WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Technological Variations for Domestic Waste Water Heat Recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recovery and use of the heat generated by waste water is an active concern both internationally andnationally. This paper is a study on the technological alternatives used for the recovery of heat from domestic wastewater. The advantages and the technical aspects of the structural alternatives have been emphasized in the study.

GABOR Timea

2010-12-01

2

Phyto-treatment of domestic waste water using artificial marshes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phyto-treatment of domestic waste water by the use of artificial marshes system consists in beds of treatment working in series, this beds are constituted basically by inverse filters of inert granular material where the nutrients are cached from the residual water. Most of the treatment is carried in roots steams and leaves of defined species of plants. The rest of the treatment is performed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria that grow within the beds. In the proximities of the roots and the area near the bed surface, aerobic processes take place and in deepest zones, anaerobic processes take place. It is desirable that the aerobic process will be the predominant one, mainly to avoid bad odors; this is obtained with the correct selection of plants which must have dense and deep roots. The economic factor is also important for the selection of this type of treatment system, the cost of operation and maintenance is minimum compared with other type of systems. The operation cost is practically zero because it is not required provision of electrical energy for its operation; energy used is the solar energy through the photosynthesis process. The maintenance is reduced to pruning and cleaning that can be performed twice a year. The goals of this paper is to show our experiences during the construction, stabilization and operation of these systems installed in 13 OCP locations with different types of weather and explain the conclusions arrived after construction and operation; present this kind of systems as an alternative of economic wastewater treatment in terms of construction, operation and maintenance and as environment friendly treatment. (author)

Vaca, Rodrigo; Sanchez, Fabian [Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados (OCP), Quito (Ecuador)

2009-12-19

3

Projection and enterprises controlling in domestic waste water econom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of the cost of communal waste water disposal is widely discussed among the population, among politicians and experts. Not only the absolute amount of the charged fees are the cause of concern, but also their increase over the last few years. As part of this thesis, the PC software SloVaKon, which facilitates project and operation decision, will be designed to apply the experience gained during the building and expansion of the waste water industry in Germany´s five new federal states to the conditions in the Slovak republic. For this, a comparison of both country´s topographical, technical, legal and economical conditions proved necessary.

Schröder Reinhard

2000-03-01

4

Domestic Waste: Sources, Effects, and Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste is any discarded material. Domestic wastes are those produced by individual activities. In common with other living organisms, humans discharge waste substances to the environment that in turn re-energize the endless cycle of nature. Human activities are closely associated with ambient environment (soil , water, or air) through accumulation of domestic waste. Such household hazardous waste deposit arise from the discharge of domestic activities in the form of municipal solid waste (household, commercial and public street wastes), night soil (human and animal body wastes, excreta, or excrement). In rural areas, night soil is one of several components of the refuse that pollute the land. The surface water may be also directly polluted by domestic wastes or agricultural wastes. But in urbanized areas, household wastes, bathroom and laundry are conveniently flushed away by water as domestic wastewater through sewerage system, and disposed onto land or into receiving water, or in some countries it is treated and re-discharged for domestic usage. Solid waste in the form of kitchen garbage and other household refuse is collected for landfill disposal or for re-industrialization. Many domestic waste influence indoor air quality in urban and rural areas as for example the fuel used for cooking, smoke from cooking and from smoking habits, modern building materials, insulation, fabrics and furniture, cleaning materials, solvents, pesticides, personal care products, organic material or vegetable origin and dander from domestic life

1998-12-12

5

Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive  

...Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive...by domestic sewage and industrial waste water - collectively known as 'urban waste water'....assessment of the importance of nitrate from agricultural sources in this...

6

Biogas-centred domestic waste recycling system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In fast developing suburban towns, there is an urgent need for an integrated system for waste recycling and energy and fertiliser supply on a single house basis. This is because even though toilet waste is handled by a septic tank-soak pit arrangement, kitchen and bathroom water and solid organic wastes have to be discharged outside the house. A biogas based domestic waste recycling system has been designed and constructed and has been successfully working. Some salient features of this plant are discussed here.

Gupta, C.L.

1983-04-01

7

Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in co...

Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, T. Z. D.; Graaff, M. S.; Abu-ghunmi, L. N. A. H.; Mels, A. R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B. G.; Buisman, C. J. N.; Lier, J. B.; Lettinga, G.

2008-01-01

8

The application of membrane Bio-Reactor for East Java Domestic waste water treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment research have been carried out. In this system, membrane replaces the function of the sedimentation tank. Until recent time, fouling was still the main problem for membrane processes. This research has investigated the effect of MLSS concentration and back flushing on external membrane bioreactor performances such as COD and BOD reduction, and the back flushing effect for domestic wastewater treatment. Polyacrylonitril hollow fiber membrane with pore diameter 0.1-0.01 m, surface area 0.075 m2 was used in this research. This process was at HRT 5 hour, no sludge disposal, intermittent operation, and permeate exiting from membrane shell side. Optimum condition was obtained at a transmembrane pressure (TMP of 1.45 bar. Back flushing was conducted for 10 minute at 3.0 bar pressure. Effective back flushing was shown after operation at MLSS of 7500 and 10000 mg/l. The result of this research shows that COD and BOD in the domestic wastewater decreased almost 98%. MLSS and MLVSS degradations were 98.6% and 98%, respectively.

Aisyah E. Palupi

2008-01-01

9

Influence of domestic and industrial waste discharges on water quality at Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A contaminação aquática provinda de indústrias de processamento de caulim e de esgotos municipais tratados e não tratados, foi avaliada nos ribeirões Ubá e Vermelho, respectivamente, em Ubá e Vermelho Novo, em Minas Gerais. Com esta finalidade, amostras de água, material em suspensão e vegetais fora [...] m coletadas e analisadas. As análises envolveram a determinação da concentração de metais, nitrito, nitrato, cloreto, fosfato, demanda química de oxigênio e demanda bioquímica de oxigênio. O material em suspensão apresentou altas concentrações (em mg kg-1) de Zn (2.400) e Fe (14.900), enquanto que a vegetação coletada nas proximidades dos ribeirões mostrou-se contaminada com Al (7.120). As concentrações de nitrito, nitrato e cloreto nas águas dos ribeirões apresentaram-se abaixo dos valores máximos estabelecidos pela Legislação Brasileira. Os valores de fosfato e demanda bioquímica de oxigênio excederam em 7 e 3 vezes, respectivamente, as concentrações máximas para águas superficiais de qualidade satisfatória. Abstract in english The aquatic contamination from kaolin processing plants, as well as from untreated or inadequately treated municipal sewage, was evaluated in the Ubá Stream and Vermelho Stream, at the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. With this purpose, samples of water, suspended material and vegetation were collected a [...] nd analysed. The analyses involved the determination of the concentration of metals, nitrite, nitrate, chloride, phosphate, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. The suspended material showed high concentrations (in mg kg-1) of Zn (2,400) and Fe (14,900), while the vegetation collected closed to the streams was heavily contaminated with Al (7,120). The concentrations of nitrite, nitrate and chloride in stream water were lower than the maximum values established by the Brazilian Environmental Standards. The phosphate and biochemical oxygen demand values exceeded 7 and 3 times respectively, the maximum concentrations for superficial water of satisfactory quality.

Cláudio P., Jordão; Madson de G., Pereira; Antônio T., Matos; José L., Pereira.

10

Anaerobic biogasification of domestic wastes and direct solar energy use to produce biogas, biofertilizer and distilled water in a city - a pilot plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Domestic wastes are a source of gas of high calorific value as well as biofertilizer and distilled water. A pilot project undertaken by the Tata Electric Cos., Bombay on recycling sewage, garbage and garden wastes of a community by converting them into biogas, organic fertilizer and distilled water is described. Techniques used are anaerobic fermentation and Solar drying using Solar stills. A fish pond also can be fed the output slurry as feed material. In this pilot plant, 1 to 2 m/sup 3/ raw sewage and one to two tons of processed garden wastes and garbage would be input daily into the digester. The production is expected to be about 100 m/sup 3/ of gas per day, along with about 1500 litres of slurry from which organic fertilizer of 100 200 Kgs can be bagged and transported as well as distilled water of about 500 to 1000 litres Laboratory studies and studies on an approximate scale model of the plant are described. Scaling up to a pilot plant by about 2000 times would increase the efficiency of the rate of gas production as has been found by other workers. These tests and studies have shown that the project is technically and eonomically viable. Applications of the process on a mass scale would result in increasing replacement of fossil energy intensive processes with negentropic methods of economic and social activities.

kumar, R.A.; Pandya, N.H.; Patil, A.M.; Annamalai, M.; Iyer, M.V.; Nirmala, K.A.; Venkatesh, P.; Prasad, C.R.; Subramani, C.

1982-01-01

11

Domestic Waste Disposal Practice of Sylhet City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses the analysis of current practices of household waste disposal, problems faced by the residents during waste disposal and their views for improvement of the waste management system. However, it has been found that traditional concepts and technologies usually adopted in waste collection is becoming insufficient and ineffective causing more than half of the generated wastes (44%) remain uncollected and disposed of locally, which results in adverse impacts like water pollution...

2006-01-01

12

Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

Idiri, Z., E-mail: zmidiri@yahoo.f [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P399, Alger-Gare (Algeria); Mazrou, H. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P399, Alger-Gare (Algeria); Amokrane, A. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Alger (Algeria); Bedek, S. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P399, Alger-Gare (Algeria)

2010-01-15

13

Effects of Alum Water Treatment Sludge on Domestic Wastewater Sludges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the effects of alum sludge generated by water treatment plants on the properties of domestic waste water sludges is reported. Phase I of the three phase investigation was concerned with the effects of raw sewage containing alum sludge on an ac...

M. E. Burman

1975-01-01

14

Domestic and international nuclear waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1982, and subsequent 1987 amendments, allowed Congress to establish the plan to manage the nation's spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste. The principal elements in the waste management system include waste acceptance, storage, disposal, and transportation. Interim storage of spent fuel is proposed to be in Monitored Retrievable Storage facility. Studies are being implemented for research and design of multipurpose canisters which will be used for the storage, transport, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The potential repository site for permanent disposal is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Site characterization activities are currently being conducted. Underground construction has started for the Exploratory Studies Facility; surface based activities are currently under way. Factors considered in this phase include environmental concerns, geologic parameters, public safety, local economic impacts and ease and cost of constructing and operating the facility. The United States is involved in cooperative studies with other countries regarding fundamental aspects of radioactive waste storage and disposal systems for high-level waste. Most emphasize assessment of long-term performance of permanent geologic repositories for spent nuclear fuel and high level waste. By participating in international activities, the United States has been involved in transfer of technological developments and information exchange. Most of the countries which produce electricity with nuclear power plants plan to dispose of the spent fuel within their own countries. The permanent disposal of high level waste for most countries will be in deep geological repositories. This paper will provide the status of the U.S. program in the storage and disposal of its nuclear waste. Strategies for addressing nuclear waste management in the domestic program will be compared to those of foreign countries. 6 refs

1994-06-12

15

The Application of Microorganism for Swine Farm and Domestic Waste water Biodegradation and Enzyme Increasing by Radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bacillus sp. And mixed culture were carried out for biodegradation of domestic wastewater (in front of Office od Atoms for Peace) was found that 1%, 12 hours. Bacillus sp. and 1%, 12 hours. mixed culture had maximum removal efficiency in term of COD at 93.48%. Bacillus. alone could reduce COD in small amount. Gamma Radiation improvement efficiency of enzyme production of Bacillus sp. had been studied. The result indicated that Bacillus (Bs.), Bacillus pumilus megaterium (Bm) and Bacillus cereus (Bc) had no proteinase enzyme except Bm. After irradiation of 4 isolates, they all showed high proteinase increasing. The ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter of Bs, Bc, and Bp at 1 - 10 kGy showed more proteinase. After irradiation at 6, 2, 6 and 8 kGy, all Bs, Bc, Bm and Bp showed maximum ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter at 9, 9, 10 and 14 respectively. Thus irradiation of all 4 isolate effectively enhance proteinase production. But amylase could not increase; while lipase showed decreased effect in Bp, and no change in Bs. After irradiation of B13, B16, B35, B50 and B68 at 2, 6, 4, 10 and 10 kGy, the ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter were at 7,4 ,4, 5 and 4 respectively, Proteinase could effectively increase by radiation. According to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc), proteinase increases with the ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter were at 11.

2006-09-28

16

Bituminization process of radioactive liquid wastes by domestic bitumen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been carried out of the incorporation of intermediate level wastes in bitumen. Two kinds of wastes: a) an evaporator concentrate from a PWR (containing boric acid), b) second cycle wastes from the Purex process (containing sodium salts), were satisfactorily incorporated into a mixture of straight and blown domestic bitumen, to yield a product containing 50wt% solids. The products were stable to radiation exposure of 5'8x10"8 rads. Leach rates were measured in both distilled and sea water over periods up to 200 days at 5"0C and 25"0C and at both 1 atm and 8 atm pressure. Results confirmed that long term storage of the products would be satisfactory

1977-01-01

17

Domestic smoke detectors - a radioactive waste problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A common form of domestic smoke detector is the ionization chamber smoke detector. A small radioactive source provides the ionization and when smoke enters the sensitive volume the change in voltage is sensed electronically. The use of domestic ionization chamber smoke detectors is widespread and is recommended by fire authorities and insurance companies. That one million such detectors were imported into New South Wales in 1994 is an indication of the numbers involved. The typical radioactive source in a domestic smoke detector is Am 241, which is regarded as one of the more hazardous radionuclides. If it is such a hazardous material, should it be allowed in the normal household without any control? Or, in a smoke detector, is it in a less hazardous form than assumed in the ICRP recommendations and do its benefits outweigh its possible risks? In spite of the apparent hazard of Am 241, the possession of the radioactive source in smoke detectors is generally exempt from any form of regulation. Waste regulations, however, set requirements for the disposal of Am 241 and these regulations can be interpreted as applying to smoke detectors. We appear to have a situation where a home owner can legally purchase any number of smoke detectors but when they fail there are codes of practice that prevent them being disposed of. On the other hand, smoke detectors have a direct life saving function and reports indicate that smoke detectors can reduce both injury and property damage by up to 50%. Do these benefits from the use of smoke detectors compensate for any radiological risk? (author)

1996-01-01

18

Waste water treatment by flotation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues, food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water, which is in the atmospheric equilibrum, is introduced in a closed space where the depression is 0,3 – 0,5 bar. Our paper presents the hypobaric flotation cell and the technological flow of cleaning of domestic waste waters

Camelia Badulescu

2005-11-01

19

Potable water from waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The idea of obtaining potable water from waste water is a psychologically difficult one for many people to accept. The tendency is to think that waste water is dirty and cannot be converted to clean water. This book describes significant advances in waste water treatment technology which make possible the control and/or removal of conventional pollutants, thus making potable water from waste water technically feasible today. Methods of waste water treatment and purification in varying stages of development are presented, based on information prepared by Dallas Water Utilities; SCS Engineers, Inc.; Gulf South Research Institute; University of Colorado; and AWWA. Ongoing experimental and pilot studies around the world are described. A discussion of contaminants associated with municipal waste water reuse as well as a chapter on health effects of reuse have been included. Possible approaches to educating the public about water reuse are also considered.

Gillies, M.T. (ed.)

1981-01-01

20

Waste water purification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel process for the purification of waste water and/or waste water sludge comprising subjecting the waste water and/or waste water sludge to first a methane fermentation step, then a denitrification step and finally an oxidation step by aeration, the electron donor in the denitrification step being mainly the sulfide from the methane fermentation step and the remaining reduced compounds in the liquid effluent from the methane fermentation step being oxidized in the aeration step.

Mulder, A.

1983-05-24

 
 
 
 
21

Waste water processing. Abwassertechnik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tasks of waste water treatment technology are briefly reviewed. Selected processes, application-centered methods of calculation and calculated data are presented. The four chapters of the book discuss the types and volumes of waste water, fundamentals of a drainage concept, and the design of the drainage and waste water treatment system. (EF) With 421 figs., 133 tabs.

Bischof, W. (Fachhochschule Kiel, Eckernfoerde (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Bauwesen)

1989-01-01

22

Domestic and international nuclear waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1982, and subsequent 1987 amendments, allowed Congress to establish the plan to manage the nation's spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste. The principal elements in the waste management system include waste acceptance, storage, disposal, and transportation. Interim storage of spent fuel is proposed to be in a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility. The Department has been relying on a voluntary siting processes for the temporary storage of spent fuel. A potential repository site is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Site characterizations are currently being conducted. Underground construction has started for the Exploratory Studies Facility; surface based activities, including drilling and trenching, are currently under way to acquire additional data. The United States is involved in cooperative studies with other countries. Most of these studies emphasize assessment of long-term performance. By participating in international activities, the United States has been involved in transfer of technological developments and information exchange. There are currently over 400 nuclear power reactors operating in 25 countries. Most countries producing electricity with nuclear power plan to dispose of the spent fuel within their own countries. This paper will provide the status of the US program in the storage and disposal of its nuclear waste

1994-06-12

23

Residential conservation demonstration: domestic hot water. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four types of domestic hot water (DHW) systems installed in 80 homes throughout Florida were monitored from July 1982 to June 1983 by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) under a demonstration program for the Florida Public Service Commission. DHW systems selected for the program are located in four major population areas of Florida: Jacksonville, Orlando/Brevard County, Broward/Palm Beach Counties, and the Tampa Bay region. Twenty systems of each DHW type - conventional electric water heaters, heat pump water heaters, solar hot water systems, and waste heat recovery units - are metered to determine electricity use and hot water energy production. A microprocessor-based load profile recorder collects 15-minute interval data at each site and transfers it to an FSEC microcomputer over the telephone network twice a week. Analysis of a year's worth of data indicates that solar water heating systems operated with the highest average system efficiency and had the lowest average daily electrical load profile. Solar systems and waste heat recovery units had the least electrical demand on the Florida utility system summer peak day while solar and heat pump water heaters demonstrated the ability to shift or reduce the winter peak. Heat pump water heaters also demonstrated the best annual load factor but indicated problems with system reliability.

Merrigan, T.

1983-09-01

24

Domestic water heating systems. Systeme zur Warmwasserbereitung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Domestic water consumption has shown a distinct increase in the past twenty years as a result of the rising standard of living, more leisure time and improved sanitary facilities. During the drastic energy price rises between 1973 and 1985 considerable efforts were made to introduce energy saving schemes. Legislation, the constraints deriving from rising costs and awareness of environmental problems furnished an incentive for investment in industry and private homes. Although this was accompanied by substantial success the energy requirement for water heating continued to increase. Before deciding upon a particular source of heat energy it is therefore advisable for a critical study of the supply concept to be made. While water heating made up around 10% of heating costs during the time when heat energy was still available at fairly low prices, the proportion now is in the range from 20 to 25%. (orig.).

Liebermann, W. (Bosch (R.) GmbH, Wernau (Germany, F.R.). Geschaeftsbereich Junkers)

1990-03-01

25

Demands for the temperature control devices of domestic hot water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Factors of human physiology set criteria for the temperature control of domestic hot water, although these criteria are difficult to determine. The quality of the domestic water taps also set criteria for the temperature control. Thermostatically controlled taps are efficient in compensating for large and sudden momentary fluctuations in temperature in a domestic hot water circuit. However, continuous temperature changes of domestic hot water are not so easily controlled with thermostatic taps. For this reason, continuous temperature changing is not permitted in domestic hot water circuits. At the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) some experiments were performed on thermostatically controlled domestic water taps. If the temperature control devices of domestic hot water at district heating subdistribution system operates well, the temperature changing does not occur. The one way to check the operation of the control devices is to test them in the laboratory. In the laboratory the test conditions are same for all devices. According to the laboratory tests there is sometimes problems in the control of the domestic hot water temperature. Especially problems occurs during big and quick heat load steps of the domestic hot water. The bad temperature control means for example too big temporary changes or continuous fluctuating changes of the domestic hot water temperature. For the consumer these matters may cause unpleasant feelings. (author)

Ahonen, M.; Kosonen, R. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland)

1995-12-31

26

Exothermic hydrogen production system in supercritical water from biomass and usual domestic wastes with an exploitation of RuO2 catalyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with a method of producing hydrogen from biomass and sewage disposals in supercritical water by use of ruthenium dioxides as a catalyst. Experiments were carried out under argon atmosphere with a batch reactor made of INCONEL625. Reaction temperatures and pressures were changed in the ranges of 400-500degC and 30-50 MPa, respectively. The gas produced was quantitatively analyzed by online gas chromatography. In conclusion, considerably high ratios of hydrogen up to 38.5% were produced from the sewage disposals. This value was even higher than the hydrogen production ratios from other biomass: 15.0% from cellulose, 14.1% from pulp, 16.0% from waste paper, and 27.0% from paper sludge. The heat balance was calculated in the present reaction system using ruthenium oxide as the catalyst in supercritical water for the reaction of naphthalene and cellulose. The result showed that the total reaction was exothermic. This is rather surprising, because most of the hydrogen forming reactions are endothermic. The present result should be due to the excess heat derived by the partial formation of carbon dioxide. (author)

2008-03-01

27

Methanobrevibacter ruminantium as an Indicator of Domesticated-Ruminant Fecal Pollution in Surface Waters?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A PCR-based assay (Mrnif) targeting the nifH gene of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium was developed to detect fecal pollution from domesticated ruminants in environmental water samples. The assay produced the expected amplification product only when the reaction mixture contained DNA extracted from M. ruminantium culture, bovine (80%), sheep (100%), and goat (75%) feces, and water samples from a bovine waste lagoon (100%) and a creek contaminated with bovine lagoon waste (100%). The assay appea...

Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Wang, Shiao Y.; Ufnar, David F.; Ellender, R. D.

2007-01-01

28

Solar water heating for domestic supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilization of solar energy for heating domestic hot water supply in Jordan is investigated, evaluated, and optimized. A system of a typical flat-plate solar collectors with a preheat tank was used as a simulations model to investigate its performance relevant to various important factors taking into consideration the typical meteorological conditions in Jordan. A computer simulation was used for the determination of the solar energy percentage coverage of hot-water thermal demand as a function of the number of collector panels and size, hot water demand cycle, preheat storage volume, collector tilt angle, and other parameters. The system performance is analyzed on hourly, monthly, half yearly and yearly bases. The results obtained indicated that the annual percentage coverage of the typical thermal demand using a typical 3-panel system of about 4m2 collector area reached as high as 65%, and 4-5 m2 of commercial collector area provide the best annual solar percentage coverage per JD invested. (author). 14 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

1997-06-01

29

A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

Dexter V. L. Hunt

2014-05-01

30

Domestic warm water heat pump systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Domestic warm water (DWW) heat pump systems using either ground or air source configurations are well-established technologies in many international markets such as Europe and the USA. To date, Australia has not really embraced this energy efficient technology. This paper identifies seven primary considerations to be addressed when deciding to enter this market segment. These are energy efficiency, installer friendly design, low maintenance cost, cost effectiveness compared to other options, education, international application, and product quality. It is concluded that Heat Pump DWW systems do have a place in selected Australian and international markets. In addition to developing a successful product, it is equally important to make customers aware of the technology and opportunities the systems present. Education of installation, service and sales personnel regarding the operational simplicity of Heat Pump DWW systems will encourage their recommendation to customers. Using a carefully structured and targeted approach, manufacturers can effectively introduce Heat Pump DWW technology. Obtaining assistance from utilities and local authorities, will provide cost savings for the end user and promote future DWW developments. (author).

Hayes, M. [Solahart Industries Pty. Ltd., Welshpool, WA (Australia)

1996-11-01

31

Production of biogas from municipal solid waste with domestic sewage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the production of biogas from municipal solid waste (MSW) and domestic sewage by using anaerobic digestion process. The batch type of reactor was operated at room temperature varying from 26 to 36 deg. C with a fixed hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25 days. The digester was operated at different organic feeding rates of 0.5, 1.0, 2.3, 2.9, 3.5 and 4.3 kg of volatile solids (VS)/m3 of digester slurry per day. Biogas generation was enhanced by the addition of domestic sewage to MSW. The maximum biogas production of 0.36 m3/kg of VS added per day occurred at the optimum organic feeding rate of 2.9 kg of VS/m3/day. The maximum reduction of total solids (TS) (87.6%), VS (88.1%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (89.3%) occurred at the optimum organic loading rate of 2.9 kg of VS/m3/day. The quality of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion process was 68-72%

2007-03-06

32

The domestic wastes incinerators; Les incinerateurs d'ordures menegares: quels risques? quelles politiques?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the opinion of the Committee of Prevention and Precaution (CPP), on the domestic wastes incinerators, in the framework of the global wastes policy. The seven chapters detail and bring advices on the following topics: the elements which are going in and out of the incinerators, the technical processes, the occupational activities and the risks bound to the incinerators use, the transfer modes towards the different environmental areas, the exposure estimation, the risks of people living near the domestic wastes incinerators compared to the other concerning a cancer development, the legislation concerning the domestic wastes and the social acceptability of the incinerators. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-10-01

33

Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

2011-01-01

34

Waste water heat recovery apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste water heat transfer apparatus is disclosed in which the waste water from residential or commercial uses such as washing, etc., is passed into a separate drain and then into a heat exchanger which includes a waste water conduit therein, and then to the sewer drain. A supply water conduit extends through the heat exchanger generally paralleling the waste water conduit and has fresh water run therethrough in a direction opposite to that of the flow of waste water to an outlet end, after which the supply water is provided to a water heater. The heat exchanger interior is filled with a heat transfer liquid, and is so divided by baffles that a temperature gradient is formed in the heat transfer liquid adjacent to the waste water conduit, with the liquid being warmest adjacent the inlet of the waste water conduit and decreasing in temperature toward the outlet of the conduit. The supply water, flowing in the opposite direction to that of the waste water, has its lowest temperature at its inlet end, which is adjacent the lowest temperature heat transfer liquid, and encounters progressively warmer adjacent heat transfer liquid as it rises upwardly in the heat exchanger toward its outlet end. A substantially constant temperature differential is thereby maintained throughout the heat exchanger between the waste water within the waste water conduit and the adjacent heat transfer liquid, and between the supply water in the supply water conduit and the adjacent heat transfer liquid.

Arbabian, M.

1985-11-05

35

Heat consumption for preparing domestic hot water in hospitals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyses heat consumption for heating domestic water in large hospital facilities with over 600 hospital beds. The tests were carried out in 2 hospitals: the 715-bed University Hospital in Bydgoszcz and the 690-bed Provincial Hospital. The tests were performed over a period of 4 years: 2005-2008 for the first hospital and 2003-2006 for the second. The aim of this study is to analyse the variations and seasonal changes in the heat consumed to produce domestic hot water during the specified time periods. The results of this study show the yearly, monthly, daily, and hourly consumption of heat for domestic hot water. Particular emphasis is placed on the daily and hourly heat-consumption irregularity coefficients for domestic hot water. The results of this study may be used, for example, to predict heat consumption when designing new hospital facilities with 500-800 beds, to determine the heating power of the heat source and individual centres. Data on the constant and low-temperature heat consumption for domestic hot water throughout the whole year are particularly useful, as these data may be used to analyse existing large hospitals that are seeking alternative solutions (such as renewable energy or energy recycling) to reduce fossil fuel consumption. (author)

Bujak, Janusz [Polish Association of Sanitary Engineers, Division Bydgoszcz, Ruminskiego 6, 85-950 Bydgoszcz (Poland)

2010-07-15

36

Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.In this thesis the possibilities are presented for fixed-film post-treatment of anaerobically digested domestic sewage and water reconditioning in aquacultural water recirculation systems. Emphasis is put on ...

Bovendeur, J.

1989-01-01

37

Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

2011-11-01

38

Domestic Hot Water Usage in Hotels; Tappvarmvattenanvaendning paa hotell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Historically, design curves for domestic hot water, have been well sized and therefore also the components oversized. The Swedish district heating companies have noticed this and some companies replace large valves with customer-required valves, which give several advantages. There are several reasons why valves and heat exchangers can be customer-required and still the customers demand for hot water comfort can be fulfilled. The domestic hot water flow is composed, the taps are often short, large simultaneous taps are not very likely. Also, the dimensioning flows occur in the winter period, while the components are dimensioned for the summer case. The water pipes level off temporary temperature drops and the user seldom notices these because water with 55 deg C is not used in the tap. For residential buildings there are dimensioning recommendations on domestic hot water flow, but not for hotels. The purpose of this project has been to evaluate the domestic hot water use in relation to size and number of occupied beds. If the patterns of the chosen hotels coincide regarding to the sizes, dimensioning curves for domestic hot water use can be suggested. They can be used when hotels, or buildings with the same use pattern, are being built or restored. Measurements on 3 hotels with different sizes have been made. The hotels have 36, 52 and 158 rooms. The hotels are situated in the cities of Boraas and Kinna in Sweden. A short period of measurements from another hotel in the city of Gaevle (199 rooms) has also been included in this project. The measurements show that large hot water taps in hotels are rare and short. For the hotels, relative, cumulative relative frequencies and likely extreme values have been estimated. For residential buildings, The Swedish District Heating Association have recommendations for dimensioned domestic hot water flows. Formerly, these recommendations have been levelled so a cumulative relative frequency of 1 %, is reached, i.e. 99 % of all hot water taps are below this flow. The new recommended dimensioning curve for residential buildings involve a cumulative relative frequency of 7 %. This can not be directly transferred to hotels due to variations in number of occupied beds during the period of measurements. This project has shown that maximum domestic hot water flow not necessarily occurs when the hotel is fully occupied. Instead, it indicates likely maximum flows for the three hotels. These recommendations are for heat exchangers and primary valves dimensioning. The water pipes in the houses are included in a special dimensioning.

Petersson, Stefan; Werner, Sven [FVB Sverige AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Sandberg, Martin; Wahlstroem, Aasa [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

2004-06-01

39

Waste water heat recovery apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste water heat transfer apparatus is disclosed in which the waste hot water from residential or commercial uses such as washing, etc., is passed into a separate drain and then into a heat exchanger which includes a waste water conduit therein, and then to the sewer drain. A supply water conduit extends through the heat exchanger generally paralleling the waste water conduit and has fresh water run therethrough in a direction opposite to that of the flow of waste water to an outlet end, after which the supply water is provided to a water heater . The heat exchanger interior is filled with a heat transfer liquid, and is so divided by baffles that a temperature gradient is formed in the heat transfer liquid adjacent to the waste water conduit, with the liquid being warmest adjacent the inlet of the waste water conduit and decreasing in temperature toward the outlet of the conduit. The supply water, flowing in the opposite direction to that of the waste water, has its lowest temperature at its inlet end, which is adjacent the lowest temperature heat transfer liquid, and encounters progressively warmer adjacent heat transfer liquid as it rises upwardly in the heat exchanger toward its outlet end. A substantially constant temperature differential is therby maintained throughout the heat exchanger between the waste water within the waste water conduit and the adjacent heat transfer liquid, and between the supply water in the supply water conduit and the adjacent heat transfer liquid. The transfer of a portion of the heat contained in the waste water to the supply water reduces the amount of energy that must be consumed by the water heater, and the system may also be tied to a hot water space heater for a home or other building to preheat the water supplied to the boiler and thereby reduce the energy demand for space heating purposes.

Arbabian, M.

1984-06-19

40

Waste water heat recovery apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste water heat transfer apparatus is disclosed in which the waste hot water from residential or commercial uses such as washing, etc., is passed into a separate drain and thence into a heat exchanger which includes a waste water conduit therein, and thence to the sewer drain. A supply water conduit extends through the heat exchanger generally paralleling the waste water conduit and has fresh water run therethrough in a direction opposite to that of the flow of waste water to an outlet end, after which the supply water is provided to a water heater. The heat exchanger interior is filled with a heat transfer liquid, and is so divided by baffles that a temperature gradient is formed in the heat transfer liquid adjacent to the waste water conduit, with the liquid being warmest adjacent the inlet of the waste water conduit and decreasing in temperature toward the outlet of the conduit. The supply water, flowing in the opposite direction to that of the waste water, has its lowest temperature at its inlet end, which is adjacent the lowest temperature heat transfer liquid, and encounters progressively warmer adjacent heat transfer liquid as it rises upwardly in the heat exchanger toward its outlet end. A substantially constant temperature differential is thereby maintained throughout the heat exchanger between the waste water within the waste water conduit and the adjacent heat transfer liquid, and between the supply water in the supply water conduit and the adjacent heat transfer liquid. The transfer of a portion of the heat contained in the waste water to the supply water reduces the amount of energy that must be consumed by the water heater, and the system may also be tied to a hot water space heater for a home or other building to preheat the water supplied to the boiler and thereby reduce the energy demand for space heating purposes.

Arbabian, M.

1982-07-27

 
 
 
 
41

Legionella Infection Risk from Domestic Hot Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated Legionella and Pseudomonas contamination of hot water in a cross-sectional multicentric survey in Italy. Chemical parameters (hardness, free chlorine, and trace elements) were determined. Legionella spp. were detected in 33 (22.6%) and Pseudomonas spp. in 56 (38.4%) of 146 samples. Some factors associated with Legionella contamination were heater type, tank distance and capacity, water plant age, and mineral content. Pseudomonas presence was influenced by water source, hardnes...

Borella, Paola; Montagna, M. Teresa; Romano-spica, Vincenzo; Stampi, Serena; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Triassi, Maria; Neglia, Rachele; Marchesi, Isabella; Fantuzzi, Guglielmina; Tato?, Daniela; Napoli, Christian; Quaranta, Gianluigi; Laurenti, Patrizia; Leoni, Erica; Luca, Giovanna

2004-01-01

42

Fibre reinforced concrete using domestic waste plastics as fibres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC is a composite material consisting of cement based matrix with an ordered or random distribution of fibre which can be Steel, Nylon, Polythene etc. The addition of steel fibre increases the properties of concrete, viz., flexural strength, impact strength and shrinkage properties to name a few. A number of papers have already been published on the use of steel fibres in concrete and a considerable amount of research has been directed towards studying the various properties of concrete as well as reinforced concrete due to the addition of steel fibres. Hence, an attempt has been made in the present investigations to study the influence of addition of polythene fibers (domestic waste plastics at a dosage of 0.5% by weight of cement. The properties studied include compressive strength and flexural strength. The studies were conducted on a M20 mix and tests have been carried out as per recommended procedures of relevant codes. The results are compared and conclusions are made.

