to-energy (WTE) plant equipped with modern air pollution control devices. These configurations actually exist(ed) in Bratislava, Slovakia at the same site, but in different time frames. The CALPUFF model provides direct exposure data and the EMERAM software (developed in this paper) computes indirect exposure. A major source of uncertainty is that of the fraction of waste burned in the open. The analysis presented here assumed 10%. At this level, the cancer risk from open burning ranges from 10 to 80 times the commonly regarded de minimus value of one in a million. This means that underthe U.S. contemporary regulatory culture, some regulatory action to control or enforce the burning ban would be expected. Cancer risks from the incinerator ranged from 7 to 371 in a million while the WTE risks were below 1 in a million. Cancer risks from open burning are higher than those of the WTE plant and at the same time affect a larger portion of concerned population. PMID:17969705

Krajcovicová, Jana; Eschenroeder, Alan Q

2007-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Deep purification for waste water of coal conversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste water from coal gasification and from coking is highly toxic. Much of this water is ammonia liquor; other component includes coal tar compounds. It was decided at the Anshan Coking Plant to extract some of these toxins. Nitrogen was removed from coking plant wastewater by bio-chemical processes. This is described, and the economics of it examined. Waste water was also treated with catalytic wet combustion. BaP is an important carcinogen in coking plant waste water. BaP distribution, and its removal, were investigated. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Ji Zhongjian; Meng Xiangrong; Yin Chenglong [Anshan Coking and Refractory Engineering Consulting (ACRE) Corp., Anshan (China)

1997-12-31

262

Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC), but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

A. Mark Ibekwe; Shelton E. Murinda; Alexandria K. Graves

2011-01-01

263

Treatment of Oily Waste Water Emulsions from Metallurgical Industries Using Microwave Irradiation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emulsion waste water is one of the important industrial wastewaters, which results from the various manufacturing industries including the metal manufacturing and its processing. Wastewater treatment technologies utilizing flocculation and electrolysis have been used but these technologies have not been very helpful in resolving the problems in view of process consistency and economic merit. Aiming to mitigate the environmental hazard that these waste emulsions represent, a study was carried to investigate the microwave methods to destabilise water/oil emulsions without the addition of any destabilizing chemical agent. The experimental work consisted on breaking the simplest of the emulsions in terms of content, in order to obtain preliminary data that can help to extend the method to manage actual waste material. The samples consisted in water/oil emulsions waste (spent cutting oil), which was obtained from local metal industries. The sample emulsions underwent a domestic microwave radiating process at several exposure times. Certain factors, such as aromatic components and sodium hydroxide content and total heat exposure time proved to be the factors that more strongly affect the results. Within the category of paraffinic oils, light oils allow for quicker water separation than heavy oils. Also oils with higher aromatic content have higher viscosity, which makes the separation of water more difficult. It was observed in this study that emulsions added with acid up to a final concentration of 0.48 M, the separation efficiency and demulsification rate increased with increasing acid concentration. Hence microwave irradiation is an economical and rapid method for oil separation from oily waste water. Although this study was carried out on a lab scale basis, the process can scale up to a large industrial scale system. By using the microwave radiation, an aqueous phase recovery that ranged from 65 to 90% was obtained, which is a significant outcome that reveals the study of this technique needs to be taken further

N. Saifuddin; K.H. Chua

2006-01-01

264

Low Temperature District Heating Consumer Unit with Micro Heat Pump for Domestic Hot Water Preparation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present and analyse the feasibility of a district heating (DH) consumer unit with micro heat pump for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a low temperature (40 °C) DH network. We propose a micro booster heat pump of high efficiency (COP equal to 5,3) in a consumer DH unit in order to boost the temperature of the district heating water for heating the DHW. The paper presents the main designs of the suggested system and different alternative micro booster heat pump concepts. Energy efficiency and thermodynamic performance of these concepts are calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system has the highest efficiency. Furthermore, we compare thermodynamic and economic performance of the suggested heat pump-based concept with different solutions, using electric water heater. The micro booster heat pump system has the highest annualised investment (390 EUR/year) and the lowest operation (320 EUR/year) expenditures. Electric heater-based concepts consume 5-14 times more electricity, which leads to relatively high annual operation costs (530-970 EUR/year); while investment costs are lower (326-76 EUR/year). The suggested DHW heat pump-based system is cost-efficient for private consumers already today. Furthermore, application of the micro booster heat pump in low energy houses complies with the energy consumption requirements, set by the recent Danish Building Regulations. The use of electrical heater variants would exceed this limit.

Zvingilaite, Erika; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

2012-01-01

265

Biochemical oxidation of ammonium nitrogen in waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluates a scheme for ammonia removal from waste water from coal coking. After biochemical two-stage removal of phenols and thiocyanates, ammonia was removed using activated sludge. The following treatment conditions were used on a laboratory scale: ammonia concentration in waste water 270 mg/l, pH value 8.1, compressed air consumption rate 8 m{sup 3}, water temperature 30-32 C, water feeding rate 10 l/h, treatment time 12 h. Ammonia removal efficiency depending on the treatment time ranged from 92.6 to 96.3%. At a later stage biochemical ammonia removal from waste water was tested on a semi-industrial scale. Treatment efficiency ranged from 91 to 94%. Ammonia content in waste water after treatment was 18 to 27 mg/l. 5 refs.

Pimenov, I.V.; Burkov, V.V.; Valeeva, T.V.; Yurovskikh, G.E.; Repina, Zh.I.; Kharin, V.I.; Smirnova, V.A. (Vostochnyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Uglekhmicheskii Institut (USSR))

1990-04-01

266

Princeton University water resources program. Groundwater contamination from hazardous wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The leaching of chemicals from landfills to the water supply of communities is a serious national problem. It can render the drinking water supply unacceptable. The mechanics, evaluation, and analysis of ground water contamination are covered. Contents, abridged: Fate of hazardous chemicals in the environment. Numerical simulation of groundwater contamination. Monitoring of hazardous waste sites. Case studies. Application of decision analysis for siting hazardous waste facilities. Appendices. Index.

1984-01-01

267

A process for treating radioactive water-reactive wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Los Alamos National Laboratory and other locations in the complex of experimental and production facilities operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have generated an appreciable quantity of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) enacted by the United States Congress in 1976 and subsequently amended in 1984, 1986, and 1988 requires that every hazardous waste must be rendered nonhazardous before disposal. Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. These wastes, called mixed wastes, require applying appropriate regulations for radioactive waste disposal and the regulations under RCRA. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category.

Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Munger, D. [Santa Fe Engineering, Ltd. (United States)

1995-02-01

268

Smart solar domestic hot water systems. Development and test; Intelligente solvarmeanlaeg. Udvikling og afproevning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the project described in this report is to develop and test smart solar domestic hot water systems (SDHW systems) where the energy supply from the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a flexible way fitted to the hot water consumption in such a way, that the SDHW systems are suitable for large as well as small hot water demands. In a smart SDHW system the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a smart way. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the water in the hot water tank from the top and only the hot water volume needed by the consumers is heated. Further the water is heated immediately before tapping. The control system includes a number of temperature sensors which cover the temperatures in the auxiliary heated volume. Based on these temperatures the energy content in the hot water tank is calculated. Only water heated to a temperature above 50 deg. C contributes to the total energy content in the hot water tank. Furhter the control system includes a timer that only allows the auxiliary energy supply system to be active in certain time periods and only if the energy content in the hot water tank is lower than wanted. In this way the water in the tank is heated immediately before the expected time of tapping and only the hot water volume needed is heated. The report is divided into five main sections. The sections deals with: Developing and testing storage tanks, laboratory test of SDHW systems based on some of the developed storage tanks, validation of simulation programs for smart solar heating systems, optimisation of system design and control strategy and measurements on two smart SDHW systems installed in single family houses. In all the developed hot water tanks, attempt is made to heat the water in the tank from the top of the tank and not as in traditional tanks where the water is heated from the lowest level of the auxiliary energy supply system, normally a helix or a electrical heating element placed in the tank. It is very important that the water is heated from the top of the tank because only in this way, the size of the auxiliary volume can be controlled, which makes the SDHW system suitable for large as well as small hot water demands. The gain experience in one part of the project is immediately implemented in the following parts of the project. Therefore the design of some of the SDHW systems has been changed during the project. The expected advantages by using smart SDHW systems are: Reduced auxiliary energy use compared to the auxiliary energy use in a similar traditional SDHW system; Reduced heat loss compared to the heat loss in a similar traditional SDHW system; Really good thermal stratification and due to that, and the way the tank is heated, a higher collector performance; Reduced domestic water volume in the tank compared to traditional SDHW systems and therefore a reduced risk of legionella. Based on the results in the project it can be concluded that: A smart SDHW system has a lower auxiliary energy consumption than a similar traditional SDHW system; A smart SDHW system has a reduced heat loss from the hot water tank compared to the tank heat loss for a similar traditional SDHW system because the top of the hot water tank is not constantly heated to a high temperature level; It is possible to build up a good thermal stratification both for large and for small auxiliary heated volumes where the water is heated from the top of the tank; The simulation programs, which are developed in the project, are suitable as tools for system design and analysis for smart SDHW systems; A consumer that buys a smart SDHW system must be willing to take action part in the control of the system, because the thermal performance of the system strongly depends on the correct control parameters. (au)

Andersen, E.; Knudsen, S.; Furbo, S.; Vejen, N.K.

2001-07-01

269

From the tap to the mouth, drinking water quality in the domestic context in Khartoum, Sudan  

Science.gov (United States)

The city of Khartoum experienced a rapid growth and an urban spread towards its periphery that has become denser than the centre. Urban planning was unable to follow the pace of demographic growth (5.5 million inhabitants in 2008), and the establishment of a decent drinking water network is slow. The population is incited to be independent from quantitative variations by storing drinking water, because of water turbidity, many cuts, and pressure decreases. These bad habits of storage, the lack of efficiency of treatment, and the absence of collective supply network maintenance, are responsible for a significant decrease in the physical and biological water quality. The result is a development of water-borne diseases (generally diarrheal symptoms and kidney diseases). Our study aimed at measuring the changes of water quality in these storage recipients, so as to evaluate the possible risks on people health. It demonstrated that the distinction made between quantity and quality in the institutional management of drinking water in Khartoum is a dead-end. It also suggested that treatment would be more efficient and water would have better quality if smaller quantity of drinking water was produced and the amount of wasted water was reduced. Storage is a worsening factor of bacteriological pollution. Then, contrary to what numerous researchers observed in other fieldworks, here the temperature does not limit the bacteriological development and bacteriology does not seem to be in connection with turbidity. Then water storage is an important problem for people's health, responsible for many diarrheal (bacteria) and kidney diseases (salinization). Nevertheless, conscientious of the quantitative deficiency, the Khartoum State Water Cooperation (in charge of water supply) tries to produce more water so as to avoid cuts. On the contrary, we think that the solution is in the maintenance of the infrastructure. Best network (30% of losses occur in the network) and better waterworks could provide better water without cuts, limiting the storage needs. This poster would present a part of our results financed by the French National Agency of Research (ANR) and published in: Lavie, E. and Hassan El Tayib N. (under press, 2013). Du robinet au consommateur : qualité de l'eau potable dans le contexte domestique de l'agglomération de Khartoum, Soudan. In Cybergeo, European journal of geography.

Lavie, Emilie; Hassan El-Tayib, Noha

2013-04-01

270

Vision of jokaso for domestic waster water treatment; Jokaso ni yoru shinyo oyobi seikatsu zatsuhaisui no genjo to tenbo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the current status of treatment for human waste and household waste waters, problems in and prospect for employment of Jokasos for combined treatment. In Japan currently, 30% of the total population use collection type toilets and 70% water flushing toilets. However, households that are treating household waste waters simultaneously are only 50% of the 70% households using flushing toilets, and the remaining 20% uses flushing toilets, but discharges household waste waters untreated, or use independent treatment Jokasos. The independent treatment jokaso presents a problem greater than a collection type toilet does when viewed from the point of contamination load discharged into a body of water. Its wide use can result in impediment to improvement of household waste water treatment facilities. Nitrogen and phosphorus are demanded strongly of their reduction from the environment in drinking water source areas and water basins of lakes and swamps that have been highly eutrophicated. Combined treatment Jokasos of individual installation type may be installed when new houses are built, or collection type toilets are reconstructed, and those of municipality and township installation type may be expected of installation in household waste water treatment construction projects for the specified areas in the future. 3 figs.

Ono, Y. [Ministry of Health and Welfare, Tokyo (Japan)

1996-03-10

271

Removal of toxic volatile matter from waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods for treatment of waste water from black coal coking were investigated at the Moscow gasification plant. The experimental waste water treatment system (with a plate-type column) developed by the VUKhIN institute was used. Waste water temperature was 32-95 C, air flow rate 200-600 m/sup 3/, air temperature 30-50 C. Benzene, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, hydrocyanic acid, naphthalene, phenols and pyridine bases emitted from waste water in the plate-type column were removed by air. At water temperature of 80-90 C water treatment degree did not depend on air flow rate; it ranged from 95-98% for benzene and naphthalene, from 40 to 60% for hydrogen sulfide and from 80 to 90% for hydrocyanic acid. When water temperature was reduced to 32 C water treatment rate was influenced by air flow rate and ranged from 70-99% for benzene, from 40-75% for hydrocyanic acid. Hydrogen sulfide removal was not influenced by water temperature and amounted to 70%. Effects of waste water treatment by biochemical methods (activated sludge process) before or after toxic compound removal in the plate-type column were analyzed. Removal of benzene, naphthalene, hydrogen sulfide, hydrocyanic acid, phenols and ammonia prior to activated sludge treatment increased water treatment efficiency and reduced cost of activated sludge regeneration.

