WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

1972-01-01

2

Technological Variations for Domestic Waste Water Heat Recovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recovery and use of the heat generated by waste water is an active concern both internationally andnationally. This paper is a study on the technological alternatives used for the recovery of heat from domestic wastewater. The advantages and the technical aspects of the structural alternatives have been emphasized in the study.

Gabor, Timea; Rusu, T.; Dan, V.

2010-01-01

3

Phyto-treatment of domestic waste water using artificial marshes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phyto-treatment of domestic waste water by the use of artificial marshes system consists in beds of treatment working in series, this beds are constituted basically by inverse filters of inert granular material where the nutrients are cached from the residual water. Most of the treatment is carried in roots steams and leaves of defined species of plants. The rest of the treatment is performed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria that grow within the beds. In the proximities of the roots and the area near the bed surface, aerobic processes take place and in deepest zones, anaerobic processes take place. It is desirable that the aerobic process will be the predominant one, mainly to avoid bad odors; this is obtained with the correct selection of plants which must have dense and deep roots. The economic factor is also important for the selection of this type of treatment system, the cost of operation and maintenance is minimum compared with other type of systems. The operation cost is practically zero because it is not required provision of electrical energy for its operation; energy used is the solar energy through the photosynthesis process. The maintenance is reduced to pruning and cleaning that can be performed twice a year. The goals of this paper is to show our experiences during the construction, stabilization and operation of these systems installed in 13 OCP locations with different types of weather and explain the conclusions arrived after construction and operation; present this kind of systems as an alternative of economic wastewater treatment in terms of construction, operation and maintenance and as environment friendly treatment. (author)

Vaca, Rodrigo; Sanchez, Fabian [Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados (OCP), Quito (Ecuador)

2009-12-19

4

Projection and enterprises controlling in domestic waste water econom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of the cost of communal waste water disposal is widely discussed among the population, among politicians and experts. Not only the absolute amount of the charged fees are the cause of concern, but also their increase over the last few years. As part of this thesis, the PC software SloVaKon, which facilitates project and operation decision, will be designed to apply the experience gained during the building and expansion of the waste water industry in Germany´s five new federa...

Schröder Reinhard; Franz Anselm; Augustínová Edita

2000-01-01

5

Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

Murray, R. W.

1973-01-01

6

Heating of domestic water by waste heat recovery from household refrigerating equipment  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat from a 370 l deep freeze was used to heat water in a 250 l boiler. Both units were made from mass produced components. Tests show that the functions of cooling and deep freezing units can be effectively combined with one warm water boiler. The necessary expenditure for the appliance is, however, only economical with deep freezing units because with normal domestic refrigerators the amount of waste heat is too small. The economy of the unit could be considerably increased by the development of a mass produced motor compressor with a sufficiently large oil cooler to accomplish an optimum thermal insulation of the motor compressor surface area.

Reil, J.; Kaster, B.; Wegner, M.

1982-09-01

7

Domestic Waste: Sources, Effects, and Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste is any discarded material. Domestic wastes are those produced by individual activities. In common with other living organisms, humans discharge waste substances to the environment that in turn re-energize the endless cycle of nature. Human activities are closely associated with ambient environment (soil , water, or air) through accumulation of domestic waste. Such household hazardous waste deposit arise from the discharge of domestic activities in the form of municipal solid waste (household, commercial and public street wastes), night soil (human and animal body wastes, excreta, or excrement). In rural areas, night soil is one of several components of the refuse that pollute the land. The surface water may be also directly polluted by domestic wastes or agricultural wastes. But in urbanized areas, household wastes, bathroom and laundry are conveniently flushed away by water as domestic wastewater through sewerage system, and disposed onto land or into receiving water, or in some countries it is treated and re-discharged for domestic usage. Solid waste in the form of kitchen garbage and other household refuse is collected for landfill disposal or for re-industrialization. Many domestic waste influence indoor air quality in urban and rural areas as for example the fuel used for cooking, smoke from cooking and from smoking habits, modern building materials, insulation, fabrics and furniture, cleaning materials, solvents, pesticides, personal care products, organic material or vegetable origin and dander from domestic life

8

Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1975-01-01

9

Anaerobe-Aerobe Submerged Biofilter Technology for Domestic Waste Water Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water pollution in the big cities in Indonesia, especially in DKI Jakarta has shown serious problems. One of the potential sources of water pollution is domestic wastewater that is wastewater from kitchens, laundry, bathing and toilets. These problems have become more serious since the spreads of sewerage systems are still low, so that domestic, institutional and commercial wastewater cause severe water pollution in many rivers or shallow ground water. Bases on the fact that the progress of development of sewerage system is still low, it is important to develop low cost technology for individual house hold or semi communal wastewater treatment such as using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. This paper describes alternative technology for treatment of household wastewater or organic wastewater using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. Using this technology can decrease BOD, COD and Suspended Solids (SS) concentration more than 90 %. (author)

10

[Informative document bulky domestic waste.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This "Informative document bulky domestic waste" forms part of a series of "Informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Directorate General for the Environment, Directorate Waste Materials, in behalf of the program of action on "prevention and recycling of waste materials". In the documents a survey is given of the main facts and figures on specific waste materials, for example d...

Ah, Hanemaayer; Meiling K;

2012-01-01

11

Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 2: Appendices  

Science.gov (United States)

Water and sewage treatment systems are presented with concentration on the filtration of water. Equipment is described for organic removal, solids removal, nutrient removal, inorganic removal, and disinfection of the water. Such things as aseline hardware, additional piping connections, waste disposal, and costs involved are also reported.

Murray, R. W.

1973-01-01

12

Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive  

...Bathing waters in Northern Ireland...of freshwater, estuarine and coastal waters by domestic sewage and industrial...the removal of nutrients from waste water. The waters into which these waste waters are discharged must be identified...

13

Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in co...

Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, T. Z. D.; Graaff, M. S.; Abu-ghunmi, L. N. A. H.; Mels, A. R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B. G.; Buisman, C. J. N.; Lier, J. B.; Lettinga, G.

2008-01-01

14

The application of membrane Bio-Reactor for East Java Domestic waste water treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment research have been carried out. In this system, membrane replaces the function of the sedimentation tank. Until recent time, fouling was still the main problem for membrane processes. This research has investigated the effect of MLSS concentration and back flushing on external membrane bioreactor performances such as COD and BOD reduction, and the back flushing effect for domestic wastewater treatment. Polyacrylonitril hollow fiber membrane with pore diameter 0.1-0.01 m, surface area 0.075 m2 was used in this research. This process was at HRT 5 hour, no sludge disposal, intermittent operation, and permeate exiting from membrane shell side. Optimum condition was obtained at a transmembrane pressure (TMP of 1.45 bar. Back flushing was conducted for 10 minute at 3.0 bar pressure. Effective back flushing was shown after operation at MLSS of 7500 and 10000 mg/l. The result of this research shows that COD and BOD in the domestic wastewater decreased almost 98%. MLSS and MLVSS degradations were 98.6% and 98%, respectively.

Aisyah E. Palupi

2008-01-01

15

Aspects of contamination produced by domestic waste landfills on receiving waters in Madrid province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study describes some aspects of the anión contení in surface waters and ground waters as well as in the soils affected by three landfills in the Province of Madrid. The anions concerned are chlorides, fluorides, sulfates, phosphates and nitrales. The pH and conductivity were also determined. These parameters may constitute abiotic indicators lo observe the alterations produced in the water and soil by the leachates from the landfills. The results show that the concentration...

Pastor Pin?eiro, Jesu?s; Urcelay, A.; Adarve, M. J.; Herna?ndez, A. J.; Sa?nchez, A.

1993-01-01

16

Aspects of contamination produced by domestic waste landfills of receiving waters in Madrid province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study describes some aspects of the anion content in surface waters and ground waters as well as ín the soils affected by three landfills in the Province of Madrid. The anions concerned are chlorides, fluorides, sulfates, phosphates and nitrates. The pH and conductivity were also determíned. These parameters may constitute abiotic índicators to observe the alterations produced in the water and soil by the leachates from the landfills. The results show that the concentratio...

Pastor Pin?eiro, Jesu?s; Urcelay, A.; Adarve, M. J.; Herna?ndez, A. J.; Sa?nchez, A.

1993-01-01

17

Investigation of the spreading and dilution of domestic waste water inputs into a tidal bay using the finite-volume model FVCOM  

Science.gov (United States)

The 'Jade Bay' is a tidal bay located in the western part of the German Wadden Sea, southern North-Sea coast. During particularly heavy rain falls, rain water mixed with domestic waste water is discharged into the bay due to the limited capacities of the waste water treatment plant of the city of Wilhelmshaven. As the discharge point is located only a few hundred meters from a public bathing beach it is important to know spreading and dilution of the waste waters by tidal and wind-driven mixing. To model the behaviour of the waste water plumes, the unstructured mesh finite-volume model FVCOM (Chen and al., 2003) is used, which allows to cover the large area of the Jade and the nearby North Sea with a relatively high resolution near the point of discharge and a coarser resolution at the outer edges of the study side. We adapted the included sediment module of FVCOM to handle the sedimentation, decay and evolution in the bottom sediments of the discharged waste water particles, especially with respect to bacteria. Furthermore, alternative discharge points located in the interior of the Jade bay were tested, which might be more suited for a faster dilution and a smaller residence time of the waste water particles in the tidal bay.

Lettmann, Karsten; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf; Liebezeit, Gerd; Meier, Georg

2010-05-01

18

Influence of domestic and industrial waste discharges on water quality at Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A contaminação aquática provinda de indústrias de processamento de caulim e de esgotos municipais tratados e não tratados, foi avaliada nos ribeirões Ubá e Vermelho, respectivamente, em Ubá e Vermelho Novo, em Minas Gerais. Com esta finalidade, amostras de água, material em suspensão e vegetais fora [...] m coletadas e analisadas. As análises envolveram a determinação da concentração de metais, nitrito, nitrato, cloreto, fosfato, demanda química de oxigênio e demanda bioquímica de oxigênio. O material em suspensão apresentou altas concentrações (em mg kg-1) de Zn (2.400) e Fe (14.900), enquanto que a vegetação coletada nas proximidades dos ribeirões mostrou-se contaminada com Al (7.120). As concentrações de nitrito, nitrato e cloreto nas águas dos ribeirões apresentaram-se abaixo dos valores máximos estabelecidos pela Legislação Brasileira. Os valores de fosfato e demanda bioquímica de oxigênio excederam em 7 e 3 vezes, respectivamente, as concentrações máximas para águas superficiais de qualidade satisfatória. Abstract in english The aquatic contamination from kaolin processing plants, as well as from untreated or inadequately treated municipal sewage, was evaluated in the Ubá Stream and Vermelho Stream, at the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. With this purpose, samples of water, suspended material and vegetation were collected a [...] nd analysed. The analyses involved the determination of the concentration of metals, nitrite, nitrate, chloride, phosphate, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. The suspended material showed high concentrations (in mg kg-1) of Zn (2,400) and Fe (14,900), while the vegetation collected closed to the streams was heavily contaminated with Al (7,120). The concentrations of nitrite, nitrate and chloride in stream water were lower than the maximum values established by the Brazilian Environmental Standards. The phosphate and biochemical oxygen demand values exceeded 7 and 3 times respectively, the maximum concentrations for superficial water of satisfactory quality.

Cláudio P., Jordão; Madson de G., Pereira; Antônio T., Matos; José L., Pereira.

19

Study of water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 2: Final report  

Science.gov (United States)

The manner in which current and advanced technology can be applied to develop practical solutions to existing and emerging water supply and waste disposal problems is evaluated. An overview of water resource factors as they affect new community planning, and requirements imposed on residential waste treatment systems are presented. The results of equipment surveys contain information describing: commercially available devices and appliances designed to conserve water; devices and techniques for monitoring water quality and controlling back contamination; and advanced water and waste processing equipment. System concepts are developed and compared on the basis of current and projected costs. Economic evaluations are based on community populations of from 2,000 to 250,000. The most promising system concept is defined in sufficient depth to initiate detailed design.

Guarneri, C. A.; Reed, A.; Renman, R. E.

1972-01-01

20

Study of water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report summary  

Science.gov (United States)

This study of water reclamation and waste disposal is directed toward a more efficient utilization of natural resources. From an ecological standpoint improved methods of land use, water processing equipment, and ideal population profiles are investigated. Methods are described whereby significant reduction in water usage can be achieved by the adoption of presently available and practically applied technological concepts. Allowances are made for social, natural, and economic contingencies which are likely to occur up to the year 2000.

Guarneri, C. A.; Reed, A.; Renman, R. E.

1972-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Domestic Waste Disposal Practice of Sylhet City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses the analysis of current practices of household waste disposal, problems faced by the residents during waste disposal and their views for improvement of the waste management system. However, it has been found that traditional concepts and technologies usually adopted in waste collection is becoming insufficient and ineffective causing more than half of the generated wastes (44%) remain uncollected and disposed of locally, which results in adverse impacts like water pollution...

Md. Tauhid-Ur-Rahman

2006-01-01

22

Wasted waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water. PMID:12295784

Niemczynowicz, J

1996-11-01

23

Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

Idiri, Z.; Mazrou, H.; Amokrane, A.; Bedek, S.

2010-01-01

24

Domestic Waste Disposal Practice of Sylhet City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focuses the analysis of current practices of household waste disposal, problems faced by the residents during waste disposal and their views for improvement of the waste management system. However, it has been found that traditional concepts and technologies usually adopted in waste collection is becoming insufficient and ineffective causing more than half of the generated wastes (44% remain uncollected and disposed of locally, which results in adverse impacts like water pollution, drainage congestion and finally, the degradation of the overall urban environment.

Md. Tauhid-Ur-Rahman

2006-01-01

25

Waste water treatment by flotation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues, food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water, which is in the atmospheric equilibrum, is introduced in a closed space where the depression is 0,3 – 0,5 bar. Our paper presents the hypobaric flotation cell and the technological flow of cleaning of domestic waste waters

Camelia Badulescu

2005-11-01

26

Economic valuation of domestic water uses.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many reasons of concern about the quality of water for domestic uses. The strategic goals of water tariffs must include savings, efficient management and equity in order to optimise availability of the best quality water. The main domestic uses of water are food preparation, personal hygiene and household cleaning; not all of them need the same quality, and for some of them there are even potential substitutes. In order to contribute to this debate, we need to know how these different uses are valued by direct users. This article focuses on eliciting values for different domestic uses, using discrete choice experiments. As far as we know, this is the first time that a differentiated valuation per use has been defined. The paper introduces three innovations in the design of the experiment. The design takes into account decisive variables in household water consumption, such as family size, together with the consumption level, and the options offered in the choice task are combinations of different prices for each of the uses. A latent class model with both common and class-specific random parameters is applied to better account for the influence of heterogeneity in the respondents' choices. The results show that the most valued use depends on the consumption level class. PMID:24333993

Justes, Antón; Barberán, Ramón; Farizo, Begoña A

2014-02-15

27

[Composition of domestic waste from Breda.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report presents the results of sorting analyses with household waste of two pilot districts in the municipality of Breda. The sorting analyses took place in april and may 1992, before the introduction of the pilot project "Model Breda". The main purpose of "Model Breda" is to achieve a more extended reduction of the amount of household (packaging) waste by separate collection at source. The project is mentioned in the Packaging Convention, an ...

Kmm, Oh

2012-01-01

28

Thermal reclamation of solid domestic wastes  

Science.gov (United States)

Matters relating to protection of the environment from man-made wastes through their efficient use as alternative fuel resources by subjecting them to gasification are considered. The scheme of an installation is presented in which all energy produced at the gasifier outlet is used without losing its high-temperature potential.

Batenin, V. M.; Kovbasyuk, V. I.; Kretova, L. G.; Medvedev, Yu. V.

2011-03-01

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30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...  

Science.gov (United States)

... false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany...trash, sanitary and domestic wastes, produced waters, and chemical product wastes) likely to be generated by...

2010-07-01

30

Treatment of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Takasaki-JAERI, studies on the radiation treatment of waste water have been continued in several aspects, i.e. (1) refractory compounds in industrial waste water may be treated by radiation, (2) utilization of a powerful electron accelerator may improve the economics and (3) combination of radiation processing with a conventional technique may improve the efficiency. The results are reviewed on these lines in this paper, though the future application may be in the combination of all the aspects. (author)

31

Domestic rooftop water harvesting (DRWH- A case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although water is as important for survival of human being as much as food, air etc., but hardly any attention is paid for its economical use and conservation of this precious resource. Due to indiscriminate pumping of ground water, the water table is going down abnormally and if the problem is not given a serious look, then the future generations may have to face severe crisis of water. Rains are the main source of water and if rain water is harvested, the scarcity of water can be eliminated altogether. This is an ideal solution of water problem where there is inadequate groundwater supply quantitatively and qualitatively and surface sources are either lacking or insignificant. Rain water is bacteriologically pure, free from organic matter and soft in nature. In urban areas, rain water available from rooftop of buildings, paved and unpaved areas goes waste. This water can be stored in tank and can be used directly and also indirectly by diverting to recharge the aquifers through existing GW tapping arrangements and thereafter can be utilized gainfully at the time of need. The paper aims towards the development of the framework for domestic rooftop harvesting for drinking water. The paper is based on the analysis of survey record of around 50 houses of different rooftop areas of peri-urban area of Dhule city. The estimation of the appropriate size of the water tanks & their costs required to fulfill the annual drinking water demand through DRWH from rooftop of different areas are done. A mathematical equation expressing the relationship between the required size of water tank and different rooftop areas is developed. The DRWH systems for all houses are designed considering the existing rain water outlets and cost estimation for each individual house is done. A cost model expressing the relationship between rooftop area and cost of DRWH system is developed.

Arun Kumar Dwivedi

2009-08-01

32

Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand  

Science.gov (United States)

Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

2013-12-01

33

Solar water heating for domestic supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilization of solar energy for heating domestic hot water supply in Jordan is investigated, evaluated, and optimized. A system of a typical flat-plate solar collectors with a preheat tank was used as a simulations model to investigate its performance relevant to various important factors taking into consideration the typical meteorological conditions in Jordan. A computer simulation was used for the determination of the solar energy percentage coverage of hot-water thermal demand as a function of the number of collector panels and size, hot water demand cycle, preheat storage volume, collector tilt angle, and other parameters. The system performance is analyzed on hourly, monthly, half yearly and yearly bases. The results obtained indicated that the annual percentage coverage of the typical thermal demand using a typical 3-panel system of about 4m2 collector area reached as high as 65%, and 4-5 m2 of commercial collector area provide the best annual solar percentage coverage per JD invested. (author). 14 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

34

A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

Dexter V. L. Hunt

2014-05-01

35

Tritium distribution in leachates from domestic solid waste landfills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is for the purpose of investigating the tritium distribution in the leachates, the raw and treated leachates and the condensates of the methane gas, which have occurred from domestic solid waste landfills. Also it aims to measure the tritium distribution level on the colloid size of the leachates, the raw and treated leachates. It was found that the major inorganic contaminants of the leachates were Na, K, Ca, Mg, NH4+-N and Cl-. The mean tritium level of the raw leachates of the investigated 13 landfill sites for 6 months was 17?1196 TU. It corresponded to a several scores or hundreds of magnitude higher value than that of the normal environmental sample level except for two landfill sites. Also such a high concentration of the tritium was found in the treated leachates and methane gas condensates as well. Nevertheless it is important to emphasize that the tritium level which was found in this research is about 100 times lower than the tritium limit for the drinking water quality. And most of the tritium existed in the dissolved colloid of the leachate of which the colloid size is below 0.45 ?m. Also, according to the tritium analysis results of the leachates after filtration with 0.45?m membrane filter for some landfills, it is likely that some tritium of the leachate would be distributed in a colloid size over 0.45?m. In general the relationship between the tritium and other contaminants in the raw leachate was low, but it was relatively high between the tritium and TOC. However, the tritium content in the leachate had no meaningful relationship with the scale, hydrological characteristics and age of the landfill

36

Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

Theodor Mateescu; Radu Hudi?teanu

2006-01-01

37

Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

Theodor Mateescu

2006-01-01

38

Water: Too Precious to Waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

National Geographic World, 1983

1983-01-01

39

Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

2012-04-01

40

Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
41

Waste Water Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data of the Waste Water Treatment. This site is developed to provide information on wastewater engineering, including features such as basic concepts of wastewater treatment and an introduction to wastewater treatment systems and equipment. A virtual site visit to the three major Hong Kong Sewage Treatment Plants at Shatin, Stonecutters Island and Stanley is provided.

Kumaraswamy, Mohan

2002-01-01

42

Waste water treatment by flotation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues), food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water...

Camelia Badulescu; Lorand Toth; Romulus Sarbu

2005-01-01

43

Domestic waste disposal practice and perceptions of private sector waste management in urban Accra  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Waste poses a threat to public health and the environment if it is not stored, collected, and disposed of properly. The perception of waste as an unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards disposal. This study investigates the domestic waste practices, waste disposal, and perceptions about waste and health in an urban community. Methods The study utilised a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data. A total of 364 household heads were interviewed in the survey and six key informants were interviewed with the in-depth interviews. Results The results of the study revealed that 93.1% of households disposed of food debris as waste and 77.8% disposed of plastic materials as waste. The study also showed that 61.0% of the households disposed of their waste at community bins or had waste picked up at their homes by private contractors. The remaining 39.0% disposed of their waste in gutters, streets, holes and nearby bushes. Of those who paid for the services of private contractors, 62.9% were not satisfied with the services because of their cost and irregular collection. About 83% of the respondents were aware that improper waste management contributes to disease causation; most of the respondents thought that improper waste management could lead to malaria and diarrhoea. There was a general perception that children should be responsible for transporting waste from the households to dumping sites. Conclusion Proper education of the public, the provision of more communal trash bins, and the collection of waste by private contractors could help prevent exposing the public in municipalities to diseases. PMID:25005728

2014-01-01

44

Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes. In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I, industrial waste water (group II, sewage treatment hub (group III, unorganized collected waste water (group IV and old residential waste collection center (group V, of Bikaner city (Rajasthan, India was carried out from February, 2010 to May, 2010. Water samples were taken from surface only owing to low depth and investigated for various abiotic factors (viz. transparency, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, total alkalinity, total hardness, salinity, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, nitrate, silica, and inorganic phosphorous and biotic factors (viz. number and diversity of bacteria. The domestic sewage water causes major water borne diseases basing upon Total Bacterial Count (TBC and coliform Count (CC. The coliform count in the present study ranged from 2.5 to 5.12 MPN/mL. Comparision of microbial population in sewage water from all different Groups was done and the higher values of TBC and CC were recorded only in Sewage treatement hub (Group III.

Chandan Kumar Bahura

2012-01-01

45

Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

46

Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-12-31

47

Anaerobic digestion technologies for closing the domestic water, carbon and nutrient cycles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainable wastewater treatment requires that household wastewater is collected and treated separately from industrial wastewater and rainwater run-offs. This separate treatment is, however, still inadequate, as more than 70% of the nutrients and much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and potential pathogens of a domestic sewage system are confined to the few litres of black water (faeces, urine and toilet water). Whilst grey water can easily be filter treated and re-used for secondary household purposes, black water requires more intensive treatment due to its high COD and microbial (pathogens) content. Recently developed vacuum/dry toilets produce a nutrient rich semi-solid waste stream, which, with proper treatment, offers the possibility of nutrient, carbon, water and energy recovery. This study investigates the terrestrial applicability of Life Support System (LSS) concepts as a framework for future domestic waste management. The possibilities of treating black water together with other types of human-generated solid waste (biowastes/mixed wastes) in an anaerobic reactor system at thermophilic conditions, as well as some post treatment alternatives for product recovery and re-use, are considered. Energy can partially be recovered in the form of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion. The system is investigated in the form of theoretical mass balances, together with an assessment of the current feasibility of this technology and other post-treatment alternatives. PMID:11381993

Hammes, F; Kalogo, Y; Verstraete, W

2000-01-01

48

Waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste water containing over 2 ppm Mo and at least one heavy metal impurity selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, and also containing cyanide ion (CN) is treated by passing waste water having an adjusted pH value ranging from about 3 to 4 through an ion-exchange resin column selective to the removal of Mo and provide an ion-exchange effluent containing at least one of said heavy metal impurities and said cyanide ion. The ph value of the effluent is then adjusted to a range of about 7 to 11 sufficient to precipitate the heavy metal impurity having the highest pH requirement for precipitation, following which the precipitate is flocculated and the effluent containing the flocculated precipitate then subjected to electrolysis using insoluble electrodes to form electrolytic oxygen and hydrogen and effect electroflotation of the flocculated precipitate and form a froth thereof which is separated from the effluent by skimming

49

Preliminary ECLSS waste water model  

Science.gov (United States)

A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

1991-01-01

50

Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

2011-11-01

51

Ecological and economical importance of waste water treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water resources were one of the environmental factors which reacted with ocean, affected by climatic, geological changes, pollution phenomenon, all water in nature component suspended dissolved matter in different quantity, that waste water in every kinds as domestic, industrial, agricultural and others contains to additional pollution matter, these were byproducts of human activities, these several wasters caused water pollution, depended this pollution on degree of pollution concentration; ...

Alias, Naser Ibraheem

2011-01-01

52

Fibre reinforced concrete using domestic waste plastics as fibres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC is a composite material consisting of cement based matrix with an ordered or random distribution of fibre which can be Steel, Nylon, Polythene etc. The addition of steel fibre increases the properties of concrete, viz., flexural strength, impact strength and shrinkage properties to name a few. A number of papers have already been published on the use of steel fibres in concrete and a considerable amount of research has been directed towards studying the various properties of concrete as well as reinforced concrete due to the addition of steel fibres. Hence, an attempt has been made in the present investigations to study the influence of addition of polythene fibers (domestic waste plastics at a dosage of 0.5% by weight of cement. The properties studied include compressive strength and flexural strength. The studies were conducted on a M20 mix and tests have been carried out as per recommended procedures of relevant codes. The results are compared and conclusions are made.

R. Kandasamy

2011-03-01

53

Design package for solar domestic hot water system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

None

1980-09-01

54

The Status of Domestic Water at Velezizweni, Swaziland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the sources of domestic water and its status in terms of quality at Velezizweni, a rural area in Swaziland. A questionnaire was developed and administered to 190 homesteads that were randomly selected from a total of 360 homesteads in the study area. The information solicited by the questionnaire included sources of domestic water, perception of community members on degradation of water resources and measures taken to purify drinking water. Water samples were taken from 14 water sources during the month of January 2011, and analysed for total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli and Faecal streptococci (F. streptococci. The sources of domestic water with the proportion of respondents accessing water from each one of them were (piped water, 45%, rivers and streams (31%, unprotected wells (24%, boreholes (15%, roof-water harvesting (8% and dams (0.5%. Each homestead accessed water from more than one source in most cases. The piped water was diverted from rivers/streams, springs and wells and piped to homesteads or within the vicinity of the homesteads. However the water was not potable as it was not treated. Water from boreholes was suitable for drinking as no E. coli or F. streptococci were detected. However water from the other sources was not suitable for drinking as E. coli and F. streptococci were detected. Total coliform was also present in amounts above the acceptable limit of 10 counts per 100 mL of water. The communities were exposed to waterborne diseases such as cholera and diarrhea, especially because only 6% of the respondents reported that they boiled water before drinking.

S.S. Tfwala

2012-03-01

55

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

56

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

1981-04-01

57

Land application of domestic wastewater in Florida--statewide assessment of impact on ground-water quality  

Science.gov (United States)

In Florida domestic waste water is being applied to the land for disposal and reuse. State and Federal regulations favor land-application methods over other advanced waste water treatment practices. Despite the increasing use of this alternative technology, little is known about localized effects on groundwater quality. This report documents the extent of land-application practices in Florida and summarizes case study information on some of the more adequately monitored site throughout the State. More than 2,500 sites in Florida are permitted by the Department of Environmental Regulation for applying domestic waste water to the land. The majority (more than 1,700 sites), classified as infiltration ponds, are concentrated in central and southern Florida. More than 560 sites classified as drainfields, and more than 250 sites classified as irrigation sites, are located primarily in central Florida. An estimated 150 million gallons per day of domestic waste water, after required secondary treatment, are applied to Florida soils. Despite the large numbers of sites and the considerable volume of waste water utilized, little is known about potential impact on groundwater quality. At the few sites where observation wells have been drilled and local groundwater quality monitored, no significant deterioration of water quality has been detected. (USGS)

Franks, Bernard J.

1981-01-01

58

Water quality for liquid wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To facilitate the automation of the operation for a liquid wastes processing system by enabling continuous analysis for the main ingredients in the liquid wastes accurately and rapidly. Constitution: The water quality monitor comprises a sampling pipeway system for taking out sample water for the analysis of liquid wastes from a pipeway introducing liquid wastes to the liquid wastes concentrator, a filter for removing suspended matters in the sample water and absorption photometer as a water quality analyzer. A portion of the liquid wastes is passed through the suspended matter filter by a feedpump. In this case, sulfate ions and chloride ions in the sample are retained in the upper portion of a separation color and, subsequently, the respective ingredients are separated and leached out by eluting solution. Since the leached out ingredients form ferric ions and yellow complexes respectively, their concentrations can be detected by the spectrum photometer. Accordingly, concentration for the sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the liquid wastes can be analyzed rapidly, accurately and repeatedly by which the water quality can be determined rapidly and accurately. (Yoshino, Y.)

59

Radiation treatment of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indiscriminate decomposition of organics in oxygenated waste water to carbon dioxide and water can be attained by strong active species produced by water radiolysis. The G-values of decomposition, COD reduction, and TOC reduction range from 1 to 3. The radiation treatment of thousands of tons of waste water now can be done daily by use of a high-power electron accelerator. While reduction of radiation energy for waste-water treatment is still the key to the technology, the combination of radiation treatment with a conventional water-treatment process, such as activated sludge treatment, co-precipitation, and ozonation, is effective for the purpose and is able to remove non-degradable organics by a conventional process alone. The present paper describes the achievement in JAERI along these lines and indicates that economics and technology are no longer a prohibiting factor of radiation processing, but a balancing factor to the advantage of new processing. (author)

60

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information concerning the concentrations of uranium in 89,994 US surface, ground, and domestic waters is summarized. Sources surveyed included the open literature, state health departments, Federal agencies, and personal contacts. For each state, samples were geographically located, identified by type and use, and tabulated by decreasing uranium concentration. Histograms covering 14 concentration ranges were prepared for all surface, ground, and domestic water samples of each state and for the entire United States. Estimates were made of the population-weighted average concentrations of uranium in domestic waters of each state. Based on these averages, alpha radiation bone doses were computed for lifetime consumptions of each water. In addition, the fractions of water supplies in each state producing water containing uranium in excess of 1, 5, 10, and 20 pCi/L were estimated. An extensive discussion of analytical methods used to determine uranium in surface and ground waters is also included. The concentrations of uranium in 34,561 US surface waters ranged from 0.01 to 582.38 pCi/L and averaged 1.06 pCi/L. The median and modal concentration ranges for these samples were 0.1 to 0.2 pCi/L and 0.2 to 0.5 pCi/L, respectively. In 55,433 US ground water samples the concentrations of uranium ranged from 0.01 to 652.80 pCi/L and averaged 3.18 pCi/L. The median and modal concentration ranges were 0.2 to 0.5 pCi/L and 2 to 5 pCi/L, respectively. Of the listed sample pCi/L, respectively. Of the listed sample sites 28,239 were identified as domestic water sources. Uranium in these samples ranged from 0.07 to 652.80 pCi/L and averaged 1.73 pCi/L. Using state totals, it is estimated that 15% to 24% of all US water supplies would have uranium concentrations in excess of 1 pCi/L; 4% to 8%, in excess of 5 pCi/L; 0.1% to 3%, in excess of 10 pCi/L; and 0.04% to 1%, in excess of 20 pCi/L

 
 
 
 
61

[Sorting analyses with separate collected domestic waste from Hoogeveen 1992.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report presents the results of sorting analyses with household waste, collected after separate collection at source in the municipality of Hoogeveen. This pilot project forms part of a project, called "Afvalscheiding droge componenten" (waste separation of dry components), in which several Dutch pilot projects, concerning the recycling of household waste, are evaluated. In a pilot district in Hoogeveen, household waste is collected in six fractions: - pu...