R. Kandasamy

2011-03-01

43

The Status of Domestic Water at Velezizweni, Swaziland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the sources of domestic water and its status in terms of quality at Velezizweni, a rural area in Swaziland. A questionnaire was developed and administered to 190 homesteads that were randomly selected from a total of 360 homesteads in the study area. The information solicited by the questionnaire included sources of domestic water, perception of community members on degradation of water resources and measures taken to purify drinking water. Water samples were taken from 14 water sources during the month of January 2011, and analysed for total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli and Faecal streptococci (F. streptococci. The sources of domestic water with the proportion of respondents accessing water from each one of them were (piped water, 45%, rivers and streams (31%, unprotected wells (24%, boreholes (15%, roof-water harvesting (8% and dams (0.5%. Each homestead accessed water from more than one source in most cases. The piped water was diverted from rivers/streams, springs and wells and piped to homesteads or within the vicinity of the homesteads. However the water was not potable as it was not treated. Water from boreholes was suitable for drinking as no E. coli or F. streptococci were detected. However water from the other sources was not suitable for drinking as E. coli and F. streptococci were detected. Total coliform was also present in amounts above the acceptable limit of 10 counts per 100 mL of water. The communities were exposed to waterborne diseases such as cholera and diarrhea, especially because only 6% of the respondents reported that they boiled water before drinking.

S.S. Tfwala

2012-03-01

44

Food Losses and Wastes in the Domestic Food Chain of the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identifies locations within the domestic food chain (the process required to deliver food commodities to the consumer) where losses and wastes are significant. Focus is on establishing the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches to contr...

D. R. Heldman

1978-01-01

45

Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes. In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I, industrial waste water (group II, sewage treatment hub (group III, unorganized collected waste water (group IV and old residential waste collection center (group V, of Bikaner city (Rajasthan, India was carried out from February, 2010 to May, 2010. Water samples were taken from surface only owing to low depth and investigated for various abiotic factors (viz. transparency, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, total alkalinity, total hardness, salinity, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, nitrate, silica, and inorganic phosphorous and biotic factors (viz. number and diversity of bacteria. The domestic sewage water causes major water borne diseases basing upon Total Bacterial Count (TBC and coliform Count (CC. The coliform count in the present study ranged from 2.5 to 5.12 MPN/mL. Comparision of microbial population in sewage water from all different Groups was done and the higher values of TBC and CC were recorded only in Sewage treatement hub (Group III.

Chandan Kumar Bahura

2012-01-01

46

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

1981-04-01

47

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters, comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

1981-04-01

48

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

1981-01-01

49

Cooling performance of R510A in domestic water purifiers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cooling performance of R510A is examined both numerically and experimentally in an effort to replace HFC134a in the refrigeration system of domestic water purifiers. Although the use of HFC134a is currently dominant, it is being phased out in Europe and most developed countries due to its high potential contribution to global warming. To solve this problem, cycle simulation and experimental measurements are conducted with a new refrigerant mixture of 88%RE170/12%R600a using actual domestic water purifiers. This mixture has been recently numbered and listed as R510A by ASHRAE. Test results show that, due to the small internal volume of the refrigeration system of the domestic water purifiers, system performance with R510A is greatly influenced by the amount of charge. With the optimum charge amount of 20 to 21 g, approximately 50% that of HFC134a, the energy consumption of R510A is 22.3% lower than that of HFC134a. The compressor discharge temperature of R510A is 3.7 .deg. C lower than that of HFC134a at the optimum charge. Overall, R510A, a new, long term, and environmentally safe refrigerant, is a good alternative for HFC134a. Furthermore, it requires only minor changes in the refrigeration system of the domestic water purifiers

2010-04-01

50

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters, comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

1981-01-01

51

Domestic Separation and Collection of Municipal Solid Waste: Opinion and Awareness of Citizens and Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The state of the art on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is based on the domestic separation of materials produced. After domestic separation, the resident has to transfer the separated materials to the MSW manager through the hands of collection workers. It is exactly at this stage that an end-use product changes its status and property becomes waste. This paper analyzes and compares the opinions and awareness of citizens and kerbside collection workers on this subject by means of two ...

Giovanni De Feo; Sabino De Gisi

2010-01-01

52

Domestic water heating by solar energy  

Science.gov (United States)

A solar hot water plant was equipped with extensive measuring instrumentation. The main results of tests carried out during 1 year, are: the average collector efficiency during 1 year operation is 15.9%; the total collector area of 30 sqm (23 sqm oriented to the south-west and 7 sqm to the south-east) produces 3.9 MWhr useful heat in 12 months; the climatic data of the test year (Sun radiation and outside temperatures) approximately agree with multiyear average data from the German weather bureau); and the 30 sqm collector plant only supplies 16% of the total yearly heat demand of the new dwelling of 150 sqm useful area (for space and hot water heating).

Reinmuth, F.

1980-10-01

53

Preliminary ECLSS waste water model  

Science.gov (United States)

A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

1991-01-01

54

Waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste water containing over 2 ppm Mo and at least one heavy metal impurity selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, and also containing cyanide ion (CN) is treated by passing waste water having an adjusted pH value ranging from about 3 to 4 through an ion-exchange resin column selective to the removal of Mo and provide an ion-exchange effluent containing at least one of said heavy metal impurities and said cyanide ion. The ph value of the effluent is then adjusted to a range of about 7 to 11 sufficient to precipitate the heavy metal impurity having the highest pH requirement for precipitation, following which the precipitate is flocculated and the effluent containing the flocculated precipitate then subjected to electrolysis using insoluble electrodes to form electrolytic oxygen and hydrogen and effect electroflotation of the flocculated precipitate and form a froth thereof which is separated from the effluent by skimming

1980-01-01

55

Waste water treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste water containing over 2 ppm Mo and at least one heavy metal impurity selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, and also containing cyanide ion (CN) is treated by passing waste water having an adjusted pH value ranging from about 3 to 4 through an ion-exchange resin column selective to the removal of Mo and provide an ion-exchange effluent containing at least one of said heavy metal impurities and said cyanide ion. The ph value of the effluent is then adjusted to a range of about 7 to 11 sufficient to precipitate the heavy metal impurity having the highest pH requirement for precipitation, following which the precipitate is flocculated and the effluent containing the flocculated precipitate then subjected to electrolysis using insoluble electrodes to form electrolytic oxygen and hydrogen and effect electroflotation of the flocculated precipitate and form a froth thereof which is separated from the effluent by skimming.

Laferty, J.M.; Van Riper, G.G.; Zundel, W.P.

1980-02-19

56

Domestic solar hot water - the DIY approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite their potential, only about 40,000 solar hot water (SHW) heating systems have been installed in the UK. Government support for SHW systems has been limited and their cost remains high compared to traditional systems. Existing systems tend to be customised with a solar panel and conventional household plumbing components. The 19 Solar Clubs in the UK aim to overcome the problems of cost and lack of knowledge by householders by negotiating discounts with suppliers, providing training, sharing design and build experiences, and certifying completed homemade installations. Commercially designed and installed systems cost about three times that of homemade systems and have similar performance. However, the solar clubs report various problems and reasons cited by people inquiring about installing SHW systems. Recommendations on how to encourage the use of SHW systems are given.

Price, T.J.

2001-05-01

57

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-12-01

58

Space, Identity and Health Risks: a study of domestic waste in Ibadan, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor waste management has characterized Ibadan’s modern and historical identity.  As a consequence, residents of Ibadan (indigenes hold diverse views about the city's image, while non-indigenes label it "filthy" and "dirty".  These perceptions, spatial and cultural, are deep rooted, intertwining with the political and cultural plane of Nigerian society. A distinction between “self” and “others” is seen to mark a discourse and counter discourse in the perception of health risks associated with domestic waste in the Ibadan.  Through survey and descriptive ethnography, our paper examines the nature and extent of domestic waste in Ibadan, as a physical, community and psychological reality, where we seek to explain how generation and poor waste management  impacts on these spaces and the very mechanics of identity. Different perceptions of health risks are observed as well the vulnerability to diseases associated with domestic waste and poor hygiene, bringing into play the socioeconomic variables and residential patterns which constitute the daily reality of this city.  Our study establishes that the increase in urban population, the low economic status, the indiscriminate setting up of artisans’ shops or outlets and the overall inability of government agencies to monitor the menace of domestic waste and its attendant health risks, are central factors to the problem generically deemed one of “waste”.  

Aderemi Suleiman Ajala

2011-11-01

59

Biological hydrogen production from domestic wastes and increased ...  

feedstocks for bacterial hydrogen production as a waste treatment method which \\is ... amino acids can be utilised by the fermentation system based on E. coli. ... \\However, household wastes are not pure sugar but of mixed composition. Its.

60

Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the last decade, a growing interest in recycling of domestic waste has emerged, and action plans to increase the recycling of domestic waste have been agreed by many governments. A common feature of these plans is the implementation of new systems and equipment for the collection of domestic waste which has been separated at source. However, only limited information exists on possible occupational health problems related to such new systems. Occupational accidents are very frequent among waste collectors. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the risk factors should be considered as an integrated entity, i.e. technical factors (poor accessibility to the waste, design of equipment) may act in concert with high working rate, visual fatigue due to poor illumination and perhaps muscle fatigue due to high work load. Musculoskeletal problems are also common among waste collectors. A good deal of knowledge has accumulated on mechanical load on the spine and energetic load on the cardio-pulmonary system in relation to the handling of waste bags, bins, domestic containers and large containers. However, epidemiologic studies with exposure classification based on field measurement are needed, both to further identify high risk work conditions and to provide a detailed basis for the establishment of occupational exposure limits for mechanical and energetic load particularly in relation to pulling, pushing and tilting of containers. In 1975, an excess risk for chronic bronchitis was reported for waste collectors in Geneva (Rufèner-Press et al., 1975) and data from the Danish Registry of Occupational Accidents and Diseases also indicate an excess risk for pulmonary problems among waste collectors compared with the total work force. Surprisingly few measurements of potentially hazardous airborne exposures have been performed, and the causality of work-related pulmonary problems among waste collectors is unknown. Recent studies have indicated that implementation of some new waste collection systems may result in an increased risk of occupational health problems. High incidence rates of gastrointestinal problems, irritation of the eye and skin, and perhaps symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (influenza-like symptoms, cough, muscle pains, fever, fatigue, headache) have been reported among workers collecting the biodegradable fraction of domestic waste. The few data available on exposure to bio-aerosols and volatile compounds have indicated that these waste collectors may be simultaneously exposed to multiple agents such as dust containing bacteria, endotoxin, mould spores, glucans, volatile organic compounds, and diesel exhaust. Several studies have reported similar health problems as well as high incidence rates of pulmonary disease among workers at plants recycling domestic waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

A Financial, Environmental and Social Evaluation of Domestic Water Management Options in the West Bank, Palestine:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water is one of the most valuable natural resources in the West Bank, Palestine. Due to its limited availability, it is a resource that needs particular protection. Although agriculture consumes most of the water (70%) in the West Bank, the domestic water supply is strategically not less important. It is the aim of this study to evaluate domestic water management options suitable for Palestinian conditions that contribute to achieving water sufficiency in the domestic water use in the house o...

Nazer, D. W.; Siebel, M. A.; Zaag, P.; Mimi, Z.; Gijzen, H. J.

2010-01-01

62

SMUD`s Solar Domestic Hot Water Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has recently completed the 3rd year of its aggressive Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) Program, part of the authors efforts to reduce the peak demand and energy impacts of electric water heating. Over 2,800 new residential SDHW systems have been installed since May, 1992 with about 1,000 installations in 1994. Cumulative energy savings of 36 M kWh and 5 MW in summer capacity savings have been acquired to date. The utility`s goal has been 12,500 systems by the year 2000, a 34% market penetration.

Murley, C.S.; Osborn, D.E. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

1995-10-01

63

Domestic Separation and Collection of Municipal Solid Waste: Opinion and Awareness of Citizens and Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The state of the art on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW management is based on the domestic separation of materials produced. After domestic separation, the resident has to transfer the separated materials to the MSW manager through the hands of collection workers. It is exactly at this stage that an end-use product changes its status and property becomes waste. This paper analyzes and compares the opinions and awareness of citizens and kerbside collection workers on this subject by means of two structured questionnaires in the city of Mercato San Severino (about 22,000 people, in Southern Italy.

Giovanni De Feo

2010-05-01

64

Demineralisation of industrial waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, spray drying and evaporation crystallisation are processes to demineralise water and waste water of different concentration ranges. In addition, recycling techniques allow water as well as concentrates to be reconverted. This will be illustrated in practical examples.

Marquardt, K.

1988-02-01

65

Domestic light water reactor fuel design evolution. Volume III  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volume III of this report examines the design evolution of domestic light water reactor fuel. The fuel of each vendor is individually described. Tables and figures detail the fuel's design parameters. A data base of this nature is required for the design of an underwater fuel disassembly and rod storage system. An assessment of fuel failure mechanisms and fuel performance is presented showing that spent fuel pool operational problems will be minimal or nonexistent. A summary and projection of spent fuel discharges, organized by reactor and fuel design type, is included to show the magnitude and composition of the spent fuel situation facing the nuclear industry

1981-01-01

66

Domestic and overseas development of advanced boiling water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since Toshiba delivered the world's first advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) to The Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. in 1996, we have been devoting continuous efforts to the construction and operational support of ABWR systems as major products. We are now promoting the construction of domestic and overseas ABWR systems along with the standardization of ABWRs. We are also engaged in the research and development of core technologies to support further promotion of ABWRs as a concurrent solution to the issues of global warming and energy security for individual countries. (author)

2010-12-01

67

Radiation treatment of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indiscriminate decomposition of organics in oxygenated waste water to carbon dioxide and water can be attained by strong active species produced by water radiolysis. The G-values of decomposition, COD reduction, and TOC reduction range from 1 to 3. The radiation treatment of thousands of tons of waste water now can be done daily by use of a high-power electron accelerator. While reduction of radiation energy for waste-water treatment is still the key to the technology, the combination of radiation treatment with a conventional water-treatment process, such as activated sludge treatment, co-precipitation, and ozonation, is effective for the purpose and is able to remove non-degradable organics by a conventional process alone. The present paper describes the achievement in JAERI along these lines and indicates that economics and technology are no longer a prohibiting factor of radiation processing, but a balancing factor to the advantage of new processing. (author)

1981-10-02

68

Comparative analysis of six generic solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results were analyzed from experiments on six solar domestic hot water systems tested at National Bureau of Standards. Use of pumps, fans, controls, and solenoid valves in the pumped systems resulted in high parasitic energy consumption. Storage losses from double tank systems were greater than expected due to poor storage tank insulation. Direct systems performed better than indirect systems as expected. The thermosyphon delivered the most solar energy to the hot water load for the lowest initial cost. The air system performed poorly due to the parasitic energy consumption and poor heat transfer across the air-to-water heat exchanger. Reliable freeze protection needs to be developed for direct systems, especially thermosyphon systems, to take advantage of direct heat transfer.

Farrington, R.; Noreen, D.; Murphy, L.M.

1980-01-01

69

Waste water treatment with microorganisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of liquid systems of microorganisms allows an accelerated decomposition of complex substances during the biological waste water treatment. The EC BIO 100 technique runs by these ready for use, liquid microorganisms in special treatment plants. High levels of organic pollutions can be decomposed quickly. The system of microorganisms are also used in municipal waste water treatment plants to improve the existing biological treatment.

Fehr, M.; Lieberherr, B.

1988-01-01

70

Domestic wastes: slanging match for Ambroise Guellec; Ordures menageres: le coup de gueule d`Ambroise Guellec  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Guellec report criticizes the domestic waste management; departments plans have been badly elaborated, without financing and give a too large place to incineration without incentive to recycling or materials recovery. Some ideas to put right this situation are given: organization of recycling market, to reduce financial help for incineration, reduction of domestic waste taxes, generalization of rental charge. (N.C.)

Guellec, A.

1997-04-01

71

Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users. PMID:24080628

Bradley, David J; Bartram, Jamie K

2013-11-13

72

Assessment of U.S. domestic capacity for producing reactor-grade thorium dioxide and controlling associated wastes and effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Demand for reactor-grade ThO_2 is likely to increase as a result of the growing interest in the application of the thorium-uranium fuel cycle to nuclear reactors. The wastes and effluents identified with the production of ThO_2 from monazite sand are waste water, tailings, dust, smoke and gas, and radionuclides (primarily, "2"3"2Th and "2"2"6Ra). There are currently an estimated 1,500 short tons of crude thorium hydroxide byproduct that can be readily converted to reactor-grade ThO_2. The present maximum domestic capacity for producing reactor-grade ThO_2 is about 65 to 100 ton/year. The current domestic capacity for producing reactor-grade ThO_2 is sufficient to sustain a thorium-uranium fuel cycle of up to 11,000 MW(e) without recycling thorium, depending on the mix of reactor types selected. This range can be increased to 28,000 MW(e) by expanding ThO_2 purification capacity to match the current production rate of crude thorium byproduct. Potential constraints identified which may impact the expansion of domestic ThO_2 production are (1) uncertainty in the marketplace, (2) limited available thorium for production of reactor-grade ThO_2, (3) limited production capacity, and (4) mounting public concern over current levels of radioactivity detected at various points in the production process of thorium and uranium products

1978-01-01

73

Treating water-reactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Lab. includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated

1993-08-17

74

Fermentative Production of Ethanol fuel from Domestic Waste by Pichia stipitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of Ethanol fuel from the garbage/kitchen waste was carried out with the main purpose of converting the domestic waste into a useful material. The conversion of food waste or garbage by acid hydrolysis was carried out to obtain fermentable sugars, which was converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Pichia stipitis. The present study indicated that at 36 h of incubation resulted in utilization of 29 g/L of glucose with yield of 9.2 g/L ethanol. Compared to various sugars t...

2013-01-01

75

Fermentative Production of Ethanol fuel from Domestic Waste by Pichia stipitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of Ethanol fuel from the garbage/kitchen waste was carried out with the main purpose of converting the domestic waste into a useful material. The conversion of food waste or garbage by acid hydrolysis was carried out to obtain fermentable sugars, which was converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Pichia stipitis. The present study indicated that at 36 h of incubation resulted in utilization of 29 g/L of glucose with yield of 9.2 g/L ethanol. Compared to various sugars the glucose resulted in the production of ethanol.

Modugu P

2013-05-01

76

Waste water and sewage sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monitoring of waste water and sewage sludge within the framework of environmental radioactivity monitoring is based on samples taken from sewage treatment plants and from sewer systems. Its main purpose is surveillance of emissions from potential polluters, making use of the fact that most of the radioactive nuclides are discharged with the waste water, and detection is more easy with large amounts of waste water available for treatment and sampling, (enrichment of ? and ? activities and of I-131 in large volumina). Municipal sewage treatment plants need not be generally monitored for radionuclides in the sewage sludge destined for use in agriculture, as emissions of long-lived isotopes are extremely low. (orig./DG)

1985-01-01

77

Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system - in this study electric heating elements - heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot-water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand, the volume is large; in periods with a small hot-water demand, the volume is small. Two small SDHW systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large or small hot-water consumption and the risk of oversized solar heating systems and oversized tank volumes is reduced by using smart solar tanks. Based on the investigations it is recommended to start development of smart solar tank units with an oil-fired boiler or a natural gas burner as auxiliary energy supply system. (Author)

Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Soeren; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Shah, Louise Jivan [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

2005-02-01

78

Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system â?? in this study electric heating elements â?? heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot-water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand, the volume is large; in periods with a small hot-water demand, the volume is small. Two small SDHW systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25%by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large or small hot-water consumption and the risk of oversized solar heating systems and oversized tank volumes is reduced by using smart solar tanks. Based on the investigations it is recommended to start development of smart solar tank units with an oil-fired boiler or a natural gas burner as auxiliary energy supply system.

Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

2005-01-01

79

A design method for thermosyphon solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A modification to the f-Chart method has been developed to predict monthly and annual performance of thermosyphon solar domestic hot water systems. Stratification in the storage tank is accounted for through use of a modified collector loss coefficient. The varying flow rate throughout the day and year in a thermosyphon system is accounted for through use of a fixed monthly ''equivalent average'' flow rate. The ''equivalent average'' flow rate is that which balances the thermosyphon buoyancy driving force with the frictional losses in the flow circuit on a monthly average basis. Comparison between the annual solar fraction predicted by the modified design method and TRNSYS simulations for a wide range of thermosyphon systems shows an RMS error of 2.6 percent.

Malkin, M.P.; Klein, S.A.; Duffie, J.A.; Copsey, A.B.

1987-05-01

80

Waste water treatment installation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modifications in a plant for the decontamination of liquid waste, i.e. the washing-out of volatile radioactive substances with the aid of an acid and an alkaline washing liquid are proposed. The modifications will make the process more efficient by using washing liquids of different pHs in one evaporator. They refer mainly to the arrangement of the evaporator bottom plates and the installation of a pump. (UWI)

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Departmental plans of domestic wastes management - evaluation 2002; Plans departementaux d'elimination des dechets menager assimiles - bilan 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The departmental plans of domestic wastes management are official documents which manage the actions needed to realize the legislative and regulation objectives concerning the domestic wastes and related wastes. A first evaluation has been realized in 1997 for 47 edited plans. In the context of the new wastes policy a new evaluation has been realized by the ADEME in 2002 for 98 plans. It provides the methodology of the study, the analysis of the plans, the sites and management of wastes, economic data, the equipment and investments. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-03-01

82

Simultaneous treatment of SO2 containing stack gases and waste water  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for simultaneously removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and the like and purifying waste water such as derived from domestic sewage is described. A portion of the gas stream and a portion of the waste water, the latter containing dissolved iron and having an acidic pH, are contacted in a closed loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone to effect absorption of the sulfur dioxide into the waste water. A second portion of the gas stream and a second portion of the waste water are controlled in an open loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone. The second portion of the waste water contains a lesser amount of iron than the first portion of the waste water. Contacting in the openloop scrubbing zone is sufficient to acidify the waste water which is then treated to remove solids originally present.

Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D. (inventors)

1978-01-01

83

Sorting and recycling of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to reduce the strain on the environment from the deposition of waste in landfills and combustion at incineration plants, several governments throughout the industrialized world have planned greatly increased recycling of domestic waste by the turn of the millennium. To implement the plans, new waste recycling facilities are to be built and the number of workers involved in waste sorting and recycling will increase steadily during the next decade. Several studies have reinforced the hypothesis that exposure to airborne microorganisms and the toxic products thereof are important factors causing a multitude of health problems among workers at waste sorting and recycling plants. Workers at transfer stations, landfills and incineration plants may experience an increased risk of pulmonary disorders and gastrointestinal problems. High concentrations of total airborne dust, bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria and fungal spores have been reported. The concentrations are considered to be sufficiently high to cause adverse health effects. In addition, a high incidence of lower back injuries, probably due to heavy lifting during work, has been reported among workers at landfills and incineration plants. Workers involved in manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste, as well as workers at compost plants experience more or less frequent symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) (cough, chest-tightness, dyspnoea, influenza-like symptoms such as chills, fever, muscle ache, joint pain, fatigue and headache), gastrointestinal problems such as nausea and diarrhoea, irritation of the skin, eye and mucous membranes of the nose and upper airways, etc. In addition cases of severe occupational pulmonary diseases (asthma, alveolitis, bronchitis) have been reported. Manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste may be associated with exposures to large quantities of airborne bacteria and endotoxin. Several work functions in compost plants can result in very high exposure to airborne fungal spores and thermophilic actinomycetes. At plants sorting separated domestic waste, e.g. the combustible fraction of waste composed of paper, cardboard and plastics, the workers may have an increased risk of gastrointestinal symptoms and irritation of the eyes and skin. At such plants the bioaerosol exposure levels are in general low, but at some work tasks, e.g. manual sorting and work near the balers, exposure levels may occasionally be high enough to be potentially harmful. Workers handling the source-sorted paper or cardboard fraction do not appear to have an elevated risk of occupational health problems related to bioaerosol exposure, and the bioaerosol exposure is generally low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O

1995-01-01

84

Small solar domestic hot water systems based on smart solar tanks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations of small solar domestic hot water systems based on smart solar tanks have been carried out. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot water tank from the top and the water volume heated by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot water demand the volume is small. Results from side-by-side laboratory tests of three small solar domestic hot water systems based on differently designed smart solar tanks and on a traditional solar tank are presented. Based on the investigations recommendations for future development of small solar domestic hot water systems are given. (au)

Furbo, S.; Knudsen, S. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Buildings and Energy, Lyngby (Denmark)

2000-07-01

85

Feasibility analysis of domestic solar water heating systems in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The excessive usage of fossil fuels has world-widely caused chain environmental consequences. An interesting solution to this problem is the systematic exploitation of available renewable energy sources, including solar energy. Greece is located in a major geographical region with an abundant and reliable supply of solar energy, even during the winter. In as much, one cannot disregard the significant dependency of the country on imported fuels, since almost 70% of its domestic energy consumption is covered by oil and natural gas imports. Despite the relative local sun abundance, during the last 10 years the local solar collectors market illustrates a sluggish behaviour, in comparison with the impressive numbers of sales during the 1980-1990 decade. At a first glance, such an occurrence characterizes a controversy. In an attempt to find a rational explanation of this peculiar situation, an integrated cost-benefit analysis is carried out taking into consideration the vast majority of the parameters affecting solar thermal energy production cost. The resulting numerical values are then compared with the corresponding ones coming from alternative hot-water production techniques. Accordingly, a quite extensive sensitivity analysis is carried out, in order to demonstrate the impact of the main techno-economic parameters on the fiscal behaviour of contemporary solar hot water production systems. The results obtained not only explain with sufficient accuracy the current local market situation but also demonstrate the specific actions that if realized they may boost solar collector sales in the corresponding local market. (author)

2005-04-01

86

Control strategies for domestic hot water recirculation systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of a domestic hot water (DHW) recirculation system is to decrease the time spent waiting for the water to be delivered at acceptable temperatures when called for and also decrease the subsequent water consumption. The research detailed in this paper considered whether it is necessary to continuously run these recirculation pumps, as is general practice, or whether it is possible to reduce DHW system energy consumption by operating these pumps with some type of control strategy. Three different control strategies were evaluated by employing detailed monitoring. The different operating modes were: (1) base case (continuous operation), (2) shutdown during the overnight period, (3) shutdown during the peak morning and evening periods, and (4) cycling by a return line aquastat set at 110 F (61 C). In order to accomplish the research, six sites each had an aquastat installed onto the DHW return line and a programmable timeclock wired into the pump. The analysis identifies the relative energy use for each of the strategies during four round-robin rounds of two weeks each during the spring, summer, fall, and winter periods. When compared to the base case, (pump running 24 hours per day), Strategy B saves an average of 6%, Strategy C saves 6%, and Strategy D saves 11% of the DHW portion of a building's DHW energy requirements annually. This is significant in that for Strategy D, this translates into a savings of 4% of the building's total annual fuel bill. All of the control strategies evaluated were simple and employed low-cost devices (under $250 installed), which should help in achieving an extremely large implementation rate for the control strategy recommended. Tenant water quality survey questionnaires show that there was always an acceptable level of satisfaction, regardless of system control strategy.

Goldner, F.S.

1999-07-01

87

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01

88

Flotation process for purification of waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a flotation method for purification of industrial or municipal waste water, waste water comes in contact with electrodes having an electrical potential capable of electrolytically decomposing a portion of the waste water, thereby creating an ascending stream of gas bubbles. The waste water is mixed before or during the electrolytic decomposition with wettable particles of polymer material which are practically insoluble in water and have an absolute density of 1.3 g/cm3 at the most. Polymeric materials, especially polyalkane fibrids, are suitable for use as particles. This process makes it possible to purify oil-containing waste water by electroflotation without forming an oil film on the electrodes.

Julke, E.

1982-01-19

89

Energy Balances of Municipal Waste Water Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report deals with problems connected to retrieving energy from municipal waste waters, i.e. which factors determine the amount of heat available and what influence does a reduction of the waste water temperature have on the waste water purification pr...

B. Bengtsson M. Gefwert G. Soederlund

1981-01-01

90

Energy conscious waste water treatment plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste water treatment plants are normally large consumers of energy. This article describes how a waste water treatment plant in the west of Sweden is a net producer of energy, using heat pumps, combined heat power engines operated on biogas and hydropower. Over 20% of the energy for district heating in Gothenburg is produced from the waste water treatment and heat pump plants. (author)

Balmer, Peter [Gothenburg Regional Sewage Works (Sweden)

1997-06-01

91

Investigating the Effectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV) Water Purification as Replacement of Chlorine Disinfection in Domestic Water Supply  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Domestic water supply to residential buildings through hand-dug wells has been widely accepted as a reliable substitute to government owned municipal water supply system in Nigeria. This Paper investigates theeffectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV) Water Sterilizers as a suitable replacement of chlorine disinfection in the removal of microbiological contaminants in domestic water supply. Water from an established contaminated well in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, were subjected, simultaneously and in parallel...

2012-01-01

92

Waste Water Treatment Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

2004-12-27

93

Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy [Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh_thermal)] for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goal is attainable and prioritize R&D for cold-climate SDWH, life-cycle analyses were done with hypothetical lower-cost components in glycol, drainback, and thermosiphon systems. Balance-of-system (BOS, everything but the collector) measures included replacing metal components with polymeric versions and system simplification. With all BOS measures in place, Csav could be reduced more than 50% with a low-cost, selectively-coated, glazed polymeric collector, and slightly less than 50% with either a conventional selective metal-glass or a non-selective glazed polymer collector. The largest percent reduction in Csav comes from replacing conventional pressurized solar storage tanks and metal heat exchangers with un-pressurized polymer tanks with immersed polymer heat exchangers, which could be developed with relatively low-risk R&D.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

2005-11-01

94

Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

Bradley, D.E.

1997-12-31

95

Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes). In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I), industrial waste water (group II), sewage treatment hub (group III), unorganized collected waste water (group IV) and old residential waste colle...

2012-01-01

96

Heat pump system using waste water heat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A practical and economical heat pump system stacks the evaporator, compressor, condenser, and expander to use heat from household waste water more efficiently and effectively. A novel waste water storage tank treats the waste water to remove particulates while it supplies its warmest water to the evaporator to provide heat to the refrigerant in the heat pump unit. Heated water exiting the condenser is stored in a separate tank, such as an ordinary hot water heater. The system automatically ensures that the waste water does not freeze in a substantial amount in the evaporator.

Dunstan, P.E.

1984-05-15

97

Attributes of Domestic Water Sources in a Rapidly Urbanizing State Capital in a Developing Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The efficiency and effectiveness of domestic water sources are often gauged by availability, accessibility and adequacy. This study examined various variables that could be harnessed in measuring these parameters with respect to water supply in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Approach: The purpose of this study is to investigate the various attributes of domestic water sources in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Three residential zones were identified in the city. They included the ur...

Olajuyigbe, A. E.

2010-01-01

98

Features of waste water quality in Zongguan water plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper takes waste water from Zongguan waterworks as a research object. The waste water was monitored consecutively and found that: the SS of waste water was more than 90 times of which in original water, COD was more than 30 times, and Fe was 58 times. The SS and turbidness showed no linear relation except when they were lower. The SS and Fe accord with linearity relation was better. The difference between waste water that from overhead crane at the beginning and in the end was wide. Although the flux of backwash wastes was small but the impact of it over the quality of water was very high.

Hadi Naba Shakir

2008-10-01

99

Domestic waste recycling, collective action and economic incentive: the case in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficacy of waste recycling is one of the key determinants of environmental sustainability of a city. Like other pro-environmental activities, waste recycling cannot be successfully accomplished by just one or two people, but only by a concerted effort of the community. The collective-action dilemma creates a common underlying difficulty in formulating workable solutions to many environmental problems. With a view to the non-excludability of the outcome, rationality drives people to free-ride efforts of others in waste recycling. To solve this free-rider problem, some scholars suggest the use of economic incentive. This article attempts to study the impacts of reward schemes on waste recycling behaviour of residents in 122 private housing estates in Hong Kong. The study is differentiable from the others as the latter mainly focus on domestic waste recycling in low-rise low-density housing while this one looks into the same in a high-rise high-density residential setting. According to the results of analyses on a set of aggregate data, reward schemes are found to have a significant positive relationship with the per-household weight of recyclables collected, keeping other things constant. The research findings suggest that economic incentives do work in promoting waste recycling in Hong Kong. Practical and policy implications follow. PMID:20619628

Yau, Yung

2010-12-01

100

Utilizing waste water in closed industrial water-supply systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses problems associated with utilization of waste water from coal coking in the closed cooling systems in various technological processes in a coking plant. Effects of water pollution by chemical compounds from coking on chemical corrosion of steel pipes used in cooling systems are analyzed. Corrosive effect of waste water on steels depends on degree of water treatment. Untreated waste water is characterized by the lowest corrosive effects (due to extremely low oxygen content). Waste water after biochemical treatment is more aggressive. This is associated with the presence of compounds formed during thermal decomposition of organic compounds (which in the untreated waste water played the role of corrosion inhibitors). A mixture of waste water and service water is characterized by lower corrosive effects than a mixture of waste water after biochemical treatment and service water. Use of untreated waste water or its mixture with service water could not be recommended due to environmental hazards that it presents. Methods for waste water treatment and pollutant composition in waste water before and after treatment are discussed. 5 refs.