Kabaldaev, V.D.; Plaksin, V.G.; Pimenov, I.V.; Pospelov, M.N.; Belova, O.I.

1987-06-01

272

Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.In this the...

Bovendeur, J.

273

Survey and analysis of the domestic technology level for the concept development of high level waste disposal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this study are the analysis of the status of HLW disposal technology and the investigation of the domestic technology level. The study has taken two years to complete with the participation of forty five researchers. The study was mainly carried out through means of literature surveys, collection of related data, visits to research institutes, and meetings with experts in the specific fields. During the first year of this project, the International Symposium on the Concept Development of the High Level Waste Disposal System was held in Taejon, Korea in October, 1997. Eight highly professed foreign experts whose fields of expertise projected to the area of high level waste disposal were invited to the symposium. This study is composed of four major areas; disposal system design/construction, engineered barrier characterization, geologic environment evaluation and performance assessment and total safety. A technical tree scheme of HLW disposal has been illustrated according to the investigation and an analysis for each technical area. For each detailed technology, research projects, performing organization/method and techniques that are to be secured in the order of priority are proposed, but the suggestions are merely at a superfluous level of propositional idea due to the reduction of the budget in the second year. The detailed programs on HLW disposal are greatly affected by governmental HLW disposal policy and in this study, the primary decisions to be made in each level of HLW disposal enterprise and a rough scheme are proposed. (author). 20 refs., 97 figs., 33 tabs.

Kang, Chang Sun; Kim, Byung Su; Song, Jae Hyok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kwang Hon; Hwang, Ju Ho; Park, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joung Sang; Kim, Ku Young [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon [Hangyang University, Seoul (Korea)

1998-09-01

274

Exergetic optimisation of a PEM fuel cell for domestic hot water heater. Paper no. IGEC-1-022  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a 5kW PEM fuel cell including burner, steam reformer and water heater for domestic application has been considered. Water is used for cooling of fuel cell. Cold water is passed through cooling channel, warmed up and used for domestic water heating. To increase the efficiency, outlet steam of fuel cell is fed to reformer. The performance of the system is optimized by exergy analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics. Also, the effect of burner, fuel cell temperature and stoichiometric air fuel ratio are investigated. In this analysis, pressure loss in fuel cell and heat transfer of cooling channel are taken into account whereas, pressure loss in burner and reformer are neglected. Results show, to minimize the entropy generation, fuel cell temperature must be increased to maximize PEM fuel cell temperature which can be applied (373K). Also, burner, reformer temperature and stoichiometric air fuel ratio must be decreased to 900 K and ?=2. (author)

2005-01-01

275

Microbiological and technical aspects of anaerobic waste water purification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaerobic waste water purification is likely to be another example of how innovations can result from the joint use of biological and technical concepts. No matter how far the optimization of oxygen input with aerobic waste water purification advances it will still be the less a real competitor for anaerobic techniques the more polluted the waste water is. The principle of carrier fixation to avoid their washing out, too, has often been observed in nature with sessile microorganisms. With highly polluted water, anaerobic purification does not only work at no expenditure of energy but it can also make excess energy available for use in other processes. Another important argument for anaerobic methods of waste water purification is probably the clearly reduced production of excess sludge. (orig.).

1994-01-01

276

Treatment of chromium plating waste water with lignite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If waste water from chrome plating (such waste water contains chromic acid) is adjusted to a suitable pH value and passed through a lignite bed, the hexavalent chromium ions are reduced to trivalent ions by the lignite, and some of this trivalent chromium is chemisorbed onto the lignite. In the light of this finding, it was concluded that the complete removal of chromium is possible by simply passing chromic acid-containing waste water which has been adjusted to the correct pH, through a lignite bed at a suitable rate. The removal achieved is 80 mg chromium/g lignite. The filtrate has a pH of approximately 7 and is on a par with industrial water as regards quality. It can, therefore, be recycled for further use. Even waste water with chromium concentrations of 1000 ppm or over can be de-chromed on a continuous basis by passage through lignite beds. 6 references.

Nishimura, M.

1984-01-01

277

Retrieval of Hanford Single Shell Nuclear Waste Tanks using Technologies Foreign and Domestic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hanford Site is accelerating its SST retrieval mission. One aspect of this acceleration is the identification of new baseline retrieval technologies that can be applied to all tank conditions for salt and sludge wastes in both sound and leaking tanks.

2003-01-01

278

Irradiation as an alternative for disinfection of domestic waste in the Canadian Arctic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of various methods for disinfecting wastewater in the Canadian Arctic with specific reference to gamma radiation. More conventional disinfection practices, such as chlorination, chlorination-dechlorination, and ozonation were compared to gamma radiation along with ultraviolet irradiation and lime disinfection. The quality of lagoon effluent, highly diluted (weak) sewage, holding tank wastes and honey-bag wastes, which are the typical waste types found in northern communities, was established from data available in the literature. Further literature reviews were undertaken to establish a data base for design and effectiveness of disinfection systems operated in cold climates. Capital and operating costs for all technically feasible disinfection process alternates were estimated based on historical cost data adjusted to 1977 for the construction and instalation of similar systems in the north. The costs of equipment, chemicals, fuel and electrical power were obtained from suppliers. The environmental impact of each of the disinfection processes was reviewed with emphasis on gamma irradiation. Safety and health aspects were also considered. The study concluded that gamma irradiation was capable of providing safe, reliable disinfection for concentrated honey-bag and holding wastes. Pilot-scale testing was recommended prior to construction of full-scale disinfection facilities. For lagoon effluents and weak sewage, gamma irradiation was not cost competitive with other alternates; rather chlorination-dechlorination was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternative

1981-01-01

279

Method for treating a water-containing waste oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for treating a watercontaining waste oil comprising oils, water and solid constituents and forming a water-in-oil emulsion, which comprises adding to the water-containing waste oil having an aromatic oil ratio a as represented by the following formula: aromatic oil ratio = weight of aromatic oil content/weight of total oil content at least 1% by weight, on the basis of the weight of the watercontaining waste oil, of a treating oil having an aromatic oil ratio b(exclamationa-bexclamation>0.5 and excluding 0.4 < or = B < or = 0.6) thereby to separate the oil content.

Okazaki, H.; Soeda, M.; Yoshimura, T.; Yushima, T.

1982-06-22

280

Mekong schistosomiasis. III: a parasitological survey of domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) on Khong Island, Laos.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of 103 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) examined on Khong Island by means of the M.I.F.C. and hatching techniques, none were passing eggs resimbling those of the Mekong schistosome. One buffalo calf was infected with Orientobilharzia harinasutai and another with Schistosoma spindale; this is the first time these parasites have been reported from Laos. Since the buffalo that were examined had constant and year-round access to a part of the Mekong River that has been shown to be a site of heavy transmission of schistosomiasis to humans and dogs, it was considered that the buffalo would have acquired the infection with the human Mekong schistosome if this were possible. In the absence of buffalo necropsies, and since no eggs of the Mekong schistosome were detected in the stools of these animals, we assumed that they had either not become infected with this parasite or, if they had, that the infections did not produce eggs in the faeces which were detectable by the methods employed. On the basis of our examinations, it would not seem that domestic water buffalo are involved as reservoirs in the epidemiology of human schistosomiasis on Khong Island.

Schneider CR; Kitikoon V; Sornmani S; Thirachantra S

1975-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

Mekong schistosomiasis. III: a parasitological survey of domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) on Khong Island, Laos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of 103 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) examined on Khong Island by means of the M.I.F.C. and hatching techniques, none were passing eggs resimbling those of the Mekong schistosome. One buffalo calf was infected with Orientobilharzia harinasutai and another with Schistosoma spindale; this is the first time these parasites have been reported from Laos. Since the buffalo that were examined had constant and year-round access to a part of the Mekong River that has been shown to be a site of heavy transmission of schistosomiasis to humans and dogs, it was considered that the buffalo would have acquired the infection with the human Mekong schistosome if this were possible. In the absence of buffalo necropsies, and since no eggs of the Mekong schistosome were detected in the stools of these animals, we assumed that they had either not become infected with this parasite or, if they had, that the infections did not produce eggs in the faeces which were detectable by the methods employed. On the basis of our examinations, it would not seem that domestic water buffalo are involved as reservoirs in the epidemiology of human schistosomiasis on Khong Island. PMID:1155989

Schneider, C R; Kitikoon, V; Sornmani, S; Thirachantra, S

1975-06-01

282

Performance of an improved design for storage-type domestic electrical water-heaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance of an improved design for storage-type domestic electrical water-heaters (EWHs) was experimentally investigated for energy conservation. The results were compared with those of conventional design EWHs having the same tank size and power rating. Data were obtained for two tanks with aspect ratios of 1 and 2, two draw-off rates of 5 and 10 l/min, and using three heating elements of different heights. It is found that improved design EWHs provide more hot water at almost constant temperature in the first mean residence time, which is of prime concern for the user. Thus, they exhibit higher discharging efficiencies due to better thermal stratification inside the heater storage tank. Also, thermal performance is enhanced with increasing tank aspect ratio and decreasing draw rate. These characteristics have a direct impact on energy consumption and result in lower electricity bills. The design improvements are simple to adapt as they only require minor modifications to be made to existing EWH models. (Author)

Hegazy, Adel A.; Diab, M.R. [Minia Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy Dept., Minia (Egypt)

2002-04-01

283

Effect of inlet design on the performance of storage-type domestic electrical water heaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of inlet design on the performance of storage-type domestic electrical water heaters (EWHs) was experimentally investigated for energy conservation. Three different side-inlet geometries; namely wedged, perforated, and slotted pipe-inlets; were tested using two 50 L capacity EWHs of aspect ratios 1 and 2 and two discharge rates 5 and 10 L/min. The three inlet designs are successful in promoting good thermal stratification inside the storage tanks of the EWHs. However, the degree of mixing produced by each design is found to have a significant impact on the performance. Thermal performance is quantified in terms of discharge efficiency, extraction efficiency, and fraction of heat recoverable. The results show an excellent performance for the slotted inlet. Although performance measures of perforated inlet are slightly less, the slotted inlet is attractive as it is simpler to manufacture and the extra cost associated with adopting it inside the existing EWH models is justified by the substantial savings in electricity and water consumptions, which ultimately concern the users. (author)

Hegazy, Adel A. [Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia 61517 (Egypt)

2007-12-15

284

Public health aspects of waste-water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Among the bacteria, viruses and parasites which may be found in waste-water and polluted waters, those that are pathogenic to man are briefly described. The efficiency of different conventional waste-water treatments in removing the pathogens is reviewed, as well as additional factors of importance for the presence of micro-organisms in recipient waters. It is concluded that at present for treated waters no conventional treatment results in an effluent free from pathogens if they are present in the original waste-water. This is also true for sludges apart from pasteurization. The importance to public health of the presence of pathogens in recipient waters is briefly discussed. (author)

1975-03-17

285

Fast fermentation on methane of waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anaerobic fermentation of molasses slop to biogas was carried out by an adapted and selected anaerobic mixed culture; the process of fermentation was carried out in two different types of fermentors: in a first generation fermentor (the classical system) with mixing, and in a column fermentor (filter system). The retention time in the classical fermentor was 2 days, whereas in the column fermentor it was 2 days. The production of biogas was 0.6 to 0.8 l/g COD in both fermentors. The aerobic pretreatment of the original molasses slop by Trichosporan fermentans yeast during 4 to 6 hours made possible a high reduction of the COD in the next step of the anaerobic phase of the process. After the pretreatment of molasses slops by T. fermentans, the molecule of betain (trimethylamine) was degraded to lower fatty acids and Co/sub 2/ and in the pretreated substrate of molasses slop it was possible to achieve a high yield of organic matter for 85 to 92% in methan. In such way fermented and degraded molasses slop were suitable for the next biooxidation together with the municipal waste waters using the active sludge process.

Glanser, M.; Dvoracek, L.; Ban, S.N.

1985-02-01

286

Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae) on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP), Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25?1?C under continuous shaking (150 rpm) and illumination (2000 Lux) for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC), optical density (OD) , dry weight (DW), were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3) was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2) was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment) was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%). The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

Soha S.M. MOSTAFA; Emad A. SHALABY; Ghada I. MAHMOUD

2012-01-01

287

ADVERSE IMPACTS OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT ­ A CASE STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial metal plating processes coat materials with metals, such as chromium, copper and nickel. After the plating process, excess metals are rinsed off and the rinse water is collected and then treated to remove metals prior to discharge of the rinse water into rivers. This waste water is typica...

288

Actual problems of municipal cleaner?s waste waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner?s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

Konko¾ová Patrícia

2000-01-01

289

Domestic water use in a rural village in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with an emphasis on spatial patterns, sharing of water, and factors in water use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between domestic water use and socioeconomic, environmental, and spatial parameters at the household level in a small rural village in northern Minas Gerais State. Five methods are used ­ direct observation, household interviews, self-reporting by households, regression analysis, and statistical mapping. Results show that water use is characterized by 1) generally low but widely fluctuating values per person per day, 2) sharing of water sources between households, 3) the use of multiple sources by individual households, 4) avoidance of heavily contaminated stream sites, and 5) predominance of socioeconomic factors in water use. Households owning their own water supply used, on average, 25.3 liters per person/day and those without a supply 9.0 l, with higher use of the local streams among the latter. Water use varied spatially. The socioeconomic factors house quality, latrine ownership, type of water source, and a utility index were significantly correlated with water use. Implications of these simple household water sources and the more deficient sanitary facilities for potential water-borne disease transmission are briefly discussed and suggestions made for further improvements. This study confirms the appropriateness of the application of direct observation, interview, and microgeographical methods for quantitative water use studies.

