WorldWideScience
1

Technological Variations for Domestic Waste Water Heat Recovery  

OpenAIRE

The recovery and use of the heat generated by waste water is an active concern both internationally andnationally. This paper is a study on the technological alternatives used for the recovery of heat from domestic wastewater. The advantages and the technical aspects of the structural alternatives have been emphasized in the study.

Gabor, Timea; Rusu, T.; Dan, V.

2010-01-01

2

Phyto-treatment of domestic waste water using artificial marshes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phyto-treatment of domestic waste water by the use of artificial marshes system consists in beds of treatment working in series, this beds are constituted basically by inverse filters of inert granular material where the nutrients are cached from the residual water. Most of the treatment is carried in roots steams and leaves of defined species of plants. The rest of the treatment is performed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria that grow within the beds. In the proximities of the roots and the area near the bed surface, aerobic processes take place and in deepest zones, anaerobic processes take place. It is desirable that the aerobic process will be the predominant one, mainly to avoid bad odors; this is obtained with the correct selection of plants which must have dense and deep roots. The economic factor is also important for the selection of this type of treatment system, the cost of operation and maintenance is minimum compared with other type of systems. The operation cost is practically zero because it is not required provision of electrical energy for its operation; energy used is the solar energy through the photosynthesis process. The maintenance is reduced to pruning and cleaning that can be performed twice a year. The goals of this paper is to show our experiences during the construction, stabilization and operation of these systems installed in 13 OCP locations with different types of weather and explain the conclusions arrived after construction and operation; present this kind of systems as an alternative of economic wastewater treatment in terms of construction, operation and maintenance and as environment friendly treatment. (author)

Vaca, Rodrigo; Sanchez, Fabian [Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados (OCP), Quito (Ecuador)

2009-12-19

3

Domestic Waste: Sources, Effects, and Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste is any discarded material. Domestic wastes are those produced by individual activities. In common with other living organisms, humans discharge waste substances to the environment that in turn re-energize the endless cycle of nature. Human activities are closely associated with ambient environment (soil , water, or air) through accumulation of domestic waste. Such household hazardous waste deposit arise from the discharge of domestic activities in the form of municipal solid waste (household, commercial and public street wastes), night soil (human and animal body wastes, excreta, or excrement). In rural areas, night soil is one of several components of the refuse that pollute the land. The surface water may be also directly polluted by domestic wastes or agricultural wastes. But in urbanized areas, household wastes, bathroom and laundry are conveniently flushed away by water as domestic wastewater through sewerage system, and disposed onto land or into receiving water, or in some countries it is treated and re-discharged for domestic usage. Solid waste in the form of kitchen garbage and other household refuse is collected for landfill disposal or for re-industrialization. Many domestic waste influence indoor air quality in urban and rural areas as for example the fuel used for cooking, smoke from cooking and from smoking habits, modern building materials, insulation, fabrics and furniture, cleaning materials, solvents, pesticides, personal care products, organic material or vegetable origin and dander from domestic life

4

Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1975-01-01

5

Anaerobe-Aerobe Submerged Biofilter Technology for Domestic Waste Water Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water pollution in the big cities in Indonesia, especially in DKI Jakarta has shown serious problems. One of the potential sources of water pollution is domestic wastewater that is wastewater from kitchens, laundry, bathing and toilets. These problems have become more serious since the spreads of sewerage systems are still low, so that domestic, institutional and commercial wastewater cause severe water pollution in many rivers or shallow ground water. Bases on the fact that the progress of development of sewerage system is still low, it is important to develop low cost technology for individual house hold or semi communal wastewater treatment such as using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. This paper describes alternative technology for treatment of household wastewater or organic wastewater using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. Using this technology can decrease BOD, COD and Suspended Solids (SS) concentration more than 90 %. (author)

6

Analytical assessment about the simultaneous quantification of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles in tap water and domestic waste water.  

Science.gov (United States)

For pharmaceutical applications, the use of inorganic engineered nanoparticles is of growing interest while silver (Ag) and gold (Au) are the most relevant elements. A few methods were developed recently but the validation and the application testing were quite limited. Therefore, a routinely suitable multi element method for the identification of nanoparticles of different sizes below 100nm and elemental composition by applying asymmetric flow field flow fraction (AF4) - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is developed. A complete validation model of the quantification of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles based on Ag and Au is presented for the most relevant aqueous matrices of tap water and domestic waste water. The samples are originated from locations in the Netherlands and it is of great interest to study the unwanted presence of Ag and Au as nanoparticle residues due to possible health and environmental risks. During method development, instability effects are observed for 60nm and 70nm Ag ENPs with different capping agents. These effects are studied more closely in relation to matrix effects. Besides the methodological aspects, the obtained analytical results and relevant performance characteristics (e.g. measuring range, limit of detection, repeatability, reproducibility, trueness, and expanded uncertainty of measurement) are determined and discussed. For the chosen aqueous matrices, the results of the performance characteristics are significantly better for Au ENPs in comparison to Ag ENPs; e.g. repeatability and reproducibility are below 10% for all Au ENPs respectively maximal 27% repeatability for larger Ag ENPs. The method is a promising tool for the simultaneous determination of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:24856919

Krystek, Petra; Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Kooij, Pascal J F

2015-03-15

7

The cost benefit and efficiency of waste water treatment using domestic ponds—the ultimate solution in Southern Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Wastewater treatment has become a challenge to most countries in Southern Africa because of the fluctuating economies that have been hit by high levels of debts. The treatment of domestic wastewater using ponds, if carefully utilized, as has been observed in most countries in the world, is the most cost effective means of handling wastewaters. When compared to the conventional use of treatment plants, the ponds have been observed to be the ultimate solution for the countries in Southern Africa especially those that are classified as Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) because of little or no operating costs associated with the treatment. The study conducted on Kitwe Waste Water Treatment Ponds to evaluate the cost benefit and efficiencies has revealed low levels of operating cost and high removal efficiencies of oxygen demanding wastes (BOD removal of 86% and TSS removal of 75%), pH values ranged from 7 to 8 indicating an increasing alkalinity from facultative to maturation ponds while other parameters such as nitrates, phosphates and temperature were found to be within acceptable levels thereby releasing effluent that makes the environment sustainable. The overall social benefit was found to be much higher than the operating costs.

Ntengwe, F. W.

8

Pharmaceuticals in domestic and agricultural waste waters - problem and its solution.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Shanghai : Tongji University, 2014, s. 523-530. [International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control (ICWS2014). Shanghai (CN), 12.10.2014-16.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01020573; GA ?R(CZ) GA14-22593S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Constructed wetland * pharmaceutical * Phragmites Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality

Maršík, Petr; Soudek, Petr; Hudcová, T.; Syrovátka, J.; Van?k, Tomáš

9

Experience on domestic waste segregation in Ghana  

OpenAIRE

Pollution from domestic wastes is a major environmental challenge in Ghana and many developing countries. Most of these countries depend almost entirely on landfills for waste management, which has proved to be expensive, inefficient and unsustainable. A sustainable solution to this problem is productive use of waste such as recycling. The main challenge that may limit recycling in Ghana and some of these countries is that a chunk of the wastes are littered on the environment, and the rest is...

Osei Bonsu Patterson

2013-01-01

10

Experience on domestic waste segregation in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollution from domestic wastes is a major environmental challenge in Ghana and many developing countries. Most of these countries depend almost entirely on landfills for waste management, which has proved to be expensive, inefficient and unsustainable. A sustainable solution to this problem is productive use of waste such as recycling. The main challenge that may limit recycling in Ghana and some of these countries is that a chunk of the wastes are littered on the environment, and the rest is collected in bulk in the same waste bin, thereby mixing them. The cost of collecting littered wastes, or separating mixed wastes could be prohibitive, making recycling uneconomical. In order to productively utilize wastes, adequate and separate waste bins must be provided for collecting the different components of wastes. However, budgetary constraints may not allow many countries to purchase expansive waste bins for the different components of wastes. Consequently, a simple waste bin, comprising a metal frame on which polypropylene sack (pp-sack can be hanged to collect inorganic wastes has been developed by the author. The waste bin (new bin can be manufactured industrially using plastic or fabricated by local artisans at an affordable price. This document describes the new bin. Experience in collecting organic and inorganic wastes generated in a house in separate waste bins (waste segregation for the past 16 years is also highlighted.

Osei Bonsu Patterson

2013-06-01

11

Anaerobic biogasification of domestic wastes and direct solar energy use to produce biogas, biofertilizer and distilled water in a city - a pilot plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Domestic wastes are a source of gas of high calorific value as well as biofertilizer and distilled water. A pilot project undertaken by the Tata Electric Cos., Bombay on recycling sewage, garbage and garden wastes of a community by converting them into biogas, organic fertilizer and distilled water is described. Techniques used are anaerobic fermentation and Solar drying using Solar stills. A fish pond also can be fed the output slurry as feed material. In this pilot plant, 1 to 2 m/sup 3/ raw sewage and one to two tons of processed garden wastes and garbage would be input daily into the digester. The production is expected to be about 100 m/sup 3/ of gas per day, along with about 1500 litres of slurry from which organic fertilizer of 100 200 Kgs can be bagged and transported as well as distilled water of about 500 to 1000 litres Laboratory studies and studies on an approximate scale model of the plant are described. Scaling up to a pilot plant by about 2000 times would increase the efficiency of the rate of gas production as has been found by other workers. These tests and studies have shown that the project is technically and eonomically viable. Applications of the process on a mass scale would result in increasing replacement of fossil energy intensive processes with negentropic methods of economic and social activities.

kumar, R.A.; Pandya, N.H.; Patil, A.M.; Annamalai, M.; Iyer, M.V.; Nirmala, K.A.; Venkatesh, P.; Prasad, C.R.; Subramani, C.

1982-01-01

12

Domestic Waste Disposal Practice of Sylhet City  

OpenAIRE

This study focuses the analysis of current practices of household waste disposal, problems faced by the residents during waste disposal and their views for improvement of the waste management system. However, it has been found that traditional concepts and technologies usually adopted in waste collection is becoming insufficient and ineffective causing more than half of the generated wastes (44%) remain uncollected and disposed of locally, which results in adverse impacts like water pollution...

Md. Tauhid-Ur-Rahman

2006-01-01

13

Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

14

Waste water treatment by flotation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues, food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water, which is in the atmospheric equilibrum, is introduced in a closed space where the depression is 0,3 – 0,5 bar. Our paper presents the hypobaric flotation cell and the technological flow of cleaning of domestic waste waters

Camelia Badulescu

2005-11-01

15

Concept of closing the domestic radioactive waste repository in Rozan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The domestic radioactive waste repository in Rozan can be used to 2020, but the concept and studies on closing process has began already now. The balance of stored activity as well as radon hazard assessment for local population and staff have been taken into consideration. Also the analysis of possibilities of radionuclide transfer from repository to ground water has been done. The considered variants of repository closing process assure the 300 years of safe store. The doses for staff will not exceed 5 mSv in any of variants being taken into account

16

Susceptibility of Domestic Cats to Chronic Wasting Disease  

OpenAIRE

Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intr...

Mathiason, Candace K.; Nalls, Amy V.; Seelig, Davis M.; Kraft, Susan L.; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R.; Hayes-klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A.

2013-01-01

17

Characteristics and management of domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China.  

Science.gov (United States)

With its rapid development, the rural area of Southwest China has been puzzled by the waste management problem, especially for increasing solid waste and water pollution from the domestic waste. Therefore, in order to efficiently and effectively manage the domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China, 22 villages were selected randomly to analyse the characteristics of domestic waste, the influence factors of characteristics and resident's willingness of participation in domestic waste management by questionnaires, field samplings and laboratory tests. The results of the rural area of Southwest China indicated that the generation of domestic waste was 178?g?d(-1) per capita and it was mainly composed of kitchen waste, inert waste, plastics and paper with a total proportion of 81.98%. The waste bulk density, moisture, ash, combustible and lower calorific value were 107?kg?m(-3), 37.04%, 25.73%, 37.23% and 8008?kJ?kg(-1), respectively. These characteristics were influenced by the topography, the distance from towns or cities, the villagers' ethnicities and income sources to some extent. Moreover, the distance of 50-800?m between each collection facility and the disposal fee of around ¥5.00 per household per month could be accepted. The working hours of participation in waste management is suggested as 5?hours per day with the income of ¥1000 per capita per month. Based on the outcome of this survey, a waste management system consisting of classified collection, centralised treatment and decentralised treatment was proposed. It is important to ensure financial viability and practical considerations of this system. PMID:25423957

Han, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Lei, Yunhui; Wu, Jing; Li, Shulan

2015-01-01

18

Economic valuation of domestic water uses.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many reasons of concern about the quality of water for domestic uses. The strategic goals of water tariffs must include savings, efficient management and equity in order to optimise availability of the best quality water. The main domestic uses of water are food preparation, personal hygiene and household cleaning; not all of them need the same quality, and for some of them there are even potential substitutes. In order to contribute to this debate, we need to know how these different uses are valued by direct users. This article focuses on eliciting values for different domestic uses, using discrete choice experiments. As far as we know, this is the first time that a differentiated valuation per use has been defined. The paper introduces three innovations in the design of the experiment. The design takes into account decisive variables in household water consumption, such as family size, together with the consumption level, and the options offered in the choice task are combinations of different prices for each of the uses. A latent class model with both common and class-specific random parameters is applied to better account for the influence of heterogeneity in the respondents' choices. The results show that the most valued use depends on the consumption level class. PMID:24333993

Justes, Antón; Barberán, Ramón; Farizo, Begoña A

2014-02-15

19

Concrete Production Using Technogenical, Constructional and Domestic Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes investigations carried out by the scientists from various countries in order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. The grained rubber of tyres, modified sawdust, crushed ceramic bricks, plastic waste and remains of glass are utilised to produce concrete mixtures. The results of research conducted by the scientists show that in the process of producing concrete we can use different types of waste to change natural aggregates and to get concrete with specific properties. Currently, waste handling and utilization are burning ecological problems. Therefore, intensive investigations are carried out in order to utilise technogenical, constructional and domestic waste for concrete mixtures. Article in Lithuanian

Marija Vai?ien?

2011-04-01

20

Domestic and international nuclear waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1982, and subsequent 1987 amendments, allowed Congress to establish the plan to manage the nation's spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste. The principal elements in the waste management system include waste acceptance, storage, disposal, and transportation. Interim storage of spent fuel is proposed to be in a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility. The Department has been relying on a voluntary siting processes for the temporary storage of spent fuel. A potential repository site is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Site characterizations are currently being conducted. Underground construction has started for the Exploratory Studies Facility; surface based activities, including drilling and trenching, are currently under way to acquire additional data. The United States is involved in cooperative studies with other countries. Most of these studies emphasize assessment of long-term performance. By participating in international activities, the United States has been involved in transfer of technological developments and information exchange. There are currently over 400 nuclear power reactors operating in 25 countries. Most countries producing electricity with nuclear power plan to dispose of the spent fuel within their own countries. This paper will provide the status of the US program in the storage and disposal of its nuclear waste

21

Review of quantity and quality aspects relevant to urban domestic waste water and rainwater disposal; Indagine sperimentale sugli aspetti quantitativi e qualitativi delle acque di drenaggio urbano  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following a review of quantity and quality aspects relevant to urban development, with particular attention to domestic wastewater and rainwater disposal, the general criteria of using ad-hoc equipped test catchment are described. Results are also reported of a field investigation, carried out during an eight-year period (from 1985 to 1993) in the `NIR-Mostacciano` urban test catchment, located in the outskirts of Rome. The catchment, stretching over 15 hectares, is equipped with a combined sewage network with various types of duct (including the 0.50 m i.d. circular cross-section and the 0.60 m x 1.20 m egg - shaped one). It drains a residential area and, as concerns its geomorphologic and environmental characteristics, it can represent a typical situation in the Italian urban concern. The experimental results have ascertained, first of all, that this catchment denotes a very quick response to the hydrological input, with the consequential necessity to adjust accordingly the instruments` sensitivity (the concentration time is of the order of 5 min.). Rain-gauges operating in two sites of the catchment have given the opportunity to analyse the time-space precipitation variability. In a parallel way, the quality aspects of urban water have been analysed, in both rain and dry weather, with the possibility of focusing on the first flush phenomenon. During the meteorological events taken into consideration high values of physical, chemical and biological parameters have been found, which confirmed that the rainwater is one of the worst pollution source of natural bodies. It is therefore necessary to give particular attention to the experimental studies related to rainwater.

Giulianelli, M.; Benedini, M.; Remedia, G. [CNR, Rome (Italy). IRSA, Istituto di Ricerca Sulle Acque

1997-12-31

22

Treatment of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Takasaki-JAERI, studies on the radiation treatment of waste water have been continued in several aspects, i.e. (1) refractory compounds in industrial waste water may be treated by radiation, (2) utilization of a powerful electron accelerator may improve the economics and (3) combination of radiation processing with a conventional technique may improve the efficiency. The results are reviewed on these lines in this paper, though the future application may be in the combination of all the aspects. (author)

23

Quantifying the transport impacts of domestic waste collection strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper models the effects of three different options for domestic waste collection using data from three Hampshire authorities: (i) joint working between neighbouring waste collection authorities; (ii) basing vehicles at waste disposal sites; and (iii) alternate weekly collection of residual waste and dry recyclables. A vehicle mileage savings of 3% was modelled for joint working, where existing vehicle allocations to depots were maintained, which increased to 5.9% when vehicles were re-allocated to depots optimally. Vehicle mileage was reduced by 13.5% when the collection rounds were based out of the two waste disposal sites rather than out of the existing depots, suggesting that the former could be the most effective place to keep vehicles providing that travel arrangements for the crews could be made. Alternate weekly collection was modelled to reduce vehicle mileage by around 8% and time taken by 14%, when compared with a typical scenario of weekly collection of residual and fortnightly collection of recyclable waste. These results were based on an assumption that 20% of the residual waste would be directly diverted into the dry recyclables waste stream. PMID:18083362

McLeod, Fraser; Cherrett, Tom

2008-11-01

24

Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems  

OpenAIRE

In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

Theodor Mateescu; Radu Hudi?teanu

2006-01-01

25

Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

Theodor Mateescu

2006-01-01

26

Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c.-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and the cats progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by the i.c., p.o., and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (i.p./s.c.) routes. Upon subpassage, feline CWD was transmitted to all i.c.-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (Fel(CWD)) was demonstrated in the brains of all of the affected cats by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 i.p./s.c.- and 2 of 4 p.o. secondary passage-inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature. PMID:23236066

Mathiason, Candace K; Nalls, Amy V; Seelig, Davis M; Kraft, Susan L; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A

2013-02-01

27

Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

2014-08-01

28

Waste water treatment by flotation  

OpenAIRE

The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues), food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water...

Camelia Badulescu; Lorand Toth; Romulus Sarbu

2005-01-01

29

The domestic wastes incinerators; Les incinerateurs d'ordures menegares: quels risques? quelles politiques?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the opinion of the Committee of Prevention and Precaution (CPP), on the domestic wastes incinerators, in the framework of the global wastes policy. The seven chapters detail and bring advices on the following topics: the elements which are going in and out of the incinerators, the technical processes, the occupational activities and the risks bound to the incinerators use, the transfer modes towards the different environmental areas, the exposure estimation, the risks of people living near the domestic wastes incinerators compared to the other concerning a cancer development, the legislation concerning the domestic wastes and the social acceptability of the incinerators. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-10-01

30

Production of biogas from municipal solid waste with domestic sewage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the production of biogas from municipal solid waste (MSW) and domestic sewage by using anaerobic digestion process. The batch type of reactor was operated at room temperature varying from 26 to 36 deg. C with a fixed hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25 days. The digester was operated at different organic feeding rates of 0.5, 1.0, 2.3, 2.9, 3.5 and 4.3 kg of volatile solids (VS)/m3 of digester slurry per day. Biogas generation was enhanced by the addition of domestic sewage to MSW. The maximum biogas production of 0.36 m3/kg of VS added per day occurred at the optimum organic feeding rate of 2.9 kg of VS/m3/day. The maximum reduction of total solids (TS) (87.6%), VS (88.1%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (89.3%) occurred at the optimum organic loading rate of 2.9 kg of VS/m3/day. The quality of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion process was 68-72%

31

Production of biogas from municipal solid waste with domestic sewage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the production of biogas from municipal solid waste (MSW) and domestic sewage by using anaerobic digestion process. The batch type of reactor was operated at room temperature varying from 26 to 36 deg. C with a fixed hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25 days. The digester was operated at different organic feeding rates of 0.5, 1.0, 2.3, 2.9, 3.5 and 4.3 kg of volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} of digester slurry per day. Biogas generation was enhanced by the addition of domestic sewage to MSW. The maximum biogas production of 0.36 m{sup 3}/kg of VS added per day occurred at the optimum organic feeding rate of 2.9 kg of VS/m{sup 3}/day. The maximum reduction of total solids (TS) (87.6%), VS (88.1%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (89.3%) occurred at the optimum organic loading rate of 2.9 kg of VS/m{sup 3}/day. The quality of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion process was 68-72%.