Vorob' ev, S.E.; Kolesnikova, V.O.

1987-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

Processes for the treatment of service water and waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ways to optimize the water economy by combining facilities for the treatment of service water and waste water are described for a conventional power plant. Also discussed are flocculation and flocculation-decarbonisation reactors for the treatment of service water and waste water and the flocculation reactors Sedipac, Turbo-Circulator, and RPS reactor. (HK)

1981-01-01

102

Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

103

Characterization of domestic wastes incineration clinkers. Study on the possibilities of dioxines transfer in the environment; Caracterisation des machefers d'incineration d'ordures menageres. Etude sur les possibilites de transfert de dioxines vers l'environnement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The clinkers, resulting from the domestic wastes incineration, contain dioxines. In order to evaluate the possible transfer of these pollutants in the environment, especially towards the underground water, this document brings together data on the dioxines content in clinkers from domestic wastes incineration, other combustion wastes and soils. After a comparison of the dioxines content and the emission factors, the report presents the experimental study on the transfer vectors identification. (A.L.B.)

Bartet, B.

2001-07-15

104

The estimation of radiological impact from the disposal of radionuclides with domestic and commercial wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the UK, limited quantities of radionuclides are disposed of with non-radioactive domestic and commercial wastes under the terms of Exemption Orders or Authorisations granted by HMIP (Radioactive Substances). This paper presents a methodology and basis for the calculation of individual and collective doses to workers and to members of the public from such disposals. The results of the analysis of the Radioactive Substances (Smoke Detectors) Exemption Order 1980 is included. The paper also describes the implementation of the methodology on a microcomputer. (author)

1989-06-04

105

Brucellosis in domestic water bufallo (Bubalus bubalis) of Trinidad and Tobago with comparative epidemiology to cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The water buffalo is an important domestic animal worldwide and the local Buffalypso variety was developed in Trinidad to have improved beef qualities. Brucellosis was diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago during 1998 in both cattle and domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations. Brucellosis in the latter species is caused by infection with Brucella abortus, similar to bovine brucellosis. Control of brucellosis is of paramount importance to preservation of the genetic dive...

Fosgate, Geoffrey T.; Diptee, Michael D.; Ramnanan, Anil; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

2011-01-01

106

Management of domestic solid wastes at the Akwapim South Municipality: a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The key findings of a solid waste characterization study conducted at Nsawam and Adoagyiri of the Akwapim South Municipality are reported. Household waste generated by a number of residents of these two important towns of the Municipality, were collected through a two-way stratification based on differences in income levels and class of residential areas over a 12- week period, between December 2007 and March 2008. A total of 24 collections were made and about 2319 kg of household solid wastes were collected, weighed and classified according to the various components of the waste streams after thoroughly sorting the waste. Each component of the waste stream (i.e. organic, paper, plastics, metals/cans, textiles, glass, inert materials/residues and miscellaneous components) was then reweighed and the weights recorded. Information on demographics such as household size, characteristics and detailed information on household waste management practices of the study areas were obtained through a self administered questionnaire. Other physico-chemical characteristics of the collected household solid waste such as moisture content, density and volumes and heavy metals were measured. The average waste composition from Nsawam were 62% organic component, 7% paper and card component, 8% plastic and rubber component, 1 % glass component, 3% metal/can component, 2% textile component, 14% residues or inert materials and 3% miscellaneous or other waste component. However, for Adoagyiri, average composition revealed 50% organic component, 10% paper component, 12% plastics and rubber, 3% glass, 4% metal, 2 % textile, 15% residues or inert materials and 4% miscellaneous or other waste. The study also sought to examine the extent to which household demographics influenced waste stream character. Physico-chemical analysis was also conducted on composite samples of domestic solid waste from the two towns. The results of this analysis yielded information on the compostable and combustible proportions of the waste, moisture content, and elemental concentrations of the wastes. The range of compostable proportions was 42-44% whereas the range of the combustible proportions was 39-45%. The moisture content range was 49.6% - 60.0%. The analysis of metal ions concentrations in composite samples of household solid organic waste, plastic and paper waste were done using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for (Ca, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Al, Cl, V ) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for (Fe, Ni, Pb, Co, Cr and Cd). Higher average concentrations of 3.79?g/g and 0.35?g/g were recorded for Pb and Cd respectively in organic waste stream component as compared to 3.48?g/g and 0.32?g/g in paper/cardboard waste stream and 0.66?g/g and 0.32?g/g in rubber/plastic waste stream components respectively. These values are comparable to literature values (au).

2008-01-01

107

Methane fermentation of agricultural wastes and domestic animal's wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cattle and pig wastes, orange peels, compost, and grain husks were hydrolyzed in an alkaline medium to investigate the CH4 generation capacity. The respective CH4 production capacities from pig wastes and rice hulls were approximately 1 and approximately 0.1 L/g. The CH4 produced can be used to supplement energy requirements of farms.

Kato, A.

1981-01-01

108

Electrolytic reactor for cleaning waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste water from metal plating operations is treated to remove heavy metal and other contaminants, including toxic organic materials, chelating agents, and cyanide. The waste water is passed through the cathode and anode of an electrochemical reactor in which the cathode preferably comprises a felt mass of conductive fibers and the anode comprises porous carbon, carbon fibers or metal oxides. A method and apparatus are disclosed which are particularly useful in removing impurities from plating plant waste water.

Kim, B.M.; Weininger, J.L.

1984-05-01

109

Waste Water Disinfection Utilizing Ultraviolet Light  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

3, NO3, NO2 and NH3 were determined using water analysis kit by Hague while the microbial analysis was carried out using the MacConkey agar plate. The UV disinfection method was found suitable for treatment of waste water. This is obvious since the treated sample of water had lower coliform count than the other waste water samples. The favourable quality of the UV disinfected water was also observed in its improved chemical properties especially amm...

2011-01-01

110

A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

111

Waste water treatment in power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the types of waste water obtaining in a power plant and presents treatment methods. Individual types are dealt with cooling water, boiler feedwater, ion exchanger regenerates, cleaning and preservation concentrates, and effluents from flue gas treatment.

Sieth, J.

1985-01-01

112

Net energy analysis of domestic solar water heating installations in operation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential of solar water heating systems to reduce domestic energy use is frequently acknowledged. However there are two factors that are rarely discussed when studying this technology. Firstly the real performance of the installed systems in operation, and secondly a life cycle perspective of its energy use. These two issues are reviewed in this paper, and a field study in Ireland is also presented. In the review, some studies show that measured real performance of domestic s...

Hernandez, Patxi; Kenny, Paul

2012-01-01

113

Simulation of the Effect of Water Temperature on Domestic Biomass Boiler Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a methodology to simulate the combustion of fixed beds of biomass particles using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The models presented were used in the simulation of a domestic pellet boiler working under operating conditions and the model predictions were compared with measurements of heat transfer, temperature and species concentration. The same procedure was then used to simulate the same domestic boiler working with different values of water temperature ...

2012-01-01

114

Treatment of Waste Water-Waste Oil Mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cold reduction of steel strip results in the production of large quantities of waste water containing variable amounts of oil. A five stand tandem cold mill located at Armco Steel Corporation's Ashland, Kentucky Works produces 200 to 500 gpm of waste wate...

1970-01-01

115

Radiation disinfection of waste and natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possibilities of utilization of ionizing radiation for disinfection of waste and natural waters and basic principles of radiation disinfection are presented. Present-day representations on the mechanism of radiation of natural and waste waters are considered and experimental results on the method verification are presented. Experience in the radiation disinfection technique application at industrial plants is described

1985-01-01

116

PRIMING OF A LOW CAPACITY WASTE WATER TREATEMENT PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In wastewater treatment plants, secondary biologic treatment is generally compulsory for the localities having less than 10,000 equivalent inhabitants, with a supplementary removal of nutrients if the area is a sensitive one. For the areas which are not suitable for centralized household used water collecting network individual treatment devices or collective low capacity devices are recommended. For certain settlements, for instance for the mountainous dispersed villages, or for detached individual households or farms the collective devices can not be an economic solution as involves high maintenance costs and exploiting problems due to long pipes for low flow rates. Priming is one of the starting up processes of a waste water treatment plant. This is not a very difficult process and requires no specialized staff. However, for helping the owners of a low capacity treatment plant, priming of ORM 5 type mechanical - biological equipment consisting in a tank with four compartments, designed for five equivalent inhabitants was studied inside the plant of Timisoara municipality. For the experimental tests waste water from the Timisoara city sewage network was used. This is mixed waste water resulted from faecal/domestic, industrial and rain water. The study comprised tests in unfavorable technological conditions. The conclusions of the monitoring process underline the need of control of the aeration process and the negative technological and consequently the negative economic effect of the less effective process control.

Nicoleta Lumini?a Jurj

2012-12-01

117

Efficiency Evaluation of Heat Exchanger Based Domestic Solar Water Heater - A Review.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper an attempt has been made to review the literature of performance improving techniques for solar water heater. In view of energy crisis, the application of solar energy in the form of solar water heater is most useful for domestic, commercial and industrial purpose but it is found that the application of its limited due to its demerits. Hence attempt to be made to find out the demerits of solar water heater and improve its performance so that it becomes more popular in domestic, ...

2013-01-01

118

Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

Rudd, A.

2012-08-01

119

Partial results summary for solar domestic hot water monitoring in Pennsylvania  

Science.gov (United States)

A monitoring program for approximately fifty solar domestic hot water systems in Pennsylvania is described. The monitoring program utilizes relatively low cost instrumentation, which provides information which is collected by each individual homeowner. The data is then used to estimate each systems performance. Some of the more significant results obtained to date are summarized and the amount of solar energy utilized by the systems to aid the heating of the domestic hot water load determined. The dollar savings the homeowners are realizing through the use of their solar hot water systems are estimated.

Aungst, W. K.

120

First domestic primary loop recircuration pump for boiling water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two primary loop recirculation (PLR) pumps for the second unit of the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., have been manufactured by Ebara Corporation. They are the first domestically produced pumps for commercial power plants and were manufactured under license from Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg Warner Corporation. This article describes the special features of pump design and stress analysis, and the results of the 700 hours of factory loop tests, which are all essential for the PLR pump. (author)

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Manual de Metodos para el Analisis Quimico de Aguas y Desechos (Manual of Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes).  

Science.gov (United States)

This second edition of this manual contains the chemical analytical procedures used in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Laboratories for the examination of ground and surface waters, domestic and industrial waste effluents, and treatment process sampl...

1976-01-01

122

Field investigation of domestic hot water tanks as space heating appliances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The trend towards energy efficient housing has resulted in significant reductions in the space heating load. As a result, the size and output required for the heating appliances has also decreased, and the domestic hot water load has replaced space heating as the dominant heating load. This project investigated the state and condition of three domestic hot water tanks that have been in service in the Northwest Territories for six years, as combination hot water and space heating appliances. An assessment of the overall condition of the tanks, including the degree of deterioration/corrosion of the liner, condition of the burner and the quality of the water, was carried out. In addition, a radiator and plumbing pipe were examined. The inspection of the domestic hot water tanks showed little evidence of deterioration of the tanks beyond what would be expected after six years of normal service. The glass liners were intact and the anodes remained effective. Apart from the increased duty cycle, there would be little functional difference between using hot water tanks for water heating and for space heating. The cost analysis showed that the capital, installation and maintenance costs for providing space heating with a domestic hot water tank are lower than those for conventional systems. It has been concluded that a formal application for the revision to the Canadian standard should be made. 23 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Thrall, R.; Mayhew, W.J.

1989-04-25

123

The potential of Zea mays, Commelina bengelensis, Helianthus annuus and Amaranthus hybridus for phytoremediation of waste water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waste-water from domestic use and from industrial effluent burden the water systems with high levels of heavy metal hence there is need to remove these heavy metals so that the waste water can be recycled for use for household or irrigation. The present study has screened Zea mays (maize), Commelina bengelensis (wondering jew), Helianthus annuus (sunflower) and Amaranthus hybridus (amaranthus) for their ability to bioaccumulate Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn metals. The results obtained show that the H. a...

Oyaro Nathan Mayora; Kimenyu Phylis Njeri; Eric Rang’ondi, Okong O.; Chacha Joseph Sarima

2012-01-01

124

Use of Industrial Waste Water for Agricultural Purpose: Pb and Cd in Vegetables in Bikaner City, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shortage of irrigation water resources is leading to the use of domestic and industrial waste water in agriculture. esp. in urban areas. Being contaminated by metals and various toxic chemicals these waste waters leads to the exposure of heavy metals and hazardous chemicals and the subsequent human health hazards through agriculture products and live stocks. Increasing cases of cancer and kidney problems is also related with this aspect. In present study human health risk assessment taken in ...

2012-01-01

125

Concentrating industrial waste waters by electrodialysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A promising method for reprocessing waste water and process solutions is electrodialysis in which demineralized water and concentrated solutions of valuable components are obtained at the same time. Electrodialysis is characterized by simple equipment, ease of automation, low capital and energy costs. The results of tests aimed at developing the technology for extracting and concentrating the mineral impurities found in waste water from production of ammonium nitrate are presented.

Krasnova, T.A.; Saldadze, K.M.; Kutergin, V.R.; Valov, V.G.; Fedoseeva, N.M.

1984-02-01

126

Willingness to Pay for Domestic Water Service Improvements in Selangor, Malaysia: A Choice Modeling Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The tasks and responsibilities of domestic water service management in Malaysia are handled by various government agencies. Sufficient water service and resources management is required for sustainable water resources conservation. In order to realized water resource conservation, economic effectiveness of water utilization (consumers, maintenance of water quality supply (source of water supply and efficiency in allocating water resources (agencies needs to be addressed. The objective of the study is to assess community preferences and values relating to alternative water service management with particular concentration on water service improvement. This study has applied Choice Experiment (CE to investigate the current policies and potential alternative of water service management in Selangor. The studies are based on 230 respondents in Subang Jaya that were randomly interviewed for data collection in October to December 2008. The findings indicates that respondents are willing to pay higher for drinking water as compared to the current rate with improved in water quality (WQ, reduced the frequency of water interruption (WI and increases in the consumer trust to tap water (CT. The finding of this study is very important in order to assists and recommends the policy makers towards efficiency of domestic water service management in Malaysia.
Key words: Choice experiment; Water conservation; Consumer preference; Choice modelling; Willingness to pay

Mohd Rusli Yacob

2011-06-01

127

Simulation of a DHW system with a vacuum collector using TRNSYS[Domestic Hot Water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simulation of a solar domestic water heating system was carried out using TRNSTS. To apply the program to a system including a vacuum-pipes collector whose model is not provided in TRNSYS, a modification of collector was adopted. By comparing the predicted values to measured values, the validity of the simulation program and the modification are certified. And also, annual simulations of two kinds of solar domestic water heating systems with two standard meteorological data were carried out. Through the simulation results some knowledge of standard meteorological data were obtained. Also, their influence to various systems with different collectors (here flat-plate collector and vacuum-pipes collector) were discussed.

Li, Xiaoping; Saito, Teruyuki; Okumiya, Masaya; Yoshinaga, Mika

1999-07-01

128

Efficiency Evaluation of Heat Exchanger Based Domestic Solar Water Heater - A Review.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to review the literature of performance improving techniques for solar water heater. In view of energy crisis, the application of solar energy in the form of solar water heater is most useful for domestic, commercial and industrial purpose but it is found that the application of its limited due to its demerits. Hence attempt to be made to find out the demerits of solar water heater and improve its performance so that it becomes more popular in domestic, commercial, as well as in industrial applications. The main objective of this research paper is to present the current status and future aspects of Solar water heater in the world by comprehensively reviewing various solar water heater related studies. This review paper shows comprehensive review and researches on solar water heater by various researchers of the world

Sandeep Kumar Dehariya

2013-10-01

129

Risk factors for contamination of domestic hot water systems by legionellae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To assess risk factors associated with the contamination of the domestic environment by legionellae, 211 houses in the Quebec City area were randomly selected and water samples were collected from the hot water tank, the shower heads, and the most frequently used faucet. After centrifugation, concentrated samples were seeded in triplicate on BCYE and GPV media. Data on the characteristics of the hot water system and plumbing in the house and on the personal habits of the occupants were collec...

Alary, M.; Joly, J. R.

1991-01-01

130

Waste Water Disinfection Utilizing Ultraviolet Light  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 3, NO3, NO2 and NH3 were determined using water analysis kit by Hague while the microbial analysis was carried out using the MacConkey agar plate. The UV disinfection method was found suitable for treatment of waste water. This is obvious since the treated sample of water had lower coliform count than the other waste water samples. The favourable quality of the UV disinfected water was also observed in its improved chemical properties especially ammonia and dissolved oxygen.

C.N. Ibeto

2011-01-01

131

Impact of Training Program to Rationalize Consumption of Domestic Water Usages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Reducing water consumption in terms of scarcity of water in Jordan which needs to rationalize consumption of the domestic water usages by some families in Amman-Jordan. Approach: This study aimed to decrease water consumption in household usages and to involve and encouraging the pioneer students in voluntary efforts to reduce domestic water. The study sample consisted of 121 female students of Princessâ?? Alia University College represented 121 Jordanian families in Amman. They trained to reduce flow of water and the time during usage water in kitchen; toilet; bathroom; washing cars; and to put a plastic bottle full of half liter of water in the toiletâ??s water tank. Economical and social variables of families were obtained from special questionnaire of this study, data were formed from previous measurements and information; the data analyzed throughout a simple statistical approach. Results: The families whom represented this study sample have positively responded for the proposed program; through reducing water consumption in domestic usages. The most important factor effects on rationalized water consumption are: Average monthly income, average family members, average of family members ages, the size of water tank of the toilet, size of shower used. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study concluded that the amount of preserved water in a bathroom may reach 25%, in kitchen 29, in toilet 10%, in washing cars 9%, of water consumption before implementation program at each of the previous sectors. The total amount of preserved water in Amman may reach to 11 million cubic meters annually. The study recommends implementing this simple program on the whole of Jordanian families as much as possible and encouraging the Jordanian citizens to use different tools, means, programs that may control water consumption and to recycle the used water as possible.""

Mohammad Said Damanhouri

2012-01-01

132

Burkholderia pseudomallei in Unchlorinated Domestic Bore Water, Tropical Northern Australia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine whether unchlorinated bore water in northern Australia contained Burkholderia pseudomallei organisms, we sampled 55 bores; 18 (33%) were culture positive. Multilocus sequence typing identified 15 sequence types. The B. pseudomallei sequence type from 1 water sample matched a clinical isolate from a resident with melioidosis on the same property.

2011-01-01

133

Comparison of six generic solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cost effectiveness of residential solar water heating is explored by analyzing six different system types. A figure of merit (that considers both performance and cost) is calculated for each system, providing information for both researchers and industry. Thermosyphon water heaters are determined to be the most cost effective option, and their wider application is recommended once a reliable draindown technique is developed.

Farrington, R.B.; Murphy, L.M.; Noreen, D.L.

1980-04-01

134

Nitrate contamination of domestic potable water supplies: a social problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nitrate contamination of potable water supplies is a recognized health hazard. Potentially, the contamination of private drinking water supplies could be a problem in the rural Palouse area of Idaho and Washington. Studies have shown that 12% of the rural population of Whitman County, Washington, may be drinking water containing nitrates in excess of the national standard. Yet there is no organized concern about this potential health hazard among local citizens. After reviewing the literature on nitrate contamination of ground water and discussing nitrate contamination of private potable water supplies in the Palouse, we use a social movement theory of social problems to explain why this situation has not been defined as a public health problem.

Holmes, T.; Jensen, E.L.; Conway, J.B.

1985-01-01

135

Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project will develop and implement a methodology to compare and prioritize these technologies and optimizations based on a holistic approach. This will be achieved through the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) along with cost/efficiency analysis with focus on the effects of nutrients, pathogens and micropollutants (i.e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies.

Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

136

Waste water from coal fired plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The volumes of waste water flows and their contents of various pollutants are dependent on the quality of the coal, the degree of enclosure of the system, the firing technique, the type of ash handling system and the design of the flue gas desulfurization system. The size of the plant is also of importance. The waste water from wet handling systems for fly ash includes high contents of cadmium, zinc and sulfate. Depending on the composition of the coal, scrubbing may release chloride, sodium, cadmium, boron, nickel, mercury and selenium. The waste water from cleaning of the air preheater and furnace surfaces of the boiler has high contents of zinc, iron, nickel and chromium. Alkaline detergents as well as organic compounds, including PAH may occur, depending on the soot content of the deposits. The metals in the waste water originate primarily from the products of corrosion.

Persson, K. (AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Nordin, M. (Industrins Processkonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

1983-02-01

137

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-11-01

138

Isolation of Aeromonas spp. from an unchlorinated domestic water supply.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recovery of Aeromonas spp. from the unchlorinated water supply for a Western Australian city of 21,000 people was monitored at several sampling points during a period of 1 year. Membrane filtration techniques were used to count colonies of Aeromonas spp., coliforms, and Escherichia coli in water sampled before entry to service reservoirs, during storage in service reservoirs, and in distribution systems. Aeromonas spp. were identified by subculture on blood agar with ampicillin, oxidase t...

Burke, V.; Robinson, J.; Gracey, M.; Peterson, D.; Meyer, N.; Haley, V.

1984-01-01

139

Comparative greenhouse emissions analysis of domestic solar hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is commonly assumed that solar hot water systems save energy and reduce greenhouse emissions relative to conventional fossil fuel-powered systems. Very rarely has the life-cycle greenhouse emissions (including the embodied greenhouse emissions of manufacture) of solar hot water systems been analysed. The extent to which solar hot water systems can reduce emissions compared with conventional systems can be shown through a comparative life-cycle greenhouse emissions analysis. This method determined the time it takes for these net greenhouse emissions savings to occur, or the 'emissions payback period'. This paper presents the results of a life-cycle greenhouse emissions analysis of solar hot water systems in comparison with conventional hot water systems for a southern (Melbourne) and a northern (Brisbane) Australian city. The life-cycle costs of these hot water systems were also analysed to determine the financial payback period. The fuel source and solar fraction determined the emissions resulting from the energy used for operating hot water systems. The solar systems provide net emissions savings compared with the conventional systems after 2.5-5 years in Melbourne and after 2.5 years in Brisbane, depending on the auxiliary fuel. The life-cycle cost analysis also revealed that the financial payback period for solar hot water systems is more than 10 years in Melbourne and around 10 years for an electric-boosted system in Brisbane. This suggests the need for greater subsidies to increase market take-up for solar systems, especially where electricity is the only available fuel. (author)

Crawford, R.H.; Treloar, G.J.; Ilozor, B.D. [Deakin University, Geelong (Australia). School of Architecture and Building; Love, P.E.D. [Edith Cowan University, Perth (Australia). School of Management Information Systems

2003-02-01

140

Low-energy system for domestic hot water in buildings. Legionella pneumophila and domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water Boards in the Netherlands have adopted new regulations for hot water supply systems in order to reduce risks with respect to legionnaires' disease. The systems have to operate at temperatures higher than 60 C; this leads to higher energy- and investment costs. The engineers consultancy agency Tebodin has designed a system which operates safely at lower water temperatures. This system is described. 2 figs., 3 refs.

Van Olffen, E.

1989-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

1994-09-18

142

Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system.

Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

1994-09-01

143

NORTH PORTAL - DOMESTIC COLD WATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY No.5008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for domestic cold water and to size the supply main piping for the Change House Facility No.5008 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

2000-01-01

144

The concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra in domestic and imported bottled waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past few years, the use of commercially available bottled potable water has become very in vogue. Since many of the producers and/or distributors of these bottled waters claim that the water originated from natural mineral springs, there is a likelihood that some of these bottled waters could contain 226Ra and 228Ra in measurable quantities. This article presents the quantitative results obtained from the analyses of 11 domestic and imported brand named bottled waters sold commercially in retail stores in the northeastern United States. (author)

1981-01-01

145

How mixing during hot water draw-offs influence the thermal performance of small solar domestic hot water systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

CFD calculations on the mixing during hot water draw-offs in vertical hot water tanks with different diameters have been carried out. The calculations, which were carried out with the same cold water inlet design, showed that the extent of mixing is strongly influenced by the tank diameter. The extent of mixing is increasing for increasing tank diameter. Further, calculations of the yearly thermal performance of small solar domestic hot water systems with hot water tanks with different mixing rates during hot water draw-offs were carried out. Both solar domestic hot water systems with mantle tanks and with spiral tanks were investigated. Tanks with different volumes, auxiliary volumes and height/diameter ratios were considered. The investigations showed that the thermal performance of systems with mantle tanks is higher than the thermal performance of systems with spiral tanks, and that a decreased auxiliary volume in the tanks and an increased height/diameter ratio of the tanks will increase the thermal performance of the systems. The investigations showed further, that mixing during hot water draw-offs decreases the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water systems. The mixing decreases the thermal performance of systems with spiral tanks more than the thermal performance of systems with mantle tanks. The mixing decreases the thermal performance stronger for systems based on tanks with low height/diameter ratios and with large auxiliary volumes than for systems with tanks with high height/diameter ratios and small auxiliary volumes. Based on the investigations, it is recommended to design hot water tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems as mantle tanks with as high height/diameter ratio as possible and with as small an auxiliary volume as possible, of course under consideration of the required hot water comfort.

Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

2005-01-01

146

Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled `SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy`. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs.

Longmore, G. [Hazelwood Power Corporation, VIC (Australia); Pacific Power (International) Pty. Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

1995-12-31

147

Processing waste water in zeolite manufacture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work reported here was aimed at developing a zero-waste technology for processing waste water with this composition. The authors performed experiments to determine the conditions required for the most nearly completely recovery of aluminum from the waste water so as to obtain a solution of practically pure sodium sulfate, for which processing schemes are already available. The waste water processing scheme includes the following: neutralization of excess caustic by acidification with aluminum sulfate to pH 7-8, filtration to remove solid contaminants and the aluminum hydroxide that has been formed, concentration of the filtrate (sodium sulfate solution) to 50-60 g/liter, evaporation of the preconcentrated sodium sulfate solution to a final concentration of 200 g/liter, and spray-drying to obtain commercial sodium sulfate.

Barsukov, V.V.; Shumovskii, A.V.; Akopyants, T.V.

1987-07-01

148

The role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases in Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey was carried out from August to December 2004 in Pusan, Korea to document the presence of free-living amoeba (FLA), including the genus Acanthamoeba, in both contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water. Acanthamoeba was isolated from 5 (4.2%) in 120 contact lens storage cases. Four house tap water samples from residents, whose contact lens storage cases had been contaminated by Acanthamoeba, were also found to be contaminated with Acanthamoeba. Therefore, the contamination rate ...

Jeong, Hae Jin; Yu, Hak Sun

2005-01-01

149

Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

2014-04-01

150

Classification of Domestic Water Consumption Using an ANFIS Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work presents classification results of different water outputs in a house. Input variables are time and flow measurements in a point of the network distribution, and the identified classes are relevant consumptions as sink consumption, shower consumption, etc. Due to human influence on consumption data, we selected a classifier based on an interpretable model; that allows the incorporation of knowledge provided by users or experts. Thus, this study is based on the well known Anfis model...

Ojeda Magan?a, Benjami?n; Andina La Fuente, Diego; Corona Nakamura, M. A.; Ruelas, Rube?n

2008-01-01

151

Impact of domestic sewage on fresh water body.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study various (physico-chemical) factors were assessed over a period of two years (from February 2002 to January 2004) to note the chemistry and quality of tank water in Bhalki town of Bidar. Physico-chemical factors like pH, dissolved oxygen, magnesium, chlorine, nitrite, sulphates and chemical oxygen demand were found with maximum concentration during summer season. Similarly, during monsoon season free carbon dioxide, alkalinity hardness, calcium, phosphate, silicon, total solids and biological oxygen demand; and in winter season organic matter were recorded. The concentrations viz., pH, hardness and nitrite were more compared to the potable water standard of WHO. The correlation matrix and dendrogram of physico-chemical factors have been computed and analysed. The positive co-relation coefficient observed between pH and magnesium, dissolved oxygen and hardness, free carbondioxide and calcium, alkalinity and nitrite, alkalinityand phosphate, alkalinity and biological oxygen demand, hardness and calcium, hardness and magnesium, magnesium and chlorine, nitrate and phosphate, nitrite and biological oxygen demand, phosphate and organic matter; and silicon and chemical oxygen demand. The dendrogram confirms chlorine, pH, hardness, silicon, total solids and sulphates are the key factors of the change in the chemistry of water body PMID:18972682

Shiddamallayya, N; Pratima, M

2008-05-01

152

Application of an Integrated Heat Recovery Technology for Domestic Hot Water Supply System and Air Conditioning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is to design an integrated heat recovery and air conditioner system and to investigate the feasibility and the potential performance of this system in changing conditions. Different season conditions and operating modes are studied based on the items of one hotel. In winter, heat recovered from wastewater is used on water heating and air condition and the surplus energy of air conditioner system is used on hot water system in summer. Dynamic energy simulation was performed with a comprehensive Domestic Hot Water (DHW heating and air conditioning system composed of some components like High Temperature Heat Pump (HTHP unit, water tanks, heat exchangers and pumps.

Chen Yan

2013-01-01

153

Utilization of waste water of industrial boilers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system is proposed for the thermal purification of industrial sewage which provides for non-drainage water supply to boilers and restores regenerated solutions of sodium-cation filters. The principal technical-economic operational factors of the equipment are cited for the utilization of waste water. 8 references.

Shshchenko, V.V.

1981-01-01

154

The Swedish biogas potential from domestic waste products; Den svenska biogaspotentialen fraan inhemska restprodukter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report is an inventory of raw material amounts of waste, parks- and garden waste, sewage sludge, manure and residues from industrial, agricultural and forestry in Sweden which are suitable for biogas production. The inventory has mainly been county by county in order to obtain an overview of how the raw materials are distributed across the country. For each waste category it is described how data collection, boundaries and assumptions have been made. The total biogas potential from domestic raw materials, excluding raw material from forests, is estimated to over 15.2 TWh/year, and the total biogas feasible potential 10.6 TWh/year. However, these limitations can quickly be changed by changing competition, energy prices etc. Residues from the forest represents a significant potential for future methane production. The residues from forestry and forest industry have a total energy potential of about 59 TWh methane per year. Methane production from wood performed by thermal gasification, which is used to a limited extent today. It is difficult to specify when the technology will be commercially available. The total biogas and energy potential is then of the order of 74 TWh/year, of which forest-related products account for approximately 80%. The Swedish EPA is aiming, by 2010, to have at least 35% of food waste from households, restaurants, shops and recycled by biological treatment. This report assumes that 60% of all food waste can be accessible for biogas production. This amount corresponds to approximately 760 GWh annually and represents 7% of the total biogas potential range. The total biogas potential from all food waste in Sweden amounts to 1346 GWh/year. Residues from different industries have a great potential, approximately 10% of the total biogas potential range is estimated to be from here. Crops residues and manure is a significant future potential, 10.8 TWh/year. The total feasible biogas potential in the current environment, however, is assessed to be lower, about 8 TWh/year, since manure from grazing cattle is not included and that some straw may need to be left in order not to jeopardize the soil humus content, etc. Sewage treatment plants have a long tradition of digesting sludge, since it has been a way to stabilize and reduce the amount of sewage sludge. A large part of Sweden sewage sludge is digested today, but with slightly increased amounts and by optimizing processes, more biogas is produced. Of the total feasible biogas potential for the sewage sludge is 7%. Apart from supply of raw materials, it is important to ensure the possibility of disposing of biogas and bio-fertilizers. Prerequisites for a common gas network, and proximity to productive land, is seen as advantageous

Linne, Marita; Ekstrandh, Alexandra; Englesson, Rolf; Persson, Emelie (Biomil AB, Lund (Sweden)); Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Lantz, Mikael (Envirum AB, Lund (Sweden))

2008-07-01

155

Simulation of a solar domestic water heating system using a time marching model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the modelling and simulation of a solar water heating system using a time marching model. The results of simulations performed on an annual basis for a solar system, constructed and operated in Yugoslavia, which provides domestic hot water for a four-person family are presented. The solar water heater consists of a flat-plate solar collector, a water-storage tank, an electric heater, and a water-mixing device. The mathematical model is used to evaluate the annual variation of the solar fraction with respect to the volume of the storage tank, demand hot water temperature required, difference of this temperature and preset storage tank water temperature, and consumption profile of the domestic hot water demand. The results of this investigation may be used to design a solar collector system, and to operate already designed systems, effectively. The results for a number of designs with different storage tank volumes indicate that the systems with greater volume yield higher solar fraction values. The results additionally indicate that the solar fraction of the system increases with lower hot water demand temperature and higher differences between the mean storage water and the demand temperatures. However, when a larger storage tank volume is used, the solar fraction is less sensitive to a variation of these operation parameters. (Author)

Bojic, M. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Building Services Engineering; Kalogirou, S. [Higher Technical Inst., Nicosia (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Petronijevic, K. [Kragujevac Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

2002-11-01

156

A new inverter heat pump operated all year round with domestic hot water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a new scheme of an inverter air cooling heat pump system with domestic hot water. A water reheater is placed between the compressor outlet and the four way valve inlet to utilize the sensible heat of the superheated gas exhausted from the compressor, and a water preheater is placed between the condenser and the throttling device to use the sensible heat of the subcooled liquid flowing out of the condenser. With these two parts of heat, the domestic hot water can be heated to a temperature high enough for domestic use. In order to maintain the system efficiency in the period of part load, an inverter compressor is adopted as the substitute for the constant speed one used in the conventional heat pump system. A hot water storage tank with a circulation pump is placed in the system to reduce the peak load of the system. Compared with the traditional system, this new design is able to reduce energy consumption by 31.1% and decrease thermal pollution to the environment. (Author)

Shuangquan Shao; Wenxing Shi; Xianting Li; Jie Ma [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). School of Architecture

2004-08-01

157

A new inverter heat pump operated all year round with domestic hot water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a new scheme of an inverter air cooling heat pump system with domestic hot water. A water reheater is placed between the compressor outlet and the four way valve inlet to utilize the sensible heat of the superheated gas exhausted from the compressor, and a water preheater is placed between the condenser and the throttling device to use the sensible heat of the subcooled liquid flowing out of the condenser. With these two parts of heat, the domestic hot water can be heated to a temperature high enough for domestic use. In order to maintain the system efficiency in the period of part load, an inverter compressor is adopted as the substitute for the constant speed one used in the conventional heat pump system. A hot water storage tank with a circulation pump is placed in the system to reduce the peak load of the system. Compared with the traditional system, this new design is able to reduce energy consumption by 31.1% and decrease thermal pollution to the environment.