Kmm, Oh

2012-01-01

62

Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the last decade, a growing interest in recycling of domestic waste has emerged, and action plans to increase the recycling of domestic waste have been agreed by many governments. A common feature of these plans is the implementation of new systems and equipment for the collection of domestic waste which has been separated at source. However, only limited information exists on possible occupational health problems related to such new systems. Occupational accidents are very frequent among waste collectors. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the risk factors should be considered as an integrated entity, i.e. technical factors (poor accessibility to the waste, design of equipment) may act in concert with high working rate, visual fatigue due to poor illumination and perhaps muscle fatigue due to high work load. Musculoskeletal problems are also common among waste collectors. A good deal of knowledge has accumulated on mechanical load on the spine and energetic load on the cardio-pulmonary system in relation to the handling of waste bags, bins, domestic containers and large containers. However, epidemiologic studies with exposure classification based on field measurement are needed, both to further identify high risk work conditions and to provide a detailed basis for the establishment of occupational exposure limits for mechanical and energetic load particularly in relation to pulling, pushing and tilting of containers. In 1975, an excess risk for chronic bronchitis was reported for waste collectors in Geneva (Rufèner-Press et al., 1975) and data from the Danish Registry of Occupational Accidents and Diseases also indicate an excess risk for pulmonary problems among waste collectors compared with the total work force. Surprisingly few measurements of potentially hazardous airborne exposures have been performed, and the causality of work-related pulmonary problems among waste collectors is unknown. Recent studies have indicated that implementation of some new waste collection systems may result in an increased risk of occupational health problems. High incidence rates of gastrointestinal problems, irritation of the eye and skin, and perhaps symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (influenza-like symptoms, cough, muscle pains, fever, fatigue, headache) have been reported among workers collecting the biodegradable fraction of domestic waste. The few data available on exposure to bio-aerosols and volatile compounds have indicated that these waste collectors may be simultaneously exposed to multiple agents such as dust containing bacteria, endotoxin, mould spores, glucans, volatile organic compounds, and diesel exhaust. Several studies have reported similar health problems as well as high incidence rates of pulmonary disease among workers at plants recycling domestic waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O

1995-01-01

63

Domestic water conservation practices in Tlemcen City (Algeria)  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last three decades, citizens of an Algerian city are concerned with the problem of drinking water supply. Time discontinuation service became the rule. The central idea of the analysis based on interviews is to assess the role of water in the organization of the relationship between habitat and users. The fundamental question is how users, in particular women, incorporate water in their daily lives due to rationing. Having to deal with the discontinuous and frequent weak water supply, the inhabitants of the city of Tlemcen who are connected to the water supply system, as well as those connected to the water system of all Algerian towns, have developed an internal water storage system to sort out this problem. The imposed rationing has proved to be expensive for consumers. The water shortage pushed the consumers to invest in relatively expensive storage and pumping facilities to satisfy their domestic needs. As the frequency of the water supply is on a two times per week basis, the survey reveals a discrepancy in terms of volumes consumed and stored by each household. The use of water depends on the individual storage facility and the frequency of the supply. The life of the households, particularly that of the housewives, depends on the availability of water and thus on the schedules of the Company of Production of Water "Algerian Des Eaux'' (ADE). This is particularly the case when they are supplied during the night.

Habi, Mohammed; Harrouz, Omar

2014-03-01

64

Patterns, structures and regulations of domestic water cycle systems in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestic water cycle systems serving as one critical component of artificial water cycle at the catchment's scale, is so closely related to public healthy, human rights and social-economic development, and has gained the highest priority in strategic water resource and municipal infrastructure planning. In this paper, three basic patterns of domestic water cycle systems are identified and analyzed, including rural domestic water system (i.e. primary level), urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) and metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level), with different "abstract-transport-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of water consumption (such as drinking, cooking, toilet flushing, showering or cleaning). The rural domestic water system is general simple with three basic "abstract-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of basic water consumption such as drinking, cooking, washing and sanitation. The urban domestic water system has relative complex mechanisms of "abstract-supply-consume-treatment-discharge" and more micro-components of water consumption such as bath, dishwashing or car washing. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) has the most complex mechanisms by considering internal water reuse, external wastewater reclamation, and nutrient recycling processes. The detailed structures for different water cycle pattern are presented from the aspects of water quantity, wastewater quality and nutrients flow. With the speed up of urbanization and development of social-economy in China, those three basic patterns are interacting, transforming and upgrading. According to the past experiences and current situations, urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) is the dominant pattern based on indicator of system number or system scale. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) is the idealized model for the future development and management. Current domestic water system management efforts typically fail in China, because the approach is generally narrowly-focused and fragmented. This paper put forward a total-process control framework following the water and pollutants (or nutrients) flows along the dualistic domestic water cycle process. Five key objectives of domestic water cycle system regulation are identified including water use safety, water use equity, water saving, wastewater reduction and nutrient recycling. Comprehensive regulatory framework regarding administrative, economic, technical and social measures is recommended to promote sustainable domestic water usage and demand management. Considering the relatively low affordability in rural area, economic measures should be mainly applied in urban domestic water systems and metropolitan domestic water systems. Engineering or technological measures which are suitable to the three domestic water cycle systems are discussed respectively.

Chu, Junying; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Dayong

2010-05-01

65

Molecular markers for identifying municipal, domestic and agricultural sources of organic matter in natural waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular markers can be used to determine the sources of organic pollution in water. This review summarizes progress made during the last two decades in identifying reliable molecular markers to distinguish pollution from sewage, animal production, and other sources. Two artificial sweeteners, sucralose and acesulfame-K, are sufficiently stable to be molecular markers and easily associated with domestic wastewater. Waste from different animal species may be distinguished by profiling fecal sterols and bile acids. Other markers which have been evaluated, including caffeine, detergent components, and compounds commonly leached from landfills are discussed. PMID:24200048

Harwood, John J

2014-01-01

66

Domestic Separation and Collection of Municipal Solid Waste: Opinion and Awareness of Citizens and Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The state of the art on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW management is based on the domestic separation of materials produced. After domestic separation, the resident has to transfer the separated materials to the MSW manager through the hands of collection workers. It is exactly at this stage that an end-use product changes its status and property becomes waste. This paper analyzes and compares the opinions and awareness of citizens and kerbside collection workers on this subject by means of two structured questionnaires in the city of Mercato San Severino (about 22,000 people, in Southern Italy.

Giovanni De Feo

2010-05-01

67

High Strength Lightweight Nanocomposite from Domestic Solid Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue of waste problems needs innovative efforts to solve. One of them is solid waste utilization as nanocomposite using polyurethane (PU) polymer as matrix. Beside using solid waste as filler, nanosilica is also added to improve the material strength of composite-produced. These materials were mixed by simple mixing with variative compositions, and then hot-pressed at 30 MPa and 100° C for 30 minutes. From compressive strength test, it was found that composite with composition 2:8 of PU and solid waste has optimum compressive strength, i.e. 160 MPa. Into this optimum composition, nanosilica then is added to improve the compressive strength and found that at composition 1:40:160 of nanosilica, PU and solid waste, the composite has optimum compressive strength 200 MPa, or increases 25% of that without nanosilica. The composite-produced is also lightweight material with the density is 0.69 g/cm.

Masturi, Swardhani, Anggi Puspita; Sustini, Euis; Bukit, Minsyahril; Mora, Khairurrijal, Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

2010-10-01

68

Radiation treatment of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation treatment of waste water is reviewed. The aspects considered are: effect on chemical oxygen demand or biochemical oxygen demand; effect on specific pollutants; effect on sewage sludge; disinfection. The basic radiation interactions are given. Potential radiation sources -accelerators or radioisotopes - are considered, and operating pilot plant systems are described. (U.K.)

69

Application analysis of high integrity container on domestic radioactive waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper simply described three kinds of material high integrity containers, and accordingly emphasized the cross linked polyethylene HIC used in the domestic projects under construction, focusing on the waste treatment proposal coupling with HIC model and the advantages and disadvantages comparing with the cement solidification proposal. Many aspects are analyzed including waste filling and HIC lifting, transportation, and final disposal. The potential solutions are pointed out for the issues and the post actions as well. (authors)

70

Simultaneous treatment of SO2 containing stack gases and waste water  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for simultaneously removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and the like and purifying waste water such as derived from domestic sewage is described. A portion of the gas stream and a portion of the waste water, the latter containing dissolved iron and having an acidic pH, are contacted in a closed loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone to effect absorption of the sulfur dioxide into the waste water. A second portion of the gas stream and a second portion of the waste water are controlled in an open loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone. The second portion of the waste water contains a lesser amount of iron than the first portion of the waste water. Contacting in the openloop scrubbing zone is sufficient to acidify the waste water which is then treated to remove solids originally present.

Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D. (inventors)

1978-01-01

71

[Composition of separate collected domestic waste from Breda.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report presents the results of sorting analyses with household waste, collected after separate collection at source in the municipality of Breda and form part of a pilot project, called "Model Breda". The main purpose of this project is to achieve a more extended reduction of the amount of household (packaging) waste by separate collection at source, as mentioned in the Packaging Convention, an agreement between the Government and the packaging industry....

Kmm, Oh

2012-01-01

72

EC Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive  

Dec 7, 2004 ... Freshwater quality · Chemical river quality · Biological river quality ... The EC \\Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC covers the collection and \\treatment of urban waste water and the disposal of sewage sludge.

73

The estimation of radiological impact from the disposal of radionuclides with domestic and commercial wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the UK, limited quantities of radionuclides are disposed of with non-radioactive domestic and commercial wastes under the terms of Exemption Orders or Authorisations granted by the Radiochemical Inspectorate. This report presents a methodology and basis for the calculation of individual and collective doses to workers and to members of the public from such disposals. (author)

74

Chloride/bromide and chloride/fluoride ratios of domestic sewage effluents and associated contaminated ground water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To establish geochemical tools for tracing the origin of ground water contamination, the authors examined the variations of Cl/Br and Cl/F (weight) ratios in (1) domestic waste water from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project and from reservoirs in the central coast of Israel; (2) associated contaminated ground water; and (3) pristine ground water from the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel. The data show that supply water, anthropogenic NaCl and fluoridation control the Cl/Br and Cl/F ratios of domestic waste water, and conventional sewage treatment does not affect the anthropogenic inorganic signals. The Cl/Br ratios of ground water contaminated with sewage effluent reflect conservative mixing proportions of sewage and regional ground water components. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that it is possible to detect and distinguish sewage contamination from marine ratios after a sewage contribution of 5 to 15% is mixed with regional ground water. Mixing with Br-enriched fresh water however, would reduce this sensitivity. Since the high Cl/Br signal of sewage effluents is distinguishable from other anthropogenic sources with low Cl/Br ratios and from natural contamination sources, Cl/Br ratios can therefore be a useful inorganic tracer for identification of the origin of contaminated ground water. The Cl/F ratios of sewage-contaminated ground water were higher than those in the original sewage effluent, which suggests retention of fluoride into the aquifer solid phase.

Vengosh, A.; Pankratov, I. [Hydrological Service, Jerusalem (Israel)

1998-09-01

75

The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision-known as 'domestic-plus' services-the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. PMID:24337891

Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

2014-12-01

76

Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are being currently developed. As distinct from many other domains to which the concept of water security is applied, domestic or personal water security requires a perspective that incorporates the reciprocal notions of provision and risk, as the current status of domestic water and sanitation security is dominated by deficiency This paper reviews the interaction of science and technology with policies, practice and monitoring, and explores how far domestic water can helpfully fit into the proposed concept of water security, how that is best defined, and how far the human right to water affects the situation. It is considered that they fit well together in terms both of practical planning of targets and indicators and as a conceptual framework to help development. The focus needs to be broad, to extend beyond households, to emphasize maintenance as well as construction and to increase equity of access. International and subnational monitoring need to interact, and monitoring results need to be meaningful to service providers as well as users. PMID:24080628

Bradley, David J; Bartram, Jamie K

2013-11-13

77

Assessment of U.S. domestic capacity for producing reactor-grade thorium dioxide and controlling associated wastes and effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Demand for reactor-grade ThO2 is likely to increase as a result of the growing interest in the application of the thorium-uranium fuel cycle to nuclear reactors. The wastes and effluents identified with the production of ThO2 from monazite sand are waste water, tailings, dust, smoke and gas, and radionuclides (primarily, 232Th and 226Ra). There are currently an estimated 1,500 short tons of crude thorium hydroxide byproduct that can be readily converted to reactor-grade ThO2. The present maximum domestic capacity for producing reactor-grade ThO2 is about 65 to 100 ton/year. The current domestic capacity for producing reactor-grade ThO2 is sufficient to sustain a thorium-uranium fuel cycle of up to 11,000 MW(e) without recycling thorium, depending on the mix of reactor types selected. This range can be increased to 28,000 MW(e) by expanding ThO2 purification capacity to match the current production rate of crude thorium byproduct. Potential constraints identified which may impact the expansion of domestic ThO2 production are (1) uncertainty in the marketplace, (2) limited available thorium for production of reactor-grade ThO2, (3) limited production capacity, and (4) mounting public concern over current levels of radioactivity detected at various points in the production process of thorium and uranium products

78

Waste Water Treatment Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

79

DETERMINATION OF WASTE WATER AND WASTE SLUDGE QUALITY FROM WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT USING CHEMOMETRICS METHODS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data from monitoring of waste water and waste sludge were gathered from waste water treatment plant during 1999 to 2004. Additionally data from year 2007 for two months, namely November and December were provided. For data evaluation different chemometric methods were used: basic statistical methods for determination of mean and median values, standard deviation, minimal and maximal values of measured physical and chemical parameters and their mutual correlation coefficients, principal co...

Rihter Zagoric?nik, Urs?ka

2009-01-01

80

Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discussed recent research related to the use of peat in removing contaminants from domestic wastewater, oil-contaminated water, and soil. The review also discussed methods of pretreating peat before its application to polluted area. Pretreatment processes are needed to remove components in peat that interfere with treatment mechanisms. Polymers are added to peat in order to encourage the aggregation of the peat particles into larger colloidal particles that are easy to dewater. Phosphoric acid treatments are also applied to increase the swelling capacity of peat. Hydrogen peroxide is used to break down oil-contaminated peat in order to facilitate its subsequent decomposition. Experiments have demonstrated that peat is an effective adsorbent for many different types of oil. Studies have demonstrated that the removal rate for standard mineral and crude oils from wastewater using peat was 83 and 70 per cent. Applications of commercial peat to the surface of oily contaminated waters resulted in oil removal efficiencies of 99.998 per cent. It was concluded that peat is an effective, low-cost material for removing contaminants from domestic waste water and oil-contaminated water. The peat can also be used as a secondary energy source after the sorption process. While peat is an abundant resource in Canada, the resource is found mainly in wetlands. Effective harvesting strategies should be used to ensure the environmental sustainability of peat filtration systems.sustainability of peat filtration systems. 38 refs., 1 tab

 
 
 
 
81

Fermentative Production of Ethanol fuel from Domestic Waste by Pichia stipitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of Ethanol fuel from the garbage/kitchen waste was carried out with the main purpose of converting the domestic waste into a useful material. The conversion of food waste or garbage by acid hydrolysis was carried out to obtain fermentable sugars, which was converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Pichia stipitis. The present study indicated that at 36 h of incubation resulted in utilization of 29 g/L of glucose with yield of 9.2 g/L ethanol. Compared to various sugars the glucose resulted in the production of ethanol.

Modugu P

2013-05-01

82

Assessment of Determinants of Domestic Water Demand in Rural Areas of Swaziland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is based on a study in which questionnaire interviews were administered to investigate the determinants of domestic water demand in rural areas of Swaziland. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed in Siphofaneni area to provide primary data for this study. The study discovered that average domestic water use per person per day was only 10 L and most households had unmet water demand for most domestic uses. The results suggest that income, household size and distance from h...

Gamedze, K.; Tevera, D. S.; Chemhaka, G. B.

2012-01-01

83

Ground water share in supplying domestic water in Khartoum state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research study of the sources of groundwater from wells and stations that rely on the national authority for urban water in the state of Khartoum, this study includes three areas, namely the Khartoum area, North Khartoum and Omdurman area. This research evaluate and identify the sources of groundwater from wells and stations and find out the productivity of wells and underground stations. The study period were identified from 2004 to 2008 during this commoners were Alabaralgeoffip Knowledge Production and stations from the water. The methods used in this study was to determine the sources of groundwater from wells and stations in the three areas with the knowledge of the percentage in each year and the total amount of water produced from wells and stations in Khartoum, North Khartoum and Omdurman it is clear from this study that the percentage of productivity in the annual increase to varying degrees in floater from 2004 to 2008 and also clear that the Omdurman area depends on groundwater wells over a maritime area of stations based on stations with more and more consumption of Khartoum and the sea. Also been identified on the tank top and bottom of the tank where the chemical properties and physical properties after the identification of these qualities and characteristics have been identified the quantity and quality of water produced from wells and stations. (Author)

84

[Municipal waste water treatment plants.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This document on municipal waste water treatment plants has been published within the WESP cooperation project: the Working group Emissions of Service industries and Product use. In this project information has been collected on processes in the target groups of consumers, construction, service industries, environmental firms and recreation to get agreement about the data used bij different institutes and to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This ...

Cj, Peek

2007-01-01

85

Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes). In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I), industrial waste water (group II), sewage treatment hub (group III), unorganized collected waste water (group IV) and old residential waste colle...

Chandan Kumar Bahura; Dau Lal Bohra; Vikas Modasiya

2012-01-01

86

Features of waste water quality in Zongguan water plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper takes waste water from Zongguan waterworks as a research object. The waste water was monitored consecutively and found that: the SS of waste water was more than 90 times of which in original water, COD was more than 30 times, and Fe was 58 times. The SS and turbidness showed no linear relation except when they were lower. The SS and Fe accord with linearity relation was better. The difference between waste water that from overhead crane at the beginning and in the end was wide. Although the flux of backwash wastes was small but the impact of it over the quality of water was very high.

Hadi Naba Shakir

2008-10-01

87

Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot-water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand, the volume is large; in periods with a small hot-water demand, the volume is small. Two small SDHW systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25%by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large or small hot-water consumption and the risk of oversized solar heating systems and oversized tank volumes is reduced by using smart solar tanks. Based on the investigations it is recommended to start development of smart solar tank units with an oil-fired boiler or a natural gas burner as auxiliary energy supply system.

Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

2005-01-01

88

Departmental plans of domestic wastes management - evaluation 2002; Plans departementaux d'elimination des dechets menager assimiles - bilan 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The departmental plans of domestic wastes management are official documents which manage the actions needed to realize the legislative and regulation objectives concerning the domestic wastes and related wastes. A first evaluation has been realized in 1997 for 47 edited plans. In the context of the new wastes policy a new evaluation has been realized by the ADEME in 2002 for 98 plans. It provides the methodology of the study, the analysis of the plans, the sites and management of wastes, economic data, the equipment and investments. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-03-01

89

Caffeine and pharmaceuticals as indicators of waste water contamination in wells  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of caffeine or human pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations can provide a clear, unambiguous indication that domestic waste water is a source of some of the nitrate. Water from domestic, public supply, and monitoring wells in three communities near Reno, Nevada, was sampled to test if caffeine or pharmaceuticals are common, persistent, and mobile enough in the environment that they can be detected in nitrate-contaminated ground water and, thus, can be useful indicators of recharge from domestic waste water. Results of this study indicate that these compounds can be used as indicators of recharge from domestic waste water, although their usefulness is limited because caffeine is apparently nonconservative and the presence of prescription pharmaceuticals is unpredictable. The absence of caffeine or pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations does not demonstrate that the aquifer is free of waste water contamination. Caffeine was detected in ground water samples at concentrations up to 0.23 ??g/L. The human pharmaceuticals chlorpropamide, phensuximide, and carbamazepine also were detected in some samples.

Seiler, R.L.; Zaugg, S.D.; Thomas, J.M.; Howcroft, D.L.

1999-01-01

90

Sorting and recycling of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to reduce the strain on the environment from the deposition of waste in landfills and combustion at incineration plants, several governments throughout the industrialized world have planned greatly increased recycling of domestic waste by the turn of the millennium. To implement the plans, new waste recycling facilities are to be built and the number of workers involved in waste sorting and recycling will increase steadily during the next decade. Several studies have reinforced the hypothesis that exposure to airborne microorganisms and the toxic products thereof are important factors causing a multitude of health problems among workers at waste sorting and recycling plants. Workers at transfer stations, landfills and incineration plants may experience an increased risk of pulmonary disorders and gastrointestinal problems. High concentrations of total airborne dust, bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria and fungal spores have been reported. The concentrations are considered to be sufficiently high to cause adverse health effects. In addition, a high incidence of lower back injuries, probably due to heavy lifting during work, has been reported among workers at landfills and incineration plants. Workers involved in manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste, as well as workers at compost plants experience more or less frequent symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) (cough, chest-tightness, dyspnoea, influenza-like symptoms such as chills, fever, muscle ache, joint pain, fatigue and headache), gastrointestinal problems such as nausea and diarrhoea, irritation of the skin, eye and mucous membranes of the nose and upper airways, etc. In addition cases of severe occupational pulmonary diseases (asthma, alveolitis, bronchitis) have been reported. Manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste may be associated with exposures to large quantities of airborne bacteria and endotoxin. Several work functions in compost plants can result in very high exposure to airborne fungal spores and thermophilic actinomycetes. At plants sorting separated domestic waste, e.g. the combustible fraction of waste composed of paper, cardboard and plastics, the workers may have an increased risk of gastrointestinal symptoms and irritation of the eyes and skin. At such plants the bioaerosol exposure levels are in general low, but at some work tasks, e.g. manual sorting and work near the balers, exposure levels may occasionally be high enough to be potentially harmful. Workers handling the source-sorted paper or cardboard fraction do not appear to have an elevated risk of occupational health problems related to bioaerosol exposure, and the bioaerosol exposure is generally low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7610383

Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O; Ebbehøj, N; Hansen, A M; Ivens, U I; van Lelieveld, D; Malmros, P; Matthiasen, L; Nielsen, B H; Nielsen, E M

1995-05-19

91

Sorting and recycling of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to reduce the strain on the environment from the deposition of waste in landfills and combustion at incineration plants, several governments throughout the industrialized world have planned greatly increased recycling of domestic waste by the turn of the millennium. To implement the plans, new waste recycling facilities are to be built and the number of workers involved in waste sorting and recycling will increase steadily during the next decade. Several studies have reinforced the hypothesis that exposure to airborne microorganisms and the toxic products thereof are important factors causing a multitude of health problems among workers at waste sorting and recycling plants. Workers at transfer stations, landfills and incineration plants may experience an increased risk of pulmonary disorders and gastrointestinal problems. High concentrations of total airborne dust, bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria and fungal spores have been reported. The concentrations are considered to be sufficiently high to cause adverse health effects. In addition, a high incidence of lower back injuries, probably due to heavy lifting during work, has been reported among workers at landfills and incineration plants. Workers involved in manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste, as well as workers at compost plants experience more or less frequent symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) (cough, chest-tightness, dyspnoea, influenza-like symptoms such as chills, fever, muscle ache, joint pain, fatigue and headache), gastrointestinal problems such as nausea and diarrhoea, irritation of the skin, eye and mucous membranes of the nose and upper airways, etc. In addition cases of severe occupational pulmonary diseases (asthma, alveolitis, bronchitis) have been reported. Manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste may be associated with exposures to large quantities of airborne bacteria and endotoxin. Several work functions in compost plants can result in very high exposure to airborne fungal spores and thermophilic actinomycetes. At plants sorting separated domestic waste, e.g. the combustible fraction of waste composed of paper, cardboard and plastics, the workers may have an increased risk of gastrointestinal symptoms and irritation of the eyes and skin. At such plants the bioaerosol exposure levels are in general low, but at some work tasks, e.g. manual sorting and work near the balers, exposure levels may occasionally be high enough to be potentially harmful. Workers handling the source-sorted paper or cardboard fraction do not appear to have an elevated risk of occupational health problems related to bioaerosol exposure, and the bioaerosol exposure is generally low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O

1995-01-01

92

Economic contributions from the sun for heating domestic hot water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report economic contributions from the sun for heating domestic hot water has been analyzed by ''the present-value method''. The yield of the solar systems is estimated by computer programmes developed by ''The Thermal Insulation Laboratory'' of ''The Technical University of Denmark''. Systems applicable for existing housing as well as systems applicable for new houses have been studied. The most important conclusions are: The price level of solar systems for existing houses is at present some what too high to have solar heat improve the economy of the installation, when comparing with systems based on flow water heaters. The price of solar systems must be reduced by 30% for a 2-3 m/sup 2/ solar system (optimal size) in order to make it an attractive alternative. Such a price reduction is not unrealistic for the small solar systems which can be expected on the Danish market in the immediate years, thus making solar systems attractive, even when the present government subsidies expire. By installation of solar systems in new houses the additional expense for installing the solar system is small. Under these circumstances investment in solar heating will give a better interest than an investment in a system consisting only of a flow water heater.

Pedersen, S.; Furbo, S.; Nordgaard Hansen, P.; Ussing, V.

1982-12-01

93

Domestic water supply, competition for water resources and IWRM in Tanzania: a review and discussion paper  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the historical development of domestic water supplies in Tanzania, the consequences of major policy shifts during the last seven decades, and some of the reasons for the failure of water supply systems. It considers the extent to which water resource issues are constraints in meeting the water supply needs of rural and urban populations, and the relevance of integrated water resources management to the WSS sector. Drawing upon case-study material from two major river basins, the Pangani and Rufiji, it reviews some of the practical steps being taken to implement IWRM principles in Tanzania.

Maganga, Faustin P.; Butterworth, John A.; Moriarty, Patrick

94

Design a Close Loop Cooling System for EA-P1 and Its Auxiliaries to Prevent Loss of Domestic Water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Any one of four machines i.e. EA-P1, EA-J4, EA-J5 and EA-J6 may be used to develop vacuum in water box side of main condenser in KANUPP. As per design and operating experience, most efficient one is EA-P1. But since it consumes ample quantity of domestic water which is already very short at KANUPP (even tankers are purchased), its use is avoided. If water used for its cooling is prevented from going to waste and is recycled. EA-P1 operation may be resumed thereby improving efficiency of condenser. We made a close loop for EA-P1 in order to prevent water from going to waste. For this purpose we suggested two close loop schemes and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Feasibility of both schemes is present in this report and efficient one is proposed for installation at KANUPP. (author)

95

Endocrine disrupting chemical emissions from combustion sources: diesel particulate emissions and domestic waste open burn emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from combustion sources are poorly characterized due to the large number of compounds present in the emissions, the complexity of the analytical separations required, and the uncertainty regarding identification of chemicals with endocrine effects. In this work, multidimensional gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) was used to characterize emissions from both controlled (diesel engine) and uncontrolled (open burning of domestic waste) combustion sources. The results of this study suggest that, by using MDGC-MS, one can resolve a much greater percentage of the chromatogram and identify about 84% of these resolved compounds. This increase in resolution helped to identify and quantify various classes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the combustion emissions that had not been identified previously. Significant emissions (when compared to industrial sources) of known EDCs, dioctyl phthalate (over ˜2,500,000 kg year -1) and bisphenol A (over ˜75,000 kg year -1) were estimated from uncontrolled domestic waste burning. Emissions of several suspected EDCs (oxygenated PAHs) were observed in both diesel soot and the uncontrolled domestic waste burn samples. The emission rates of known and suspected EDCs estimated in this study suggest that combustion emissions need to be characterized for EDCs to further assess its importance as a source of EDC exposure.

Sidhu, Sukh; Gullett, Brian; Striebich, Richard; Klosterman, Joy; Contreras, Jesse; DeVito, Michael

96

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01

97

Investigating the Effectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV) Water Purification as Replacement of Chlorine Disinfection in Domestic Water Supply  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Domestic water supply to residential buildings through hand-dug wells has been widely accepted as a reliable substitute to government owned municipal water supply system in Nigeria. This Paper investigates theeffectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV) Water Sterilizers as a suitable replacement of chlorine disinfection in the removal of microbiological contaminants in domestic water supply. Water from an established contaminated well in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, were subjected, simultaneously and in parallel...

Olaoye; Adedayo Ayodele; Adegbola; Rebecca Adepate

2012-01-01

98

Waste Water Disinfection Utilizing Ultraviolet Light  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

3, NO3, NO2 and NH3 were determined using water analysis kit by Hague while the microbial analysis was carried out using the MacConkey agar plate. The UV disinfection method was found suitable for treatment of waste water. This is obvious since the treated sample of water had lower coliform count than the other waste water samples. The favourable quality of the UV disinfected water was also observed in its improved chemical properties especially amm...

Ibeto, C. N.; Mgbenka, B. O.; Oparaku, N. F.

2011-01-01

99

State of Art About water Uses and Waste water Management in Lebanon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper shows the real situation about management of water and waste water in Lebanon and focuses on problems related to urban water pollution released in environment. Water and waste water infrastructures have been rebuilt since 1992. However, waste water management still remains one of the greatest challenges facing Lebanese people, since water supply projects have been given priority over wastewater projects. As a consequence of an increased demand of water by agricultural, industrial and household sectors in the last decade, waste water flows have been increased. In this paper, the existing waste water treatment plants (WWTP) operating in Lebanon are presented. Most of them are small-scale community-based ones, only two large-scale plants, constructed by the government, are currently operational. Lebanese aquatic ecosystems are suffering from the deterioration of water quality because of an insufficient treatment of waste water, which is limited mostly to pre-treatment processes. In fact, domestic and industrial effluents are mainly conducted together in the sewer pipes to the WWTP before being discharged, without adequate treatment into the rivers or directly into the Mediterranean Sea. Such discharges are threatening the coastal marine ecosystem in the Mediterranean basin. This paper aims at giving the current state of knowledge about water uses and wastewater management in Lebanon. The main conclusion drawn from this state of art is a lack of data. In fact, state of art is a lack of data. In fact, the available data are limited to academic research without being representative on a national scale. (author)

100

A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

 
 
 
 
101

Features of waste water quality in Zongguan water plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper takes waste water from Zongguan waterworks as a research object. The waste water was monitored consecutively and found that: the SS of waste water was more than 90 times of which in original water, COD was more than 30 times, and Fe was 58 times. The SS and turbidness showed no linear relation except when they were lower. The SS and Fe accord with linearity relation was better. The difference between waste water that from overhead crane at the beginning and in the end was wide. Alt...

Hadi Naba Shakir

2008-01-01

102

Anaerobic digestion of source-segregated domestic food waste: performance assessment by mass and energy balance.  