Gazzinelli Andréa; Souza Márcia Christina C.; Nascimento Iara; Sá Ilcéia Ribeiro; Cadete Matilde Meire Miranda; Kloos Helmut

1998-01-01

290

Water Recovery Using Waste Heat from Coal Fired Power Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plan...

B. P. Dwyer C. W. Morrow S. J. Altman S. W. Webb

2011-01-01

291

Electrochemical purification of waste water with metal hydroxides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibilities and main advantages of electrochemical methods of purifying waste waters are examined. Particularly mentioned is the method of electrocoagulation, consisting in saturating waste solutions by metal hydroxides being formed at the anode by the dissolving of Fe, Al, and other metals. The compactness of the equipment and the ease of automation of the process appear as the advantages of this method.

Milovanovic-Nicolic, J.

1981-01-01

292

Process for decontamination of radioactively contaminated waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The waste water from the nuclear medical stations are separated from coarse dispersed materials in a precipitation container and are made acid to reach a pH value greater than 9.5. Next, there is precipitation or absorption. Waste air produced is cleaned by means of filters. (DG)

1980-03-31

293

Waste stream recycling: Its effect on water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste streams recycled to the influent of a water treatment plant typically contain contaminants at concentrations that are of concern. These contaminants may include giardia and Cryptosporidium, trihalomethanes, manganese, and assimilable organic carbon. This research shows that proper management--treatment, equalization, and monitoring--of the waste streams can render them suitable for recycling in many situations.

Cornwell, D.A. (Environmental Engineering and Technology Inc., Newport Ness, VA (United States)); Lee, R.G. (Illinois-American Water Co., Belleville, IL (United States))

1994-11-01

294

Analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The object of this study was dynamic modeling, simulation and optimum design of solar DHW (domestic hot water) systems, with respect to different whether conditions, and accurate dynamic behaviour of the heat load. Special attention was paid to systems with thermosyphon and drain-back design. The solar radiation in Beijing (China) and in Denmark are analyzed both by theoretical calculations and the analysis of long-term measurements. Based on the weather data from the Beijing Meteorological Station during the period of 1981-1993, a Beijing Test Reference Year has been formulated by means of statistical analysis. A brief introduction about the Danish Test Reference Year and the Design Reference Year is also presented. In order to investigate the heat loss as a part of the total heat load, dynamic models for distribution networks have been developed, and simulations have been carried out for typically designed distribution networks of the circulation type. The influence of operation parameters such as the tank outlet temperature, the hot-water load and the load pattern, on the heat loss from the distribution networks in presented. It was found that the tank outlet temperature has a significant influence on the heat loss from a circulation type of distribution network, while the hot-water load and the load pattern have no obvious effect. Dynamic models of drain-back tanks, both as a separated tank and combined with a mantle tank, have been developed and presented. Models of the other basic components commonly used in solar DHW systems, such as flat-plate collectors, connection pipes, storage tanks with a heat exchanger spiral, and controllers, are also described. (LN) 66 refs.

Lin Qin

1998-12-31

295

NATURAL WASTE WATER PURIFICATION IN CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The comprehensive enhancement of the environment is an important task in Hungary too in order to maintain and improve the life quality of both humans and other living creatures. Waste water treatment and solid waste management have become significant issues since joining the European Union. Thus it has become timely to develop or borrow an effective and attainable sewage water treatment technology adapted to Hungarian circumstances. Some prototypes of waste water treatment plants that use natural or constructed wetlands (reed beds mainly) have already been established in Hungary as experiments or everyday function. In Hódmezövásárhely (HU) a demonstration site has built that shows different types of treatment systems based on plants. Present paper introduces environment friendly waste water treatment technologies and the principles of their establishment and function.

JUDIT PETER SZUCS; T. MOLNAR; AGNES SULI; L. SALLAI

2009-01-01

296

Biology of waste water purification. Biologie der Abwasserreinigung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book starts with a general definition of the various types of waste water and sludge and their physical and chemical characteristics. The effects of liquid waste discharge into natural bodies of water are discussed in consideration of the limnological mechanisms, and the advantages and shortcomings of waste water and sludge damping are pointed out. The biological processes in the sewage system are mentioned. The book focuses on the microbiological fundamentals and processes of aerobic and anaerobic waste water treatment. Of the microbiological fundamentals, enzyme response mechanisms and the degradation mechanisms of the aerobic and anaerobic metabolism are discussed. The growth kinetics and conditions of the bacteria involved in the metabolic processes are described, and the activity-enhancing and inhibiting factors are discussed. With 80 figs., 17 tabs..

Mudrack, K.; Kunst, S.

1985-01-01

297

77 FR 43149 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants  

Science.gov (United States)

...to lessen dependency on federal aid. Response: Agency concurs. RUS believes that modern, reliable water and waste infrastructure can provide the foundation for economic growth and future employment opportunities in colonias areas. List...

2012-07-24

298

MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

299

Purification of drilling waste waters using coagulants and floculants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of a study of the effectiveness of purifying drilling waste waters with aluminum sulfide and floculants (polyethylenimine and polyacrylamide (PAA)) relative to the concentration of the suspended matter and the clarification method are presented. An industrial system for purifying drilling waste waters is proposed on the basis of the conducted studies and a technical and operational plan for a pilot plant is performed.

Butseva, L.N.; Gandurina, L.V.

1984-01-01

300

Simultaneous Waste Water Purification via Photocatalysis and Seed Germination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preliminary results of our study related to simultaneous waste water purification by photocatalytic degradation of organic impurity (Methylene Blue dye) and its effects on seed germination are presented here. It is interesting and important to know that complete degradation of the dye occurs within 2 hours and does not adversely affect the seed germination process. It is concluded that waste water purification by photocatalysis and seed germination (agriculture) can be carried out simultaneously, opening a way for advanced agriculture.

Sadhana A. Sawant; Ajinkya Nene; Savita P. Somani; Shreeniwas K. Omanwar; Prakash R. Somani

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Biological purification of waste water from the Linz coking plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Voest-Alpine has been entrusted with the biological purification of waste water from the Linz coking plant with a view to its subsequent recycling in the municipal purification plant. The waste water contains numerous toxic substances, such as ammonia, phenol and hydrogen sulfide, etc. The start-up of the purification system as well as the laboratory and semi-industrial tests carried out as part of a preliminary study are described; previous operating results, etc are presented. 2 references.

Kandler, W.

1984-11-01

302

The integration of solar power plants for domestic water services in buildings; Integracion de calderas y calentadores individuales en las instalaciones de ACS con energia solar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The integration of solar power plants for domestic water services in buildings with individual heating and domestic water facilities has some problems which must be solved by the manufacturers of boilers and individual heaters; the most important is the water temperature in the entrance to the individual equipment because of solar heating. Therefore, we must care about materials in boilers and heaters, and temperature control systems of domestic water production. We analyse the technical conditions which appear in these equipment in the usual schemes: Centralized accumulation, distributed accumulation, serial heating, etc., and propose some elements which can be integrated in these facilities to obtain a better operation. (Author)

Martin, J. V.; Garcia, R.; Lopez de Subijana, R.; Casado, J. M.

2004-07-01

303

A study on migration of contaminants and effect on the groundwater system at the Gemencheh domestic waste disposal site, Negeri Sembilan using integrated nuclear, geophysical and hydrogeochemical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The domestic waste disposal site at Gemencheh, Negeri Sembilan has been in operation since 1981. Integration of three methods namely nuclear, geophysical and hydrogeochemical were used to study the migration and effects of contaminants on the groundwater system at this particular site. Nuclear method was used to determine groundwater system flow velocity that delineates the migration pattern of contaminant species in the groundwater system at the study area. The groundwater flow velocity is found to be heterogeneous and depend on hydraulic conductivity caused by soil permeability except in the low-lying downstream area where the flow velocity is found to be low and constant at 2.0 x 10-6 ms-1. However, the flow velocity increases to as high as 17.8 x 10-5 ms-1 during rainy season due to the influence of weather on hydraulic gradient. Weather condition also influences the flow direction, whereby during draught season, the groundwater flow direction at the middle of the study site moves from an area of high topography to the northeast and southeast of low topography areas. On the other hand, at the downstream the groundwater flows partially towards northeast and southeast whereas flow direction at the upstream is towards the east. A similar pattern was observed during rainy season in both upstream and downstream of the study site but at the middle, the flow is basically towards south-east with a side flow to the north-east and east direction. Geophysical method comprising geo electrical-imaging and electromagnetic transient techniques was used to determine the extent, depth and distribution of contamination in the groundwater system. This method shows that the most seriously contaminated areas at the middle and the downstream regions of the study site within the shallow depth of 3-6 metres. The distribution of the contaminants in groundwater is not widespread but confined within the study site only. Finally, hydrogeochemical method was used to determine the species concentration, rate and extent of contamination. This method shows that the species of chlorides, nitrates, iron, manganese, lead, mercury, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphates, chromium and cadmium originating from the leachate of domestic waste had contaminated the middle and the downstream regions of the study site. The concentration of these species is tens of times higher than the limits of the Drinking Water Quality 1984 as stipulated by the World Health Organisation except for ferum that had reached a value of 700 times higher. It can be concluded that the domestic waste dumped at the Gemencheh disposal site has seriously contaminated the groundwater. This work also shows that the integration of the three methods is useful because it was possible to compile a lot of data and information which were complete, detailed and extensive as well as able to provide a clear picture of the contaminants species, migration and distribution pattern of contamination as well as impact to groundwater quality at the study site. (author)

304

Packaging and environment in Europe (EUREKA PACK-EE): Automated sorting of aluminum from domestic waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large European research project named EUREKA PACK-EE (for Packaging Environment in Europe) has been started in June 1993. The project carries out research and innovation into collection, sorting and valorization of types of packaging, with improvements to sorting procedures capable of meeting the needs of the recovery and recycling industries. The project includes studies of consumer behavior concerning waste, which will influence the choice of sorting techniques. The results are presented for automated sorting by different eddy current (EC) engineering and in two other papers for thermal separation and purification.

Bertaud, Y.; Guillermet, R.; Lemaire, H. [Pechiney CRV, Voreppe (France); Cael, J. [France Aluminum Recyclage, Paris (France); Nijhof, G. [Hoogovens Groep, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Rossel, H. [VAW Aluminium AG, Bonn (Germany)

1996-10-01

305

A case study of domestic defluoridation of ground water in Jaipur, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was undertaken to assess the success of the intervention programmes of Centre for Community Economics and Developmental Consultants Society (CECOEDECON) initiated in the rural areas of Jaipur district of Rajasthan, India. The programme focussed on capacity building among villagers to create awareness about fluorosis and used Nalgonda technique for removal of excess florides from ground water in selected areas. The data and information were collected from respondents in six village related to aworeness and incidence of fluorosis, awareness regarding the CECOEDECON project and the use and effectiveness of domestic defluoridation technology. Analysis of collected data revealed that level of awareness was highest (68%) among the respondents of Barkheda and Yarlipura villages where the project was withdrawn in 1998. It was observed that the level of awareness decreased over time and it was found lowest in the villages where project was withdrawn in 1996. About 87% of the respondents reported that most of the women are members of the Mahila Mandal started under CECOEDECON project. Some of the respondents (38%) mentioned that they were experiencing problems after the withdrawal of project teams. Thus, it is evident that follow up programmes play an important role in sustenance of the use of defluoridation techniques in villages along with the infrastructure to take care of minor repairs and supply of chemicals.

Dadhich A; Sharma VK

2003-07-01

306

Heat loss characteristics for a typical solar domestic hot water storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computer simulation is often used to determine the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. Detailed computer models take into consideration local climatic conditions and energy load. One component within the system that affects overall performance is the thermal energy storage. The storage heat loss in solar heating systems must be accurately estimated in order to predict the annual energy performance and product performance ratings. Computer simulation programs often represent the rate of heat loss from a thermal energy storage with an overall or average U-value. Most solar storage models assume that the tank temperature profile is one-dimensional and that conduction within the tank wall is negligible. This assumption may lead to errors in heat loss calculations and errors in the estimation of the temperature distributions within the storage tank. To investigate these effects, tests were conducted in this study to measure the rate of heat loss from a typical thermal storage used in SDHW applications. The study included a cool-down test and a heat diffusion test sequence to determine the heat loss characteristics. The values derived from these test sequences were then compared to computer predictions based on estimated thermal properties. In addition, the basic assumptions typically used in the computer modeling of solar storage heat losses were investigated, particularly in the context of a thermally stratified thermal storage. It was observed that a large percentage of the heat loss to the surroundings was through the bottom of the tank. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 13 figs.