Elango, D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Hindustan College of Engineering, Padur 603 103 (India); Pulikesi, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Baskaralingam, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Ramamurthi, V. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Sivanesan, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)]. E-mail: sivanesh@yahoo.com

2007-03-06

32

Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-12-31

33

Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

34

Centrifuges for waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes scroll sedimentation centrifuges for water treatment plants of different aeration capacities. The dewatering of various sediments of waste waters in OGSh-type centrifuges occurs as a result of sufficiently high centrifugal acceleration (due to a high separation factor), increased sedimentation area (increased overall dimension of the rotor), improved hydrodynamic conditions of suspension separation, and the use of chemicals (flocculants) during centrifugation. The described OGSh-501K-10 and OGSh-1001K-01 centrifuges have cocurrent flows and are operable with a flocculant. The design of the receiving chamber of the scroll provides for shockless entry of the suspension with a flocculant into the working zone of the rotor. The receiving chamber and the scroll flights are surfaced with a hard alloy, which significantly increases their service life.

Dzhincharadze, E.K.; Galienko, G.D.; Shalaev, V.A.; Yaroslavtsev, R.A.

1984-07-01

35

Waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste water containing over 2 ppm Mo and at least one heavy metal impurity selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, and also containing cyanide ion (CN) is treated by passing waste water having an adjusted pH value ranging from about 3 to 4 through an ion-exchange resin column selective to the removal of Mo and provide an ion-exchange effluent containing at least one of said heavy metal impurities and said cyanide ion. The ph value of the effluent is then adjusted to a range of about 7 to 11 sufficient to precipitate the heavy metal impurity having the highest pH requirement for precipitation, following which the precipitate is flocculated and the effluent containing the flocculated precipitate then subjected to electrolysis using insoluble electrodes to form electrolytic oxygen and hydrogen and effect electroflotation of the flocculated precipitate and form a froth thereof which is separated from the effluent by skimming

36

Waste water treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste water containing over 2 ppm Mo and at least one heavy metal impurity selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, and also containing cyanide ion (CN) is treated by passing waste water having an adjusted pH value ranging from about 3 to 4 through an ion-exchange resin column selective to the removal of Mo and provide an ion-exchange effluent containing at least one of said heavy metal impurities and said cyanide ion. The ph value of the effluent is then adjusted to a range of about 7 to 11 sufficient to precipitate the heavy metal impurity having the highest pH requirement for precipitation, following which the precipitate is flocculated and the effluent containing the flocculated precipitate then subjected to electrolysis using insoluble electrodes to form electrolytic oxygen and hydrogen and effect electroflotation of the flocculated precipitate and form a froth thereof which is separated from the effluent by skimming.

Laferty, J.M.; Van Riper, G.G.; Zundel, W.P.

1980-02-19

37

Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

2011-11-01

38

Legionella and domestic hot water systems; Legionella en huishoudelijke warmtapwatersystemen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a need to assess the risk of health problems caused by the legionella bacteria in domestic hot water systems (conventional, mainly gas-fired, heaters and solar boilers) in order to weigh the risks against the disadvantages in terms of energy consumption of having to heat the water up to 60C. The results of a literature study are discussed. 4 refs.

Warmerdam, J.M.; Van der Leun, C.J. [Ecofys Energy and Environment, Utrecht (Netherlands)

1999-01-01

39

Legionella and domestic hot water systems; Legionella en huishoudelijke warmtapwatersystemen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a need to assess the risk of health problems caused by the legionella bacteria in domestic hot water systems (conventional, mainly gas-fired, heaters and solar boilers) in order to weigh the risks against the disadvantages in terms of energy consumption of having to heat the water up to 60C. The results of a literature study are discussed. 32 refs.

Warmerdam, J.M.; Van der Leun, C.J. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

1996-12-01

40

Domestic Hot Water Usage in Hotels; Tappvarmvattenanvaendning paa hotell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Historically, design curves for domestic hot water, have been well sized and therefore also the components oversized. The Swedish district heating companies have noticed this and some companies replace large valves with customer-required valves, which give several advantages. There are several reasons why valves and heat exchangers can be customer-required and still the customers demand for hot water comfort can be fulfilled. The domestic hot water flow is composed, the taps are often short, large simultaneous taps are not very likely. Also, the dimensioning flows occur in the winter period, while the components are dimensioned for the summer case. The water pipes level off temporary temperature drops and the user seldom notices these because water with 55 deg C is not used in the tap. For residential buildings there are dimensioning recommendations on domestic hot water flow, but not for hotels. The purpose of this project has been to evaluate the domestic hot water use in relation to size and number of occupied beds. If the patterns of the chosen hotels coincide regarding to the sizes, dimensioning curves for domestic hot water use can be suggested. They can be used when hotels, or buildings with the same use pattern, are being built or restored. Measurements on 3 hotels with different sizes have been made. The hotels have 36, 52 and 158 rooms. The hotels are situated in the cities of Boraas and Kinna in Sweden. A short period of measurements from another hotel in the city of Gaevle (199 rooms) has also been included in this project. The measurements show that large hot water taps in hotels are rare and short. For the hotels, relative, cumulative relative frequencies and likely extreme values have been estimated. For residential buildings, The Swedish District Heating Association have recommendations for dimensioned domestic hot water flows. Formerly, these recommendations have been levelled so a cumulative relative frequency of 1 %, is reached, i.e. 99 % of all hot water taps are below this flow. The new recommended dimensioning curve for residential buildings involve a cumulative relative frequency of 7 %. This can not be directly transferred to hotels due to variations in number of occupied beds during the period of measurements. This project has shown that maximum domestic hot water flow not necessarily occurs when the hotel is fully occupied. Instead, it indicates likely maximum flows for the three hotels. These recommendations are for heat exchangers and primary valves dimensioning. The water pipes in the houses are included in a special dimensioning.

Petersson, Stefan; Werner, Sven [FVB Sverige AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Sandberg, Martin; Wahlstroem, Aasa [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

2004-06-01

41

Fibre reinforced concrete using domestic waste plastics as fibres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC is a composite material consisting of cement based matrix with an ordered or random distribution of fibre which can be Steel, Nylon, Polythene etc. The addition of steel fibre increases the properties of concrete, viz., flexural strength, impact strength and shrinkage properties to name a few. A number of papers have already been published on the use of steel fibres in concrete and a considerable amount of research has been directed towards studying the various properties of concrete as well as reinforced concrete due to the addition of steel fibres. Hence, an attempt has been made in the present investigations to study the influence of addition of polythene fibers (domestic waste plastics at a dosage of 0.5% by weight of cement. The properties studied include compressive strength and flexural strength. The studies were conducted on a M20 mix and tests have been carried out as per recommended procedures of relevant codes. The results are compared and conclusions are made.

R. Kandasamy

2011-03-01

42

Domestic Separation and Collection of Municipal Solid Waste: Opinion and Awareness of Citizens and Workers  

OpenAIRE

The state of the art on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is based on the domestic separation of materials produced. After domestic separation, the resident has to transfer the separated materials to the MSW manager through the hands of collection workers. It is exactly at this stage that an end-use product changes its status and property becomes waste. This paper analyzes and compares the opinions and awareness of citizens and kerbside collection workers on this subject by means of two ...

Giovanni De Feo; Sabino De Gisi

2010-01-01

43

Prototype solar domestic hot water systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

1978-01-01

44

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

45

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters, comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

46

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

1981-04-01

47

Water quality for liquid wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To facilitate the automation of the operation for a liquid wastes processing system by enabling continuous analysis for the main ingredients in the liquid wastes accurately and rapidly. Constitution: The water quality monitor comprises a sampling pipeway system for taking out sample water for the analysis of liquid wastes from a pipeway introducing liquid wastes to the liquid wastes concentrator, a filter for removing suspended matters in the sample water and absorption photometer as a water quality analyzer. A portion of the liquid wastes is passed through the suspended matter filter by a feedpump. In this case, sulfate ions and chloride ions in the sample are retained in the upper portion of a separation color and, subsequently, the respective ingredients are separated and leached out by eluting solution. Since the leached out ingredients form ferric ions and yellow complexes respectively, their concentrations can be detected by the spectrum photometer. Accordingly, concentration for the sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the liquid wastes can be analyzed rapidly, accurately and repeatedly by which the water quality can be determined rapidly and accurately. (Yoshino, Y.)

48

Radiation treatment of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indiscriminate decomposition of organics in oxygenated waste water to carbon dioxide and water can be attained by strong active species produced by water radiolysis. The G-values of decomposition, COD reduction, and TOC reduction range from 1 to 3. The radiation treatment of thousands of tons of waste water now can be done daily by use of a high-power electron accelerator. While reduction of radiation energy for waste-water treatment is still the key to the technology, the combination of radiation treatment with a conventional water-treatment process, such as activated sludge treatment, co-precipitation, and ozonation, is effective for the purpose and is able to remove non-degradable organics by a conventional process alone. The present paper describes the achievement in JAERI along these lines and indicates that economics and technology are no longer a prohibiting factor of radiation processing, but a balancing factor to the advantage of new processing. (author)

49

Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the last decade, a growing interest in recycling of domestic waste has emerged, and action plans to increase the recycling of domestic waste have been agreed by many governments. A common feature of these plans is the implementation of new systems and equipment for the collection of domestic waste which has been separated at source. However, only limited information exists on possible occupational health problems related to such new systems. Occupational accidents are very frequent among waste collectors. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the risk factors should be considered as an integrated entity, i.e. technical factors (poor accessibility to the waste, design of equipment) may act in concert with high working rate, visual fatigue due to poor illumination and perhaps muscle fatigue due to high work load. Musculoskeletal problems are also common among waste collectors. A good deal of knowledge has accumulated on mechanical load on the spine and energetic load on the cardio-pulmonary system in relation to the handling of waste bags, bins, domestic containers and large containers. However, epidemiologic studies with exposure classification based on field measurement are needed, both to further identify high risk work conditions and to provide a detailed basis for the establishment of occupational exposure limits for mechanical and energetic load particularly in relation to pulling, pushing and tilting of containers. In 1975, an excess risk for chronic bronchitis was reported for waste collectors in Geneva (Rufèner-Press et al., 1975) and data from the Danish Registry of Occupational Accidents and Diseases also indicate an excess risk for pulmonary problems among waste collectors compared with the total work force. Surprisingly few measurements of potentially hazardous airborne exposures have been performed, and the causality of work-related pulmonary problems among waste collectors is unknown. Recent studies have indicated that implementation of some new waste collection systems may result in an increased risk of occupational health problems. High incidence rates of gastrointestinal problems, irritation of the eye and skin, and perhaps symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (influenza-like symptoms, cough, muscle pains, fever, fatigue, headache) have been reported among workers collecting the biodegradable fraction of domestic waste. The few data available on exposure to bio-aerosols and volatile compounds have indicated that these waste collectors may be simultaneously exposed to multiple agents such as dust containing bacteria, endotoxin, mould spores, glucans, volatile organic compounds, and diesel exhaust. Several studies have reported similar health problems as well as high incidence rates of pulmonary disease among workers at plants recycling domestic waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O

1995-01-01

50

Treating water-reactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Lab. includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated

51

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information concerning the concentrations of uranium in 89,994 US surface, ground, and domestic waters is summarized. Sources surveyed included the open literature, state health departments, Federal agencies, and personal contacts. For each state, samples were geographically located, identified by type and use, and tabulated by decreasing uranium concentration. Histograms covering 14 concentration ranges were prepared for all surface, ground, and domestic water samples of each state and for the entire United States. Estimates were made of the population-weighted average concentrations of uranium in domestic waters of each state. Based on these averages, alpha radiation bone doses were computed for lifetime consumptions of each water. In addition, the fractions of water supplies in each state producing water containing uranium in excess of 1, 5, 10, and 20 pCi/L were estimated. An extensive discussion of analytical methods used to determine uranium in surface and ground waters is also included. The concentrations of uranium in 34,561 US surface waters ranged from 0.01 to 582.38 pCi/L and averaged 1.06 pCi/L. The median and modal concentration ranges for these samples were 0.1 to 0.2 pCi/L and 0.2 to 0.5 pCi/L, respectively. In 55,433 US ground water samples the concentrations of uranium ranged from 0.01 to 652.80 pCi/L and averaged 3.18 pCi/L. The median and modal concentration ranges were 0.2 to 0.5 pCi/L and 2 to 5 pCi/L, respectively. Of the listed sample pCi/L, respectively. Of the listed sample sites 28,239 were identified as domestic water sources. Uranium in these samples ranged from 0.07 to 652.80 pCi/L and averaged 1.73 pCi/L. Using state totals, it is estimated that 15% to 24% of all US water supplies would have uranium concentrations in excess of 1 pCi/L; 4% to 8%, in excess of 5 pCi/L; 0.1% to 3%, in excess of 10 pCi/L; and 0.04% to 1%, in excess of 20 pCi/L

52

Waste water and sewage sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monitoring of waste water and sewage sludge within the framework of environmental radioactivity monitoring is based on samples taken from sewage treatment plants and from sewer systems. Its main purpose is surveillance of emissions from potential polluters, making use of the fact that most of the radioactive nuclides are discharged with the waste water, and detection is more easy with large amounts of waste water available for treatment and sampling, (enrichment of ? and ? activities and of I-131 in large volumina). Municipal sewage treatment plants need not be generally monitored for radionuclides in the sewage sludge destined for use in agriculture, as emissions of long-lived isotopes are extremely low. (orig./DG)

53

Molecular markers for identifying municipal, domestic and agricultural sources of organic matter in natural waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular markers can be used to determine the sources of organic pollution in water. This review summarizes progress made during the last two decades in identifying reliable molecular markers to distinguish pollution from sewage, animal production, and other sources. Two artificial sweeteners, sucralose and acesulfame-K, are sufficiently stable to be molecular markers and easily associated with domestic wastewater. Waste from different animal species may be distinguished by profiling fecal sterols and bile acids. Other markers which have been evaluated, including caffeine, detergent components, and compounds commonly leached from landfills are discussed. PMID:24200048

Harwood, John J

2014-01-01

54

Waste water treatment installation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modifications in a plant for the decontamination of liquid waste, i.e. the washing-out of volatile radioactive substances with the aid of an acid and an alkaline washing liquid are proposed. The modifications will make the process more efficient by using washing liquids of different pHs in one evaporator. They refer mainly to the arrangement of the evaporator bottom plates and the installation of a pump. (UWI)

55

Domestic Separation and Collection of Municipal Solid Waste: Opinion and Awareness of Citizens and Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The state of the art on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW management is based on the domestic separation of materials produced. After domestic separation, the resident has to transfer the separated materials to the MSW manager through the hands of collection workers. It is exactly at this stage that an end-use product changes its status and property becomes waste. This paper analyzes and compares the opinions and awareness of citizens and kerbside collection workers on this subject by means of two structured questionnaires in the city of Mercato San Severino (about 22,000 people, in Southern Italy.

Giovanni De Feo

2010-05-01

56

Simultaneous treatment of SO2 containing stack gases and waste water  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for simultaneously removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and the like and purifying waste water such as derived from domestic sewage is described. A portion of the gas stream and a portion of the waste water, the latter containing dissolved iron and having an acidic pH, are contacted in a closed loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone to effect absorption of the sulfur dioxide into the waste water. A second portion of the gas stream and a second portion of the waste water are controlled in an open loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone. The second portion of the waste water contains a lesser amount of iron than the first portion of the waste water. Contacting in the openloop scrubbing zone is sufficient to acidify the waste water which is then treated to remove solids originally present.

Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D. (inventors)

1978-01-01

57

Radiation treatment of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation treatment of waste water is reviewed. The aspects considered are: effect on chemical oxygen demand or biochemical oxygen demand; effect on specific pollutants; effect on sewage sludge; disinfection. The basic radiation interactions are given. Potential radiation sources -accelerators or radioisotopes - are considered, and operating pilot plant systems are described. (U.K.)

58

The estimation of radiological impact from the disposal of radionuclides with domestic and commercial wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the UK, limited quantities of radionuclides are disposed of with non-radioactive domestic and commercial wastes under the terms of Exemption Orders or Authorisations granted by the Radiochemical Inspectorate. This report presents a methodology and basis for the calculation of individual and collective doses to workers and to members of the public from such disposals. (author)

59

Experimental Analysis of Integrated System of Membrane Distillation for pure water with solar domestic hot water  

OpenAIRE

In GCC countries, especially in UAE desalination of sea water is considered to be one of the most effective and strategic alternative for satisfying the current and future demand of water for domestic purposes. The depletion of ground water aquifers, rapid industrial development and increase of urban population in UAE lead to tremendous increase in fresh water demand during past decade. Although, desalinated fresh water is supplied to the consumers by local municipalities, people in the regio...

Asim, Muhammad

2013-01-01

60

Chloride/bromide and chloride/fluoride ratios of domestic sewage effluents and associated contaminated ground water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To establish geochemical tools for tracing the origin of ground water contamination, the authors examined the variations of Cl/Br and Cl/F (weight) ratios in (1) domestic waste water from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project and from reservoirs in the central coast of Israel; (2) associated contaminated ground water; and (3) pristine ground water from the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel. The data show that supply water, anthropogenic NaCl and fluoridation control the Cl/Br and Cl/F ratios of domestic waste water, and conventional sewage treatment does not affect the anthropogenic inorganic signals. The Cl/Br ratios of ground water contaminated with sewage effluent reflect conservative mixing proportions of sewage and regional ground water components. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that it is possible to detect and distinguish sewage contamination from marine ratios after a sewage contribution of 5 to 15% is mixed with regional ground water. Mixing with Br-enriched fresh water however, would reduce this sensitivity. Since the high Cl/Br signal of sewage effluents is distinguishable from other anthropogenic sources with low Cl/Br ratios and from natural contamination sources, Cl/Br ratios can therefore be a useful inorganic tracer for identification of the origin of contaminated ground water. The Cl/F ratios of sewage-contaminated ground water were higher than those in the original sewage effluent, which suggests retention of fluoride into the aquifer solid phase.

Vengosh, A.; Pankratov, I. [Hydrological Service, Jerusalem (Israel)

1998-09-01

61

Flotation process for purification of waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a flotation method for purification of industrial or municipal waste water, waste water comes in contact with electrodes having an electrical potential capable of electrolytically decomposing a portion of the waste water, thereby creating an ascending stream of gas bubbles. The waste water is mixed before or during the electrolytic decomposition with wettable particles of polymer material which are practically insoluble in water and have an absolute density of 1.3 g/cm3 at the most. Polymeric materials, especially polyalkane fibrids, are suitable for use as particles. This process makes it possible to purify oil-containing waste water by electroflotation without forming an oil film on the electrodes.

Julke, E.

1982-01-19

62

Domestic and overseas development of advanced boiling water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since Toshiba delivered the world's first advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) to The Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. in 1996, we have been devoting continuous efforts to the construction and operational support of ABWR systems as major products. We are now promoting the construction of domestic and overseas ABWR systems along with the standardization of ABWRs. We are also engaged in the research and development of core technologies to support further promotion of ABWRs as a concurrent solution to the issues of global warming and energy security for individual countries. (author)

63

Waste Water Treatment Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

64

Fermentative Production of Ethanol fuel from Domestic Waste by Pichia stipitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of Ethanol fuel from the garbage/kitchen waste was carried out with the main purpose of converting the domestic waste into a useful material. The conversion of food waste or garbage by acid hydrolysis was carried out to obtain fermentable sugars, which was converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Pichia stipitis. The present study indicated that at 36 h of incubation resulted in utilization of 29 g/L of glucose with yield of 9.2 g/L ethanol. Compared to various sugars the glucose resulted in the production of ethanol.