Science.gov (United States)

An anaerobic digester receiving food waste collected mainly from domestic kitchens was monitored over a period of 426 days. During this time information was gathered on the waste input material, the biogas production, and the digestate characteristics. A mass balance accounted for over 90% of the material entering the plant leaving as gaseous or digestate products. A comprehensive energy balance for the same period showed that for each tonne of input material the potential recoverable energy was 405 kWh. Biogas production in the digester was stable at 642 m3 tonne(-1) VS added with a methane content of around 62%. The nitrogen in the food waste input was on average 8.9 kg tonne(-1). This led to a high ammonia concentration in the digester which may have been responsible for the accumulation of volatile fatty acids that was also observed. PMID:20797849

Banks, Charles J; Chesshire, Michael; Heaven, Sonia; Arnold, Rebecca

2011-01-01

103

Feasibility analysis of domestic hot water systems using TRNSYS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted in which 17 conventional and solar-based domestic hot water (DHW) systems were simulated using the TRYNSYS simulation model, and their results were compared. According to Natural Resources Canada, DHW heating currently accounts for 25 per cent of Canadian residential energy consumption and 25 per cent of Canadian residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate the fuel consumption of DHW systems, their GHG emissions and 30-year life cycle costs. Another aspect of the study was to model and analyze the effect of time of use (TOU) electricity pricing which was developed by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) to provide stable and predictable electricity pricing. TOU electricity pricing also promotes energy conservation. In addition, the TOU electricity price charged per kilowatt-hour changes throughout the day to reflect the changes in cost to produce electricity at different times of the day. The Ontario government plans to equip all homes and businesses with smart meters using TOU pricing by 2010. Therefore, this study also investigated the effects of the TOU feature by optimizing its use in the effort to reduce overall energy costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results revealed that a DHW system with solar pre-heat and electrical back-up is the best system for energy conservation and GHG reduction. The best system in terms of 30-year life cycle cost is a high efficiency DHW system with aost is a high efficiency DHW system with an on demand modulating gas combo boiler with gray water heat recovery. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

104

Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

Bradley, D.E.

1997-12-31

105

Onsite Waste Water Treatment System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs have evolved from the pit privies used widely throughout history to installations capable of producing a disinfected effluent that is fit for human consumption. Although achieving such a level of effluent quality is seldom necessary, the ability of onsite systems to remove settles able solids, floatable grease and scum, nutrients, and pathogens. From wastewater discharges defines their importance in protecting human health and environmental resources. In the modern era, the typical onsite system has consisted primarily of a septic tank and a soil absorption field, also known as a subsurface wastewater infiltration system, or SWIS. In this manual, such systems are referred to as conventional systems. Septic tanks remove most settle able and floatable material and function as an anaerobic bioreactor that promotes partial digestion of retained organic matter. Septic tank effluent, which contains significant concentrations of pathogens and nutrients, has traditionally been discharged to soil, sand, or other media absorption fields (SWISs for further treatment through biological processes, adsorption, filtration, and infiltration into underlying soils. Conventional systems work well if they are installed in areas with appropriate soils and hydraulic capacities; designed to treat the incoming waste load to meet public health, ground water, and surface water performance standards; installed properly; and maintained to ensure long-term performance. These criteria, however, are often not met. Only about one-third of the land area in the United States has soils suited for conventional subsurface soil absorption fields. System densities in some areas exceed the capacity of even suitable soils to assimilate wastewater flows and retain and transform their contaminants. In addition, many systems are located too close to ground water or surface waters and others, particularly in rural areas with newly installed public water lines, are not designed to handle increasing wastewater flows.

T. Subramani

2014-06-01

106

Radiation disinfection of waste and natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possibilities of utilization of ionizing radiation for disinfection of waste and natural waters and basic principles of radiation disinfection are presented. Present-day representations on the mechanism of radiation of natural and waste waters are considered and experimental results on the method verification are presented. Experience in the radiation disinfection technique application at industrial plants is described

107

TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER IN SHALLOW WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS FOR AGRICULTURAL IRRIGATION REUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Waste stabilization ponds are a well established wastewater treatment system being considered by World Health Organization as one of the most appropriated technology for domestic wastewater when agricultural reuse is considered, especially in developing countries. This study was performed in a series of pilot-scale stabilization ponds, being one facultative and three maturation ponds, with depths varying from 0.44 to 0.57 m. The substrate to be treated was composed of a mixture of domestic wastewater and previously anaerobicaly treated leachate. The experimental system was monitored in two different phases, in which the hydraulic retention times were 15 (phase 1 and 10 days (phase 2. Termotolerant coliform removal efficiencies were 3.8 log10 units in both phases while organic matter (BOD5 removal was 87 and 68% for phases 1 and 2, respectively.

Valderi Duarte Leite

2009-12-01

108

Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

109

Characterization of domestic wastes incineration clinkers. Study on the possibilities of dioxines transfer in the environment; Caracterisation des machefers d'incineration d'ordures menageres. Etude sur les possibilites de transfert de dioxines vers l'environnement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The clinkers, resulting from the domestic wastes incineration, contain dioxines. In order to evaluate the possible transfer of these pollutants in the environment, especially towards the underground water, this document brings together data on the dioxines content in clinkers from domestic wastes incineration, other combustion wastes and soils. After a comparison of the dioxines content and the emission factors, the report presents the experimental study on the transfer vectors identification. (A.L.B.)

Bartet, B.

2001-07-15

110

Domestic water uses: Characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. - Highlights: • This paper presents a method to find out the pattern of water use in dwellings. • The number of uses per person a day, by domestic device, is presented. • The volume spent per type of use by domestic device is presented. • The daily cycles per domestic device are presented. • Sociodemographic characteristics seem to affect the daily cycles.

Matos, Cristina, E-mail: crismato@utad.pt [ECT, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Apartado 1013, 5001801 Vila Real (Portugal); Teixeira, Carlos A. [CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real Portugal (Portugal); Duarte, A.A.L.S. [Civil Engineering Department, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Bentes, I. [ECT, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Apartado 1013, 5001801 Vila Real (Portugal)

2013-08-01

111

Domestic water uses: Characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. - Highlights: • This paper presents a method to find out the pattern of water use in dwellings. • The number of uses per person a day, by domestic device, is presented. • The volume spent per type of use by domestic device is presented. • The daily cycles per domestic device are presented. • Sociodemographic characteristics seem to affect the daily cycles

112

Effects of a domestic well on assessed performance of a nuclear fuel waste disposal system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is using a probabilistic systems assessment code, SYVAC (System Variability Analysis Code), to assess long-term radiological safety of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a hypothetical vault excavated deep in plutonic rock. Initially, we employ a finite element code MOTIF (Model Of Transport In Fractured Porous Media) to simulate the convection of contaminants from the hypothetical vault, through the geosphere containing a well, to the biosphere. Then the results of this detailed research model are used to construct a simplified geosphere submodel (GEONET) for assessment using SYVAC. This paper presents (1) a domestic well as a human intrusion into the nuclear fuel waste disposal vault, (2) the method used to condense the detailed model to the simplified SYVAC geosphere submodel, and (3) results showing, for the particular geological conditions incorporated in these simulations, the consequences of the well on the risk assessment. The results from MOTIF and SYVAC indicate that, for the disposal vault and geological conditions assumed in these cases, human intrusion in the form of a domestic well must be considered in the performance assessment

113

Management of domestic solid wastes at the Akwapim South Municipality: a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The key findings of a solid waste characterization study conducted at Nsawam and Adoagyiri of the Akwapim South Municipality are reported. Household waste generated by a number of residents of these two important towns of the Municipality, were collected through a two-way stratification based on differences in income levels and class of residential areas over a 12- week period, between December 2007 and March 2008. A total of 24 collections were made and about 2319 kg of household solid wastes were collected, weighed and classified according to the various components of the waste streams after thoroughly sorting the waste. Each component of the waste stream (i.e. organic, paper, plastics, metals/cans, textiles, glass, inert materials/residues and miscellaneous components) was then reweighed and the weights recorded. Information on demographics such as household size, characteristics and detailed information on household waste management practices of the study areas were obtained through a self administered questionnaire. Other physico-chemical characteristics of the collected household solid waste such as moisture content, density and volumes and heavy metals were measured. The average waste composition from Nsawam were 62% organic component, 7% paper and card component, 8% plastic and rubber component, 1 % glass component, 3% metal/can component, 2% textile component, 14% residues or inert materials and 3% miscellaneous or other waste component. However, for Adoagyirher waste component. However, for Adoagyiri, average composition revealed 50% organic component, 10% paper component, 12% plastics and rubber, 3% glass, 4% metal, 2 % textile, 15% residues or inert materials and 4% miscellaneous or other waste. The study also sought to examine the extent to which household demographics influenced waste stream character. Physico-chemical analysis was also conducted on composite samples of domestic solid waste from the two towns. The results of this analysis yielded information on the compostable and combustible proportions of the waste, moisture content, and elemental concentrations of the wastes. The range of compostable proportions was 42-44% whereas the range of the combustible proportions was 39-45%. The moisture content range was 49.6% - 60.0%. The analysis of metal ions concentrations in composite samples of household solid organic waste, plastic and paper waste were done using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for (Ca, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Al, Cl, V ) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for (Fe, Ni, Pb, Co, Cr and Cd). Higher average concentrations of 3.79?g/g and 0.35?g/g were recorded for Pb and Cd respectively in organic waste stream component as compared to 3.48?g/g and 0.32?g/g in paper/cardboard waste stream and 0.66?g/g and 0.32?g/g in rubber/plastic waste stream components respectively. These values are comparable to literature values (au).

114

Optimization of PWR waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 has mandated specific volume limitations for waste generators and disposal sites. This, combined with increasing cost, has caused added emphasis to be placed on waste minimization and volume reduction. Since waste streams, as well as technical specifications for water release or re-use, differ from plant to plant, this effort to minimize and reduce waste must be site specific. Over the past several years, numerous water treatment technologies have become available and have resulted in reduced waste generation. This paper discusses the combination of various technologies Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. has applied to process Indian Point II's liquid waste streams, resulting in effective waste reduction program. Included in this discussion is the station's waste reduction program history, actions and results illustrated by the change from evaporation to state-of-the-art liquid waste processing. The paper demonstrates that the Indian Point experience has direct application to other PWRs in the areas of: (1) attempting to achieve the desired results through in-plant systems, (2) evaporator availability, (3) dealing with a waste stream which fluctuates over a broad spectrum and (4) changing from total waste recovery to discharge

115

PRIMING OF A LOW CAPACITY WASTE WATER TREATEMENT PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In wastewater treatment plants, secondary biologic treatment is generally compulsory for the localities having less than 10,000 equivalent inhabitants, with a supplementary removal of nutrients if the area is a sensitive one. For the areas which are not suitable for centralized household used water collecting network individual treatment devices or collective low capacity devices are recommended. For certain settlements, for instance for the mountainous dispersed villages, or for detached individual households or farms the collective devices can not be an economic solution as involves high maintenance costs and exploiting problems due to long pipes for low flow rates. Priming is one of the starting up processes of a waste water treatment plant. This is not a very difficult process and requires no specialized staff. However, for helping the owners of a low capacity treatment plant, priming of ORM 5 type mechanical - biological equipment consisting in a tank with four compartments, designed for five equivalent inhabitants was studied inside the plant of Timisoara municipality. For the experimental tests waste water from the Timisoara city sewage network was used. This is mixed waste water resulted from faecal/domestic, industrial and rain water. The study comprised tests in unfavorable technological conditions. The conclusions of the monitoring process underline the need of control of the aeration process and the negative technological and consequently the negative economic effect of the less effective process control.

Nicoleta Lumini?a Jurj

2012-12-01

116

Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

2003-01-01

117

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study has been undertaken to evaluate performance efficiency of a waste water treatment plant. A sewage treatment plant operating on biological treatment method (Activated Sludge Process) with an average wastewater inflow of 23MLD bas been considered for case study. Waste water samples were collected at different stages of treatment units and analysed for the major water quality parameters, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid...

Sundara Kumar, K.; P. SUNDARA KUMAR,; Ratnakanth Babu, Dr M. J.

2010-01-01

118

Integrated waste and water management system  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

1986-01-01

119

Waste Water Disinfection Utilizing Ultraviolet Light  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 3, NO3, NO2 and NH3 were determined using water analysis kit by Hague while the microbial analysis was carried out using the MacConkey agar plate. The UV disinfection method was found suitable for treatment of waste water. This is obvious since the treated sample of water had lower coliform count than the other waste water samples. The favourable quality of the UV disinfected water was also observed in its improved chemical properties especially ammonia and dissolved oxygen.

C.N. Ibeto

2011-01-01

120

50 CFR 300.65 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in waters in and off Alaska.  

Science.gov (United States)

...domestic management measures in waters in and off Alaska. 300.65 Section 300.65 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING...FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries § 300.65 Catch sharing plan and domestic management...

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

The potential of Zea mays, Commelina bengelensis, Helianthus annuus and Amaranthus hybridus for phytoremediation of waste water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waste-water from domestic use and from industrial effluent burden the water systems with high levels of heavy metal hence there is need to remove these heavy metals so that the waste water can be recycled for use for household or irrigation. The present study has screened Zea mays (maize), Commelina bengelensis (wondering jew), Helianthus annuus (sunflower) and Amaranthus hybridus (amaranthus) for their ability to bioaccumulate Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn metals. The results obtained show that the H. a...

Chacha Joseph Sarima; Eric Rang’ondi, Okong O.; Kimenyu Phylis Njeri; Oyaro Nathan Mayora

2012-01-01

122

Numerical hydraulic modeling of urban waste water collecting systems : Working Project at Chazelles-sur-Lyon, France  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban waste water collecting systems are designed to convey domestic, industrial and storm water. When sizing sewer network, heavy rainfall must be considered to provide the needed hydraulic capacity for collection. Maintenance is also required in order to avoid anomalies such as inflow, infiltration and unusual polluted discharges from Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs). Inflow and infiltration decrease the treatment yield at the Waste water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and participate in hydraulic o...

Genty, Stanislas

2014-01-01

123

Use of Industrial Waste Water for Agricultural Purpose: Pb and Cd in Vegetables in Bikaner City, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shortage of irrigation water resources is leading to the use of domestic and industrial waste water in agriculture. esp. in urban areas. Being contaminated by metals and various toxic chemicals these waste waters leads to the exposure of heavy metals and hazardous chemicals and the subsequent human health hazards through agriculture products and live stocks. Increasing cases of cancer and kidney problems is also related with this aspect. In present study human health risk assessment taken in ...

Rajendra Singh; Verma, R. S.; Yogita Yadav

2012-01-01

124

The speciation and subtyping of campylobacter isolates from sewage plants and waste water from a connected poultry abattoir using molecular techniques.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study the distribution of phenotypes of campylobacter strains in sewage and surface waters was investigated by subtyping and by speciation of isolates from various aquatic environments. These environments included two municipal sewage plants (SPA and SPB) and waste water from a poultry abattoir (WWA). Both the sewage plants SPA and SPB collected domestic and industrial waste, and SPA received drain water from WWA. SPB received no waste water from any meat-processing plant. The isolate...

Koenraad, P. M. F. J.; Ayling, R.; Hazeleger, W. C.; Rombouts, F. M.; Newell, D. G.

1995-01-01

125

Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project will develop and implement a methodology to compare and prioritize these technologies and optimizations based on a holistic approach. This will be achieved through the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) along with cost/efficiency analysis with focus on the effects of nutrients, pathogens and micropollutants (i.e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies.

Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

126

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT DOLENJSKE TOPLICE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because of the lack of capacity of the existing waste water treatment plant Dolenjske Toplice we need to build a new capacity, which would enlarge its total capacity from 2000PE to 4000PE. Enlarged waste water treatment plant will have to be modernized and equipped with automatic regulation and operational tell-tale. In the first part of dissertation the current state and existing technology of waste water treatment is being described. In the second part of dissertation, economical and t...

Hrvatin, Mitja

2009-01-01

127

SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT ON WASTE WATER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The graduation thesis introduces the possibility of using waste water to generate electricity in high-rise residential and service buildings. The opening chapters deal with small hydroelectric power plants and waste water potential. The following chapter presents similar projects in Slovenia and around the world. Moreover, the equipment for utilizing these sorts of energy potentials is being described. In the final chapters, there are energy potentials in high-rise residential building ...

Knuplez?, Matej

2013-01-01

128

Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

Rudd, A.

2012-08-01

129

First domestic primary loop recircuration pump for boiling water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two primary loop recirculation (PLR) pumps for the second unit of the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., have been manufactured by Ebara Corporation. They are the first domestically produced pumps for commercial power plants and were manufactured under license from Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg Warner Corporation. This article describes the special features of pump design and stress analysis, and the results of the 700 hours of factory loop tests, which are all essential for the PLR pump. (author)

130

On site domestic organic waste treatment through vermitechnology using indigenous earthworm species.  

Science.gov (United States)

In India the exotic epigeic species, Eisenia fetida is mostly used for vermicomposting. The introduction of exotic species into local bio system may affect the indigenous earthworm species population. A comparative study between exotic species (Eisenia fetida) and indigenous species Perionyx sansibaricus and Perionyx excavates was performed to determine the potential of indigenous species of the area vis-à-vis the exotic species for composting of domestic organic waste blended with cattle manure. The results of the study show a significant reduction in initial C/N ratio from 55 to 13 for P. excavates and 15 for P. sansibaricus of the ready product which was within the agronomic acceptable limit (?vermicompost) which is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and free from pathogens. PMID:21628345

Rajpal, Ankur; Bhargava, Renu; Sasi, Salin Kumar; Chopra, Ak

2012-03-01

131

Domestic rooftop water harvesting (DRWH)- A case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although water is as important for survival of human being as much as food, air etc., but hardly any attention is paid for its economical use and conservation of this precious resource. Due to indiscriminate pumping of ground water, the water table is going down abnormally and if the problem is not given a serious look, then the future generations may have to face severe crisis of water. Rains are the main source of water and if rain water is harvested, the scarcity of water can be eliminated...

Arun Kumar Dwivedi; Sudhir Singh Bhadauria

2009-01-01

132

Development of Standardized Domestic Hot Water Event Schedules for Residential Buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Building America Research Benchmark is a standard house definition created as a point of reference for tracking progress toward multi-year energy savings targets. As part of its development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has established a set of domestic hot water events to be used in conjunction with sub-hourly analysis of advanced hot water systems.

Hendron, R.; Burch, J.

2008-08-01

133

Waste water treatment using electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The waste water treatment using electron beam is the method of oxidizing and decomposing the polluting substances in water by utilizing the activated species having high chemical reactivity arising in water by irradiation. It is suitable to the treatment of waste water which is difficult to treat by conventional water treatment techniques. It has also sterilizing effect. At present the electron accelerators of 100 kV-5 MV accelerating voltage are on the market, and their technical reliability is high, accordingly they are utilized for many fields including the heightening of heat resistance of electric cables. For water treatment, the accelerators of 1 MV or higher are necessary. The principle and the features of this process are explained. The simplest method of applying electron beam to water treatment is that by simple irradiation only. But in the case of high concentration of polluting substances in water and their complex composition, the simple irradiation requires a large dose, therefore the method of combining with other water treatment techniques for effectively utilizing electron beam has been investigated. The methods of combining with microorganism processing, coagulation and sedimentation, or ozone oxidation are described. The treatment of industrial waste water, sewage and the effluent water from garbage-filled land is explained. (Kako, I.)

134

Waste water treatment in Bukkerup (VB)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In connection to the new waste water plan of Tølløse municipal the technical and environmental board has suggested that Bukkerup get a sewer system which brings the waste water to the treatment plant for Tysinge. All though the residents would like to list alternative suggestions which improve the local water environment but is still competitive.In this report the alternatives are listed, e.i. root system plants, sand filters and mini treatment plants.The conclusion is that root system plants and a combination of root system plants and sand filters are better that the sewer system.

JØrgensen, Michael SØgaard

1999-01-01

135

Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

2014-04-01

136

Anaerobic treatment of domestic waste water on small scale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Nederland zal op 3 locaties onderzoek worden gestart naar de afbraak van huishoudelijk afvalwater van een huishouden, volgens het proces van de UASB. Daartoe is door het RIVM een project gestart in nauwe samenwerking met de LU Wageningen. Op basis van de procesgang is een reactorvat ontworpen. Ten behoeve van de toegankelijkheid is het vat in een betonnen put geplaatst. Het rapport omvat de gehele voorbereiding tot het installeren van de proefinstallaties, w.o. bouw...

Gerlofsma; Van, A; Hoogt; L.

2012-01-01

137

Assessment of Determinants of Domestic Water Demand in Rural Areas of Swaziland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is based on a study in which questionnaire interviews were administered to investigate the determinants of domestic water demand in rural areas of Swaziland. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed in Siphofaneni area to provide primary data for this study. The study discovered that average domestic water use per person per day was only 10 L and most households had unmet water demand for most domestic uses. The results suggest that income, household size and distance from homesteads to water sources are the major determinants of domestic water demand. Households with five or less people tend to collect small amounts of water (0-100 L/day whereas larger households (greater than five are likely to fetch larger quantities of water (more than 100 L/day. The chi-square test results reveal that there is a highly significant association between household size and amount of water collected, while the gamma value of 0.73 led to the conclusion that the association is strong and positive. The chi-square test results also show that there is a strong positive relationship between household income and amount of water collected that was significant at 1% level of significance. There is also a strong positive relationship between amount of water collected and household monthly income with the gamma value of 0.44 being significant at 1% level. The chi-square test results show that there is no association between distance travelled to water sources and amount of water collected at p<0.05 significance level. However, gamma values show a negative moderate association between distance travelled to water sources and amount of water collected at p<0.05 significance level.

K. Gamedze

2012-05-01

138

Waste water treatment in Triglav national park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis presents the pollution problems caused by municipal waste water in the protected area of the Triglav National Park. Although most people are not detecting the problem, the consequences of water pollution in the area are clearly visible in the mountain lakes and downstream springs. Water resources near the mountain huts and agricultural land show obvious signs of nurient overload. Non- native plant and animal species recklessly discharged into the natural environment also pose a thr...

Peterlin, Blaz?

2012-01-01

139

Solar Energy for Domestic Hot Water: Case Studies in Sisimiut 1999-2005  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two pioneer solar domestic hot water systems were installed at Bygge- og Anlægsskolen in Sisimiut in 1999 and 2000. Detailed measurements of energy flows and solar radiation incl. snow reflectance has been undertaken for both plants. Since August 2004 data logging of the measurements was made available online on the website www.arcticsolar.com. Measurements show that solar plant 1 and 2 cover 22% and 23%, respectively, of the energy spent for domestic hot water heating. This paper summarises the findings from the past 5 years.

Reimann, Gregers Peter Technical University of Denmark,

2005-01-01

140

Simulation of the Effect of Water Temperature on Domestic Biomass Boiler Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to simulate the combustion of fixed beds of biomass particles using computational fluid dynamics (CFD techniques. The models presented were used in the simulation of a domestic pellet boiler working under operating conditions and the model predictions were compared with measurements of heat transfer, temperature and species concentration. The same procedure was then used to simulate the same domestic boiler working with different values of water temperature and the influence of water temperature variations on the main variables was analyzed.

Pablo Eguía

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Document is the Final Technical Report of the Solar Energy System located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. The building was air conditioned with an electric drive 300-ton chilled water central system in 1973. The building contains 126,000 square feet and the solar energy system will preheat 100 percent of domestic hot water and supply 47.5 percent of annual building heating requirements. During the building cooling seasons, the solar energy system will supply 100 percent of domestic hot water. The solar energy system consists of 4800 square feet (320 panels) Lennox/Honeywell flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 10,000 gallon steel tank storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 686.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/year (specified) building heating and domestic hot water heating. The start up date is December 4, 1979. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

1980-05-01

142

Efficiency Evaluation of Heat Exchanger Based Domestic Solar Water Heater - A Review.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to review the literature of performance improving techniques for solar water heater. In view of energy crisis, the application of solar energy in the form of solar water heater is most useful for domestic, commercial and industrial purpose but it is found that the application of its limited due to its demerits. Hence attempt to be made to find out the demerits of solar water heater and improve its performance so that it becomes more popular in domestic, commercial, as well as in industrial applications. The main objective of this research paper is to present the current status and future aspects of Solar water heater in the world by comprehensively reviewing various solar water heater related studies. This review paper shows comprehensive review and researches on solar water heater by various researchers of the world

Sandeep Kumar Dehariya

2013-10-01

143

Risk factors for contamination of domestic hot water systems by legionellae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To assess risk factors associated with the contamination of the domestic environment by legionellae, 211 houses in the Quebec City area were randomly selected and water samples were collected from the hot water tank, the shower heads, and the most frequently used faucet. After centrifugation, concentrated samples were seeded in triplicate on BCYE and GPV media. Data on the characteristics of the hot water system and plumbing in the house and on the personal habits of the occupants were collec...

Alary, M.; Joly, J. R.

1991-01-01

144

MACROWater: a Top-down, Policy-driven Model for Forecasting Domestic Water Demand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

MACROWater is a top-down domestic water demand model developed for the WaND project (Water Cycle Management for New Developments). Forecasts have been produced for all local authorities in England and Wales. They can be aggregrated for different reporting areas (such as Government Office Regions, Sustainable Communities and water companies). Sustainable community is the official term for key strategic areas, earmarked for rapid expansion of housing supply (such as the M11 corridor, Ashford, M...

Parsons, J.; Rees, P.; Sim, P.; Mcdonald, A.

2007-01-01

145

Nuclear waste water being cleaned in Paldinski  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cleaning of nuclear waste water in the former military base of Paldiski, Estonia, has started with Finnish assistance. During the Soviet era, Paldiski served as a site for training nuclear submarine crews. Spent fuel has already been removed from the two nuclear reactors on the base. The volume of water to be cleaned totals some 450 cubic metres. The work is estimated to take till May 1995. The filtering technique used for cleaning has been developed in cooperation by IVO International and the Department of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki. The project is one aspect of an extensive international cooperation programme for reducing environmental hazards arising from the base. The experience of the cleaning obtained so far has been positive. In the first water tank, filtering reduced the cesium activity of waste water from 1,500 becquerels to less than one becquerel. Two water tanks, however, have bottom sediment that probably cannot be treated during the present project. (orig.)

146

Pesticides Removal from Drainage Waste Water Using Some Agricultural Wastes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The agricultural wastes proposed for the removal of water pollutants in this study are seeds of two Saudi date lines which are quite abundant in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, having high ion exchange capacity for organic compounds. Two goals can be achieved when using these type of date stones: the first is to evaluate the potentiality of date stones to sorb inorganic and organic pollutants from drainage water to render it suitable for irrigation of crops in the Kingdom and the second is to get rid of harmful agricultural wastes. Chemical and elemental analyses were carried out for date stones. Batch technique experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption properties of date stones to harmful pesticides such as Endrin, Lindane and Aldrin. Affecting parameters such as adsorbent weight, contact time and polluted water pH values were also studied to control and increase the efficiency of adsorption. The obtained results showed that the date stones can be considered as an efficient adsorbent for the investigated pesticides from prepared waste water. The resultant uptake efficiency was found to be more than 75% for the tested pollutants. Moreover, it was found that the adsorbed pesticides can not be disturbed from the loaded date stones. Comparative methods between the Saudi and Egyptian date stones were also studied.

Ali S. Al-Barrak

2005-01-01

147

Impact of Training Program to Rationalize Consumption of Domestic Water Usages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Reducing water consumption in terms of scarcity of water in Jordan which needs to rationalize consumption of the domestic water usages by some families in Amman-Jordan. Approach: This study aimed to decrease water consumption in household usages and to involve and encouraging the pioneer students in voluntary efforts to reduce domestic water. The study sample consisted of 121 female students of Princessâ?? Alia University College represented 121 Jordanian families in Amman. They trained to reduce flow of water and the time during usage water in kitchen; toilet; bathroom; washing cars; and to put a plastic bottle full of half liter of water in the toiletâ??s water tank. Economical and social variables of families were obtained from special questionnaire of this study, data were formed from previous measurements and information; the data analyzed throughout a simple statistical approach. Results: The families whom represented this study sample have positively responded for the proposed program; through reducing water consumption in domestic usages. The most important factor effects on rationalized water consumption are: Average monthly income, average family members, average of family members ages, the size of water tank of the toilet, size of shower used. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study concluded that the amount of preserved water in a bathroom may reach 25%, in kitchen 29, in toilet 10%, in washing cars 9%, of water consumption before implementation program at each of the previous sectors. The total amount of preserved water in Amman may reach to 11 million cubic meters annually. The study recommends implementing this simple program on the whole of Jordanian families as much as possible and encouraging the Jordanian citizens to use different tools, means, programs that may control water consumption and to recycle the used water as possible.""

Mohammad Said Damanhouri

2012-01-01

148

Method of treating waste water  

Science.gov (United States)

A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

Deininger, James P. (Colorado Springs, CO); Chatfield, Linda K. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1995-01-01

149

Influence of domestic solar water heating on electric utility demand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examined are the effects of residential solar water heating with electric auxiliary on the load, especially during peak periods, of summer peaking electric utilities. Twenty-eight houses in Austin, Texas - half with solar water heating and half without - were monitored for their instantaneous electricity consumption. A comparison of the average daily consumption profiles of the solar and nonsolar houses show that solar water heating greatly reduces the electric demand compared to conventional electric water heating during the late afternoon/early evening peak experienced by the utility in the summer. It also does not adversely affect the annual load factor for the utility. Thus, such utilities should implement policies to encourage solar water heating.

Rodgers, R.; Vliet, G.

1982-01-01

150

Efficiency evaluation and consumer economic analysis of domestic water heaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performances of one gas-fired and two electric storage-type water heaters were characterized experimentally as a function of water tank temperature. For both types of heaters the application of additional insulation was highly cost effective. For the gas-fired water heater the pilot burner flue losses (92% at a water temperature of 150/sup 0/F (65.6/sup 0/C)) were reduced in a cost-effective manner by either pilot-orifice restriction or flue blocking with electric ignition. In addition, an electrically powered burner, with flue modifications, increased the heat-exchange efficiency of the main burner from 72 to 85% at 160/sup 0/F (71.1/sup 0/C). The heat-loss rate per unit of bare-tank area is a useful number in assessing the energy-conservation potential of a water heater.

Slaughter, G.G.; Spann, D.E.

1978-09-01

151

Waste water discharges into natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point

152

Chemical Industry Waste water Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of chemical industrial wastewater from building and construction chemicals factory and plastic shoes manufacturing factory was investigated. The two factories discharge their wastewater into the public sewerage network. The results showed the wastewater discharged from the building and construction chemicals factory was highly contaminated with organic compounds. The average values of COD and BOD were 2912 and 150 mg O2/l. Phenol concentration up to 0.3 mg/l was detected. Chemical treatment using lime aided with ferric chloride proved to be effective and produced an effluent characteristics in compliance with Egyptian permissible limits. With respect to the other factory, industrial wastewater was mixed with domestic wastewater in order to lower the organic load. The COD, BOD values after mixing reached 5239 and 2615 mg O2/l. The average concentration of phenol was 0.5 mg/l. Biological treatment using activated sludge or rotating biological contactor (RBe) proved to be an effective treatment system in terms of producing an effluent characteristic within the permissible limits set by the law

153

Process for the biological purification of waste water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved.

Kristensen, Gert Holm unknown

154

Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (?2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management.

Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn

155

Water: Waste Not, Want Not  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing on Australia's water use and conservation efforts, this site provides teachers with activities and ideas for encouraging students to analyze their own use as well as learn about the nation's use. Activities include conducting an individual and a family-based water consumption log, learning to gather, record and report data, and using the web to compare data submitted by other classes. Teachers will find discussion topics, forms to download for data gathering and reporting, a computer-based quiz, as well as information about water in general and Australian use specifically.

Statistics, Australian B.; Myinternet

156

Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

1997-12-31

157

Emerging Forms of Social Action in Urban Domestic Water Supply in South Africa and Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts emerging forms of social action in urban domestic water supply in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Both countries represent transitional societies that are facing challenges of providing clean and safe domestic water to the black majority population, which for decades was denied basic social services because of a racist ideology. In the first instance the paper assesses whether there exists a constitutional provision that guarantees the right to water. It then turns to how that is enforced, and what happens in its absence. Lastly the paper examines whether the various interventions lead to improved access to safe water. In South Africa an awareness of the constitutional right to water backed by a supportive legislative framework, which engendered a strong sense of entitlement, caused residents to resort to the courts and direct action such as street protests. Similar initiatives were also observed in Zimbabwe. However, the absence of a conducive legal environment, and disenchantment with the state as a provider of social services, led residents to resort to self reliance in order to access water. In both countries social action was not organic –it tended to be championed if not sponsored either by civil society or party political actors. There was no evidence of improved access to safe water as a consequence of social action. The paper concludes that social action in the urban domestic water supply faces the common challenges of social mobilization in particular and social movements in general.