Cruickshank, C.A.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Solar Calorimetry Lab

2009-06-15

307

Heat loss characteristics for a typical solar domestic hot water storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is common practice to predict the performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems by computer simulation. This process relies on the accurate specification of the system's physical and thermal characteristics, and is often based on a number of simplifying assumptions. An important aspect of system performance is storage heat loss characteristics; however, these are often represented by an average heat loss coefficient or U-value that does not account for the complex geometry of the thermal storage or the interaction of the various inlet and outlet ports that may act as thermal conduits. In addition, most solar storage models assume that the tank temperature profile is one-dimensional and that conduction within the tank wall is negligible. To investigate these effects, tests were conducted on a typical thermal storage used in SDHW applications and included a cool-down test and a heat diffusion test sequence. The values derived from these test sequences were then compared to computer predictions based on estimated thermal properties. In addition, the basic assumptions typically used in the computer modelling of solar storage heat losses (e.g., one-dimensional temperature profiles, minimal tank wall conduction, uniform wall heat loss) were investigated, particularly in the context of a thermally stratified thermal storage. (author)

Cruickshank, Cynthia A.; Harrison, Stephen J. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada)

2010-10-15

308

Low-Cost Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Mild Climates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In FY99, Solar Heating and Lighting set the goal to reduce the life-cycle cost of saved-energy for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems in mild climates by 50%, primarily through use of polymer technology. Two industry teams (Davis Energy Group/SunEarth (DEG/SE) and FAFCO) have been developing un-pressurized integral-collector-storage (ICS) systems having load-side heat exchangers, and began field-testing in FY04. DEG/SE?s ICS has a rotomolded tank and thermoformed glazing. Based upon manufacturing issues, costs, and poor performance, the FAFCO team changed direction in late FY04 from an un-pressurized ICS to a direct thermosiphon design based upon use of pool collectors. Support for the teams is being provided for materials testing, modeling, and system testing. New ICS system models have been produced to model the new systems. A new ICS rating procedure for the ICS systems is undergoing testing and validation. Pipe freezing, freeze protection valves, and overheating have been tested and analyzed.

Burch, J.; Christensen, C.; Merrigan, T.; Hewett, R.; Jorgensen, G.

2005-01-01

309

Testing and analysis of load-side immersed heat exchangers for solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work to determine the performance of load-side heat exchangers for use in residential solar domestic hot water systems. We measured the performance of four heat exchangers: a smooth coil and a finned coil having heat transfer areas of 2.5 m/sup 2/ (26 ft/sup 2/) and those having areas of 1.7 m/sup 2/ (19 ft/sup 2/). A numerical model using the thermal network program MITAS was constructed, and results were compared to the experimental results. Research showed a smooth coil with only 70% of the surface area of a finned coil performed better than the finned coil. Also, load-side heat exchangers can maintain and enhance stratification in storage tanks, permitting the use of control strategies that take advantage of stratified storage tanks to increase system performance. The analytical model, which agreed reasonably well with the experimental results, was used to vary heat exchanger flow rate and area and initial tank temperature for both a smooth- and a finned-coil heat exchanger. Increasing the heat exchanger flow rate and area results in higher heat transfer rates but not necessarily optimal performance. Lower initial tank temperatures resulted in reduced tank stratification. The smooth heat exchanger outperformed the finned heat exchanger with the same outside surface area. 15 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs.

Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

1987-10-01

310

Two-step process treats variety of waste water streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that with the advent of more stringent regulations affecting the disposal of contaminated waste water streams, industrial generators must consider treatment processes that separate and concentrate contaminants to ensure producing an effluent that meets discharge criteria. An innovative new technology, the PO**WW**ER process, treats contaminated waste water by vaporization of most of the water and volatiles, followed by catalytic oxidation to destroy the remaining volatile and non-volatile contaminants. As a result, essentially pure condensed water is produced. The nonvolatile constituents are concentrated as brine solution, which can be reused, further processed, or disposed of safely

1992-09-28

311

Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system.

MAY, T.H.

2000-02-08

312

Use of waste water heat for supply water heating by use of heat pipe diodes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hot supply water storage tank, which is heated by waste water heat, has been developed by Dornier System GmbH under a Daimler/EN DASH/Benz AG contract. Copper heat pipes using water as carrier fluid have been developed for this purpose, which are capable to transfer sufficient heat even at temperatures as low as 10/degree/C. Measurements indicate that up to 90% of the usable waste water heat may be recovered depending upon the waste water flow rate and on the complexity of the system.

Behrmann, P.; Haefner, G.; Speitkamp, L.

1982-01-01

313

Waste management in light-water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important objectives of concentrate and solid waste treatment are reduction of the waste to the smallest volume, radioactive exposure of the personnel of the power plants and outside for operation, handling and transportation, protection against migration of the concentrated radioactive substances after final disposal and observance of shipping requirements, national laws and ministerial waste storage regulations. A variety of technologies is available for the realization of these objectives. Important parameters for the selection and design of concentrate and solid waste treatment processes are waste type, quantity, activity, means for immobilization and the achievable reduction factors. The most important technologies for the treatment of liquid concentrates, combustible and non-combustible solid waste are available for example: In-Drum-Drying, Borate-Solidification (PWR), Drum Drier, Residue Filter Drying, Bituminization, Solidification with cement, Incineration, Shredding, Compacting etc. and of course combinations of the various mentioned procedures which result in the best possible waste disposal for the entire power plant. (orig./RW).

1982-10-01

314

Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity

2007-01-01

315

Biologically active composition for the purification of waste water and waste gases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waste water and/or outgoing air are purified by contact with a polyurethane hydrogel containing surface active coal, a polymer having cationic groups and cells having enzymatic activity and being capable of growth.

Baumgarten Jörg Dr.; Frommer Werner Prof. Dr.; Mann Theo Dr.; Pascik Imre Dr.; Rast Hans-Georg Dr.; Schäpel Dietmar Dr.

316

Treatment of waste water from fossil-fuel power plants. Foreign experiences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses waste water treatment in power plants fired with coal or fuel oil. The following aspects are analyzed: types of pollutants in waste water from coal-fired power plants, effects of flue gas desulfurization on chemical composition of waste water, the waste water treatment system used in the Heilbronn power plant (FRG), waste water treatment used in the Voerde i West power plant, further, processes developed by the Resources Conservation Company and the waste water treatment system operating in the San Juan power plant (both in the USA). Efficiency and reliability of individual waste water treatment systems are evaluated. 27 refs.

Hycnar, J.J.; Sikora, J. [PAWK, Katowice (Poland)

1993-09-01

317

APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING FIXED BED BIOFILM AND MEMBRAN BIOREACTOR FOR WATER REUSE IN URBAN HOUSING AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate application of water reuse technologies, with major emphasis of water reuse for non-potable applications in urban housing area. To study the systems performance, secondary treatment development at pilot scale has been studied to achieve desired water reuse quality. There were two systems applied for water reuse scheme using biofilter or fixed bed biofilm system for treating wastewater from Turangga’s flat in Bandung City and membrane bioreactor system for treating wastewater from anaerobic pond of Bojong Soang’s Wastewater Treatment Plant, Bandung City, West Java. The systems produce water quality meets water reuse for domestic purposes, such as toilet flushing, washing, garden irrigation, etc. In general, these applications show assessing a treatment process ability to produce water contains turbidity is less than 2 mgL-1 and BOD is less than 5 mgL-1. This paper concludes that treated wastewater is potential reuse for public/domestic purposes mainly for water scared urban area, which depends on characteristic of wastewater and the methods or degree of treatment required.

ELIS HASTUTI; IDA MEDAWATY; R. PAMEKAS

2011-01-01

318

Residential Ground Source Heat Pumps with Integrated Domestic Hot Water Generation: Performance Results from Long-Term Monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) show promise for reducing house energy consumption, and a desuperheater can potentially further reduce energy consumption where the heat pump from the space conditioning system creates hot water. Two unoccupied houses were instrumented to document the installed operational space conditioning and water heating efficiency of their GSHP systems. This paper discusses instrumentation methods and field operation characteristics of the GSHPs, compares manufacturers' values of the coefficients of performance calculated from field measured data for the two GSHPs, and compares the measured efficiency of the desuperheater system to other domestic hot water systems.

Stecher, D.; Allison, K.

2012-11-01

319

Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs

1982-01-01

320

Household demand for energy, water and the collection of waste. A microeconometric analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis focuses on the effectiveness and efficiency of economic incentives with respect to the household demand for energy, water and the collection of household waste. In particular, we are primarily interested in the price and income responses of households with respect to the energy and water consumption as well as the household waste production. Chapter 2 reviews the historical trends of the natural gas, electricity and water consumption and their determinants - in particular prices - in the Netherlands. The historical perspective covers the period 1950 - 1990. The development of prices has several aspects such as nominal versus real prices, pricing schedules and the price per unit of consumer durable services.' In addition, we present the penetration rates of household appliances. Furthermore, we review the development in household waste collection and taxes paid by households for the collection of household waste. Finally, we make a small side step and evaluate car ownership and usage. Chapter 3 analyzes two issues with respect to consumer durables: first, we analyze the effect of energy and water use on the purchase price of domestic appliances empirically, and secondly, we analyze the effect of subsidies on high-efficiency versions on the consumer decision and consequently on the penetration rate theoretically. As to the first issue, we estimate hedonic regressions equations for purchase prices, energy use and water use with data on four domestic appliances. As to the second issue, the purchase of an appliance has implications for future consumption. Therefore, the purchase decision is analyzed with an intertemporal choice model including the time preference of consumers measured by subjective discount rates. We build a general framework in which a consumer can choose between a low-efficiency version and a high-efficiency version. The latter version requires less energy, produces similar services, and has a higher purchase price; see Kooreman and Steerneman (1998). The model describes the consumer decision and in addition it generates a penetration rate. The government is assumed to maximize the penetration rate by providing a subsidy which affects the consumer decision and consequently the penetration rate. Two subsidy regimes - a continuous subsidy and an instantaneous subsidy - are analyzed and compared on the basis of the penetration rate. We also consider the introduction of an energy tax to finance the subsidy. Chapter 4 analyses the price and income effects of the household demand for energy and water conditional on the durable stock. We estimate reduced- from demand equations with a pooled sample of the Netherlands Consumer Expenditure Surveys (DBO) 1978 - 1994. This approach is similar to Baker et al. (1989) and Booii et al. (1992). In the case of the demand for electricity we explicitly include the consumer choice between a single electricity rate and a two-part electricity rate. As a result, the demand for electricity is described by a switching regression model which is estimated with the Heckman's two-step estimation procedure. We calculate price and income elasticities for different types of households. Since we have a sample of pooled cross-sections, we can only analyze short-run effects assuming that the consumer durable stock is fixed. Chapter 5 analyzes the effectiveness of a particular pricing regime: weight- based pricing in the collection of household waste. With a panel data set of households in the Dutch municipality Oostzaan we estimate reduced-form demand equations for household waste collection following the work of Fullerton and Kinnaman (1996). We extend their work in three ways. First, we distinguish two types of waste which axe collected at the curb, compostable waste and non-recyclable waste. Secondly, since we use panel data, the specifications include household-specific fixed effects absorbing unobserved heterogenous effects. Finally, since we observe households up to 42 points in time, we include a lagged dependent variable in the specification to determine, in addi

Linderhof, V.G.M.

2001-05-17

 
 
 
 
321

Phenols biodegradation in waste waters from petroleum industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Practical methods to isolate, adapt and propagate phenol biodegradation microorganisms were established. Fifteen different microorganism group were obtained, capable of eliminating phenol contained in production water, sour water and waste water from Barrancabermeja's Refinery (Colombia), and dehydration water from heavy oil-in-water emulsions. Elimination efficiencies higher than 95% in periods of time shorter than 24 hour were achieved at laboratory and pilot plant scales. A continuos system using this technology was successfully implemented in April 1994, for the treatment of waste water from Colombia's biggest refinery. Existing stabilizing pools were converted into bioreactors capable of handling water flow rates between 16.000 to 32.000 m3/d. Efficiencies close to 95% have obtained under controlled acidity, aeration and flow rate conditions. This technology is being implemented in other Ecopetrol refineries and production fields.

1995-01-01

322

Process for purification of waste water originating from composting  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purifying waste water from composting Method for reducing pollutant and ammonium contents, also chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), of waste water from composting comprises:(a) sepg. solids and sludge from the water;(b) allowing the water to trickle down, at least once, under gravity, through a heap of biomass( from composting) of particle size > 25mm; (c) collecting the water at the bottom of the heap and freeing it of solids and sludge; and (d) discharging part of the water; (e) passing the off- air from the composting operation upwards through the heap to provide conditions for aerobic fermentation and to keep the water at 25-35 deg C; (f) purifying the gas in a biofertiliser before discharging it into the environment.

Vollmer Friedel; Scholz Werner Dr.; Listringhaus Walter

323

The DST method for solar domestic hot water systems - research and development for ISO and CEN standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dynamic system test (DST) method for performance characterisation of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems has been the subject of international research for a number of years. At present, several countries are using the method and it is being standardised on international and European levels. This paper describes the state-of-the-art of research on the DST method and the activities planned to bring it to the level of a fully validated, standardised test method. (orig.)

Visser, H.; Ree, B.G.C. van der [TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

324

Improving Water Supply Systems for Domestic Uses in Urban Togo: The Case of a Suburb in Lomé  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid urbanization facing developing countries is increasing pressure on public institutions to provide adequate supplies of clean water to populations. In most developing countries, the general public is not involved in strategies and policies regarding enhancement, conservation, and management of water supply systems. To assist governments and decision makers in providing potable water to meet the increasing demand due to the rapid urbanization, this study sought to characterize existing water supply systems and obtain public opinion for identifying a community water supply system model for households in a residential neighborhood in Lomé, Togo. Existing water supply systems in the study area consist of bucket-drawn water wells, mini water tower systems, rainwater harvesting, and public piped water. Daily domestic water consumption in the study area compared well with findings on water uses per capita from Sub-Saharan Africa, but was well below daily water usage in developed nations. Based on the surveys, participants thought highly of a large scale community water tower and expressed interest in maintaining it. Even though people rely on water sources deemed convenient for drinking, they also reported limited confidence in the quality of these sources.