Modugu P

2013-05-01

65

Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discussed recent research related to the use of peat in removing contaminants from domestic wastewater, oil-contaminated water, and soil. The review also discussed methods of pretreating peat before its application to polluted area. Pretreatment processes are needed to remove components in peat that interfere with treatment mechanisms. Polymers are added to peat in order to encourage the aggregation of the peat particles into larger colloidal particles that are easy to dewater. Phosphoric acid treatments are also applied to increase the swelling capacity of peat. Hydrogen peroxide is used to break down oil-contaminated peat in order to facilitate its subsequent decomposition. Experiments have demonstrated that peat is an effective adsorbent for many different types of oil. Studies have demonstrated that the removal rate for standard mineral and crude oils from wastewater using peat was 83 and 70 per cent. Applications of commercial peat to the surface of oily contaminated waters resulted in oil removal efficiencies of 99.998 per cent. It was concluded that peat is an effective, low-cost material for removing contaminants from domestic waste water and oil-contaminated water. The peat can also be used as a secondary energy source after the sorption process. While peat is an abundant resource in Canada, the resource is found mainly in wetlands. Effective harvesting strategies should be used to ensure the environmental sustainability of peat filtration systems.sustainability of peat filtration systems. 38 refs., 1 tab

66

Domestic production of control parts for the nuclear waste treatment facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The control part IND-100, which interfaces the field signals to the control networks in the control systems of PIEF (Post-Irradiated Examination Facility) and RWTF (Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility), was designed and fabricated. Preamplifier boards for radiation detectors, proportional counter and Geiger-Mueller tube which are in use in the radiation monitoring systems, were also designed and fabricated. Control parts which may be replaced with the domestic parts were surveyed, and a domestic relay model and a recorder model were selected as the replaceable ones. To improve the control systems, adoption of programmable controller to the conventional relay logic system were considered and analyzed. (Author)

67

Departmental plans of domestic wastes management - evaluation 2002; Plans departementaux d'elimination des dechets menager assimiles - bilan 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The departmental plans of domestic wastes management are official documents which manage the actions needed to realize the legislative and regulation objectives concerning the domestic wastes and related wastes. A first evaluation has been realized in 1997 for 47 edited plans. In the context of the new wastes policy a new evaluation has been realized by the ADEME in 2002 for 98 plans. It provides the methodology of the study, the analysis of the plans, the sites and management of wastes, economic data, the equipment and investments. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-03-01

68

Processes for the treatment of service water and waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ways to optimize the water economy by combining facilities for the treatment of service water and waste water are described for a conventional power plant. Also discussed are flocculation and flocculation-decarbonisation reactors for the treatment of service water and waste water and the flocculation reactors Sedipac, Turbo-Circulator, and RPS reactor. (HK)

69

Ground water share in supplying domestic water in Khartoum state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research study of the sources of groundwater from wells and stations that rely on the national authority for urban water in the state of Khartoum, this study includes three areas, namely the Khartoum area, North Khartoum and Omdurman area. This research evaluate and identify the sources of groundwater from wells and stations and find out the productivity of wells and underground stations. The study period were identified from 2004 to 2008 during this commoners were Alabaralgeoffip Knowledge Production and stations from the water. The methods used in this study was to determine the sources of groundwater from wells and stations in the three areas with the knowledge of the percentage in each year and the total amount of water produced from wells and stations in Khartoum, North Khartoum and Omdurman it is clear from this study that the percentage of productivity in the annual increase to varying degrees in floater from 2004 to 2008 and also clear that the Omdurman area depends on groundwater wells over a maritime area of stations based on stations with more and more consumption of Khartoum and the sea. Also been identified on the tank top and bottom of the tank where the chemical properties and physical properties after the identification of these qualities and characteristics have been identified the quantity and quality of water produced from wells and stations. (Author)

70

Sorting and recycling of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to reduce the strain on the environment from the deposition of waste in landfills and combustion at incineration plants, several governments throughout the industrialized world have planned greatly increased recycling of domestic waste by the turn of the millennium. To implement the plans, new waste recycling facilities are to be built and the number of workers involved in waste sorting and recycling will increase steadily during the next decade. Several studies have reinforced the hypothesis that exposure to airborne microorganisms and the toxic products thereof are important factors causing a multitude of health problems among workers at waste sorting and recycling plants. Workers at transfer stations, landfills and incineration plants may experience an increased risk of pulmonary disorders and gastrointestinal problems. High concentrations of total airborne dust, bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria and fungal spores have been reported. The concentrations are considered to be sufficiently high to cause adverse health effects. In addition, a high incidence of lower back injuries, probably due to heavy lifting during work, has been reported among workers at landfills and incineration plants. Workers involved in manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste, as well as workers at compost plants experience more or less frequent symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) (cough, chest-tightness, dyspnoea, influenza-like symptoms such as chills, fever, muscle ache, joint pain, fatigue and headache), gastrointestinal problems such as nausea and diarrhoea, irritation of the skin, eye and mucous membranes of the nose and upper airways, etc. In addition cases of severe occupational pulmonary diseases (asthma, alveolitis, bronchitis) have been reported. Manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste may be associated with exposures to large quantities of airborne bacteria and endotoxin. Several work functions in compost plants can result in very high exposure to airborne fungal spores and thermophilic actinomycetes. At plants sorting separated domestic waste, e.g. the combustible fraction of waste composed of paper, cardboard and plastics, the workers may have an increased risk of gastrointestinal symptoms and irritation of the eyes and skin. At such plants the bioaerosol exposure levels are in general low, but at some work tasks, e.g. manual sorting and work near the balers, exposure levels may occasionally be high enough to be potentially harmful. Workers handling the source-sorted paper or cardboard fraction do not appear to have an elevated risk of occupational health problems related to bioaerosol exposure, and the bioaerosol exposure is generally low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O

1995-01-01

71

Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot-water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand, the volume is large; in periods with a small hot-water demand, the volume is small. Two small SDHW systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25%by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large or small hot-water consumption and the risk of oversized solar heating systems and oversized tank volumes is reduced by using smart solar tanks. Based on the investigations it is recommended to start development of smart solar tank units with an oil-fired boiler or a natural gas burner as auxiliary energy supply system.

Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

2005-01-01

72

Numerical Simulation of a Solar Domestic Hot Water System  

Science.gov (United States)

An innovative transient numerical model is presented for the simulation of a solar Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The solar collectors have been simulated by using a zerodimensional analytical model. The temperature distributions in the heat transfer fluid and in the water inside the tank have been evaluated by one-dimensional models. The reversion elimination algorithm has been used to include the effects of natural convection among the water layers at different heights in the tank on the thermal stratification. A finite difference implicit scheme has been implemented to solve the energy conservation equation in the coil heat exchanger, and the energy conservation equation in the tank has been solved by using the finite difference Euler implicit scheme. Energy conservation equations for the solar DHW components models have been coupled by means of a home-made implicit algorithm. Results of the simulation performed using as input data the experimental values of the ambient temperature and the solar irradiance in a summer day are presented and discussed.

Mongibello, L.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Naso, V.

2014-11-01

73

State of Art About water Uses and Waste water Management in Lebanon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper shows the real situation about management of water and waste water in Lebanon and focuses on problems related to urban water pollution released in environment. Water and waste water infrastructures have been rebuilt since 1992. However, waste water management still remains one of the greatest challenges facing Lebanese people, since water supply projects have been given priority over wastewater projects. As a consequence of an increased demand of water by agricultural, industrial and household sectors in the last decade, waste water flows have been increased. In this paper, the existing waste water treatment plants (WWTP) operating in Lebanon are presented. Most of them are small-scale community-based ones, only two large-scale plants, constructed by the government, are currently operational. Lebanese aquatic ecosystems are suffering from the deterioration of water quality because of an insufficient treatment of waste water, which is limited mostly to pre-treatment processes. In fact, domestic and industrial effluents are mainly conducted together in the sewer pipes to the WWTP before being discharged, without adequate treatment into the rivers or directly into the Mediterranean Sea. Such discharges are threatening the coastal marine ecosystem in the Mediterranean basin. This paper aims at giving the current state of knowledge about water uses and wastewater management in Lebanon. The main conclusion drawn from this state of art is a lack of data. In fact, state of art is a lack of data. In fact, the available data are limited to academic research without being representative on a national scale. (author)

74

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01

75

Feasibility analysis of domestic solar water heating systems in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The excessive usage of fossil fuels has world-widely caused chain environmental consequences. An interesting solution to this problem is the systematic exploitation of available renewable energy sources, including solar energy. Greece is located in a major geographical region with an abundant and reliable supply of solar energy, even during the winter. In as much, one cannot disregard the significant dependency of the country on imported fuels, since almost 70% of its domestic energy consumption is covered by oil and natural gas imports. Despite the relative local sun abundance, during the last 10 years the local solar collectors market illustrates a sluggish behaviour, in comparison with the impressive numbers of sales during the 1980-1990 decade. At a first glance, such an occurrence characterizes a controversy. In an attempt to find a rational explanation of this peculiar situation, an integrated cost-benefit analysis is carried out taking into consideration the vast majority of the parameters affecting solar thermal energy production cost. The resulting numerical values are then compared with the corresponding ones coming from alternative hot-water production techniques. Accordingly, a quite extensive sensitivity analysis is carried out, in order to demonstrate the impact of the main techno-economic parameters on the fiscal behaviour of contemporary solar hot water production systems. The results obtained not only explain with sufficient accuracy the current localwith sufficient accuracy the current local market situation but also demonstrate the specific actions that if realized they may boost solar collector sales in the corresponding local market. (author)

76

A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

77

Characterization of domestic wastes incineration clinkers. Study on the possibilities of dioxines transfer in the environment; Caracterisation des machefers d'incineration d'ordures menageres. Etude sur les possibilites de transfert de dioxines vers l'environnement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The clinkers, resulting from the domestic wastes incineration, contain dioxines. In order to evaluate the possible transfer of these pollutants in the environment, especially towards the underground water, this document brings together data on the dioxines content in clinkers from domestic wastes incineration, other combustion wastes and soils. After a comparison of the dioxines content and the emission factors, the report presents the experimental study on the transfer vectors identification. (A.L.B.)

Bartet, B.

2001-07-15

78

Onsite Waste Water Treatment System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs have evolved from the pit privies used widely throughout history to installations capable of producing a disinfected effluent that is fit for human consumption. Although achieving such a level of effluent quality is seldom necessary, the ability of onsite systems to remove settles able solids, floatable grease and scum, nutrients, and pathogens. From wastewater discharges defines their importance in protecting human health and environmental resources. In the modern era, the typical onsite system has consisted primarily of a septic tank and a soil absorption field, also known as a subsurface wastewater infiltration system, or SWIS. In this manual, such systems are referred to as conventional systems. Septic tanks remove most settle able and floatable material and function as an anaerobic bioreactor that promotes partial digestion of retained organic matter. Septic tank effluent, which contains significant concentrations of pathogens and nutrients, has traditionally been discharged to soil, sand, or other media absorption fields (SWISs for further treatment through biological processes, adsorption, filtration, and infiltration into underlying soils. Conventional systems work well if they are installed in areas with appropriate soils and hydraulic capacities; designed to treat the incoming waste load to meet public health, ground water, and surface water performance standards; installed properly; and maintained to ensure long-term performance. These criteria, however, are often not met. Only about one-third of the land area in the United States has soils suited for conventional subsurface soil absorption fields. System densities in some areas exceed the capacity of even suitable soils to assimilate wastewater flows and retain and transform their contaminants. In addition, many systems are located too close to ground water or surface waters and others, particularly in rural areas with newly installed public water lines, are not designed to handle increasing wastewater flows.

T. Subramani

2014-06-01

79

Waste water from dewatering of peat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of waste water from mechanical dewatering of peat was tested on two species of stream invertebrates. We compared the effects of waste water from peat without any chemical treatment, and waste water from peat where one of the following treatments of the peat had preceded dewatering; a: acidification combined with addition of the cationic polymer Zetag 78 FS40, b: addition of aluminium in combination with the anionic polymer Magnafloc E10, c: polymerisation of the peat by acidification and addition of ferrous chloride and hydrogen peroxide. Waste water from Al/Magnafloc and from the polymerisation treatments had a higher content of suspended matter and a higher oxygen demand than those of other treatments. Total metal content of the water from all treatments was higher than in water from non-treated peat. Survival and growth of nymphs of the mayfly Heptagenia fuscogrisa and the stonefly Nemoura cinerea were compared in waste water from the different treatments. In all tests, the waste water was diluted to 5% (volume) with unchlorinated tapwater and pH was between 7.0-8.0 in all treatments during the experiment. The nymphs were fed with birch leaves that had been incubated in natural stream water for one month. Under these conditions, we did not find any significant effect of waste water on either survival or growth of these two species

80

Radiation disinfection of waste and natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possibilities of utilization of ionizing radiation for disinfection of waste and natural waters and basic principles of radiation disinfection are presented. Present-day representations on the mechanism of radiation of natural and waste waters are considered and experimental results on the method verification are presented. Experience in the radiation disinfection technique application at industrial plants is described

81

Spectrographic analysis of waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Influence of sodium and calcium, up to a maximum concentration of 1000 mg/1 Na and 300 mg/1 Ca, in the spectrographic determination of Cr, Cu, Fe,Mn and Pb in waste waters using graphite spark excitation has been studied. In order to eliminate this influence, each of the elements Ba, Cs, In, La, Li, Sr and Ti, as well as a mixture containing 5% Li-50% Ti, have been tested as spectrochemical buffers. This mixture allows to obtain an accuracy better than 25%. Sodium and calcium enhance the line intensities of impurities, when using graphite or gold electrodes, but they produce an opposite effect if copper or silver electrodes are used. (Author) 1 refs

82

Biological cleaning method for radioactive waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Depending on the size of power plants, the waste water consisting of laundry drains and rinsing liquids from the nuclear laundry and the wash rooms within the controlled area may vary between some hundred and some thousand cubic meters. Common practice so far for water cleaning is careful filtration/sedimentation for extraction of radioactive substances, and subsequent discharge into the draining body. If radioactivity removal is insuffient, the water is evaporated for enhancing purification. The paper describes a biological method developed at the Gundremmingen reactor station. The organic matter in the waste water is removed by bacterial biodegradation, boosted by air. The time required for waste water treatment in the collecting tanks of the power plant for removal of the washing agents is approx. 10 hours, and the resulting waste water is then filtered for radioactivity removal from the water, which in the absence of detergents is much more efficient. (orig./CB)

83

Attributes of Domestic Water Sources in a Rapidly Urbanizing State Capital in a Developing Economy  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: The efficiency and effectiveness of domestic water sources are often gauged by availability, accessibility and adequacy. This study examined various variables that could be harnessed in measuring these parameters with respect to water supply in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Approach: The purpose of this study is to investigate the various attributes of domestic water sources in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Three residential zones were identified in the city. They included the urban core, tran...

Olajuyigbe, A. E.

2010-01-01

84

Feasibility analysis of domestic hot water systems using TRNSYS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted in which 17 conventional and solar-based domestic hot water (DHW) systems were simulated using the TRYNSYS simulation model, and their results were compared. According to Natural Resources Canada, DHW heating currently accounts for 25 per cent of Canadian residential energy consumption and 25 per cent of Canadian residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate the fuel consumption of DHW systems, their GHG emissions and 30-year life cycle costs. Another aspect of the study was to model and analyze the effect of time of use (TOU) electricity pricing which was developed by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) to provide stable and predictable electricity pricing. TOU electricity pricing also promotes energy conservation. In addition, the TOU electricity price charged per kilowatt-hour changes throughout the day to reflect the changes in cost to produce electricity at different times of the day. The Ontario government plans to equip all homes and businesses with smart meters using TOU pricing by 2010. Therefore, this study also investigated the effects of the TOU feature by optimizing its use in the effort to reduce overall energy costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results revealed that a DHW system with solar pre-heat and electrical back-up is the best system for energy conservation and GHG reduction. The best system in terms of 30-year life cycle cost is a high efficiency DHW system with aost is a high efficiency DHW system with an on demand modulating gas combo boiler with gray water heat recovery. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

85

Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

Bradley, D.E.

1997-12-31

86

Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

87

Domestic water uses: Characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. - Highlights: • This paper presents a method to find out the pattern of water use in dwellings. • The number of uses per person a day, by domestic device, is presented. • The volume spent per type of use by domestic device is presented. • The daily cycles per domestic device are presented. • Sociodemographic characteristics seem to affect the daily cycles

88

Domestic water uses: Characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. - Highlights: • This paper presents a method to find out the pattern of water use in dwellings. • The number of uses per person a day, by domestic device, is presented. • The volume spent per type of use by domestic device is presented. • The daily cycles per domestic device are presented. • Sociodemographic characteristics seem to affect the daily cycles.

Matos, Cristina, E-mail: crismato@utad.pt [ECT, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Apartado 1013, 5001801 Vila Real (Portugal); Teixeira, Carlos A. [CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real Portugal (Portugal); Duarte, A.A.L.S. [Civil Engineering Department, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Bentes, I. [ECT, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Apartado 1013, 5001801 Vila Real (Portugal)

2013-08-01

89

Management of domestic solid wastes at the Akwapim South Municipality: a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The key findings of a solid waste characterization study conducted at Nsawam and Adoagyiri of the Akwapim South Municipality are reported. Household waste generated by a number of residents of these two important towns of the Municipality, were collected through a two-way stratification based on differences in income levels and class of residential areas over a 12- week period, between December 2007 and March 2008. A total of 24 collections were made and about 2319 kg of household solid wastes were collected, weighed and classified according to the various components of the waste streams after thoroughly sorting the waste. Each component of the waste stream (i.e. organic, paper, plastics, metals/cans, textiles, glass, inert materials/residues and miscellaneous components) was then reweighed and the weights recorded. Information on demographics such as household size, characteristics and detailed information on household waste management practices of the study areas were obtained through a self administered questionnaire. Other physico-chemical characteristics of the collected household solid waste such as moisture content, density and volumes and heavy metals were measured. The average waste composition from Nsawam were 62% organic component, 7% paper and card component, 8% plastic and rubber component, 1 % glass component, 3% metal/can component, 2% textile component, 14% residues or inert materials and 3% miscellaneous or other waste component. However, for Adoagyirher waste component. However, for Adoagyiri, average composition revealed 50% organic component, 10% paper component, 12% plastics and rubber, 3% glass, 4% metal, 2 % textile, 15% residues or inert materials and 4% miscellaneous or other waste. The study also sought to examine the extent to which household demographics influenced waste stream character. Physico-chemical analysis was also conducted on composite samples of domestic solid waste from the two towns. The results of this analysis yielded information on the compostable and combustible proportions of the waste, moisture content, and elemental concentrations of the wastes. The range of compostable proportions was 42-44% whereas the range of the combustible proportions was 39-45%. The moisture content range was 49.6% - 60.0%. The analysis of metal ions concentrations in composite samples of household solid organic waste, plastic and paper waste were done using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for (Ca, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Al, Cl, V ) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for (Fe, Ni, Pb, Co, Cr and Cd). Higher average concentrations of 3.79?g/g and 0.35?g/g were recorded for Pb and Cd respectively in organic waste stream component as compared to 3.48?g/g and 0.32?g/g in paper/cardboard waste stream and 0.66?g/g and 0.32?g/g in rubber/plastic waste stream components respectively. These values are comparable to literature values (au).

90

Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste  

Science.gov (United States)

This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

2003-01-01

91

The estimation of radiological impact from the disposal of radionuclides with domestic and commercial wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the UK, limited quantities of radionuclides are disposed of with non-radioactive domestic and commercial wastes under the terms of Exemption Orders or Authorisations granted by HMIP (Radioactive Substances). This paper presents a methodology and basis for the calculation of individual and collective doses to workers and to members of the public from such disposals. The results of the analysis of the Radioactive Substances (Smoke Detectors) Exemption Order 1980 is included. The paper also describes the implementation of the methodology on a microcomputer. (author)

92

[Biology of cestodes of domestic ducks and wild water birds].  