Emmanuel Manzungu

2013-02-01

158

Electrooxidation of organics in waste water  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrooxidation is a means of removing organic solutes directly from waste waters without the use of chemical expendables. Research sponsored by NASA is currently being pursued to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept for oxidation of organic impurities common to urine, shower waters and space-habitat humidity condensates. Electrooxidation of urine and waste water ersatz was experimentally demonstrated. This paper discusses the electrooxidation principle, reaction kinetics, efficiency, power, size, experimental test results and water-reclamation applications. Process operating potentials and the use of anodic oxidation potentials that are sufficiently low to avoid oxygen formation and chloride oxidation are described. The design of an electrochemical system that incorporates a membrane-based electrolyte based on parametric test data and current fuel-cell technology is presented.

Hitchens, G. D.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Kaba, Lamine; Verostko, Charles E.

1990-01-01

159

Pesticides Removal from Drainage Waste Water Using Some Agricultural Wastes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The agricultural wastes proposed for the removal of water pollutants in this study are seeds of two Saudi date lines which are quite abundant in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, having high ion exchange capacity for organic compounds. Two goals can be achieved when using these type of date stones: the first is to evaluate the potentiality of date stones to sorb inorganic and organic pollutants from drainage water to render it suitable for irrigation of crops in the Kingdom and the second is to ge...

Al-barrak, Ali S.; Elsaid, Saad M.

2005-01-01

160

Surgical hand scrub: Lots of water wasted  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Surgical hand scrub (SHS is an important antisepsis measure before participating in surgical operation. It reduces the risk of microbial contamination of the surgical wound by skin flora. SHS is usually performed in a scrub sink with taps that have hand operated handles. During the scrub process large volume of water is wasted. The aim of this study was to determine the volume of water used during SHS in comparison to the actual volume necessary. Method : Unknown to them various cadreof the operation team were timed during their first scrubbing of the day for scheduled operations. Duration of scrubbing (ST and that during which the hands were being washed with flowing water (WT were recorded. The amount of water flowing through the tap per minute was also recorded. Using the mean ST, WT and water flow per minute the total volume of water used during scrubbing and that necessary to wash the hand were calculated. Results : Overall, the ST ranged between 3 and 7 minutes with a mean of 4.8 ± 0.5 SD minutes. Mean WT was 1.4 ± 0.4 SD minutes. The mean water flow was 4,217mls per minutes. The volume of water used per scrubbing was 20.2 litres while only 5.9 litres was used for washing the hands. Between January and December 2002, the volume of water used for scrubbing was 200,283 litres while only 58,498.5 litres (29.2% was necessary. Conclusion : Plenty water is wasted during SHS. Reducing the amount of water flowing unused would provide cost saving to the hospital. The use of taps operated with foot pedal would reduce the waste.

Ahmed A

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

The concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra in domestic and imported bottled waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past few years, the use of commercially available bottled potable water has become very in vogue. Since many of the producers and/or distributors of these bottled waters claim that the water originated from natural mineral springs, there is a likelihood that some of these bottled waters could contain 226Ra and 228Ra in measurable quantities. This article presents the quantitative results obtained from the analyses of 11 domestic and imported brand named bottled waters sold commercially in retail stores in the northeastern United States. (author)

162

Waste water purification with a centrifugal decanter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method described is suitable for the treatment of radioactive and conventional waste effluent. It is a combination of precipitation and subsequent dewatering of sludge. The object of the treatment is to remove from the water by means of aluminium sulphate precipitation, radioactive substances, petroleum ether-extractible materials and undissolved impurities. (orig.)

163

Integrated water and waste management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper discusses concepts and developments within water quantity, water quality, integrated environmental assessment and wastewater treatment. The historical and the global perspectives are used in the discussion of the role of engineers in today's society. Sustainabilty and ethics are taken into the analysis. There is a need for re-evaluation of the resource, society and environment scenarios with a view to the totality of the system and with proper analysis of the flow of water and matter through society. Among the tools are input-output analysis and cradle to grave analysis, in combination with compilation of identified sets of values with respect to sustainable use of resources and ultimate fate of the environment and quality of life. The role of the engineer is to make available to society as many technical options as possible - and to put these options into the proper perspective in relation to the objectives of society. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Harremoës, P.

1997-01-01

164

Wash water waste pretreatment system  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

1977-01-01

165

Estimating the Demand for Domestic Water in Seoul: Application of the Error Correction Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unlike the existing supply-centered water policy, demand management policy of water has become an increasingly important issue in Korea. This paper attempts to analyse the demand for domestic water in Seoul. We employed Engle-Granger' s error correction model(ECM) to deduced the price and income elasticities of the water demand. Particularly, we used accounted water amounts instead of supplied water amounts as representative variable of water demand. The result indicates that ECM set up is appropriate and short-run and long-run price elasticities derived by the model are -0.145 and -1.414. In contrast with other studies, we can conclude that the water demand for the water price is elastic. Besides, we can infer from this result that the water price policy with respect to a decrease of leakage ratio is more effective. (author). 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Kwak, S.J.; Lee, C.K. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

2002-03-01

166

Process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from nuclear power stations is proposed, characterized by the fact that the water is taken continuously through a water decomposition cell. If the water does not have sufficient conductivity itself, a substance raising the electrical conductivity is added to the water to be treated. The electrolysis is situated in the waste water tank. (orig./RB)

167

Nutrient pollution in shallow aquifers underlying pit latrines and domestic solid waste dumps in urban slums.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of proper on-site sanitation in unsewered low-income areas is becoming an important source of nutrient-rich wastewater leaching to groundwater and can potentially lead to eutrophication. For typical conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, the nutrient loading of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from on-site sanitation systems to aquifers is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the dissolved nutrient loads (nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4) and orthophosphate (o-PO4)) and the processes likely affecting them in aquifers underlying two on-site sanitation systems in an unsewered low-income urban slum in Kampala, Uganda; a domestic solid waste dump and a site with two pit latrines. The impact of the two types of sites was assessed by comparing the upgradient and downgradient nutrient concentrations and loads along groundwater flow lines. Significant pollution to groundwater originated from the pit latrine site with downgradient nutrient loads increasing by factors of 1.7 for NO3, 10.5 for NH4 and 49 for o-PO4. No effect of leaching of nutrients to groundwater was found from the waste dump. We estimated that approximately 2-20% of total N and less than 1% of total P mass input was lost to groundwater from the pit latrines. The bulk of N leached to groundwater was in the form of NH4. Mn-reducing conditions prevailed in the shallow aquifer which suggested that nitrification was the main process affecting NH4 concentrations. Phosphorus was likely retained in the soils by precipitating as MnHPO4 and Ca5(PO4)3(OH). Our results indicated that pit latrines in alluvial aquifer systems can be highly effective for the removal of nutrients depending on hydrological, hydrochemical and geochemical conditions in the aquifer receiving wastewater. Improvements to make the current pit latrine systems better for nutrient containment are suggested based on findings from this study. PMID:23542227

Nyenje, P M; Foppen, J W; Kulabako, R; Muwanga, A; Uhlenbrook, S

2013-06-15

168

The role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases in Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey was carried out from August to December 2004 in Pusan, Korea to document the presence of free-living amoeba (FLA), including the genus Acanthamoeba, in both contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water. Acanthamoeba was isolated from 5 (4.2%) in 120 contact lens storage cases. Four house tap water samples from residents, whose contact lens storage cases had been contaminated by Acanthamoeba, were also found to be contaminated with Acanthamoeba. Therefore, the contamination rate ...

Jeong, Hae Jin; Yu, Hak Sun

2005-01-01

169

Demand side management potential of domestic water heaters and space heaters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demand side management (DSM) is a viable strategy for facilitating integration of renewable energy into power systems. The demand resource from water and space heating can be used to reduce or delay system demand peaks, and in combination with other flexible loads, reshape the aggregate demand profile and manage system ramping. In this paper, the aggregate power draw profiles for heat pump based water heating and under floor space heating systems for the Irish domestic sector have been synthe...

Qazi, Hassan Wajahat; Flynn, Damian

2012-01-01

170

Domestic Hot Water Supply for Multiple Familiy Dwellings using Heat Pumps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In multiple family dwellings of central Europe heat pumps are not only used for space heating but also increasingly for domestic hot water (dhw) supply. The water is often heated in a centralized or decentralized installation with a large distribution network. This leads to the combination of heat pumps with various trace heating systems to ensure both comfort and protection from legionella disease. The COP of the heat pump can be greatly affected by the choice of the heat tracing system whic...

Vetsch, Bernhard; Gschwend, Andreas; Bertsch, Stefan S.

2012-01-01

171

EFFICIENCY OF DOMESTIC REVERSE OSMOSIS IN REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs) are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO) in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound,...

Mahvi, S. Mazloomi ?. R. Nabizadeh ?. S. Nasseri ?. K. Naddafi ?. S. Nazmara ?. A. H.

2009-01-01

172

Water Balance Covers For Waste Containment: Principles and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Water Balance Covers for Waste Containment: Principles and Practices introduces water balance covers and compares them with conventional approaches to waste containment. The authors provided detailed analysis of the fundamentals of soil physics and design issues, introduce appl...

173

Waste water treatment of hydrometallurgical mill in mine No. 754  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author briefly introduces some measures to waste water treatment of hydrometallurgical mill of Uranium Mine No. 754. It is shown in practice that making rational use of waste water is advantageous to production, reducing qcost and lightening environment pollution

174

Neutron Activation analysis of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 1013 cm-2 s-1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

175

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study has been undertaken to evaluate performance efficiency of a waste water treatment plant. A sewage treatment plant operating on biological treatment method (Activated Sludge Process with an average wastewater inflow of 23MLD bas been considered for case study. Waste water samples were collected at different stages of treatment units and analysed for the major water quality parameters, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS and total dissolved solids (TDS. Theperformance efficiency of each unit in treating the pollutants was calculated. Overall performance of the plant also has been estimated. The obtained results were very much useful in identification and rectification of operational and maintenance problems as well as the future expansion to be carried out in the plant to meet the increased hydraulic and organic loadings.

K. SUNDARA KUMAR

2010-12-01

176

Impact of landfills, domestic and industrial waste on the aquifer in Raipur city and contribution of karst feature to the groundwater contaminations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Karst features (landscapes that result from dissolution and surface drainage of carbonate terrains) are potentially a large source of water. They have distinctive features, which distinguish them from fissured and porous aquifers. These features include a general lack of permanent surface streams, existence of surface holes into which surface stream sink, presence of underground big channels and large springs etc. Karst environments are used for potable water supply as well as disposal sites for municipal, agricultural and industrial waste dumping. The peculiar geomorphologic and hydrological features of karst make them highly vulnerable for groundwater pollution. The ease with which they can be polluted make a fit case of taking protection measures in advance. Raipur is a major business, educational center as well as capital city of Chhattisgarh state in India. The city has been rapidly expanding during the last two decades, as a result of rapid industrialisation and various economic developments. Wastes generated from a wide variety of industrial, commercial, agricultural and domestic activities are dumped into pits or low - lying area around the Raipur City. The climate in the area is characterised by very hot summer and well distributed rain over four months during monsoon season. Monsoon precipitation begins from mid June and generally remains active till the end of September. The average annual precipitation is ?1250 mm. In the study area, groundwater lies in the karstified nature of geological formation and is naturally susceptible to contamination by landfills, domestic and industrial wastes. The karstification feature is exposed to the surface in Raipur city at many places. Environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O and 13C) as well as chemistry of the water samples were used to identify a few places, which are prone to contamination in Raipur city. Deterioration of the groundwater quality is not alarming due to thin shale (impervious layer) cover over the limestone. (author)

177

A multitalent against sludge and waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article a waste water treatment method is presented which uses supercritical water. Organic pollutants are converted in a way that they are harmless for the environment or that they can be decomposed in following methods such as biological cleaning to such substances. Oxidizing agents as air, oxygene or hydrogen peroxide initiate and accelerate the process such as catalysts. Supercritical water oxidation takes place under temperatures of 400-650 C and a pressure of 225 bar. The process time is chosen so that the starting materials are converted to 99.99%. (BWI)

178

Field Monitoring of Treated Industrial Waste Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Discharge of untreated industrial water on land and in existing waterbodies has deteriorated the quality of these sources and has become harmful and disasterous for human as well as aquatic life..Many a times even treated industrial effluents are proved to be harmful. So in the project discussed below an effort has been made to test the treated industrial waste water and send the obtained results to the concerned industry as well as pollution control board. The sensor used to test the water w...

Vasudha Bhandari; Preeti Abrol

2013-01-01

179

The Swedish biogas potential from domestic waste products; Den svenska biogaspotentialen fraan inhemska restprodukter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report is an inventory of raw material amounts of waste, parks- and garden waste, sewage sludge, manure and residues from industrial, agricultural and forestry in Sweden which are suitable for biogas production. The inventory has mainly been county by county in order to obtain an overview of how the raw materials are distributed across the country. For each waste category it is described how data collection, boundaries and assumptions have been made. The total biogas potential from domestic raw materials, excluding raw material from forests, is estimated to over 15.2 TWh/year, and the total biogas feasible potential 10.6 TWh/year. However, these limitations can quickly be changed by changing competition, energy prices etc. Residues from the forest represents a significant potential for future methane production. The residues from forestry and forest industry have a total energy potential of about 59 TWh methane per year. Methane production from wood performed by thermal gasification, which is used to a limited extent today. It is difficult to specify when the technology will be commercially available. The total biogas and energy potential is then of the order of 74 TWh/year, of which forest-related products account for approximately 80%. The Swedish EPA is aiming, by 2010, to have at least 35% of food waste from households, restaurants, shops and recycled by biological treatment. This report assumes that 60% of all food waste can be accessible for biogas production. This amount corresponds to approximately 760 GWh annually and represents 7% of the total biogas potential range. The total biogas potential from all food waste in Sweden amounts to 1346 GWh/year. Residues from different industries have a great potential, approximately 10% of the total biogas potential range is estimated to be from here. Crops residues and manure is a significant future potential, 10.8 TWh/year. The total feasible biogas potential in the current environment, however, is assessed to be lower, about 8 TWh/year, since manure from grazing cattle is not included and that some straw may need to be left in order not to jeopardize the soil humus content, etc. Sewage treatment plants have a long tradition of digesting sludge, since it has been a way to stabilize and reduce the amount of sewage sludge. A large part of Sweden sewage sludge is digested today, but with slightly increased amounts and by optimizing processes, more biogas is produced. Of the total feasible biogas potential for the sewage sludge is 7%. Apart from supply of raw materials, it is important to ensure the possibility of disposing of biogas and bio-fertilizers. Prerequisites for a common gas network, and proximity to productive land, is seen as advantageous

Linne, Marita; Ekstrandh, Alexandra; Englesson, Rolf; Persson, Emelie (Biomil AB, Lund (Sweden)); Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Lantz, Mikael (Envirum AB, Lund (Sweden))

2008-07-01

180

Application of an Integrated Heat Recovery Technology for Domestic Hot Water Supply System and Air Conditioning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is to design an integrated heat recovery and air conditioner system and to investigate the feasibility and the potential performance of this system in changing conditions. Different season conditions and operating modes are studied based on the items of one hotel. In winter, heat recovered from wastewater is used on water heating and air condition and the surplus energy of air conditioner system is used on hot water system in summer. Dynamic energy simulation was performed with a comprehensive Domestic Hot Water (DHW heating and air conditioning system composed of some components like High Temperature Heat Pump (HTHP unit, water tanks, heat exchangers and pumps.

Chen Yan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

An agent-based model for domestic water management in Valladolid metropolitan area  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we demonstrate that the combination of agent-based modeling and simulation constitutes a useful methodological approach to dealing with the complexity derived from multiple factors with influence in the domestic water management in emergent metropolitan areas. In particular, we adapt and integrate different social submodels, models of urban dynamics, water consumption, and technological and opinion diffusion, in an agent-based model that is, in turn, linked with a geographic information system. The result is a computational environment that enables simulating and comparing various water demand scenarios. We have parameterized our general model for the metropolitan area of Valladolid (Spain).The model shows the influence of urban dynamics (e.g., intrapopulation movements, residence typology, and changes in the territorial model) and other socio-geographic effects (technological and opinion dynamics) in domestic water demand. The conclusions drawn in this way would have been difficult to obtain using other approaches, such as conventional forecasting methods, given the need to integrate different socioeconomic and geographic aspects in one single model. We illustrate that the described methodology can complement conventional approaches, providing descriptive and formal additional insights into domestic water demand management problems.

GaláN, José M.; López-Paredes, Adolfo; Del Olmo, Ricardo

2009-05-01

182

A truncated pyramid non-tracking type multipurpose domestic solar cooker/hot water system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For impressive dissemination of the solar thermal gazettes, it is imperative to keep on changing the device design features so as to cater to the different demands of diverse section of the society. Domestic solar hot water systems are not suitable for cooking and the capacity of domestic solar box type cookers for water heating is very low. We report truncated pyramid geometry based multipurpose solar device which could be used for domestic cooking as well as water heating. The device is designed, fabricated and tested. Cooking tests approved by Bureau of Indian Standards were performed in different seasons and the device was found to meet the requirement stipulated on two figures of merit. The performance of the design was also evaluated as a hot water system and the maximum efficiency was found to be 54%. The day-time and average night-time heat-loss coefficients were found to be 5.7 W/ C m{sup 2} and, 3.74 W/C m{sup 2}, respectively, which are comparable to those of flat-plate collector based solar hot water systems. A simple economic analysis illustrate that this kind of multi-purpose design could be financially viable and physically useful. (author)

Kumar, Naveen; Chavda, Tilak; Mistry, H.N. [Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat 388 120 (India)

2010-02-15

183

Bacteriological quality and risk assessment of the imported and domestic bottled mineral water sold in Fiji.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering the popularity of bottled mineral water among indigenous Fijians and tourists alike, a study was carried out to determine the bacteriological quality of different bottled waters. A risk assessment was also carried out. Seventy-five samples of bottled mineral water belonging to three domestic brands and 25 samples of one imported brand were analysed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria and faecal coliforms. HPC counts were determined at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C using R2A medium and a membrane filtration technique was used to determine the faecal coliform (FC) load in 100 ml of water on mFC agar. Between 28 and 68% of the samples of the various domestic brands failed to meet the WHO standard of 100 colony forming units (cfu) per 100 ml at 22 degrees C and 7% of these also tested positive for faecal coliforms. All imported bottled mineral water samples were within WHO standards. A risk assessment of the HPC bacteria was carried out in terms of beta haemolytic activity and antibiotic resistance. More than 50% of the isolates showed beta haemolytic activity and were multi-drug resistant. While the overall quality of the product was generally good, there is a need to enforce stringent quality standards for the domestic bottlers to ensure the safety of consumers. PMID:19590131

Zeenat, A; Hatha, A A M; Viola, L; Vipra, K

2009-12-01

184

A novel domestic electric water heater model for a multi-objective demand side management program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a novel domestic hot water heater model to be used in a multi-objective demand side management program. The model incorporates both the thermal losses and the water usage to determine the temperature of the water in the tank. Water heater loads are extracted from household load data and then used to determine the household water usage patterns. The benefits of the model are: (1) the on/off state of the water heater and temperature of the water in the tank can be accurately predicted, and (2) it enables the development of water usage profiles so that users can be classified based on usage behaviour. As a result, the amount of ancillary services and peak shaving that can be achieved are accurately predictable and can be maximized without adversely affecting users. (author)

Paull, Liam; Li, Howard; Chang, Liuchen [University of New Brunswick, Department of Electrical Engineering, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

2010-12-15

185

Environmental sustainability of ozonating municipal waste water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and endocrine disrupters). As part of this work a holistic based prioritisation among technologies and optimisations is to be done. Tools for this prioritisation include life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost/efficiency. The LCA is performed as a comparative LCA and the concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts is introduced in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) part. Furthermore, as novel approaches, potential ecotoxicity impact from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impact from pathogens (and whole effluent toxicity) are to be included. In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation.

Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

186

Environmental sustainability of waste water ozonation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and endocrine disrupters). As part of this work a holistic based prioritisation among technologies and optimisations have been done. Tools for this prioritisation include life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost/efficiency. The LCA is performed as a comparative LCA and the concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts is introduced in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) part. A relatively high number of micropollutants, especially pharmaceuticals, have been included. Furthermore, as novel approaches, preliminary methodologies for impact categories on pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been developed. About 15 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies (or combinations) have been assessed. This paper will present the LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation.

Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

187

Domestic wastes incineration in France situation in 2000 evolution and perspectives the 31.12.2002; Incineration des dechets menagers en France situation en 2000 evolution et perspectives au 31.12.2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the analysis and the conclusions of a working group, concerning the domestic wastes incineration. It presents successively the place of the domestic wastes in the wastes management approach, the regulations, the methodology and the corresponding results of an inquiry realized in 2000 and the research programs on the incineration as the Best Available Techniques, the sanitary impacts of the UIOM (domestic wastes incineration plants), the vitrification, the greenhouse effect. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2003-07-01

188

Hybrid PV/T solar systems for domestic hot water and electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems can simultaneously provide electricity and heat, achieving a higher conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation than standard PV modules. When properly designed, PV/T systems can extract heat from PV modules, heating water or air to reduce the operating temperature of the PV modules and keep the electrical efficiency at a sufficient level. In this paper, we present TRNSYS simulation results for hybrid PV/T solar systems for domestic hot water applications both passive (thermosyphonic) and active. Prototype models made from polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV module types combined with water heat extraction units were tested with respect to their electrical and thermal efficiencies, and their performance characteristics were evaluated. The TRNSYS simulation results are based on these PV/T systems and were performed for three locations at different latitudes, Nicosia (35 deg.), Athens (38 deg.) and Madison (43 deg.). In this study, we considered a domestic thermosyphonic system and a larger active system suitable for a block of flats or for small office buildings. The results show that a considerable amount of thermal and electrical energy is produced by the PV/T systems, and the economic viability of the systems is improved. Thus, the PVs have better chances of success especially when both electricity and hot water is required as in domestic applicationsations

189

HOUSE BIOLOGICAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, Slovenia and the European Union are paying more and more attention to the urban wastewater treatment. Given that by the end of 2017, we need to rehabilitate the majority of septic tanks, the number of different types of water treatment plants on the market is increasing. In my diploma work, I presented a description of certain types of biological treatment plants, their maintenance, operation and management. Furthermore, I decided to present a slightly different type of wast...

Vrhovs?ek, Uros?

2010-01-01

190

Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time....

Ranalli, A.

1992-01-01

191

Photosynthetic membranes. Part 75. Photocatalytic membrane modules for drinking water purification in domestic and community appliances  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present paper, the performance of a pilot plant for domestic use was investigated, able to operate continuously, and in which tap water was fed (inorg. carbon IC: 81.6 ? 0.5 ppm; total org. carbon TOC content: 1.52 ? 0.02 ppm). This plant produced 130 L/d of purified water. The tap water was first subjected to a prefiltration by a membrane microfiltration unit, followed by filtration through a membrane immobilizing activated carbon, then through a reverse osmosis membrane, at a trans...

Bellobono, Ignazio Renato

2005-01-01

192

Domestic hot water production in a net zero energy triplex in Montreal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A domestic hot water system in a net zero energy triplex in Montreal was described. The system was comprised of 10 m{sup 2} of evacuated tube solar collectors; two 600 litre storage tanks; a grey water heat recovery unit; and desuperheaters from ground-source heat pumps. A low-flow recirculation pump was also used to circulate hot water to the 3 condos continuously. Annual energy consumption of the pump was 175 kWh. Standard components from TRYNSYS and the TESS library were used to model all components except for the grey water heat recovery and the desuperheater. DHW and space conditioning simulations were de-coupled, and results from conditioning simulations were read as inputs into the DHW simulations. Inputs included weather data; mains water temperature; and daily DHW consumption. Data were used to generate 1-minute domestic hot water profiles. Simulations were run with a 30 second time step to reflect typical hot water consumption and to characterize phenomena occurring in the grey water heat recovery device. Results of the study showed that in order to increase the solar fraction in winter, the solar collector area needed to be oversized. It was concluded that excess energy can be recuperated by installing a second reservoir and selling the extra thermal energy to adjacent buildings. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs.

Picard, D.; Bernier, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Charneux, R. [Pageau, Morel et Associes, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

2007-07-01

193

Is phosphorus recovery from waste water feasible?  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste water must become a predominant goal of all countries to face the limited resources of this essential nutrient. The induced crystallisation of calcium phosphates straight from the waste water phase applying tobermorite-rich calcium silicate hydrate compounds (CSH) from the construction industry as the trigger material has proved to be a suitable method. Laboratory and semi-technical scale experiments were carried out in fixed bed, stirred reactor and expanded bed mode. P-loads of the crystallisation substrates of up to 13 wt-% total P (P-tot) (30 wt-% P2O5) were achieved. Recycling options of the generated products, both as substitute for phosphate rock in the phosphate industry and as a new fertiliser in agriculture, were demonstrated. Indicative operating and investment costs were estimated for conversion of conventional waste water treatment plants (WWTP) designed for nutrient removal and P-precipitation with iron and aluminium reagents to the proposed new crystallisation technology for simultaneous P-removal and P-recovery. PMID:17396410

Berg, U; Knoll, G; Kaschka, E; Weidler, P G; Nüesch, R

2007-02-01

194

Effective utilization of waste water through recycling, reuse, and remediation for sustainable agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is vital for human, animal, and plant life. Water is one of the most essential inputs for the production of crops. Plants need it in enormous quantities continuously during their life. The role of water is felt everywhere; its scarcity causes droughts and famines, its excess causes floods and deluge. During the next two decades, water will increasingly be considered a critical resource for the future survival of the arid and semiarid countries. The requirement of water is increasing day by day due to intensive agriculture practices, urbanization, population growth, industrialization, domestic use, and other uses. On the other hand, the availability of water resources is declining and the existing water is not enough to meet the needs. To overcome this problem, one available solution is utilization of waste water by using recycling, reuse, and remediation process. PMID:24663224

Raman, Rajamani; Krishnamoorthy, Renga

2014-01-01

195

The Use of Solar Energy for Preparing Domestic Hot Water in a Multi-Storey Building  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses the possibilities of solar collectors used for a domestic hot water system and installed on the roofs of modernized multi-storey buildings under the existing climate conditions. A number of combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors with accumulation tank systems of various sizes have been examined. Heat from the district heating system is used as an additional heat source for preparing domestic hot water. The paper compares calculation results of energy and economy regarding the combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors and the size of the accumulation tank. The influence of variations in the main indicators on the final economic results has also been evaluated. Research has been supported applying EC FP7 CONCERTO program (‘‘Sustainable Zero Carbon ECO-Town Developments Improving Quality of Life across EU - ECO-Life’’ (ECO-Life Project Contract No. TREN/FP7EN/239497/”ECOLIFE”.Article in Lithuanian

Giedrius Šiupšinskas

2012-12-01

196

Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

1980-07-01

197

Investigating the Effectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV Water Purification as Replacement of Chlorine Disinfection in Domestic Water Supply  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domestic water supply to residential buildings through hand-dug wells has been widely accepted as a reliable substitute to government owned municipal water supply system in Nigeria. This Paper investigates theeffectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV Water Sterilizers as a suitable replacement of chlorine disinfection in the removal of microbiological contaminants in domestic water supply. Water from an established contaminated well in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, were subjected, simultaneously and in parallel, to chlorine dosing and contact withUV light, over a period of seven (7 days without pre-filtration, and additional seven (7 days with pre-filtration. Pre-filtration was accomplished by the use of a calibrated pressure filter. Effluent water samples were taken daily for the two (2 scenarios to the laboratory for physical, chemical and biological analyses. The resultsindicated that UV water purification method was more effective only when pre-filtration of raw water was introduced. With monitored prefiltration prior to ultraviolet purification, the colony count, MPN Coliform Organisms and MPN E. Coli Organisms recorded seven day-average values of 1, 0 and 0, respectively. In both scenarios, it was confirmed that UV method produced no bi-products and did not alter the taste, pH or other properties of water, in contradistiction to chlorine disinfection method

Olaoye

2012-08-01

198

On the combined effect of wastewater heat recovery and solar domestic hot water heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Domestic hot water (DHW) heating represents approximately 20 per cent of the total energy consumption of a typical Canadian household. Even in zero net energy homes (ZNEH), the energy associated with DHW heating is as important as space conditioning. This paper focused on two methods of reducing the energy consumption associated with DHW heating in residences. The first method involved a gravity film heat exchanger (GFX) to recuperate part of the energy contained in the grey water coming from showers. The second method involved a classic solar domestic hot water heating system. The purpose of this study was to quantify the energy saved by the GFX for various configurations and to examine its impact on the operation of the solar domestic hot water system. Due to the nature of the installation, there was simultaneous water flow in the drain and in the coil. Therefore, the GFX worked less efficiently when used in conjunction with baths, dishwasher or washing machines. Showers, however, fulfilled the criteria of simultaneous flows. Given that nearly 40 per cent of the hot water used in a residence is for showers, the potential for energy recovery can be significant. Simulations were performed using TRNSYS simulation software for a typical hot water consumption profile and the actual mains water temperature from Montreal. The results showed that the GFX, depending on its placement in the plumbing circuit, can recuperate from 36 to 49 per cent of the energy required to heat water for showers. This represents an annual savings of 691 to 934 kWh. When combined with a classic solar DHW system, the GFX had only a small impact on the performance of the solar DHW system. It was also shown that the total renewable (solar plus GFX) fraction can reach 69 per cent, while the solar fraction of a stand-alone solar DHW system is 56 per cent. It was suggested that in future studies, the domestic water pattern should be varied in order to verify its influence on the GFX energy recovery. It was suggested that the GFX should be better characterized in the transient state. 20 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

Picard, D.; Bernier, M.; Kummert, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Delisle, V. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

2006-07-01

199

Removal of ammonia from power plant waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of ammonia in surface waters from power plant waste water is investigated. Several methods for the removal of ammonia from waste water are described (steam stripper, air stripper, catalytic oxidation), the performance and efficiency is tested. For each water treatment method the mass and energy balance and the efficiency are determined. (SR)

200

Yeasts and yeast-like fungal contaminants of water used for domestic purposes in Jos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water used for domestic purposes is ideally required to be free from contaminants. Various contaminants have frequently affected the quality of such water. Water samples were obtained from 150 sources including 72 wells, 60 streams, 17 taps, and one borehole, randomly selected from five residential areas in Jos, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires and one-to- one interview was used to obtain information on features of location and use of facilities in each area. Eighty (53.3% water sources were contaminated, predominantly wells (70.8%. The locations (identified in code with the highest number of contaminated sources were AGO (60.0%, GBU (56.7% and FGD (56.7%. AGD and FGD also had the highest ratio of households to one water source (25:1. Eighty- two fungi were isolated, predominantly Candida tropicalis (23.2%, Candida lipolytica (10.9% and Rhodotorula sp (9.7%. Candida lipolytica was the highest (42.9% contaminant in tap water. Rhodotorula sp was found in all types of water sources sampled. Type of water source had a significant effect (P<0.05 on the presence of some fungi in the water. The residential area (Location had a significant effect on contamination of water sources by some yeasts. Water sources for domestic use in Jos are contaminated by yeasts and yeast-like fungi. Frequency of use, exposure of the facility to dirt, and contaminations of surroundings contribute to the occurrence of fungi in water sources and, by implication, the prevalence of fungal infections.