Shao Shuangquan; Shi Wenxing; Li Xianting E-mail: xtingli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Ma Jie

2004-08-01

158

A truncated pyramid non-tracking type multipurpose domestic solar cooker/hot water system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For impressive dissemination of the solar thermal gazettes, it is imperative to keep on changing the device design features so as to cater to the different demands of diverse section of the society. Domestic solar hot water systems are not suitable for cooking and the capacity of domestic solar box type cookers for water heating is very low. We report truncated pyramid geometry based multipurpose solar device which could be used for domestic cooking as well as water heating. The device is designed, fabricated and tested. Cooking tests approved by Bureau of Indian Standards were performed in different seasons and the device was found to meet the requirement stipulated on two figures of merit. The performance of the design was also evaluated as a hot water system and the maximum efficiency was found to be 54%. The day-time and average night-time heat-loss coefficients were found to be 5.7 W/ C m{sup 2} and, 3.74 W/C m{sup 2}, respectively, which are comparable to those of flat-plate collector based solar hot water systems. A simple economic analysis illustrate that this kind of multi-purpose design could be financially viable and physically useful. (author)

Kumar, Naveen; Chavda, Tilak; Mistry, H.N. [Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat 388 120 (India)

2010-02-15

159

A plant for direct use of domestic waste in a cement kiln; Une installation pour l'utilisation directe des dechets menagers en four de cimenterie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An alternative to direct thermal use of domestic refuse is to convert it to a fuel, as is done in a Westphalian cement works. Here, domestic and industrial waste is converted by purely mechanical processing into a fuel which can advantageously be used to burn cement clinker without harming the environment. (author)

Maury, H.D. [MBM Industrieanlagen Gmbh (Unknown)

2000-02-01

160

Mathematical Model for Detection of Leakage in Domestic Water Supply Systems by Reading Consumption from an Analogue Water Meter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we introduce the principles to detect leakage using a mathematical model based on machine learning and domestic water consumption monitoring in real time. The model uses data which is measured from a water meter, analyzes the water consumption, and uses two criteria simultaneously: deviation from the average consumption, and comparison of steady water consumptions over a period of time. Simulation of the model on a regular household consumer was implemented on Antileaks – device that we have built that designed to transfer consumption information from an analogue water meter to a digital form in real time.

Gal Oren

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
161

Anatomical root variations in response to water deficit: wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Root anatomical responses to water deficit are diverse and regulation of water uptake strongly depends on plant anatomy. The ancestors of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars are the wild common beans. Because wild beans adapt and survive well in theon atural environment, it is hypothesized that wild common bean roots are less affected than those of domesticated beans at low substrate water potential (?W. A wild common bean accession from Chihuahua Mexico and cv. Bayomex were studied. Seedlings with a mean root length between 3 and 4 cm were maintained for 24 h in vermiculite at ?W of -0.03 (well hydrated, -0.65, -1.48 and -2.35 MPa (partially dry. Ten anatomical characteristics of differentiation and cell division in root regions were evaluated. Thickness of epidermis and protoderm diminished similarly in wild and domesticated beans growing at low substrate ?W (between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa. At the same time, parenchymatic cell area diminished by 71 % in the domesticated variety, but by only 32 % in the wild bean at -2.35 MPa. Theon umber of cells in the cortex and the thickness of the xylem wall increased in both wild and domesticated beans at low substrate ?W;on evertheless, the effect was significantly lower in the wild bean. Theon umber of xylem vessels increased in the cultivar (up to 40 % while in the wild bean it decreased (up to 33 %. The diameter of xylem vessels and transverse root area diminished (15 and 57 %, respectively in the cultivar, but in the wild common bean wereon ot affected. Anatomical root characteristics and their modifications in both differentiation and cell division in root regions demonstrated that the wild bean reacted quite differently to substrate ?W than the domesticated common bean.

Cecilia B Peña-Valdivia

2010-01-01

162

Neutralization of phosphoric acid waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Method is described for neutralizing waste cooling pond waters of wet process phosphoric acid plants, and for neutralizing similar waste waters from phosphate complexes. Neutralization is performed in two stages and wherein the flocculent precipitate from the second neutralization stage is disposed of by dissolving it in incoming untreated waste water prior to the first neutralization stage. Neutralization in the first neutralization stage is accomplished by addition of limestone to the waste water, and neutralization in the second neutralization stage is accomplished by addition of limestone to the water phase from the first neutralization stage. The precipitate from the first neutralization stage is readily separable from the liquid phase, and is suitable for disposal in the gypsum stack of a wet process phosphoric acid plant. The fully neutralized water meets federal and state requirements for disposal in surface and underground water systems as to ph and as to fluoride and phosphate content. Lime, instead of limestone, may be used for neutralization in the first neutralization stage, but this procedure will increase operating costs somewhat in most cases.

Hartig, R.; Palm, G.F.

1982-03-16

163

Method and apparatus for recovering heat in waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to a heat transfer from waste water from a building back to the building. The waste water is supplied to a waste pipe in such a way that it is forced to flow downwardly in the pipe along its inner wall. Heat from the waste water is transmitted to a medium flowing on the outside of the pipe. 3 drawings.

Joensson, K.

1984-06-12

164

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls from uncontrolled burning of garden and domestic waste (backyard burning).  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess emissions of dioxins (chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) and PCB from uncontrolled domestic combustion of waste ("backyard burning"), test combustions in barrels and open fires were monitored. The waste fuels used were garden waste, paper, paper and plastic packaging, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), PVC, and electronic scrap. Combustions including PVC and electronic scrap emitted several orders of magnitude more dioxins than the other waste fuels. Emissions from the other fuels had considerable variations, but the levels were difficult to relate to waste composition. Emission factors of PCDD/F and PCB from the backyard burning ranged from 2.2 to 13 000 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg. The levels found in ash usually were less than 5% of the total. For assessment of total emissions of dioxins and PCB from backyard burning of low and moderately contaminated wastes, an emission factor range of 4-72 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg is suggested. These figures implythat combusting waste in the backyard could contribute substantially to total emissions, even if the amounts of fuel involved are equivalent to just a few tenths of a percent of the amounts combusted in municipal waste incinerators. PMID:16323778

Hedman, Björn; Näslund, Morgan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

2005-11-15

165

Waste water treatment in Triglav national park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis presents the pollution problems caused by municipal waste water in the protected area of the Triglav National Park. Although most people are not detecting the problem, the consequences of water pollution in the area are clearly visible in the mountain lakes and downstream springs. Water resources near the mountain huts and agricultural land show obvious signs of nurient overload. Non- native plant and animal species recklessly discharged into the natural environment also pose a thr...

Peterlin, Blaz?

2012-01-01

166

Quantitative bacterial examination of domestic water supplies in the Lesotho Highlands: water quality, sanitation, and village health.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reported are the results of an examination of domestic water supplies for microbial contamination in the Lesotho Highlands, the site of a 20-year-old hydroelectric project, as part of a regional epidemiological survey of baseline health, nutritional and environmental parameters. The population's hygiene and health behaviour were also studied. A total of 72 village water sources were classified as unimproved (n = 23), semi-improved (n = 37), or improved (n = 12). Based on the estimation of tot...

1999-01-01

167

Hybrid PV/T solar systems for domestic hot water and electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems can simultaneously provide electricity and heat, achieving a higher conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation than standard PV modules. When properly designed, PV/T systems can extract heat from PV modules, heating water or air to reduce the operating temperature of the PV modules and keep the electrical efficiency at a sufficient level. In this paper, we present TRNSYS simulation results for hybrid PV/T solar systems for domestic hot water applications both passive (thermosyphonic) and active. Prototype models made from polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV module types combined with water heat extraction units were tested with respect to their electrical and thermal efficiencies, and their performance characteristics were evaluated. The TRNSYS simulation results are based on these PV/T systems and were performed for three locations at different latitudes, Nicosia (35 deg.), Athens (38 deg.) and Madison (43 deg.). In this study, we considered a domestic thermosyphonic system and a larger active system suitable for a block of flats or for small office buildings. The results show that a considerable amount of thermal and electrical energy is produced by the PV/T systems, and the economic viability of the systems is improved. Thus, the PVs have better chances of success especially when both electricity and hot water is required as in domestic applications

2006-11-01

168

Photosynthetic membranes. Part 75. Photocatalytic membrane modules for drinking water purification in domestic and community appliances  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present paper, the performance of a pilot plant for domestic use was investigated, able to operate continuously, and in which tap water was fed (inorg. carbon IC: 81.6 ? 0.5 ppm; total org. carbon TOC content: 1.52 ? 0.02 ppm). This plant produced 130 L/d of purified water. The tap water was first subjected to a prefiltration by a membrane microfiltration unit, followed by filtration through a membrane immobilizing activated carbon, then through a reverse osmosis membrane, at a trans...

Bellobono, Ignazio Renato

2005-01-01

169

Domestic hot water production in a net zero energy triplex in Montreal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A domestic hot water system in a net zero energy triplex in Montreal was described. The system was comprised of 10 m{sup 2} of evacuated tube solar collectors; two 600 litre storage tanks; a grey water heat recovery unit; and desuperheaters from ground-source heat pumps. A low-flow recirculation pump was also used to circulate hot water to the 3 condos continuously. Annual energy consumption of the pump was 175 kWh. Standard components from TRYNSYS and the TESS library were used to model all components except for the grey water heat recovery and the desuperheater. DHW and space conditioning simulations were de-coupled, and results from conditioning simulations were read as inputs into the DHW simulations. Inputs included weather data; mains water temperature; and daily DHW consumption. Data were used to generate 1-minute domestic hot water profiles. Simulations were run with a 30 second time step to reflect typical hot water consumption and to characterize phenomena occurring in the grey water heat recovery device. Results of the study showed that in order to increase the solar fraction in winter, the solar collector area needed to be oversized. It was concluded that excess energy can be recuperated by installing a second reservoir and selling the extra thermal energy to adjacent buildings. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs.

Picard, D.; Bernier, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Charneux, R. [Pageau, Morel et Associes, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

2007-07-01

170

Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improv...

Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C. J.

2013-01-01

171

Nuclear waste water being cleaned in Paldinski  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cleaning of nuclear waste water in the former military base of Paldiski, Estonia, has started with Finnish assistance. During the Soviet era, Paldiski served as a site for training nuclear submarine crews. Spent fuel has already been removed from the two nuclear reactors on the base. The volume of water to be cleaned totals some 450 cubic metres. The work is estimated to take till May 1995. The filtering technique used for cleaning has been developed in cooperation by IVO International and the Department of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki. The project is one aspect of an extensive international cooperation programme for reducing environmental hazards arising from the base. The experience of the cleaning obtained so far has been positive. In the first water tank, filtering reduced the cesium activity of waste water from 1,500 becquerels to less than one becquerel. Two water tanks, however, have bottom sediment that probably cannot be treated during the present project. (orig.)

1995-01-01

172

The Use of Solar Energy for Preparing Domestic Hot Water in a Multi-Storey Building  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses the possibilities of solar collectors used for a domestic hot water system and installed on the roofs of modernized multi-storey buildings under the existing climate conditions. A number of combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors with accumulation tank systems of various sizes have been examined. Heat from the district heating system is used as an additional heat source for preparing domestic hot water. The paper compares calculation results of energy and economy regarding the combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors and the size of the accumulation tank. The influence of variations in the main indicators on the final economic results has also been evaluated. Research has been supported applying EC FP7 CONCERTO program (‘‘Sustainable Zero Carbon ECO-Town Developments Improving Quality of Life across EU - ECO-Life’’ (ECO-Life Project Contract No. TREN/FP7EN/239497/”ECOLIFE”.Article in Lithuanian

Giedrius Šiupšinskas

2012-12-01

173

Solar heating systems for domestic hot water and space heating. [Denmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the work with solar systems for domestic hot water and for combined space heating and domestic water heating. The research and development that have been carried out at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory during the last 8-10 years have given some very positive results that have attracted a lot of attention, nationally as well as inter- nationally. The basis of the work was a series of 1st generation showcase systems on which detailed mesurements were carried out. The performance of these systems was not satisfactory, but analyses of the collected data and the operating experiences made it possible to identify the weak points in the design and thus to develop improved systems. Since 1980 several different reserch and showcase systems with an annual performance of 300 -400 kWh/m2 solar collector have been built. Common denominators for the new solar systems are simple design, high reliability and lower cost.

Ellehauge, K.

1984-05-01

174

Occurrence of haemolytic & cytotoxic Aeromonas species in domestic water supplies in Chennai.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study on the occurrence of Aeromonas species in the domestic water supplies in Chennai showed that as much as 37.9 per cent of the water samples analyzed from various sources harbored Aeromonas spp. Majority of the isolates belonged to Aeromonas sobria (13.7%), A. caviae (11.6%) and A. hydrophila (9.5%). Among the 37 metropolitan water samples analyzed, 11 samples yielded Aeromonas spp. inclusive of three isolates of A. hydrophila, four of A. sobria and two isolates each of A. caviae and A. jandaei. From a total of 28 bore well water samples analyzed, Aeromonas spp. were recovered from 15 samples, comprising five isolates of A. hydrophila, six of A. sobria and four isolates of A. caviae. Aeromonas spp. inclusive of one isolate of A. hydrophila, five of A. caviae, three of A. sobria and one isolate of A. veronii were isolated from 10 of the 30 water packets of various commercial brands sold in Chennai. Of a total of 36 isolates obtained, 32 (89%) produced beta-haemolysin with the titres ranging from 2-32 and 20 isolates (56%) were cytotoxic to vero cell monolayers. All the Aeromonas isolates were resistant to ampicillin and polymyxin B. All A. hydrophila and A. caviae isolates were also resistant to cephalothin and erythromycin and 83.3 per cent of Aeromonas isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Aeromonads resistant to tetracycline, gentamycin, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid appear to be emerging. The study revealed that Aeromonas spp. occur in the potable and domestic water supplies and even in the chlorinated water supplies in Chennai city, which are potentially enteropathogenic and hence may be hazardous to public health. In view of these findings drinking and domestic water quality standards need to be re-evaluated. PMID:10573655

Alavandi, S V; Subashini, M S; Ananthan, S

1999-08-01

175

Waste-water treatment by sand filtration. January 1977-February 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-February 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sand filtration in the treatment of waste water. Treatment systems for both domestic and industrial effluents are discussed. Designs, processes, applications and performance evaluations of sand filters, columns, and mounds as primary filtering mechanisms are included. (This updated bibliography contains 164 citations, 33 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

1989-03-01

176

Integrated waste water treatment accompanied by minimal generation of excessive activated sludge or sediment ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors have demonstrated the possibility of development of a process technology of treatment of domestic and similar types of sewage waste water accompanied by minimal generation of excessive activated sludge or sediment using bioreactors that have biomass attached to them. Wet sludge rate reduction is driven by intensification of aerobic stabilization. The article has experimental data generated in the course of the project implementation. There are various aspects to be considered, inc...

2012-01-01

177

Current technology of waste water treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purification of municipal waste water and industrial waste water predominantly burdened by organic matter, mechanical-biological plants partly based on the method of activation and partly on the trickling filter system are preferably used. Recently overloading of existing plants and tighter water protection requirements imposed the necessity of boosting the performance of conventional biological processes by reducing the sludge burden and the loading per unit volume. This has also resulted in nitrification of the nitrogen compounds and in extensive sludge stabilization. As the oxygen supply to the micro-organisms requires the highest expenditure of energy in the activation process, special attention was given to the development of efficient aeration systems. For waste water containing a high proportion of substances which prove difficult to decompose, or waste water subject to strong fluctuations, multi-stage biological procedures or a combination of various processes are used increasingly. In this context, chemical precipitation for the elimination of phosphorus and biological nitrogen elimination have proven themselves as additional purification methods.

Bischofsberger, W.; Hegemann, W.

1983-09-01

178

Waste water discharges into natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point

1996-01-01

179

Yeasts and yeast-like fungal contaminants of water used for domestic purposes in Jos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water used for domestic purposes is ideally required to be free from contaminants. Various contaminants have frequently affected the quality of such water. Water samples were obtained from 150 sources including 72 wells, 60 streams, 17 taps, and one borehole, randomly selected from five residential areas in Jos, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires and one-to- one interview was used to obtain information on features of location and use of facilities in each area. Eighty (53.3% water sources were contaminated, predominantly wells (70.8%. The locations (identified in code with the highest number of contaminated sources were AGO (60.0%, GBU (56.7% and FGD (56.7%. AGD and FGD also had the highest ratio of households to one water source (25:1. Eighty- two fungi were isolated, predominantly Candida tropicalis (23.2%, Candida lipolytica (10.9% and Rhodotorula sp (9.7%. Candida lipolytica was the highest (42.9% contaminant in tap water. Rhodotorula sp was found in all types of water sources sampled. Type of water source had a significant effect (P<0.05 on the presence of some fungi in the water. The residential area (Location had a significant effect on contamination of water sources by some yeasts. Water sources for domestic use in Jos are contaminated by yeasts and yeast-like fungi. Frequency of use, exposure of the facility to dirt, and contaminations of surroundings contribute to the occurrence of fungi in water sources and, by implication, the prevalence of fungal infections.

Grace Mebi Ayanbimpe

2012-08-01

180

Risk factors for contamination of domestic hot water systems by Legionellae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess risk factors associated with the contamination of the domestic environment by legionellae, 211 houses in the Quebec City area were randomly selected and water samples were collected from the hot water tank, the shower heads, and the most frequently used faucet. After centrifugation, concentrated samples were seeded in triplicate on BCYE and GPV media. Data on the characteristics of the hot water system and plumbing in the house and on the personal habils of the occupants were collected for each house. Among these 211 houses, hot water was provided by either an oil or gas heater in 33 and by an electric heater in 178. Legionellae were isolated from none of the samples from houses with oil or gas heaters and from 39% (69 of 178) of those with electric water heaters. This association remained highly significant after control for water temperature and other variables in a stratified analysis. In the 178 houses with an electric heater, 12% of the faucets, 15% of the shower heads, and 37% of the water heaters were contaminated. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 2 and 4 were the most frequently isolated strains. Logistic regression showed that factors associated with electric water heater contamination were (1) location of the house in older districts of the city (2) old age of the water heater, and (3) low water temperature. Contamination of the water heater was the only factor significantly associated with the contamination of peripheral outlets. This study shows that the presence of an electric heater is strongly associated with contamination of domestic hot water systems by Legionellae. The public health importance of this contamination is still unknown.

Alary, M.; Joly, J.R. (Univ. Laval, Quebec (Canada))

1991-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Water: Waste Not, Want Not  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing on Australia's water use and conservation efforts, this site provides teachers with activities and ideas for encouraging students to analyze their own use as well as learn about the nation's use. Activities include conducting an individual and a family-based water consumption log, learning to gather, record and report data, and using the web to compare data submitted by other classes. Teachers will find discussion topics, forms to download for data gathering and reporting, a computer-based quiz, as well as information about water in general and Australian use specifically.

Statistics, Australian B.; Myinternet

182

The methanation of domestic wastes and related products: the organic wastes recycling and their energy potential valorization; La methanisation des dechets menagers et assimiles: recycler les dechets organiques et valoriser leur potentiel energetique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methanation is a technology of domestic wastes treatment, which is increasing in Europe. It constitutes a privileged offer to satisfy the organic wastes recycling objectives. Based on a presentation of the technologies and application domains, economic and energetic data, this document brings more technological choices for those are concerned by the organic wastes treatment. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2000-07-01

183

Electrooxidation of organics in waste water  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrooxidation is a means of removing organic solutes directly from waste waters without the use of chemical expendables. Research sponsored by NASA is currently being pursued to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept for oxidation of organic impurities common to urine, shower waters and space-habitat humidity condensates. Electrooxidation of urine and waste water ersatz was experimentally demonstrated. This paper discusses the electrooxidation principle, reaction kinetics, efficiency, power, size, experimental test results and water-reclamation applications. Process operating potentials and the use of anodic oxidation potentials that are sufficiently low to avoid oxygen formation and chloride oxidation are described. The design of an electrochemical system that incorporates a membrane-based electrolyte based on parametric test data and current fuel-cell technology is presented.

Hitchens, G. D.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Kaba, Lamine; Verostko, Charles E.

1990-01-01

184

Brucellosis in domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) of Trinidad and Tobago with comparative epidemiology to cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The water buffalo is an important domestic animal worldwide, and the local Buffalypso variety was developed in Trinidad to have improved beef qualities. Brucellosis was diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago during 1998 in both cattle and domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations. Brucellosis in the latter species is caused by infection with Brucella abortus, similar to bovine brucellosis. Control of brucellosis is of paramount importance to preservation of the genetic diversity of these animals in Trinidad, and this has been complicated by differences in the epidemiology of water buffalo and bovine brucellosis. Some diagnostic tests do not have comparable accuracy between the two species, and the RB51 vaccine does not adequately protect against infection in water buffalo. The water buffalo in Trinidad may also be more resistant to infection than cattle. Development of effective vaccination protocols is key to brucellosis control in Buffalypso in Trinidad, and prohibitions on import of virulent B. abortus strains for vaccine efficacy studies has impeded progress in this area. These Trinidadian strains are of variable virulence; some might be effective for challenge in vaccine efficacy studies, while other, of lower virulence, may be vaccine candidates for use in water buffalo. PMID:21479842

Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Diptee, Michael D; Ramnanan, Anil; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

2011-12-01

185

Surgical hand scrub: Lots of water wasted  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background : Surgical hand scrub (SHS) is an important antisepsis measure before participating in surgical operation. It reduces the risk of microbial contamination of the surgical wound by skin flora. SHS is usually performed in a scrub sink with taps that have hand operated handles. During the scrub process large volume of water is wasted. The aim of this study was to determine the volume of water used during SHS in comparison to the actual volume necessary. Method ...

Ahmed A

2007-01-01

186

Waste-Water Treatment Plant Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Carrousel is a waste-water treatment plant based on the functioning of the activated sludge process. in this biochemical process, ammonium and nitrate and/or nitrite are broken down by living biomass. The main contribution to plant operation costs is ...

K. van Schagen R. Banning A. M. J. Veersma

1996-01-01

187

Waste water purification with a centrifugal decanter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method described is suitable for the treatment of radioactive and conventional waste effluent. It is a combination of precipitation and subsequent dewatering of sludge. The object of the treatment is to remove from the water by means of aluminium sulphate precipitation, radioactive substances, petroleum ether-extractible materials and undissolved impurities. (orig.)

1981-01-01

188

Reverse Osmosis Renovation of Municipal Waste Water.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fifteen-month laboratory program has shown that all grades of municipal waste water may be significantly improved by the reverse osmosis process. Comparisons are provided on the behavior and response of the reverse osmosis process to carbon-treated seco...

1971-01-01

189

Investigation on Kombiterm GE Domestic Hot Water Tank. : Performance Measurements and Calculations.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Investigation of a hot water tank with a high heat exchanger spiral with a small pipe diameter in the upper part of the heat exchanger spiral and a large pipe diameter in the lower part of the heat exchanger spiral in cooperation with Kãhler&Breum Beholder- og Maskinfabrik K/S. First preprint of project resulting in final "Sagsrapport": Andreas Heuer, "High Spiral Heat Exchanger in Domestic Hot Water Tanks.", SR-9711, 1997, ISSN 1396-402X.Andreas Heuer, "User Manual for Simulation Program GETANK", SR-9712, 1997, ISSN1396-402X.

Heller, Alfred; Heuer, Andreas Walter

1996-01-01

190

Thermosyphon solar domestic hot water systems: development of a method of seasonal thermal performance prediction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer simulation program that predicts the seasonal thermal performance of thermosyphon domestic hot water systems was developed. This report summarizes the development of the simulation program and includes mathematical modelling assumptions applicable to the computer model. The program (SYPHON) has been documented elsewhere and written in interactive form to facilitate general use. It models water, glycol, and refrigerant loop systems. Comparison of simulted system performance to experimental results, reported in the literature, indicated good accuracy but further testing is required. 19 refs., 12 figs.

Carpenter, S.C.; Chamberlain, M.J.

1983-08-01

191

Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study focus on the analysis, modeling and simulation of solar domestic hot water(DHW) systems. Problems related to the system operation such as input weather data and hot water load conditions are also investigated.In order to investigate the heat loss as part of the total heat load, dynamic model of distribution network is developed and simulations are carried out for typical designed circulation type of distribution networks. For dynamic simulation of thermosyphon and drain-back solar DHW systems, thermosyphon loop model and drain-back tank model are put forward. Based on the simulations, several recommendations are given for optimum design of such types of systems.

Qin, Lin

1999-01-01

192

Process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from nuclear power stations is proposed, characterized by the fact that the water is taken continuously through a water decomposition cell. If the water does not have sufficient conductivity itself, a substance raising the electrical conductivity is added to the water to be treated. The electrolysis is situated in the waste water tank. (orig./RB)

1980-11-24

193

Wash water waste pretreatment system  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

1977-01-01

194

Environmental impact on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies in Lagos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of town planning, infrastructure, sanitation and rainfall on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies. METHODS: Water samples obtained from deep and shallow wells, boreholes and public taps were cultured to determine the most probable number of Escherichia coli and total coliform using the multiple tube technique. Presence of enteric pathogens was detected using selective and differential media. Samples were collected during both periods of heavy and low rainfall and from municipalities that are unique with respect to infrastructure planning, town planning and sanitation. RESULTS: Contamination of treated and pipe distributed water was related with distance of the collection point from a utility station. Faults in pipelines increased the rate of contamination (p<0.5 and this occurred mostly in densely populated areas with dilapidated infrastructure. Wastewater from drains was the main source of contamination of pipe-borne water. Shallow wells were more contaminated than deep wells and boreholes and contamination was higher during period of heavy rainfall (p<0.05. E. coli and enteric pathogens were isolated from contaminated supplies. CONCLUSIONS: Poor town planning, dilapidated infrastructure and indiscriminate siting of wells and boreholes contributed to the low bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies. Rainfall accentuated the impact.

Egwari L

2002-01-01

195

Waste Water Plant Operators Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual for sewage treatment plant operators was prepared by a committee of operators, educators, and engineers for use as a reference text and handbook and to serve as a training manual for short course and certification programs. Sewage treatment plant operators have a responsibility in water quality control; they are the principal actors in…

Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

196

Life cycle environmental impact of a thermosyphonic domestic solar hot water system in comparison with electrical and gas water heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A methodology for the environmental impact evaluation over the life span of a Domestic Solar Hot Water System (DSHWS) is presented. The results are compared to the environmental consequences of the conventional energy form substituted and the total environmental gain is calculated. For the purposes of this analysis, the 'Eco-indicator '99' Life Cycle Impact Assessment methodology was adopted and the materials and procedures of the DSHWS production and utilization are evaluated. (Author)

Tsilingiridis, G.; Martinopoulos, G.; Kyriakis, N. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2004-07-01

197

Waste water treatment technique for a uranium tailings pond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compositions of waste water from a uranium tailings pond and main pollution factors were analyzed. A method of treating the waste water was determined through experiments, that is, neutra-lization with milk of lime-adsorption with manganese sand method, and the waste water was treated by the method. Contents of U, Ra and Mn, and pH value in the treated waste water meet the national discharge standard. (authors)

2011-05-01

198

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study has been undertaken to evaluate performance efficiency of a waste water treatment plant. A sewage treatment plant operating on biological treatment method (Activated Sludge Process with an average wastewater inflow of 23MLD bas been considered for case study. Waste water samples were collected at different stages of treatment units and analysed for the major water quality parameters, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS and total dissolved solids (TDS. Theperformance efficiency of each unit in treating the pollutants was calculated. Overall performance of the plant also has been estimated. The obtained results were very much useful in identification and rectification of operational and maintenance problems as well as the future expansion to be carried out in the plant to meet the increased hydraulic and organic loadings.

K. SUNDARA KUMAR

2010-12-01

199

Patterns of domestic water use in rural areas of Zimbabwe, gender roles and realities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents practical experiences into the pattern of domestic water use, benefits and the gender realities. The study was undertaken in two districts of Zimbabwe, Mt Darwin and Bikita covering a total of 16 villages. The study aimed to assess the patterns of domestic water use, benefits derived from its use among the gender groups. Methodology for participatory assessment (MPA) was used for data collection and was done in a participatory manner. Traditionally most people in Zimbabwe are subsistence farmers who rely on rain fed agriculture. Where primary water sources are available such as shallow wells, family wells, deep wells and boreholes households use the water for household water and sanitation, irrigate small family gardens as well as their livestock. The survey established that women and men usually rank uses of water differently. In the two districts it was evident that women are playing more roles in water use and it is apparent that women are most often the users, managers and guardians of household water and hygiene. Women also demonstrated their involvement in commercial use of water, using water for livestock watering (20%) as well as brick moulding (21%). These involvement in commercial use were influenced by survival economics as well as the excess and reliability of the supply. The different roles and incentives in water use of women and men was demonstrated in how they ranked the benefits of water and sanitation. Men ranked clean drinking water among others as a top priority while women ranked improved health and hygiene and reduced distance as top priority. Overall the benefits highlighted by the communities and especially women were meeting the practical needs such as better access to water and reducing their work load. The assessment demonstrated the active role of women in water sources management highlighting quality, reliability and restrictions to their use. Though the communities gave the impression that decision making in the sitting and construction of water points was equally among the gender groups, however it was evident that men have a greater role than women in public decision making.

Makoni, Fungai S.; Manase, Gift; Ndamba, Jerry

200

Field Monitoring of Treated Industrial Waste Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Discharge of untreated industrial water on land and in existing waterbodies has deteriorated the quality of these sources and has become harmful and disasterous for human as well as aquatic life..Many a times even treated industrial effluents are proved to be harmful. So in the project discussed below an effort has been made to test the treated industrial waste water and send the obtained results to the concerned industry as well as pollution control board. The sensor used to test the water w...

Vasudha Bhandari; Preeti Abrol

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Performance of alternative refrigerant R430A on domestic water purifiers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, performance of R430A is examined numerically and experimentally in an effort to replace HFC134a used in refrigeration system of domestic water purifiers. Even though HFC134a is used predominantly in such a system these days, it needs to be phased out in near future in most of the developed countries due to its high global warming potential. To solve this problem, cycle simulation and experiments are carried out with a new refrigerant mixture of 76%R152a/24%R600a using actual water purifiers. This mixture is numbered and listed as R430A by ASHRAE recently. Test results show that the system performance is greatly influenced by the amount of charge due to the small internal volume of the refrigeration system in water purifiers. With the optimum amount of charge of 21-22 g, about 50% of HFC134a, the energy consumption of R430A is 13.4% lower than that of HFC134a. The compressor dome and discharge temperatures and condenser center temperature of R430A are very similar to those of HFC134a for the optimum charge. Overall, R430A, a new long term environmentally safe refrigerant, is a good alternative for HFC134a in domestic water purifiers requiring no major change in the system.

2009-12-01

202

Environmental sustainability of ozonating municipal waste water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and endocrine disrupters). As part of this work a holistic based prioritisation among technologies and optimisations is to be done. Tools for this prioritisation include life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost/efficiency. The LCA is performed as a comparative LCA and the concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts is introduced in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) part. Furthermore, as novel approaches, potential ecotoxicity impact from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impact from pathogens (and whole effluent toxicity) are to be included. In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation.

Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

203

Method of disposing radioactive waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To efficiently remove radioactive materials to such an extent as causing no troubles to the subsequent use or disposal, thereby greatly reduce the volume of radioactive wastes upon disposal of radioactive waste water. Method: Waste water containing radioactive materials is filtered by using easily combustible ion exchange paper filters prepared by mixing synthetic fibers made of polyethylene or the like with ion exchange fibers to which sulfonic or like other functional groups are chemically bonded, cellulose and a small amount of synthetic fibers to make paper and then applying hot pressing. Then, ion exchange paper filters are burnt out together with the radioactive materials captured by filtration. By making paper while adding 30 - 50 parts of cellulose to 50 parts of fibers, the burnability can greatly be improved, the combustion is rendered extremely moderate and complete incineration can be attained with no generation of soots and sagging. Accordingly, since the volume of ashes is reduced, significant volume-reduction of radioactive wastes can be attained. (Takahashi, M.)

1984-06-28

204

Developing of indoor testing facilities for domestic solar water heating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In South Africa, domestic electricity consumption constitutes about 18 per cent of the total electricity used in the country. However, the contribution of the domestic sector towards the maximum demand of the country is 32 per cent. As such, the sustainability and performance of South Africa's demand side management (DSM) program would be improved if renewable energies were added to its scope. Solar water heating has the potential to make a pronounced change in power supply and demand factors in South Africa. The South African government has set a target of 10,000 GWh of renewable energy by 2013, which is 4 per cent of the country's overall electricity demand. In particular, the City of Cape Town plans to have 10 per cent of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. In order to meet this target, 1000 solar hot water systems must be installed in homes each month. This presents a challenge to local manufacturers who must improve the quality of their products to match world standards. The paper emphasized the importance of developing a low-cost indoor test facilities for short term testing and for evaluating the thermal performance and efficiency of domestic solar water heaters (SWH) produced on the local market. This can be accomplished through testing facilities that test the performance of SWH products at any time and at similar conditions. The tests determine the performance and overall efficiency of the SWH regardless of the climatic conditions. The test facilities include a testing frame, solar irradiance simulator, wind simulator, various sensors, data loggers and data acquisition equipment. Local manufacturers could use the test facilities to evaluate SWH and their components at different stages of the manufacturing process. This paper included a comparative evaluation of indoor and outdoor tests that evaluated the performance of SWH and their components. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

Dintchev, O.D. [Tshwane Univ. of Technology, Pretoria North (South Africa)

2007-07-01

205

Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae) on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP), Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25±1°C und...