Science.gov (United States)

Life cycles of 16 cestode species of the families Hymenolepididae and Diploposthidae were studied in 52 ponds of the State Fishery in Bohemia and Moravia. The parasites were recovered from domestic ducks kept on the ponds and from wild birds, mostly of the genera Anas and Aythya, occurring in these water biotopes. Cestode larvae were found in 9 species of Copepoda (9669 out of 1 600 200 examined specimens, i. e. 0.6%) and 3 species of Ostracoda (500 out of 272 300 examined specimens, i. e. 0.18%). Five species of water snails serving as reservoir hosts harboured cysticercoids of 5 cestode species (680 out of 10 212 examined specimens, i. e. 6%). The studies of cestode life cycle under natural conditions were supplemented with 680 successful experiments with intermediate hosts and 179 successful experiments with definitive hosts. The development of larvae was related to the temperature and lasted approximately 13-20 days at 18-25 degrees C. The highest intensity of infection occurred incrustaceans under experimental conditions, a lower intensity was found in crustaceans from duck farms and the lowest in crustaceans from other parts of ponds (e. g., in the case of Fimbriaria fasciolaris in Copepoda, 37, 22 and 10 cysticercoids). The intermediate hosts infected with cestode larvae can live for 3-6 weeks (Copepoda) and 4-7 weeks (Ostracoda) and after invagination of cysticercoids for 20-25 days, on the average. The cysticercoids survive their hosts for 14-18 h at 4-6 degrees C, for 10-11 h at 12-14 degrees C, for 6-7 h at 18-20 degrees C and for 3-4 h at 24-26 degrees C. If they are swallowed by water snails at that time (dead crustaceans are a component of their food), they survive in their digestive tract even for two years (the longest period demonstrated experimentally) and after this time they are able to develop into an adult cestode in the definitive host. The infectivity of cysticercoids increases with their age. It is the lowest immediately after invagination (10-15%), during the stay of cysticercoids in crustaceans it gradually increases (30-60% on days 10-20 after invagination) and it is the highest in cysticercoids from snails (45-55% after 20-50 days in snails, 60-80% after 50-100 days in snails and 70-90% after more than 100 days in snails). PMID:6417876

Valkounová, J

1983-09-01

93

The speciation and subtyping of campylobacter isolates from sewage plants and waste water from a connected poultry abattoir using molecular techniques.  

OpenAIRE

In this study the distribution of phenotypes of campylobacter strains in sewage and surface waters was investigated by subtyping and by speciation of isolates from various aquatic environments. These environments included two municipal sewage plants (SPA and SPB) and waste water from a poultry abattoir (WWA). Both the sewage plants SPA and SPB collected domestic and industrial waste, and SPA received drain water from WWA. SPB received no waste water from any meat-processing plant. The isolate...

Koenraad, P. M. F. J.; Ayling, R.; Hazeleger, W. C.; Rombouts, F. M.; Newell, D. G.

1995-01-01

94

Use of Industrial Waste Water for Agricultural Purpose: Pb and Cd in Vegetables in Bikaner City, India  

OpenAIRE

Shortage of irrigation water resources is leading to the use of domestic and industrial waste water in agriculture. esp. in urban areas. Being contaminated by metals and various toxic chemicals these waste waters leads to the exposure of heavy metals and hazardous chemicals and the subsequent human health hazards through agriculture products and live stocks. Increasing cases of cancer and kidney problems is also related with this aspect. In present study human health risk assessment taken in ...

Rajendra Singh; Verma, R. S.; Yogita Yadav

2012-01-01

95

Domestic water uses: characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:23685370

Matos, Cristina; Teixeira, Carlos A; Duarte, A A L S; Bentes, I

2013-08-01

96

Brucellosis in domestic water bufallo (Bubalus bubalis) of Trinidad and Tobago with comparative epidemiology to cattle  

OpenAIRE

The water buffalo is an important domestic animal worldwide and the local Buffalypso variety was developed in Trinidad to have improved beef qualities. Brucellosis was diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago during 1998 in both cattle and domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations. Brucellosis in the latter species is caused by infection with Brucella abortus, similar to bovine brucellosis. Control of brucellosis is of paramount importance to preservation of the genetic dive...

Fosgate, Geoffrey T.; Diptee, Michael D.; Ramnanan, Anil; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

2011-01-01

97

Assessment of water systems for contaminants from domestic and industrial sewages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The State of Minas Gerais represents one of Brazil's most outstanding mining resources. The contamination of river water from kaolin processing activities may be harmful to people in the way of slow but chronic poisoning. On the other hand, the discharge of untreated or inadequately treated domestic sewage into aquatic environments can also cause deleterious effects to the health. However, no reliable figures are available for pollutant occurrences in river water. This draws attention to the very precarious situation that exists with respect to pollution by organic and inorganic toxic wastes, especially with respect to humans and fauna in all its expressions. Thus, with the purpose of establishing a preliminary report to trace out industrialisation outcomes, samples of river water, vegetation and fish were collected and analysed to detect pollutant inputs. The concentration of metals was determined in suspended particle, vegetation and fish, while those of nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and chloride were determined in river water samples. The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) was measured in river water at the time of collection. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were also determined. Metal inputs in the samples analysed appeared to be related to effluent discharges into the rivers. The suspended particles showed high concentrations (in mg kg(-1)) of zinc (62 600) and aluminium (559 000), while vegetation samples collected near rivers were heavily contaminated with iron (7680). The fishes examined were contaminated with chromium (1.5 mg kg(-1)). In general, the concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, phosphate and BOD in river water were lower than the maximum values established by the Brazilian Environmental Standards. PMID:12381024

Jordão, C P; Pereira, M G; Bellato, C R; Pereira, J L; Matos, A T

2002-10-01

98

Net energy analysis of domestic solar water heating installations in operation  

OpenAIRE

The potential of solar water heating systems to reduce domestic energy use is frequently acknowledged. However there are two factors that are rarely discussed when studying this technology. Firstly the real performance of the installed systems in operation, and secondly a life cycle perspective of its energy use. These two issues are reviewed in this paper, and a field study in Ireland is also presented. In the review, some studies show that measured real performance of domestic s...

Hernandez, Patxi; Kenny, Paul

2012-01-01

99

Efficiency Evaluation of Heat Exchanger Based Domestic Solar Water Heater - A Review.  

OpenAIRE

In this paper an attempt has been made to review the literature of performance improving techniques for solar water heater. In view of energy crisis, the application of solar energy in the form of solar water heater is most useful for domestic, commercial and industrial purpose but it is found that the application of its limited due to its demerits. Hence attempt to be made to find out the demerits of solar water heater and improve its performance so that it becomes more popular in domestic, ...

Sandeep Kumar Dehariya; Jaurker, Dr A. R.

2013-01-01

100

Water quality effects of herded stream crossings by domestic sheep bands  

Science.gov (United States)

On rangelands, free-ranging or loosely-herded domestic sheep tend not to linger in shrub-dominated riparian areas thus limiting their impacts on stream water quality. The water quality effects when sheep are tightly-herded during stream crossings, however, are largely unknown. In this study, downs...

101

Willingness to Pay for Domestic Water Service Improvements in Selangor, Malaysia: A Choice Modeling Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The tasks and responsibilities of domestic water service management in Malaysia are handled by various government agencies. Sufficient water service and resources management is required for sustainable water resources conservation. In order to realized water resource conservation, economic effectiveness of water utilization (consumers, maintenance of water quality supply (source of water supply and efficiency in allocating water resources (agencies needs to be addressed. The objective of the study is to assess community preferences and values relating to alternative water service management with particular concentration on water service improvement. This study has applied Choice Experiment (CE to investigate the current policies and potential alternative of water service management in Selangor. The studies are based on 230 respondents in Subang Jaya that were randomly interviewed for data collection in October to December 2008. The findings indicates that respondents are willing to pay higher for drinking water as compared to the current rate with improved in water quality (WQ, reduced the frequency of water interruption (WI and increases in the consumer trust to tap water (CT. The finding of this study is very important in order to assists and recommends the policy makers towards efficiency of domestic water service management in Malaysia.
Key words: Choice experiment; Water conservation; Consumer preference; Choice modelling; Willingness to pay

Mohd Rusli Yacob

2011-06-01

102

Pesticides Removal from Drainage Waste Water Using Some Agricultural Wastes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The agricultural wastes proposed for the removal of water pollutants in this study are seeds of two Saudi date lines which are quite abundant in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, having high ion exchange capacity for organic compounds. Two goals can be achieved when using these type of date stones: the first is to evaluate the potentiality of date stones to sorb inorganic and organic pollutants from drainage water to render it suitable for irrigation of crops in the Kingdom and the second is to get rid of harmful agricultural wastes. Chemical and elemental analyses were carried out for date stones. Batch technique experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption properties of date stones to harmful pesticides such as Endrin, Lindane and Aldrin. Affecting parameters such as adsorbent weight, contact time and polluted water pH values were also studied to control and increase the efficiency of adsorption. The obtained results showed that the date stones can be considered as an efficient adsorbent for the investigated pesticides from prepared waste water. The resultant uptake efficiency was found to be more than 75% for the tested pollutants. Moreover, it was found that the adsorbed pesticides can not be disturbed from the loaded date stones. Comparative methods between the Saudi and Egyptian date stones were also studied.

Ali S. Al-Barrak

2005-01-01

103

An evaluation of rural communities’ water use patterns and preparedness to manage domestic water sources in Zimbabwe  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper makes an evaluation of rural communities’ preparedness to manage domestic water sources in Zimbabwe, as a way of assessing rural people’s willingness to contribute in cash and kind to safe and clean domestic water. A questionnaire was administered to respondents in two areas that have different rainfall regimes, as water availability was hypothesised to affect its management. This was complemented by interviews with personnel from government and semi-government institutions involved in provision of domestic water in rural areas. Information gathered included respondents’ awareness of the water resource ownership and supply structure at the community and national level, roles played by various institutions in domestic water provision, water sources ownership, number and distribution of water points, water use patterns, water based socio-economic activities and respondents’ willingness to contribute towards establishment, operation and maintenance of water points. Respondents attributed water ownership to God, the government, the community, ancestors, chiefs, ZINWA, RDCS and no one. Boreholes, shallow and deep wells, rivers, dams, canals and taps were mainly used for primary water uses like drinking, cooking, bathing, livestock watering, gardening and laundry. Brick making, gardening and irrigating plots were classified as commercial water uses because they were used to generate income. Views on water ownership affected perceptions towards establishment, maintenance and management of water points. There was a higher preference for community than individual participation except for canals and taps. The responsibility for water point establishment and repairs were regarded as the responsibility of the government, community and donors. Respondents without piped water had higher WTP amounts for the repair and desiltation of water points than those with piped water. This showed a willingness to ensure that the working order of water points was assured. Frequent maintenance and timely repairs of community-managed schemes showed respondents’ willingness and preparedness to contribute towards maintenance of their water points. It can be concluded that people are willing to participate in the management of domestic water sources. However, limited capacity to finance establishment of water points was a problem.

Machingambi, Memory; Manzungu, Emmanuel

104

Anatomical root variations in response to water deficit: wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L)  

OpenAIRE

Root anatomical responses to water deficit are diverse and regulation of water uptake strongly depends on plant anatomy. The ancestors of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars are the wild common beans. Because wild beans adapt and survive well in theon atural environment, it is hypothesized that wild common bean roots are less affected than those of domesticated beans at low substrate water potential (?W). A wild common bean accession from Chihuahua Mexico and cv. Bayomex were s...

Pen?a-valdivia, Cecilia B.; Sa?nchez-urdaneta, Adriana B.; Joel Meza Rangel; Juana Juárez Muñoz; Rodolfo García-Nava; Raquel Celis Velázquez

2010-01-01

105

Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (?2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management.

Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn

106

Impact of Training Program to Rationalize Consumption of Domestic Water Usages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Reducing water consumption in terms of scarcity of water in Jordan which needs to rationalize consumption of the domestic water usages by some families in Amman-Jordan. Approach: This study aimed to decrease water consumption in household usages and to involve and encouraging the pioneer students in voluntary efforts to reduce domestic water. The study sample consisted of 121 female students of Princessâ?? Alia University College represented 121 Jordanian families in Amman. They trained to reduce flow of water and the time during usage water in kitchen; toilet; bathroom; washing cars; and to put a plastic bottle full of half liter of water in the toiletâ??s water tank. Economical and social variables of families were obtained from special questionnaire of this study, data were formed from previous measurements and information; the data analyzed throughout a simple statistical approach. Results: The families whom represented this study sample have positively responded for the proposed program; through reducing water consumption in domestic usages. The most important factor effects on rationalized water consumption are: Average monthly income, average family members, average of family members ages, the size of water tank of the toilet, size of shower used. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study concluded that the amount of preserved water in a bathroom may reach 25%, in kitchen 29, in toilet 10%, in washing cars 9%, of water consumption before implementation program at each of the previous sectors. The total amount of preserved water in Amman may reach to 11 million cubic meters annually. The study recommends implementing this simple program on the whole of Jordanian families as much as possible and encouraging the Jordanian citizens to use different tools, means, programs that may control water consumption and to recycle the used water as possible.""

Mohammad Said Damanhouri

2012-01-01

107

Chemical Industry Waste water Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of chemical industrial wastewater from building and construction chemicals factory and plastic shoes manufacturing factory was investigated. The two factories discharge their wastewater into the public sewerage network. The results showed the wastewater discharged from the building and construction chemicals factory was highly contaminated with organic compounds. The average values of COD and BOD were 2912 and 150 mg O2/l. Phenol concentration up to 0.3 mg/l was detected. Chemical treatment using lime aided with ferric chloride proved to be effective and produced an effluent characteristics in compliance with Egyptian permissible limits. With respect to the other factory, industrial wastewater was mixed with domestic wastewater in order to lower the organic load. The COD, BOD values after mixing reached 5239 and 2615 mg O2/l. The average concentration of phenol was 0.5 mg/l. Biological treatment using activated sludge or rotating biological contactor (RBe) proved to be an effective treatment system in terms of producing an effluent characteristic within the permissible limits set by the law

108

Waste water discharges into natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point

109

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

None

1980-11-01

110

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

111

Water: Waste Not, Want Not  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing on Australia's water use and conservation efforts, this site provides teachers with activities and ideas for encouraging students to analyze their own use as well as learn about the nation's use. Activities include conducting an individual and a family-based water consumption log, learning to gather, record and report data, and using the web to compare data submitted by other classes. Teachers will find discussion topics, forms to download for data gathering and reporting, a computer-based quiz, as well as information about water in general and Australian use specifically.

Australian Bureau of Statistics

112

Installation and operation of the Plantwide Fire Protection Systems and related Domestic Water Supply Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A safe work environment is needed to support the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission of producing special nuclear material. This Environmental Assessment (EA) assesses the potential environmental impact(s) of adding to and upgrading the Plantwide Fire Protection System and selected related portions of the Domestic Water Supply System at SRS, Aiken, South Carolina. The following objectives are expected to be met by this action: Prevent undue threat to public health and welfare from fire at SRS; prevent undue hazard to employees at SRS from fire; prevent unacceptable delay to vital DOE programs as a result of fire at SRS; keep fire related property damage at SRS to a manageable level;, and provide an upgraded supply of domestic water for the Reactor Areas. The Reactor Areas' domestic water supplies do not meet current demand capacity due to the age and condition of the 30-year old iron piping. In addition, the water quality for these supplies is not consistent with current SCDHEC requirements. Therefore, DOE proposes to upgrade this Domestic Water Supply System to meet current demand and quality levels, as well as the needs of fire protection system improvement

113

Process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from nuclear power stations is proposed, characterized by the fact that the water is taken continuously through a water decomposition cell. If the water does not have sufficient conductivity itself, a substance raising the electrical conductivity is added to the water to be treated. The electrolysis is situated in the waste water tank. (orig./RB)

114

Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive  

OpenAIRE

Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3). However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW) as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Different concentration (0.05...

Wong, S. K.; Idris, M. H.; Hamli, H.

2013-01-01

115

Water Balance Covers For Waste Containment: Principles and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Water Balance Covers for Waste Containment: Principles and Practices introduces water balance covers and compares them with conventional approaches to waste containment. The authors provided detailed analysis of the fundamentals of soil physics and design issues, introduce appl...

116

Process for treating waste water containing radioactive substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for treating waste water containing radioactive substances comprising treating the waste water by reverse osmosis in the presence of at least one organic surfactant selected from the group consisting of anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants and nonionic surfactants

117

Waste Water Plant Operators Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual for sewage treatment plant operators was prepared by a committee of operators, educators, and engineers for use as a reference text and handbook and to serve as a training manual for short course and certification programs. Sewage treatment plant operators have a responsibility in water quality control; they are the principal actors in…

Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

118

Isolation of Aeromonas spp. from an unchlorinated domestic water supply.  

OpenAIRE

The recovery of Aeromonas spp. from the unchlorinated water supply for a Western Australian city of 21,000 people was monitored at several sampling points during a period of 1 year. Membrane filtration techniques were used to count colonies of Aeromonas spp., coliforms, and Escherichia coli in water sampled before entry to service reservoirs, during storage in service reservoirs, and in distribution systems. Aeromonas spp. were identified by subculture on blood agar with ampicillin, oxidase t...

Burke, V.; Robinson, J.; Gracey, M.; Peterson, D.; Meyer, N.; Haley, V.

1984-01-01

119

Neutron Activation analysis of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 1013 cm-2 s-1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

120

Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste waters have been generated as result of operations conducted at the Hanford Facility for over 40 years. These waste waters were previously discharged to cribs, ponds, or ditches. Examples of such waste waters include steam condensates and cooling waters that have not been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste and process condensates that may have been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste. Many measures have been taken to reduce the amount of contamination being discharged in these effluents. However, some of these waste waters still require additional treatment before release to the environment. Systems are being designed and built to treat these waste waters along with any future waste waters resulting from remediation activities on the Hanford Facility

121

Demand side management potential of domestic water heaters and space heaters  

OpenAIRE

Demand side management (DSM) is a viable strategy for facilitating integration of renewable energy into power systems. The demand resource from water and space heating can be used to reduce or delay system demand peaks, and in combination with other flexible loads, reshape the aggregate demand profile and manage system ramping. In this paper, the aggregate power draw profiles for heat pump based water heating and under floor space heating systems for the Irish domestic sector have been synthe...

Qazi, Hassan Wajahat; Flynn, Damian

2012-01-01

122

EFFICIENCY OF DOMESTIC REVERSE OSMOSIS IN REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER  

OpenAIRE

The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs) are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO) in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound,...

Mahvi, S. Mazloomi ?. R. Nabizadeh ?. S. Nasseri ?. K. Naddafi ?. S. Nazmara ?. A. H.

2009-01-01

123

Domestic wastes incineration in France situation in 2000 evolution and perspectives the 31.12.2002; Incineration des dechets menagers en France situation en 2000 evolution et perspectives au 31.12.2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the analysis and the conclusions of a working group, concerning the domestic wastes incineration. It presents successively the place of the domestic wastes in the wastes management approach, the regulations, the methodology and the corresponding results of an inquiry realized in 2000 and the research programs on the incineration as the Best Available Techniques, the sanitary impacts of the UIOM (domestic wastes incineration plants), the vitrification, the greenhouse effect. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2003-07-01

124

Application of an Integrated Heat Recovery Technology for Domestic Hot Water Supply System and Air Conditioning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is to design an integrated heat recovery and air conditioner system and to investigate the feasibility and the potential performance of this system in changing conditions. Different season conditions and operating modes are studied based on the items of one hotel. In winter, heat recovered from wastewater is used on water heating and air condition and the surplus energy of air conditioner system is used on hot water system in summer. Dynamic energy simulation was performed with a comprehensive Domestic Hot Water (DHW heating and air conditioning system composed of some components like High Temperature Heat Pump (HTHP unit, water tanks, heat exchangers and pumps.

Chen Yan

2013-01-01

125

A new inverter heat pump operated all year round with domestic hot water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a new scheme of an inverter air cooling heat pump system with domestic hot water. A water reheater is placed between the compressor outlet and the four way valve inlet to utilize the sensible heat of the superheated gas exhausted from the compressor, and a water preheater is placed between the condenser and the throttling device to use the sensible heat of the subcooled liquid flowing out of the condenser. With these two parts of heat, the domestic hot water can be heated to a temperature high enough for domestic use. In order to maintain the system efficiency in the period of part load, an inverter compressor is adopted as the substitute for the constant speed one used in the conventional heat pump system. A hot water storage tank with a circulation pump is placed in the system to reduce the peak load of the system. Compared with the traditional system, this new design is able to reduce energy consumption by 31.1% and decrease thermal pollution to the environment

126

Semipilot Waste Water Treatment by Photocatalysis.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

- : -, 2014, P.31. ISBN N. [Pannonian Symposium on Catalysis /12./. T?eš? (CZ), 16.09.2014-20.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01020804; GA TA ?R TA03010548 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : verification * waste water * degradation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://pannonia2014.icpf.cas.cz/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/abstrakty_final.pdf

Morozová, Magdalena; Spá?ilová, Lucie; Maléterová, Ywetta; Šolcová, Olga

127

Features of waste water purification by electroflotation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods are described and results are presented for studies of the dependence of the effect of purification and sterilization of waste waters of the Novograd-Volynskii meat packing plant on the current density and duration of treatment of them on a semiproduction electroflotation machine. Optimal values of the current density (10mA/cm/sup 2/) and process time (10 min) were determined. Recommendations are given for increasing the sterilization effect.