Grace Mebi Ayanbimpe

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Radioactive wastes from possible future UK Light Water Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The predictive radioactive wastes from the operation and decommissioning of various designs of Light Water Reactor (LWR) are reviewed and compared to the Sizewell 'B' Pressurised Water Reactor. The designs considered are the N4, Konvoi, System 80+, Advanced PWR, AP600, Advanced Boiling Water Reactor, the European Pressurised Water Reactor (EPR) and the Sizewell 'XL' design. The sources of activity, active arisings, waste treatment plants, discharges to the environment, the optimisation of waste treatment, lifetime arisings of solid waste and the characteristics of spent fuel are addressed. Conclusions are drawn on the implications for UK waste management policy. (author)

202

Use of Industrial Waste Water for Agricultural Purpose: Pb and Cd in Vegetables in Bikaner City, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shortage of irrigation water resources is leading to the use of domestic and industrial waste water in agriculture. esp. in urban areas. Being contaminated by metals and various toxic chemicals these waste waters leads to the exposure of heavy metals and hazardous chemicals and the subsequent human health hazards through agriculture products and live stocks. Increasing cases of cancer and kidney problems is also related with this aspect. In present study human health risk assessment taken in concern with the respect of some heavy metals of toxicological interest.

Rajendra Singh

2012-12-01

203

Brucellosis in domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) of Trinidad and Tobago with comparative epidemiology to cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The water buffalo is an important domestic animal worldwide, and the local Buffalypso variety was developed in Trinidad to have improved beef qualities. Brucellosis was diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago during 1998 in both cattle and domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations. Brucellosis in the latter species is caused by infection with Brucella abortus, similar to bovine brucellosis. Control of brucellosis is of paramount importance to preservation of the genetic diversity of these animals in Trinidad, and this has been complicated by differences in the epidemiology of water buffalo and bovine brucellosis. Some diagnostic tests do not have comparable accuracy between the two species, and the RB51 vaccine does not adequately protect against infection in water buffalo. The water buffalo in Trinidad may also be more resistant to infection than cattle. Development of effective vaccination protocols is key to brucellosis control in Buffalypso in Trinidad, and prohibitions on import of virulent B. abortus strains for vaccine efficacy studies has impeded progress in this area. These Trinidadian strains are of variable virulence; some might be effective for challenge in vaccine efficacy studies, while other, of lower virulence, may be vaccine candidates for use in water buffalo. PMID:21479842

Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Diptee, Michael D; Ramnanan, Anil; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

2011-12-01

204

Global emissions of trace gases, particulate matter, and hazardous air pollutants from open burning of domestic waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

The open burning of waste, whether at individual residences, businesses, or dump sites, is a large source of air pollutants. These emissions, however, are not included in many current emission inventories used for chemistry and climate modeling applications. This paper presents the first comprehensive and consistent estimates of the global emissions of greenhouse gases, particulate matter, reactive trace gases, and toxic compounds from open waste burning. Global emissions of CO2 from open waste burning are relatively small compared to total anthropogenic CO2; however, regional CO2 emissions, particularly in many developing countries in Asia and Africa, are substantial. Further, emissions of reactive trace gases and particulate matter from open waste burning are more significant on regional scales. For example, the emissions of PM10 from open domestic waste burning in China is equivalent to 22% of China's total reported anthropogenic PM10 emissions. The results of the emissions model presented here suggest that emissions of many air pollutants are significantly underestimated in current inventories because open waste burning is not included, consistent with studies that compare model results with available observations. PMID:25019173

Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yokelson, Robert J; Gullett, Brian K

2014-08-19

205

WASTE WATER TREATMENT DEVICE IN HAIR DYE PRODUCTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subject of this thesis is the research and analysis of the waste water treatment device for the company Henkel Slovenia. Some basic principles of theory and practice of waste water treatment are covered and presented in this thesis. Presented herein are all of the activities that must be taken into account when designing the industrial waste water treatment plant. Special attention is paid to chemical and physical properties of water. Due to the large scale of the subject of this thesi...

Bulatovic?, Sveto

2011-01-01

206

Microsoft PowerPoint - Waste Water Compliance for the area, Michael McAlary, NI Water  

...2008 Michael McAlary Functional Manager Waste Water Services Northern Ireland Water Introduction 1. Compliance in Catchment...An understanding of the NIW Waste Water Compliance. 2. Capital Spend over...exceedence allowed) Sample Schedules Urban Waste Water Standard 1. Sampled once a...

207

Paragraph 46 Recovery and Storage of Waste from a Water Treatment Works or a Sewage ...  

...of Waste from a Water Treatment Works or a Sewage Treatment Works...the curtilage of a water treatment works and waste from within...Waste from Water Treatment and Waste from Sewage Treatment (Table 11. Part 1, Schedule...

208

Environmental impact on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies in Lagos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of town planning, infrastructure, sanitation and rainfall on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies. METHODS: Water samples obtained from deep and shallow wells, boreholes and public taps were cultured to determine the most probable number of Escherichia coli and total coliform using the multiple tube technique. Presence of enteric pathogens was detected using selective and differential media. Samples were collected during both periods of heavy and low rainfall and from municipalities that are unique with respect to infrastructure planning, town planning and sanitation. RESULTS: Contamination of treated and pipe distributed water was related with distance of the collection point from a utility station. Faults in pipelines increased the rate of contamination (p<0.5 and this occurred mostly in densely populated areas with dilapidated infrastructure. Wastewater from drains was the main source of contamination of pipe-borne water. Shallow wells were more contaminated than deep wells and boreholes and contamination was higher during period of heavy rainfall (p<0.05. E. coli and enteric pathogens were isolated from contaminated supplies. CONCLUSIONS: Poor town planning, dilapidated infrastructure and indiscriminate siting of wells and boreholes contributed to the low bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies. Rainfall accentuated the impact.

Egwari L

2002-01-01

209

Simulation Programs for Ph.D. Study of Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The design of solar domestic hot water system is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. This report presents the detailed programs or units that were developed in the Ph.D study of " Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems".

Qin, Lin

1999-01-01

210

Quantitative Assessment of Water Use Efficiency in Urban and Domestic Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential of water savings at property, household and urban levels, through the application of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs, as well as their quantification using the software Wise Water. Household centered measures are identified that allow for significant reduction of drinking water consumption with comparatively small effort, and without limitation of comfort. Furthermore, a method for the estimation of water recycling, for rainwater harvesting and for the utilization potential as locally available renewable freshwater is presented. Based on this study, the average drinking water consumption in urban households of industrialized countries could be reduced by approximately one third, without significant investment costs, either within the framework of new constructions or by the remodeling of water and sanitation systems in residential buildings. By using a secondary water quality, the drinking water demand could even be reduced by 50%. In the case of an area-wide application, the overall fresh water demand of cities and the exploitation of fresh water resources could be significantly reduced. Due to the comparability of the domestic water use of the investigated households, the findings are internationally transferable, for example to countries in Europe, Asia, and also the USA.

Vicente Santiago-Fandiño

2013-08-01

211

Pollution characterization of waste water of an industrial zone - Example of a dairy water clarification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD/BOD ratio which may attain the value of 1.8. Pre-treatment by coagulation floculation of waste water used in a dairy belonging to this industrial zone showed a considerable reduction of the initial pollution by a systematic decreasing of pollution parameters. Aluminium sulphates and iron chloride tested in this experience have reduced considerably all the studied parameters; the organic charge has received a very significant reduction up to 99%. The discharge of treated effluent in the surrounding river or its use for recycling aims is then possible for this industry. However, the formed sludge can be the subject of a suitable treatment for possible agricultural, avicolous valorisation or other. (author)

212

Treatment of cyanide-contained Waste Water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work contains results of theoretical and experimental investigations of possibility to apply industrial ionites of different kinds for recovering complex cyanide of some d-elements (Cu, Zn, an dso on) and free CN-ions with purpose to develop technology and unit for plating plant waste water treatment. Finally, on basis of experimental data about equilibrium kinetic and dynamic characteristic of the sorption in model solutions, strong base anionite in CN- and OH-forms was chosen. This anionite has the best values of operational sorption uptake. Recommendations of using the anionite have been developed for real cyanide-contained wastewater treatment

213

Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

Nilsen, David N. (Lebanon, OR); Galvan, Gloria J. (Albany, OR); Hundley, Gary L. (Corvallis, OR); Wright, John B. (Albany, OR)

1997-01-01

214

Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

2014-09-01

215

Issues of norm-setting for surface waste water quality / ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ???  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors consider the specific features of practical norm-setting for the parameters of surface (rain and melt waste water from the point of view of valuation of this waste water category impact on the state of natural and man-made water bodies. / ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? (???????? ? ????? ??????? ??? ? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????.

Kichev D. S. / ????? ??????? ?????????????

216

Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

Cooper, Robert C.

1975-01-01

217

Performance of alternative refrigerant R430A on domestic water purifiers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, performance of R430A is examined numerically and experimentally in an effort to replace HFC134a used in refrigeration system of domestic water purifiers. Even though HFC134a is used predominantly in such a system these days, it needs to be phased out in near future in most of the developed countries due to its high global warming potential. To solve this problem, cycle simulation and experiments are carried out with a new refrigerant mixture of 76%R152a/24%R600a using actual water purifiers. This mixture is numbered and listed as R430A by ASHRAE recently. Test results show that the system performance is greatly influenced by the amount of charge due to the small internal volume of the refrigeration system in water purifiers. With the optimum amount of charge of 21-22 g, about 50% of HFC134a, the energy consumption of R430A is 13.4% lower than that of HFC134a. The compressor dome and discharge temperatures and condenser center temperature of R430A are very similar to those of HFC134a for the optimum charge. Overall, R430A, a new long term environmentally safe refrigerant, is a good alternative for HFC134a in domestic water purifiers requiring no major change in the system.

218

NATURAL WASTE WATER PURIFICATION IN CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The comprehensive enhancement of the environment is an important task in Hungary too in order to maintain and improve the life quality of both humans and other living creatures. Waste water treatment and solid waste management have become significant issues since joining the European Union. Thus it has become timely to develop or borrow an effective and attainable sewage water treatment technology adapted to Hungarian circumstances. Some prototypes of waste water treatment plants that use nat...

AGNES SULI; Molnar, T.; JUDIT PETER SZUCS; Sallai, L.

2009-01-01

219

Biology of waste water purification. 4. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the aid of biological waste water purification processes, organic and inorganic pollutants can be removed from household service water and industrial water with great efficiently, and the purified water can be led back into the natural cycle. This successful textbook and manual of biological waste water purification explains biological fundamentals and mechanisms and the technical aspects of purification processes in an easily intelligible manner. The new, revised version reflects the latest state of knowledge. (orig.)

220

A load model to support demand management decisions on domestic storage water heater control strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Load control of domestic water heaters is a well known demand side management activity. A model capable of simulating the effect of various control parameters which affect the control strategy is presented in this paper. These parameters include the tariff structure, the number of control blocks, the maximum demand set point and the maximum duration for which any block may be switched off continuously. The simulation results pointed out some negative effects that may occur when control parameters are not set properly. One example is the risk of moving the peak load upon the introduction of a time-of-use tariff without a financial incentive to avoid cold-load pickup.

Tonder, J.C. van; Lane, I.E. [Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

1996-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

Yade, N.

1986-01-01

222

Risk management in waste water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the continuous restructuring of the water market due to liberalisation, privatisation and internationalisation processes, the requirements on waste water disposal companies have grown. Increasing competition requires a target-oriented and clearly structured procedure. At the same time it is necessary to meet the environment-relevant legal requirements and to design the processes to be environment-oriented. The implementation of risk management and the integration of such a management instrument in an existing system in addition to the use of modern technologies and procedures can help to make the operation of the waste water treatment safer and consequently strengthen market position. The risk management process consists of three phases, risk identification, risk analysis/risk assessment and risk handling, which are based on each other, as well as of the risk managing. To achieve an identification of the risks as complete as possible, a subdivision of the kind of risks (e.g. legal, financial, market, operational) is suggested. One possibility to assess risks is the portfolio method which offers clear representation. It allows a division of the risks into classes showing which areas need handling. The determination of the appropriate measures to handle a risk (e.g. avoidance, reduction, shift) is included in the concluding third phase. Different strategies can be applied here. On the one hand, the cause-oriented strategy, aiming at preventive measures which aim to reduce the probability of occurrence of a risk (e.g. creation of redundancy, systems with low susceptibility to malfunction). On the other hand, the effect-oriented strategy, aiming to minimise the level of damage in case of an undesired occurrence (e.g. use of alarm systems, insurance cover). PMID:16477971

Wagner, M; Strube, I

2005-01-01

223

How to reduce risk of climate change: Domestic hot water production methanization and programmed timing of heaters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper first identifies a significant and deleterious trend, in terms of poor energy efficiency and high carbon dioxide emissions, towards the increased use of electric water heaters for sanitary hot water production in single family units. It then points out how the use of wall mounted methane fired boilers can result in overall energy savings (overall electric power consumption for domestic hot water production is estimated to represent one- quarter of Italy's total domestic power demand), as well as air pollution abatement. The feasibility of other methods of energy conservation and pollution abatement in domestic water heating are also examined. These include the use of solar hot water heaters, computerized timers which allow users to program the operation of their heating plants, and the adoption by residential communities of methane fuelled district heating plants

224

Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity difference between the make-up water production and consumption of make-up water. (EG)

Aagaard, Joergen

1998-07-01

225

?18O values of Sus scrofa blood water and bone phosphate; a marked discrepancy between domestic and wild specimens.  

Science.gov (United States)

?¹?O analyses of water in the blood of domestic and wild pigs indicated that large isotopic differences exist between domestic and wild specimens of the same species (Sus scrofa) living in the same area. Similar isotopic differences are found between the ?¹?O(PO?³?) values of bones from the two groups of animals. When ?¹?O values obtained from recent wild boar bones are introduced in the equation of the isotopic scale determined for domestic pigs, totally unreliable ?¹?O values of local meteoric water are obtained. The ?¹?O(PO?³?) values measured in three groups of modern wild boar specimens allow the calculation of a first approximate equation which is quite different from that of domestic pigs. This isotopic scale should be accurately re-calibrated for wild animals. PMID:22468328

Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico

2011-12-30

226

Aerospace vehicle water-waste management  

Science.gov (United States)

The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

Pecoraro, J. N.

1973-01-01

227

Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site

228

Diagnosis of small capacity reverse osmosis desalination unit for domestic water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tunisian norm of drinking water tolerates a maximum TDS of 1.5 g/L, and the domestic water presents usually a salinity grater than 500 mg/L. In the last years, several small capacity reverse osmosis desalination prototypes have been marketed. They are used to desalinate brackish water with TDS lower than 1.5 g/L. This RO unit, tested with tap waters during four years, was diagnosed. The RO unit produces 10-15 L/Hour with a recovery rate between 25 and 40 pour cent and salt rejection in order of 90 pour cent. The salinity of the tested domestic water is located between 0.4 and 1.4 g/L. Water pretreatment is composed of three filtration operations (cartridge filter, granulate active carbon filter and 5 =m cartridge filter). Pretreated water is pumped through RO membrane with maximum pressure of 6 bars. At the 4th year, the RO unit performances were substantial decreased. Recovery rate and salt rejection fall down more than 50 and 100% respectively and the pressure drop increase from 1 to 2.1 bar The membrane regeneration allowed only the rate recovery restoration. The membrane selectivity was not improved. The membrane seems irreversibly damaged by the tap water chlorine none retained by the deficient pretreatment. An autopsy of the used RO membrane was done by different analysis techniques as SEM/EDX, AFM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of membrane (proper and used) surfaces show a deposit film on the used membrane witch evaluated to environ 2 =m, it indicatesch evaluated to environ 2 =m, it indicates a fooling phenomenon. The SEM photos show deterioration on the active layer material of the membrane witch seems attacked by the tap water chlorine. The X Rays Diffraction and FTIR show that the deposit collected on the used membrane contains organic and mineral (Gypsum, SiO2 and clays) materials. Silicates and clays can exist in tap waters and reach the RO membrane when the pretreatment micro-filter became deficient. The Gypsum presence is due only to germination on the membrane.

229

Processing and treatment of radiactive waste water. Pt. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive waste water is not only typical of nuclear power plants but also accumulates in radiological institutes, isotopic hospital wards, laboratories and universities. The discharge of radioactive waste water is subject to the Radiation Protection Law. Concentrations above the admissible values have to be reduced by dilution, natural decomposition, chemical decontamination, ion exchange or evaporation. (orig./PW)

230

Processing and treatment of radiactive waste water. Pt. 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive waste water is not only typical of nuclear power plants but also accumulates in radiological institutes, isotopic hospital wards, laboratories and universities. The discharge of radioactive waste water is subject to the Radiation Protection Law. Concentrations above the admissible values have to be reduced by dilution, natural decomposition, chemical decontamination, ion exchange or evaporation. (orig./PW)

Mende, H.; Feurich, H.

1987-05-01

231

Simultaneous Waste Water Purification via Photocatalysis and Seed Germination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Preliminary results of our study related to simultaneous waste water purification by photocatalytic degradation of organic impurity (Methylene Blue dye) and its effects on seed germination are presented here. It is interesting and important to know that complete degradation of the dye occurs within 2 hours and does not adversely affect the seed germination process. It is concluded that waste water purification by ph...

Sawant, Sadhana A.; Ajinkya Nene; Somani, Savita P.; Omanwar, Shreeniwas K.; Somani, Prakash R.

2013-01-01

232

Radioactive waste management practices with KWU-boiling water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Kraftwerk Union boiling water reactor is used to demonstrate the reactor auxiliary systems which are applied to minimize the radioactive discharge. Based on the most important design criteria the philosophy and function of the various systems for handling the off-gas, ventilation air, waste water and concentrated waste are described. (orig.)

233

Fermentation of household wastes and industrial waste water; Vergaerung von haeuslichen Abfaellen und Industrieabwaessern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive brochure reviews various technologies for the environment-friendly treatment of organic wastes and residues. The principles of anaerobic digestion are discussed. Authorities, planners and engineers concerned with waste treatment are provided with an overview of current technology in the organic wastes area. The brochure emphasises the importance of fermentation processes in waste treatment, discusses the legal pre-requisites for biogas production, lists the biological and process-oriented fundamentals of fermentation and examines the energy potential of biogenic wastes and waste water. Further, details are given on the treatment of both industrial waste water and solid organic wastes and, finally, the economics of fermentation is examined. Useful data is presented in table form and the various processes described are illustrated by schematics and flow diagrams. An appendix lists suggestions for further reading on the subject.

Edelmann, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie ' arbi' , Maschwanden (Switzerland); Engeli, H. [Probag AG, Dietikon (Switzerland); Glauser, M. [Biol-Conseils SA, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Hofer, H. [HTH-Verfahrenstechnik, Winterthur (Switzerland); Membrez, Y. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Meylan, J.-H. [Lausanne (Switzerland); Schwitzguebel, J.-P. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Genie biologique, Lausanne (Switzerland)

1993-07-01

234

Simulation programs for ph.D. study of analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in the solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. One of the main objects of the Ph.D. study of `Analysis, Modelling and optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems` is to develop and verify programs for carrying out the simulation and evaluation of the dynamic performance of solar DHW systems. During this study, simulation programs for hot water distribution networks and for certain types of solar DHW systems were developed. (au)

Lin Qin

1998-12-31

235

Pore water chemistry of domestic bentonite for the buffer of a repository: analysis of experimental data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were conducted using synthetic ground water and domestic bentonite. Upon reaction of the bentonite and ground water, ionic concentration, ph and Eh nearly reached a steady-state within a few days. The pore water chemistry was dominated mainly by the mineralogical composition of bentonite. Analytic results showed that sodium, sulfate, and carbonate were major ions, and their concentrations increased to about 4-5 times those of original ground water. The ph increased from 8.1 to 8.9, and the Eh were between 365 mV and 375 mV. The concentration of most dissolved ions increased with increasing bentonite-to-ground water ratio. On the contrary, the ph and Eh were little affected by bentonite-to-ground water ratio. The dependence of ionic concentration upon temperature had different trends with different ions. Little change in the ph occurred up to 80 dg C, and decreased beyond the value of temperature. The Eh rather increased beyond 80 dg C on contrary to ph. (Author). 21 refs., 4 tabs., 18 figs

236

EFFICIENCY OF DOMESTIC REVERSE OSMOSIS IN REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound, Tape wrapping module was used. Feed solution was made by using of pure chloroform. The samples containing chloroform were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. By increasing the flow, the removal rate of chloroform decreased and with declining removal of EC, the removal of chloroform declined too. In this research, at the worst condition, the efficiency of the pilot scale reverse osmosis reached to 80 % removal of chloroform.

S. Mazloomi ? R. Nabizadeh ? S. Nasseri ? K. Naddafi ? S. Nazmara ? A. H. Mahvi

2009-10-01

237

Enhancement of natural circulation type domestic solar hot water system performance by using a wind turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance improvement of existing 200 litres capacity natural convection type domestic solar hot water system is attempted. A two-stage centrifugal pump driven by a vertical axis windmill having Savonius type rotor is added to the fluid loop. The windmill driven pump circulates the water through the collector. The system with necessary instrumentation is tested over a day. Tests on Natural Circulation System (NCS) mode and Wind Assisted System (WAS) mode are carried out during January, April, July and October, 2009. Test results of a clear day are reported. Daily average efficiency of 25-28 % during NCS mode and 33-37 % during WAS mode are obtained. With higher wind velocities, higher collector flow rates and hence higher efficiencies are obtained. In general, WAS mode provides improvements in efficiency when compared to NCS mode.

Ramasamy, K. K.; Srinivasan, P. S. S.

2011-08-01

238

Conventional versus storage domestic solar hot water systems: A comparative performance study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an experimental comparative performance study between a storage solar domestic hot water system and a conventional one. The storage system differs from the conventional one by integrating the collector and storage tank into one piece of equipment. The investigated storage collector consists of six 80-mm-outside diameter copper tubes connected in series to act as an absorber and a storage tank. Tests under different flow patterns are conducted to simulate different patterns of hot water consumption. The overall heat loss coefficient, useful heat gain, instantaneous efficiency, efficiency factor, heat removal factor and the temperature distribution along the pipe are determined using modified equations derived for the storage collector from the basic derivation of Hottel-Bliss-Whillier. A comparison between the experimental and theoretical results for the storage collector showed good agreements and that between the two systems showed the superiority of the storage system.

239

Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: Cost/Benefit Analysis and Opportunities for Improvement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine potential for reduction in the cost of saved energy (COSE) for cold-climate solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems, COSE was computed for three types of cold climate water heating systems. For each system, a series of cost-saving measures was considered: (1) balance of systems (BOS): tank, heat exchanger, and piping-valving measures; and (2) four alternative lower-cost collectors. Given all beneficial BOS measures in place, >50% reduction of COSE was achievable only with selective polymer collectors at half today's selective collector cost. In all three system types, today's metal-glass selective collector achieved the same COSE as the hypothesized non-selective polymer collector.

Burch, J.; Hillman, T.; Salasovich, J.

2005-01-01

240

Discussing simply waste water treatment in building green mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis simplfy it is important and necessary that uran ore enterprise build the green mine .According to focusing on waste water treatment in building green mine of some uran ore enterprise,analysis the problem in treating mine water, technics waste water, tailings water before remoulding the system of waster water treatment, evaluate the advanced technics, satisfy ability, steady effect, reach the mark of discharge. According to the experimental unit of building the green mine,some uran ore enterprise make the waster water reaching the mark of discharge after remoulding the system of waster water treatment.It provides valuable experienceto uran ore enterprise in building green mine. (authors)

 
 
 
 
241

The influence of waste water on the water quality in Zemplínska ?írava  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The water quality in the Zemplínska Šírava water reservoir directly depends on the water quality in Laborec river. This is mainly in -fluenced by waste water discharged from point sources of pollution (public canalization) and waste water from area sources of pollution. In the contribution, the water quality data in 6 river and 4 water reservoir profiles are presented for the period of 1993 - 1997.

Búgel Milan

1999-01-01

242

Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author)

243

REVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE WASTE WATER TREATMENT OPTION FOR URBAN SANITATION FACILITIES IN DEVELOPING COUTRIES, CASE STUDY: UPPER BHIMA BASIN, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generation and accumulation of domestic waste from fast growing human settlements is becoming a major environment and health problem in developing country like India. The problem is becoming very acute in urban areas. Appropriate management of these wastes is very important for a positive improvement in the quality of life in cities. With unprecedented growth of cities, the present waste management facilities have been found to be very haphazard and inadequate. Conventional methodologies like conventional sewerage systems presently in use are grossly inadequate to manage the generated waste. As a result, untreated domestic waste finds direct access to water systems or lies untreated on the land surface. Solid waste management also is a major problem in virtually all the cities. This is grossly detrimental to the environment and to the health of the community. Therefore, it becomes necessary to take an overview of the existing situation and to think about appropriate solutions and alternative technologies for the management of these wastes. This paper will highlight one of such treatment option that has been employed in Pune District of Maharashtra State (India.

S.V. MAPUSKAR

2010-12-01

244

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Science.gov (United States)

...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...of the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...three years of effluent data with...

2010-07-01

245

78 FR 64905 - Carriage of Conditionally Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk  

Science.gov (United States)

...Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk AGENCY: Coast Guard...carriage of shale gas extraction waste water in bulk via barge, and invites...transport shale gas extraction waste water in bulk. The policy letter...

2013-10-30

246

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Science.gov (United States)

...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a...User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment...

2010-07-01

247

Attenuation of Chromium toxicity in mine waste water using water hyacinth  

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The mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6). Cr+6 contaminated mine waste water poses potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The current field based phytoremediation study is an in situ approach for attenuation of Cr+6 from mine waste water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) weeds by rhizofiltration method. The weeds significantly reduced (up to 54%) toxic concentrations of C...

Mohanty M.; Patra, H. K.

2011-01-01

248

A Study of Waste Water Treatment of Microbiological Laboratories of Hospitals by Electrolyzed Oxidized Water  

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Hospital liquid infectious waste is one of the most important aspects of water contamination. The presentinvestigation was undertaken to evolve a cost effective alternate method of waste water treatment by usingOxidized Water as a disinfectant for hospital effluents. Liquid infectious waste coming from diagnosticlaboratories of hospitals (Urine, Blood and Mix of both) was treated with electrolyzed Oxidized Water. Differentv/v ratios (95:5, 85:15, 75:25, 50:50 and 25...

Ilyas Ahmed Faridi; Aroos Munir; Fiza Sarwar

2011-01-01

249

Water and waste water reclamation in a 21st century space colony  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents the results of research on closed-life support systems initiated during a system design study on space colonization and concentrates on the water and waste water components. Metabolic requirements for the 10,000 inhabitants were supplied by an assumed earth-like diet from an intensive agriculture system. Condensed atmospheric moisture provided a source of potable water and a portion of the irrigation water. Waste water was reclaimed by wet oxidation. The dual-water supply required the condensation of 175 kg/person-day of atmospheric water and the processing of 250 kg/person-day of waste water.

Jebens, H. J.; Johnson, R. D.

1977-01-01

250

ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUND WATER AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE  

Science.gov (United States)

Arsenic in ground water can be a potential source of contamination to surface water. A case study will be presented to evaluate the fate of arsenic during ground water-surface water interactions downgradient from a hazardous waste site. An overview of the techniques employed to...

251

Treatment of Oily Waste Water Emulsions from Metallurgical Industries Using Microwave Irradiation  

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Full Text Available Emulsion waste water is one of the important industrial wastewaters, which results from the various manufacturing industries including the metal manufacturing and its processing. Wastewater treatment technologies utilizing flocculation and electrolysis have been used but these technologies have not been very helpful in resolving the problems in view of process consistency and economic merit. Aiming to mitigate the environmental hazard that these waste emulsions represent, a study was carried to investigate the microwave methods to destabilise water/oil emulsions without the addition of any destabilizing chemical agent. The experimental work consisted on breaking the simplest of the emulsions in terms of content, in order to obtain preliminary data that can help to extend the method to manage actual waste material. The samples consisted in water/oil emulsions waste (spent cutting oil, which was obtained from local metal industries. The sample emulsions underwent a domestic microwave radiating process at several exposure times. Certain factors, such as aromatic components and sodium hydroxide content and total heat exposure time proved to be the factors that more strongly affect the results. Within the category of paraffinic oils, light oils allow for quicker water separation than heavy oils. Also oils with higher aromatic content have higher viscosity, which makes the separation of water more difficult. It was observed in this study that emulsions added with acid up to a final concentration of 0.48 M, the separation efficiency and demulsification rate increased with increasing acid concentration. Hence microwave irradiation is an economical and rapid method for oil separation from oily waste water. Although this study was carried out on a lab scale basis, the process can scale up to a large industrial scale system. By using the microwave radiation, an aqueous phase recovery that ranged from 65 to 90% was obtained, which is a significant outcome that reveals the study of this technique needs to be taken further

N. Saifuddin

2006-01-01

252

Co-digestion of source segregated domestic food waste to improve process stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cattle slurry and card packaging were used to improve the operational stability of food waste digestion, with the aim of reducing digestate total ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations compared to food waste only. Use of cattle slurry could have major environmental benefits through reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with current management practices; whilst card packaging is closely linked to food waste and could be co-collected as a source segregated material. Both options increase the renewable energy potential whilst retaining organic matter and nutrients for soil replenishment. Co-digestion allowed higher organic loadings and gave a more stable process. A high ammonia inoculum acclimated more readily to cattle slurry than card packaging, probably through supplementation by trace elements and micro-organisms. Long-term operation at a 75-litre scale showed a characteristic pattern of volatile fatty acid accumulation in mono-digestion of food waste, and allowed performance parameters to be determined for the co-digestion substrates. PMID:22472639

Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J; Heaven, Sonia

2012-06-01

253

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC SOLID WASTE IN A BORDER MUNICIPALITY OF MEXICO  

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This paper reports the behavior in the generation of DSW in an urban community (Ensenada) and two rural communities (San Quintin and Vicente Guerrero) in Baja California, Mexico, during a seasonal period. The analyzed waste came directly from the municipal garbage trucks, taking samples for a week. Per capita generation was determined considering the waste collected and the number of inhabitants; the composition was determined according to standard NMX-AA-015-1985 and the procedure proposed b...

Taboada-gonza?lez, Pau?l A.; Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen; Sara Ojeda-Benitez

2011-01-01

254

[Sorting analyses with residual domestic waste from the Westfrisian area. Interim report 0-analyses, september 1992.  

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This report presents the results of sorting analyses with residual household waste, collected in the municipalities of Hoorn, Westerkoggenland and Drechterland, which co-operate in the area of West-Frisian (Samenwerkingsorgaan West Friesland). Since september 1992 a bringsystem of plastic bottles has been introduced. At the same time collection of glass, separated on colour, has been started. These sorting analyses form part of a programme called "waste separation...

Kmm, Oh

2012-01-01

255

[Research on the composition of residual domestic waste after separate collection in the Westfrisian area, 1993.  

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This report presents the results of sorting analyses with residual household waste, collected in the municipalities of Hoorn, Westerkoggenland and Drechterland, which co-operate in the area of West-Frisian (samenwerkingsorgaan West-Friesland). Since september 1992 a bringsystem of plastic bottles has been introduced. At the same time collection of glass, separated on colour, has been started. The sorting analyses form part of a programme called 'waste separation o...

Kmm, Oh

2012-01-01

256

Sortering analyses with domestic waste after separate collection from Lemsterland. Interim report  

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This report presents the results of the second series of sorting analyses with household waste, collected after separate collection at source in the municipality of Lemsterland. The sorting analyses took place in october 1991 and form part of a pilot project, called 'de dubbele duobak' (dual duobin). The main purpose of this project is to achieve a more extended reduction of the amount of household waste by separate collection at source. In Lemsterland each h...