2012-01-01

206

Radiation purification of waste water from cyanides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A possibility of using a radiation method for purification of waste water from cyanides of nitrile department of acrylic acid containing 15-100 mg/l CN-ions is investigated. Irradiation of samples has been executed by a source of ?-radiation Cs137. Dose rate is equal to 65 rad/s. 90% degree of cyanide decomposition is attained at the dose of 0.45 Mrad. Radiolysis of waste waters has been conducted under heating for increase of the degree of purification and decrease of absorbed radiation dose. At temperature growth up to 90 deg C complete decomposition of cyanides has been attained at the dose of 0.5 Mrad. Cyanates, carbonates and ammonium ions are shown to be formed as the main products of radiolysis

1984-01-01

207

Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time....

1992-01-01

208

Features of waste water purification by electroflotation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods are described and results are presented for studies of the dependence of the effect of purification and sterilization of waste waters of the Novograd-Volynskii meat packing plant on the current density and duration of treatment of them on a semiproduction electroflotation machine. Optimal values of the current density (10mA/cm/sup 2/) and process time (10 min) were determined. Recommendations are given for increasing the sterilization effect.

Kucherenko, G.S.; Golovash, E.A.; Salyuk, A.I.

1981-01-01

209

How to reduce risk of climate change: Domestic hot water production methanization and programmed timing of heaters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper first identifies a significant and deleterious trend, in terms of poor energy efficiency and high carbon dioxide emissions, towards the increased use of electric water heaters for sanitary hot water production in single family units. It then points out how the use of wall mounted methane fired boilers can result in overall energy savings (overall electric power consumption for domestic hot water production is estimated to represent one- quarter of Italy's total domestic power demand), as well as air pollution abatement. The feasibility of other methods of energy conservation and pollution abatement in domestic water heating are also examined. These include the use of solar hot water heaters, computerized timers which allow users to program the operation of their heating plants, and the adoption by residential communities of methane fuelled district heating plants

1992-01-01

210

Use of Industrial Waste Water for Agricultural Purpose: Pb and Cd in Vegetables in Bikaner City, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shortage of irrigation water resources is leading to the use of domestic and industrial waste water in agriculture. esp. in urban areas. Being contaminated by metals and various toxic chemicals these waste waters leads to the exposure of heavy metals and hazardous chemicals and the subsequent human health hazards through agriculture products and live stocks. Increasing cases of cancer and kidney problems is also related with this aspect. In present study human health risk assessment taken in concern with the respect of some heavy metals of toxicological interest.

Rajendra Singh

2012-12-01

211

Produced water waste management : technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Produced water is the largest (by volume) type of waste generated from an oil or gas production operation. The actual volumes vary with the type of production and with other factors such as reservoir drive type. This report provided some scientific information relevant to the operational, environmental and regulatory issues regarding the discharge of produced water from oil and gas facilities. In particular, the report made reference to the ongoing review of the Offshore Waste Treatment Guidelines (OWTG) used for operations in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, the Scotian Shelf, the Deepwater of Eastern Canada, and the Gulf of Mexico. Information regarding the sources, composition and environmental effects of produced water is intended to help in the development of sound regulations. The general composition of produced water was also summarized along with its key characteristics. Environmental issues of particular concern that were reviewed were dilution, biodegradation, volatilization, chemical reactions, toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, radionuclides, oxygen depletion, and environmental effect monitoring (EEM) results. The report also presented results and conclusions of a series of relevant field studies of produced water impacts. refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig., 2 appendices.

Ayers, R.C.; Parker, M.

2001-08-01

212

Dry anaerobic decomposition of previously sorted domestic wastes and manures; Toer anaerob nedbrydning af kildesorteret husholdningsaffald og husdyrgoedning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Denmark it is becoming increasingly common that household wastes are sorted at the source (that it to say that separate containers are provided for different kinds of domestic wastes) instead of being sorted mechanically after collection. Sorting at the source results in wastes that can be put to agricultural uses. Manure from chickens constitues a problem as it has a very high dry matter content which is not compatible to a conversion plant in which the biomass is continually stirred. Yet there is a growing demand for the development of biomass conversion plants adapted to poultry manure. This manure gives problems also because of its ammonium content. The aim of the project was to investigate whether decomposition of chicken manure is possible, and to which extent it would be necessary to use additives in the form of straw or paper etc. Potentials for the conversion of mink manure and previously sorted houshold wastes. The laboratory invetigations are described in detail and the text is illustrated with graphs, diagrams and tables. (AB) 46 refs.

1992-05-01

213

Detection of Legionella spp. from Domestic Water in the Prefecture of Arta, Greece.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research was the isolation of Legionella spp. from domestic water supply networks in the Prefecture of Arta. A total of 100 water samples, from 25 houses, were collected. Half of the samples concerned the cold water and half the hot water supply. Purpose was to detect colonization of the water networks with Legionella spp. >500?cfu/L by using the method of filtration (ISO 11731). Out of 100 samples, 6 samples from 3 houses were positive for Legionella spp. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2-14 was isolated in 5 of 6 samples, whereas in the sixth sample Legionella anisa was identified. Only three of the samples had residual chloride over 0.2?mg/L, rate which is necessary for potable water, according to the Greek hygienic practice. Concerning the temperature of hot water, the mean temperature of the negative for Legionella samples was higher compared to the mean temperature of the positive for Legionella samples (49.9°C versus 45.5°C). It is estimated that there is risk of infection through the use of showers. The low concentration of chloride and the temperature, which was found within the limits favorable to developing Legionella spp. (20-45°C), provide fertile ground for proliferation of the bacteria. PMID:24744922

Dimitriadi, Dimitra; Velonakis, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

214

Risk factors for contamination of domestic hot water systems by legionellae.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess risk factors associated with the contamination of the domestic environment by legionellae, 211 houses in the Quebec City area were randomly selected and water samples were collected from the hot water tank, the shower heads, and the most frequently used faucet. After centrifugation, concentrated samples were seeded in triplicate on BCYE and GPV media. Data on the characteristics of the hot water system and plumbing in the house and on the personal habits of the occupants were collected for each house. Among these 211 houses, hot water was provided by either an oil or gas heater in 33 and by an electric heater in 178. Legionellae were isolated from none of the samples from houses with oil or gas heaters and from 39% (69 of 178) of those with electric water heaters (P less than 0.0001). This association remained highly significant after control for water temperature and other variables in a stratified analysis. In the 178 houses with an electric heater, 12% of the faucets, 15% of the shower heads, and 37% of the water heaters were contaminated. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 2 and 4 were the most frequently isolated strains. Logistic regression showed that factors associated with electric water heater contamination were (i) location of the house in older districts of the city (P less than 0.0001), (ii) old age of the water heater (P = 0.003), and (iii) low water temperature (P = 0.05). Contamination of the water heater was the only factor significantly associated with the contamination of peripheral outlets (P less than 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1768104

Alary, M; Joly, J R

1991-08-01

215

Co-digestion of source segregated domestic food waste to improve process stability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cattle slurry and card packaging were used to improve the operational stability of food waste digestion, with the aim of reducing digestate total ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations compared to food waste only. Use of cattle slurry could have major environmental benefits through reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with current management practices; whilst card packaging is closely linked to food waste and could be co-collected as a source segregated material. Both options increase the...

2012-01-01

216

Simulation programs for ph.D. study of analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in the solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. One of the main objects of the Ph.D. study of `Analysis, Modelling and optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems` is to develop and verify programs for carrying out the simulation and evaluation of the dynamic performance of solar DHW systems. During this study, simulation programs for hot water distribution networks and for certain types of solar DHW systems were developed. (au)

Lin Qin

1998-12-31

217

Biotreatment of UCG waste water condensate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process of underground coal gasification (UCG) generates a waste water stream during the cooling and processing of the product gas. The waste water stream is of large enough volume and contains a wide array of pollutants, thus posing a significant water pollution problem. The character of UCG condensate is similar to that produced by above-ground gasifiers, although some differences are apparent. The treatment options studied during this laboratory experimental project were activated sludge treatment of raw condensate, activated sludge treatment of stripped condensate, and activated sludge with powdered activated carbon addition for treatment of stripped condensate. The condensates used in the laboratory study were obtained from large-scale field tests in Wyoming. Design and kinetic information for the various activated sludge options are presented, along with detailed performance and kinetic data. Major variables among the treatment options were the amount of dilution water needed to achieve stable operation, the degree of treatment achieved by each option, and the stability of the biological reactor.

Humenick, M.J.; Brauer, R.; Caire, T.; Lawler, D.F.

1984-01-01

218

Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: Cost/Benefit Analysis and Opportunities for Improvement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine potential for reduction in the cost of saved energy (COSE) for cold-climate solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems, COSE was computed for three types of cold climate water heating systems. For each system, a series of cost-saving measures was considered: (1) balance of systems (BOS): tank, heat exchanger, and piping-valving measures; and (2) four alternative lower-cost collectors. Given all beneficial BOS measures in place, >50% reduction of COSE was achievable only with selective polymer collectors at half today's selective collector cost. In all three system types, today's metal-glass selective collector achieved the same COSE as the hypothesized non-selective polymer collector.

Burch, J.; Hillman, T.; Salasovich, J.

2005-01-01

219

Conventional versus storage domestic solar hot water systems: A comparative performance study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an experimental comparative performance study between a storage solar domestic hot water system and a conventional one. The storage system differs from the conventional one by integrating the collector and storage tank into one piece of equipment. The investigated storage collector consists of six 80-mm-outside diameter copper tubes connected in series to act as an absorber and a storage tank. Tests under different flow patterns are conducted to simulate different patterns of hot water consumption. The overall heat loss coefficient, useful heat gain, instantaneous efficiency, efficiency factor, heat removal factor and the temperature distribution along the pipe are determined using modified equations derived for the storage collector from the basic derivation of Hottel-Bliss-Whillier. A comparison between the experimental and theoretical results for the storage collector showed good agreements and that between the two systems showed the superiority of the storage system.

2010-02-01

220

Enhancement of natural circulation type domestic solar hot water system performance by using a wind turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance improvement of existing 200 litres capacity natural convection type domestic solar hot water system is attempted. A two-stage centrifugal pump driven by a vertical axis windmill having Savonius type rotor is added to the fluid loop. The windmill driven pump circulates the water through the collector. The system with necessary instrumentation is tested over a day. Tests on Natural Circulation System (NCS) mode and Wind Assisted System (WAS) mode are carried out during January, April, July and October, 2009. Test results of a clear day are reported. Daily average efficiency of 25-28 % during NCS mode and 33-37 % during WAS mode are obtained. With higher wind velocities, higher collector flow rates and hence higher efficiencies are obtained. In general, WAS mode provides improvements in efficiency when compared to NCS mode.

Ramasamy, K. K.; Srinivasan, P. S. S.

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

EFFICIENCY OF DOMESTIC REVERSE OSMOSIS IN REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound, Tape wrapping module was used. Feed solution was made by using of pure chloroform. The samples containing chloroform were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. By increasing the flow, the removal rate of chloroform decreased and with declining removal of EC, the removal of chloroform declined too. In this research, at the worst condition, the efficiency of the pilot scale reverse osmosis reached to 80 % removal of chloroform.

S. Mazloomi ? R. Nabizadeh ? S. Nasseri ? K. Naddafi ? S. Nazmara ? A. H. Mahvi

2009-10-01

222

Review of Various Solutions for avoiding critical levels of Legionella Bacteria in Domestic Hot Water System  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Low temperature district heating (DH) is designed as 55/25oC for supply/return temperature to fulfill the low energy demand of future buildings. However, to secure the safety of domestic hot water, the supply temperature has to be kept around 60oC to avoid the existence of legionella, which reproduces rapidly at the temperature around 25oC- 45 oC. After several outbreaks of pheumonia and fever caused by legionella bacteria, most countries require 60 oC in the network and 50-55 oC at the faucets with periodic flush by hot water above 60 oC as disinfection solution. That makes obstacles of low temperature DH implementation. Therefore, effective solution of legionella bacteria is in urgent demand. To select optimal disinfection treatments for certain cases which are quite different in dimension or purpose of use, various methods were reviewed, including shock hyperchlorination, super heating, electric boiler, compact heat exchanger, water filter, chlorine dioxide, Monochloramine, UV sterilization, copper and silver electrodes. The implementary conditions, effect, limits as well as economic performance of them are demonstrated. For buildings with complicated networks and large volume, chemical approach is widely used, and oxidizing disinfectants have a better effect and economic performance. For buildings with DHW volume less than 3 liters, implementation of compact heat exchangers is an effective solution. By reviewing the efficacy of each method, the optimal solution for low temperature domestic hot water system is recommended by this study, which is of great use to realize low temperature DH system without any risk of legionella.

Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei

2013-01-01

223

Processing method for cleaning water waste from cement kneader  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a method of processing cleaning water wastes from a cement kneader in a case of processing liquid wastes containing radioactive wastes or deleterious materials such as heavy metals by means of cement solidification. Cleaning waste wastes from the kneader are sent to a cleaning water waste tank, in which gentle stirring is applied near the bottom and sludges are retained so as not to be coagulated. Sludges retained at the bottom of the cleaning water waste tank are sent after elapse of a predetermined time and then kneaded with cements. Thus, since the sludges in the cleaning water are solidified with cement, inhomogenous solidification products consisting only of cleaning sludges with low strength are not formed. The resultant solidification product is homogenous and the compression strength thereof reaches such a level as capable of satisfying marine disposal standards required for the solidification products of radioactive wastes. (I.N.)

1988-12-23

224

Pollution characterization of waste water of an industrial zone - Example of a dairy water clarification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD/BOD ratio which may attain the value of 1.8. Pre-treatment by coagulation floculation of waste water used in a dairy belonging to this industrial zone showed a considerable reduction of the initial pollution by a systematic decreasing of pollution parameters. Aluminium sulphates and iron chloride tested in this experience have reduced considerably all the studied parameters; the organic charge has received a very significant reduction up to 99%. The discharge of treated effluent in the surrounding river or its use for recycling aims is then possible for this industry. However, the formed sludge can be the subject of a suitable treatment for possible agricultural, avicolous valorisation or other. (author)

2009-01-01

225

Field Monitoring of Treated Industrial Waste Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discharge of untreated industrial water on land and in existing waterbodies has deteriorated the quality of these sources and has become harmful and disasterous for human as well as aquatic life..Many a times even treated industrial effluents are proved to be harmful. So in the project discussed below an effort has been made to test the treated industrial waste water and send the obtained results to the concerned industry as well as pollution control board. The sensor used to test the water were pH electrode (PE03, conductivity electrode (k=1,purity sensor, thermistor. The results obtained from the above sensors were then sent  to the industry control room as well as pollution control board.using ZigBee.

Vasudha Bhandari

2014-05-01

226

Field Monitoring of Treated Industrial Waste Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discharge of untreated industrial water on land and in existing waterbodies has deteriorated the quality of these sources and has become harmful and disasterous for human as well as aquatic life..Many a times even treated industrial effluents are proved to be harmful. So in the project discussed below an effort has been made to test the treated industrial waste water and send the obtained results to the concerned industry as well as pollution control board. The sensor used to test the water were pH electrode (PE03, conductivity electrode (k=1, purity sensor, thermistor. The results obtained from the above sensors were then sent  to the industry control room as well as pollution control board.using GSM.

Vasudha Bhandari

2013-07-01

227

Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author)

1999-01-01

228

Analysis of assembly serial number usage in domestic light-water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Domestic light-water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies are identified by a serial number that is placed on each assembly. These serial numbers are used as identifiers throughout the life of the fuel. The uniqueness of assembly serial numbers is important in determining their effectiveness as unambiguous identifiers. The purpose of this study is to determine what serial numbering schemes are used, the effectiveness of these schemes, and to quantify how many duplicate serial numbers occur on domestic LWR fuel assemblies. The serial numbering scheme adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ensures uniqueness of assembly serial numbers. The latest numbering scheme adopted by General Electric (GE), was also found to be unique. Analysis of 70,971 fuel assembly serial numbers from permanently discharged fuel identified 11,948 serial number duplicates. Three duplicate serial numbers were found when analysis focused on duplication within the individual fuel inventory at each reactor site, but these were traced back to data entry errors and will be corrected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). There were also three instances where the serial numbers used to identify assemblies used for hot cell studies differed from the serial numbers reported to the EIA. It is recommended that fuel fabricators and utilities adhere to the ANSI serial numbering scheme to ensure serial number uniqueness. In addition, organizations collecting serial number information, should request that all known serial numbers physically attached or associated with each assembly be reported and identified by the corresponding number scheme. 10 refs., 5 tabs

1991-01-01

229

Health effects of work at waste water treatment plants: a review of the literature with guidelines for medical surveillance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential health hazards associated with work at waste water treatment plants include bacteria, viruses and protozoa in domestic waste and heavy metals and other hazardous substances in industrial wastes. The primary exposure route for hazardous material is through inhalation of aerosols generated in the secondary phase of water treatment that contain pathogenic organisms. Although few epidemiological studies have investigated the health of waste water treatment facility workers, hazards noted have been limited to acute, self-limited gastrointestinal illnesses. Due to the potential for long term or subtle adverse health effects, a medical surveillance program is proposed that includes attention to infectious diseases, such as hepatitis and to illness/absenteeism records. PMID:3963009

McCunney, R J

1986-01-01

230

On the Possibilities of Producing Hydrogen by High Temperature Electrolysis of Water Steam Supplied from Biomass or Waste Incineration Units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incineration of biomass and waste is considered to produce water steam, which then would feed the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process in order to produce hydrogen. For these energy sources, in a French context, results show that water steam production cost could be in a range of 0.02 to 0.06 euros per steam kilogram. Potentially 78 million vehicles could be fed with hydrogen coming from the steam produced by the incineration of the currently non valorized biomass and domestic waste. Furthermore, for each energy source the optimized hydrogen production cost estimation has been performed, including investment and operation costs. (authors)

2008-01-01

231

Analysis of black fungal biofilms occurring at domestic water taps. II: potential routes of entry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of tenacious and massive black biofilms was occasionally observed at the water-air interphase of water taps and in associated habitats at several locations in Germany. Exophiala lecanii-corni was proven to be the dominant component of these biofilms. Water utility companies were interested to understand by which route fungi building these black biofilms enter their habitat at affected sites in domestic sanitary. A wide variety of fungi is known to be common in wet indoor environments, as well as in the drinking water resources. Two possible routes of entry are therefore considered as follows: (a) distribution by the drinking water system or (b) a retrograde route of colonisation. Previous compositional analysis revealed that the black constituents of biofilms primarily belong to the herpotrichiellaceous black yeast and relatives. Therefore, a systematic search for black fungi in the drinking water system was performed using Sabouraud's glucose agar medium with chloramphenicol and erythritol-chloramphenicol agar as isolation media. Cadophora malorum was the dominant fungus in the investigated drinking water systems, and samples taken from the house connections (n = 50; 74 %, <200 cfu/L), followed by a so far undescribed Alternaria sp. (28 %; <10 cfu/L) and E. castellanii (26 %; <10 cfu/L). Of note, C. malorum was not present in any previously analysed biofilm. Since E. lecanii-corni was not found in any water sample from the distribution system tested, but represented the most abundant species in dark biofilms previously analysed, a retrograde route of contamination in case of E. lecanii-corni can be assumed. PMID:23385953

Heinrichs, Guido; Hübner, Iris; Schmidt, Carsten K; de Hoog, G Sybren; Haase, Gerhard

2013-06-01

232

RPS 100 Storage of contaminated waste waters from pipelines  

…environmental permit. Background Gas pipelines may occasionally suffer from water ingress. This water must be removed as quickly as possible and is sucked out into a tanker. The water may be classed as hazardous waste with a code 16 10 01* (aqueous liquid wastes containing dangerous substances). It is…

233

Issues of norm-setting for surface waste water quality / ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ???  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors consider the specific features of practical norm-setting for the parameters of surface (rain and melt waste water from the point of view of valuation of this waste water category impact on the state of natural and man-made water bodies. / ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? (???????? ? ????? ??????? ??? ? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????.

Kichev D. S. / ????? ??????? ?????????????

234

A comprehensive approach to forecasting domestic waste volumes; Ganzheitliche Prognose von Siedlungsabfaellen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Selection and dimensioning of waste treatment sysetms requires accurate forecasting of the waste volumes and composition to be expected. There are many influencing factors, so the selection and weighting of bandwidth is a primary concern. [German] Fuer die Wahl und die Bemessung von Abfallbehandlungsanlagen ist die Voraussage der zu erwartenden Abfallmengen und der Zusammensetzung unverzichtbar. Dabei spielen vielfaeltige Faktoren eine Rolle. Die Wahl der Bandbreite und ihre Gewichtung erfordert viel Sorgfalt. (orig.)

Sircar, R.; Ewert, F.; Bohn, U. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Technik und Umweltschutz, Wittenberg (Germany)

2003-01-01

235

Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

Cooper, Robert C.

1975-01-01

236

Comparative health risks of domestic waste combustion in urban and rural Slovakia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the health risk incurred by two alternative waste management schemes: open burning of household waste in barrels practiced in rural Slovakia and controlled municipal waste combustion in the city of Bratislava. Using agricultural land use data and village population data we formulate three prototype villages, each representing about one-third of the rural population. The two configurations of the controlled combustion are an outdated municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a modern waste-to-energy (WTE) plant equipped with modern air pollution control devices. These configurations actually exist(ed) in Bratislava, Slovakia at the same site, but in different time frames. The CALPUFF model provides direct exposure data and the EMERAM software (developed in this paper) computes indirect exposure. A major source of uncertainty is that of the fraction of waste burned in the open. The analysis presented here assumed 10%. At this level, the cancer risk from open burning ranges from 10 to 80 times the commonly regarded de minimus value of one in a million. This means that underthe U.S. contemporary regulatory culture, some regulatory action to control or enforce the burning ban would be expected. Cancer risks from the incinerator ranged from 7 to 371 in a million while the WTE risks were below 1 in a million. Cancer risks from open burning are higher than those of the WTE plant and at the same time affect a larger portion of concerned population. PMID:17969705

Krajcovicová, Jana; Eschenroeder, Alan Q

2007-10-01

237

Estimation of waste water activity using serial radiometers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation monitoring of waste water actiivity including operative, element-by-element and periodic monitoring is considered. Operative estimation of waste water activity is carried out using RZhS-05 and RKB4-1eM serial radiometers. The experience of operation using the given radiometers is discussed. Device permit to cover a wide range of activities of large nuclide spectrum, and to solve the main problems of waste waters radiation monitoring

1984-12-15

238

Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, Northern Peninsular Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l-1, 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l-1 and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l-1 in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l-1. From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of 222Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from 222Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y-1, for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively. (authors)

2012-01-01

239

Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ? model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

2011-01-01

240

Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - {omega} model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes. (author)

Dehghan, A.A. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barzegar, A. [Islamic Azad University-Ardakan Branch, Ardakan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-01-15

 
 
 
 
241

Integration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila in drinking water biofilms grown on domestic plumbing materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drinking water biofilms were grown on coupons of plumbing materials, including ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (EPDM) rubber, silane cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X b), electron-ray cross-linked PE (PE-X c) and copper under constant flow-through of cold tap water. After 14 days, the biofilms were spiked with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila and Enterobacter nimipressuralis (10(6) cells/mL each). The test bacteria were environmental isolates from contamination events in drinking water systems. After static incubation for 24 h, water flow was resumed and continued for 4 weeks. Total cell count and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) of biofilms were monitored, and P. aeruginosa, L. pneumophila and E. nimipressuralis were quantified, using standard culture-based methods or culture-independent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). After 14 days total cell counts and HPC values were highest on EPDM followed by the plastic materials and copper. P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila became incorporated into drinking water biofilms and were capable to persist in biofilms on EPDM and PE-X materials for several weeks, while copper biofilms were colonized only by L. pneumophila in low culturable numbers. E. nimipressuralis was not detected in any of the biofilms. Application of the FISH method often yielded orders of magnitude higher levels of P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila than culture methods. These observations indicate that drinking water biofilms grown under cold water conditions on domestic plumbing materials, especially EPDM and PE-X in the present study, can be a reservoir for P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila that persist in these habitats mostly in a viable but non-culturable state. PMID:20556878

Moritz, Miriam M; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Wingender, Jost

2010-06-01

242

Utilization of phase change materials in solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal energy storage systems which keep warm and cold water separated by means of gravitational stratification have been found to be attractive in low and medium temperature thermal storage applications due to their simplicity and low cost. This effect is known as thermal stratification, and has been studied experimentally thoughtfully. This system stores sensible heat in water for short term applications. Adding PCM (phase change material) modules at the top of the water tank would give the system a higher storage density and compensate heat loss in the top layer because of the latent heat of PCM. Tests were performed under real operating conditions in a complete solar heating system that was constructed at the University of Lleida, Spain. In this work, new PCM-graphite compounds with optimized thermal properties were used, such as 80:20 weight percent ratio mixtures of paraffin and stearic acid (PS), paraffin and palmitic acid (PP), and stearic acid and myristic acid (SM). The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) tank used in the experiments had a 150 L water capacity. Three modules with a cylindrical geometry with an outer diameter of 0.176 m and a height of 0.315 m were used. In the cooling experiments, the average tank water temperature dropped below the PCM melting temperature range in about 6-12 h. During reheating experiments, the PCM could increase the temperature of 14-36 L of water at the upper part of the SDHW tank by 3-4 C. This effect took place in 10-15 min. It can be concluded that PS gave the best results for thermal performance enhancement of the SDHW tank (74% efficiency). (author)

Mazman, Muhsin; Evliya, Hunay; Paksoy, Halime Oe. [Chemistry Dept., Art and Science Fac., Cukurova University, Balcali, Adana (Turkey); Cabeza, Luisa F.; Nogues, Miquel [Dept. Informatica i Eng. Industrial, Universitat de Lleida, Jaume II 69, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Mehling, Harald [ZAE Bayern, Division 1, Walther-Meissner-Str. 6, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2009-06-15

243

Cost and performance comparison of drainback and integral collector storage systems for residential domestic hot water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work performed in FY 1984 at the Solar Energy Research Institute as part of the continuing effort to lower the delivered energy cost of solar domestic hot water and space heating systems. In this work, a cost and performance comparison of drainback and integral collector storage (ICS) systems was conducted. Cost data for installed system costs were developed for both systems. Performance for the systems was generated using either accepted design tools (FCHART for drainback systems) or new methodologies (for the ICS systems). The cost and performance data were used to calculate discounted payback as a means for comparing the two systems and for assessing their market potential. The results of this economic analysis show that ICS systems have lower discounted paybacks than commercially available drainback systems. Low-cost drainback systems using new, low-cost components have about the same discounted payback as ICS systems.

Lewandowski, A.; Leboeuf, C.M.; Kutscher, C.F.

1985-11-01

244

An investigation of photovoltaic powered pumps in direct solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of photovoltaic powered pumps in direct solar domestic hot water (PV-SDHW) systems has been studied. The direct PV- SDHW system employs a photovoltaic array, a separately excited DC- motor, a centrifugal pump, a thermal collector, and a storage tank. A search methodology for an optimum PV-SDHW system configuration has been proposed. A comparison is made between the long-term performance of a PV-SDHW system and a conventional SDHW system operating under three control schemes. The three schemes are: an ON-OFF flow controlled SDHW system operating at the manufacturer-recommended constant flow rate, and a linear proportional flow controlled SDHW system with the flow proportional to the solar radiation operating under an optimum proportionality. 13 refs., 6 figs.

Al-Ibrahim, A.M.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Beckman, W.A.

1996-09-01

245

Ambient radioactivity monitoring III: Waste water and sewage sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural and man-made radionuclides in waste water and sewage sludge come from various sources as a result of the activities including radioactive materials applications in medicine, science and technology. In the 1960s, the main source contributing to radioactive contamination of waste water and sewage sludge was the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident dramatically increased the radioactive substances washed down into the waste water and sewage sludge and thus increased radioactivity levels in the sewage works. Monitoring activities have to take into account that the radionuclides from the waste water are accumulated in the sewage sludge. (orig.)

1996-01-01

246

Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with differe...

Bernardo, Luis R.; Henrik Davidsson; Björn Karlsson

2012-01-01

247

Domestic water conservation: a component of long term water resources planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the use of demand management projects in medium and long term plans for the supply of water in an urban environment. Some of the issues involved include, among others, the benefits and costs of water conservation, the water savings achieved with different demand management projects, the risks associated with the use of water conservation, and the relationship between water conservation and other community programs such as energy conservation and reduction of inflows to wastewater treatment facilities. A computer program that implements a dynamic programming optimization algorithm is used to determine the combination of supply augmentation and demand management projects that optimize two objectives: (1) the minimization of the present value of the costs of implementing the projects, and (2) the minimization of the expected value of the costs to cope with emergencies in the supply of water. A case study is drawn from the Santa Clara Valley Water District in Santa Clara County, California. The methodological framework developed allows planners and managers of water supply systems to make efficient use of water resources by explicitly considering the management of the demand for water as a supplement to traditional supply augmentation projects.

Rubinstein, J.

1982-01-01

248

The determinants of domestic water demand. Empirical evidence from Emilia-Romagna municipal data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents empirical evidence on the determinants of water demand for domestic use in one Italian region, the Emilia Romagna, by using municipal data. Two main stems in urban/domestic demand analysis cab be found in the empirical literature. The first deals with the estimation of price or income demand elasticities in the short and the long run. The price demand elasticities can be used for water demand managements purpose while the income price elasticities can be useful in the forecasting process of the water requirements. The second one deals with the estimate of customer willingness to pay increasing in water service quality in holistic sense or concerning single characteristics of the service: safety, flavour, continuity, appearance, pollution rate and cost. The aim of the analysis in this case the elicitation of the direct use, indirect use and non-use values associated to the water resource consumption, by means of direct or indirect techniques. In this paper we focused the analysis in the first stem of the empirical literature in which a cross section data set is required. The paper explores the topic problems of the estimating process whit the analysis of the empirical literature (with particular regard to investigations that use municipal data) and with the analysis of the econometric problems related to the demand estimate. The theoretical model for the water demand analysis is also presented and discussed. Two datasets have been implemented: one with 125 municipalities and four years, the other with 40 municipalities and eleven years. Both the databases bring together municipal water consumption and tariffs data provided by local water utilities and other municipal data (inhabitants, surface, household, income, etc.) stemming from official sources. The econometric analysis is based on both fixed effects, performing better than random effects models, and dynamic panel models. The estimated coefficient of the tariff variable arises always significant and with negative sign: the water demand price elasticity is negative with a value between -0.88 and -1.11, but not significantly different from one, considering the different specifications. The results for the income variable are quite different: in the basic model specification the estimated coefficient is positive and significant while the introduction of the other socio-economic variables change the significance level and sometimes the sign. This applied study is an important starting point for the Italian environment, which lacks structured integrated datasets and consequently reliable estimates on elasticities concerning micro-economic oriented water demand studies. However, further analyses with more municipalities and more years have to be carried out to generalise and made results more robust, since the estimation of price elasticity and the investigation on the determinants of water demand is necessary information for both private and private-public management of water resources

2004-01-01

249

Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

Yade, N.

1986-01-01

250

Waste water reclamation systems and closed water systems. Haisui kaishu system to kurozudo system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The volume of ultrapure water for washing at a semiconductor manufacturing plant continues to increase, but the volume of waste water increases too. On the other hand, the water resources are getting tight and the people's consciousness on the environment is increasing. Hence the necessity of waste water reclamation technique is considered to increase. In this article, merits, basic concepts and techniques concerning waste water reclamation are explained. In waste water reclamation, the treatment cost for the low purity portion is 50-70 yen-m[sup 3] and even adding to it the dispersion treatment by ultraviolet oxidation, it is 150-200 yen/m[sup 3], costwise the same as city water. Also in case when the waste water in the low concentration region is reclaimed for use as ultrapure water, the quality of the reclaimed water is more stable than that of the raw water. The waste water reclamation technique can be called fusion of the existing waste water treatment technique and the pure water production technique, and at first, systematic selection of the waste water is important and the organic waste water group and the concentrated chemical group are separated for rejection as much as possible. For doing this, activated charcoal, ion exchange resin, RO module and UV oxidation used. Examples of the closed water system are also shown. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Murakami, T. (Japan Organo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1993-11-30

251

Identification of Naegleria fowleri in domestic water sources by nested PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

The free-living amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system. In the United States, the disease is generally acquired while swimming and diving in freshwater lakes and ponds. In addition to swimming, exposure to N. fowleri and the associated disease can occur by total submersion in bathwater or small backyard wading pools. In the present study, swipe samples and residual pipe water from homes in Arizona were examined for N. fowleri by nested PCR due to the death of two previously healthy children from PAM. Since neither child had a history of swimming in a freshwater lake or pond prior to the onset of disease symptoms, the domestic water supply was the suspected source of infection. Of 19 samples collected from bathroom and kitchen pipes and sink traps, 17 samples were positive for N. fowleri by PCR. A sample from a Micro-Wynd II filter was obtained by passing water from bathtubs through the filter. Organisms attached to the filter also tested positive by PCR. The two samples that tested negative for N. fowleri were one that was obtained from a kitchen sink trap and a swipe sample from the garbage disposal of one home. PMID:14532037

Marciano-Cabral, Francine; MacLean, Rebecca; Mensah, Alex; LaPat-Polasko, Laurie

2003-10-01

252

Low Temperature District Heating Consumer Unit with Micro Heat Pump for Domestic Hot Water Preparation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present and analyse the feasibility of a district heating (DH) consumer unit with micro heat pump for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a low temperature (40 °C) DH network. We propose a micro booster heat pump of high efficiency (COP equal to 5,3) in a consumer DH unit in order to boost the temperature of the district heating water for heating the DHW. The paper presents the main designs of the suggested system and different alternative micro booster heat pump concepts. Energy efficiency and thermodynamic performance of these concepts are calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system has the highest efficiency. Furthermore, we compare thermodynamic and economic performance of the suggested heat pump-based concept with different solutions, using electric water heater. The micro booster heat pump system has the highest annualised investment (390 EUR/year) and the lowest operation (320 EUR/year) expenditures. Electric heater-based concepts consume 5-14 times more electricity, which leads to relatively high annual operation costs (530-970 EUR/year); while investment costs are lower (326-76 EUR/year). The suggested DHW heat pump-based system is cost-efficient for private consumers already today. Furthermore, application of the micro booster heat pump in low energy houses complies with the energy consumption requirements, set by the recent Danish Building Regulations. The use of electrical heater variants would exceed this limit.