Laurent Ahiablame; Bernard Engel; Taisha Venort

2012-01-01

325

Desilication of geothermal waste water in fluidized beds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes an apparatus for the theory of the deposition of silicic acid in geothermal waste waters onto fluidized bed particles prior to the water's reinjection into a geothermal reservoir. The process prolongs the reservoir's useful lifetime; disposes of toxic aqueous ions; and produces a valuable by-product-- nearly pure silica.

Axtamann, R.C.; Grant-Taylor, D.

1985-01-01

326

77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants  

Science.gov (United States)

...to give additional priority points to colonias areas that are un-served and that are...entities to assist areas designated as colonias that lack access to water or waste disposal...Tribes and other targeted areas, such as colonias, for the construction of new water...

2012-03-09

327

Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption  

Science.gov (United States)

Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

328

Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

Ellina V. Grigorieva; Evgenii N. Khailov

2010-01-01

329

Flotation treatment of waste water using cationic flocculants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work has been aimed at studying and comparing the efficiency of the use of cationic flocculants in the two process schemes for treating waste water in continuous pilot-plant and commercial flotation units. Waste water from the Moscow Petroleum Refinery was subjected to treatment. The characteristics of the cationic flocculants that were tested are presented. The test results in the pilot unit are shown. Results of laboratory studies show that the flocculants PPS and KR are more effective. Simplified flow plans of processes for flotation treatment of waste water and of pilot-plant flotation unit are illustrated. Concentration of suspended matter in treated water as a function of flocculant dose is presented.

Butseva, L.N.; Gandurina, L.V.; Ustinov, B.M.; Pridatkin, P.P.

1987-01-01

330

Removing oil from waste water with sulfur  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to water pollution control and concerns system for removing dispersed oil from water by contacting the oily water with sulfur to cause the oil to coalesce or agglomerate. In a preferred embodiment, the water containing the dispersed oil is passed through a bed of granular media presenting a surface area of solid phase sulfur to coalesce the dispersed oil. The coalesced oil is then separated from the water.

Jones, L.W.

1980-10-07

331

SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN ENERGY USING THE SILLICON WASTE WATER AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN ENERGY USING THE SILLICON WASTE WATER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A system and a method for generating hydrogen energy using silicon wasted water are provided to improve the collecting ratio of reusable processing water based on the silicon wasted water by secondarily processing the processing water. CONSTITUTION: An immersing type ultra filtration processing bath(200) implements an ultra filtration process with respect to silicon wasted water, which is generated from an ingot processing process, and separates the silicon wasted water into an ultra filtration processing water and silicon concentrated wasted liquid. A line mixer(400) is in connection with the immersing type ultra filtration processing bath and receives the silicon concentrated wasted liquid and alkaline chemical. The silicon concentrated wasted liquid and the alkaline chemical are mixed. A hydrogen gas generating bath is in connection with the line mixer and generates hydrogen gas and strong alkaline water and neutralizes the strong alkaline water to be separated into supernatant and precipitates.

CHOI CHAE SEOK; HWANG JI HYEON; KIM YOUN KOOK

332

Biological treatment of cokery waste water. Phase 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop a biotechnological process for the treatment of cokery waste water a two stage bioreactor system of each 800 l volume was designed, built up and proven for its efficiency by treating process water of two different origins. A third type of cokery waste water was treated in a lab scale bioreactor. The bacterial culture used for the process consists of a basic population for the degradation of phenol and cresols. Additionally several special strains isolated for their ability to degrade polymethylated phenols, quinoline and thiocyanate were supplemented to obtain an effective mineralization of these compounds. The successful integration of these bacterial specialists could be confirmed by detection of the respective metabolic activities (e.g. pathway-specific enzyme) in the activated sludge. -In addition to chemical analyses of the waste waters before and after biological treatment a toxicological method based on bacterial bio-luminescence inhibition was applied to characterize the clean up. - The results obtained for the DMT-process reveal that independently from the constitution of the waste water a hydraulic retention time of 6 hours for phenol degradation and 12 hours for thiocyanate degradation is necessary. So thiocyanate degradation is the rate limiting step in the process. The degree of DOC removal resulted in 80 to 90%. The degradation capacities vary from 0,3 to 2,7 kg DOC/m3 d depending on the type of waste water used for the treatment. In each case biological treatment of the waste water led to a strong reduction of water toxicity. - A feasibility study, based on the results obtained from pilot plant operation, revealed specific costs of 3 DM per kg DOC removal for a commercial plant with a capacity of 10 m3/h. (orig.). 13 refs., 13 tabs., 58 figs.

1993-01-01

333

Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3). However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW) as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Different concentration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%) of FKW were used to treat tilapia in tank culture for a period of twelve weeks. Physico-chemical parameters were also taken every week. Treatment with 0.1% FKW resulted in significant (p<0.05) decrease in ammonia, nitrite and nitrate levels. The survival rates of tilapia treated with 0.05 and 0.1% FKW were comparable to the untreated control. Growth performance of the tilapia was measured in term of length and weight. Highest relative growth rate was observed in tilapia treated with 0.05% FKW. However, all the fish died in 0.2% FKW due to severe pH drop. Therefore, low concentration of FKW could severe as a potential water additive to improve water quality and promote growth in tilapia aquaculture.

H. Hamli; M.H. Idris; S.K. Wong

2013-01-01

334

PROCEDURE FOR COMPOSTING OF COMMUNAL WASTE WATER SLUDGE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The subject of the invention is a procedure for composting of communal waste water sludge in stacked system. In the procedure a mixture - of hemp fiber waste and/or chopped panicgrass straw and/or chopped stems of sorghum and chopped stems of white melilot - of 20 to 30 volume % - is admixed to mixture of communal waste water sludge of 35 to 60 volume % and oil-containing Winter sludge of vegetable oil production of 28 to 50 volume %, the mixture is composed by a known methode in stacks in such a way that the stacks are turned, aerated and humidified if necessary, then inoculating substance containing of microorganisms Trichoderma hamatum, Pseudomonas fulva, and Pseudomonas stutzeri on a carrier of waste compost is admixed to the stacks in the mesophyl phase after the thermophyl one and the material of stacks is after-ripened by regular turning.

P KOZDI Lßszl¾; SZOLNOKY Gyözö; SZOLNOKY Tamßs; SZOLNOKI Jßnos; KUN Bßlint

335

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01

336

Comprehensive treatment and utilization technique for urban domestic garbage  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a comprehensive treatment utilization technology for municipal domestic waste, which belongs to the technical field of treating and recycling municipal waste the technology is as follows: the municipal waste is transported to a waste treatment plant so as to carry out harmless treatment, then is classified into eight kinds, that is, the municipal domestic waste, medical waste, branches and straws, floater on water surface, construction waste, aquatic plant, urban night soil and market waste, and is transported to a department belonging to one kind so as to be treated and recycled. The technology of the invention solves the problems of occupying a lot of lands, and polluting environment and groundwater resources caused by the landfill mode which is adopted to treat the municipal waste for a long time, solves the problems in municipal solid waste incineration that dioxin, a carcinogenesis gas, is released into air and 40 percent of waste residues still need to be land-filled, so that lands still needs to be occupied therefore, the technology can change the municipal waste into valuables, recycle natural resources, give full play to the value of resource recycling, and realize the measures advocated by the country such as 'waste reduction', 'resource recycling' and 'harmlessness', thus being suitable for waste treatment in different cities.

XIALING GUO; QI CHEN

337

Electrochemical methods of analysis of natural and waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Principles and modern analysis techniques of natural and waste waters using electrochemical methods are systematized. Methods for water sampling and their preparation for the analysis are considered. Techniques for determining individual elements (Cd, W, U, Zr, In, I etc.) in waters as well as multi-element analysis techniques are given Element detection limits and determination errors for these techniques are given and interfering impurities are marked

1985-01-01

338

Feasibility of utilizing solar energy to power reverse osmosis domestic unit to desalinate water in the State of Bahrain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study is examining the viability of photovoltaic power to run domestic reverse osmosis (RO) units in residential houses to desalinate brackish water supplied by the water authority. It was found that using RO/Solar system only in houses in the state of Bahrain would produce 110,000 m{sup 3} of drinking water (40 million gallon) per day. This amount of desalinated water will require 150,000 m{sup 3} of natural gas if it is processed in a conventional RO plant. From the experimental results, it was found that three solar panel were adequate to provide the necessary power and water requirements for an average house. (Author)

Al-Qahtani, H. [University of Bahrain, Isa Town (Bahrain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1996-05-01

339

How much water is enough? Domestic metered water consumption and free basic water volumes: the case of Eastwood, Pietermaritzburg  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This article is based on an in-depth case study of urban water services to poor households in the community of Eastwood, Pietermaritzburg, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, for the period 2005-2007. The article adopts a mixedmethodological approach. Despite government progress in delivering water infrastructure post-1994, ability to pay for the service limited access. The free basic water policy, initiated by national Government in 2001, sought to provide al (more) l citizens, but particularly the poor, with a basic supply of free water. The concessions were envisaged to improve public health, gender and equity, affordability, and as an instrument of post-apartheid redress and poverty alleviation. Once free basic water (FBW) was declared a new imperative for local government the debate on exactly how much was enough, why 6 kl was chosen, the structure of the offering and broader state intentions opened up. This article positions the FBW offering within the prevailing international discourse on 'need' calculation. Through the exploration of actual water consumption patterns of urban poor households, the ideological assumptions and 'scientific' calculations underpinning this discourse were found to have ignored the fluidness of use as well as the value of water beyond mere physiological need. In this regard, access to FBW was conditioned on a small household size and further predicated the modification of normal water activities and lifestyle and carried a disproportionate social cost. The free basic volume of 6 kl was found to have no resonance with actual water volumes consumed by the majority of Eastwood households.

Smith, JA

2010-10-01

340

Vitrification treatability studies of actual waste water treatment sludges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Treatability studies have been conducted at the laboratory-scale to evaluate vitrification of waste water sludges at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These studies are being conducted jointly by Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These studies include testing with surrogate waste formulations at both the laboratory-scale and pilot-scale, and testing with actual waste at the laboratory-scale, pilot-scale, and field-scale. ORR was chosen as the host site for the field-scale demonstration. The Y12 West End Treatment Facility (WETF) waste water treatment sludges, which are RCRA F-listed wastes, were chosen as the candidate waste stream for the first field-scale demonstration. The laboratory-scale ''proof-of-principle'' demonstrations reported in this study and the pilot-scale studies planned for FY95 on the WETF sludge will provide needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration. These laboratory-scale ''proof-of-principle'' and pilot-scale studies also provide needed data for the evaluation of the feasibility of vitrification as a stabilization option for a variety of wastes which do not currently meet RCRA/LDR (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Land Disposal Restrictions) requirements for storage/disposal and/or those for which treatment capacity does not presently exist

1995-03-02

 
 
 
 
341

Electrolytic separation of tars and oils from waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses the feasibility of separating oils and tars from coking waste-water using electrocoagulation. Soluble electrodes made of St3 steel were used. Waste water was treated by flotation (by hydrogen bubbles evolving from a cathode) as well as coagulation (by ions of iron Fe{sup 2+}) formed during catalytic dissolution of an anode. Efficiency of oil and tar separation from waste water using electrocoagulation was tested under laboratory conditions: voltage 15 V, current 62.2. A, current density 1,666.7 A/m{sup 2}, four 11x11 cm electrodes situated at intervals of 3 mm, volume of an electrolyzer 4.42 l, electrolysis time 15 s, output 1.0 m{sup 3}/h. Energy consumption was 1.25 kWxh/m{sup 3}. 3 refs.

Filonenko, Yu.Ya.; Konev, N.L.; Rzhavichev, S.P.; Myachin, G.V.; Sobolev, S.Ya.; Kuznetsov, V.Ya.; Ivantsov, V.A.

1991-08-01

342

The Fundamentals of Waste Water Sludge Characterization and Filtration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The move to greater emphasis on the disposal of waste water sludges through routes such as incineration and the added cost of landfill emplacement puts high demands on dewatering technology for these sludges. A dear problem in this area is that waste water sludges are slow and difficult to dewater and traditional methods of laboratory measurement for prediction of filtration performance are inadequate. This is highly problematic for the design and operational optimisation of centrifuges, filters and settling devices in the waste water industry. The behaviour is assessed as being due to non-linear behaviour of these sludges which negates the use of classical approaches. These approaches utilise the linear portion of a t versus V{sup 2} plot (where t is the time to filtration and V is the specific filtrate volume) to extract a simple Darcian permeability. Without this parameter, a predictive capacity for dewatering using current theory is negated. (author)

Scales, Peter J.; Dixon, David R.; Harbour, Peter J.; Stickland, Anthony D.

2003-07-01

343

Development of electrochemical denitrification from waste water containing ammonium nitrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors developed processes to dentrify waste water containing ammonium nitrate discharged from the nuclear fuel manufacturing works and to recover nitric acid and ammonia. For denitrification they applied the operating method and the conditions of operation to make 0.4mM or less from NH4NO3 waste water of 1.5 M by 3 stages of electrodialysis cells. To recover nitric acid and ammonium water, they separated HNO3 solution of 6 M and NH4OH solution with one unit of electrolysis cell, then absorbed NH3 gas from NH4OH solution with water and applied the condition of operation to recover 8 M NH4OH solution. The authors demonstrated that treatment and recovery can be carried out stably with actual waste water with a system through the combination of previously mentioned electrodialysis cells, electrolysis cells and an ammonia gas absorber. At present they are planning a plant where NH4NO3 waste water of 4,500 mol can be treated per day.