Kmm, Oh

2012-01-01

257

Sorting analyses with domestic waste after separate collection from Weert, 1990  

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This report presents the results of sorting analyses with household waste, collected after separate collection at source in the municipality of Weert. Weert is one of the pilot projects, mentioned in the Packaging Convention, an agreement between the Government and the packaging industry in order to reduce the amount of packaging waste. In one pilot district of Weert (1,000 households) every single household is provided with two wheeled bins. The first, a weekly collec...

Kmm, Oh

2012-01-01

258

Comparative health risks of domestic waste combustion in urban and rural Slovakia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the health risk incurred by two alternative waste management schemes: open burning of household waste in barrels practiced in rural Slovakia and controlled municipal waste combustion in the city of Bratislava. Using agricultural land use data and village population data we formulate three prototype villages, each representing about one-third of the rural population. The two configurations of the controlled combustion are an outdated municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a modern waste-to-energy (WTE) plant equipped with modern air pollution control devices. These configurations actually exist(ed) in Bratislava, Slovakia at the same site, but in different time frames. The CALPUFF model provides direct exposure data and the EMERAM software (developed in this paper) computes indirect exposure. A major source of uncertainty is that of the fraction of waste burned in the open. The analysis presented here assumed 10%. At this level, the cancer risk from open burning ranges from 10 to 80 times the commonly regarded de minimus value of one in a million. This means that underthe U.S. contemporary regulatory culture, some regulatory action to control or enforce the burning ban would be expected. Cancer risks from the incinerator ranged from 7 to 371 in a million while the WTE risks were below 1 in a million. Cancer risks from open burning are higher than those of the WTE plant and at the same time affect a larger portion of concerned population. PMID:17969705

Krajcovicová, Jana; Eschenroeder, Alan Q

2007-10-01

259

Analysis of assembly serial number usage in domestic light-water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Domestic light-water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies are identified by a serial number that is placed on each assembly. These serial numbers are used as identifiers throughout the life of the fuel. The uniqueness of assembly serial numbers is important in determining their effectiveness as unambiguous identifiers. The purpose of this study is to determine what serial numbering schemes are used, the effectiveness of these schemes, and to quantify how many duplicate serial numbers occur on domestic LWR fuel assemblies. The serial numbering scheme adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ensures uniqueness of assembly serial numbers. The latest numbering scheme adopted by General Electric (GE), was also found to be unique. Analysis of 70,971 fuel assembly serial numbers from permanently discharged fuel identified 11,948 serial number duplicates. Three duplicate serial numbers were found when analysis focused on duplication within the individual fuel inventory at each reactor site, but these were traced back to data entry errors and will be corrected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). There were also three instances where the serial numbers used to identify assemblies used for hot cell studies differed from the serial numbers reported to the EIA. It is recommended that fuel fabricators and utilities adhere to the ANSI serial numbering scheme to ensure serial number uniqueness. In addition, organizations collecting serial number information, should request that all known serial numbers physically attached or associated with each assembly be reported and identified by the corresponding number scheme. 10 refs., 5 tabs

260

Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters  

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Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpechín filtrado «defenolado» con ácido de Caro (H2SO5 (tipo B, con DCX igual a 30 g/l; los complexos LLMO y PSBIO se utilizan en alpechines provenientes de la elaboración de otras variedades de aceitunas, filtradas y diluidas en la relación 1:0,5 (tipo C con DQO inicial igual a 44 g/l, y también en alpechín filtrado y sometido previamente a criotratamiento (tipo D, con DQO inicial de 22 g/l aproximadamente. La DQO residual, con la formulación microbiana SNKD, ha resultado igual a 15 g/l (Tipo A y a 5 g/l (tipo B, con el PSBIO a 7 g/l (tipo C y a 1,5 g/l (tipo D; con la formulación microbiana LLMO a 6 g/l (tipo C y a 1,3 g/l (tipo D.

Ranalli, A.

1992-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

A process for treating radioactive water-reactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Los Alamos National Laboratory and other locations in the complex of experimental and production facilities operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have generated an appreciable quantity of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) enacted by the United States Congress in 1976 and subsequently amended in 1984, 1986, and 1988 requires that every hazardous waste must be rendered nonhazardous before disposal. Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. These wastes, called mixed wastes, require applying appropriate regulations for radioactive waste disposal and the regulations under RCRA. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category

262

Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, Northern Peninsular Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l-1, 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l-1 and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l-1 in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l-1. From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of 222Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from 222Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y-1, for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively. (authors)

263

Integration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila in drinking water biofilms grown on domestic plumbing materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drinking water biofilms were grown on coupons of plumbing materials, including ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (EPDM) rubber, silane cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X b), electron-ray cross-linked PE (PE-X c) and copper under constant flow-through of cold tap water. After 14 days, the biofilms were spiked with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila and Enterobacter nimipressuralis (10(6) cells/mL each). The test bacteria were environmental isolates from contamination events in drinking water systems. After static incubation for 24 h, water flow was resumed and continued for 4 weeks. Total cell count and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) of biofilms were monitored, and P. aeruginosa, L. pneumophila and E. nimipressuralis were quantified, using standard culture-based methods or culture-independent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). After 14 days total cell counts and HPC values were highest on EPDM followed by the plastic materials and copper. P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila became incorporated into drinking water biofilms and were capable to persist in biofilms on EPDM and PE-X materials for several weeks, while copper biofilms were colonized only by L. pneumophila in low culturable numbers. E. nimipressuralis was not detected in any of the biofilms. Application of the FISH method often yielded orders of magnitude higher levels of P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila than culture methods. These observations indicate that drinking water biofilms grown under cold water conditions on domestic plumbing materials, especially EPDM and PE-X in the present study, can be a reservoir for P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila that persist in these habitats mostly in a viable but non-culturable state. PMID:20556878

Moritz, Miriam M; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Wingender, Jost

2010-06-01

264

Experimental study on electrodialysis treatment of simulated waste water from radioactive waste incineration system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive waste incineration facility produces low-level radioactive waste water in operation. While in treatment process, however, the Cl- existed in the waste water corrodes the evaporation equipment, and the HCO3- as well exerts negative impacts on the ion exchange process for radioactive nuclides. As for this problem, a special electrodialysis system and technical process was developed. Some experiments were carried out, including the NaCl solution direct desalination and cycle desalination experiment, the anionic selection experiment, and the desalination experiment to the simulated. Results showed that the process of electrodialysis treatment met limits on the treatment of technical waste water in terms of the concentration of nonradioactive components in desalted water, and the water balance requirement on the concentration of concentration water. (authors)

265

The Design and Management of Intelligent Systems in Mechanical Domestic Water Meters  

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Full Text Available The design and implementation of mechanical domestic water meters in current industrial organization and intellectual properties have been registered as an invention to solve the problems of current meters. The device operation includes inquiry of printing, subscription connection and disconnection in an emergency. This system includes a software and hardware parts on the users and the control center connecting with two-way mobile phone. Central control software sends the message through the wireless telecommunication lines to the user’s software, requesting the desired information and also provides the commands needed to be sent through the same. The same information can also be submitted to the control center. Through the same way, some of advantages of this method are as follows: installing on existing meters, cheap cost of inquiry call meter, the possibility of declaring illegal manipulation to the control center, the exchange of information using information encoding, and manipulating digital meters applying minor changes.

Majid Meghdadi

2011-10-01

266

Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

Dennehy, G

1983-04-01

267

The disposal technology of waste residue and waste water at uranium mine No. 754  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disposal technology of the waste residue and waste water at Mine No. 754 was investigated according to the actual situation. For the waste heaps of mine the loess was used to cover them, followed by planting trees and growing grass. For the mine waste water the semi-closed circulation method was used. And the tailings dam for uranium mill was also disposed. The practice showed that by taking the above measures for disposal, the pollution was eliminated, the expenses were saved, and certain economical and social effects were attained

268

Microbiological and technical aspects of anaerobic waste water purification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaerobic waste water purification is likely to be another example of how innovations can result from the joint use of biological and technical concepts. No matter how far the optimization of oxygen input with aerobic waste water purification advances it will still be the less a real competitor for anaerobic techniques the more polluted the waste water is. The principle of carrier fixation to avoid their washing out, too, has often been observed in nature with sessile microorganisms. With highly polluted water, anaerobic purification does not only work at no expenditure of energy but it can also make excess energy available for use in other processes. Another important argument for anaerobic methods of waste water purification is probably the clearly reduced production of excess sludge. (orig.)

269

Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

1983-11-21

270

Method for the treatment of waste water with sludge granules:  

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The invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste water comprising an organic nutrient. According to the invention, the waste water is in a first step fed to sludge granules, after the supply of the waste water to be treated the sludge granules are fluidised in the presence of an oxygen-comprising gas, and in a third step, the sludge granules are allowed to settle in a settling step. This makes it possible to effectively remove not only organic nutrients but optionally also nitroge...

Loosdrecht, M. C.; Kreuk, M. K.

2004-01-01

271

Integrated waste water treatment accompanied by minimal generation of excessive activated sludge or sediment ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors have demonstrated the possibility of development of a process technology of treatment of domestic and similar types of sewage waste water accompanied by minimal generation of excessive activated sludge or sediment using bioreactors that have biomass attached to them. Wet sludge rate reduction is driven by intensification of aerobic stabilization. The article has experimental data generated in the course of the project implementation. There are various aspects to be considered, including technical, economic, social and ecological issues. According to the above, there is a strong need for a combination of proper waste water treatment methods that contemplate minimal sludge formation and further use of sludge. One of the ways to attain the above goal is to use the biomass in the aeration tank. The experiments were held by MGSU Department of Waste Water Treatment and Water Ecology. The authors provide the design scheme of the facility and other parameters of the experi ments held. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic processes helps provide the proper quality of integrated biological treatment. Chambers of the aeration reactor are also equipped with the polymer feed of various compositions. Sludge treatment that is also strongly needed was performed by means of aerobic stabilization accompanied by ejecting aeration. The experiment findings demonstrate its substantial effect in terms of both components, including sewage and sludge treatment.??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ????????????-??????? ? ??????? ? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????. ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????.

Makisha Nikolay Alekseevich

2012-12-01

272

The determinants of domestic water demand. Empirical evidence from Emilia-Romagna municipal data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents empirical evidence on the determinants of water demand for domestic use in one Italian region, the Emilia Romagna, by using municipal data. Two main stems in urban/domestic demand analysis cab be found in the empirical literature. The first deals with the estimation of price or income demand elasticities in the short and the long run. The price demand elasticities can be used for water demand managements purpose while the income price elasticities can be useful in the forecasting process of the water requirements. The second one deals with the estimate of customer willingness to pay increasing in water service quality in holistic sense or concerning single characteristics of the service: safety, flavour, continuity, appearance, pollution rate and cost. The aim of the analysis in this case the elicitation of the direct use, indirect use and non-use values associated to the water resource consumption, by means of direct or indirect techniques. In this paper we focused the analysis in the first stem of the empirical literature in which a cross section data set is required. The paper explores the topic problems of the estimating process whit the analysis of the empirical literature (with particular regard to investigations that use municipal data) and with the analysis of the econometric problems related to the demand estimate. The theoretical model for the water demand analysis is also presented and discussed. Two datasets have been implemented: one with 125 municipalities and four years, the other with 40 municipalities and eleven years. Both the databases bring together municipal water consumption and tariffs data provided by local water utilities and other municipal data (inhabitants, surface, household, income, etc.) stemming from official sources. The econometric analysis is based on both fixed effects, performing better than random effects models, and dynamic panel models. The estimated coefficient of the tariff variable arises always significant and with negative sign: the water demand price elasticity is negative with a value between -0.88 and -1.11, but not significantly different from one, considering the different specifications. The results for the income variable are quite different: in the basic model specification the estimated coefficient is positive and significant while the introduction of the other socio-economic variables change the significance level and sometimes the sign. This applied study is an important starting point for the Italian environment, which lacks structured integrated datasets and consequently reliable estimates on elasticities concerning micro-economic oriented water demand studies. However, further analyses with more municipalities and more years have to be carried out to generalise and made results more robust, since the estimation of price elasticity and the investigation on the determinants of water demand is necessary information for both private and private-public management of water resources

273

Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement  

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Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

Alexandria K. Graves

2011-11-01

274

Microbiological evaluation of water quality from urban watersheds for domestic water supply improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC), but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity. PMID:22408583

Ibekwe, A Mark; Murinda, Shelton E; Graves, Alexandria K

2011-12-01

275

Identification of Naegleria fowleri in domestic water sources by nested PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

The free-living amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system. In the United States, the disease is generally acquired while swimming and diving in freshwater lakes and ponds. In addition to swimming, exposure to N. fowleri and the associated disease can occur by total submersion in bathwater or small backyard wading pools. In the present study, swipe samples and residual pipe water from homes in Arizona were examined for N. fowleri by nested PCR due to the death of two previously healthy children from PAM. Since neither child had a history of swimming in a freshwater lake or pond prior to the onset of disease symptoms, the domestic water supply was the suspected source of infection. Of 19 samples collected from bathroom and kitchen pipes and sink traps, 17 samples were positive for N. fowleri by PCR. A sample from a Micro-Wynd II filter was obtained by passing water from bathtubs through the filter. Organisms attached to the filter also tested positive by PCR. The two samples that tested negative for N. fowleri were one that was obtained from a kitchen sink trap and a swipe sample from the garbage disposal of one home. PMID:14532037

Marciano-Cabral, Francine; MacLean, Rebecca; Mensah, Alex; LaPat-Polasko, Laurie

2003-10-01

276

Low Temperature District Heating Consumer Unit with Micro Heat Pump for Domestic Hot Water Preparation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present and analyse the feasibility of a district heating (DH) consumer unit with micro heat pump for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a low temperature (40 °C) DH network. We propose a micro booster heat pump of high efficiency (COP equal to 5,3) in a consumer DH unit in order to boost the temperature of the district heating water for heating the DHW. The paper presents the main designs of the suggested system and different alternative micro booster heat pump concepts. Energy efficiency and thermodynamic performance of these concepts are calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system has the highest efficiency. Furthermore, we compare thermodynamic and economic performance of the suggested heat pump-based concept with different solutions, using electric water heater. The micro booster heat pump system has the highest annualised investment (390 EUR/year) and the lowest operation (320 EUR/year) expenditures. Electric heater-based concepts consume 5-14 times more electricity, which leads to relatively high annual operation costs (530-970 EUR/year); while investment costs are lower (326-76 EUR/year). The suggested DHW heat pump-based system is cost-efficient for private consumers already today. Furthermore, application of the micro booster heat pump in low energy houses complies with the energy consumption requirements, set by the recent Danish Building Regulations. The use of electrical heater variants would exceed this limit.

Zvingilaite, Erika; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

2012-01-01

277

Metal leaching in drinking water domestic distribution system: an Italian case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate metal contamination of tap water in seven public buildings in Brescia (Italy). Two monitoring periods were performed using three different sampling methods (overnight stagnation, 30-min stagnation, and random daytime). The results show that the water parameters exceeding the international standards (Directive 98/83/EC) at the tap were lead (max = 363??g/L), nickel (max = 184??g/L), zinc (max = 4900??g/L), and iron (max = 393??g/L). Compared to the total number of tap water samples analyzed (122), the values higher than limits of Directive 98/83/EC were 17?% for lead, 11?% for nickel, 14?% for zinc, and 7?% for iron. Three buildings exceeded iron standard while five buildings exceeded the standard for nickel, lead, and zinc. Moreover, there is no evident correlation between the leaching of contaminants in the domestic distribution system and the age of the pipes while a significant influence is shown by the sampling methods. PMID:24382119

Sorlini, Sabrina; Gialdini, Francesca; Collivignarelli, Carlo

2014-12-01

278

Survey and analysis of the domestic technology level for the concept development of high level waste disposal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this study are the analysis of the status of HLW disposal technology and the investigation of the domestic technology level. The study has taken two years to complete with the participation of forty five researchers. The study was mainly carried out through means of literature surveys, collection of related data, visits to research institutes, and meetings with experts in the specific fields. During the first year of this project, the International Symposium on the Concept Development of the High Level Waste Disposal System was held in Taejon, Korea in October, 1997. Eight highly professed foreign experts whose fields of expertise projected to the area of high level waste disposal were invited to the symposium. This study is composed of four major areas; disposal system design/construction, engineered barrier characterization, geologic environment evaluation and performance assessment and total safety. A technical tree scheme of HLW disposal has been illustrated according to the investigation and an analysis for each technical area. For each detailed technology, research projects, performing organization/method and techniques that are to be secured in the order of priority are proposed, but the suggestions are merely at a superfluous level of propositional idea due to the reduction of the budget in the second year. The detailed programs on HLW disposal are greatly affected by governmental HLW disposal policy and in this study, the primary decisions to be made in each level of HLW disposal enterprise and a rough scheme are proposed. (author). 20 refs., 97 figs., 33 tabs.

Kang, Chang Sun; Kim, Byung Su; Song, Jae Hyok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kwang Hon; Hwang, Ju Ho; Park, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joung Sang; Kim, Ku Young [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon [Hangyang University, Seoul (Korea)

1998-09-01

279

Process for decontamination of radioactively contaminated waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The waste water from the nuclear medical stations are separated from coarse dispersed materials in a precipitation container and are made acid to reach a pH value greater than 9.5. Next, there is precipitation or absorption. Waste air produced is cleaned by means of filters. (DG)

280

DRINKING AND WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN ŠALESKA DOLINA REGION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present diploma thesis we demonstrate the operation of the treatment plant Grmov vrh and the Central waste water treatment plant of the Šalek Valley. We have seen how the inhabitants of the Šalek Valley supply themselves with drinking water. Furthermore, we present the reconstruction of the sewerage and water supply system in the Šalek Valley and their wider benefit for the valley.

Stojakovic?, Mario

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The impact of industrial waste of Venezuelan marine water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Puerto Cabello-Marron coastal area of Venezuela is an ideal location for industries that require large land areas, water, marine transportation, minimum habitation, cooling water, etc. However, mercury spills have produced concern in the entire coastal zone. The area was investigated and negative impacts were identified. Consequently, recommendations for waste water management were proceeded. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Roberts, Frank [Bechtel Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Guarino, Carmen [Guarino Engineers, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Arias, Marlene [Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Caracas (Venezuela)

1993-12-31

282

METHODS FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER AND WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual provides test procedures approved for the monitoring of water supplies, waste discharges, and ambient waters, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System, and Ambient Monitoring Requirements of Section 106 and of Public Law 9...

283

Actual problems of municipal cleaner?s waste waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner?s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

Konko¾ová Patrícia

2000-03-01

284

Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance  

Science.gov (United States)

Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

2010-01-01

285

Waste  

...of DownHistoric Monuments of FermanaghNatural HeritageWasteWater ManagementWildlifeWildlife GardeningNanotechnologyLooking for HelpWasteLast updated: 2 April 2010In Northern Ireland each household...

286

NATURAL WASTE WATER PURIFICATION IN CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The comprehensive enhancement of the environment is an important task in Hungary too in order to maintain and improve the life quality of both humans and other living creatures. Waste water treatment and solid waste management have become significant issues since joining the European Union. Thus it has become timely to develop or borrow an effective and attainable sewage water treatment technology adapted to Hungarian circumstances. Some prototypes of waste water treatment plants that use natural or constructed wetlands (reed beds mainly have already been established in Hungary as experiments or everyday function. In Hódmezövásárhely (HU a demonstration site has built that shows different types of treatment systems based on plants. Present paper introduces environment friendly waste water treatment technologies and the principles of their establishment and function.

AGNES SULI

2009-05-01

287

Mitigation of Metal Ion Pollution from Industrial Waste Water Using Waste Wool  

Science.gov (United States)

A study on the adsorption of copper (II) ions from the aqueous solution on waste wool had been carried out to analyze the adsorption capacity of waste wool, thereby aiming towards mitigation of metal ion pollution in industrial waste water. The effect of varying concentration of copper ions and varying time period, was studied on fixed weight of waste wool. The initial and final concentration of copper ions was measured by conductometric and spectrophotometric methods. Adsorption data were modeled with the langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherm and first order equation were found to be applicable. Removal of metal ions using industrial waste wool is found to be favourable. Thus the work can be extended to study various physico-chemical parameters for removal of copper (II) ions from industrial effluents using waste wool. A later work can be involved where the waste wool adsorption parameter can be further utilized for composite ceramic products.

Prajapat, Garima; Purohit, Praveen

288

Smart solar domestic hot water systems. Development and test; Intelligente solvarmeanlaeg. Udvikling og afproevning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the project described in this report is to develop and test smart solar domestic hot water systems (SDHW systems) where the energy supply from the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a flexible way fitted to the hot water consumption in such a way, that the SDHW systems are suitable for large as well as small hot water demands. In a smart SDHW system the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a smart way. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the water in the hot water tank from the top and only the hot water volume needed by the consumers is heated. Further the water is heated immediately before tapping. The control system includes a number of temperature sensors which cover the temperatures in the auxiliary heated volume. Based on these temperatures the energy content in the hot water tank is calculated. Only water heated to a temperature above 50 deg. C contributes to the total energy content in the hot water tank. Furhter the control system includes a timer that only allows the auxiliary energy supply system to be active in certain time periods and only if the energy content in the hot water tank is lower than wanted. In this way the water in the tank is heated immediately before the expected time of tapping and only the hot water volume needed is heated. The report is divided into five main sections. The sections deals with: Developing and testing storage tanks, laboratory test of SDHW systems based on some of the developed storage tanks, validation of simulation programs for smart solar heating systems, optimisation of system design and control strategy and measurements on two smart SDHW systems installed in single family houses. In all the developed hot water tanks, attempt is made to heat the water in the tank from the top of the tank and not as in traditional tanks where the water is heated from the lowest level of the auxiliary energy supply system, normally a helix or a electrical heating element placed in the tank. It is very important that the water is heated from the top of the tank because only in this way, the size of the auxiliary volume can be controlled, which makes the SDHW system suitable for large as well as small hot water demands. The gain experience in one part of the project is immediately implemented in the following parts of the project. Therefore the design of some of the SDHW systems has been changed during the project. The expected advantages by using smart SDHW systems are: Reduced auxiliary energy use compared to the auxiliary energy use in a similar traditional SDHW system; Reduced heat loss compared to the heat loss in a similar traditional SDHW system; Really good thermal stratification and due to that, and the way the tank is heated, a higher collector performance; Reduced domestic water volume in the tank compared to traditional SDHW systems and therefore a reduced risk of legionella. Based on the results in the project it can be concluded that: A smart SDHW system has a lower auxiliary energy consumption than a similar traditional SDHW system; A smart SDHW system has a reduced heat loss from the hot water tank compared to the tank heat loss for a similar traditional SDHW system because the top of the hot water tank is not constantly heated to a high temperature level; It is possible to build up a good thermal stratification both for large and for small auxiliary heated volumes where the water is heated from the top of the tank; The simulation programs, which are developed in the project, are suitable as tools for system design and analysis for smart SDHW systems; A consumer that buys a smart SDHW system must be willing to take action part in the control of the system, because the thermal performance of the system strongly depends on the correct control parameters. (au)

Andersen, E.; Knudsen, S.; Furbo, S.; Vejen, N.K.

2001-07-01

289

Simultaneous Waste Water Purification via Photocatalysis and Seed Germination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preliminary results of our study related to simultaneous waste water purification by photocatalytic degradation of organic impurity (Methylene Blue dye and its effects on seed germination are presented here. It is interesting and important to know that complete degradation of the dye occurs within 2 hours and does not adversely affect the seed germination process. It is concluded that waste water purification by photocatalysis and seed germination (agriculture can be carried out simultaneously, opening a way for advanced agriculture.

Sadhana A. Sawant

2013-07-01

290

Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, ?-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activa...

Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

2011-01-01

291

Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste w...

Grigorieva, Ellina V.; Khailov, Evgenii N.

2010-01-01

292

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM WASTE WATER USING MICROBIAL FUEL CELL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) an electricity producing device using waste-water treatment, biosensor, eco-friendly and low cost management of energy production. In this study, investigation power generation from waste water compared with their pure culture, mixed culture and different medium ingredients with microorganism. Enhance the power production with different ingredients like monosaccharide’s, nitrogen source and amino acids, these sources increasing the electron shuttle in the medium....

Mannarreddy Prabu; Munireddy Durgadevi; Manavalan Tamilvendan; Puthupattu Thangavelu Kalaichelvan; Venkatesan Kaviyarasan

2012-01-01

293

Monographs Information system on Environmental Technology. Waste water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report contains 17 monographs of techniques used in the field of treatment of waste water. It is the fourth report in a series of four, containing techniques in the field of waste, water, air and soil treatment. The source of this information is the information system on environmental techniques (IT) that is in development at RIVM. A reprint of an article on this has been suppleted as appendix. Authors of the different contributions work at the Netherlands Organis...

Joziasse J; Acf, Wiering; Gj, Annokee; Gj, Arkenbout; Jw, Assink; Wfjm, Engelhard; Hinsenveld M; Hj, Veen; van Voorneburg F; Rinzema A; Wgjm, Tongeren

2012-01-01

294

Procedure and device for decontaminating radioactive waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decontamination of waste water containing short-lived radioactive materials, e.g. faecal waste water from hospitals with nuclear-medicine departments, takes place via decay plants. It is proposed that flow channeling of such plants should be arranged so that multiple mixing is carried out. This prevents single parts 'shooting through' too quickly and not dwelling for long enough. Turbulence can be achieved by blowing in air. A plant giving good results is described. (UWI)

295

Tertiary Treatment for Textile Waste Water-A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tertiary treatment is the Industrial waste water treatment process which removes stubborn contaminants that have not been removed in secondary treatment. Effluent becomes even cleaner by Tertiary treatment through the use of stronger and more advanced treatment systems. The present work is an attempt to review all possible tertiary treatment methods for removal of dyestuff from textile effluent. Conventional method for treatment of textile effluent has own certain limitations that can be well overcome by tertiary waste water treatment.

Manali Desai*1, Mehali Mehta2

2014-03-01

296

Synergistic effects of irradiation of waste-water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ic effects observed for faecal coliform bacteria also apply to the pathogenic bacteria. A statistical analysis of the data obtained shows the relationships between the various effects on the bacteria. A definite shielding factor from the turbidity of the waste-water has been shown to exist. Synergistic effects have been shown to offset significantly the shielding effects. Optimization of these synergistic effects can greatly increase the effectiveness of irradiation in the treatment of waste-water. (author)

297

[Sorting analyses with domestic waste after separate collection from Lemsterland. Interim report, march 1992.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This interim report presents the results of sorting analyses with household waste, collected after separate collection at source in the municipality of Lemsterland. The sorting analyses, which took place march 1992, form part of a monitoring programme of a pilot project, called 'de dubbele duobak' (two dual-chamber bins). 'Lemsterland' is one of the Dutch pilot projects, which will be evaluated in the programme 'ADC-Afvalscheiding Droge Compone...

Oh; KMM

2012-01-01

298

[Sorting analyses with domestic waste after separate collection from Lemsterland. Interim report, may/june 1992.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This interim report presents the results of sorting analyses with household waste, collected after separate collection at source in the municipality of Lemsterland. The sorting analyses, which took place may/june 1992, form part of a monitoring programme of a pilot project, called 'de dubbele duobak' (two dual-chamber bins). 'Lemsterland' is one of the Dutch pilot projects, which will be evaluated in the programme 'ADC-Afvalscheiding Droge Comp...

Kmm, Oh

2012-01-01

299

[Sorting analyses with domestic waste after separate collection from Lemsterland. Interim report, october 1992.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This interim report presents the results of sorting analyses with household waste, collected after separate collection at source in the municipality of Lemsterland. The sorting analyses, which took place october 1992, form part of a monitoring programme of a pilot project, called 'de dubbele duobak' (two dual-chamber bins). 'Lemsterland' is one of the Dutch pilot projects, which will be evaluated in the programme 'ADC-Afvalscheiding Droge Compo...

Kmm, Oh

2012-01-01

300

Development of a household waste treatment subsystem, volume 1. [with water conservation features  

Science.gov (United States)

The domestic waste treatment subsystem was developed to process the daily liquid and non-metallic solid wastes provided by a family of four people. The subsystem was designed to be connected to the sewer line of a household which contained water conservation features. The system consisted of an evaporation technique to separate liquids from solids, an incineration technique for solids reduction, and a catalytic oxidizer for eliminating noxious gases from evaporation and incineration processes. All wastes were passed through a grinder which masticated the solids and deposited them in a settling tank. The liquids were transferred through a cleanable filter into a holding tank. From here the liquids were sprayed into an evaporator and a spray chamber where evaporation occurred. The resulting vapors were processed by catalytic oxidation. Water and latent energy were recovered in a combination evaporator/condenser heat exchanger. The solids were conveyed into an incinerator and reduced to ash while the incineration gases were passed through the catalytic oxidizer along with the processed water vapor.

Gresko, T. M.; Murray, R. W.

1973-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

Dayan, M.

1997-12-31

302

Improving thermosyphon solar domestic hot water system model performance. Final report, March 1994--February 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data from an indoor solar simulator experimental performance test is used to develop a systematic calibration procedure for a computer model of a thermosyphoning, solar domestic hot water heating system with a tank-in-tank heat exchanger. Calibration is performed using an indoor test with a simulated solar collector to adjust heat transfer in the heat exchanger and heat transfer between adjacent layers of water in the storage tank. An outdoor test is used to calibrate the calculation of the friction drop in the closed collector loop. Additional indoor data with forced flow in the annulus of the heat exchanger leads to improved heat transfer correlations for the inside and outside regions of the tank-in-tank heat exchanger. The calibrated simulation model is compared to several additional outdoor tests both with and without auxiliary heating. Integrated draw energies are predicted with greater accuracy and draw temperature profiles match experimental results to a better degree. Auxiliary energy input predictions improve significantly. 63 figs., 29 tabs.

Swift, T.N.

1996-09-01

303

The COOLSUN triple-technology approach to reach high solar fractions for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within the framework of the COOLSUN project a triple-technology approach to reach high solar fractions for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water preparation is being developed. The three core components are a thermo fluid with a low environmental impact and a boiling point above 200 °C, a high efficient adsorption chiller, and an advanced controller. System simulations modelling the transient behaviour of the entire application, i.e. building, hot water preparation and space he...

Faca?o, Jorge; Lobato, Anto?nio; Baldo, Catherine

2014-01-01

304

The COOLSUN triple-technology approach to reach high solar fractions for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within the framework of the COOLSUN project a triple-technology approach to reach high solar fractions for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water preparation is being developed. The three core components are a thermo fluid with a low environmental impact and a boiling point above 200 °C, a high efficient adsorption chiller, and an advanced controller. System simulations modelling the transient behaviour of the entire application, i.e. building, hot water preparation and space he...

Faca?o, Jorge; Lobato, Anto?nio; Baldo, Catherine

2013-01-01

305

Waste disposal from the light water reactor fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alternative nuclear fuel cycles for support of light water reactors are described and wastes containing naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactivity reviewed. General principles and objectives in radioactive waste management are outlined, and methods for their practical application to fuel cycle wastes discussed. The paper concentrates upon management of wastes from upgrading processes of uranium hexafluoride manufacture and uranium enrichment, and, to a lesser extent, nuclear power reactor wastes. Some estimates of radiological dose commitments and health effects from nuclear power and fuel cycle wastes have been made for US conditions. These indicate that the major part of the radiological dose arises from uranium mining and milling, operation of nuclear reactors, and spent fuel reprocessing. However, the total dose from the fuel cycle is estimated to be only a small fraction of that from natural background radiation

306

Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system

307

Optimum design of waste water treatment network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Various environmental regulations imply that it is important to minimize the cost associated with treatment of different industrial wastes prior to its discharge to the environment. In this paper, an algebraic methodology, based on the principles of process integration, is proposed to target the minimum waste treatment flow rate to satisfy an environmentally acceptable discharge limit. In the proposed methodology, treatment units with fixed outlet concentrations are considered. It is...