Zvingilaite, Erika; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

2012-01-01

253

A decade of successful domestic sea transports of radioactive waste in Sweden 1982-1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today the transports of radioactive waste in Sweden are done on routine basis without any negative publicity. An important contribution to this fact is probably the very good performance of the transport system and the receiving facilities. Since the start of operation of the transport system no accidents have occurred. Almost 1600 tonnes of spent fuel and 10,000 m"3 of radioactive waste have been transported. The capacity and availability of the ship and of the transport system as a whole is large enough to cover all needs for transports of radioactive material in Sweden, at least up to the turn of this century. (J.P.N.)

1992-09-13

254

Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

Alexandria K. Graves

2011-11-01

255

Irradiation as an alternative for disinfection of domestic waste in the Canadian Arctic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of various methods for disinfecting wastewater in the Canadian Arctic with specific reference to gamma radiation. More conventional disinfection practices, such as chlorination, chlorination-dechlorination, and ozonation were compared to gamma radiation along with ultraviolet irradiation and lime disinfection. The quality of lagoon effluent, highly diluted (weak) sewage, holding tank wastes and honey-bag wastes, which are the typical waste types found in northern communities, was established from data available in the literature. Further literature reviews were undertaken to establish a data base for design and effectiveness of disinfection systems operated in cold climates. Capital and operating costs for all technically feasible disinfection process alternates were estimated based on historical cost data adjusted to 1977 for the construction and instalation of similar systems in the north. The costs of equipment, chemicals, fuel and electrical power were obtained from suppliers. The environmental impact of each of the disinfection processes was reviewed with emphasis on gamma irradiation. Safety and health aspects were also considered. The study concluded that gamma irradiation was capable of providing safe, reliable disinfection for concentrated honey-bag and holding wastes. Pilot-scale testing was recommended prior to construction of full-scale disinfection facilities. For lagoon effluents and weak sewage, gamma irradiation was not cost competitive with other alternates; rather chlorination-dechlorination was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternative

1981-01-01

256

Waste water treatment options for SAGD oil production facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) water treatment facilities produce concentrated waste streams that contain high concentrations of total dissolved solids. The waste streams are typically partially recycled to upstream processes or injected into wells. However, these methods can result in the precipitation of silicate compounds and chemical imbalances in upstream water treatment processes. This study simulated 2 SAGD processes and MVC and once-through steam generator (OTSG) waste water treatment options. MVC waste water treatments were simulated with sulfuric acid only; with sulfuric acid and magnesium oxide; and low TH-high silica OTSG blowdown. Results of the simulations showed that the waste water generated was adequately treated with a combination of acid and magox. Further reductions in pH reduced silica contents and alkalinity. Costs for the treatment were estimated at $6.17 per metre{sup 3} for MVC waste water and $1.77 m{sup 3} for blowdown waste water. The addition of magox lowered the cost for silica removal to $4.60 per m{sup 3}. It was concluded that waste water treatment is needed to make produced water treatment options viable with the oil sands industry. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

Portelance, S.N. [WorleyParsons MEG Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

257

Process and apparatus for the biological treatment of waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste water to be treated is introduced into an enclosed gas tight oxygenation chamber. An oxygen-containing gas is also introduced into the oxygenation chamber, at a pressure higher than atmospheric pressure, such that oxygen from the gas is dissolved in the waste water in a quantity higher than the saturation concentration value of oxygen in the waste water at atmospheric pressure, thereby superoxygenating the waste water. The thus superoxygenated waste water, maintained at such pressure higher than atmospheric pressure, is then passed into an enclosed gas tight filtering chamber which is separate from the oxygenation chamber and which is also maintained at such pressure higher than atmospheric pressure. No other oxygen, other than the oxygen dissolved in the waste water, is introduced into the interior of the filtering chamber. The superoxygenated waste water is passed through a biological filter bed within the oxygenation chamber, thereby biologically purifying the waste water to form purified water which is then removed from the filtering chamber.

Bebin, J.; Bernard, J.; Hazard, J.

1980-03-11

258

Generation of Domestic Solid Waste in Tikrit City and The Effects of Family Size and Incomes Level on the Rate of Generation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available     This research included collection and analysis of (2800 samples from four different neighborhoods in Tikrit over the seasons of the year to cover seasonal changes in the generation rate of domestic solid waste. The generation rate of domestic solid waste is (0.460 kg / person / day. The results also showed that summer season is the most season that produced solid waste (0.487 kg / person / day. While winter is the lowest season (0.422 kg / person / day. The results indicated that Friday and Saturday are the most producing days (0.629 , 0.557 kg / person / days, respectively. The results showed the impact of rural character of Aalam region in reducing the rate of generation of domestic solid waste as the rate of generation of the neighborhoods of the four studied areas was (0.460 kg / person / day. SPSS program using has been adopted as a method of statistical analysis to study the effect of family size and income level have on the generation rate in the city, where the results showed that family size adversely affects the generation rate of solid waste, also the lowest generation rate was recorded for families with high income level.                                                                                                                                  

Waleed M. Al Abed Raba

2013-04-01

259

Destruction of Navy Hazardous Wastes by Supercritical Water Oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to destroy organic hazardous wastes generated by Navy industrial activities. Supercritical water oxidation is the low temperature combustion of or...

R. E. Kirts

1994-01-01

260

Basic environmental technology: Water supply, waste disposal, pollution control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book emphasizes hydrology, hydraulics, water management and water quality. It also discusses solid and hazardous waste, and air and noise pollution. Fundamental scientific concepts are introduced as needed - the text does not assume extensive knowledge of chemistry or biology.

Nathanson, J.A.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Waste Water Recharge and Dispersion in Porous Media.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recharge and disposal of treated and untreated waste waters in aquifers results in a mixing of these waters with the natural groundwater. The distribution and boundaries of the ensuing mixture are determined by dispersion and diffusion. This study inc...

J. A. Hoopes D. R. F. Harleman

1965-01-01

262

Aerospace vehicle water-waste management  

Science.gov (United States)

The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

Pecoraro, J. N.

1973-01-01

263

Development of a process to neutralize water-reactive wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mixed waste storage area at Los Alamos National Laboratory contains a considerable amount of lithium hydride and other water-reactive wastes. A process to neutralize these wastes by controlled hydration in an atmosphere of humid nitrogen is being developed. The kinetics of reaction of lithium hydride with water vapor has been studied at bench scale. The reaction progress can be predicted using the Unreacted Shrinking Core Model for noncatalytic solid-fluid reactions. This model will be utilized in designing of a skid-mounted treatment unit to neutralize water-reactive wastes.

Lussiez, G.; Dziewinski, J.

1994-02-01

264

Development of a process to neutralize water-reactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mixed waste storage area at Los Alamos National Laboratory contains a considerable amount of lithium hydride and other water-reactive wastes. A process to neutralize these wastes by controlled hydration in an atmosphere of humid nitrogen is being developed. The kinetics of reaction of lithium hydride with water vapor has been studied at bench scale. The reaction progress can be predicted using the Unreacted Shrinking Core Model for noncatalytic solid-fluid reactions. This model will be utilized in designing of a skid-mounted treatment unit to neutralize water-reactive wastes

1994-03-03

265

Treatment of contaminated waste water by reverse osmosis membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper present the results obtained in treatment by reverse osmosis membrane of waste waters containing radioactive elements and other dissolved heavy or rare metals. Cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membranes were used for removal and recovery uranium from mine waters, pond waters and the other waste waters from ore processing. The flux permeate and rejection for solutes presented in solution were determined. The experiments were performed at laboratory scale. The operation conditions are described

1999-08-08

266

Modern methods for the treatment of heavily polluted waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological processes are playing an increasingly important role alongside physical, chemical, and thermal processes in integrated process concepts for treatment of industrial waste water. The individual processes are complementary. Biological processes are particularly important in combination with membrane processes, adsorption, or oxidation in the treatment of seepage water from waste dumps. (orig.)

1993-01-01

267

Treatment of uranium-containing waste water by phosphate method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of eliminating uranium from waste water by the phosphate method on the basis of practice and theory is described. The optimum operation conditions were investigated. This method is suitable for treatment of low level uranium-containing waste water

1991-01-01

268

Heat pump water heaters with a comparison to solar domestic water heaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A heat pump water heater (HPWH) is a conservation water heating system for new and retrofit residential and commercial applications. There are two generic types of HPWHs: a stand-alone appliance-type heat pump unit plumbed to a conventional water tank, and an integral heat pump/water tank unit with the heat pump installed on top of the tank. Both types are installed independently of the space conditioning equipment. In each case, the heat pump draws in air, extracts heat from it, and uses this to heat the tank water. A byproduct of the system is cool, dehumidified air discharge. Depending on the season of the year, the geographical area, and the building location of the HPWH, the overall system efficiency is increased or decreased by cooling effects on the space-conditioning load. Since HPWHs do not operate below 7/sup 0/C (45 F) and have no freeze protection, the preferred installation location is an unconditioned building space, such as a basement, crawl space, or utility room. HPWHs have become commercially available in the past year and cost under $1,000 installed. At least manufacturers plan to market HPWHs within the next 6 to 12 months.

Claridge, D.E.

1982-01-01

269

In-Situ Parameter Estimation for Solar Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Three different solar domestic hot water systems are being tested at the Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory; an unpressurized drain-back system with a load side heat exchanger, an integral collector storage system, and an ultra low flow natural convection heat exchanger system. The systems are fully instrumented to yield data appropriate for in-depth analyses of performance. The level of detail allows the observation of the performance of the total system and the performance of the individual components. This dissertation evaluates the systems based on in-situ experimental data and compares the performances with simulated performances. The verification of the simulations aids in the rating procedure. The whole system performance measurements are also used to analyze the performance of individual components of a solar hot water system and to develop improved component models. The data are analyzed extensively and the parameters needed to characterize the systems fully are developed. Also resulting from this in-depth analysis are suggested design improvements either to the systems or the system components.

Smith, Toni Richele

270

Wastes and waste management in the uranium fuel cycle for light water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manufacturing processes in the uranium fuel cycle for light water reactors have been described with particular reference to the chemical and radiological wastes produced and the waste management procedures employed. The problems and possible solutions of ultimate disposal of high activity fission products and transuranium elements from reprocessing of irradiated fuel have been reviewed. Quantities of wastes arising in each stage of the fuel cycle have been summarised. Wastes arising from reactor operation have been described briefly. (author)

1975-01-01

271

Waste water as a heat source for heat pumps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As to the suitability of waste water for heat pumps the following types of problems will arise: location of the place of heat extraction in the municipal sewage system; temperature level of the waste water; amount of waste water occurring; degree of dirt accumulation. Literature on waste water contains little information about these problems concerning the use of heat pumps. The temperature level in sewage treatment plants, important for heat extraction, as well as the distribution of temperatures and quantities in collecting pipes of the waste water system were evaluated by statistical investigation. The question about the degree of dirt accumulation could not be answered conclusively as no sufficient information is available on the technical pollution (corrosion, erosion, deposits) concerning the use of heat exchangers. Final statements can be made only after experimental studies have been performed.

Wiedmann, U.; Flohrschuetz, R.

1980-04-01

272

Evaluation of the integrity of domestic reactor pressure vessel steel through crack growth rate meaurements in simulated LWR water environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In simulated LWR conditions Fatigue Crack Growth Rate(FCGR) tests were performed to assess the integrity of domestic reactor pressure vessel material. Autoclave and circulating-water-loop were used to simulate LWR conditions. Test variables were Load-Frequency(LF) and Dissolved-Oxygen(DO) content. There was little environmental effect on FCGR at low DO or high LF conditions. Very high FCGR was enhanced at high DO condition, the enhancement of FCGR increased as LF decreased. In fractography study, Environmentally Assisted Crack(EAC), such as semi-cleavage and inter-granular crack, was found at only high DO condition, high FCGR was related to EAC. The FCGR results of domestic material were compared to ASME code and relative safety margin was calculated by a simple analysis of fatigue crack growth during plant operating time. The safety margin of domestic material was about 10 % higher in comparison with ASME code

1999-10-01

273

Treatment of Oily Waste Water Emulsions from Metallurgical Industries Using Microwave Irradiation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emulsion waste water is one of the important industrial wastewaters, which results from the various manufacturing industries including the metal manufacturing and its processing. Wastewater treatment technologies utilizing flocculation and electrolysis have been used but these technologies have not been very helpful in resolving the problems in view of process consistency and economic merit. Aiming to mitigate the environmental hazard that these waste emulsions represent, a study was carried to investigate the microwave methods to destabilise water/oil emulsions without the addition of any destabilizing chemical agent. The experimental work consisted on breaking the simplest of the emulsions in terms of content, in order to obtain preliminary data that can help to extend the method to manage actual waste material. The samples consisted in water/oil emulsions waste (spent cutting oil, which was obtained from local metal industries. The sample emulsions underwent a domestic microwave radiating process at several exposure times. Certain factors, such as aromatic components and sodium hydroxide content and total heat exposure time proved to be the factors that more strongly affect the results. Within the category of paraffinic oils, light oils allow for quicker water separation than heavy oils. Also oils with higher aromatic content have higher viscosity, which makes the separation of water more difficult. It was observed in this study that emulsions added with acid up to a final concentration of 0.48 M, the separation efficiency and demulsification rate increased with increasing acid concentration. Hence microwave irradiation is an economical and rapid method for oil separation from oily waste water. Although this study was carried out on a lab scale basis, the process can scale up to a large industrial scale system. By using the microwave radiation, an aqueous phase recovery that ranged from 65 to 90% was obtained, which is a significant outcome that reveals the study of this technique needs to be taken further

N. Saifuddin

2006-01-01

274

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Science.gov (United States)

...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a...User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment...

2009-07-01

275

Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25?1?C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

Ghada I. MAHMOUD

2012-02-01

276

A Study of Waste Water Treatment of Microbiological Laboratories of Hospitals by Electrolyzed Oxidized Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hospital liquid infectious waste is one of the most important aspects of water contamination. The present
investigation was undertaken to evolve a cost effective alternate method of waste water treatment by using
Oxidized Water as a disinfectant for hospital effluents. Liquid infectious waste coming from diagnostic
laboratories of hospitals (Urine, Blood and Mix of both) was treated with electrolyzed Oxidized Water. Different
v/v ratios (95...

Fiza Sarwar; Aroos Munir; Ilyas Ahmed Faridi

2011-01-01

277

Packaging and environment in Europe (EUREKA PACK-EE): Automated sorting of aluminum from domestic waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large European research project named EUREKA PACK-EE (for Packaging Environment in Europe) has been started in June 1993. The project carries out research and innovation into collection, sorting and valorization of types of packaging, with improvements to sorting procedures capable of meeting the needs of the recovery and recycling industries. The project includes studies of consumer behavior concerning waste, which will influence the choice of sorting techniques. The results are presented for automated sorting by different eddy current (EC) engineering and in two other papers for thermal separation and purification.

Bertaud, Y.; Guillermet, R.; Lemaire, H. [Pechiney CRV, Voreppe (France); Cael, J. [France Aluminum Recyclage, Paris (France); Nijhof, G. [Hoogovens Groep, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Rossel, H. [VAW Aluminium AG, Bonn (Germany)

1996-10-01

278

Analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The object of this study was dynamic modeling, simulation and optimum design of solar DHW (domestic hot water) systems, with respect to different whether conditions, and accurate dynamic behaviour of the heat load. Special attention was paid to systems with thermosyphon and drain-back design. The solar radiation in Beijing (China) and in Denmark are analyzed both by theoretical calculations and the analysis of long-term measurements. Based on the weather data from the Beijing Meteorological Station during the period of 1981-1993, a Beijing Test Reference Year has been formulated by means of statistical analysis. A brief introduction about the Danish Test Reference Year and the Design Reference Year is also presented. In order to investigate the heat loss as a part of the total heat load, dynamic models for distribution networks have been developed, and simulations have been carried out for typically designed distribution networks of the circulation type. The influence of operation parameters such as the tank outlet temperature, the hot-water load and the load pattern, on the heat loss from the distribution networks in presented. It was found that the tank outlet temperature has a significant influence on the heat loss from a circulation type of distribution network, while the hot-water load and the load pattern have no obvious effect. Dynamic models of drain-back tanks, both as a separated tank and combined with a mantle tank, have been developed and presented. Models of the other basic components commonly used in solar DHW systems, such as flat-plate collectors, connection pipes, storage tanks with a heat exchanger spiral, and controllers, are also described. (LN) 66 refs.

Lin Qin

1998-12-31

279

Water and waste water reclamation in a 21st century space colony  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents the results of research on closed-life support systems initiated during a system design study on space colonization and concentrates on the water and waste water components. Metabolic requirements for the 10,000 inhabitants were supplied by an assumed earth-like diet from an intensive agriculture system. Condensed atmospheric moisture provided a source of potable water and a portion of the irrigation water. Waste water was reclaimed by wet oxidation. The dual-water supply required the condensation of 175 kg/person-day of atmospheric water and the processing of 250 kg/person-day of waste water.

Jebens, H. J.; Johnson, R. D.

1977-01-01

280

RPS 100 Storage of contaminated waste waters from pipelines  

…waters, which have been removed from gas pipelines, without an environmental permit. Background Gas pipelines may occasionally suffer from water ingress. This water must be removed as quickly as possible and is sucked out into a tanker. The water may be classed as hazardous waste with a code 16 10 01*…

 
 
 
 
281

Modernized domestic technology in the luxury hotel Suvretta House in St. Moritz: Warm water from the chimney. Modernisierte Haustechnik im Luxus-Hotel Suvretta House in St. Moritz: Warmwasser aus dem Kamin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High demands for comfort on the part of the guests, necessitate a high energy consumption in hotels. Therefore, corresponding high requirements are made to domestic technology. The adjusted application of a condensing oil heating system with heat pump, warm water mixing plant and warm water storage system results in convincing results. A corresponding plant concept is presented by means of the luxury hotel Suvretta House. The central point is the reduction of waste heat losses by means of a heat pump which can be also applied as cooling machine. (BWI)

Haltiner, E.W.

1993-03-01

282

A process for treating radioactive water-reactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Los Alamos National Laboratory and other locations in the complex of experimental and production facilities operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have generated an appreciable quantity of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) enacted by the United States Congress in 1976 and subsequently amended in 1984, 1986, and 1988 requires that every hazardous waste must be rendered nonhazardous before disposal. Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. These wastes, called mixed wastes, require applying appropriate regulations for radioactive waste disposal and the regulations under RCRA. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category

1995-09-03

283

Deactivation of waste waters in the Czechoslovak Uranium Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deactivation techniques are described used for the treatment of waste waters from uranium mines and uranium chemical treatment plants. With treatment plant waters this is done either by precipitation of radium with barium sulfate or using multistage evaporating units. Mine waste waters are deactivated by sorption on ion exchangers; strongly basic anion exchangers, mostly Wofatit SBW, Varion AP or Ostion AU are used for uranium, while the strongly acidic Ostion KS is used for radium. (Z.M.)

1978-09-01

284

Use of expert systems for the selection and the design of solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this article is the study of the application of expert systems to a mechanical engineering research domain with practical and commercial interest, such as design and manufacturing of Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) Systems. The issues studied were the selection and the design of SDHW systems. The application of an expert system was explored. Frame and class formalism was used for knowledge representation together with forward and backward chaining techniques for drawing conclusions and utilizing the accumulated information present. The appropriate computer program was developed to yield the selection of SDHW systems using the software tool LEONARDO 3.0 (1989), an integrated environment for the development of expert systems. The developed program was tested with data according to the Greek standard ELOT corresponding to the ISO/DIS 9459-2 and it performed successfully for 21 SDHW systems available on the Greek market. Apart from the possibility of selection of a SDHW system, the program also supports the facility for updating its knowledge based with new data so that it can be adapted to changes appearing on the market. The program proved to be functional and user friendly to a high degree. 8 refs., 9 figs.

Panteliou, S.; Dentsoras, A.; Daskalopoulos, E. [Univ. of Patras (Greece)

1996-07-01

285

Simulation of hybrid ground-coupled heat pump with domestic hot water heating systems using HVACSIM+  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hybrid ground-coupled heat pump (HGCHP) with domestic hot water (DHW) supply system has been proposed in this paper for space cooling/heating and DHW supply for residential buildings in hot-climate areas. A simulation model for this hybrid system is established within the HVACSIM+ environment. A sample system, applied for a small residential apartment located in Hong Kong, is hourly simulated in a typical meteorological year. The conventional GCHP system and an electric heater for DHW supply are also modeled and simulated on an hourly basis within the HVACSIM+ for comparison purpose. The results obtained from this case study show that the HGCHP system can effectively alleviate the imbalanced loads of the ground heat exchanger (GHE) and can offer almost 95% DHW demand. The energy saving for DHW heating is about 70% compared with an electric heater. This proposed scheme, i.e. the HGCHP with DHW supply, is suitable to residential buildings in hot-climate areas, such as in Hong Kong. (author)

Cui, Ping; Yang, Hongxing [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Spitler, Jeffrey D. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Oklahoma State University (United States); Fang, Zhaohong [Ground Source Heat Pump Research Center, Shandong University of Architecture and Engineering, Jinan (China)

2008-07-01

286

Low-Cost Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Mild Climates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In FY99, Solar Heating and Lighting set the goal to reduce the life-cycle cost of saved-energy for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems in mild climates by 50%, primarily through use of polymer technology. Two industry teams (Davis Energy Group/SunEarth (DEG/SE) and FAFCO) have been developing un-pressurized integral-collector-storage (ICS) systems having load-side heat exchangers, and began field-testing in FY04. DEG/SE?s ICS has a rotomolded tank and thermoformed glazing. Based upon manufacturing issues, costs, and poor performance, the FAFCO team changed direction in late FY04 from an un-pressurized ICS to a direct thermosiphon design based upon use of pool collectors. Support for the teams is being provided for materials testing, modeling, and system testing. New ICS system models have been produced to model the new systems. A new ICS rating procedure for the ICS systems is undergoing testing and validation. Pipe freezing, freeze protection valves, and overheating have been tested and analyzed.

Burch, J.; Christensen, C.; Merrigan, T.; Hewett, R.; Jorgensen, G.

2005-01-01

287

Testing and analysis of load-side immersed heat exchangers for solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work to determine the performance of load-side heat exchangers for use in residential solar domestic hot water systems. We measured the performance of four heat exchangers: a smooth coil and a finned coil having heat transfer areas of 2.5 m/sup 2/ (26 ft/sup 2/) and those having areas of 1.7 m/sup 2/ (19 ft/sup 2/). A numerical model using the thermal network program MITAS was constructed, and results were compared to the experimental results. Research showed a smooth coil with only 70% of the surface area of a finned coil performed better than the finned coil. Also, load-side heat exchangers can maintain and enhance stratification in storage tanks, permitting the use of control strategies that take advantage of stratified storage tanks to increase system performance. The analytical model, which agreed reasonably well with the experimental results, was used to vary heat exchanger flow rate and area and initial tank temperature for both a smooth- and a finned-coil heat exchanger. Increasing the heat exchanger flow rate and area results in higher heat transfer rates but not necessarily optimal performance. Lower initial tank temperatures resulted in reduced tank stratification. The smooth heat exchanger outperformed the finned heat exchanger with the same outside surface area. 15 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs.

Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

1987-10-01

288

Integrated waste water treatment accompanied by minimal generation of excessive activated sludge or sediment ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors have demonstrated the possibility of development of a process technology of treatment of domestic and similar types of sewage waste water accompanied by minimal generation of excessive activated sludge or sediment using bioreactors that have biomass attached to them. Wet sludge rate reduction is driven by intensification of aerobic stabilization. The article has experimental data generated in the course of the project implementation. There are various aspects to be considered, including technical, economic, social and ecological issues. According to the above, there is a strong need for a combination of proper waste water treatment methods that contemplate minimal sludge formation and further use of sludge. One of the ways to attain the above goal is to use the biomass in the aeration tank. The experiments were held by MGSU Department of Waste Water Treatment and Water Ecology. The authors provide the design scheme of the facility and other parameters of the experi ments held. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic processes helps provide the proper quality of integrated biological treatment. Chambers of the aeration reactor are also equipped with the polymer feed of various compositions. Sludge treatment that is also strongly needed was performed by means of aerobic stabilization accompanied by ejecting aeration. The experiment findings demonstrate its substantial effect in terms of both components, including sewage and sludge treatment.??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ????????????-??????? ? ??????? ? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????. ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????.

Makisha Nikolay Alekseevich

2012-12-01

289

Outdoor test method to determine the thermal behavior of solar domestic water heating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of the market, the generation of new promotion programs, fiscal incentives and many other factors are to be considered for the massive application of solar domestic water heating systems (SDWHS) mainly of the compact thermosiphon type, makes it necessary to choose simple and inexpensive procedure tests that permit to know their characteristic thermal behaviors without an official standard being necessary. Moreover, it allows the comparison among systems and offers enough and reliable information to consumers and manufacturers. In most developing countries, an official national standard for SDWHS is not available, therefore it is necessary to adopt an international test procedure in which the cost and time of implementation is very important. In this work, a simple and inexpensive test method to determine the thermal behavior of SDWHS is proposed. Even though these procedure tests do not have an official standard structure they permit, by comparing different solar systems under identical solar, ambient, and initial conditions, the experimental determination of: (a) the maximum available volume of water for solar heating; (b) water temperature increment and available thermal energy at the end of the day; (c) temperature profiles (stratification) and the average temperature in the storage tank after it is homogenized; (d) the average global thermal efficiency; (e) water temperature decrement and energy lost overnight; and (f) the relationship between hot water volume and solar collector area as function of the average heating temperature. An additional proposed test permits to know the heat losses caused by the reverse flow in the collector loop. These tests will be carried out independently of the configuration between the solar collector and the storage tank, the way the fluid circulates and the type of thermal exchange. The results of this procedure test can be very useful, firstly, for the local solar manufacturers' equipment in order to design and optimize its products comparing their systems against a reference system under identical test conditions and secondly, by the consumers in order to select the most suitable system. The resulting experimental data for a particular thermosiphon system is presented and discussed. (author)

2008-07-01

290

Delevopment and use of a model for incinerators of oil spills and domestic waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments in flow models have been used to study various problems concerning incineration of contaminated matter. The basic philosophies are: (1) The fixed bed of burning material in most cases acts as a pyrolyzer, and combustion is completed in the space above the bed. (2) Regardless of existing knowledge of the mechanisms for formation of various air pollutants, the task of the incinerator is to maintain certain conditions regarding the distribution of temperature, residence, time, and concentration of oxidizing agents. The consequence of this is that many problems can be solved in an efficient and cost effective way using experiments in cold and hot models. Similarity criteria and experimental methods are discussed and illustrated by two case studies: finding remedies against fouling problems in an existing incinerating plant for municipal waste, and development of a mobile incinerator for oil-contaminated solid matter

1990-02-02

291

Removal of toxic volatile matter from waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods for treatment of waste water from black coal coking were investigated at the Moscow gasification plant. The experimental waste water treatment system (with a plate-type column) developed by the VUKhIN institute was used. Waste water temperature was 32-95 C, air flow rate 200-600 m/sup 3/, air temperature 30-50 C. Benzene, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, hydrocyanic acid, naphthalene, phenols and pyridine bases emitted from waste water in the plate-type column were removed by air. At water temperature of 80-90 C water treatment degree did not depend on air flow rate; it ranged from 95-98% for benzene and naphthalene, from 40 to 60% for hydrogen sulfide and from 80 to 90% for hydrocyanic acid. When water temperature was reduced to 32 C water treatment rate was influenced by air flow rate and ranged from 70-99% for benzene, from 40-75% for hydrocyanic acid. Hydrogen sulfide removal was not influenced by water temperature and amounted to 70%. Effects of waste water treatment by biochemical methods (activated sludge process) before or after toxic compound removal in the plate-type column were analyzed. Removal of benzene, naphthalene, hydrogen sulfide, hydrocyanic acid, phenols and ammonia prior to activated sludge treatment increased water treatment efficiency and reduced cost of activated sludge regeneration.

Kabaldaev, V.D.; Plaksin, V.G.; Pimenov, I.V.; Pospelov, M.N.; Belova, O.I.

1987-06-01

292

Radioactive waste disposal of water containing waste using urea-formaldehyde resin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of disposing of wet radioactive waste materials such as those generated in the water used to cool atomic reactors, comprises combining the waste material with a hydrophilic resin in proportions sufficient to provide a solid mass of the resin with the radioactive waste component distributed within. In its preferred form, the waste material is concentrated by separating water from the radioactive portions thereof by methods such as evaporation, taking up the waste components with an ion exchange resin and separating the resin from the bulk of the water, or by the addition of flocculating agents or the like and filtering. The preferred hydrophilic resinous material is a conventional ureaformaldehyde dispersion, which is partially polymerized and capable of taking up water and fully polymerizing upon the addition of an acidic curing agent. The method also contemplates adding a substantially waterproof resinous material to the surface of the solid block, or enclosing it in a waterproof container, or both

1977-01-01

293

The disposal technology of waste residue and waste water at uranium mine No. 754  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disposal technology of the waste residue and waste water at Mine No. 754 was investigated according to the actual situation. For the waste heaps of mine the loess was used to cover them, followed by planting trees and growing grass. For the mine waste water the semi-closed circulation method was used. And the tailings dam for uranium mill was also disposed. The practice showed that by taking the above measures for disposal, the pollution was eliminated, the expenses were saved, and certain economical and social effects were attained

1994-08-01

294

Microbiological and technical aspects of anaerobic waste water purification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaerobic waste water purification is likely to be another example of how innovations can result from the joint use of biological and technical concepts. No matter how far the optimization of oxygen input with aerobic waste water purification advances it will still be the less a real competitor for anaerobic techniques the more polluted the waste water is. The principle of carrier fixation to avoid their washing out, too, has often been observed in nature with sessile microorganisms. With highly polluted water, anaerobic purification does not only work at no expenditure of energy but it can also make excess energy available for use in other processes. Another important argument for anaerobic methods of waste water purification is probably the clearly reduced production of excess sludge. (orig.)

1994-01-01

295

Biogas from organically high polluted industrial waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Organically high polluted waste water sets special claims for an economical purification and the process treatment. Up to now these waste waters are being purified by anaerobic processes with simultaneous biogas generation. The fourstep anaerobic degradation is influenced by a lot of important parameters. Extensive researchers in the field of anaerobic microbiology has improved the knowledge of the fundamental principles. Parallel the reactor technology is developed worldwide. In general it seems that the fixed-film-reactor with immobilized bacteria has the best future to purify organically high polluted industrial waste water with short retention times under stable operation conditions.

Sixt, H.

1985-06-01

296

CFD-modelling of a smart solar tank for SDHW systems[Systems for Domestic Hot Water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the work has been to make a theoretical investigation of the thermal conditions in a smart solar tank with two built-in electric heating elements as the auxiliary energy supply system. A smart solar tank is a hot-water tank in which the domestic water can both be heated by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot-water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. The theoretical investigation has been made by using the CFD-program CFX4.2 and by using a simple numerical simulation model. The CFD-calculations has been carried out to characterise the fluid motion in the upper part of the smart solar tank when the domestic water is heated by the auxiliary energy supply system. The CFD-model is a 3-Dimensional model. The numerical simulation model has been carried out to analyse the thermal performance of the SDHW system with a smart solar tank. (au)

Knudsen, S. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Building and Energy, Lyngby (Denmark)

2000-07-01

297

Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

1983-11-21

298

Fast fermentation on methane of waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anaerobic fermentation of molasses slop to biogas was carried out by an adapted and selected anaerobic mixed culture; the process of fermentation was carried out in two different types of fermentors: in a first generation fermentor (the classical system) with mixing, and in a column fermentor (filter system). The retention time in the classical fermentor was 2 days, whereas in the column fermentor it was 2 days. The production of biogas was 0.6 to 0.8 l/g COD in both fermentors. The aerobic pretreatment of the original molasses slop by Trichosporan fermentans yeast during 4 to 6 hours made possible a high reduction of the COD in the next step of the anaerobic phase of the process. After the pretreatment of molasses slops by T. fermentans, the molecule of betain (trimethylamine) was degraded to lower fatty acids and Co/sub 2/ and in the pretreated substrate of molasses slop it was possible to achieve a high yield of organic matter for 85 to 92% in methan. In such way fermented and degraded molasses slop were suitable for the next biooxidation together with the municipal waste waters using the active sludge process.

Glanser, M.; Dvoracek, L.; Ban, S.N.