1995-01-01

344

Behavior of tritium water in radioactive waste incineration plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The radioactive waste incineration plant at Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, was installed in 1966 and has been operated routinely. The exhaust-gas system of the incinerator consists of spray scrubber, electrostatic precipitator, cloth filter, HEPA filter and so on. This experimental program was carried out to examine the behavior of tritium water to various parts of the incineration plant when combustible waste contaminated with tritium water was incinerated. The experimental results were as follows. The collection rate of tritium water in each dust collector was 85% in the spray scrubber, and 6% as condensation water in electrostatic precipitator, gas cooler and HEPA filter. Further the release rate of tritium water from stack was 9%. (author)

1980-01-01

345

Recovery of Heavy Metals from Waste Water.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

and its Safety. Kraków : Works & Studies Prace I Studia, 2000 - (Suchecki, T.; Tsunashima, A.), s. 87-93 ISBN 83-909846-9-5.[Proceedings of the International Workshop on Effective Utilization of Waste for Minimum Emission and its Safety. Kraków (PL), 07.03.2000-09.03.2000]Grant CEP: GA ?R GA104/97/S002Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z4072921Kód oboru RIV: CI - Pr?myslová chemie a chemické inženýrství

Jochová, MilušeG; Horá?ek, Jan; Pun?ochá?, Miroslav; Drahoš, Ji?í

346

An advective diffusion process on hot wasted water discharged to a depression angle direction into water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Effect of change in wasted water from nuclear or fossil fuel power plants discharging direction from horizontal one to depression angle one on an advective diffusion process of hot wasted water was investigated. As a result, it could be confirmed that an effect of depression angle jet discharge on water temperature reduction and so forth could be applied present experimental equation on horizontal discharging by a coordinate transformation of various factors with discharging water angle. And, a judgement equation to obtain a limiting area of hot wasted water affecting with bed surface was obtained by using distance from the lowest point of jet to the sea bed, inner diameter of discharging pipe, and field number for parameters, to elucidate its effectiveness. Furthermore, a diagram to estimate an effect of depression angle discharging water in the area on water temperature reduction and so forth was also proposed. (G.K.)

1999-01-01

347

Treatment of low level waste water by reverse osmosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A Study on the removal of certain radioactive elements Such as 141Ce, 51Cr 134Cu, 106Ru and 131I by Reverse Osmosis and the effect of surface activity agent on property of membrance are described in this paper. RO model is carried out to examine the treatment of actual reactor waste water and radioactive laundry waste water. The removal efficiency of total ? is 98%. Three preprocessing (cloth pocket filtrator, hivefiltrator and zone) and membrane cleaning methods (acid, ozone and spongeball) are also investigated

1987-01-01

348

Effect of organic carbon content of the domestic bentonite on the performance of buffer material in a high-level waste repository  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The organic carbon content of the domestic bentonite have been measured, and its effects on the performance of buffer are analyzed. The total carbon content and the organic carbon content were in the range of 3160 to 3600 and 2400 to 2800 ppm, respectively. The aqueous phase equilibrium concentrations of total carbon and organic carbon in bentonite-water mixture were in the range of 25 to 50 ppm and 4 to 18 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the effect of organic matter in the domestic bentonite on the performance of buffer material were insignificant. 33 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kang, Chul Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

1999-12-01

349

Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

Malinchak, Raymond M. (McKeesport, PA)

1984-01-01

350

Effect of ingredients in waste water on property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effect of ingredients in waste water on the property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment was studied by the method of static ad- sorption combined with dynamic experiment. The experimental result shows that the efficiency or breackthrough volume of resin is reduced if there are other general anions, triethanolamine and oil in the solution. When the concentrations of CO32-, HCO3-, SO32-, Cl- in the solution are more than 0.24, 0.28, 0.23 and 0.09 mol/L, respectively, the concentrations of uranium in the outlet waste water will exceed 20 ?g/L. The maximal allowable concentration of triethanolamine through the resin is no more than 250 mg/L. When the content of oil in the resin exceeds 1%(by quality), the breackthrough volume reduces by 16%, and when it exceeds 11%, the breackthrough volume almost loses at all. (authors)

2008-01-01

351

Urban waste water ecological treatment and comprehensive utilization method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an urban waste water ecological treatment and comprehensive utilization method, which belongs to the technical field of urban sewage environmental control. The method adopts serial ecological treatment and the comprehensive utilization of river sewage aeration, aquatic plant planting, aquaculture fish culture, aquatic plant utilization, and the like to establish a complete and complex food chain in the river so that the migration, the transformation and the gradual transmission of energy of the pollutant in river are carried out, the organic pollutant is degraded and transformed, not only the pollutant is removed, the water quality is purified, but also the water surface of the urban waste water river channel is fundamentally controlled, the urban environment is beautified, and the significant economic benefit is obtained and the invention saves the investment, has low running cost, can save a great amount of depreciation cost of the equipment and the sludge treatment expenses, can change waste into valuable, takes the aquatic plant and the aquatic product form as the resource recovery, enables the sewage treatment and the utilization to be combined together, realizes the sewage treatment resources and is suitable for the treatment of waste water in all cities.

ZHE JIN

352

Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola Area, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the shallow groundwater quality of Pindiga Gombe area for irrigation and domestic purposes. Fifteen water samples collected from wells tapping shallow aquifer was used. The water samples were analyzed for major cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+ and anions: C-, HCO3-1, SO4 2- and NO3-. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR), Permeability Index (PI), Kellys Ratio (KR), and Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) were assessed and compared with standard limits. The values of total dissolved solids (<166 mg/L), electrical conductivity (<0.249 ds/m), soluble sodium percentage (2.60 to 38.40%), permeability index (0.19 to 7.40%), magnesium adsorption ratio (37.34 to 66.50%), kellys ratio (0.0004 to 0.029 meq/L), residual sodium bicarbonate (0.35 to 3.02 meq/L) and sodium adsorption ratio (0 to 0.035) were found to be within the safe limits and thus largely suitable for irrigation purposes. The groundwater will thus neither cause salinity hazards nor have an adverse effect on the soil properties of the study area. Furthermore, the water samples also fall within the recommended limits and are found suitable for domestic purposes.

G.I. Obiefuna; A. Sheriff

2011-01-01

353

Use of slurry by KhVO clarifier for purification of waste water of petroleum products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for purification of waste water at a thermal power plant is discussed. The purification system was designed to remove petroleum products from the waste water and consisted of clarification, flotation, and filtration steps. The effectiveness of the waste water purification system reached 62 to 98% under various contents of petroleum products in purified water.

Samoryadov, B.A.; Gorev, N.F.; Potekhin, V.Yu.; Vanina, L.A.; Yunblud, V.F.

1982-08-01

354

Monitoring the waste water of LEP  

CERN Multimedia

Along the LEP sites CERN is discharging water of differing quality and varying amounts into the local rivers. This wastewater is not only process water from different cooling circuits but also water that infiltrates into the LEP tunnel. The quality of the discharged wastewater has to conform to the local environmental legislation of our Host States and therefore has to be monitored constantly. The most difficult aspect regarding the wastewater concerns LEP Point 8 owing to an infiltration of crude oil (petroleum), which is naturally contained in the soil along octant 7-8 of the LEP tunnel. This paper will give a short summary of the modifications made to the oil/water separation unit at LEP Point 8. The aim was to obtain a satisfactory oil/water separation and to install a monitoring system for a permanent measurement of the amount of hydrocarbons in the wastewater.

Rühl, I

1999-01-01

355

Simulation of the Effect of Water Temperature on Domestic Biomass Boiler Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a methodology to simulate the combustion of fixed beds of biomass particles using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The models presented were used in the simulation of a domestic pellet boiler working under operating conditions and the model predictions were compared...

Miguel A. Gómez; Roberto Comesaña; Miguel A. Álvarez Feijoo; Pablo Eguía

356

DDT residues in water, sediment, domestic and indigenous biota from a currently DDT-sprayed area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DDT is used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Limpopo Province, northern South Africa to control malaria. Through IRS, DDT may reach the outdoor environment via dust and air and from possible spillages during application. In this area the local people consume domestic chickens, wild fish or bird...

Barnhoorn, Irene E.J.; Bornman, Maria S.; Jansen van Rensburg, C.; Bouwman, Henk

357

An assessment of availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria, between May and December 2009 using structured questionnaire. The study populations were household members living in the study area. Two hundred (200) respondents were randomly selected with 74% responses. Majority of the respondents, 38.5% and 90% were civil servants and females respectively. Their commonest source of water supply was well (41%) which is inadequate in 74% of cases due to the seasonal variation of their water content. Other sources of water included tap bore hole and purchase of water from vendors. About 41% of the respondents spend N2000 ($13) on buying water for home use daily and 62.4% store water in drum/bucket/galloon. Cleaning of the storage facilities were done once in a year in majority of cases (54%). A significant percentage (48%) does not treat their water before using it. On the medical history, 74% claimed to have had illness (68% of such was typhoid fever) which they believed was from the poor quality of water they are using and 68% were treated in the hospital.

Stanley A.M.; Joshua I.A.

2012-01-01

358

Process for treating waste water by wet oxidations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is described for treating waste water by wet oxidations which contains at least two kinds of components among suspended solids, ammonia and COD components. The process comprises the steps of: (i) subjecting waste water to liquid phase oxidation in the absence of a catalyst and in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas, and (ii) subjecting the water from the step (i) to liquid phase oxidation in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas and a catalyst supported by a carrier of honeycomb construction and comprising at least one of iron, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, iridium, platinum, copper, gold, tungsten and compounds thereof insoluble or sparingly soluble in water.

Harada, Y.; Nakashiba, A.; Matuura, H.; Okino, T.; Fujitani, H.; Yamasaki, K.; Doi, Y.; Yurugi, S.

1987-10-13

359

Microorganism advanced treatment for oil refining waste water  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to deep treating process of refinery waste water after initial treatment. Refinery waste water is deeply treated biologically with microbial flora comprising Pseudomonas sp., Zoogloea sp., Plesiomonas sp., Bacillus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhodopseudomonas globiformis in a biological aeration filtering pond and/or a bioreaction pond while controlling the intake water pH value in 6-9. The deep treating process has simple path, high safety, low power consumption, low running cost and other advantages, and the water output can reach the reuse standard stably including CODcr not more than 60 mg/l, oil not more than 2 mg/l, NH3-N not more than 2 mg/l and SS not more than 10 mg/l.

YANA WANG; HAIJUN WANG

360

Toxicity testing of ground water, surface water and waste water in the island of Cyprus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The island of Cyprus is an exporter of agricultural products to the European Community (EC). Public health and environmental toxicity testing programs on the island, especially in the Greek-dominated south, are based on EC models. Following EC guidelines, an environmental toxicology laboratory is being established at the State Laboratory in Nicosia. It will test water for toxicity using the acute Daphnia magna survival test, the chronic 4-day algal growth test (Selenastrum capricomutum), Microtox and Mutatox. During a 6-month survey of water and wastewater using the acute Ceriodaphnia dubia test and the algal growth test, the question of the relevance of environmental toxicity testing in an ecosystem devoid of natural year round freshwater sources, excepting ground water, was examined. Municipal wells, potable and agricultural water reservoirs, municipal and industrial effluent were tested. Preliminary studies showed some municipal well water to be toxic to freshwater species, probably due to high salt content. Water from a newly developed reservoir was toxic, probably due to its location at the base of eroding hills recently mined for copper. Effluent from a paper factory was toxic, but the reservoir into which it flows was not, nor was the sulfide-rich water toxic to untreated seeds. For the water-deficient ecosystem of Cyprus, the environmental testing program must be different from those developed for the European continent. The choice of appropriate test species, the need to focus on water quality for public health and agricultural use, and the possible benefits of nutrient-enriched waste water flowing into sterile ocean water, must all be considered.

McNaughton, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kouris, D. [Agricultural Research Inst., Nicosia (Cyprus); Guden, H. [Department of the Environment, Lefkosa (Cyprus); Gokcekus, H. [Near East Univ., Lefkosa (Cyprus)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
361

Waste water recycling: toilet application. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our conclusion is that for our small family of four, this recycling system is a success. As seen on pages 7 and 10, the system does save water, and, our biggest goal, our cesspool does no longer overflow. We are admittedly light users of water due to our habits over the years to save cesspool overflow. But it seems that heavy users would be heavy in all areas and that it would still even out. The only change for a larger family might be the use of a larger collection tank to handle the larger volume of water. Another recommendation would be to not connect the bathroom sink to the system. We are perfectly happy to have it the way it is, but it might be nice to have a recepticle in the bathroom for substances that shouldn't be recycled. And, in our case at least, the water accumulated by the sink did not help that much. We have already had a number of inquiries about our system and we think that in the future, with a dwindling water supply, that there will be even more interest. It just plain makes good sense not to flush with fresh clean water.

Soneson, S.; Soneson, J.

1980-09-22

362

Relative potential hazards of radioactive waste in various water systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential hazard to man arising from the hypothetical release of radioactive spent fuel waste into various water systems has been evaluated. Radionuclide transport and human exposure were simulated for six water systems: a large Northwestern river, a small Northeastern river, a small Northwestern river, a large Central Region river, a lake with no outflow in an arid region, and an aquifer discharging directly into an ocean.