Kucherenko, G.S.; Golovash, E.A.; Salyuk, A.I.

1981-01-01

128

Method of treating radioactive waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive waste water containing boric acid is concentrated in an evaporator to which an alkali is added to maintain a substantially neutral pH. The boric acid is sedimented out by cooling the solution and an acid is added to the latter to increase the solids recovery by lowering the pH. The solid sediment is vacuum distilled to yield a moist powder

129

Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China  

OpenAIRE

Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improv...

Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C. J.

2013-01-01

130

Anatomical root variations in response to water deficit: wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L).  

Science.gov (United States)

Root anatomical responses to water deficit are diverse and regulation of water uptake strongly depends on plant anatomy. The ancestors of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars are the wild common beans. Because wild beans adapt and survive well in the natural environment, it is hypothesized that wild common bean roots are less affected than those of domesticated beans at low substrate water potential (?W). A wild common bean accession from Chihuahua Mexico and cv. Bayomex were studied. Seedlings with a mean root length between 3 and 4 cm were maintained for 24 h in vermiculite at ?W of -0.03 (well hydrated), -0.65, -1.48 and -2.35 MPa (partially dry). Ten anatomical characteristics of differentiation and cell division in root regions were evaluated. Thickness of epidermis and protoderm diminished similarly in wild and domesticated beans growing at low substrate ?W (between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa). At the same time, parenchymatic cell area diminished by 71 % in the domesticated variety, but by only 32 % in the wild bean at -2.35 MPa. The number of cells in the cortex and the thickness of the xylem wall increased in both wild and domesticated beans at low substrate ?W; nevertheless, the effect was significantly lower in the wild bean. The number of xylem vessels increased in the cultivar (up to 40 %) while in the wild bean it decreased (up to 33 %). The diameter of xylem vessels and transverse root area diminished (15 and 57 %, respectively) in the cultivar, but in the wild common bean were not affected. Anatomical root characteristics and their modifications in both differentiation and cell division in root regions demonstrated that the wild bean reacted quite differently to substrate ?W than the domesticated common bean. PMID:21526268

Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana B; Rangel, Joel Meza; Muñoz, Juana Juárez; García-Nava, Rodolfo; Velázquez, Raquel Celis

2010-01-01

131

Anatomical root variations in response to water deficit: wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Root anatomical responses to water deficit are diverse and regulation of water uptake strongly depends on plant anatomy. The ancestors of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars are the wild common beans. Because wild beans adapt and survive well in theon atural environment, it is hypothesized [...] that wild common bean roots are less affected than those of domesticated beans at low substrate water potential (?W). A wild common bean accession from Chihuahua Mexico and cv. Bayomex were studied. Seedlings with a mean root length between 3 and 4 cm were maintained for 24 h in vermiculite at ?W of -0.03 (well hydrated), -0.65, -1.48 and -2.35 MPa (partially dry). Ten anatomical characteristics of differentiation and cell division in root regions were evaluated. Thickness of epidermis and protoderm diminished similarly in wild and domesticated beans growing at low substrate ?W (between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa). At the same time, parenchymatic cell area diminished by 71 % in the domesticated variety, but by only 32 % in the wild bean at -2.35 MPa. Theon umber of cells in the cortex and the thickness of the xylem wall increased in both wild and domesticated beans at low substrate ?W;on evertheless, the effect was significantly lower in the wild bean. Theon umber of xylem vessels increased in the cultivar (up to 40 %) while in the wild bean it decreased (up to 33 %). The diameter of xylem vessels and transverse root area diminished (15 and 57 %, respectively) in the cultivar, but in the wild common bean wereon ot affected. Anatomical root characteristics and their modifications in both differentiation and cell division in root regions demonstrated that the wild bean reacted quite differently to substrate ?W than the domesticated common bean.

Cecilia B, Peña-Valdivia; Adriana B, Sánchez-Urdaneta; Joel, Meza Rangel; Juana, Juárez Muñoz; Rodolfo, García-Nava; Raquel, Celis Velázquez.

132

U. S. domestic high level waste management system. [Spray solidification and fluidized-bed calcination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following aspects of radioactive waste management are discussed: techniques for solidifying or fixing the high-level waste; transport of the fixed waste to a federal repository; the characteristics of the solidified waste; an interim storage technique for these wastes at the federal repository; and a rough estimate of costs.

Finnigan, J.W.

1976-01-01

133

Method of decontaminating radioactive process waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Process waste waters at a pH of about 7 contaminated with radioactive isotopes are decontaminated by (A) adjusting the pH to about 5.8, (B) adding CaO or Ca(OH)2 to raise the pH to about 5, (C) agitating the mixture for at least 5 minutes to affect intimate contact and produce a suspension of solids containing radioactive contaminants, and (D) separating the suspension of solids from the water by centrifuging. Removal of radioactive uranium isotopes with an alpha emission is effected at a ph of about 10. The process provides a method for concentrating radioactive contaminants in water for subsequent ultimate storage and also purifies the contaminated water so it may be safe to discharge it into the sewer. The treatment may be carried out in a plurality of stages in series

134

Hybrid PV/T solar systems for domestic hot water and electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems can simultaneously provide electricity and heat, achieving a higher conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation than standard PV modules. When properly designed, PV/T systems can extract heat from PV modules, heating water or air to reduce the operating temperature of the PV modules and keep the electrical efficiency at a sufficient level. In this paper, we present TRNSYS simulation results for hybrid PV/T solar systems for domestic hot water applications both passive (thermosyphonic) and active. Prototype models made from polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV module types combined with water heat extraction units were tested with respect to their electrical and thermal efficiencies, and their performance characteristics were evaluated. The TRNSYS simulation results are based on these PV/T systems and were performed for three locations at different latitudes, Nicosia (35 deg.), Athens (38 deg.) and Madison (43 deg.). In this study, we considered a domestic thermosyphonic system and a larger active system suitable for a block of flats or for small office buildings. The results show that a considerable amount of thermal and electrical energy is produced by the PV/T systems, and the economic viability of the systems is improved. Thus, the PVs have better chances of success especially when both electricity and hot water is required as in domestic applicationsations

135

Removal of ammonia from power plant waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of ammonia in surface waters from power plant waste water is investigated. Several methods for the removal of ammonia from waste water are described (steam stripper, air stripper, catalytic oxidation), the performance and efficiency is tested. For each water treatment method the mass and energy balance and the efficiency are determined. (SR)

136

Radioactive wastes from possible future UK Light Water Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The predictive radioactive wastes from the operation and decommissioning of various designs of Light Water Reactor (LWR) are reviewed and compared to the Sizewell 'B' Pressurised Water Reactor. The designs considered are the N4, Konvoi, System 80+, Advanced PWR, AP600, Advanced Boiling Water Reactor, the European Pressurised Water Reactor (EPR) and the Sizewell 'XL' design. The sources of activity, active arisings, waste treatment plants, discharges to the environment, the optimisation of waste treatment, lifetime arisings of solid waste and the characteristics of spent fuel are addressed. Conclusions are drawn on the implications for UK waste management policy. (author)

137

Influence of composition variations on the initial alteration rate of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitrification as a waste stabilization technology has often been considered applicable only to high-level radioactive waste for which, with the use of suitable additives, it yields a vitreous material with excellent chemical durability. It has become apparent in recent years that some waste forms-notably domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues--contain most of the ingredients of a vitrified material, although their composition variations are difficult to control. It is thus important to ensure not only that the materials are suitable for vitrification, but also that the resulting product exhibits acceptable long-term behavior under all circumstances. An initial study showed that, allowing for the compensation changes inherent in the melting process builtby EDF**, the residue collected by a single fly-ash dust separation defines a composition range within which the suitability of the vitrified material can be verified. "Vitrified material" refers to a melted material that contains no unmelted inclusions after cooling, but that may contain a variable fraction of crystallized phases. Five composition parameters were identified for the long-term behavior assessment: the concentrations of the three major elements (silicon, aluminum and calcium), the total alkali metal (sodium and potassium) concentration, and the sum of the concentrations of two toxic elements (zinc and lead). The other elements were assumed constant at molar ratios representative of industrial wastes. The experimentation plan methodology applied to the composition range identified fourteen materials suilable for developing and validating first-order models of the material components. The fly-ash composition had a very significant effect on the degree and kinetics and crystallization in the vitrified material within the experimental composition range; the cooling rate was the determining factor for some of the fourteen materials studied. Two crystailine phases predominated: spinels rich in chromium, zinc, aluminum, magnesium and iron formed quickly on cooling, and accounted for about 2 vol% of the final material. Gehelenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) crystallized massively in some vitrified materials, accounting for more than half the final product and giving it a rock-like appearance. The effect of composition alone must therefore be distinguished from the effect of crystallization on the leaching behavior. Soxhlet tests were conducted for 14 days according to a protocol based on that of the French AFNOR draft standard NF-M 60313 to determine the maximum alteration rate in pure water at 100 degrees C. The measured rate ranged from 4 to 40 gm(-2) day(-1), illustrating the crucial role of the silicon concentration: within the test composition range, a low silicon content (< 30 wt%) tended to result in a significantly higher initial rate. However, the initial rate alone is not sufficient to assess the chemical durability of the material. Further tests will be carried out at 25 degrees C under conditions approximating those of a proposed disposal site to highlight the role of the alteration layer and the effect of rising concentrations in solution on the decreasing alteration rate. PMID:12003140

Frugier, P; Godon, N; Vernaz, E; Larché, F

2002-01-01

138

The Use of Solar Energy for Preparing Domestic Hot Water in a Multi-Storey Building  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses the possibilities of solar collectors used for a domestic hot water system and installed on the roofs of modernized multi-storey buildings under the existing climate conditions. A number of combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors with accumulation tank systems of various sizes have been examined. Heat from the district heating system is used as an additional heat source for preparing domestic hot water. The paper compares calculation results of energy and economy regarding the combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors and the size of the accumulation tank. The influence of variations in the main indicators on the final economic results has also been evaluated. Research has been supported applying EC FP7 CONCERTO program (‘‘Sustainable Zero Carbon ECO-Town Developments Improving Quality of Life across EU - ECO-Life’’ (ECO-Life Project Contract No. TREN/FP7EN/239497/”ECOLIFE”.Article in Lithuanian

Giedrius Šiupšinskas

2012-12-01

139

New test methodologies to analyse direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps for domestic hot water   

OpenAIRE

Since there are not specific standards for testing direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps for domestic hot water, new testing methodologies are proposed supported by laboratory experiments. Two methodologies were developed for performance measurement: modified BIN method and long term performance prediction with a TRNSYS model validated with specific experimental conditions. The long term performance prediction is a methodology similar to the already obtained for solar thermal systems. A ...

Faca?o, Jorge; Carvalho, M. J.

2014-01-01

140

Domestic hot water consumption vs. solar thermal energy storage: the optimum size of the storage tank  

OpenAIRE

Many efforts have been made in order to adequate the production of a solar thermal collector field to the consumption of domestic hot water of the inhabitants of a building. In that sense, much has been achieved in different domains: research agencies, government policies and manufacturers. However, most of the design rules of the solar plants are based on steady state models, whereas solar irradiance, consumption and thermal accumulation are inherently transient processes. As a result of thi...

Rodri?guez Hidalgo, Mari?a Del Carmen; Rodri?guez Aumente, Pedro A.; Lecuona Newman, Antonio; Legrand, Mathieu; Ventas Garzo?n, Rube?n

2012-01-01

141

The use of helical heat exchanger for heat recovery domestic water-cooled air-conditioners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study on the performance of a domestic water-cooled air-conditioner (WAC) using tube-in-tube helical heat exchanger for preheating of domestic hot water was carried out. The main aims are to identify the comprehensive energy performance (space cooling and hot water preheating) of the WAC and the optimum design of the helical heat exchanger taking into account the variation in tap water flow rate. A split-type WAC was set up for experimental study at different indoor and outdoor conditions. The cooling output, the amount of recovered heat, and the power consumption for different hot water flow rates were measured. The experimental results showed that the cooling coefficient of performance (COP) of the WAC improves with the inclusion of the heat recovery option by a minimum of 12.3%. This can be further improved to 20.6% by an increase in tap water flow rate. Same result was observed for the comprehensive COP of the WAC. The maximum achievable comprehensive COP was 4.92 when the tap water flow rate was set at 7.7 L/min. The overall heat transfer coefficient of the helical heat exchanger under various operating conditions were determined by Wilson plot. A mathematical model relating the over all heat transfer coefficient to the outer pipe diameter was established which provides a convenient way of optimising the design of the helical heat exchanger

142

Investigating the Effectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV Water Purification as Replacement of Chlorine Disinfection in Domestic Water Supply  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domestic water supply to residential buildings through hand-dug wells has been widely accepted as a reliable substitute to government owned municipal water supply system in Nigeria. This Paper investigates theeffectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV Water Sterilizers as a suitable replacement of chlorine disinfection in the removal of microbiological contaminants in domestic water supply. Water from an established contaminated well in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, were subjected, simultaneously and in parallel, to chlorine dosing and contact withUV light, over a period of seven (7 days without pre-filtration, and additional seven (7 days with pre-filtration. Pre-filtration was accomplished by the use of a calibrated pressure filter. Effluent water samples were taken daily for the two (2 scenarios to the laboratory for physical, chemical and biological analyses. The resultsindicated that UV water purification method was more effective only when pre-filtration of raw water was introduced. With monitored prefiltration prior to ultraviolet purification, the colony count, MPN Coliform Organisms and MPN E. Coli Organisms recorded seven day-average values of 1, 0 and 0, respectively. In both scenarios, it was confirmed that UV method produced no bi-products and did not alter the taste, pH or other properties of water, in contradistiction to chlorine disinfection method

Olaoye

2012-08-01

143

Global emissions of trace gases, particulate matter, and hazardous air pollutants from open burning of domestic waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

The open burning of waste, whether at individual residences, businesses, or dump sites, is a large source of air pollutants. These emissions, however, are not included in many current emission inventories used for chemistry and climate modeling applications. This paper presents the first comprehensive and consistent estimates of the global emissions of greenhouse gases, particulate matter, reactive trace gases, and toxic compounds from open waste burning. Global emissions of CO2 from open waste burning are relatively small compared to total anthropogenic CO2; however, regional CO2 emissions, particularly in many developing countries in Asia and Africa, are substantial. Further, emissions of reactive trace gases and particulate matter from open waste burning are more significant on regional scales. For example, the emissions of PM10 from open domestic waste burning in China is equivalent to 22% of China's total reported anthropogenic PM10 emissions. The results of the emissions model presented here suggest that emissions of many air pollutants are significantly underestimated in current inventories because open waste burning is not included, consistent with studies that compare model results with available observations. PMID:25019173

Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yokelson, Robert J; Gullett, Brian K

2014-08-19

144

Processing method for cleaning water waste from cement kneader  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention concerns a method of processing cleaning water wastes from a cement kneader in a case of processing liquid wastes containing radioactive wastes or deleterious materials such as heavy metals by means of cement solidification. Cleaning waste wastes from the kneader are sent to a cleaning water waste tank, in which gentle stirring is applied near the bottom and sludges are retained so as not to be coagulated. Sludges retained at the bottom of the cleaning water waste tank are sent after elapse of a predetermined time and then kneaded with cements. Thus, since the sludges in the cleaning water are solidified with cement, inhomogenous solidification products consisting only of cleaning sludges with low strength are not formed. The resultant solidification product is homogenous and the compression strength thereof reaches such a level as capable of satisfying marine disposal standards required for the solidification products of radioactive wastes. (I.N.).

Soda, Kenzo; Fujita, Hisao; Nakajima, Tadashi.

1990-07-03

145

Processing method for cleaning water waste from cement kneader  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a method of processing cleaning water wastes from a cement kneader in a case of processing liquid wastes containing radioactive wastes or deleterious materials such as heavy metals by means of cement solidification. Cleaning waste wastes from the kneader are sent to a cleaning water waste tank, in which gentle stirring is applied near the bottom and sludges are retained so as not to be coagulated. Sludges retained at the bottom of the cleaning water waste tank are sent after elapse of a predetermined time and then kneaded with cements. Thus, since the sludges in the cleaning water are solidified with cement, inhomogenous solidification products consisting only of cleaning sludges with low strength are not formed. The resultant solidification product is homogenous and the compression strength thereof reaches such a level as capable of satisfying marine disposal standards required for the solidification products of radioactive wastes. (I.N.)

146

Brucellosis in domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) of Trinidad and Tobago with comparative epidemiology to cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The water buffalo is an important domestic animal worldwide, and the local Buffalypso variety was developed in Trinidad to have improved beef qualities. Brucellosis was diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago during 1998 in both cattle and domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations. Brucellosis in the latter species is caused by infection with Brucella abortus, similar to bovine brucellosis. Control of brucellosis is of paramount importance to preservation of the genetic diversity of these animals in Trinidad, and this has been complicated by differences in the epidemiology of water buffalo and bovine brucellosis. Some diagnostic tests do not have comparable accuracy between the two species, and the RB51 vaccine does not adequately protect against infection in water buffalo. The water buffalo in Trinidad may also be more resistant to infection than cattle. Development of effective vaccination protocols is key to brucellosis control in Buffalypso in Trinidad, and prohibitions on import of virulent B. abortus strains for vaccine efficacy studies has impeded progress in this area. These Trinidadian strains are of variable virulence; some might be effective for challenge in vaccine efficacy studies, while other, of lower virulence, may be vaccine candidates for use in water buffalo. PMID:21479842

Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Diptee, Michael D; Ramnanan, Anil; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

2011-12-01

147

Pollution characterization of waste water of an industrial zone - Example of a dairy water clarification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD/BOD ratio which may attain the value of 1.8. Pre-treatment by coagulation floculation of waste water used in a dairy belonging to this industrial zone showed a considerable reduction of the initial pollution by a systematic decreasing of pollution parameters. Aluminium sulphates and iron chloride tested in this experience have reduced considerably all the studied parameters; the organic charge has received a very significant reduction up to 99%. The discharge of treated effluent in the surrounding river or its use for recycling aims is then possible for this industry. However, the formed sludge can be the subject of a suitable treatment for possible agricultural, avicolous valorisation or other. (author)

148

Public health aspects of waste-water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the bacteria, viruses and parasites which may be found in waste-water and polluted waters, those that are pathogenic to man are briefly described. The efficiency of different conventional waste-water treatments in removing the pathogens is reviewed, as well as additional factors of importance for the presence of micro-organisms in recipient waters. It is concluded that at present for treated waters no conventional treatment results in an effluent free from pathogens if they are present in the original waste-water. This is also true for sludges apart from pasteurization. The importance to public health of the presence of pathogens in recipient waters is briefly discussed. (author)

149

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. CASE PRESENTATION: The buffalo cow presented ...

Dettwiler, M.; Stahel, A. B. J.; Kru?ger, S.; Gerspach, C.; Braun, U.; Engels, M.; Hilbe, M.

2011-01-01

150

Simulation Programs for Ph.D. Study of Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The design of solar domestic hot water system is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. This report presents the detailed programs or units that were developed in the Ph.D study of " Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems".