1985-02-01

299

Solubility Effects in Waste Glass-Demineralized Water Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out to determine the solubility limits of various elements found in waste glasses in demineralized water as a function of temperature. The work was sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation under contract to the Department of ...

H. T. Fullam

1981-01-01

300

The impact of industrial waste of Venezuelan marine water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Puerto Cabello-Marron coastal area of Venezuela is an ideal location for industries that require large land areas, water, marine transportation, minimum habitation, cooling water, etc. However, mercury spills have produced concern in the entire coastal zone. The area was investigated and negative impacts were identified. Consequently, recommendations for waste water management were proceeded. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Roberts, Frank [Bechtel Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Guarino, Carmen [Guarino Engineers, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Arias, Marlene [Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Caracas (Venezuela)

1993-12-31

 
 
 
 
301

Actual problems of municipal cleaner?s waste waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner?s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

Konko¾ová Patrícia

2000-03-01

302

Probabilistic analysis of risks to US drinking water intakes from 1,4-dioxane in domestic wastewater treatment plant effluents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The risks of 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) concentrations in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, receiving primarily domestic wastewater, to downstream drinking water intakes was estimated using distributions of measured dioxane concentrations in effluents from 40 WWTPs and surface water dilution factors of 1323 drinking water intakes across the United States. Effluent samples were spiked with a d8 -1,4-dioxane internal standard in the field immediately after sample collection. Dioxane was extracted with ENVI-CARB-Plus solid phase columns and analyzed by GC/MS/MS, with a limit of quantification of 0.30??g/L. Measured dioxane concentrations in domestic wastewater effluents ranged from concentration of 1.11?±?0.60??g/L. Dilution of upstream inputs of effluent were estimated for US drinking water intakes using the iSTREEM model at mean flow conditions, assuming no in-stream loss of dioxane. Dilution factors ranged from 2.6 to 48?113, with a mean of 875. The distributions of dilution factors and dioxane concentration in effluent were then combined using Monte Carlo analysis to estimate dioxane concentrations at drinking water intakes. This analysis showed the probability was negligible (p?=?0.0031) that dioxane inputs from upstream WWTPs could result in intake concentrations exceeding the USEPA drinking water advisory concentration of 0.35??g/L, before any treatment of the water for drinking use. PMID:23713009

Simonich, Staci Massey; Sun, Ping; Casteel, Ken; Dyer, Scott; Wernery, Dave; Garber, Kevin; Carr, Gregory; Federle, Thomas

2013-10-01

303

NATURAL WASTE WATER PURIFICATION IN CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The comprehensive enhancement of the environment is an important task in Hungary too in order to maintain and improve the life quality of both humans and other living creatures. Waste water treatment and solid waste management have become significant issues since joining the European Union. Thus it has become timely to develop or borrow an effective and attainable sewage water treatment technology adapted to Hungarian circumstances. Some prototypes of waste water treatment plants that use natural or constructed wetlands (reed beds mainly have already been established in Hungary as experiments or everyday function. In Hódmezövásárhely (HU a demonstration site has built that shows different types of treatment systems based on plants. Present paper introduces environment friendly waste water treatment technologies and the principles of their establishment and function.

AGNES SULI

2009-05-01

304

Economic aspects of radiation treatment of waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Charges for waste water treatment by radiation using "6"0Co and "1"3"7Cs are calculated. The calculations consider doses necessary for treatment, the frequency of radiation source replenishment and the price of radionuclides. (author)

1979-01-01

305

MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

306

Land subsidence in Yunlin, Taiwan, due to Agricultural and Domestic Water Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Subsidence in a layered aquifer is caused by groundwater excess extraction and results in complicated problems in Taiwan. Commonly, responsibility to subsidence for agricultural and domestic water users is difficulty to identify due to the lack of quantitative evidences. An integrated model was proposed to analyze subsidence problem. The flow field utilizes analytical solution for pumping in a layered system from Neuman and Witherspoon (1969) to calculate the head drawdown variation. The subsidence estimation applies Terzaghi (1943) one-dimensional consolidation theory to calculate the deformation in each layer. The proposed model was applied to estimate land subsidence and drawdown variation at the Yuanchang Township of Yunlin County in Taiwan. Groundwater data for dry-season periods were used for calibration and validation. Seasonal effect in groundwater variation was first filtered out. Dry-season pumping effect on land subsidence was analyzed. The results show that multi-layer pumping contributes more in subsidence than single-layer pumping on the response of drawdown and land subsidence in aquifer 2 with a contribution of 97% total change at Yuanchang station. Pumping in aquifer 2 contributes more significant than pumping in aquifer 3 to cause change in drawdown and land subsidence in aquifer 2 with a contribution of 70% total change at Yuanchang station. Larger area of subsidence in Yuanchang Township was attributed pumping at aquifer 2 while pumping at aquifer 3 results in significant subsidence near the well field. The single-layer user contributes most area of subsidence but the multi-layer user generates more serious subsidence.

Hsu, K.; Lin, P.; Lin, Z.

2013-12-01

307

Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, ?-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activa...

2011-01-01

308

Septic Tanks / Domestic  

...NoisePollution PreventionResearch and DevelopmentSeptic Tanks / DomesticStrategy QuestionsWater ManagementAccess Keys...Strategy QuestionsWater ManagementAccess KeysSeptic Tanks / DomesticLast updated: 26 March 2009Is...

309

77 FR 6548 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid Waste...  

Science.gov (United States)

...for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid Waste Sustainability Initiatives...aggressive implementation of waste reduction, and energy and water conservation policies...the construction of a Waste-to-Energy plant with adjacent...

2012-02-08

310

Separation of Uranium from Waste Water by TBP Impregnated Resin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In the process of uranium purification for nuclear material development, it is necessary to remove the uranium contaminated in the waste water effluent from the processing facility. For the waste water contains little amount of the polluted elements, the effective separation method must be used. In this study, tributyl phosphate (TBP) impregnated resin was used to separate uranium from the prepared waste water simulating the waste water generated from the processing of monazite ore. The prepared waste water composes of uranium and some chemical reagents such as sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid which are used in the process. The concentration of uranium in the waste water is 1-5 mg/L and the concentration of sodium, chloride and nitrate ions are 20-100, 200-1000 and 100-500 mg/L respectively. It has been found that the uranium adsorption capacity on the TBP impregnated resin increases with the increasing uranium concentration and the highest adsorption capacity is about 0.032 mg U/g resin. The concentration of sodium, chloride and nitrate ions in this study slightly affect the extraction efficiency of the impregnated resin

2009-07-02

311

BIBRA trademark - the biological treatment of radioactive waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BIBRA trademark, is the new bio-technological method developed in Gundremmingen for treating radioactive waste water, using bacteria in a process analogous to the long-established principle of communal sewage treatment plants. The method exploits the behaviour of the micro-organisms found there, to establish optimum adaptation of their population for decomposing the typical pollutants found in this washing water. This procedure is particularly suitable for nuclear engineering plants, because in such plants the waste water composition changes little so that the bacteria can achieve optimum adaptation to this waste water. The organic ingredients of the washing media are decomposed by introducing air. The advantage of the procedure is not only the significant reduction of the amount of waste material, but also enhanced efficiency of the cleaning process. The decontamination factor in Gundremmingen improved from a factor of 5 to a factor of 20. The waste water is clear and free from suspended materials. A further decisive advantage is the elimination of organic substances in relation to conditioning of evaporator concentrates for final disposal storage. The process entails only slight conversion costs - in Gundremmingen only DM 35 000 were required for converting the four washing water containers. The authors state that the savings amount to DM 250 000 per year. The conditioning process is suitable for boiling water plants already utilising centrifuge technology, as well as for plants which exclusively evaporate their washing water. (orig.)

1999-03-01

312

Waste management in light-water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important objectives of concentrate and solid waste treatment are reduction of the waste to the smallest volume, radioactive exposure of the personnel of the power plants and outside for operation, handling and transportation, protection against migration of the concentrated radioactive substances after final disposal and observance of shipping requirements, national laws and ministerial waste storage regulations. A variety of technologies is available for the realization of these objectives. Important parameters for the selection and design of concentrate and solid waste treatment processes are waste type, quantity, activity, means for immobilization and the achievable reduction factors. The most important technologies for the treatment of liquid concentrates, combustible and non-combustible solid waste are available for example: In-Drum-Drying, Borate-Solidification (PWR), Drum Drier, Residue Filter Drying, Bituminization, Solidification with cement, Incineration, Shredding, Compacting etc. and of course combinations of the various mentioned procedures which result in the best possible waste disposal for the entire power plant. (orig./RW)

1982-10-01

313

ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF COMBINED POTATO PROCESSING AND MUNICIPAL WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

Demonstration and evaluation of the treatment of combined potato processing waste-water and domestic wastes using various combinations of anaerobic and aerated lagoons. Measured parameters included: BOD, COD, TSS, VSS, nitrogen, phosphorus, volatile acids, total coliform, fecal c...

314

Method for determining organic pollution in waste water from coking plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pollution of waste water from black coal pyrolysis and a method for waste water analysis and treatment are discussed. Organic pollution in waste water is treated in 3 stages: extraction with cyclohexane, adsorption of organic compounds left after extraction using silica gel, leaching the adsorbed compounds using tetrahydrofuran. The method is economic and more efficient than conventional waste water treatment. 38 references.

Szkuta-Pochopien, T.; Wolany, B.

1986-06-01

315

Waste disposal from the light water reactor fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alternative nuclear fuel cycles for support of light water reactors are described and wastes containing naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactivity reviewed. General principles and objectives in radioactive waste management are outlined, and methods for their practical application to fuel cycle wastes discussed. The paper concentrates upon management of wastes from upgrading processes of uranium hexafluoride manufacture and uranium enrichment, and, to a lesser extent, nuclear power reactor wastes. Some estimates of radiological dose commitments and health effects from nuclear power and fuel cycle wastes have been made for US conditions. These indicate that the major part of the radiological dose arises from uranium mining and milling, operation of nuclear reactors, and spent fuel reprocessing. However, the total dose from the fuel cycle is estimated to be only a small fraction of that from natural background radiation

1981-05-15

316

Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system

2000-01-01

317

Municipal Waste Water as a Source of Cooling Water for California Electric Power Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report discusses sources of municipal waste water for potential use as cooling water in California power plants. It notes the major factors which affect this practice. Municipal treatment facilities in California with discharge volumes deemed adequat...

T. MacDonald

1980-01-01

318

{sup 226}Ra adsorption on active coals from waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the mining and extraction of uranium, the principle means of protection measurement is to prevent uranium and its products diffusing into the environment. The main carriers of radioactive elements in the environment are air and water. Therefore, reduction of the pollution at a uranium mine can be achieved by the treatment of waste waters contaminated with {sup 226}Ra Radium contaminated waste waters represent a major biological risk. This paper presents the results of the study of the sorption of {sup 226}Ra on active coal mechanisme and the influence of the physical and chemical characteristics of fluid. The {sup 226}Ra removal from the residue pond water at the uranium ore processing plant was studied using eight types of indigenous active coals. The experimental results for each type of active coal and their effect on removal of {sup 226}Ra from waste waters are presented in this paper. (author)

Panturu, E.; Georgescu, D.P.; Serban, N.; Filip, D.; Radulescu, R. [R and D Inst. for Rare and Radioactive Metals, Bucharest (Romania)

2000-07-01

319

Treatment of waste water from fossil-fuel power plants. Foreign experiences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses waste water treatment in power plants fired with coal or fuel oil. The following aspects are analyzed: types of pollutants in waste water from coal-fired power plants, effects of flue gas desulfurization on chemical composition of waste water, the waste water treatment system used in the Heilbronn power plant (FRG), waste water treatment used in the Voerde i West power plant, further, processes developed by the Resources Conservation Company and the waste water treatment system operating in the San Juan power plant (both in the USA). Efficiency and reliability of individual waste water treatment systems are evaluated. 27 refs.

Hycnar, J.J.; Sikora, J. [PAWK, Katowice (Poland)

1993-09-01

320

Exergetic modeling and assessment of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump systems for residences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study deals with the exergetic modeling and performance evaluation of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems for residences for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The model is applied to a system, which mainly consists of (i) a water-to-water heat pump unit (ii) a ground heat exchanger system having two U-boreholes with an individual depth of 90 m, (iii) a solar collector system composing of rooftop thermal solar collectors with a total surface area of 12 m{sup 2}, (iv) a domestic hot water tank with an electrical supplementary heater, and (v) a floor heating system with a surface of 154 m{sup 2}, and (vi) circulating pumps. Exergy relations for each component of the system and the whole system are derived for performance assessment purposes, while the experimental and assumed values are utilized in the analysis. Exergy efficiency values on a product/fuel basis are found to be 72.33% for the GSHP unit, 14.53% for the solar domestic hot water system and 44.06% for the whole system at dead (reference) state values for 19 degrees C and 101.325 kPa. Exergetic COP values are obtained to be 0.245 and 0.201 for the GSHP unit and the whole system, respectively. The greatest irreversibility (exergy destruction) on the GSHP unit basis occurs in the condenser, followed by the compressor, expansion valve and evaporator. (author)

Hepbasli, Arif [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2007-12-15

 
 
 
 
321

Impact of poor solid waste management on ground water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The leachate produced by waste disposal sites contains a large amount of substances which are likely to contaminate ground water. The impact of such sites upon ground water can be judged by monitoring the concentration of potential contaminants at a number of specific monitoring points. In this study, the quality of ground water around a municipal solid waste disposal site in Chennai was investigated. Chemical analyses were carried out on water samples collected at various radial distances from the boundary of the dumping yard, at intervals of 3 months and for a period of 3 years. The study has revealed that the ground water quality does not conform to the drinking water quality standards as per Bureau of Indian Standards. The effects of dumping activity on ground water appeared most clearly as high concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness, chlorides, chemical oxygen demand, nitrates and sulphates. Leachate collected from the site showed presence of heavy metals. The contaminant concentrations tend to decrease, during the post monsoon season and increase, during the pre monsoon season in most of the samples. The study clearly indicates that landfills in densely populated cities should have the ground water monitored on regular basis. Furthermore, ground water in and around the landfill sites shall not be used for drinking purposes unless it meets specific standards. Indiscriminate dumping of wastes in developed areas without proper solid waste management practices should be stopped. PMID:17999155

Vasanthi, P; Kaliappan, S; Srinivasaraghavan, R

2008-08-01

322

On-site treatment of waste water in Baotou waste repository by neutralization and precipitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces the method and results of waste water treatment in Baotou waste repository. NaOH (10 mol/L) is used to neutralize and precipitate the radioactive material in waste water, supernatant is siphoned to a higher place to be evaporated naturally. Results of lab's experiment and on-site operation show: decontamination ratios of the process are 99.35% and 96.17% for gross ? and gross ?, respectively. No contamination was found on the site where supernatant was evaporated

2003-09-01

323

Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs

1982-01-01

324

Treatment of radioactive waste water by flocculation method, (1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coagulation property of particle on the treatment of radioactive waste water by floculation method is varied with its electrical potential and mixing condition. The surface state of the particle is influenced by contents of coexistent materials in the waste water and added materials at the treatment process. In the case of using ferric hydroxide as coagulant, assuming the ions which decide the potential of the particle surface are Fe(OH)2+ and Fe(OH)4-, calculated values of the potential agree with zeta-potential of ferric hydroxide particle which is formed from FeCl4 and NaOH in demineralized water. When Na2CO3 is in the waste water as coexistent materials, anion HCO3- adsorbs on the particle surface in connection with pH variation and thus the surface charge is being minus. If Ca2+ ion is present in the waste water, the surface charge plus. ABS acts as single molecule anion at low concentration, but it forms micell at high concentration and influences zeta-potential of the particle. The potential of the particle is correlated to the coprecipitation rate of 90Sr in the waste water. (auth.)

1976-01-01

325

Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas  

Science.gov (United States)

The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

1980-11-01

326

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

327

Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption  

Science.gov (United States)

Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

328

Texas refiner starts up new waste water treatment plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chevron Corp. has started up a new waste water treatment plant at its Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. The new facility has an hydraulic capacity of 10,000 gpm and will treat process waste water, cooling tower blowdown, and contaminated storm water. The plant includes: A process unit for removing free and emulsified oil; and equalization facility; a biological system for organics biodegradation; and a volatile organic compounds (VOC) control system. The paper describes predesign studies, the preliminary design and VOC control, the final design, cost savings, process control, and construction.

Al-Tell, N. (Bechtel Corp., Houston, TX (United States)); Lueders, R. (Chevron Corp., Port Arthur, TX (United States))

1994-03-21

329

Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

Ellina V. Grigorieva

2010-09-01

330

Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

1989-01-01

331

Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola Area, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the shallow groundwater quality of Pindiga Gombe area for irrigation and domestic purposes. Fifteen water samples collected from wells tapping shallow aquifer was used. The water samples were analyzed for major cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+ and anions: C-, HCO3-1, SO4 2- and NO3-. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR, Permeability Index (PI, Kellys Ratio (KR, and Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC were assessed and compared with standard limits. The values of total dissolved solids (<166 mg/L, electrical conductivity (<0.249 ds/m, soluble sodium percentage (2.60 to 38.40%, permeability index (0.19 to 7.40%, magnesium adsorption ratio (37.34 to 66.50%, kellys ratio (0.0004 to 0.029 meq/L, residual sodium bicarbonate (0.35 to 3.02 meq/L and sodium adsorption ratio (0 to 0.035 were found to be within the safe limits and thus largely suitable for irrigation purposes. The groundwater will thus neither cause salinity hazards nor have an adverse effect on the soil properties of the study area. Furthermore, the water samples also fall within the recommended limits and are found suitable for domestic purposes.

G.I. Obiefuna

2011-03-01

332

Determination of radioactive elements and heavy metals in sediments and soil from domestic water sources in northern peninsular Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it posseses an ability to bind various chemicals together. To safeguard the members of the public from an unwanted exposure, studies were conducted on the sediments and soil from water bodies that form the major sources of domestic water supply in northern peninsular Malaysia for their trace element concentration levels. Neutron Activation Analysis, using Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Zaria, Nigeria was employed as the analytical tool. The elements identified in major quantities include Na, K, and Fe while As, Br, Cr, U, Th, Eu, Cs, Co, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Ba, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Sb were also identified in trace quantities. Gamma spectroscopy was also employed to analyze some soil samples from the same area. The results indicated safe levels in terms of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index as well as the mean external exposure dose rates from the soil. The overall screening of the domestic water sources with relatively high heavy metals concentration values in sediments and high activity concentration values in soil is strongly recommended as their accumulation overtime as a consequence of leaching into the water may be of health concern to the members of the public. PMID:21901308

Muhammad, Bashir G; Jaafar, Mohammad Suhaimi; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Ingawa, Farouk Abdulrasheed

2012-08-01

333

Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3. However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Different concentration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% of FKW were used to treat tilapia in tank culture for a period of twelve weeks. Physico-chemical parameters were also taken every week. Treatment with 0.1% FKW resulted in significant (p<0.05 decrease in ammonia, nitrite and nitrate levels. The survival rates of tilapia treated with 0.05 and 0.1% FKW were comparable to the untreated control. Growth performance of the tilapia was measured in term of length and weight. Highest relative growth rate was observed in tilapia treated with 0.05% FKW. However, all the fish died in 0.2% FKW due to severe pH drop. Therefore, low concentration of FKW could severe as a potential water additive to improve water quality and promote growth in tilapia aquaculture.

S.K. Wong

2013-01-01

334

Biological treatment of cokery waste water. Phase 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop a biotechnological process for the treatment of cokery waste water a two stage bioreactor system of each 800 l volume was designed, built up and proven for its efficiency by treating process water of two different origins. A third type of cokery waste water was treated in a lab scale bioreactor. The bacterial culture used for the process consists of a basic population for the degradation of phenol and cresols. Additionally several special strains isolated for their ability to degrade polymethylated phenols, quinoline and thiocyanate were supplemented to obtain an effective mineralization of these compounds. The successful integration of these bacterial specialists could be confirmed by detection of the respective metabolic activities (e.g. pathway-specific enzyme) in the activated sludge. -In addition to chemical analyses of the waste waters before and after biological treatment a toxicological method based on bacterial bio-luminescence inhibition was applied to characterize the clean up. - The results obtained for the DMT-process reveal that independently from the constitution of the waste water a hydraulic retention time of 6 hours for phenol degradation and 12 hours for thiocyanate degradation is necessary. So thiocyanate degradation is the rate limiting step in the process. The degree of DOC removal resulted in 80 to 90%. The degradation capacities vary from 0,3 to 2,7 kg DOC/m3 d depending on the type of waste water used for the treatment. In each case biological treatment of the waste water led to a strong reduction of water toxicity. - A feasibility study, based on the results obtained from pilot plant operation, revealed specific costs of 3 DM per kg DOC removal for a commercial plant with a capacity of 10 m3/h. (orig.). 13 refs., 13 tabs., 58 figs

1993-01-01

335

Solar Preheating of Both Domestic Hot Water and Space. Final Technical Report for the Sea Loft Restaurant in Long Branch, New Jersey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stephen Giddio's Sea Loft Restaurant in Long Branch, NJ is equipped with an active solar system for preheating water for both space heating and domestic hot water. Three pumped water loops, each a closed circuit, transfer heat from one major component to ...

1982-01-01

336

Reduction of nitrate, nitrite and ammonia in FGD waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Besides solids, chlorides, sulphates and heavy metals the FGD waste water contains also nitrogen compounds like nitrate, nitrite and ammonia in more or less high concentrations. The arrangement of the DeNO{sub x} units is of significant influence on the nitrogen compounds concentration in the FGD waste water. If no DeNO{sub x} is installed or it is located behind the FGD the nitrate concentration in the FGD waste water is mainly affected by the combustion temperature and the nitrogen content of the coal. In common one or two stage FGD waste water treatment plants the concentrations of nitrate, nitrite and ammonia are not affected by the treatment. To reduce the content of nitrogen compounds it is necessary to add a third treatment stage. The treatment can be done by physical, chemical or biological processes or in combinations of the different methods. This paper gives an overview of the available processes for the reduction of different nitrogen compounds in aqueous solutions, their suitability of doing this in FGD waste water and the results which can be obtained by the different processes. 9 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Beiers, H.-G.; Weinig, J. [STEAG AG, Essen (Germany)

1995-08-01

337

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01

338

Removal of Radioisotopes from Waste Water After "Dirty Bomb" Decontamination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An adequate response to terrorist event of any magnitude requires the effective coordination of many organizations. A terrorist event involves the release and dispersion of radioactive material among civilian population or over vital area causes a permanent radioactive contamination, which should be removed in decontamination process. Finally, after this procedure, a large amount of radioactive waste water is made, which should be collected and stored in a special nuclear waste stockpile. We ...

2009-01-01

339

Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This manual provides test procedures approved for the monitoring of water supplies, waste discharges, and ambient waters, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, and Ambient Monitoring Requirements of Section 106 and 208 of Public Law 92-500. The test methods have been selected to meet the needs of federal legislation and to provide guidance to laboratories engaged in the protection of human health and the aquatic environment.

1979-03-01

340

Vitrification treatability studies of actual waste water treatment sludges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatability studies have been conducted at the laboratory-scale to evaluate vitrification of waste water sludges at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These studies are being conducted jointly by Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These studies include testing with surrogate waste formulations at both the laboratory-scale and pilot-scale, and testing with actual waste at the laboratory-scale, pilot-scale, and field-scale. ORR was chosen as the host site for the field-scale demonstration. The Y12 West End Treatment Facility (WETF) waste water treatment sludges, which are RCRA F-listed wastes, were chosen as the candidate waste stream for the first field-scale demonstration. The laboratory-scale ''proof-of-principle'' demonstrations reported in this study and the pilot-scale studies planned for FY95 on the WETF sludge will provide needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration. These laboratory-scale ''proof-of-principle'' and pilot-scale studies also provide needed data for the evaluation of the feasibility of vitrification as a stabilization option for a variety of wastes which do not currently meet RCRA/LDR (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Land Disposal Restrictions) requirements for storage/disposal and/or those for which treatment capacity does not presently exist

1995-03-02

 
 
 
 
341

The Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Wetland Soil Irrigated by Pulp Waste Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The distribution characteristics of eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the pulp waste water and in seashore wetland soil irrigated by the waste water were detected by GC-ECD. The result shows that the concentrations of PAHs in the gray water, bleached water, black liquid and integrated waste water ranged from 12.826 to 16.83 ? g-1. The total amount of PAHs in the seashore wetland soil irrigated with the papermaking waste water containing PAHs increased significantly...

Cheng Ding; Wang Shihe; Yang Chunsheng

2006-01-01

342

Thermal denitration of high concentration nitrate salts waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the thermodynamic and the thermal decomposition properties of high concentration nitrate salts waste water for the lagoon sludge treatment. The thermodynamic property was carried out by COACH and GEMINI II based on the composition of nitrate salts waste water. The thermal decomposition property was carried out by TG-DTA and XRD. Ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate were decomposed at 250 .deg. C and 730 . deg. C, respectively. Sodium nitrate could be decomposed at 450 .deg. C in the case of adding alumina for converting unstable Na2O into stable Na2O.Al2O3. The flow sheet for nitrate salts waste water treatment was proposed based on the these properties data. These will be used by the basic data of the process simulation

2003-11-27

343

Treatment of waste water from a colloid sulfur washing department  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses a method for treatment of waste water from arsenic-sodium purification of coal gas in the Moscow gasworks. Waste water from sulfur washing is characterized: total content of various chemical compounds 90-120 g/l, pH value 8, arsenic content 300-500 mg/l, sulfur content 1.5-2.3 g/l. The flotation separation process used on a laboratory scale is evaluated: a 200 ml waste water sample was mixed intensively with 1 ml surfactants for 1.5-2.0 min. The mixture was then fed into a flotation column. Air supply rate of 20 m/h was used. Three flotation schemes are comparatively evaluated: without surfactants, with polyacrylamide and with polyvinyl alcohol with desulfurization efficiency of 86.7%, 87.5% and 96.6% respectively. Consumption rate of polyvinyl alcohol was 125 mg/l. 4 refs.

Stepanenko, E.K.; Pivovarova, L.I.; Gumarova, M.M.; Kulik, G.I.; Khrapunova, G.G.

1988-08-01

344

Solubility effects in waste glass-demineralized water systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to determine the solubility limits of various elements found in waste glasses in demineralized water as a function of temperature. The work was sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation under contract to the Department of Energy. Solubility measurements were carried out at 35"0, 65"0, 95"0, and 150"0C using three nonradioactive waste glass compositions. Subsaturation and supersaturation methods were used to determine the solubility limits. The two methods gave markedly different values for most glass components. The results obtained indicate that it is difficult to assign solubility limits to most glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water system. This includes not only defining the glass type, and system temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume (S/V) ratio of the system and its thermal history

1981-11-19

345

Solubility effects in waste glass-demineralized water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was carried out to determine the solubility limits of various elements found in waste glasses in demineralized water as a function of temperature. The work was sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation under contract to the Department of Energy. Solubility measurements were carried out at 35/sup 0/, 65/sup 0/, 95/sup 0/, and 150/sup 0/C using three nonradioactive waste glass compositions. Subsaturation and supersaturation methods were used to determine the solubility limits. The two methods gave markedly different values for most glass components. The results obtained indicate that it is difficult to assign solubility limits to most glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water system. This includes not only defining the glass type, and system temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume (S/V) ratio of the system and its thermal history.

Fullam, H.T.

1981-11-01

346

The Fundamentals of Waste Water Sludge Characterization and Filtration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The move to greater emphasis on the disposal of waste water sludges through routes such as incineration and the added cost of landfill emplacement puts high demands on dewatering technology for these sludges. A dear problem in this area is that waste water sludges are slow and difficult to dewater and traditional methods of laboratory measurement for prediction of filtration performance are inadequate. This is highly problematic for the design and operational optimisation of centrifuges, filters and settling devices in the waste water industry. The behaviour is assessed as being due to non-linear behaviour of these sludges which negates the use of classical approaches. These approaches utilise the linear portion of a t versus V{sup 2} plot (where t is the time to filtration and V is the specific filtrate volume) to extract a simple Darcian permeability. Without this parameter, a predictive capacity for dewatering using current theory is negated. (author)

Scales, Peter J.; Dixon, David R.; Harbour, Peter J.; Stickland, Anthony D.

2003-07-01

347

Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting  

Science.gov (United States)

As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

2012-04-01

348

Development of electrochemical denitrification from waste water containing ammonium nitrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors developed processes to dentrify waste water containing ammonium nitrate discharged from the nuclear fuel manufacturing works and to recover nitric acid and ammonia. For denitrification they applied the operating method and the conditions of operation to make 0.4mM or less from NH4NO3 waste water of 1.5 M by 3 stages of electrodialysis cells. To recover nitric acid and ammonium water, they separated HNO3 solution of 6 M and NH4OH solution with one unit of electrolysis cell, then absorbed NH3 gas from NH4OH solution with water and applied the condition of operation to recover 8 M NH4OH solution. The authors demonstrated that treatment and recovery can be carried out stably with actual waste water with a system through the combination of previously mentioned electrodialysis cells, electrolysis cells and an ammonia gas absorber. At present they are planning a plant where NH4NO3 waste water of 4,500 mol can be treated per day

1995-09-03

349

Isotopic Investigation of the Origin of Nitrate of Waters Outflowing from a Waste Deposit Site Near Scuol (Lower Engadine, South Eastern Switzerland)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Near the village of Scuol in the Lower Engadine Valley (South Eastern Switzerland) Sot Ruinas, a waste disposal site for domestic and construction refuse, has been in use since the 1960s. It is situated in the vicinity of the Inn River. Over the last years enhanced concentrations of ammonia were found in the outflow of this waste site. But the observed elevated ammonia concentrations could also be a result of natural origin, by inflows of mineral water as observed in the mineral springs of the area. These springs could have acquired their high ammonia content by water-rock interaction with adjacent ultramafic rocks. The isotope analyses were oriented towards the hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes on the ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen molecules. The effect of the waste on the outflowing water downstream could be proved by isotope ratios based on chemical processes of the nitrogen cycle and an influence of natural spring water was excluded. (author)

2013-07-01

350

Recovery of Heavy Metals from Waste Water.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Kraków : Works & Studies Prace I Studia, 2000 - (Suchecki, T.; Tsunashima, A.), s. 87-93 ISBN 83-909846-9-5.[Proceedings of the International Workshop on Effective Utilization of Waste for Minimum Emission and its Safety. Kraków (PL), 07.03.2000-09.03.2000]Grant CEP: GA ?R GA104/97/S002Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z4072921Kód oboru RIV: CI - Pr?myslová chemie a chemické inženýrství

Jochová, Miluše; Horá?ek, Jan; Pun?ochá?, Miroslav; Drahoš, Ji?í

351

Behavior of tritium water in radioactive waste incineration plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive waste incineration plant at Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, was installed in 1966 and has been operated routinely. The exhaust-gas system of the incinerator consists of spray scrubber, electrostatic precipitator, cloth filter, HEPA filter and so on. This experimental program was carried out to examine the behavior of tritium water to various parts of the incineration plant when combustible waste contaminated with tritium water was incinerated. The experimental results were as follows. The collection rate of tritium water in each dust collector was 85% in the spray scrubber, and 6% as condensation water in electrostatic precipitator, gas cooler and HEPA filter. Further the release rate of tritium water from stack was 9%. (author)

1980-01-01

352

Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity < 2?S/cm) from sea water. The probability of the scale formation is practically eliminated by operating it at low temperature and controlling the brine concentration. It also does not require elaborate chemical pretreatment of sea water except chlorination, so it has no environmental impact. LTE technology has found major applications in nuclear reactors where large quantity of low quality waste heat is available to produce high quality desalted water for make up water requirement replacing conventional ion exchange process. Successful continuous operation of 30 Te/day LTE desalination plant utilizing waste heat from nuclear research reactor has demonstrated the safety, reliability, extreme plant availability and economics of nuclear desalination by LTE technology. It is also proposed to utilize waste heat from Main Heat Transport (MHT) purification circuit of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) to produce about 250 Te/ day high quality desalinated water by Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) process for the reactor make up and plant utilization. Recently we have commissioned a 50 Te/day 2-effect low temperature desalination plant with cooling tower where the specific energy and cooling water requirement are significantly reduced. In this paper salient feature of LTE desalination plant, its applications and advantages are discussed. (author)

2007-02-01

353

The logistics of domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes - 1999 synthesis; La logistique des dechets menagers, agricoles et industriels - Synthese 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A consistent policy of waste management cannot be limited to the organization of waste collection, to the building of processing and recycling plants and to the installation of technical disposal centres, but it must take into account also the questions relative to the logistics and to the transportation of wastes. This documents provides some statistical, economical, legal, technical and environmental information about this point in order to ensure the global efficiency of a waste management system. (J.S.)

NONE

1999-12-01

354

Assessment of Domestic Wastewater Disposal in Some Selected Wards of Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluates domestic wastewater disposal in some selected wards of urban Maiduguri. The unprecedented population growth in Maiduguri generally is directly proportional to its demand for water supply for both domestic and industrial needs. Consequently the more water is consumed, the more its waste is generated. This in turn encourages its indiscriminate disposal particularly in an environment with poor drainage system such as most parts of Maiduguri urban area. It is against this ...

Abba Kagu; Hauwa Lawan Badawi; Abba, Jimme M.