Sahu, Gopal Chandra; Garg, Anurag; Majozi, Thokozani; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

2013-01-01

308

Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Various Industrial Waste Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Important part of the environmetal pollution consists of waste water and water pollution. The water polluted by anthropogenical, industrial, and agricultural originated sources are defined as waste waters which are the main pollution sources for reservoirs, rivers, lakes, and seas. In this work, waste waters of leather, textile, automotive side, and metal plating industries were used to determine the levels of Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Ni by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. As a result, highest mean levels of copper in supernatants of plating and textile industries were observed as 377,18 ng ml-1, respectively 103 ng ml-1 lead and 963,6 ng ml-1 nickel in plating industry, 1068,2 ng ml-1 zinc and 14557,1 ng ml-1 chromium in plating and leather industries were determined.

Mustafa ?ahin Dündar

2012-06-01

309

Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25?1?C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

Ghada I. MAHMOUD

2012-02-01

310

Domestic water use in a rural village in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with an emphasis on spatial patterns, sharing of water, and factors in water use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between domestic water use and socioeconomic, environmental, and spatial parameters at the household level in a small rural village in northern Minas Gerais State. Five methods are used ­ direct observation, household interviews, self-reporting by households, regression analysis, and statistical mapping. Results show that water use is characterized by 1 generally low but widely fluctuating values per person per day, 2 sharing of water sources between households, 3 the use of multiple sources by individual households, 4 avoidance of heavily contaminated stream sites, and 5 predominance of socioeconomic factors in water use. Households owning their own water supply used, on average, 25.3 liters per person/day and those without a supply 9.0 l, with higher use of the local streams among the latter. Water use varied spatially. The socioeconomic factors house quality, latrine ownership, type of water source, and a utility index were significantly correlated with water use. Implications of these simple household water sources and the more deficient sanitary facilities for potential water-borne disease transmission are briefly discussed and suggestions made for further improvements. This study confirms the appropriateness of the application of direct observation, interview, and microgeographical methods for quantitative water use studies.

Gazzinelli Andréa

1998-01-01

311

Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs

312

Phenols biodegradation in waste waters from petroleum industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Practical methods to isolate, adapt and propagate phenol biodegradation microorganisms were established. Fifteen different microorganism group were obtained, capable of eliminating phenol contained in production water, sour water and waste water from Barrancabermeja's Refinery (Colombia), and dehydration water from heavy oil-in-water emulsions. Elimination efficiencies higher than 95% in periods of time shorter than 24 hour were achieved at laboratory and pilot plant scales. A continuos system using this technology was successfully implemented in April 1994, for the treatment of waste water from Colombia's biggest refinery. Existing stabilizing pools were converted into bioreactors capable of handling water flow rates between 16.000 to 32.000 m3/d. Efficiencies close to 95% have obtained under controlled acidity, aeration and flow rate conditions. This technology is being implemented in other Ecopetrol refineries and production fields

313

Speciation of chromium in the waste water from a tannery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the different toxicity of chromium (VI) and chromium (III) and the different toxicity of free hydrated metal ions versus stable complexes of the ions, the determination of the physicochemical form of the chromium is necessary in addition to the total metal content. In this investigation a strategy of analysis has been developed which provides information about the physicochemical form, toxicity and ecochemical behaviour of the chromium in the waste water. The strategy was used for the analysis of two waste water samples. The investigations were not able to give exact quantitative results for the different species initially present because each method shifted the equilibrium state. It was shown that the more toxic chromium (VI) species was unstable in both the waste water samples investigated. Although the two waste waters came from very different sources, most of the chromium (III) in both waste waters after centrifugation were not free ionic species but were associated with macromolecular particles (complexed or colloidal). 36% and 46% of the total chromium of the two samples was bound in a very stable complex; 25% and 15% was bound as colloids. Only a small part of the chromium was ionic (and hence particularly toxic). Despite the stable binding, most of the chromium could be coprecipitated with Fe(OH)3 or Al(OH)3 in laboratory experiments and would probably be mineralised in natural water. (orig.)

314

Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilise soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As.

315

New techniques for waste water treatment of waste treatment centers and landfills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this research project new techno-economically feasible and eco-efficient techniques for waste water treatment of waste treatment centers and landfills have been developed. In this publication water quality on existing Finnish waste treatment centers and landfills has been reviewed. Examples of segregated water treatment solutions at waste treatment centers and landfills in Finland and abroad have been introduced. Experimental research concentrated on treatment of heavy metal contaminated waters. Studied techniques were biological sulphate reduction and reactive by-product materials as filter media. Both techniques yielded promising results in the treatment of heavy metal bearing waters. Next step of the research should be more precise study on the boundary conditions of the chosen techniques. Good basis for scaling up the treatment techniques from laboratory to pilot-scale plants exists after this research project. In addition an excel-based site-specifically applicable procedure for comparing water management alternatives of waste treatment centers and landfills has been developed. Applying the procedure comparisons on e.g. economy of viable water management options can be made. (orig.)

Kaartinen, T.; Eskola, P.; Vestola, E.; Merta, E.; Mroueh, U.-M.

2009-10-15

316

Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption  

Science.gov (United States)

Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

317

Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

Ellina V. Grigorieva

2010-09-01

318

Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

1989-01-01

319

Low-Cost Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Mild Climates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In FY99, Solar Heating and Lighting set the goal to reduce the life-cycle cost of saved-energy for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems in mild climates by 50%, primarily through use of polymer technology. Two industry teams (Davis Energy Group/SunEarth (DEG/SE) and FAFCO) have been developing un-pressurized integral-collector-storage (ICS) systems having load-side heat exchangers, and began field-testing in FY04. DEG/SE?s ICS has a rotomolded tank and thermoformed glazing. Based upon manufacturing issues, costs, and poor performance, the FAFCO team changed direction in late FY04 from an un-pressurized ICS to a direct thermosiphon design based upon use of pool collectors. Support for the teams is being provided for materials testing, modeling, and system testing. New ICS system models have been produced to model the new systems. A new ICS rating procedure for the ICS systems is undergoing testing and validation. Pipe freezing, freeze protection valves, and overheating have been tested and analyzed.

Burch, J.; Christensen, C.; Merrigan, T.; Hewett, R.; Jorgensen, G.

2005-01-01

320

The potential of Zea mays, Commelina bengelensis, Helianthus annuus and Amaranthus hybridus for phytoremediation of waste water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Waste-water from domestic use and from industrial effluent burden the water systems with high levels of heavy metal hence there is need to remove these heavy metals so that the waste water can be recycled for use for household or irrigation. The present study has screened Zea mays (maize, Commelina bengelensis (wondering jew, Helianthus annuus (sunflower and Amaranthus hybridus (amaranthus for their ability to bioaccumulate Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn metals. The results obtained show that the H. annuus and C. bengelensis plant have promising potential for removal of Pb, Cu and Cd from wastewater though their ability to remove Zn from contaminated solutions is not much different from that of Z. mays and A. hybridus.

Chacha Joseph Sarima

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

The main technique, measure and prospect for disposing waste water discharged from uranium mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author resumes the lime milk neutralization for disposing waste water and pulp, the pyrolusite adsorption, aeration and barium chloride precipitation-hydroxide precipitates floccule precipitation for waste water leaked out tailings pond, presents emphatically the feature, adaptability and application prospects of a new nonrecurring comprehensive disposal technology for waste water and pulp before discharging into tailings pond. It is shown in practice that the goal to dispose waste water completely can be achieved by adopting new process engineering and technique, comprehensively utilizing resource, disposing waste with waste recycling process water, enhancing production management, improving and building up a new disposing waste water system that is simple, workable, economical and high efficiency

322

Biological treatment of cokery waste water. Phase 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop a biotechnological process for the treatment of cokery waste water a two stage bioreactor system of each 800 l volume was designed, built up and proven for its efficiency by treating process water of two different origins. A third type of cokery waste water was treated in a lab scale bioreactor. The bacterial culture used for the process consists of a basic population for the degradation of phenol and cresols. Additionally several special strains isolated for their ability to degrade polymethylated phenols, quinoline and thiocyanate were supplemented to obtain an effective mineralization of these compounds. The successful integration of these bacterial specialists could be confirmed by detection of the respective metabolic activities (e.g. pathway-specific enzyme) in the activated sludge. -In addition to chemical analyses of the waste waters before and after biological treatment a toxicological method based on bacterial bio-luminescence inhibition was applied to characterize the clean up. - The results obtained for the DMT-process reveal that independently from the constitution of the waste water a hydraulic retention time of 6 hours for phenol degradation and 12 hours for thiocyanate degradation is necessary. So thiocyanate degradation is the rate limiting step in the process. The degree of DOC removal resulted in 80 to 90%. The degradation capacities vary from 0,3 to 2,7 kg DOC/m3 d depending on the type of waste water used for the treatment. In each case biological treatment of the waste water led to a strong reduction of water toxicity. - A feasibility study, based on the results obtained from pilot plant operation, revealed specific costs of 3 DM per kg DOC removal for a commercial plant with a capacity of 10 m3/h. (orig.). 13 refs., 13 tabs., 58 figs

323

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01

324

APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING FIXED BED BIOFILM AND MEMBRAN BIOREACTOR FOR WATER REUSE IN URBAN HOUSING AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate application of water reuse technologies, with major emphasis of water reuse for non-potable applications in urban housing area. To study the systems performance, secondary treatment development at pilot scale has been studied to achieve desired water reuse quality. There were two systems applied for water reuse scheme using biofilter or fixed bed biofilm system for treating wastewater from Turangga’s flat in Bandung City and membrane bioreactor system for treating wastewater from anaerobic pond of Bojong Soang’s Wastewater Treatment Plant, Bandung City, West Java. The systems produce water quality meets water reuse for domestic purposes, such as toilet flushing, washing, garden irrigation, etc. In general, these applications show assessing a treatment process ability to produce water contains turbidity is less than 2 mgL-1 and BOD is less than 5 mgL-1. This paper concludes that treated wastewater is potential reuse for public/domestic purposes mainly for water scared urban area, which depends on characteristic of wastewater and the methods or degree of treatment required.

ELIS HASTUTI

2011-09-01

325

Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This manual provides test procedures approved for the monitoring of water supplies, waste discharges, and ambient waters, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, and Ambient Monitoring Requirements of Section 106 and 208 of Public Law 92-500. The test methods have been selected to meet the needs of federal legislation and to provide guidance to laboratories engaged in the protection of human health and the aquatic environment.

1979-03-01

326

Germination of grass seeds with recycling waste water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was designed to determine the effects of residual water irrigation on the rate and percentage of germination of grass seeds. Germination tests were carried out to compare the seeds irrigated with recycling waste water with seeds irrigated with distilled water. Test with Festuca arundinacea Sch. and Agrostis tenuis L. seeds was performed under laboratory conditions. Parameters used to evaluate germination were: number of germinated seeds (Gmax), mean germination time (MGT), the time...

Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell Padrino, Maria Victoria; Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Amaya Garcia La Escosura, Jose Manuel; Delgado Arroyo, Maria Del Mar

2008-01-01

327

Vitrification treatability studies of actual waste water treatment sludges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatability studies have been conducted at the laboratory-scale to evaluate vitrification of waste water sludges at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These studies are being conducted jointly by Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These studies include testing with surrogate waste formulations at both the laboratory-scale and pilot-scale, and testing with actual waste at the laboratory-scale, pilot-scale, and field-scale. ORR was chosen as the host site for the field-scale demonstration. The Y12 West End Treatment Facility (WETF) waste water treatment sludges, which are RCRA F-listed wastes, were chosen as the candidate waste stream for the first field-scale demonstration. The laboratory-scale ''proof-of-principle'' demonstrations reported in this study and the pilot-scale studies planned for FY95 on the WETF sludge will provide needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration. These laboratory-scale ''proof-of-principle'' and pilot-scale studies also provide needed data for the evaluation of the feasibility of vitrification as a stabilization option for a variety of wastes which do not currently meet RCRA/LDR (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Land Disposal Restrictions) requirements for storage/disposal and/or those for which treatment capacity does not presently exist

328

Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3. However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Different concentration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% of FKW were used to treat tilapia in tank culture for a period of twelve weeks. Physico-chemical parameters were also taken every week. Treatment with 0.1% FKW resulted in significant (p<0.05 decrease in ammonia, nitrite and nitrate levels. The survival rates of tilapia treated with 0.05 and 0.1% FKW were comparable to the untreated control. Growth performance of the tilapia was measured in term of length and weight. Highest relative growth rate was observed in tilapia treated with 0.05% FKW. However, all the fish died in 0.2% FKW due to severe pH drop. Therefore, low concentration of FKW could severe as a potential water additive to improve water quality and promote growth in tilapia aquaculture.

S.K. Wong

2013-01-01

329

Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing  

Science.gov (United States)

An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

1990-01-01

330

Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting  

Science.gov (United States)

As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

2012-04-01

331

Heavy metals in the waste and in the water discharge area of municipal solid waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The county of Paranaguá discards 80 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW daily in the Embocuí landfill without proper treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the concentration of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb and mercury (Hg in the dump area and to compare it with reference values for soil and water quality stipulated by CETESB (2005. The methodology of the study involved the collection of waste samples (organic waste mixed with soil from a depth of 1 m deep at 12 points of the dump, and the collection of water samples from a depth of 3 m at 3 points in the deposited waste. Extraction of heavy metals in the water samples was performed according to the USEPA (1999 method and analysis followed ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Analysis of the solid waste samples showed the following concentrations: (mg kg -1: As < 10; Cd < 1; Cr = 26; Pb = 52; e Hg = 0.2. The water samples showed the following concentrations: (mg L- 1: As < 5; Cd < 5; Cr =29 e Pb = 10. The amounts of heavy metals in samples of tailings and water from the landfill area fall below the values considered to create a risk of contamination.

Luiz Ermindo Cavallet

2013-12-01

332

Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of CELSS model wastes  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlled-Ecological-Life-Support-System (CELSS) model wastes were wet-oxidized at temperatures from 250 to 500°C, i.e., below and above the critical point of water (374°C and 218 kg/cm2 or 21.4 MPa). A solution of ammonium hydroxide and acetic acid and a slurry of human urine, feces, and wipes were used as model wastes. Almost all of the organic matter in the model wastes was oxidized in the temperature range from 400 to 500°C, i.e., above the critical conditions for water. In contrast, only a small portion of the organic matter was oxidized at subcritical conditions. Although the extent of nitrogen oxidation to nitrous oxide (N2O) and/or nitrogen gas (N2) increased with reaction temperature, most of the nitrogen was retained in solution as ammonia near 400°C. This important finding suggests that most of the nitrogen in the waste feed can be retained in solution as ammonia during oxidation at low supercritical temperatures and be subsequently used as a nitrogen source for plants in a CELSS while at the same time organic matter is almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. It was also found in this study the Hastelloy C-276 alloy reactor corroded during waste oxidation. The rate of corrosion was lower above than below the critical temperature for water.

Takahashi, Y.; Wydeven, T.; Koo, C.

333

Improving Water Supply Systems for Domestic Uses in Urban Togo: The Case of a Suburb in Lomé  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid urbanization facing developing countries is increasing pressure on public institutions to provide adequate supplies of clean water to populations. In most developing countries, the general public is not involved in strategies and policies regarding enhancement, conservation, and management of water supply systems. To assist governments and decision makers in providing potable water to meet the increasing demand due to the rapid urbanization, this study sought to characterize existing water supply systems and obtain public opinion for identifying a community water supply system model for households in a residential neighborhood in Lomé, Togo. Existing water supply systems in the study area consist of bucket-drawn water wells, mini water tower systems, rainwater harvesting, and public piped water. Daily domestic water consumption in the study area compared well with findings on water uses per capita from Sub-Saharan Africa, but was well below daily water usage in developed nations. Based on the surveys, participants thought highly of a large scale community water tower and expressed interest in maintaining it. Even though people rely on water sources deemed convenient for drinking, they also reported limited confidence in the quality of these sources.

Taisha Venort

2012-02-01

334

Conditioning of concentrates from the evaporation of industrial waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chair of water quality management and waste management at the Technical University of Munich is concerned, inter alia, with the evaporation of landfill leachates and industrial waste waters carrying heavy freights of organic and inorganic pollutants. The concentrates or crystallization products obtained frequently contain a large proportion of substances, especially heavy metals, fit for recycling. Within the framework of this project, methods permitting separation of individual constituents are developed and tested. These are, first of all, thermal and chemico-physical separation methods. To ensure, furthermore, non-polluting deposition of the remaining residual products at landfills, different possibilities are investigated for rendering these residues inert. (orig.)

335

Method of treating ammonia-comprising waste water:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The invention relates to a method of treating ammonia-comprising waste water in which the bicarbonate ion is the counter ion of the ammonium ion present in the waste water. According to the invention half the ammonium is converted into nitrite, yielding an ammonia- and nitrite-containing solution, and in the second step the nitrite is used as oxidant for the ammonia. In the method according to the invention the conversion of half the ammonia into nitrite occurs automatically, providing a meth...

Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Jetten, M. S. M.

1998-01-01

336

Mimic Behavior in Home Waste-waters Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present results of a household-level survey on behaviors regarding refuses in the home waste-waters network. Interpreting survey results in a panel-data logit results show that most socio-economic and public good-related respondent's characteristics do not play a significant role in explaining choices to discard in the home waste-waters network. The only significant regressor, apart from the nature of the refuse itself, is, by far, the belief that the respondent has about her neighbors' an...

Polome?, Philippe

2013-01-01

337

Land subsidence in Yunlin, Taiwan, due to Agricultural and Domestic Water Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Subsidence in a layered aquifer is caused by groundwater excess extraction and results in complicated problems in Taiwan. Commonly, responsibility to subsidence for agricultural and domestic water users is difficulty to identify due to the lack of quantitative evidences. An integrated model was proposed to analyze subsidence problem. The flow field utilizes analytical solution for pumping in a layered system from Neuman and Witherspoon (1969) to calculate the head drawdown variation. The subsidence estimation applies Terzaghi (1943) one-dimensional consolidation theory to calculate the deformation in each layer. The proposed model was applied to estimate land subsidence and drawdown variation at the Yuanchang Township of Yunlin County in Taiwan. Groundwater data for dry-season periods were used for calibration and validation. Seasonal effect in groundwater variation was first filtered out. Dry-season pumping effect on land subsidence was analyzed. The results show that multi-layer pumping contributes more in subsidence than single-layer pumping on the response of drawdown and land subsidence in aquifer 2 with a contribution of 97% total change at Yuanchang station. Pumping in aquifer 2 contributes more significant than pumping in aquifer 3 to cause change in drawdown and land subsidence in aquifer 2 with a contribution of 70% total change at Yuanchang station. Larger area of subsidence in Yuanchang Township was attributed pumping at aquifer 2 while pumping at aquifer 3 results in significant subsidence near the well field. The single-layer user contributes most area of subsidence but the multi-layer user generates more serious subsidence.

Hsu, K.; Lin, P.; Lin, Z.

2013-12-01

338

An advective diffusion process on hot wasted water discharged to a depression angle direction into water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of change in wasted water from nuclear or fossil fuel power plants discharging direction from horizontal one to depression angle one on an advective diffusion process of hot wasted water was investigated. As a result, it could be confirmed that an effect of depression angle jet discharge on water temperature reduction and so forth could be applied present experimental equation on horizontal discharging by a coordinate transformation of various factors with discharging water angle. And, a judgement equation to obtain a limiting area of hot wasted water affecting with bed surface was obtained by using distance from the lowest point of jet to the sea bed, inner diameter of discharging pipe, and field number for parameters, to elucidate its effectiveness. Furthermore, a diagram to estimate an effect of depression angle discharging water in the area on water temperature reduction and so forth was also proposed. (G.K.)

339

Monitoring the waste water of LEP  

CERN Document Server

Along the LEP sites CERN is discharging water of differing quality and varying amounts into the local rivers. This wastewater is not only process water from different cooling circuits but also water that infiltrates into the LEP tunnel. The quality of the discharged wastewater has to conform to the local environmental legislation of our Host States and therefore has to be monitored constantly. The most difficult aspect regarding the wastewater concerns LEP Point 8 owing to an infiltration of crude oil (petroleum), which is naturally contained in the soil along octant 7-8 of the LEP tunnel. This paper will give a short summary of the modifications made to the oil/water separation unit at LEP Point 8. The aim was to obtain a satisfactory oil/water separation and to install a monitoring system for a permanent measurement of the amount of hydrocarbons in the wastewater.

Rühl, I

1999-01-01

340

Tracer studies on the removal of water endangering substances from municipal waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation deals with the behaviour of selected water endangering compounds and with possibilities of their holdback or elimination in water treatment plants. The investigations were carried out by use of 82Br-bromoxynil and sodium-32P-hydrogenphosphate in a pilot plant for the biological clarification of municipal waste waters. It is shown that only P > 10 mg P/l) from municipal waste water it was found that the phosphate concentration of the biologically cleaned water leaving the pilot plant is < 2 mg P/l. The pilot plant and details of the tracer experiments are described. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Effect of ingredients in waste water on property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of ingredients in waste water on the property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment was studied by the method of static ad- sorption combined with dynamic experiment. The experimental result shows that the efficiency or breackthrough volume of resin is reduced if there are other general anions, triethanolamine and oil in the solution. When the concentrations of CO32-, HCO3-, SO32-, Cl- in the solution are more than 0.24, 0.28, 0.23 and 0.09 mol/L, respectively, the concentrations of uranium in the outlet waste water will exceed 20 ?g/L. The maximal allowable concentration of triethanolamine through the resin is no more than 250 mg/L. When the content of oil in the resin exceeds 1%(by quality), the breackthrough volume reduces by 16%, and when it exceeds 11%, the breackthrough volume almost loses at all. (authors)

342

Waste water shows traces of radioactive substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sludge at sewage treatment plants has been found to contain radioactive substances originating in hospitals, nuclear weapon tests, the Chernobyl accident, the Finnish nuclear power plants and natural sources. Radioactive substances also enter sewers together with excretions after patients have left the hospital. Hospitals used to let the excretions of patients receiving the iodine 131 treatment into the sewer system only after the activity of the excretions had decreased. Today, excretions can be led into the sewer directly. Calculations have shown that hospital staff receive higher radiation doses when the waste is collected than sewage treatment plant staff receive when the radioactive iodine is led directly into the sewer

343

Processing method for contaminated water containing radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For absorbing contaminated water containing radioactive substances, a sheet is prepared by covering water absorbing pulps carrying an organic water absorbent having an excellent water absorbability is semi-solidified upon absorption water with a water permeable cloth, such as a non-woven fabric having a shape stability. As the organic water absorbent, a hydrophilic polymer which retains adsorbed water as it is used. In particular, a starch-grafted copolymer having an excellent water absorbability also for reactor water containing boric acid is preferred. The organic water absorbent can be carried on the water absorbing pulps by scattering a granular organic water absorbent to the entire surface of the water absorbing cotton pulp extended thinly to carry it uniformly and putting them between thin absorbing paper sheets. If contaminated water containing radioactive materials are wiped off by using such a sheet, the entire sheet is semi-solidified along with the absorption with no leaching of the contaminated water, thereby enabling to move the wastes to a furnace for applying combustion treatment. (T.M.)

344

Methods of industrial waste water cleaning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The issue of „acid mine water“ (or AMD) is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of the old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphateelimination at this locality. Recently, several methods of the sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are the biological and physical-chemical oness and the chemical precipitat...

Ján Brehuv; Tomislav Špaldon; Silvie Heviánková

2005-01-01

345

How much water is enough? Domestic metered water consumption and free basic water volumes: the case of Eastwood, Pietermaritzburg  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article is based on an in-depth case study of urban water services to poor households in the community of Eastwood, Pietermaritzburg, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, for the period 2005-2007. The article adopts a mixedmethodological approach. Despite government progress in deliv [...] ering water infrastructure post-1994, ability to pay for the service limited access. The free basic water policy, initiated by national Government in 2001, sought to provide all citizens, but particularly the poor, with a basic supply of free water. The concessions were envisaged to improve public health, gender and equity, affordability, and as an instrument of post-apartheid redress and poverty alleviation. Once free basic water (FBW) was declared a new imperative for local government the debate on exactly how much was enough, why 6 kl was chosen, the structure of the offering and broader state intentions opened up. This article positions the FBW offering within the prevailing international discourse on 'need' calculation. Through the exploration of actual water consumption patterns of urban poor households, the ideological assumptions and 'scientific' calculations underpinning this discourse were found to have ignored the fluidness of use as well as the value of water beyond mere physiological need. In this regard, access to FBW was conditioned on a small household size and further predicated the modification of normal water activities and lifestyle and carried a disproportionate social cost. The free basic volume of 6 kl was found to have no resonance with actual water volumes consumed by the majority of Eastwood households.

JA, Smith.

346

Water recovery and disposal of clay waste slimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of research conducted in its mission to effect pollution abatement, the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, is developing a dewatering technique that allows for disposal of mineral wastes, for reuse of water now lost with these wastes, and for reclamation of mined land. The technique utilizes a high-molecular-weight nonionic polyethylene oxide polymer (PEO) that has the ability to flocculate and dewater materials containing clay wastes. A variety of different clay wastes have been successfully dewatered in laboratory experiments. Coal-clay waste was consolidated from 4 to 57 weight-percent; potash-clay brine waste from 20 to 62 weight-percent; phosphatic clay waste from 16 to 49 weight-percent; uranium mill tailings from 15 to 67 weight-percent; talc tailings from 10 to 53 weight-percent. The consolidated materials can be handled by mechanical devices such as trucks and conveyors for disposal in mined-out areas

347

Microsoft PowerPoint - Waste Water Compliancefro the area, Michael McAlary, NIW  

...2008 Michael McAlary Functional Manager Waste Water Services Northern Ireland Water Introduction 1. Compliance in Catchment...An understanding of the NIW Waste Water Compliance. 2. Capital Spend over...exceedence allowed) Sample Schedules Urban Waste Water Standard 1. Sampled once a...

348

Detection of sources of alpha radiation in waste water and drinking water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apart from the monitoring of emission from nuclear installations and nuclear fuel processing plant, the measurement of total ? activity is used by many official measuring places in the context of monitoring the general environmental radioactivity. The monitored media are waste water and sewage in community sewage works, drinking water, surface water, suspended matter and sediment. (orig.)

349

Assessment of arsenic concentrations in domestic well water, by town, in Maine 2005-09  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior studies have established that approximately 10 percent of domestic wells in Maine have arsenic levels greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant limit (10 micrograms per liter (ug/L)). Of even greater concern are multiple discoveries of wells with very high arsenic levels (> 500 ug/L) in several areas of the State. A study was initiated to assist the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ME-CDC) in developing a better understanding of the statewide spatial occurrence of wells with elevated arsenic levels at the individual town level, identify areas of the State that should be targeted for increased efforts to promote well-water testing, and generate data for potential use in predicting areas of the State likely to have very high levels of arsenic. The State's Health and Environmental and Testing Laboratory (HETL) annually analyzes samples from thousands of domestic wells for arsenic. Results of arsenic analyses of domestic well water submitted to the HETL from 2005 to 2009 were screened and organized, by town, in order to summarize the results for all towns with samples submitted to the HETL. In order to preserve the privacy of well owners, the screening and organization of samples was conducted in the offices of the ME-CDC, following applicable Maine and United States laws, rules, and privacy policies. After screening, the database contained samples from 531 towns in Maine and from 11,111 individual wells. Of those towns, 385 had samples from 5 or more individual wells, 174 towns had samples from 20 or more individual wells, and 49 towns had samples from 60 or more wells. These samples, because they were submitted by homeowners and were not part of a random sample, may not be representative of all wells in a given area. The minimum, maximum, and median arsenic values for the towns with five or more samples were calculated, and the maximum and median values were mapped for the State. The percentages of samples exceeding 10, 50, 100, and 500 ug/L were calculated for the 174 towns with 20 or more sampled wells, and statewide maps were prepared for each of these categories. More than 25 percent of the sampled wells in 44 towns exceeded 10 ug/L. Many fewer towns had wells with samples that exceeded the 50, 100, or 500 ug/L categories. For 19 towns, more than 10 percent of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 50 ug/L, and in 45 towns, 1 percent or more exceeded 100 ug/L. Of these, Surry in Hancock County had 120 wells tested, and 23 percent of those wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 100 ug/L, which is a much higher rate than for other towns. In only four towns (Danforth in Washington County, Surry and Blue Hill in Hancock County, and Woolwich in Sagadahoc County), 1 percent or more of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations greater than 500 ug/L during 2005-09. The distribution of high arsenic concentrations in wells follows some geographic patterns, which are generally geologically controlled. There are clusters or belts of towns with high arsenic concentrations (> 50 ug/L), such as in southern coastal areas, the Kennebec County area, and towns along the central coastal part of Maine. In contrast, there are areas of the State with low arsenic concentrations, such as the northernmost towns, as well as towns in the western and west-central areas. There appear to be three distinct large-scale areas of high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater-one in southern coastal areas, one in central Kennebec County, and one in the town of Ellsworth (Hancock County) and the surrounding areas. In addition, several smaller clusters of isolated high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater exist. Earlier testing has identified other clusters of very high arsenic concentrations in groundwater in the towns of Northport, Buxton/Hollis, and Waldoboro, but those samples were collected before 2005 and did not factor in this analysis.

Nielsen, M.G.; Lombard, P.J.; Schalk, L.F.

2010-01-01

350

Impact on a utility, utility customers and the environment of an ensemble of solar domestic hot water systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The benefits of the installation of a large number of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems are identified and quantified. The benefits of SDHW systems include reduced energy use, reduced electrical demand, and reduced pollution. The avoided emissions, capacity contribution, energy and demand savings were evaluated using the power generation schedules, emissions data and annual hourly load profiles from a Wisconsin utility. It is shown that each six square meter solar water heater system can save annually: 3,560 kWh of energy, 0.66 kW of peak demand, and over four tons of pollution

351

Wash water waste pretreatment system study  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

1976-01-01

352

N-SINK - reduction of waste water nitrogen load  

Science.gov (United States)

Protection of the Baltic Sea from eutrophication is one of the key topics in the European Union environmental policy. One of the main anthropogenic sources of nitrogen (N) loading into Baltic Sea are waste water treatment plants, which are currently capable in removing only 40-70% of N. European commission has obliged Finland and other Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which would require high monetary investments on nitrate removal processes in treatment plants. In addition, forced denitrification in treatment plants would increase emissions of strong greenhouse gas N2O. In this project (LIFE12 FI/ENV/597 N-SINK) we will develop and demonstrate a novel economically feasible method for nitrogen removal using applied ecosystem services. As sediment is known to have enormous capacity to reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas through denitrification, we predict that spatial optimization of the waste water discharge would be an efficient way to reduce nitrate-based load in aquatic systems. A new sediment filtration approach, which will increase both the area and time that nitrified waste water will be in contact with the reducing microbes of the sediment, is tested. Compared to the currently implemented practice, where purified waste water is discharged though one-point outlet system, we expect that sediment filtration system will result in more efficient denitrification and decreased N load to aquatic system. We will conduct three full-scale demonstrations in the receiving water bodies of waste water treatment plants in Southern and Central Finland. The ecosystem effects of sediment filtration system will be monitored. Using the most advanced stable isotope techniques will allow us accurately measure denitrification and unfavoured DNRA (reduction of nitrite to ammonium) activity.