Qin, Lin

1999-01-01

151

On the Possibilities of Producing Hydrogen by High Temperature Electrolysis of Water Steam Supplied from Biomass or Waste Incineration Units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incineration of biomass and waste is considered to produce water steam, which then would feed the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process in order to produce hydrogen. For these energy sources, in a French context, results show that water steam production cost could be in a range of 0.02 to 0.06 euros per steam kilogram. Potentially 78 million vehicles could be fed with hydrogen coming from the steam produced by the incineration of the currently non valorized biomass and domestic waste. Furthermore, for each energy source the optimized hydrogen production cost estimation has been performed, including investment and operation costs. (authors)

152

Performance improvement by using dual heaters in a storage-type domestic electric water-heater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many designs of storage-type domestic electric water-heaters (EWHs) the internal heating elements are mounted at the bottom of the tank. Energy-utilization efficiencies of such EWHs are not always high since the whole tank of water is heated for even a quick shower, where the hot-water requirement is only a small fraction of the total tank capacity. In this study, performance of employing a secondary heating-element near the top part of a standard-size storage tank was experimentally investigated for energy conservation. Data were obtained for two draw-off rates of 5 and 10 l/min, and by locating a standard heating-element at three different positions; mounted vertically at the bottom and horizontally on the lateral surface 380 and 600 mm from the bottom surface. It is found that, with the heater located on the lateral surface of the storage tank, only the water above the heater can be heated while the water below the heater remains almost unaffected by the heating process. For the heater located at a height of 600 mm from the bottom, 85% of the stored energy can be utilized to supply almost 50 l of warm water, which is enough for one person to take a shower. Then, it is possible to design a tank with dual heaters, giving the users the chance of switching between the elements depending on the amount of hot-water required. This will facilitate the rational use of energy in domestic hot water preparation. Considering that the extra cost of producing an EWH with an auxiliary heating element is less than US$ 50, the application of dual heaters is worth considering by the manufacturers. (Author)

Sezai, I.; Aldabbagh, L.B.Y.; Atikol, U.; Hacisevki, H. [Eastern Mediterranean Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Mersin (Turkey)

2005-07-01

153

Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

Yade, N.

1986-01-01

154

How to reduce risk of climate change: Domestic hot water production methanization and programmed timing of heaters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper first identifies a significant and deleterious trend, in terms of poor energy efficiency and high carbon dioxide emissions, towards the increased use of electric water heaters for sanitary hot water production in single family units. It then points out how the use of wall mounted methane fired boilers can result in overall energy savings (overall electric power consumption for domestic hot water production is estimated to represent one- quarter of Italy's total domestic power demand), as well as air pollution abatement. The feasibility of other methods of energy conservation and pollution abatement in domestic water heating are also examined. These include the use of solar hot water heaters, computerized timers which allow users to program the operation of their heating plants, and the adoption by residential communities of methane fuelled district heating plants

155

A method for the treatment of waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention relates to a method for the cooling of waste waters. It is characterized in that it comprises the steps of introducing waste waters into a tank in communication with a basin through gate-controlled orifices, successively opening and closing the gates so as to intermitently release an adjustable amount of water stored in the tank in order to generate waves promoting the airing of waste waters and their cooling, then expelling waters downstream of the basin. The invention relates to thermal and nuclear power stations

156

Development of a process to neutralize water-reactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mixed waste storage area at Los Alamos National Laboratory contains a considerable amount of lithium hydride and other water-reactive wastes. A process to neutralize these wastes by controlled hydration in an atmosphere of humid nitrogen is being developed. The kinetics of reaction of lithium hydride with water vapor has been studied at bench scale. The reaction progress can be predicted using the Unreacted Shrinking Core Model for noncatalytic solid-fluid reactions. This model will be utilized in designing of a skid-mounted treatment unit to neutralize water-reactive wastes

157

Aerospace vehicle water-waste management  

Science.gov (United States)

The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

Pecoraro, J. N.

1973-01-01

158

Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site

159

Fermentation of household wastes and industrial waste water; Vergaerung von haeuslichen Abfaellen und Industrieabwaessern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive brochure reviews various technologies for the environment-friendly treatment of organic wastes and residues. The principles of anaerobic digestion are discussed. Authorities, planners and engineers concerned with waste treatment are provided with an overview of current technology in the organic wastes area. The brochure emphasises the importance of fermentation processes in waste treatment, discusses the legal pre-requisites for biogas production, lists the biological and process-oriented fundamentals of fermentation and examines the energy potential of biogenic wastes and waste water. Further, details are given on the treatment of both industrial waste water and solid organic wastes and, finally, the economics of fermentation is examined. Useful data is presented in table form and the various processes described are illustrated by schematics and flow diagrams. An appendix lists suggestions for further reading on the subject.

Edelmann, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie ' arbi' , Maschwanden (Switzerland); Engeli, H. [Probag AG, Dietikon (Switzerland); Glauser, M. [Biol-Conseils SA, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Hofer, H. [HTH-Verfahrenstechnik, Winterthur (Switzerland); Membrez, Y. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Meylan, J.-H. [Lausanne (Switzerland); Schwitzguebel, J.-P. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Genie biologique, Lausanne (Switzerland)

1993-07-01

160

?18O values of Sus scrofa blood water and bone phosphate; a marked discrepancy between domestic and wild specimens.  

Science.gov (United States)

?¹?O analyses of water in the blood of domestic and wild pigs indicated that large isotopic differences exist between domestic and wild specimens of the same species (Sus scrofa) living in the same area. Similar isotopic differences are found between the ?¹?O(PO?³?) values of bones from the two groups of animals. When ?¹?O values obtained from recent wild boar bones are introduced in the equation of the isotopic scale determined for domestic pigs, totally unreliable ?¹?O values of local meteoric water are obtained. The ?¹?O(PO?³?) values measured in three groups of modern wild boar specimens allow the calculation of a first approximate equation which is quite different from that of domestic pigs. This isotopic scale should be accurately re-calibrated for wild animals. PMID:22468328

Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico

2011-12-30

161

Decontamination of Waste Water Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

2003. s. 1. [International Symposium on Waste Water Reclamation and Reuse /4./. 12.11.2003-14.11.2003, Mexico City] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : decontamination * waste water * polychlorinated biphenyls Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

Kaštánek, František; Kaštánek, P.; Demnerová, K.; Maléterová, Ywetta

162

Radiotracer investigations of industrial waste water equalizer-clarifiers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology and results of radiotracer investigations of an industrial equalizer-clarifier for waste water treatment are presented. Potassium bromide activated in nuclear reactor for sewage labelling was used. The dynamic characteristics of the tank and principal parameters of its operation were determined. The waste water flow model in apparatus was proposed. (author)

163

Co-digestion of source segregated domestic food waste to improve process stability  

OpenAIRE

Cattle slurry and card packaging were used to improve the operational stability of food waste digestion, with the aim of reducing digestate total ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations compared to food waste only. Use of cattle slurry could have major environmental benefits through reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with current management practices; whilst card packaging is closely linked to food waste and could be co-collected as a source segregated material. Both options increase the...

Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J.; Heaven, Sonia

2012-01-01

164

Wastes and waste management in the uranium fuel cycle for light water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manufacturing processes in the uranium fuel cycle for light water reactors have been described with particular reference to the chemical and radiological wastes produced and the waste management procedures employed. The problems and possible solutions of ultimate disposal of high activity fission products and transuranium elements from reprocessing of irradiated fuel have been reviewed. Quantities of wastes arising in each stage of the fuel cycle have been summarised. Wastes arising from reactor operation have been described briefly. (author)

165

Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity difference between the make-up water production and consumption of make-up water. (EG)

Aagaard, Joergen

1998-07-01

166

Effect of color removal agent on textiles waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of color removal agent (CRA) on textile waste water has been studied. The aim of this work is to determine the optimum condition for CRA to react on the textile waste water and to see the effect of CRA on waste water with different Chemical Oxygen Demand. 8 ml CRA was used to treat 800 mls of sample with various COD ranging between 2500 mg/ l-500 mg/ l. The results showed that CRA totally remove the colour of textile waste water at pH ranging from 6 to 8. At an optimum condition CRA works efficiently on waste water with COD 2300 mg/ l for reduction of suspended solid and turbidity. It also observed, sludge accumulation was depended on COD concentration. Color removal curves for different initial COD concentration also obtained. (author)

167

Discussing simply waste water treatment in building green mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis simplfy it is important and necessary that uran ore enterprise build the green mine .According to focusing on waste water treatment in building green mine of some uran ore enterprise,analysis the problem in treating mine water, technics waste water, tailings water before remoulding the system of waster water treatment, evaluate the advanced technics, satisfy ability, steady effect, reach the mark of discharge. According to the experimental unit of building the green mine,some uran ore enterprise make the waster water reaching the mark of discharge after remoulding the system of waster water treatment.It provides valuable experienceto uran ore enterprise in building green mine. (authors)

168

Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author)

169

The influence of waste water on the water quality in Zemplínska ?írava  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The water quality in the Zemplínska Šírava water reservoir directly depends on the water quality in Laborec river. This is mainly in -fluenced by waste water discharged from point sources of pollution (public canalization and waste water from area sources of pollution. In the contribution, the water quality data in 6 river and 4 water reservoir profiles are presented for the period of 1993 - 1997.

Búgel Milan

1999-03-01

170

The influence of waste water on the water quality in Zemplínska ?írava  

OpenAIRE

The water quality in the Zemplínska Šírava water reservoir directly depends on the water quality in Laborec river. This is mainly in -fluenced by waste water discharged from point sources of pollution (public canalization) and waste water from area sources of pollution. In the contribution, the water quality data in 6 river and 4 water reservoir profiles are presented for the period of 1993 - 1997.

Búgel Milan

1999-01-01

171

The reuse of scrap and decontamination waste water from decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Huge amount of radioactive scrap with low activity will be generated from reactor decommissioning; the decontamination is concentrated in the surface layer of the scrap. The decontaminated substance can be removed by high pressure water jet to appear the base metal and to reuse the metal. Big amount of radioactive waste water will be generated by this decontamination technology; the radioactive of the waste water is mainly caused by the solid particle from decontamination. To remove the solid particle as clean as possible, the waste water can be reused. Different possible technology to remove the solid particle from the water had been investigated, such as the gravity deposit separation, the filtration and the centrifugal separation etc. The centrifugal separation technology is selected; it includes the hydraulic vortex, the centrifugal filtration and the centrifugal deposit. After the cost benefit analysis at last the centrifugal deposit used butterfly type separator is selected. To reuse the waste water the fresh water consumption and the cost for waste water treatment can be reduced. To reuse the radioactive scrap and the waste water from decommissioning will minimize the radioactive waste. (authors)

172

Simulation programs for ph.D. study of analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in the solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. One of the main objects of the Ph.D. study of `Analysis, Modelling and optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems` is to develop and verify programs for carrying out the simulation and evaluation of the dynamic performance of solar DHW systems. During this study, simulation programs for hot water distribution networks and for certain types of solar DHW systems were developed. (au)

Lin Qin

1998-12-31

173

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Science.gov (United States)

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2010-07-01

174

Diagnosis of small capacity reverse osmosis desalination unit for domestic water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tunisian norm of drinking water tolerates a maximum TDS of 1.5 g/L, and the domestic water presents usually a salinity grater than 500 mg/L. In the last years, several small capacity reverse osmosis desalination prototypes have been marketed. They are used to desalinate brackish water with TDS lower than 1.5 g/L. This RO unit, tested with tap waters during four years, was diagnosed. The RO unit produces 10-15 L/Hour with a recovery rate between 25 and 40 pour cent and salt rejection in order of 90 pour cent. The salinity of the tested domestic water is located between 0.4 and 1.4 g/L. Water pretreatment is composed of three filtration operations (cartridge filter, granulate active carbon filter and 5 =m cartridge filter). Pretreated water is pumped through RO membrane with maximum pressure of 6 bars. At the 4th year, the RO unit performances were substantial decreased. Recovery rate and salt rejection fall down more than 50 and 100% respectively and the pressure drop increase from 1 to 2.1 bar The membrane regeneration allowed only the rate recovery restoration. The membrane selectivity was not improved. The membrane seems irreversibly damaged by the tap water chlorine none retained by the deficient pretreatment. An autopsy of the used RO membrane was done by different analysis techniques as SEM/EDX, AFM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of membrane (proper and used) surfaces show a deposit film on the used membrane witch evaluated to environ 2 =m, it indicatesch evaluated to environ 2 =m, it indicates a fooling phenomenon. The SEM photos show deterioration on the active layer material of the membrane witch seems attacked by the tap water chlorine. The X Rays Diffraction and FTIR show that the deposit collected on the used membrane contains organic and mineral (Gypsum, SiO2 and clays) materials. Silicates and clays can exist in tap waters and reach the RO membrane when the pretreatment micro-filter became deficient. The Gypsum presence is due only to germination on the membrane.

175

Treatment of Oily Waste Water Emulsions from Metallurgical Industries Using Microwave Irradiation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emulsion waste water is one of the important industrial wastewaters, which results from the various manufacturing industries including the metal manufacturing and its processing. Wastewater treatment technologies utilizing flocculation and electrolysis have been used but these technologies have not been very helpful in resolving the problems in view of process consistency and economic merit. Aiming to mitigate the environmental hazard that these waste emulsions represent, a study was carried to investigate the microwave methods to destabilise water/oil emulsions without the addition of any destabilizing chemical agent. The experimental work consisted on breaking the simplest of the emulsions in terms of content, in order to obtain preliminary data that can help to extend the method to manage actual waste material. The samples consisted in water/oil emulsions waste (spent cutting oil, which was obtained from local metal industries. The sample emulsions underwent a domestic microwave radiating process at several exposure times. Certain factors, such as aromatic components and sodium hydroxide content and total heat exposure time proved to be the factors that more strongly affect the results. Within the category of paraffinic oils, light oils allow for quicker water separation than heavy oils. Also oils with higher aromatic content have higher viscosity, which makes the separation of water more difficult. It was observed in this study that emulsions added with acid up to a final concentration of 0.48 M, the separation efficiency and demulsification rate increased with increasing acid concentration. Hence microwave irradiation is an economical and rapid method for oil separation from oily waste water. Although this study was carried out on a lab scale basis, the process can scale up to a large industrial scale system. By using the microwave radiation, an aqueous phase recovery that ranged from 65 to 90% was obtained, which is a significant outcome that reveals the study of this technique needs to be taken further

N. Saifuddin

2006-01-01

176

Pore water chemistry of domestic bentonite for the buffer of a repository: analysis of experimental data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were conducted using synthetic ground water and domestic bentonite. Upon reaction of the bentonite and ground water, ionic concentration, ph and Eh nearly reached a steady-state within a few days. The pore water chemistry was dominated mainly by the mineralogical composition of bentonite. Analytic results showed that sodium, sulfate, and carbonate were major ions, and their concentrations increased to about 4-5 times those of original ground water. The ph increased from 8.1 to 8.9, and the Eh were between 365 mV and 375 mV. The concentration of most dissolved ions increased with increasing bentonite-to-ground water ratio. On the contrary, the ph and Eh were little affected by bentonite-to-ground water ratio. The dependence of ionic concentration upon temperature had different trends with different ions. Little change in the ph occurred up to 80 dg C, and decreased beyond the value of temperature. The Eh rather increased beyond 80 dg C on contrary to ph. (Author). 21 refs., 4 tabs., 18 figs

177

Pore water chemistry of domestic bentonite for the buffer of a repository: analysis of experimental data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were conducted using synthetic ground water and domestic bentonite. Upon reaction of the bentonite and ground water, ionic concentration, ph and Eh nearly reached a steady-state within a few days. The pore water chemistry was dominated mainly by the mineralogical composition of bentonite. Analytic results showed that sodium, sulfate, and carbonate were major ions, and their concentrations increased to about 4-5 times those of original ground water. The ph increased from 8.1 to 8.9, and the Eh were between 365 mV and 375 mV. The concentration of most dissolved ions increased with increasing bentonite-to-ground water ratio. On the contrary, the ph and Eh were little affected by bentonite-to-ground water ratio. The dependence of ionic concentration upon temperature had different trends with different ions. Little change in the ph occurred up to 80 dg C, and decreased beyond the value of temperature. The Eh rather increased beyond 80 dg C on contrary to ph. (Author). 21 refs., 4 tabs., 18 figs.

Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung

1999-04-01

178

EFFICIENCY OF DOMESTIC REVERSE OSMOSIS IN REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound, Tape wrapping module was used. Feed solution was made by using of pure chloroform. The samples containing chloroform were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. By increasing the flow, the removal rate of chloroform decreased and with declining removal of EC, the removal of chloroform declined too. In this research, at the worst condition, the efficiency of the pilot scale reverse osmosis reached to 80 % removal of chloroform.

S. Mazloomi ? R. Nabizadeh ? S. Nasseri ? K. Naddafi ? S. Nazmara ? A. H. Mahvi

2009-10-01

179

Conventional versus storage domestic solar hot water systems: A comparative performance study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an experimental comparative performance study between a storage solar domestic hot water system and a conventional one. The storage system differs from the conventional one by integrating the collector and storage tank into one piece of equipment. The investigated storage collector consists of six 80-mm-outside diameter copper tubes connected in series to act as an absorber and a storage tank. Tests under different flow patterns are conducted to simulate different patterns of hot water consumption. The overall heat loss coefficient, useful heat gain, instantaneous efficiency, efficiency factor, heat removal factor and the temperature distribution along the pipe are determined using modified equations derived for the storage collector from the basic derivation of Hottel-Bliss-Whillier. A comparison between the experimental and theoretical results for the storage collector showed good agreements and that between the two systems showed the superiority of the storage system.

180

Isotope Technique (14C, 131I) for Safety Analysis of Domestic Solid Waste Disposal Site in Jakarta, Indonesia- A Case Study  

OpenAIRE

Bekasi is one of city around Jakarta which has been developed for the last 10 years. In the south of Bekasi placed sanitary landfill area for domestic solid waste of Jakarta Metropolitan as a Disposal Site. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the location of Bantar Gebang Bekasi solid waste disposal site for safety analysis. The geohydrologycal parameters are determined by using isotopes techniques (14C, 131I) to study the shallow groundwater characteristics of the site. From th...

Syafalni Syafalni; Abustan, I.; Tadza Abdul Rahman, M.

2010-01-01

181

Radioactivity monitoring in waste water. Amendment 6/94  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity monitoring in waste water shall fulfill the following purposes: (a) accounting of radioactive substances in waste water, to provide a basis for assessment of radiological effects; (b) automaic signalling of alert at radioactivity values exceeding the limits; (c) Contribution of data in compliance with section 46, sub-section 1, No. 3 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In addition to this KTA Safety Rule, radioactivity monitoring in waste water has to observe the provisions of the federal WHG (water resources policy act) and those of the relevant Land legislation, according to which discharge of waste water into surface waters is subject to licensing not only under the Atomic Energy Act, but also under sections 2, 3, and 7 of the WHG. The KTA Safety Rule is to be applied to equipment for radioactivity monitoring in liquid effluents from nuclear power plants with LWRs during specified normal operation and in case of emergencies. (orig.)

182

Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water of contact lens wearers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms--including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae--can cause several eye infections in wearers. Extended wear of contact lenses is the major risk factor of eye infections such as microbial keratitis, besides contaminated contact lens storage case, contaminated lens care solutions, and inaccurate contact lens handling. In this study, we collected contact lens storage case and domestic tap water samples from 50 asymptomatic contact lens wearers. We determined that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 45 (90 %), Gram negative rod bacteria were isolated in 20 (40 %), Pseudomonas spp. were isolated in 2 (4 %) and fungi were isolated in 18 (36 %) out of 50 contact lens storage cases. Free living amoebae were not detected in investigated contact lens storage cases. At the same time, out of 50, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 34 (68 %), fungi were isolated in 15 (30 %) and free living amoebae were isolated in 15 (30 %) domestic tap water samples. No Gram-negative rod bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in investigated water samples. Two contact lens case samples and two tap water samples were excluded from the analysis for Pseudomonas spp. for technical reasons. According to our findings, inadequate contact lens maintenance during lens wear may result in the contamination of contact lens storage cases. This situation can lead to severe eye infections in contact lens wearers over time. PMID:23064864

Üstüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

2012-11-01

183

Solidification of waste water concentrates using a roller drier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the relatively high costs for package material, transportation and final disposal of radioactive waste the final volume of the waste must be reduced. In the case of waste water concentrates it is economical to install an additional step to dry the waste before monolithization with cement. In the Nuclear Research Centre in Juelich a roller drier is in operation since 9 years with very good results. The final volume of the solidified waste is lower by a factor of 5 compared with the direct solidification of the concentrate with cement. This results in a remarkable reduction of the costs

184

Process for multi-stage treatment of radioactive waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the multi-stage treatment of radioactive waste waters with a decanter the solids contained in the waste waters are dried up to a residual moisture of 10% and are subsequently disposed. Solids remaining in the liquid part are removed with a separator up to the colloidal range, whereas the liquid product of the decanter is filtered up to the molecular range so that it can be used as industrial water. (orig.)