2013-01-01

355

Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

Malinchak, Raymond M. (McKeesport, PA)

1984-01-01

356

Effect of ingredients in waste water on property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of ingredients in waste water on the property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment was studied by the method of static ad- sorption combined with dynamic experiment. The experimental result shows that the efficiency or breackthrough volume of resin is reduced if there are other general anions, triethanolamine and oil in the solution. When the concentrations of CO32-, HCO3-, SO32-, Cl- in the solution are more than 0.24, 0.28, 0.23 and 0.09 mol/L, respectively, the concentrations of uranium in the outlet waste water will exceed 20 ?g/L. The maximal allowable concentration of triethanolamine through the resin is no more than 250 mg/L. When the content of oil in the resin exceeds 1%(by quality), the breackthrough volume reduces by 16%, and when it exceeds 11%, the breackthrough volume almost loses at all. (authors)

2008-01-01

357

Development of innovative flotation processes for water treatment and waste-water reclamation. Technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The engineering designs and applications of various newly developed flotation clarifiers (Supracell, Sandfloat, Sedifloat, Lakeguard, Float Skimmer, and Foamer) are presented. Supracell is a high-rate dissolved air flotation clarifier for industrial water-treatment and in-plant water recycle. Sandfloat is a package water treatment plant designed for treatment of surface water, ground water, or waste water. Sedifloat is a package plant from reclamation of process waste water or pretreatment of raw water containing heavy silts and/or high concentrations of suspended solids. Lakeguard is an extremely compact package plant for single families, factories, and small institutions. Both lake water and ground water can be properly treated by Lakeguard for potable applications and for treatment of septic-tank effluent. Foamer is a high-rate cost-effective dispersed air flotation clarifier. Float skimmer is specifically designed for applications in paper and pulp mills.

Krofta, M.; Wang, L.K.

1988-08-01

358

Monitoring the waste water of LEP  

CERN Document Server

Along the LEP sites CERN is discharging water of differing quality and varying amounts into the local rivers. This wastewater is not only process water from different cooling circuits but also water that infiltrates into the LEP tunnel. The quality of the discharged wastewater has to conform to the local environmental legislation of our Host States and therefore has to be monitored constantly. The most difficult aspect regarding the wastewater concerns LEP Point 8 owing to an infiltration of crude oil (petroleum), which is naturally contained in the soil along octant 7-8 of the LEP tunnel. This paper will give a short summary of the modifications made to the oil/water separation unit at LEP Point 8. The aim was to obtain a satisfactory oil/water separation and to install a monitoring system for a permanent measurement of the amount of hydrocarbons in the wastewater.

Rühl, I

1999-01-01

359

Thermal stratification in vertical mantle heat-exchangers with application to solar domestic hot-water systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Experimental and numerical investigations of vertical mantle heat exchangers for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been carried out. Two different inlet positions are investigated. Experiments based on typical operation conditions are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different positions of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, side-by-side laboratory tests have been carried out with SDHW systems with different mantle inlet positions. It is shown that for a high inlet temperature to the mantle it is an advantage to have the inlet located at the top and for a low inlet temperature it is an advantage to have the inlet moved down. Marketed tanks have typical the mantle inlet located at the top of the mantle. The side-by-side laboratory tests indicated that it is an advantage to move the inlet down from the top.

Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

2004-01-01

360

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Processing method for contaminated water containing radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For absorbing contaminated water containing radioactive substances, a sheet is prepared by covering water absorbing pulps carrying an organic water absorbent having an excellent water absorbability is semi-solidified upon absorption water with a water permeable cloth, such as a non-woven fabric having a shape stability. As the organic water absorbent, a hydrophilic polymer which retains adsorbed water as it is used. In particular, a starch-grafted copolymer having an excellent water absorbability also for reactor water containing boric acid is preferred. The organic water absorbent can be carried on the water absorbing pulps by scattering a granular organic water absorbent to the entire surface of the water absorbing cotton pulp extended thinly to carry it uniformly and putting them between thin absorbing paper sheets. If contaminated water containing radioactive materials are wiped off by using such a sheet, the entire sheet is semi-solidified along with the absorption with no leaching of the contaminated water, thereby enabling to move the wastes to a furnace for applying combustion treatment. (T.M.)

1992-02-14

362

Processing method for contaminated water containing radioactive waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For absorbing contaminated water containing radioactive substances, a sheet is prepared by covering water absorbing pulps carrying an organic water absorbent having an excellent water absorbability is semi-solidified upon absorption water with a water permeable cloth, such as a non-woven fabric having a shape stability. As the organic water absorbent, a hydrophilic polymer which retains adsorbed water as it is used. In particular, a starch-grafted copolymer having an excellent water absorbability also for reactor water containing boric acid is preferred. The organic water absorbent can be carried on the water absorbing pulps by scattering a granular organic water absorbent to the entire surface of the water absorbing cotton pulp extended thinly to carry it uniformly and putting them between thin absorbing paper sheets. If contaminated water containing radioactive materials are wiped off by using such a sheet, the entire sheet is semi-solidified along with the absorption with no leaching of the contaminated water, thereby enabling to move the wastes to a furnace for applying combustion treatment. (T.M.).

Tahara, Toshiaki; Fukagawa, Ken-ichiro.

1994-01-21

363

Treatment and utilization of waste waters from potato processing. Behandlung und Verwertung von Prozessabwaessern der Kartoffelverarbeitung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two-stages of anaerobic/aerobic treatment of the waste waters from the process potato crisp production is described. Carbohydrates and proteins are extracted from water. The substances which remain in the waste water are fermented into biogas which is used as fuel in the production process. In the second stage the waste water is subjected to nitrification and dentrification, the so-called aerobic waste water treatment. A dripper was used successfully.

Jourdan, R.

1987-01-15

364

Waste water shows traces of radioactive substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sludge at sewage treatment plants has been found to contain radioactive substances originating in hospitals, nuclear weapon tests, the Chernobyl accident, the Finnish nuclear power plants and natural sources. Radioactive substances also enter sewers together with excretions after patients have left the hospital. Hospitals used to let the excretions of patients receiving the iodine 131 treatment into the sewer system only after the activity of the excretions had decreased. Today, excretions can be led into the sewer directly. Calculations have shown that hospital staff receive higher radiation doses when the waste is collected than sewage treatment plant staff receive when the radioactive iodine is led directly into the sewer

1994-01-01

365

Water recovery and disposal of clay waste slimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of research conducted in its mission to effect pollution abatement, the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, is developing a dewatering technique that allows for disposal of mineral wastes, for reuse of water now lost with these wastes, and for reclamation of mined land. The technique utilizes a high-molecular-weight nonionic polyethylene oxide polymer (PEO) that has the ability to flocculate and dewater materials containing clay wastes. A variety of different clay wastes have been successfully dewatered in laboratory experiments. Coal-clay waste was consolidated from 4 to 57 weight-percent; potash-clay brine waste from 20 to 62 weight-percent; phosphatic clay waste from 16 to 49 weight-percent; uranium mill tailings from 15 to 67 weight-percent; talc tailings from 10 to 53 weight-percent. The consolidated materials can be handled by mechanical devices such as trucks and conveyors for disposal in mined-out areas

1980-12-01

366

Evolution in design of water-slurry systems for domestic coal preparation plants from 1945 to 1984. [Poland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development is evaluated of water-slurry systems in coal preparation plants in Poland from 1945 to 1958, from 1959 to 1967, from 1968 to 1975 and since 1976. Flowsheets are given of 5 schemes of water-slurry systems in plants which prepare coal fractions with size exceeding 20 mm (or 10 mm) and 0.5 mm and 4 schemes of water-slurry systems in plants which prepare the whole range of size fractions. Development trends of water-slurry systems are evaluated. Use of radial thickeners for clarifying waste water, vacuum filters for slurry dewatering, flocculation for dewatering slurries, filter presses for dewatering slurries, and flotation of slurries with a low solids content is analyzed. Design of closed water-slurry systems in Poland since 1968 is discussed. Effects of technology development on output of dewatering equipment used in coal preparation plants are also discussed. 12 references.

Drogon, W.

1985-11-01

367

Wash water waste pretreatment system study  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

1976-01-01

368

N-SINK - reduction of waste water nitrogen load  

Science.gov (United States)

Protection of the Baltic Sea from eutrophication is one of the key topics in the European Union environmental policy. One of the main anthropogenic sources of nitrogen (N) loading into Baltic Sea are waste water treatment plants, which are currently capable in removing only 40-70% of N. European commission has obliged Finland and other Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which would require high monetary investments on nitrate removal processes in treatment plants. In addition, forced denitrification in treatment plants would increase emissions of strong greenhouse gas N2O. In this project (LIFE12 FI/ENV/597 N-SINK) we will develop and demonstrate a novel economically feasible method for nitrogen removal using applied ecosystem services. As sediment is known to have enormous capacity to reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas through denitrification, we predict that spatial optimization of the waste water discharge would be an efficient way to reduce nitrate-based load in aquatic systems. A new sediment filtration approach, which will increase both the area and time that nitrified waste water will be in contact with the reducing microbes of the sediment, is tested. Compared to the currently implemented practice, where purified waste water is discharged though one-point outlet system, we expect that sediment filtration system will result in more efficient denitrification and decreased N load to aquatic system. We will conduct three full-scale demonstrations in the receiving water bodies of waste water treatment plants in Southern and Central Finland. The ecosystem effects of sediment filtration system will be monitored. Using the most advanced stable isotope techniques will allow us accurately measure denitrification and unfavoured DNRA (reduction of nitrite to ammonium) activity.

Aalto, Sanni; Tiirola, Marja; Arvola, Lauri; Huotari, Jussi; Tulonen, Tiina; Rissanen, Antti; Nykänen, Hannu

2014-05-01

369

[Spending review, personal view, water and waste in (home) hemodialysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

In a moment of particular attention to the health care costs, of global crisis and of concerns not only for the economic future of our Society, but also for the precarious health of our Planet, it is worth reading an Australian article entitled Personal viewpoint: hemodialysis-water, power, and waste disposal: rethinking our environmental responsibilities, by Agar, one of the spokesman of the "ecological dialysis". The article describes, with some irony, some paradoxes of the ecological and economic costs of dialysis. Among these, 156 billion of liters of water per year and a minimum of 625000 tons of waste products, at least partly potentially reusable. With regards to his battle for a planet friendly dialysis, Agar comments that perseverance is not a diffused virtue. Keeping in mind the cost of waste disposal, reading this paper can be an invitation to an intelligent saving policy that directs attention to the economy and to the world around us. PMID:24671836

Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

2014-01-01

370

A Good Solution for Household Based on Fast Waste Water Blockage Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The waste pipes from the wash basin are always flow in with several waste form kitchen preparation. Due to time consideration the pipe may comes through blockage and need blockage maintenance. Approach: This study presented an invention for early warning blockage detection for a kitchen waste water drain pipe. The waste water pipe some be connected through vertical pipe runs which are usually embedded in the wall. The Fast Waste Water Blockage Detection (FWABE...

Omardin, Mohammad A.; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; Suid, Mohd H.; Noraziah Ahmad

2010-01-01

371

Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

Juan Fernández-Bolaños

2009-05-01

372

Power from industrial waste waters; Energie aus Industrieabwaessern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Strongly loaded industrial waste waters contain an interesting energy potential. Even if high nitrogen concentrations are present beside a high organic freight, an ideal field of deployment results for the anaerobic pre-treatment. An energy-optimized processing can consist of a combination of fermentation gas production by means of methanization and a nitrogen release by means of deammonification.

Vith, Christian; Fischer, Peter; Wunsch, Michael; Koeppl, Stefan [Hager und Elsaesser GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

2009-04-15

373

Use of waste hot water in double basin solar still  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A periodic analysis of a double basin solar still is presented in this paper. In this still waste hot water is fed into the lower basin at a constant rate such as is available from power stations or other industries. The effect of various parameters on the distillate output of the still is also investigated.

Rai, S.N.; Tiwari, G.N.

1984-07-01

374

Fetal loss and work in a waste water treatment plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated pregnancy outcomes in 101 wives of workers employed in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and verified fetal losses by hospital records. Paternal work histories were compiled and each of the 210 pregnancies was assigned a paternal exposure category. The relative risk of fetal loss was increased when paternal exposure to the WWTP occurred around the time of conception.

Morgan, R.W.; Kheifets, L.; Obrinsky, D.L.; Whorton, M.D.; Foliart, D.E.

1984-05-01

375

Waste water biology. 2. rev. and enlarged ed. Abwasserbiologie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book attempts to combine the knowledge of two professional groups, i.e. engineers and biologists, so that both groups will benefit. There have been great advances in the field of waste water biology, and the better understanding of the basic biological processes has helped to improve the pollutant degradation efficiency considerably. (EF).

Habeck-Tropfke, L.; Habeck-Tropfke, H.H.

1992-01-01

376

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

377

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

378

Toxicity testing of ground water, surface water and waste water in the island of Cyprus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The island of Cyprus is an exporter of agricultural products to the European Community (EC). Public health and environmental toxicity testing programs on the island, especially in the Greek-dominated south, are based on EC models. Following EC guidelines, an environmental toxicology laboratory is being established at the State Laboratory in Nicosia. It will test water for toxicity using the acute Daphnia magna survival test, the chronic 4-day algal growth test (Selenastrum capricomutum), Microtox and Mutatox. During a 6-month survey of water and wastewater using the acute Ceriodaphnia dubia test and the algal growth test, the question of the relevance of environmental toxicity testing in an ecosystem devoid of natural year round freshwater sources, excepting ground water, was examined. Municipal wells, potable and agricultural water reservoirs, municipal and industrial effluent were tested. Preliminary studies showed some municipal well water to be toxic to freshwater species, probably due to high salt content. Water from a newly developed reservoir was toxic, probably due to its location at the base of eroding hills recently mined for copper. Effluent from a paper factory was toxic, but the reservoir into which it flows was not, nor was the sulfide-rich water toxic to untreated seeds. For the water-deficient ecosystem of Cyprus, the environmental testing program must be different from those developed for the European continent. The choice of appropriate test species, the need to focus on water quality for public health and agricultural use, and the possible benefits of nutrient-enriched waste water flowing into sterile ocean water, must all be considered.

McNaughton, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kouris, D. [Agricultural Research Inst., Nicosia (Cyprus); Guden, H. [Department of the Environment, Lefkosa (Cyprus); Gokcekus, H. [Near East Univ., Lefkosa (Cyprus)

1995-12-31

379

Uranium microbial treatment in waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy metals and uranium treatment and stabilization methods include microbial activities. Up to now the most successful biological treatment processes were bio sorption and precipitation, other processes such as connection to specific macromolecules, are used to control radioactive wastes containing uranium from mines and industrial plants. In a research project, gram - negative bacteria, called MGF - 48, were obtained from soils contaminated with lead in the south of Tehran, and their uranium absorption and storage capacities were examined. Preliminary results show that these microorganisms absorb uranium from solutions, form microbial flocks and settle. Uranium absorption rate increased linearly with concentration up to a maximum of 174 mg uranium/g dry weight cells. In comparison with other known uranium absorbing bacteria, MGF - 48 with 17.4% uranium dry mass are in the third place. Uranium can be eliminated from cells using chemical methods, therefore, cells can be reused. Research on effects of environmental parameters on absorption rate continues. (Author)

1993-01-01

380

Attenuation of Chromium toxicity in mine waste water using water hyacinth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa (India showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6. Cr+6 contaminated mine waste water poses potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The current field based phytoremediation study is an in situ approach for attenuation of Cr+6 from mine waste water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes weeds by rhizofiltration method. The weeds significantly reduced (up to 54% toxic concentrations of Cr+6 from contaminated mine waste water when passed through succeeding water hyacinth ponds. The reduction of toxic chromium level varied with the plant age and passage distance of waste water. Chromium phytoaccumulation and Bio-Concentration Factor (BCF was maximum at growing stage of plant i.e. 75 days old plant. High BCF (10,924 and Transportation Index (32.09 for water hyacinth indicated that the weeds can be used as a tool of phytoremediation to combat the problem of in situ Cr contamination in mining areas.

Mohanty M.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Assessment of the suitability of agricultural waste water for geothermal power plant cooling in the Imperial Valley. I. Water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of the quality of agricultural waste water is the first step in assessing the sitability of agricultural waste water for geothermal power plant cooling. In this study samples of agricultural waste water from the New and Alamo rivers located in the Imperial Valley of California are analyzed. Determinations of standard water quality parameters, solids content, and inorganic compositions of the solids are made. The results are compared with data on samples of irrigation water and steam condensate also obtained from sites in the Imperial Valley. The data are evaluated in relation to cooling tower operation, waste generation, and waste disposal.

Morris, W.F.; Rigdon, L.P.

1981-09-01

382

Lessons Learned for Construction and Waste Water Management at Radioactive Waste Closure Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental remediation of three different radioactive waste closure sites each required exhaustive characterization and evaluation of sampling and analytical information in resolving regulatory and technical issues that impact cleanup activities. One of the many regulatory and technical issues shared by all three and impacting the cleanup activities is the compliant management and discharge of waste waters generated and resulting from the remediation activities. Multiple options were available for each closure site in resolving waste water management challenges depending upon the base regulatory framework defined for the cleanup or closure of the site. These options are typically regulated by the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), with exemptions available under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) or Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between regulatory agencies. In general, all parties must demonstrate equivalent compliance when concerns related to the protection of the general public and the environment. As such, all options for management of waste water resulting from closure activities must demonstrate compliance to or equivalent actions under the CWA. The CWA provides for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) that is typically maintained by individual states through permitting process to generators, public utilities, and more recently, construction sites. Of the three sites, different compliance strategies were employed for each. The approach for the Columbus Closure Project (CCP) was to initiate full scale compliance to the Ohio EPA General Construction Permit No. OHC000002. The CCP provided Notice of Intent (NOI) to the Ohio EPA to discharge under the general permit according to the regulator approved Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan. For the second site, the Li Tungsten Superfund Site in Glen Cove, New York, the option was to manage and discharge waste water under a due diligence process to New York State General Permit No. GP-02-01. For the third site, the Middlesex Sampling Plant in Middlesex, New Jersey, the options was to manage and discharge waste water to the Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). Each option has resulted in a safe, cost-effective, and compliant approach to managing discharging waste waters from the site closure activities. (authors)

2008-02-24

383

Microbial Degradation of High Nitrogen Contents (Primarily Nitrate) in Industrial Waste Water.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study deals with the denitrification of industrial waste water of high nitrate content, including waste water from the recovery process for nuclear material. At first the autotrophic process employing Thiob. denitrificans was investigated: kinetics, ...

G. Claus H. J. Kutzner

1984-01-01

384

Development of Economic Criteria for Regionalization of A Waste Water Management System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of economic criteria for regionalization of waste water management systems reported in this study was part of an interdisciplinary research effort concerned with the development of criteria for regionalization of water supply and waste wat...

D. J. Palm

1972-01-01

385

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

2010-12-31

386

Autotrophic nitrogen removal from low strength waste water at low temperature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Direct anaerobic treatment of municipal waste waters allows for energy recovery in the form of biogas. A further decrease in the energy requirement for waste water treatment can be achieved by removing the ammonium in the anaerobic effluent with an autotrophic process, such as anammox. Until now, anammox has mainly been used for treating warm (>30 °C) and concentrated (>500 mg N/L) waste streams. Application in the water line of municipal waste water treatment poses the challenges of a lower...

Hendrickx, T. L. G.; Wang, Y.; Kampman, C.; Zeeman, G.; Temmink, B. G.; Buisman, C. J. N.

2012-01-01

387

Measurements of physical-chemical characteristics of dairy plant waste waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Characteristics of waste waters of the dairy industry are specific and differ essentially from waste waters of other branches of the food industry. The complexity of production in dairy plants with several units for different products render the problem of waste waters of this industry particularly complex. Waste waters of the AD Imlek dairy plant were sampled and their chemical characteristics were determined at different seasons of the year and at different times of the day in the years 200...

Stefanovi? Dragoslav; Vojnovi?-Miloradov Mirjana; Lemi? Jovan; Kurajica Milorad; Kova?evi? Dragana

2008-01-01

388

Biological treatment of waste water; Haisui no baio shori  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are 1,000 to 2,000 species of microorganisms involved in waste water treatment, and they are roughly classified into bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa and metazoa. There are two methods for disintegrating organic matters in water by microorganism, and they are classified into aerobic treatment and anaerobic treatment. In aerobic treatment, organic matters are oxidized to disintegrate to carbon dioxide and water supplying oxygen to microorganism, and in anaerobic treatment, organic matters are disintegrated reductively without supplying oxygen to microorganism. In this case, organic matters become methane gas and carbon dioxide. Anaerobic treatment is an effective method for relatively high organic matter content waste water, and there are many application cases in food industry, but less in petroleum industry. There are several indispensable elements in microorganism treatment. First is nutrition, and this includes nitrogen and phosphorus. A suitable range of pH is between 6 and 8, and pH must be controlled so as to be in this range. Suitable temperature is between 20 and 30 degrees centigrade, and dissolved oxygen is above 0.5 mg/l, desirable above 2 mg/l. since existence of inhibiting substances and disintegration retardant causes problems, quality of waste water must be investigated in advance. In aerobic treatment, aeration power cost occupies more than a half of treatment cost, and power cost to treat 1 kg BOD is 1.0 to 1.5 kWh. (NEDO)

Sato, H. [Chiyoda Corp., Kanagawa (Japan)

2000-07-01

389

Net energy analysis of solar and conventional domestic hot water systems in Melbourne, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is commonly assumed that solar hot water systems save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The net energy requirement of solar hot water systems has rarely been analysed, including their embodied energy. The extent to which solar hot water systems save energy compared to conventional systems in Melbourne, Australia, is shown through a comparative net energy analysis. It was shown that the embodied energy component of the net energy requirement of solar and conventional hot water systems was insignificant. The solar hot water systems provided a net energy saying compared to the conventional systems after 0.5-2 years, for electric- and gas-boosted systems respectively. (author)

Crawford, R.; Treloar, G.J. [Deakin University, Geelong (Australia). Built Environment Research Group

2004-03-01

390

Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R ampersand D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex

1996-01-01

391

Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Meck, A.; Robinson, P. [N,P Energy, Inc. (United States); Robison, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

392

Chemical treatment of radioactive waste waters of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the average composition of radioactive waste waters a new waste treatment method was developed to concentrate the solutions. Organic components such as oxalic and citric acids, hydrasine, were decomposed and eliminated by permanganate solution, then boric acid was stabilized by the addition of NaOH thus assuring the proper alkaline hydroxide - boric acid ratio. As a result of chemical treatment, the total salt concentration of the distillation residue could be increased up to 580 g/dm"3. After about one-year cooling time the concentrate can be easily cementized. The method was tested by laboratory and plant experiments. (V.N.)

1987-01-01

393

Pilot-scale laboratory waste treatment by supercritical water oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a reaction in which organics in an aqueous solution can be oxidized by O2 to CO2 and H2O at a very high reaction rate. In 2003, The University of Tokyo constructed a facility for the SCWO process, the capacity of which is approximately 20 kl/year, for the purpose of treating organic laboratory waste. Through the operation of this facility, we have demonstrated that most of the organics in laboratory waste including halogenated organic compounds can be successfully treated without the formation of dioxines, suggesting that SCWO is useful as an alternative technology to the conventional incineration process. PMID:17095994

Oshima, Yoshito; Hayashi, Rumiko; Yamamoto, Kazuo

2006-01-01

394

TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WATER USING CERAMIC FILTER FROM NATURAL CLAY AND FLY-ASH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The declining water quality in Sriwijaya University has been caused by the presence of heavy metal contents such as Iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn in the treatment and distribution of water. A simple method is proposed in this work to minimize the heavy metal content in water by using filtration technology. This research was carried out using ceramic filter made of 77.5% natural clay, 20% fly ash, and 2.5% iron powder. The results showed an increase in the quality of raw water that is in accordance with the requirement of drinking water standard. The rejection percentage of TDS, Iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn content in feed water tended to be high and met the regulation number 492/MENKES/PER/IV/2010 for standards of drinking water in Indonesia.

NASIR SUBRIYER

2013-09-01

395

Volume of baseline data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes of the annual report 1988 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This WaBoLu volume is a shortened version of the annual report by the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure' and gives an overview of the data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes, compiled for the area of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1988 by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) of the Federal Health Office. (BBR) With 22 figs., 15 tabs

1991-01-01

396

Artificial sweeteners as waste water markers in a shallow unconfined aquifer  

Science.gov (United States)

One key factor in groundwater quality management is the knowledge of flow paths and recharge. In coupled ground- and surface water systems the understanding of infiltration processes is therefore of paramount importance. Recent studies show that artificial sweeteners - which are used as sugar substitutes in food and beverages - are suitable tracers for domestic wastewater in the aquatic environment. As most rivers receive sewage discharges, artificial sweeteners might be used for tracking surface waters in groundwater. In this study artificial sweeteners are used in combination with conventional tracers (inert anions Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes ?18O, ?2H) to identify river water infiltration and the influence of waste water on a shallow unconfined aquifer used for drinking water production. The investigation area is situated in a mesoscale alpine head water catchment. The alluvial aquifer consists of quaternary gravel deposits and is characterized by high hydraulic permeability (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1), high flow velocities (vmax 250 md-1) and a considerable productivity (2,5 m3s-1). A losing stream follows the aquifer in close proximity and is susceptible to infiltrate substantial volumes of water into the alluvial sediments. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (Acesulfam ACE, Sucralose SUC, Saccharin SAC and Cyclamat CYC) at the investigated site. The local sewage treatment plant was identified as point source of artificial sweeteners in the river water, with ACE concentrations up to 0,6 ?gL-1. ACE concentrations in groundwater where approximately of one order of magnitude lower: ACE was present in 33 out of 40 sampled groundwater wells with concentrations up to 0,07 ?gL-1, thus indicating considerable influence of sewage water loaded surface water throughout the aquifer. Elevated concentrations of ACE and SAC in single observation wells denote other sources of locally limited contamination. Also, the temporal variability of sweeteners in surface water and the drinking water production well is compared with other tracers. ACE, Cl-and SO42- exhibit similar patterns in the river water. However, this behaviour cannot be observed in the production well, where ACE concentrations are varying compared to Cl- and SO42-.This suggests that the production well does receive groundwater being infiltrated prior to the sewage water treatment plant. Time series analysis of 18O, ?2H will give more insight in travel times and the location of infiltration zones.

Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

2013-04-01

397

Fungal microbiota in drinking water and domestic sewage/ Microbiota fúngica em amostras de água potável e esgoto doméstico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the fungal microflora present in drinking water and domestic sewage from different districts of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Water and sewage samples were collected during the four seasons and analyzed by the technique of Colony Forming Units (CFU. Yeasts and fungi of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus were observed in the water samples. The genus Geotrichum was also found in the sewage. Therefore, it is concluded that treatment of water held in the municipality is unable to remove these agents. objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a microbiota fúngica presente na água potável e no esgoto doméstico de distintos bairros de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Amostras de água e esgoto foram colhidas durante as quatro estações do ano e analisadas pela técnica de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias (UFC. Foi observada a presença dos gêneros Penicillium, Aspergillus e leveduras nas amostras de água. No esgoto, além dos agentes fúngicos reportados na água foi identificado o gênero Geotrichum. Dessa forma, conclui-se que o tratamento da água realizado no município não é capaz de eliminar estes agentes.

Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

398

Comparison of culture methods and an immunofluorescence assay for the detection of Legionella pneumophila in domestic hot water devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to compare an indirect immunofluorescence assay with culture methods for the identification of Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6 in hot water samples taken from domestic environments. Hot water samples were obtained from the water heater, the shower heads, and the most frequently used faucet of 211 private houses. Concentrated water samples were inoculated on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar (BCYE) and on a semi-selective culture medium (GPV). Colonies with a morphology similar to that of Legionellaceae were subcultured on BCYE and on blood agar plates; those that grew on the former but not the latter were further characterized and identified by direct immunofluorescence techniques. The concentrated samples were also smeared on multiple-well microscope slides and tested by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies against L. pneumophila, serogroups 1 to 6. Of the houses studied, 30% were found to contain culturable L. pneumophila in at least one water sample, whereas 63% were positive by indirect immunofluorescence. The sensitivity of this assay compared with culture varied from 16.7-21.1%, and its specificity was between 76.7% and 88.3% depending on the sample source (water heater, shower heads, or faucet). In the 38 houses with at least one positive sample found by both immunofluorescence and culture, total or partial agreement between serogroups identified by both techniques was only 34%. The results obtained in this study strongly suggest that indirect immunofluorescence is not an adequate alternative for the identification of L. pneumophila in hot water systems. PMID:1369187

Alary, M; Joly, J R

1992-07-01

399

Consequences of the minimum requirements for waste-water effluent set in the water conservation law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modification of the law for water conservation and the new law for water effluents showed that during the planning of power plants, the problems with regard to official authorization of waste water effluents into the water with the limiting values accordingly, have become more important than a while ago, when the problematics for the later operation of the power plants were mainly seen in the requirements of the Federal law for the protection against immissions, and the herewith connected clean air technology and noise control. The considerable influence of the often discussed technical guidelines TA Luft and TA Laerm on the air- and noise emissions, will obviously constitute the administrative regulation concerning the minimum requirements on waste water conductions, according to paragraph 7a of the Law for Water Conservation, as far as the discharge of water from power plants is concerned. The main results of the regulations to be expected are discussed. (orig./RW)

1979-05-31

400

Determination of cyanide in drinking water and waste water by voltametry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive, cost-effective and efficient voltammetric method is described for the analysis of cyanide in water. A potassium hydroxide and boric acid buffer was mixed with water sample in 1:1 ratio and cyanide was measured, using differential pulse mode and scanning in the negative direction. Cyanide peak appears at about - 0.24 V versus saturated calomel reference electrode Chloride, Sulfate, nitrate, sulfide and phosphate don't interfere. After developing analytical method numerous drinking water and waste water samples were collected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad areas and measured in triplicate. Usually the levels of cyanide in water were within the recommended limits with few exceptions. Levels of cyanide in waste water are in the range of 0 - 0.5 mug/ml and in drinking water are in the range of 0 - 0.01 mug/ml with few exceptions. (author)

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Solar preheating of both domestic hot water and space. Final technical report for the Sea Loft restaurant in Long Branch, New Jersey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stephen Giddio's Sea Loft Restaurant in Long Branch, NJ is equipped with an active solar system for preheating water for both space heating and domestic hot water. Three pumped water loops, each a closed circuit, transfer heat from one major component to another. Solar heat is collected by an array of 83 evacuated tube collectors. The acceptance test results are appended, as well as the operational and maintenance manual. Reference CAPE-2805. (LEW)

1982-11-28

402

Treatment of a simulated mixed waste with supercritical water oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a series of tests using supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to process cutting oil containing a simulated radionuclide. The goal of the tests was to evaluate the technology's ability to process a highly chlorinated waste representative of many mixed waste streams generated in the US DOE complex. The testing was conducted with a bench-scale SCWO system developed by the Modell Development Corp. Significant test objectives included process optimization for adequate destruction efficiency, tracking the radionuclide simulant and certain metals in the effluent streams, and assessment of reactor material degradation resulting from processing a highly chlorinated waste. Test results have been summarized from lab. analysis of the liquid effluent, and of the solid effluent, and witness wire data for corrosion and deposition evaluation

1993-08-17

403

Removal of Heavy Metals from Waste Water Using Water Hyacinth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water pollution has become one of the most serious problems of today's civilization. In the last few years considerable amount of research has been done on the potential of aquatic macrophytes for pollutant removal or even as bio-indicators for heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems. Water hyacinth is one of the aquatic plant species successfully used for wastewater treatment. It is very efficient in removing pollutants like suspended solids, BOD, organic matter, heavy metals and pathogens. This ...

Mary Lissy, P. N.; G, Madhu

2011-01-01

404

Hydrolysis behavior of tofu waste in hot compressed water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tofu waste (TW) is a typical high water-containing biomass; and the hydrothermal process is preferred to utilize it with low energy cost. TW is also a special biomass characterized by high proportion of proteins and fatty acids, which will lead to a different hydrolysis result. In this work, TW was hydrolyzed by hot compressed water below 390 °C in a batch reactor heated by a salt bath. Four parameters including water density, reaction time, the ratio of TW to water and reaction temperature were investigated. Results showed that CO2 was the major component of the produced gas, a measurable fraction of H2 was produced above 300 °C and 65–75% or more of TW can be transformed into water-soluble fraction. It was found that the influence of the treatment temperature on TW conversion was the most significant. Based on the product distribution (gases, water-insolubles, oils, and water-solubles) along with temperature, a four-stage hydrothermal conversion mechanism was put forward in macroscopic view. In combination with the evolution of gas composition and infrared spectrum, the understanding about the conversion of TW in hot compressed water was further improved. -- Highlights: ? The conversion of high water content biomass in hot compressed water is investigated with Tofu waste as model biomass. ? TW conversion was seriously dependent on the reaction temperature. ? The conversion process can be divided into four stages. ? 200–250 °C, no oil but gas is generated; 250–300 °C, oil begin to be yielded. ? 300–350 °C, water-insoluble product decreases; above 350 °C oil product decreases.

2012-04-01

405

Removal of actinides from dilute waste waters using polymer filtration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More stringent US Department of Energy discharge regulations for waste waters containing radionuclides (30 pCi/L total alpha) require the development of new processes to meet the new discharge limits for actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium, while minimizing waste. We have been investigating a new technology, polymer filtration, that has the potential for effectively meeting these new limits. Traditional technology uses basic iron precipitation which produces large amounts of waste sludge. The new technology is based on using water-soluble chelating polymers with ultrafiltration for physical separation. The actinide metal ions are selectively bound to the polymer and can not pass through the membrane. Small molecules and nonbinding metals pass through the membrane. Advantages of polymer filtration technology compared to ion, exchange include rapid kinetics because the binding is occurring in a homogenous solution and no mechanical strength requirement on the polymer. We will present our results on the systematic development of a new class of water-soluble chelating polymers and their binding ability from dilute acid to near neutral waters

1995-04-02

406

REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU research project â??NEPTUNEâ? is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life cycle impact assessment methods on pathogens, whole effluent toxicity and micropollutants will be developed within the project. As part of this work a review of more than 20 previous LCA studies