1979-01-01

363

Waste saline mine water as valuable chemical raw material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The latest achievements in waste water utilization from coal mines area are described. The principle is to ensure economic effectiveness in both the chemical processes and energy consumption. The aim is to selectively separate by evaporation all thecomponents contained in saline mine water and to convert them into the high purity marketable products. As the energy source low grade steam is proposed. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Chowaniec, J.; Swist, K. (Nadwislanska Spolka Weglowa, S.A., Tychy (Poland))

1994-03-01

364

Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cocaine abuse, a growing social problem, is currently estimated from population surveys, consumer interviews and crime statistics. A new approach based on the analysis of cocaine (COC) and metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in water samples was applied to 28 rivers and 37 waste water treatment plants in Belgium using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. While EME was undetectable, COC and BE were detectable with concentrations ranging from

2009-01-01

365

Attenuation of Chromium toxicity in mine waste water using water hyacinth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6). Cr+6 contaminated mine waste water poses potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The current field based phytoremediation study is an in situ approach for attenuation of Cr+6 from mine waste water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) weeds by rhizofiltration method. The weeds significantly reduced (up to 54%) toxic concentrations of Cr+6 from contaminated mine waste water when passed through succeeding water hyacinth ponds. The reduction of toxic chromium level varied with the plant age and passage distance of waste water. Chromium phytoaccumulation and Bio-Concentration Factor (BCF) was maximum at growing stage of plant i.e. 75 days old plant. High BCF (10,924) and Transportation Index (32.09) for water hyacinth indicated that the weeds can be used as a tool of phytoremediation to combat the problem of in situ Cr contamination in mining areas.

Mohanty M.; H.K. Patra

2011-01-01

366

Treatment of textile waste water with activated coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The adsorption properties of lignite oven coke towards waste water from textile mills were investigated. In particular, the results obtained with a semi-technical experimental plant were taken into consideration and discussed. COD reductions of over 80% were observed. A reactivation of the used coke is not planned, because it can be reused more economically as fuel.

Krieger, U.; Mohtadi, M.; Franke, F.H.

1981-11-01

367

Determination of cadmium in acetaldehyde production wastes and circulating water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technique of cadmium polarographical analysis, based on preliminary accumulation at alternating-current polarograph is worked out. The technique sensitivity is sufficiently high - (2-4)x10/sup -4/ mg/l. The technique is tested using wastes and circulating water of operating production.

Gnatko, Z.S.; Moin, F.B.; Mulyava, M.P.; Chernyak, G.V.

1980-01-01

368

Ecological impacts of waste water on wetlands: an annotated bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report is an annotated compilation of references, nationwide, on the ecological effects of waste water addition to wetlands. In addition to over 1000 entries, the document contains an introduction to the ecological issues and bibliographic research methods, a study guide highlighting leading references and an index to subjects, key words and geographical locations.

1984-02-01

369

Methane fermentation of ramie-refining waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mesophilic methane fermentation of ramie-refining waste water was examined by both conventional single-stage, batch-wise digestion for 7 to 17 days and two-phase fermentation using 5 and 20 litre fermentors in semi-continuous culture during which new waste water was supplied at every two days of incubation. Crude ramie fibres are refined by physical and chemical processes and the waste water is transparent dark brown and highly alkaline. It contained 1.13% organic compounds, including 0.485% polysaccharides. Considerable amounts of volatile fatty acids accumulated in the mixed liquor of the acidogenic phase digestor of two-phase fermentation and the consumption of these acids was observed in the mixed liquor of methanogenic phase digestor. From data obtained from the separate digestors in the two-phase process, it seems that the two-phase fermentation system was properly established. With two-phase fermentation, gas production rate constants were 2-3 times larger than those for the conventional single-stage fermentation and COD reduction rate constants were 1.2-8 times larger. Methanogenic microbes in the mixed liquor of acidogenic phase digestor and in the methanogenic phase digestor were 48% and 77%, respectively, of the totals in these two digestors. The waste water was decolorized considerably by the treatment of O/sub 3/ addition after methane fermentation.

Oi, S.; Tanaka, T.; Dobashi, S.; Ogo, I.; Taniguchi, M.

1985-04-01

370

Use of waste hot water in double basin solar still  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A periodic analysis of a double basin solar still is presented in this paper. In this still waste hot water is fed into the lower basin at a constant rate such as is available from power stations or other industries. The effect of various parameters on the distillate output of the still is also investigated.

Rai, S.N.; Tiwari, G.N.

1984-07-01

371

Qualitative and quantitative characterization of waste water for small communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An understanding of thr waste water nature, from both the qualitative and quantitative points of view, is a fundamental factor in the selection of treatment techniques and their subsequent operation. This is even more so in the case of small communities whose discharges are more subject to variation...

Pujol, R.; Lienard, A.

372

Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Ran...

Andrés Madrona; Gema Pereira-Caro; Raquel Mateos; Guillermo Rodríguez; Mariana Trujillo; Juan Fernández-Bolaños

373

Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

Andrés Madrona; Gema Pereira-Caro; Raquel Mateos; Guillermo Rodríguez; Mariana Trujillo; Juan Fernández-Bolaños; José L. Espartero

2009-01-01

374

Electrodialysis reversal (EDR) for surface and waste waters desalination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EDR process is used, e.g., for concentrating the liquid effluents of flue gas desulphurisation plants and cooling towers. The high-saturated liquid waste thus obtained can be evaporated at low cost. The desalinated water is recirculated. (PW).

Van Wely, J.W.

1985-12-01

375

Qualitative analysis of waste-water from ametryne production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

s-Triazines in waste-water from the synthesis of ametryne (2-(ethylamino)4[(1-methylethyl) amino]-6-(methylthio)-l,3,5-triazine) were tentatively identified co-chromatographically by HPLC and by UV-spectra. Alkylated s-triazines (e.g. hydroxyametryne, 4-(ethylamino)-6-(methylthio)-1,3,5-triazine-2(1...

Cook, Alasdair M.; Beilstein, Paul; Hütter, Ralf

376

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

377

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

378

TRNSYS model of a thermosiphon solar domestic water heater with a horizontal store and mantle heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new TRNSYS model of a solar domestic water heater is presented. It describes a thermosiphon system with a horizontal store and a mantle heat exchanger. The fluid inlet is placed at the top of the annular gap. This new TRNSYS 'Type' is developed from the standard Types 45 and 38, with some new features. Results of the new type are compared with two sets of experimental data. The new model is in accordance with experimental data, comparing daily energy delivered and draw-off temperature profiles. (author)

Andres, A.C.; Lopez, J.M.C. [Malaga University (Spain). Renewable Energy Institute of Andalucia

2002-07-01

379

Assessment of the suitability of agricultural waste water for geothermal power plant cooling in the Imperial Valley. I. Water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of the quality of agricultural waste water is the first step in assessing the sitability of agricultural waste water for geothermal power plant cooling. In this study samples of agricultural waste water from the New and Alamo rivers located in the Imperial Valley of California are analyzed. Determinations of standard water quality parameters, solids content, and inorganic compositions of the solids are made. The results are compared with data on samples of irrigation water and steam condensate also obtained from sites in the Imperial Valley. The data are evaluated in relation to cooling tower operation, waste generation, and waste disposal.

Morris, W.F.; Rigdon, L.P.

1981-09-01

380

Methods of industrial waste water cleaning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of „acid mine water“ (or AMD) is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of the old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphateelimination at this locality. Recently, several methods of the sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are the biological and physical-chemical oness and the chemical precipitation. The method described in this contribution deals with the chemical precipitation by polyaluminium chloride and calcium hydrate. By appliying of this method, very interesting results were obtained. The amount of SO42- anions decreased to almost zero-value, using optimal doses of the chemical reagents.

Tomislav Špaldon; Silvie Heviánková; Ján Brehuv

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Pure oxygen for the urban water waste treatment; Oxigeno puro para tratamiento de aguas residuales urbanas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pilot plant for waste water treatment in La China (Spain) is described. This plant used pure oxygen for the waste water treatment. The best depuration, the flexibility to experiment the fluctuations of flow and change are studied. (Author)

Estevez Pastor, F.S.; Ferrer Gaztambide, J. [EDAR La China (Spain)

1995-11-01

382

Selective Oxidation of Organic Compounds in Waste Water by ozone-based oxidation processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For many different types of waste water, treatment systems have been implemented in the past decades. Waste water treatment is usually performed by biological processes, either aerobic or anaerobic, complemented with physical / chemical post treatment techniques. However, in so...

Boncz, M.A.

383

Process engineering for biological purification of waste water. Verfahrenstechnik der biologischen Abwasserreinigung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The topical lectures divide into legislation, aerobic, and anaerobic waste water treatment. In the course of anaerobic waste water treatment biogas is produced, which serves as a fuel. Seven papers have been indexed separately.

1983-01-01

384

Advanced waste water treatment for radionuclide removal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Advanced Liquid Radwaste Treatment processes can be defined as those technologies which provide substantial solid radwaste reduction and improved water quality when compared to conventional processes such as demineralization and evaporation. Advanced processes have recently been developed and implemented for use in applications where radionuclide removal is the treatment objective. This novel application of Advanced Liquid Radwaste Treatment processes primarily benefits Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) which treat their liquid radwaste for subsequent discharge. Hence the treatment objective is to produce effluent with less than the Lower Limit of Detection (

1997-01-01

385

Method for further processing waste products from the purification of waste water, process water and exhaust air and use thereof in the agricultural sector  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for further processing waste products from the purification of waste water (effluent), process water and exhaust air, which method is characterised in that these waste products in the form of slurries receive additions of organic dispersions which are formed as aqueous solutions as by-products or waste products by precipitation or fermentation or by physicochemical treatment of molasses, and a utilisable product is formed from this.

PROPFE HERBERT DR

386

Evaporator of a heat pump to recover heat from polluted, uncleaned waste water. Verdampfer einer Waermepumpe zur Rueckgewinnung von Waerme aus verschmutztem, ungereinigtem Abwasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is to create an evaporator of a heat pump to recover heat from polluted, uncleaned waste water, particularly domestic and industrial waste water, in which unobstructed and non-blocking flow of the liquid containing solids is guaranteed. According to the invention, this problem is solved by having several evaporator plates parallel to each other and spaced out. There are bars divided into flow ducts in the space between two evaporator plates, where the rear end of the previous flow duct in the direction of flow is connected to the front end of the following flow duct by a bend. The waste water is supplied to the plane between two evaporator plates via a main inlet. The agreement of a bend guarantees that dead zones of flow in the danger of deposits and blockages are avoided.

Heuer, W.; Staadt, H.

1984-08-30

387

Contribution of 222Rn in domestic water supplies to 222Rn in indoor air in Colorado homes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The contribution of 222Rn from domestic water wells to indoor air was investigated in a study of 28 houses near Conifer, CO. Air concentrations determined by alpha-track detectors (ATDs) and continuous radon monitors were compared with the predictions of a single-cell model. In many of the houses, the water supply was shown to contribute significantly to levels of indoor 222Rn. The data from the ATD study were augmented with a continuous monitoring study of a house near Lyons, CO. The well water in that house has the highest known concentration of 222Rn in water yet reported (93 MBq m-3). The temporal pattern in the indoor 222Rn concentration corresponds to water-use records. In general, it is difficult to quantify the proportion of indoor radon attributable to water use. Several lines of evidence suggest that the single-cell model underestimates this proportion. Continuous-monitoring data, although useful, are impractical due to the cost of the equipment. We propose a protocol for 222Rn measurement based on three simultaneous integrating radon detectors that may help estimate the proportion of indoor 222Rn derived from the water supply

1992-01-01

388

Process of rendering phosphorus-containing waste waters harmless  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is the reduction of the process time for rendering waste waters harmless and elimination of harmful gaseous emissions into the atmosphere. The set goal is attained by this, that introduction of oxygen-containing gas is accomplished with jets of circulating decontaminated waste waters. The process is carred out at an oxygen partial pressure of 0.1-0.6 atm. The proposed process ensures the following advantages: the economy of the process is increased through the fact that the necessity for gas purification equipment drops out, and the energy outlay for evaporation of water from sludges is eliminated; use of an active oxidizing agent, oxygen, and a highly developed phase contact surface ensures fast and complete oxidation of phosphorus; through using a cyclic scheme the products of phosphorus oxidation remain in the water and can be used after further treatment of the decontaminated waste waters; also emission of toxic components into the atmosphere is eliminated, the latter very important from the ecological point of view.

Mukhlenov, I.P.; Afanas' ev, N.D.; Karegin, Y.A.; Migutin, G.V.; Soroko, V.E.; Talkhaev, M.P.

1980-12-30

389

Waste management in austria. (Volume 1); Abfallaufkommen in oesterreich. materialien zum bundes, abfallwirtschaftsplan 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For 1995 the total waste generation in Austrai was estimated at about 39 million tons of which: about 67% is waste of mineral origin, the predominant share being construction and demolition material; about 6% is waste from water purification, sewage treatment and water utilization; about 6.4% is solid domestic waste; about 18% is all other non-hazardous waste; and about 2.6% is hazardous waste (about 1 million tons per year).

Krammer, H.J.