185

Composting of domestic wastes: development and optimization of reactor continuous; Compostaje domestico : desarrollo y optimizacion de un reactor en continuo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, a mixture of the organic fraction of a domestic waste and wooden chips has been composted using an in vessel composting apparatus with forced aeration and a continuous compost collection system. After three months with a daily addition of a fixed organic charge,temperature and moisture control, five samples of compost were collected and tested in their chemical and biological characteristics. Odour production and low temperatures and moisture contents during the process,high saline concentration and the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the final product are the main disadvantages of this experience. Although, a good C/N ratio, neutral pH and high levels of nutrients (N and P) in the compost have been achieved,the parameters controlling the process must be improved. (Author) 16 refs.

Rad, C.; Gonzalez-Carcedo, S.; Revenga, J. M.; Bustillo-Nunez, J. M.; Marcos-Naveira, L. A. [Universidad de Burgos (Spain); Monje, J. C.; Bustillo-Iglesias, A.

2002-07-01

186

Emissions on the combustion of the fuel fraction made of domestic waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The assorted fractions of waste which are used as fuel have been investigated as to the emission which takes place on combustion of the fraction. Unsorted fraction was used as referance material. When the fuel fraction is burnt, 25-30 per cent reduction of the release of hydrochloric acid is achieved. Further reduction by 10-30 per cent is attained by the addition of chips. The emission of metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons was also lower when burning sorted waste.

Lunden, L.; Ahling, B.; Edner, S.

1982-04-01

187

Experimental study on electrodialysis treatment of simulated waste water from radioactive waste incineration system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive waste incineration facility produces low-level radioactive waste water in operation. While in treatment process, however, the Cl- existed in the waste water corrodes the evaporation equipment, and the HCO3- as well exerts negative impacts on the ion exchange process for radioactive nuclides. As for this problem, a special electrodialysis system and technical process was developed. Some experiments were carried out, including the NaCl solution direct desalination and cycle desalination experiment, the anionic selection experiment, and the desalination experiment to the simulated. Results showed that the process of electrodialysis treatment met limits on the treatment of technical waste water in terms of the concentration of nonradioactive components in desalted water, and the water balance requirement on the concentration of concentration water. (authors)

188

Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve water supply in rural South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, is one of the targets of the 7th Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In South Africa, with its mix of developed and developing regions, 9.7 million (20%) of the people do not have access to adequate water supply and 16 million (33%) lack proper sanitation services. Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH), which provides water directly to households enables a number of small-scale productive activities, has the potential to supply water even in rural and peri-urban areas that conventional technologies cannot supply. As part of the effort to achieve the MDGs, the South African government has committed itself to provide financial assistance to poor households for the capital cost of rainwater storage tanks and related works in the rural areas. Despite this financial assistance, the legal status of DRWH remains unclear and DRWH is in fact illegal by strict application of the water legislations. Beyond the cost of installation, maintenance and proper use of the DRWH system to ensure its sustainability, there is risk of waterborne diseases. This paper explores challenges to sustainable implementation of DRWH and proposes some interventions which the South African government could implement to overcome them.

Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-marc; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Boroto, Jean R.

189

Water quality effects of herded stream crossings by domestic sheep bands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Livestock impacts on total suspended solids (TSS) and pathogen (e.g., ) levels in rangeland streams are a serious concern worldwide. Herded stream crossings by domestic sheep () are periodic, necessary managerial events on high-elevation rangelands, but their impacts on stream water quality are largely unknown. We evaluated the effects of herded, one-way crossings by sheep bands (about 2000 individuals) on TSS and concentration and load responses in downstream waters. Crossing trials were conducted during the summers of 2005 and 2006 on two reaches within each of three perennial streams in the Centennial Mountains of eastern Idaho and southwestern Montana. Water samples were collected at 2-min intervals at an upstream background station and at stations 25, 100, 500, and 1500 m downstream just before and during each crossing trial. Crossings produced substantial increases in TSS and concentrations and loads downstream, but these concentration increases were localized and short lived. Maximum TSS concentration was highest 25 m downstream, declined as a function of downstream distance, and at 500 m downstream was similar to background. Post-peak TSS concentrations at all downstream stations decreased to <25 mg L within 24 to 48 min after reaching their maxima. Findings for concentration and load responses were similar to that of TSS but less clear cut. Stream-crossing sheep do affect water quality; therefore, producers and resource managers should continue to evaluate the efficacy of herdsmanship techniques for reducing water quality impact. PMID:23099950

Clark, Patrick E; Moffet, Corey A; Lewis, Gregory S; Seyfried, Mark S; Hardegree, Stuart P; Pierson, Fredrick B

2012-01-01

190

Comparative health risks of domestic waste combustion in urban and rural Slovakia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the health risk incurred by two alternative waste management schemes: open burning of household waste in barrels practiced in rural Slovakia and controlled municipal waste combustion in the city of Bratislava. Using agricultural land use data and village population data we formulate three prototype villages, each representing about one-third of the rural population. The two configurations of the controlled combustion are an outdated municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a modern waste-to-energy (WTE) plant equipped with modern air pollution control devices. These configurations actually exist(ed) in Bratislava, Slovakia at the same site, but in different time frames. The CALPUFF model provides direct exposure data and the EMERAM software (developed in this paper) computes indirect exposure. A major source of uncertainty is that of the fraction of waste burned in the open. The analysis presented here assumed 10%. At this level, the cancer risk from open burning ranges from 10 to 80 times the commonly regarded de minimus value of one in a million. This means that underthe U.S. contemporary regulatory culture, some regulatory action to control or enforce the burning ban would be expected. Cancer risks from the incinerator ranged from 7 to 371 in a million while the WTE risks were below 1 in a million. Cancer risks from open burning are higher than those of the WTE plant and at the same time affect a larger portion of concerned population. PMID:17969705

Krajcovicová, Jana; Eschenroeder, Alan Q

2007-10-01

191

Radioactive waste disposal of water containing waste using urea-formaldehyde resin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of disposing of wet radioactive waste materials such as those generated in the water used to cool atomic reactors, comprises combining the waste material with a hydrophilic resin in proportions sufficient to provide a solid mass of the resin with the radioactive waste component distributed within. In its preferred form, the waste material is concentrated by separating water from the radioactive portions thereof by methods such as evaporation, taking up the waste components with an ion exchange resin and separating the resin from the bulk of the water, or by the addition of flocculating agents or the like and filtering. The preferred hydrophilic resinous material is a conventional ureaformaldehyde dispersion, which is partially polymerized and capable of taking up water and fully polymerizing upon the addition of an acidic curing agent. The method also contemplates adding a substantially waterproof resinous material to the surface of the solid block, or enclosing it in a waterproof container, or both

192

Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis  

OpenAIRE

One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with differe...

Björn Karlsson; Henrik Davidsson; Bernardo, Luis R.

2012-01-01

193

Where There Is No Toilet: Water and Sanitation Environments of Domestic and Facility Births in Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Inadequate water and sanitation during childbirth are likely to lead to poor maternal and newborn outcomes. This paper uses existing data sources to assess the water and sanitation (WATSAN) environment surrounding births in Tanzania in order to interrogate whether such estimates could be useful for guiding research, policy and monitoring initiatives. Methods We used the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to characterise the delivery location of births occurring between 2005 and 2010. Births occurring in domestic environments were characterised as WATSAN-safe if the home fulfilled international definitions of improved water and improved sanitation access. We used the 2006 Service Provision Assessment survey to characterise the WATSAN environment of facilities that conduct deliveries. We combined estimates from both surveys to describe the proportion of all births occurring in WATSAN-safe environments and conducted an equity analysis based on DHS wealth quintiles and eight geographic zones. Results 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 41.6%–44.2%) of all births occurred in the woman's home. Among these, only 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%–2.0%) were estimated to have taken place in WATSAN-safe conditions. 74% of all health facilities conducted deliveries. Among these, only 44% of facilities overall and 24% of facility delivery rooms were WATSAN-safe. Combining the estimates, we showed that 30.5% of all births in Tanzania took place in a WATSAN-safe environment (range of uncertainty 25%–42%). Large wealth-based inequalities existed in the proportion of births occurring in domestic environments based on wealth quintile and geographical zone. Conclusion Existing data sources can be useful in national monitoring and prioritisation of interventions to improve poor WATSAN environments during childbirth. However, a better conceptual understanding of potentially harmful exposures and better data are needed in order to devise and apply more empirical definitions of WATSAN-safe environments, both at home and in facilities. PMID:25191753

Benova, Lenka; Cumming, Oliver; Gordon, Bruce A.; Magoma, Moke; Campbell, Oona M. R.

2014-01-01

194

Method of processing water-containing radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To asphalt-solidify water-containing radioactive wastes with use of a compact device and by a simple operation. Method: A drum accommodating therein an asphalt solidified body is mounted on a holder in a heater provided with measuring and vibrating means, and a water-containing radioactive waste inlet pipe, a molten asphalt inlet pipe and a vapor exhaust pipe are connected to said drum. In said drum accommodated are molten asphalts and water-containing radioactive wastes after directly measuring the quantities thereof, and these materials are mixed, heated and evaporated while horizontally rolling the holder. (Aizawa, K.)

195

Analysis of assembly serial number usage in domestic light-water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Domestic light-water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies are identified by a serial number that is placed on each assembly. These serial numbers are used as identifiers throughout the life of the fuel. The uniqueness of assembly serial numbers is important in determining their effectiveness as unambiguous identifiers. The purpose of this study is to determine what serial numbering schemes are used, the effectiveness of these schemes, and to quantify how many duplicate serial numbers occur on domestic LWR fuel assemblies. The serial numbering scheme adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ensures uniqueness of assembly serial numbers. The latest numbering scheme adopted by General Electric (GE), was also found to be unique. Analysis of 70,971 fuel assembly serial numbers from permanently discharged fuel identified 11,948 serial number duplicates. Three duplicate serial numbers were found when analysis focused on duplication within the individual fuel inventory at each reactor site, but these were traced back to data entry errors and will be corrected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). There were also three instances where the serial numbers used to identify assemblies used for hot cell studies differed from the serial numbers reported to the EIA. It is recommended that fuel fabricators and utilities adhere to the ANSI serial numbering scheme to ensure serial number uniqueness. In addition, organizations collecting serial number information, should request that all known serial numbers physically attached or associated with each assembly be reported and identified by the corresponding number scheme. 10 refs., 5 tabs

196

NORTH PORTAL - DOMESTIC COLD WATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY NO.5008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for domestic cold water and to size the supply main piping for the Change House Facility No.5008 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2). The method used for the calculations is based on the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC), Section 4.4.1. The first step is to determine the maximum pressure drop between the most remote cold water plumbing fixture and the main distribution supply. The developed length of pipe from the supply to the fixture is then determined from the plumbing drawings. The maximum pressure drop is then divided by the developed length which results in the friction loss per 100 feet of pipe. Equivalent fixture units are assigned from the UPC based on the actual fixture count which when totaled determines the water flow rate. The water flow rate and pressure drop are used to determine the pipe size based on a given velocity of flow

197

Utilization of phase change materials in solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal energy storage systems which keep warm and cold water separated by means of gravitational stratification have been found to be attractive in low and medium temperature thermal storage applications due to their simplicity and low cost. This effect is known as thermal stratification, and has been studied experimentally thoughtfully. This system stores sensible heat in water for short term applications. Adding PCM (phase change material) modules at the top of the water tank would give the system a higher storage density and compensate heat loss in the top layer because of the latent heat of PCM. Tests were performed under real operating conditions in a complete solar heating system that was constructed at the University of Lleida, Spain. In this work, new PCM-graphite compounds with optimized thermal properties were used, such as 80:20 weight percent ratio mixtures of paraffin and stearic acid (PS), paraffin and palmitic acid (PP), and stearic acid and myristic acid (SM). The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) tank used in the experiments had a 150 L water capacity. Three modules with a cylindrical geometry with an outer diameter of 0.176 m and a height of 0.315 m were used. In the cooling experiments, the average tank water temperature dropped below the PCM melting temperature range in about 6-12 h. During reheating experiments, the PCM could increase the temperature of 14-36 L of water at the upper part of the SDHW tank by 3-4 C. This effect took place in 10-15 min. It can be concluded that PS gave the best results for thermal performance enhancement of the SDHW tank (74% efficiency). (author)

Mazman, Muhsin; Evliya, Hunay; Paksoy, Halime Oe. [Chemistry Dept., Art and Science Fac., Cukurova University, Balcali, Adana (Turkey); Cabeza, Luisa F.; Nogues, Miquel [Dept. Informatica i Eng. Industrial, Universitat de Lleida, Jaume II 69, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Mehling, Harald [ZAE Bayern, Division 1, Walther-Meissner-Str. 6, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2009-06-15

198

Occurrence of male-specific bacteriophage in feral and domestic animal wastes, human feces, and human-associated wastewaters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male-specific bacteriophage (MSB) densities were determined in animal and human fecal wastes to assess their potential impact on aquatic environments. Fecal samples (1,031) from cattle, chickens, dairy cows, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, hogs, horses, seagulls, sheep, and humans as well as 64 sewerage samples were examined for MSB. All animal species were found to harbor MSB, although the great majority excreted these viruses at very low levels. The results from this study demonstrate that in areas affected by both human and animal wastes, wastewater treatment plants are the principal contributors of MSB to fresh, estuarine, and marine waters. PMID:9835602

Calci, K R; Burkhardt, W; Watkins, W D; Rippey, S R

1998-12-01

199

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Reuses Water to Reduce Waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By reducing a hazardous waste stream, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is avoiding almost $100K in expenses annually. Hazardous waste water that previously was costly to dispose of is now being reused, thanks to a closed-loop system of pumps, settling tanks, and filters.

200

A decade of successful domestic sea transports of radioactive waste in Sweden 1982-1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today the transports of radioactive waste in Sweden are done on routine basis without any negative publicity. An important contribution to this fact is probably the very good performance of the transport system and the receiving facilities. Since the start of operation of the transport system no accidents have occurred. Almost 1600 tonnes of spent fuel and 10,000 m3 of radioactive waste have been transported. The capacity and availability of the ship and of the transport system as a whole is large enough to cover all needs for transports of radioactive material in Sweden, at least up to the turn of this century. (J.P.N.)

201

ADVERSE IMPACTS OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT ­ A CASE STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial metal plating processes coat materials with metals, such as chromium, copper and nickel. After the plating process, excess metals are rinsed off and the rinse water is collected and then treated to remove metals prior to discharge of the rinse water into rivers. This waste water is typica...

202

Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance  

Science.gov (United States)

Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

2010-01-01

203

Heavy metals in the waste and in the water discharge area of municipal solid waste  

OpenAIRE

The county of Paranaguá discards 80 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) daily in the Embocuí landfill without proper treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the concentration of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in the dump area and to compare it with reference values for soil and water quality stipulated by CETESB (2005). The methodology of the study involved the collection of waste samples (organic waste mixed with soil) from a depth of 1 m deep ...

Luiz Ermindo Cavallet; Sebastião Garcia de Carvalho; Paulo Fortes Neto

2013-01-01

204

Process for decontamination of radioactively contaminated waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The waste water with solid particles, excreta, finely dispersed and dissolved materials from nuclear medicine therapy and diagnosis (radioiodine) is subjected to mechanical/biological cleaning and then precipitation, flocculation or adsorption. Very fine filters retain the eddied contents. (DG)

205

MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

206

Economic aspects of radiation treatment of waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Charges for waste water treatment by radiation using 60Co and 137Cs are calculated. The calculations consider doses necessary for treatment, the frequency of radiation source replenishment and the price of radionuclides. (author)

207

The determinants of domestic water demand. Empirical evidence from Emilia-Romagna municipal data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents empirical evidence on the determinants of water demand for domestic use in one Italian region, the Emilia Romagna, by using municipal data. Two main stems in urban/domestic demand analysis cab be found in the empirical literature. The first deals with the estimation of price or income demand elasticities in the short and the long run. The price demand elasticities can be used for water demand managements purpose while the income price elasticities can be useful in the forecasting process of the water requirements. The second one deals with the estimate of customer willingness to pay increasing in water service quality in holistic sense or concerning single characteristics of the service: safety, flavour, continuity, appearance, pollution rate and cost. The aim of the analysis in this case the elicitation of the direct use, indirect use and non-use values associated to the water resource consumption, by means of direct or indirect techniques. In this paper we focused the analysis in the first stem of the empirical literature in which a cross section data set is required. The paper explores the topic problems of the estimating process whit the analysis of the empirical literature (with particular regard to investigations that use municipal data) and with the analysis of the econometric problems related to the demand estimate. The theoretical model for the water demand analysis is also presented and discussed. Two datasets have been implemented: one w Two datasets have been implemented: one with 125 municipalities and four years, the other with 40 municipalities and eleven years. Both the databases bring together municipal water consumption and tariffs data provided by local water utilities and other municipal data (inhabitants, surface, household, income, etc.) stemming from official sources. The econometric analysis is based on both fixed effects, performing better than random effects models, and dynamic panel models. The estimated coefficient of the tariff variable arises always significant and with negative sign: the water demand price elasticity is negative with a value between -0.88 and -1.11, but not significantly different from one, considering the different specifications. The results for the income variable are quite different: in the basic model specification the estimated coefficient is positive and significant while the introduction of the other socio-economic variables change the significance level and sometimes the sign. This applied study is an important starting point for the Italian environment, which lacks structured integrated datasets and consequently reliable estimates on elasticities concerning micro-economic oriented water demand studies. However, further analyses with more municipalities and more years have to be carried out to generalise and made results more robust, since the estimation of price elasticity and the investigation on the determinants of water demand is necessary information for both private and private-public management of water resources

208

Irradiation as an alternative for disinfection of domestic waste in the Canadian Arctic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of various methods for disinfecting wastewater in the Canadian Arctic with specific reference to gamma radiation. More conventional disinfection practices, such as chlorination, chlorination-dechlorination, and ozonation were compared to gamma radiation along with ultraviolet irradiation and lime disinfection. The quality of lagoon effluent, highly diluted (weak) sewage, holding tank wastes and honey-bag wastes, which are the typical waste types found in northern communities, was established from data available in the literature. Further literature reviews were undertaken to establish a data base for design and effectiveness of disinfection systems operated in cold climates. Capital and operating costs for all technically feasible disinfection process alternates were estimated based on historical cost data adjusted to 1977 for the construction and instalation of similar systems in the north. The costs of equipment, chemicals, fuel and electrical power were obtained from suppliers. The environmental impact of each of the disinfection processes was reviewed with emphasis on gamma irradiation. Safety and health aspects were also considered. The study concluded that gamma irradiation was capable of providing safe, reliable disinfection for concentrated honey-bag and holding wastes. Pilot-scale testing was recommended prior to construction of full-scale disinfection facilities. For lagoon effluents and weak sewage, gamma irradiation was not cost competitive with other alternates; rather chlorination-dechlorination was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternative

209

Production of biomass products from domestic waste; Herstellung erweiterter Biomasse aus Siedlungsabfaellen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the recovery of renewable energy sources from household refuse, the waste management industry can make a significant contribution to the reduction of climate-relevant emissions. [German] Die Abfallwirtschaft kann zur Begrenzung klimawirksamer Emissionen einen entscheidenden Beitrag leisten, da im Siedlungsabfall ein nennenswerter Anteil an regenerativen Energietraegern enthalten ist. (orig.)

Wengenroth, K. [Herhof Umwelttechnik GmbH, Solms-Niederbiel (Germany)

2003-07-01

210

Development of a household waste treatment subsystem, volume 1. [with water conservation features  

Science.gov (United States)

The domestic waste treatment subsystem was developed to process the daily liquid and non-metallic solid wastes provided by a family of four people. The subsystem was designed to be connected to the sewer line of a household which contained water conservation features. The system consisted of an evaporation technique to separate liquids from solids, an incineration technique for solids reduction, and a catalytic oxidizer for eliminating noxious gases from evaporation and incineration processes. All wastes were passed through a grinder which masticated the solids and deposited them in a settling tank. The liquids were transferred through a cleanable filter into a holding tank. From here the liquids were sprayed into an evaporator and a spray chamber where evaporation occurred. The resulting vapors were processed by catalytic oxidation. Water and latent energy were recovered in a combination evaporator/condenser heat exchanger. The solids were conveyed into an incinerator and reduced to ash while the incineration gases were passed through the catalytic oxidizer along with the processed water vapor.