Aalto, Sanni; Tiirola, Marja; Arvola, Lauri; Huotari, Jussi; Tulonen, Tiina; Rissanen, Antti; Nykänen, Hannu

2014-05-01

353

[Spending review, personal view, water and waste in (home) hemodialysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

In a moment of particular attention to the health care costs, of global crisis and of concerns not only for the economic future of our Society, but also for the precarious health of our Planet, it is worth reading an Australian article entitled Personal viewpoint: hemodialysis-water, power, and waste disposal: rethinking our environmental responsibilities, by Agar, one of the spokesman of the "ecological dialysis". The article describes, with some irony, some paradoxes of the ecological and economic costs of dialysis. Among these, 156 billion of liters of water per year and a minimum of 625000 tons of waste products, at least partly potentially reusable. With regards to his battle for a planet friendly dialysis, Agar comments that perseverance is not a diffused virtue. Keeping in mind the cost of waste disposal, reading this paper can be an invitation to an intelligent saving policy that directs attention to the economy and to the world around us. PMID:24671836

Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

2014-01-01

354

Relative potential hazards of radioactive waste in various water systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential hazard to man arising from the hypothetical release of radioactive spent fuel waste into various water systems has been evaluated. Radionuclide transport and human exposure were simulated for six water systems: a large Northwestern river, a small Northeastern river, a small Northwestern river, a large Central Region river, a lake with no outflow in an arid region, and an aquifer discharging directly into an ocean

355

Uranium microbial treatment in waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy metals and uranium treatment and stabilization methods include microbial activities. Up to now the most successful biological treatment processes were bio sorption and precipitation, other processes such as connection to specific macromolecules, are used to control radioactive wastes containing uranium from mines and industrial plants. In a research project, gram - negative bacteria, called MGF - 48, were obtained from soils contaminated with lead in the south of Tehran, and their uranium absorption and storage capacities were examined. Preliminary results show that these microorganisms absorb uranium from solutions, form microbial flocks and settle. Uranium absorption rate increased linearly with concentration up to a maximum of 174 mg uranium/g dry weight cells. In comparison with other known uranium absorbing bacteria, MGF - 48 with 17.4% uranium dry mass are in the third place. Uranium can be eliminated from cells using chemical methods, therefore, cells can be reused. Research on effects of environmental parameters on absorption rate continues. (Author)

356

Determination of cadmium in acetaldehyde production wastes and circulating water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique of cadmium polarographical analysis, based on preliminary accumulation at alternating-current polarograph is worked out. The technique sensitivity is sufficiently high - (2-4)x10-4 mg/l. The technique is tested using wastes and circulating water of operating production

357

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

358

CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

359

Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

Juan Fernández-Bolaños; Mariana Trujillo; Guillermo Rodríguez; Raquel Mateos; Gema Pereira-Caro; Andrés Madrona; Espartero, Jose? L.

2009-01-01

360

The Determination of Anionic Surfactants in Natural and Waste Waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background information, procedures, and results of an experiment suitable for measuring subpart per million concentrations of anionic surfactants in natural waters and waste effluents are provided. The experiment required only a spectrophotometer or filter photometer and has been successfully performed by students in an undergraduate environmental…

Crisp, P. T.; And Others

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

Juan Fernández-Bolaños

2009-05-01

362

A Good Solution for Household Based on Fast Waste Water Blockage Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The waste pipes from the wash basin are always flow in with several waste form kitchen preparation. Due to time consideration the pipe may comes through blockage and need blockage maintenance. Approach: This study presented an invention for early warning blockage detection for a kitchen waste water drain pipe. The waste water pipe some be connected through vertical pipe runs which are usually embedded in the wall. The Fast Waste Water Blockage Detection (FWABE...

Omardin, Mohammad A.; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; Suid, Mohd H.; Noraziah Ahmad

2010-01-01

363

Methods of industrial waste water cleaning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of „acid mine water“ (or AMD is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of the old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphateelimination at this locality. Recently, several methods of the sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are the biological and physical-chemical oness and the chemical precipitation. The method described in this contribution deals with the chemical precipitation by polyaluminium chloride and calcium hydrate. By appliying of this method, very interesting results were obtained. The amount of SO42- anions decreased to almost zero-value, using optimal doses of the chemical reagents.

Ján Brehuv

2005-11-01

364

Attenuation of Chromium toxicity in mine waste water using water hyacinth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa (India showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6. Cr+6 contaminated mine waste water poses potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The current field based phytoremediation study is an in situ approach for attenuation of Cr+6 from mine waste water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes weeds by rhizofiltration method. The weeds significantly reduced (up to 54% toxic concentrations of Cr+6 from contaminated mine waste water when passed through succeeding water hyacinth ponds. The reduction of toxic chromium level varied with the plant age and passage distance of waste water. Chromium phytoaccumulation and Bio-Concentration Factor (BCF was maximum at growing stage of plant i.e. 75 days old plant. High BCF (10,924 and Transportation Index (32.09 for water hyacinth indicated that the weeds can be used as a tool of phytoremediation to combat the problem of in situ Cr contamination in mining areas.

Mohanty M.

2011-12-01

365

Septic Tanks / Domestic  

...NoisePollution PreventionResearch and DevelopmentSeptic Tanks / DomesticStrategy QuestionsWater ManagementAccess Keys...Strategy QuestionsWater ManagementAccess KeysSeptic Tanks / DomesticLast updated: 26 March 2009Is...

366

Performance characterization of water recovery and water quality from chemical/organic waste products  

Science.gov (United States)

The water reclamation subsystems currently being evaluated for the Space Shuttle Freedom are briefly reviewed with emphasis on a waste water management system capable of processing wastes containing high concentrations of organic/inorganic materials. The process combines low temperature/pressure to vaporize water with high temperature catalytic oxidation to decompose volatile organics. The reclaimed water is of potable quality and has high potential for maintenance under sterile conditions. Results from preliminary experiments and modifications in process and equipment required to control reliability and repeatability of system operation are presented.

Moses, W. M.; Rogers, T. D.; Chowdhury, H.; Cullingford, H. S.

1989-01-01

367

Lessons Learned for Construction and Waste Water Management at Radioactive Waste Closure Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental remediation of three different radioactive waste closure sites each required exhaustive characterization and evaluation of sampling and analytical information in resolving regulatory and technical issues that impact cleanup activities. One of the many regulatory and technical issues shared by all three and impacting the cleanup activities is the compliant management and discharge of waste waters generated and resulting from the remediation activities. Multiple options were available for each closure site in resolving waste water management challenges depending upon the base regulatory framework defined for the cleanup or closure of the site. These options are typically regulated by the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), with exemptions available under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) or Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between regulatory agencies. In general, all parties must demonstrate equivalent compliance when concerns related to the protection of the general public and the environment. As such, all options for management of waste water resulting from closure activities must demonstrate compliance to or equivalent actions under the CWA. The CWA provides for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) that is typically maintained by individual states through permitting process to generators, public utilities, and more receenerators, public utilities, and more recently, construction sites. Of the three sites, different compliance strategies were employed for each. The approach for the Columbus Closure Project (CCP) was to initiate full scale compliance to the Ohio EPA General Construction Permit No. OHC000002. The CCP provided Notice of Intent (NOI) to the Ohio EPA to discharge under the general permit according to the regulator approved Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan. For the second site, the Li Tungsten Superfund Site in Glen Cove, New York, the option was to manage and discharge waste water under a due diligence process to New York State General Permit No. GP-02-01. For the third site, the Middlesex Sampling Plant in Middlesex, New Jersey, the options was to manage and discharge waste water to the Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). Each option has resulted in a safe, cost-effective, and compliant approach to managing discharging waste waters from the site closure activities. (authors)

368

Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas  

Science.gov (United States)

The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

1980-01-01

369

Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas  

Science.gov (United States)

The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

1980-11-01

370

30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...  

Science.gov (United States)

...What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information...solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information...solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake...

2010-07-01

371

30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...  

Science.gov (United States)

... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information...following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake...

2010-07-01

372

30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...  

Science.gov (United States)

... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information...following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake...

2010-07-01

373

Employing Interim Water Management Barriers at Waste Disposal Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project Act (the Act) of 1980 authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to lead a high-level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the site of the former spent fuel reprocessing plant in West Valley, New York. The site is owned by the State of New York, through the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and its predecessor company, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), have been the prime contractors at the site since the beginning of the Project. One of the primary missions of the Act - demonstrating solidification techniques which can be used for preparing high-level liquid waste for disposal - was completed in 2002. Since that time, wide-scale decontamination and dismantlement activities to prepare for Project completion were begun and continue through present-day operations. Current site activities are focused on preparing and shipping Project wastes off-site for disposal, reducing the site's footprint by removing unneeded facilities, and managing the site in a safe configuration while a Draft Site Decommissioning Environmental Impact Statement is being prepared to evaluate alternatives for site closure and/or long-term stewardship. Remaining site facilities include the former nuclear fuel reprocessing facility building, an associated underground waste tank farm, and a 7-acre area that contains an inactive radioactive waste landfilains an inactive radioactive waste landfill. Major objectives for safe management of those facilities include protecting employees, the public, and the environment while reducing management costs and risks associated with those facilities. In 2007, DOE began preparations to install water control barriers to prevent clean ground and surface water from coming in contact with buried waste in the inactive Nuclear Regulatory Commission- licensed Disposal Area (NDA). Field work was initiated and completed in 2008. This paper discusses the history of the NDA, the rationale and construction experience in installing these barriers, and the expected results. (authors)

374

Radiation disinfection of domestic and industrial sewages to use them in circulating water supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of investigations into radiation method of treatment of biochemically purified and domestic sewages of Gajsk mining and dressing works are presented. It is shown that irradiation of sewages makes it possible to desinfect and purify them from organic and biogenic substances. The high degree of purification is at absorbed doses of approximately 3x10-2 Gy

375

Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R ampersand D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex

376

Measurements of physical-chemical characteristics of dairy plant waste waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Characteristics of waste waters of the dairy industry are specific and differ essentially from waste waters of other branches of the food industry. The complexity of production in dairy plants with several units for different products render the problem of waste waters of this industry particularly complex. Waste waters of the AD Imlek dairy plant were sampled and their chemical characteristics were determined at different seasons of the year and at different times of the day in the years 200...

Stefanovi? Dragoslav; Vojnovi?-Miloradov Mirjana; Lemi? Jovan; Kurajica Milorad; Kova?evi? Dragana

2008-01-01

377

Autotrophic nitrogen removal from low strength waste water at low temperature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Direct anaerobic treatment of municipal waste waters allows for energy recovery in the form of biogas. A further decrease in the energy requirement for waste water treatment can be achieved by removing the ammonium in the anaerobic effluent with an autotrophic process, such as anammox. Until now, anammox has mainly been used for treating warm (>30 °C) and concentrated (>500 mg N/L) waste streams. Application in the water line of municipal waste water treatment poses the challenges of a lower...

Hendrickx, T. L. G.; Wang, Y.; Kampman, C.; Zeeman, G.; Temmink, B. G.; Buisman, C. J. N.

2012-01-01

378

Heavy water wastes purification from tritium by CECE process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Future fusion reactors require Isotope Separation System for tritium extracting mainly from light water. Nuclear reactors moderated by heavy water also require upgrading facility to maintain deuterium concentration in water and facility for tritium recovery. The problems of tritium removal from heavy and light water and upgrading of tritiated heavy water wastes are issue of the day as before. To date the combined electrolysis catalytic exchange (CECE) process utilizing wetproofed catalyst is the most attractive one for extracting tritium from water due to its high separation factors and near-ambient operating conditions. The experimental industrial plant has been built in PNPI for the development of the CECE technology for hydrogen isotope separation. The process uses a LPCE column and electrolysis cells to convert water to hydrogen. The plant has been in operation about 10 years. In parallel with a development of CECE process for hydrogen isotope separation the plant is used for reprocessing tritium heavy water waste. Processing waste with the content of ? 47 % of heavy hydrogen and 108 Bq/kg of tritium, the plant produces 99.85-99.995% heavy water and deuterium gas for science and industry. Owing to industrial demands for heavy water with reduced tritium content, the plant was modified and additional equipment and procedures were put in place to operate in the detritiation mode. After prolonged operation campaigns it was decided to update the plant with an additioided to update the plant with an additional separation column connected with existing equipment. Now the main parts of plant are two 100-diameter exchange columns of 7.5 m and 6.9 m overall height correspondingly, alkaline electrolytic cells. The columns are filled with alternating layers of wetproofed catalyst developed by Mendeleev University and stainless steel spiral-prismatic packing. The first column consists of five separation sections connected through a distributor of liquid, the second column consists of three separation sections. In operation of the updated plant in different modes, we have achieved detritiation factor 5000 at product rate 4.7 kg per day, and detritiation factor 330 at product rate 15 kg per day. The values of height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) were below 20 cm at a temperature of 345 K and a pressure of 0.21 MPa. The new LPCE column demonstrates very high separation efficiency. Prolonged testing of the plant operating at various modes adduces evidence of industrial practicability of CECE process. This process can be used for tritium and protium removal from reactor heavy water. The paper describes some results of research and development of heavy water wastes purification from tritium. (orig.)

379

Discharges in Water and Applications to Wasted Water Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently the electrical discharge in water has been used for the water treatment. In this study, various shape of electrodes were examined to observe and measure the electrical discharge phenomena in water. Both the Marx generator and the pulsed power generator were used to generate the discharge in water. The oscillation on the waveforms of both applied voltage and discharge current was observed using the pulsed power generator whose peak applied voltage was about 80-120 kV and its discharge repetition rate was about one pulse per thirty seconds although it wasn't observed on the waveforms in the practical use of the high voltage generator (peak applied voltage was about 30-40 kV) with high repetition rate of discharge (20-300 pulses per second). Bubbles were introduced into the discharge region of main electrode using the ejector and the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was confirmed by the measurement of emission spectrum of discharge in water and the intensity of OH radicals increased with the ratio of G/L (where, G is gas flow rate and L is water flow rate). The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was also measured and this reactor system was applied for the de-color of water.

Yamabe, Chobei; Yamashita, Takanori; Ihara, Satoshi

380

An assessment of availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria, between May and December 2009 using structured questionnaire. The study populations were household members living in the study area. Two hundred (200 respondents were randomly selected with 74% responses. Majority of the respondents, 38.5% and 90% were civil servants and females respectively. Their commonest source of water supply was well (41% which is inadequate in 74% of cases due to the seasonal variation of their water content. Other sources of water included tap bore hole and purchase of water from vendors. About 41% of the respondents spend N2000 ($13 on buying water for home use daily and 62.4% store water in drum/bucket/galloon. Cleaning of the storage facilities were done once in a year in majority of cases (54%. A significant percentage (48% does not treat their water before using it. On the medical history, 74% claimed to have had illness (68% of such was typhoid fever which they believed was from the poor quality of water they are using and 68% were treated in the hospital.

Stanley A.M.

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
381

Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

Treat, Russell L. (Richland, WA); Gee, Glendon W. (Richland, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

382

42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports... § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports...United States any excrement, or waste water or other polluting...

2010-10-01

383

Removal of Heavy Metals from Waste Water Using Water Hyacinth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water pollution has become one of the most serious problems of today's civilization. In the last few years considerable amount of research has been done on the potential of aquatic macrophytes for pollutant removal or even as bio-indicators for heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems. Water hyacinth is one of the aquatic plant species successfully used for wastewater treatment. It is very efficient in removing pollutants like suspended solids, BOD, organic matter, heavy metals and pathogens. This ...

Mary Lissy, P. N.; G, Madhu

2011-01-01

384

Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khan, S.U.M. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [and others

1996-12-01

385

Consequences of the minimum requirements for waste-water effluent set in the water conservation law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modification of the law for water conservation and the new law for water effluents showed that during the planning of power plants, the problems with regard to official authorization of waste water effluents into the water with the limiting values accordingly, have become more important than a while ago, when the problematics for the later operation of the power plants were mainly seen in the requirements of the Federal law for the protection against immissions, and the herewith connected clean air technology and noise control. The considerable influence of the often discussed technical guidelines TA Luft and TA Laerm on the air- and noise emissions, will obviously constitute the administrative regulation concerning the minimum requirements on waste water conductions, according to paragraph 7a of the Law for Water Conservation, as far as the discharge of water from power plants is concerned. The main results of the regulations to be expected are discussed. (orig./RW)

386

Determination of cyanide in drinking water and waste water by voltametry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive, cost-effective and efficient voltammetric method is described for the analysis of cyanide in water. A potassium hydroxide and boric acid buffer was mixed with water sample in 1:1 ratio and cyanide was measured, using differential pulse mode and scanning in the negative direction. Cyanide peak appears at about - 0.24 V versus saturated calomel reference electrode Chloride, Sulfate, nitrate, sulfide and phosphate don't interfere. After developing analytical method numerous drinking water and waste water samples were collected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad areas and measured in triplicate. Usually the levels of cyanide in water were within the recommended limits with few exceptions. Levels of cyanide in waste water are in the range of 0 - 0.5 mug/ml and in drinking water are in the range of 0 - 0.01 mug/ml with few exceptions. (author)

387

The potential of (waste)water as energy carrier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Energy input and potential output of the Dutch communal water cycle. Highlights: ? Municipal wastewater is a large carrier of chemical and thermal energy. ? The recovery of chemical energy from wastewater can be maximised by digestion. ? The potential of thermal energy recovery from wastewater is huge. ? Underground thermal energy storage is a rapidly developing renewable energy source. - Abstract: Next to energy efficiency improvements in the water sector, there is a need for new concepts in which water is viewed as a carrier of energy. Municipal wastewater is a potential source of chemical energy, i.e. organic carbon that can be recovered as biogas in sludge digestion. The recovery of chemical energy can be maximised by up-concentration of organic carbon and maximised sludge digestion or by source separation and anaerobic treatment. Even more so, domestic wastewater is a source of thermal energy. Through warm water conservation and heat recovery, for example with shower heat exchangers, substantial amounts of energy can be saved and recovered from the water cycle. Water can also be an important renewable energy source, i.e. as underground thermal energy storage. These systems are developing rapidly in the Netherlands and their energy potential is large.

388

Hydrolysis behavior of tofu waste in hot compressed water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tofu waste (TW) is a typical high water-containing biomass; and the hydrothermal process is preferred to utilize it with low energy cost. TW is also a special biomass characterized by high proportion of proteins and fatty acids, which will lead to a different hydrolysis result. In this work, TW was hydrolyzed by hot compressed water below 390 °C in a batch reactor heated by a salt bath. Four parameters including water density, reaction time, the ratio of TW to water and reaction temperature were investigated. Results showed that CO2 was the major component of the produced gas, a measurable fraction of H2 was produced above 300 °C and 65–75% or more of TW can be transformed into water-soluble fraction. It was found that the influence of the treatment temperature on TW conversion was the most significant. Based on the product distribution (gases, water-insolubles, oils, and water-solubles) along with temperature, a four-stage hydrothermal conversion mechanism was put forward in macroscopic view. In combination with the evolution of gas composition and infrared spectrum, the understanding about the conversion of TW in hot compressed water was further improved. -- Highlights: ? The conversion of high water content biomass in hot compressed water is investigated with Tofu waste as model biomass. ? TW conversion was seriously dependent on the reaction temperature. ? The conversion process can be divided into four stages. ? 200–250 °C, no oil but gas is generated; 250–300 °C, oil begin to be yielded. ? 300–350 °C, water-insoluble product decreases; above 350 °C oil product decreases.

389

Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

1980-06-01

390

Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Station, Kansas City, Missouri. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is the final report of the solar energy heating and hot water system installed at the Kansas City Fire Station, Number 24, 2309 Hardesty Street, Kansas City, Missouri. The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1428 cubic feet of 1/2 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71 1/2 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120-gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30-kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation. This project is part of the Department of Energy PON-1 Solar Demonstration Program with DOE cost sharing $154,282 of the $174,372 solar system cost. The Final Design Review was held March 1977, the system became operational March 1979 and acceptance test was completed in September 1979.

None

1980-07-01

391

Characterization of domestic gray water from point source to determine the potential for urban residential reuse: a short review  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to discern the domestic gray water (GW) sources that is least polluting, at the urban households of India, by examining the GW characteristics, comparing with literature data, reuse standards and suitable treatment technologies. In view of this, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of domestic GW originating from bath, wash basin, laundry and kitchen sources are determined and compared with established standards for reuse requirements. Quality of different gray water sources is characterized with respect to the physical, chemical, biological, nutrient, ground element and heavy metal properties. The pollutant loads indicate that the diversion techniques are not suitable for household application and, therefore, treatment is necessary prior to storage and reuse. It is observed that the total volume of GW generated exceeds the reuse requirement for suggested reuse such as for flushing and gardening/irrigation. In spite of generating less volume, the kitchen source is found to be the major contributor for most of the pollutant load and, therefore, not recommended to be considered for treatment. It is concluded that treatment of GW from bathroom source alone is sufficient to meet the onsite reuse requirements and thereby significantly reduce the potable water consumption by 28.5 %. Constructed wetland systems and constructed soil filters are suggested as suitable treatment alternatives owing to its ability to treat highly variable pollutant load with lower operational and maintenance cost, which is more practical for tropical and developing countries.

Edwin, Golda A.; Gopalsamy, Poyyamoli; Muthu, Nandhivarman

2014-03-01

392

Disinfection of municipal sludge and waste water by energized electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public health concern over the disposal of municipal sludges on land and the discharge of chlorinated waste water into rivers and coastal waters has stimulated the efforts to use ionizing radiation to achieve more thorough disinfection. The ionizing energy required for sludge disinfection raises its temperature less than 2 deg C, and achieves far more complete control of pathogens than can be accomplished by conventional biological digestion. Energized electrons are the most available and economic form of ionizing energy for the treatment of liquid wastes. The use of electron beam power is not limited to the treatment of municipal sludges. Electron treatment can replace the chlorination for the disinfection of effluent municipal waste water. There is evidence that electron treatment tends to destory the trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyl and similar persistent toxic chemicals which may already be present in water solution. A few examples are shown. Electron disinfection studies at M.I.T. and Deer Island, virus inactivation by energized electrons, and sludge disinfection at Miami. The cost per liquid ton to disinfect sludge using a 100 kW modular electron system is estimated to be about 80 cents with 400 krad dose. This estimate includes capital recovery cost over 20 years, electric power, supervision and maintenance expenses. Such a system can disinfect 260,000 liquid tons per year. Next, the application on land and the ocean feeding of electron-disinfected sludges as a converter to fertile soil or ocean nutrients are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

393

REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life cycle impact assessment methods on pathogens, whole effluent toxicity and micropollutants will be developed within the project. As part of this work a review of more than 20 previous LCA studies on WWTTs has been done and the findings are summarised on this poster. The review is focused on the relative importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and even more treatment trains/scenarios) have already been the subject of more or less detailed LCAs. All life cycle stages may be important and all impact categories (except stratospheric ozone depletion) typically included in LCAs may show significance depending on the actual scenario. Potential impacts of pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have not been included in any study, and only a few studies have included micropollutants (in total less than 20 different micropollutants).

Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

394

Immobilization of waste-water residues by embedding into concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-level radioactive waste water is concentrated by evaporation. The concentrate is further evaporated to dryness by means of a rotary drum drier. The dry solid is immobilized with cement. From the drum drier solid/cement/water-mixture samples are taken. After a period of 28 days the leach rate of Cs, Sr and Co and the compressive strength of the specimens are determined. The leach rate can be described by diffusion during a starting period of about 7 to 14 days. After about 300 to 550 days, depending on the composition of the specimen and the isotope, the leach rate becomes constant. The leach rate increases with increasing dry solid/cement ratio. Other waste components (e.g. sulphate) can increase the leach rate appreciably. The influence of sulphate can be overcome by addition of Ca(OH)2 and/or reduction of the dry solid/cement ratio. The compressive strength of the specimens is of the order of about 15 N/mm2 with a minimum of about 6.4 N/mm2 and a maximum of about 25 N/mm2. It increases with decreasing water/cement ratio and dry solid/cement ratio. As expected, the leach rate decreases with increasing compressive strength. However, this correlation is relatively weak because of the influence of many factors on the properties of the immobilized waste form and the limited amount of data from leaching experiments. Based on these results the formula for the conditioning of drum drier solid has been optimized as regards volur solid has been optimized as regards volume reduction and quality of the waste form as follows: 22% drum drier solid; 54% cement; 24% water. This corresponds to a dry solid/cement ratio of 0.40 and a water/cement ratio of 0.44. (author)

395

Artificial sweeteners as waste water markers in a shallow unconfined aquifer  

Science.gov (United States)

One key factor in groundwater quality management is the knowledge of flow paths and recharge. In coupled ground- and surface water systems the understanding of infiltration processes is therefore of paramount importance. Recent studies show that artificial sweeteners - which are used as sugar substitutes in food and beverages - are suitable tracers for domestic wastewater in the aquatic environment. As most rivers receive sewage discharges, artificial sweeteners might be used for tracking surface waters in groundwater. In this study artificial sweeteners are used in combination with conventional tracers (inert anions Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes ?18O, ?2H) to identify river water infiltration and the influence of waste water on a shallow unconfined aquifer used for drinking water production. The investigation area is situated in a mesoscale alpine head water catchment. The alluvial aquifer consists of quaternary gravel deposits and is characterized by high hydraulic permeability (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1), high flow velocities (vmax 250 md-1) and a considerable productivity (2,5 m3s-1). A losing stream follows the aquifer in close proximity and is susceptible to infiltrate substantial volumes of water into the alluvial sediments. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (Acesulfam ACE, Sucralose SUC, Saccharin SAC and Cyclamat CYC) at the investigated site. The local sewage treatment plant was identified as point source of artificial sweeteners in the river water, with ACE concentrations up to 0,6 ?gL-1. ACE concentrations in groundwater where approximately of one order of magnitude lower: ACE was present in 33 out of 40 sampled groundwater wells with concentrations up to 0,07 ?gL-1, thus indicating considerable influence of sewage water loaded surface water throughout the aquifer. Elevated concentrations of ACE and SAC in single observation wells denote other sources of locally limited contamination. Also, the temporal variability of sweeteners in surface water and the drinking water production well is compared with other tracers. ACE, Cl-and SO42- exhibit similar patterns in the river water. However, this behaviour cannot be observed in the production well, where ACE concentrations are varying compared to Cl- and SO42-.This suggests that the production well does receive groundwater being infiltrated prior to the sewage water treatment plant. Time series analysis of 18O, ?2H will give more insight in travel times and the location of infiltration zones.

Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

2013-04-01

396

Potential of solar domestic hot water systems in rural areas for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Poland  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of solar energy for preparing domestic hot water is one of the easiest methods of utilization of this energy. At least part of the needs for warm tap water could be covered by solar systems. At present, mainly coal is used for water heating at dwellings in rural areas in Poland. Warm tap water consumption will increase significantly in the future as standards of living are improved. This can result in the growth of electricity use and an increase in primary fuel consumption. Present and future methods of warm sanitary water generation in rural areas in Poland is discussed, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are estimated. It is predicted that the emission of CO2 and NO x will increase. The emission of CO and CH4 will decrease because of changes in the structure of the final energy carriers used. The economic and market potentials of solar energy for preparing warm water in rural areas are discussed. It is estimated that solar systems can meet 30% 45% of the energy demand for warm water generation in rural areas at a reasonable cost, with a corresponding CO2 emission reduction. The rate of realization of the economic potential of solar water heaters depends on subsidies for the installation of equipment.

Skowronski, Pawel; Wisniewski, Grzegorz

1996-01-01

397

Nutrient Removal From Waste Water by Macrophytes – An Eco-Friendly Approach to Waste Water Treatment and Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wastes are resources out of place. Waste management technique essentially includes nutrient removal for better uses through low cost sustainable eco-technology. In this paper, local indigenous Macrophytes (Ipomoea aquatic, Trapa, Nymphaearubra, and Pistia sp. are investigated to assess their ability to reclaim nutrients and remove pollutants from sewage water in West Bengal. Nitrogen, phosphorus, BOD and salinity characteristics are investigated. These Macrophytes have adopted the environment and are found to grow in the vicinity of wastewater command areas. Results indicate that their potential is very high in removing nutrient pollutants cost-effectively. Nutrient thus removed can be used in cultivation process, reducing demand of chemical fertilizers.

Sukhen Roy

2014-05-01

398

FEMWATER BLT, Water or Waste Transport in Soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: FEMWATER,BLT is used to model release and transport of contaminants from wastes stored in metallic containers in saturated or unsaturated soil systems including low- level waste disposal sites. Both programs provide two-dimensional, time-dependent, finite-element analyses. FEMWATER calculates water velocity, moisture content, and pressure head in unsaturated/ saturated porous media. BLT, a modification of the FEMWATER code, predicts container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide migration in unsaturated porous media. 2 - Method of solution: FEMWATER and BLT perform two-dimensional time- dependent analyses using the finite element method. Nonlinearities in the unsaturated flow equations are handled through Picard iteration. The transport equations in BLT are linear, and Gaussian elimination is used to solve the matrix equations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 528 finite elements (FEMWATER), 595 nodal points (FEMWATER), 225 finite elements (BLT), 252 nodal points (BLT), 100 waste-containing elements, 20 different waste types. These limits may be changed by re-dimensioning the appropriate arrays

399

Liquid radioactive waste processing system for light water reactor plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This standard supersedes ANS-55.2-1976(N199-1976) and ANS-55.3-1976(N197-1976), and establishes minimum design, construction and performance requirements for the liquid radioactive waste processing system for light water reactor plants. It is applicable for routine operation including design basis fuel leakage and other design basis occurrences. Liquid radioactive waste sources are categorized as to type in terms of their physical and chemical characteristics, including high- and low-purity waste, chemical waste and detergent waste. Sections of the standard cover overall system requirements, equipment requirements, controls and instrumentation, physical arrangement, operation and maintenance, and pre-operational testing and cleaning. Requirements of this standard take precedence over those set forth in ANSI/ANS-52.1-1978, ANS-51.1-1973(N18.2-1973) and ANS-51.8-1975(N18.2a-1975). Radioactive materials in liquid effluents must meet requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Section 50.34a, and limits specified in Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20 and Part 50, Appendix A. As a special feature, all statements in this standard which are related to nuclear safety are set off in boxes

400

Water Mock-up for the Sodium Waste Treatment Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important to safely treat the waste sodium which was produced from the sodium cooled fast reactors and the sodium facilities. About 1.3 tons of sodium waste has accumulated at KAERI from the sodium experiments which have been carried out since 1990. Also, large scaled sodium experiments are scheduled to verify the design of the sodium cooled fast reactor. As a treatment method for the waste sodium produced at the sodium facility, an investigation of the reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide aqueous has been developed. The NOAH process was developed in France for the treatment of waste sodium produced from sodium facilities and reactors. In the NOAH process, a small amount of sodium waste is continuously injected into the upper space which is formed on the free surface of the aqueous and slowly reacted with sodium hydroxide aqueous. Since the density of the sodium is lower than that of the aqueous, the injected sodium waste sometimes accumulates above the free surface of the sodium hydroxide aqueous, and its reaction rate becomes slow or suddenly increases. In the improved process, the sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a sodium hydroxide aqueous through an atomizing nozzle installed on a lower level than that of the aqueous to maintain the reaction uniformly. Fig.1 shows the sodium waste process which was proposed in KAERI. The aqueous is composed of 60% sodium hydroxide, and its temperature is about 60 .deg. C. Thed its temperature is about 60 .deg. C. The process is an exothermic reaction. The hydrogen gas is generated, and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide increases in this process. It needs several systems for the process, i.e. a waste sodium injection, a cooling of the aqueous, hydrogen ventilation, and neutralization with nitric acid. The atomizing nozzle was designed to inject the sodium with the nitrogen gas which supplies a heat to the sodium to prevent i