1995-06-01

390

Durability of zirconium-containing ceramic waste forms in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper examines the durability of three ceramic waste forms containing Zr as a constituent at 90 degrees and 150 degrees C in HCI or deionized water. The three ceramic waste forms examined are: 10-mol%-Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2, La2Zr2O7 with a pyrochlore structure, and CaZrO3 with a perovskite structure. Each form contains an appropriate amount of Ce, Nd, and Sr to simulate the leaching behavior of actinides, lanthanides, and alkaline-earth fission products from high-level nuclear waste. Two forms, 10-mol%-Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 and La2Zr2O7 with a pyrochlore structure, show excellent durability in HCI and deionized water. For example, leach rates of all constituents in the La2Zr2O7 waste form are less than about 10- 4 g · m -2 d-1 at 150 degrees C for a leach time of 32 d in deionized water

1991-01-01

391

Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R ampersand D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex

1996-01-01

392

Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Meck, A.; Robinson, P. [N,P Energy, Inc. (United States); Robison, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

393

Heavy water wastes purification from tritium by CECE process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Future fusion reactors require Isotope Separation System for tritium extracting mainly from light water. Nuclear reactors moderated by heavy water also require upgrading facility to maintain deuterium concentration in water and facility for tritium recovery. The problems of tritium removal from heavy and light water and upgrading of tritiated heavy water wastes are issue of the day as before. To date the combined electrolysis catalytic exchange (CECE) process utilizing wetproofed catalyst is the most attractive one for extracting tritium from water due to its high separation factors and near-ambient operating conditions. The experimental industrial plant has been built in PNPI for the development of the CECE technology for hydrogen isotope separation. The process uses a LPCE column and electrolysis cells to convert water to hydrogen. The plant has been in operation about 10 years. In parallel with a development of CECE process for hydrogen isotope separation the plant is used for reprocessing tritium heavy water waste. Processing waste with the content of {proportional_to} 47 % of heavy hydrogen and 108 Bq/kg of tritium, the plant produces 99.85-99.995% heavy water and deuterium gas for science and industry. Owing to industrial demands for heavy water with reduced tritium content, the plant was modified and additional equipment and procedures were put in place to operate in the detritiation mode. After prolonged operation campaigns it was decided to update the plant with an additional separation column connected with existing equipment. Now the main parts of plant are two 100-diameter exchange columns of 7.5 m and 6.9 m overall height correspondingly, alkaline electrolytic cells. The columns are filled with alternating layers of wetproofed catalyst developed by Mendeleev University and stainless steel spiral-prismatic packing. The first column consists of five separation sections connected through a distributor of liquid, the second column consists of three separation sections. In operation of the updated plant in different modes, we have achieved detritiation factor 5000 at product rate 4.7 kg per day, and detritiation factor 330 at product rate 15 kg per day. The values of height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) were below 20 cm at a temperature of 345 K and a pressure of 0.21 MPa. The new LPCE column demonstrates very high separation efficiency. Prolonged testing of the plant operating at various modes adduces evidence of industrial practicability of CECE process. This process can be used for tritium and protium removal from reactor heavy water. The paper describes some results of research and development of heavy water wastes purification from tritium. (orig.)

Alekseev, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Fedorchenko, O.A.; Vasyanina, T.V.; Konoplev, K.A.; Arkhipov, E.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Leningrad (Russian Federation); Uborsky, V.V. [JSC ' DOL' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

394

Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

Treat, Russell L. (Richland, WA); Gee, Glendon W. (Richland, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

395

Processing method for discharged radioactive laundry water waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to process discharged radioactive laundry water wastes safely and decrease radioactive wastes, bubbling of a surface active agent in a detergent which causes a problem upon its condensation is suppressed, so that the liquid condensate are continuously and easily dried into a powder. A nonionic surface active agent is used against the bubbling of the surface active agent. In addition, the bubbling in an the evaporation can is reduced, and the powderization is facilitated by adding an appropriate inorganic builder. (T.M.).

Izumida, Tatsuo; Kitsukawa, Ryozo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kiuchi, Yoshimasa; Hattori, Yasuo

1995-07-28

396

Desilication of geothermal waste waters in fluidized beds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluidized beds of simple design can markedly reduce the silica concentrations in geothermal waste waters prior to reinjection. Pilot-scale tests at New Zealand's Ohaaki (Broadlands) field indicate that a cylindrical bed, 3 m in height and diameter, will precipitate -- 300 ppm of silica from a 200 tonnes per hour waste stream at 120/sup 0/C. The process should: (a) extend the useful lifetimes of liquid-dominated reservoirs, (b) increase the profitability and reduce the environmental impact of the associated plants and (c) produce a potentially valuable by-product - nearly pure silica powder - in multi-tonnage quantities.

Axtmann, R.C.; Grant-Taylor, D.

1986-01-01

397

Method for incorporating water-containing radioactive waste in cement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low- to intermediate-activity wastes, as e.g. spent resins from ion exchange filters in LWR's, are pourably dried and, in dosed quantities, filled into a storage drum in which dry cement is contained. By means of a stirrer, mounted on a hood which can be put on the drum, cement and wastes are mixed together while adding an amount of water - also in dosed quantities. The hood can be removed again from the drum which then may be closed by means of a cover. Subsequently the drum is brought to the ultimate storage. (DG)

1978-01-01

398

Continuous amino acid producing process with fish processing waste water  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The continuous amino acid producing process with fish processing waste water includes natural microbe contacting conversion technological process for pre-treating marine fish waste, and membrane separation process to separate amino acid produced in biological conversion of protein and in the microbe metabolism from the protein decomposing product. On one side, the inhibition of amino acid to the biological protein converting process is reduced to speed the decomposition of protein and on the other side, the further conversion of amino acid into other product is reduced, so as to raise the comprehensive yield of amino acid.

LIN KUNHUA

399

Volume of baseline data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes of the annual report 1988 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This WaBoLu volume is a shortened version of the annual report by the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure' and gives an overview of the data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes, compiled for the area of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1988 by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) of the Federal Health Office. (BBR) With 22 figs., 15 tabs.

1991-01-01

400

Closed loop waste treatment and water recycling toilet system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A description is given of a multi-stage method for treating toilet waste and recycling treated liquid therefrom, comprising the steps of; A. receiving said waste at a first stage and flushing said waste from said first stage with flush water containing nitrates thereby to form a liquid mixture of the waste and nitrate containing flush water, B. transferring said liquid mixture to a second stage whereby said mixture is agitated and is maintained under anoxic conditions so as to cause denitrification of said liquid mixture and generation of nitrogen gas, said nitrogen gas being vented from said second stage in such manner as to prevent the entry of oxygen into said second stage thereby to assist in maintaining the anoxic conditions in said second stage. C. transferring liquid from said second stage to a thrid stage containing biologically active solids and liquid and being maintained under aerobic conditions, air being passed through the mixture in said third stage at a sufficient rate to cause nitrification of nitrogenous compounds in said mixture, thereby to produce nitrates therein, the dissolved oxygen in the mixture in said third stage being greater than 2 mg/1, D. transferring the nitrate-containing mixture from said third stage directly to a filtering stage wherein said mixture is filtered to separate nitrate-containing water therein from the solids therein, the concentration of nitrate nitrogen in said nitrate-containing water being at least 50 mg/1, E. cycling solids from said filtering stage back to said third stage; and F. cycling said nitrate-containing water from said filtering stage to said first stage thereby to serve as said nitrate-containing flush water in said first stage.

Bernardin, F.; Coviello, A.; Kalb, K.

1980-07-01

 
 
 
 
401

78 FR 64905 - Carriage of Conditionally Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk  

Science.gov (United States)

...Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...of shale gas extraction waste water in bulk via barge, and invites public comment...transport shale gas extraction waste water in bulk. The policy letter also defines the...

2013-10-30

402

Consequences of the minimum requirements for waste-water effluent set in the water conservation law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modification of the law for water conservation and the new law for water effluents showed that during the planning of power plants, the problems with regard to official authorization of waste water effluents into the water with the limiting values accordingly, have become more important than a while ago, when the problematics for the later operation of the power plants were mainly seen in the requirements of the Federal law for the protection against immissions, and the herewith connected clean air technology and noise control. The considerable influence of the often discussed technical guidelines TA Luft and TA Laerm on the air- and noise emissions, will obviously constitute the administrative regulation concerning the minimum requirements on waste water conductions, according to paragraph 7a of the Law for Water Conservation, as far as the discharge of water from power plants is concerned. The main results of the regulations to be expected are discussed. (orig./RW).

1979-05-31

403

Thermal stratification in vertical mantle heat-exchangers with application to solar domestic hot-water systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Experimental and numerical investigations of vertical mantle heat exchangers for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been carried out. Two different inlet positions are investigated. Experiments based on typical operation conditions are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different positions of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, side-by-side laboratory tests have been carried out with SDHW systems with different mantle inlet positions. It is shown that for a high inlet temperature to the mantle it is an advantage to have the inlet located at the top and for a low inlet temperature it is an advantage to have the inlet moved down. Marketed tanks have typical the mantle inlet located at the top of the mantle. The side-by-side laboratory tests indicated that it is an advantage to move the inlet down from the top.

Knudsen, SØren; Furbo, Simon

2004-01-01

404

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated.

Dettwiler Martina; Stahel Anina; Krüger Sonka; Gerspach Christian; Braun Ueli; Engels Monika; Hilbe Monika

2011-01-01

405

Waste processing apparatus and method featuring power generation, water recycling and water use in steam generation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention includes systems, apparatus and methods for processing solid waste products. The present invention includes an apparatus and method of processing solid waste products in an autoclave, comprising the steps: (a) loading the autoclave with a charge of solid waste products containing water (b) sealing the autoclave (c) rotating the autoclave while heating the autoclave such that the charge of solid waste products containing water creates steam in the autoclave, and whereby so waste liquid water or steam and cellulosic material are produced (d) conducting liquid water or steam from the autoclave to a water cleaning system and then to a heat recovery steam generator so as to generate steam therefrom and (d) reintroducing the steam generated by the heat recovery steam generator into the autoclave. The system preferably is a closed loop system to conserve water. The system also includes equipment to convert cellulose into fuels and energy, and some of the fuels and energy are directed to the production of electricity and steam to support the needs of the autoclave and the balance may be commercially sold.

MICHALEK JAN K; THOMAS THEODORE J

406

Artificial sweeteners as waste water markers in a shallow unconfined aquifer  

Science.gov (United States)

One key factor in groundwater quality management is the knowledge of flow paths and recharge. In coupled ground- and surface water systems the understanding of infiltration processes is therefore of paramount importance. Recent studies show that artificial sweeteners - which are used as sugar substitutes in food and beverages - are suitable tracers for domestic wastewater in the aquatic environment. As most rivers receive sewage discharges, artificial sweeteners might be used for tracking surface waters in groundwater. In this study artificial sweeteners are used in combination with conventional tracers (inert anions Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes ?18O, ?2H) to identify river water infiltration and the influence of waste water on a shallow unconfined aquifer used for drinking water production. The investigation area is situated in a mesoscale alpine head water catchment. The alluvial aquifer consists of quaternary gravel deposits and is characterized by high hydraulic permeability (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1), high flow velocities (vmax 250 md-1) and a considerable productivity (2,5 m3s-1). A losing stream follows the aquifer in close proximity and is susceptible to infiltrate substantial volumes of water into the alluvial sediments. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (Acesulfam ACE, Sucralose SUC, Saccharin SAC and Cyclamat CYC) at the investigated site. The local sewage treatment plant was identified as point source of artificial sweeteners in the river water, with ACE concentrations up to 0,6 ?gL-1. ACE concentrations in groundwater where approximately of one order of magnitude lower: ACE was present in 33 out of 40 sampled groundwater wells with concentrations up to 0,07 ?gL-1, thus indicating considerable influence of sewage water loaded surface water throughout the aquifer. Elevated concentrations of ACE and SAC in single observation wells denote other sources of locally limited contamination. Also, the temporal variability of sweeteners in surface water and the drinking water production well is compared with other tracers. ACE, Cl-and SO42- exhibit similar patterns in the river water. However, this behaviour cannot be observed in the production well, where ACE concentrations are varying compared to Cl- and SO42-.This suggests that the production well does receive groundwater being infiltrated prior to the sewage water treatment plant. Time series analysis of 18O, ?2H will give more insight in travel times and the location of infiltration zones.

Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

2013-04-01

407

The potential of (waste)water as energy carrier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Graphical abstract: Energy input and potential output of the Dutch communal water cycle. Highlights: ? Municipal wastewater is a large carrier of chemical and thermal energy. ? The recovery of chemical energy from wastewater can be maximised by digestion. ? The potential of thermal energy recovery from wastewater is huge. ? Underground thermal energy storage is a rapidly developing renewable energy source. - Abstract: Next to energy efficiency improvements in the water sector, there is a need for new concepts in which water is viewed as a carrier of energy. Municipal wastewater is a potential source of chemical energy, i.e. organic carbon that can be recovered as biogas in sludge digestion. The recovery of chemical energy can be maximised by up-concentration of organic carbon and maximised sludge digestion or by source separation and anaerobic treatment. Even more so, domestic wastewater is a source of thermal energy. Through warm water conservation and heat recovery, for example with shower heat exchangers, substantial amounts of energy can be saved and recovered from the water cycle. Water can also be an important renewable energy source, i.e. as underground thermal energy storage. These systems are developing rapidly in the Netherlands and their energy potential is large.

2013-01-01

408

The logistics of domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes - 1999 synthesis; La logistique des dechets menagers, agricoles et industriels - Synthese 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A consistent policy of waste management cannot be limited to the organization of waste collection, to the building of processing and recycling plants and to the installation of technical disposal centres, but it must take into account also the questions relative to the logistics and to the transportation of wastes. This documents provides some statistical, economical, legal, technical and environmental information about this point in order to ensure the global efficiency of a waste management system. (J.S.)

NONE

1999-12-01