Gresko, T. M.; Murray, R. W.

1973-01-01

211

Intensification of flotation separation of carbamide resins from waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High efficiency is indicated for flotation removal of emulsified carbamide resins from waste waters of fire-resistant materials production with the use of quaternary base chlorides containing in the alkyl part of the molecules from 10 to 16 carbon atoms. Introduction into the waste waters of small amounts (0.3-0.6 mg/L) of the indicated surfactants made it possible to get separation of 99.0-99.2% of the dispersed phase of the emulsions.

Sviridoz, V.V.; Domracheva, S.S.; Kokhlov, V.V.; Kokovkina, T.F.; Tagil' tseva, V.S.; Yaroslavtsev, N.S.

1981-01-01

212

Simultaneous Waste Water Purification via Photocatalysis and Seed Germination  

OpenAIRE

Preliminary results of our study related to simultaneous waste water purification by photocatalytic degradation of organic impurity (Methylene Blue dye) and its effects on seed germination are presented here. It is interesting and important to know that complete degradation of the dye occurs within 2 hours and does not adversely affect the seed germination process. It is concluded that waste water purification by photocatalysis and seed germination (agriculture) can be carried out simultaneou...

Sawant, Sadhana A.; Ajinkya Nene; Somani, Savita P.; Omanwar, Shreeniwas K.; Somani, Prakash R.

2013-01-01

213

Simultaneous Waste Water Purification via Photocatalysis and Seed Germination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preliminary results of our study related to simultaneous waste water purification by photocatalytic degradation of organic impurity (Methylene Blue dye and its effects on seed germination are presented here. It is interesting and important to know that complete degradation of the dye occurs within 2 hours and does not adversely affect the seed germination process. It is concluded that waste water purification by photocatalysis and seed germination (agriculture can be carried out simultaneously, opening a way for advanced agriculture.

Sadhana A. Sawant

2013-07-01

214

Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

Alexandria K. Graves

2011-11-01

215

Low Temperature District Heating Consumer Unit with Micro Heat Pump for Domestic Hot Water Preparation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present and analyse the feasibility of a district heating (DH) consumer unit with micro heat pump for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a low temperature (40 °C) DH network. We propose a micro booster heat pump of high efficiency (COP equal to 5,3) in a consumer DH unit in order to boost the temperature of the district heating water for heating the DHW. The paper presents the main designs of the suggested system and different alternative micro booster heat pump concepts. Energy efficiency and thermodynamic performance of these concepts are calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system has the highest efficiency. Furthermore, we compare thermodynamic and economic performance of the suggested heat pump-based concept with different solutions, using electric water heater. The micro booster heat pump system has the highest annualised investment (390 EUR/year) and the lowest operation (320 EUR/year) expenditures. Electric heater-based concepts consume 5-14 times more electricity, which leads to relatively high annual operation costs (530-970 EUR/year); while investment costs are lower (326-76 EUR/year). The suggested DHW heat pump-based system is cost-efficient for private consumers already today. Furthermore, application of the micro booster heat pump in low energy houses complies with the energy consumption requirements, set by the recent Danish Building Regulations. The use of electrical heater variants would exceed this limit.

Zvingilaite, Erika; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

2012-01-01

216

Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25?1?C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

Ghada I. MAHMOUD

2012-02-01

217

Biological treatment of cokery waste water. Phase 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop a biotechnological process for the treatment of cokery waste water a two stage bioreactor system of each 800 l volume was designed, built up and proven for its efficiency by treating process water of two different origins. A third type of cokery waste water was treated in a lab scale bioreactor. The bacterial culture used for the process consists of a basic population for the degradation of phenol and cresols. Additionally several special strains isolated for their ability to degrade polymethylated phenols, quinoline and thiocyanate were supplemented to obtain an effective mineralization of these compounds. The successful integration of these bacterial specialists could be confirmed by detection of the respective metabolic activities (e.g. pathway-specific enzyme) in the activated sludge. -In addition to chemical analyses of the waste waters before and after biological treatment a toxicological method based on bacterial bio-luminescence inhibition was applied to characterize the clean up. - The results obtained for the DMT-process reveal that independently from the constitution of the waste water a hydraulic retention time of 6 hours for phenol degradation and 12 hours for thiocyanate degradation is necessary. So thiocyanate degradation is the rate limiting step in the process. The degree of DOC removal resulted in 80 to 90%. The degradation capacities vary from 0,3 to 2,7 kg DOC/m3 d depending on the type of waste water used for the tren the type of waste water used for the treatment. In each case biological treatment of the waste water led to a strong reduction of water toxicity. - A feasibility study, based on the results obtained from pilot plant operation, revealed specific costs of 3 DM per kg DOC removal for a commercial plant with a capacity of 10 m3/h. (orig.). 13 refs., 13 tabs., 58 figs

218

Waste management in light-water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important objectives of concentrate and solid waste treatment are reduction of the waste to the smallest volume, radioactive exposure of the personnel of the power plants and outside for operation, handling and transportation, protection against migration of the concentrated radioactive substances after final disposal and observance of shipping requirements, national laws and ministerial waste storage regulations. A variety of technologies is available for the realization of these objectives. Important parameters for the selection and design of concentrate and solid waste treatment processes are waste type, quantity, activity, means for immobilization and the achievable reduction factors. The most important technologies for the treatment of liquid concentrates, combustible and non-combustible solid waste are available for example: In-Drum-Drying, Borate-Solidification (PWR), Drum Drier, Residue Filter Drying, Bituminization, Solidification with cement, Incineration, Shredding, Compacting etc. and of course combinations of the various mentioned procedures which result in the best possible waste disposal for the entire power plant. (orig./RW)

219

Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ? model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperaturunt of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

220

Waste disposal from the light water reactor fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alternative nuclear fuel cycles for support of light water reactors are described and wastes containing naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactivity reviewed. General principles and objectives in radioactive waste management are outlined, and methods for their practical application to fuel cycle wastes discussed. The paper concentrates upon management of wastes from upgrading processes of uranium hexafluoride manufacture and uranium enrichment, and, to a lesser extent, nuclear power reactor wastes. Some estimates of radiological dose commitments and health effects from nuclear power and fuel cycle wastes have been made for US conditions. These indicate that the major part of the radiological dose arises from uranium mining and milling, operation of nuclear reactors, and spent fuel reprocessing. However, the total dose from the fuel cycle is estimated to be only a small fraction of that from natural background radiation

221

Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system

222

Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system.

MAY, T.H.

2000-02-08

223

226Ra adsorption on active coals from waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the mining and extraction of uranium, the principle means of protection measurement is to prevent uranium and its products diffusing into the environment. The main carriers of radioactive elements in the environment are air and water. Therefore, reduction of the pollution at a uranium mine can be achieved by the treatment of waste waters contaminated with 226Ra Radium contaminated waste waters represent a major biological risk. This paper presents the results of the study of the sorption of 226Ra on active coal mechanisme and the influence of the physical and chemical characteristics of fluid. The 226Ra removal from the residue pond water at the uranium ore processing plant was studied using eight types of indigenous active coals. The experimental results for each type of active coal and their effect on removal of 226Ra from waste waters are presented in this paper. (author)

224

Smart solar domestic hot water systems. Development and test; Intelligente solvarmeanlaeg. Udvikling og afproevning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the project described in this report is to develop and test smart solar domestic hot water systems (SDHW systems) where the energy supply from the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a flexible way fitted to the hot water consumption in such a way, that the SDHW systems are suitable for large as well as small hot water demands. In a smart SDHW system the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a smart way. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the water in the hot water tank from the top and only the hot water volume needed by the consumers is heated. Further the water is heated immediately before tapping. The control system includes a number of temperature sensors which cover the temperatures in the auxiliary heated volume. Based on these temperatures the energy content in the hot water tank is calculated. Only water heated to a temperature above 50 deg. C contributes to the total energy content in the hot water tank. Furhter the control system includes a timer that only allows the auxiliary energy supply system to be active in certain time periods and only if the energy content in the hot water tank is lower than wanted. In this way the water in the tank is heated immediately before the expected time of tapping and only the hot water volume needed is heated. The report is divided into five main sections. The sections deals with: Developing and testing storage tanks, laboratory test of SDHW systems based on some of the developed storage tanks, validation of simulation programs for smart solar heating systems, optimisation of system design and control strategy and measurements on two smart SDHW systems installed in single family houses. In all the developed hot water tanks, attempt is made to heat the water in the tank from the top of the tank and not as in traditional tanks where the water is heated from the lowest level of the auxiliary energy supply system, normally a helix or a electrical heating element placed in the tank. It is very important that the water is heated from the top of the tank because only in this way, the size of the auxiliary volume can be controlled, which makes the SDHW system suitable for large as well as small hot water demands. The gain experience in one part of the project is immediately implemented in the following parts of the project. Therefore the design of some of the SDHW systems has been changed during the project. The expected advantages by using smart SDHW systems are: Reduced auxiliary energy use compared to the auxiliary energy use in a similar traditional SDHW system; Reduced heat loss compared to the heat loss in a similar traditional SDHW system; Really good thermal stratification and due to that, and the way the tank is heated, a higher collector performance; Reduced domestic water volume in the tank compared to traditional SDHW systems and therefore a reduced risk of legionella. Based on the results in the project it can be concluded that: A smart SDHW system has a lower auxiliary energy consumption than a similar traditional SDHW system; A smart SDHW system has a reduced heat loss from the hot water tank compared to the tank heat loss for a similar traditional SDHW system because the top of the hot water tank is not constantly heated to a high temperature level; It is possible to build up a good thermal stratification both for large and for small auxiliary heated volumes where the water is heated from the top of the tank; The simulation programs, which are developed in the project, are suitable as tools for system design and analysis for smart SDHW systems; A consumer that buys a smart SDHW system must be willing to take action part in the control of the system, because the thermal performance of the system strongly depends on the correct control parameters. (au)

Andersen, E.; Knudsen, S.; Furbo, S.; Vejen, N.K.

2001-07-01

225

From the tap to the mouth, drinking water quality in the domestic context in Khartoum, Sudan  

Science.gov (United States)

The city of Khartoum experienced a rapid growth and an urban spread towards its periphery that has become denser than the centre. Urban planning was unable to follow the pace of demographic growth (5.5 million inhabitants in 2008), and the establishment of a decent drinking water network is slow. The population is incited to be independent from quantitative variations by storing drinking water, because of water turbidity, many cuts, and pressure decreases. These bad habits of storage, the lack of efficiency of treatment, and the absence of collective supply network maintenance, are responsible for a significant decrease in the physical and biological water quality. The result is a development of water-borne diseases (generally diarrheal symptoms and kidney diseases). Our study aimed at measuring the changes of water quality in these storage recipients, so as to evaluate the possible risks on people health. It demonstrated that the distinction made between quantity and quality in the institutional management of drinking water in Khartoum is a dead-end. It also suggested that treatment would be more efficient and water would have better quality if smaller quantity of drinking water was produced and the amount of wasted water was reduced. Storage is a worsening factor of bacteriological pollution. Then, contrary to what numerous researchers observed in other fieldworks, here the temperature does not limit the bacteriological development and bacteriology does not seem to be in connection with turbidity. Then water storage is an important problem for people's health, responsible for many diarrheal (bacteria) and kidney diseases (salinization). Nevertheless, conscientious of the quantitative deficiency, the Khartoum State Water Cooperation (in charge of water supply) tries to produce more water so as to avoid cuts. On the contrary, we think that the solution is in the maintenance of the infrastructure. Best network (30% of losses occur in the network) and better waterworks could provide better water without cuts, limiting the storage needs. This poster would present a part of our results financed by the French National Agency of Research (ANR) and published in: Lavie, E. and Hassan El Tayib N. (under press, 2013). Du robinet au consommateur : qualité de l'eau potable dans le contexte domestique de l'agglomération de Khartoum, Soudan. In Cybergeo, European journal of geography.

Lavie, Emilie; Hassan El-Tayib, Noha

2013-04-01

226

Exergetic optimisation of a PEM fuel cell for domestic hot water heater. Paper no. IGEC-1-022  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a 5kW PEM fuel cell including burner, steam reformer and water heater for domestic application has been considered. Water is used for cooling of fuel cell. Cold water is passed through cooling channel, warmed up and used for domestic water heating. To increase the efficiency, outlet steam of fuel cell is fed to reformer. The performance of the system is optimized by exergy analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics. Also, the effect of burner, fuel cell temperature and stoichiometric air fuel ratio are investigated. In this analysis, pressure loss in fuel cell and heat transfer of cooling channel are taken into account whereas, pressure loss in burner and reformer are neglected. Results show, to minimize the entropy generation, fuel cell temperature must be increased to maximize PEM fuel cell temperature which can be applied (373K). Also, burner, reformer temperature and stoichiometric air fuel ratio must be decreased to 900 K and ?=2. (author)

227

A study on migration of contaminants and effect on the groundwater system at the Gemencheh domestic waste disposal site, Negeri Sembilan using integrated nuclear, geophysical and hydrogeochemical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The domestic waste disposal site at Gemencheh, Negeri Sembilan has been in operation since 1981. Integration of three methods namely nuclear, geophysical and hydrogeochemical were used to study the migration and effects of contaminants on the groundwater system at this particular site. Nuclear method was used to determine groundwater system flow velocity that delineates the migration pattern of contaminant species in the groundwater system at the study area. The groundwater flow velocity is found to be heterogeneous and depend on hydraulic conductivity caused by soil permeability except in the low-lying downstream area where the flow velocity is found to be low and constant at 2.0 x 10-6 ms-1. However, the flow velocity increases to as high as 17.8 x 10-5 ms-1 during rainy season due to the influence of weather on hydraulic gradient. Weather condition also influences the flow direction, whereby during draught season, the groundwater flow direction at the middle of the study site moves from an area of high topography to the northeast and southeast of low topography areas. On the other hand, at the downstream the groundwater flows partially towards northeast and southeast whereas flow direction at the upstream is towards the east. A similar pattern was observed during rainy season in both upstream and downstream of the study site but at the middle, the flow is basically towards south-east with a side flow to the north-east andast with a side flow to the north-east and east direction. Geophysical method comprising geo electrical-imaging and electromagnetic transient techniques was used to determine the extent, depth and distribution of contamination in the groundwater system. This method shows that the most seriously contaminated areas at the middle and the downstream regions of the study site within the shallow depth of 3-6 metres. The distribution of the contaminants in groundwater is not widespread but confined within the study site only. Finally, hydrogeochemical method was used to determine the species concentration, rate and extent of contamination. This method shows that the species of chlorides, nitrates, iron, manganese, lead, mercury, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphates, chromium and cadmium originating from the leachate of domestic waste had contaminated the middle and the downstream regions of the study site. The concentration of these species is tens of times higher than the limits of the Drinking Water Quality 1984 as stipulated by the World Health Organisation except for ferum that had reached a value of 700 times higher. It can be concluded that the domestic waste dumped at the Gemencheh disposal site has seriously contaminated the groundwater. This work also shows that the integration of the three methods is useful because it was possible to compile a lot of data and information which were complete, detailed and extensive as well as able to provide a clear picture of the contaminants species, migration and distribution pattern of contamination as well as impact to groundwater quality at the study site. (author)

228

A generic method for projecting and valuing domestic water uses, application to the Mediterranean basin at the 2050 horizon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim is to be able to assess future domestic water demands in a region with heterogeneous levels of economic development. This work offers an original combination of a quantitative projection of demands (similar to WaterGAP methodology) and an estimation of the marginal benefit of water. This method is applicable to different levels of economic development and usable for large-scale hydroeconomic modelling. The global method consists in building demand functions taking into account the impact of both the price of water and the level of equipment, proxied by economic development, on domestic water demand. Our basis is a 3-blocks inverse demand function: the first block consists of essential water requirements for food and hygiene; the second block matches intermediate needs; and the last block corresponds to additional water consumption, such as outdoor uses, which are the least valued. The volume of the first block is fixed to match recommended basic water requirements from the literature, but we assume that the volume limits of blocks 2 and 3 depend on the level of household equipment and therefore evolve with the level of GDP per capita (structural change), with a saturation. For blocks 1 and 2 we determine the value of water from elasticity, price and quantity data from the literature, using the point-extension method. For block 3, we use a hypothetical zero-cost demand and maximal demand with actual water costs to linearly interpolate the inverse demand function. These functions are calibrated on the 24 countries part of the Mediterranean basin using data from SIMEDD, and are used for the projection and valuation of domestic water demands at the 2050 horizon. They enable to project total water demand, and also the respective shares of the different categories of demand (basic demand, intermediate demand and additional uses). These projections are performed under different combined scenarios of population, GDP and water costs.

Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice

2014-05-01

229

Household demand for energy, water and the collection of waste. A microeconometric analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis focuses on the effectiveness and efficiency of economic incentives with respect to the household demand for energy, water and the collection of household waste. In particular, we are primarily interested in the price and income responses of households with respect to the energy and water consumption as well as the household waste production. Chapter 2 reviews the historical trends of the natural gas, electricity and water consumption and their determinants - in particular prices - in the Netherlands. The historical perspective covers the period 1950 - 1990. The development of prices has several aspects such as nominal versus real prices, pricing schedules and the price per unit of consumer durable services.' In addition, we present the penetration rates of household appliances. Furthermore, we review the development in household waste collection and taxes paid by households for the collection of household waste. Finally, we make a small side step and evaluate car ownership and usage. Chapter 3 analyzes two issues with respect to consumer durables: first, we analyze the effect of energy and water use on the purchase price of domestic appliances empirically, and secondly, we analyze the effect of subsidies on high-efficiency versions on the consumer decision and consequently on the penetration rate theoretically. As to the first issue, we estimate hedonic regressions equations for purchase prices, energy use and water use with data on four domestic appliances. As to the second issue, the purchase of an appliance has implications for future consumption. Therefore, the purchase decision is analyzed with an intertemporal choice model including the time preference of consumers measured by subjective discount rates. We build a general framework in which a consumer can choose between a low-efficiency version and a high-efficiency version. The latter version requires less energy, produces similar services, and has a higher purchase price; see Kooreman and Steerneman (1998). The model describes the consumer decision and in addition it generates a penetration rate. The government is assumed to maximize the penetration rate by providing a subsidy which affects the consumer decision and consequently the penetration rate. Two subsidy regimes - a continuous subsidy and an instantaneous subsidy - are analyzed and compared on the basis of the penetration rate. We also consider the introduction of an energy tax to finance the subsidy. Chapter 4 analyses the price and income effects of the household demand for energy and water conditional on the durable stock. We estimate reduced- from demand equations with a pooled sample of the Netherlands Consumer Expenditure Surveys (DBO) 1978 - 1994. This approach is similar to Baker et al. (1989) and Booii et al. (1992). In the case of the demand for electricity we explicitly include the consumer choice between a single electricity rate and a two-part electricity rate. As a result, the demand for electricity is described by a switching regression model which is estimated with the Heckman's two-step estimation procedure. We calculate price and income elasticities for different types of households. Since we have a sample of pooled cross-sections, we can only analyze short-run effects assuming that the consumer durable stock is fixed. Chapter 5 analyzes the effectiveness of a particular pricing regime: weight- based pricing in the collection of household waste. With a panel data set of households in the Dutch municipality Oostzaan we estimate reduced-form demand equations for household waste collection following the work of Fullerton and Kinnaman (1996). We extend their work in three ways. First, we distinguish two types of waste which axe collected at the curb, compostable waste and non-recyclable waste. Secondly, since we use panel data, the specifications include household-specific fixed effects absorbing unobserved heterogenous effects. Finally, since we observe households up to 42 points in time, we include a lagged dependent variable in the specification to determine, in addi

Linderhof, V.G.M.

2001-05-17

230

Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs

231

Effectiveness of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Using a Bio-Hedge Water Hyacinth Wetland System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available onstructed wetland applications have been limited by a large land requirement and capital investment. This study aimed to improve a shallow pond water hyacinth system by incorporating the advantages of engineered attached microbial growth technique (termed Bio-hedge for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. A laboratory scale continuous-flow system consists of the mesh type matrix providing an additional biofilm surface area of 54 m2/m3. Following one year of experimentation, the process showed more stability and enhanced performance in removing organic matter and nutrients, compared to traditional water hyacinth (by lowering 33%–67% HRT and facultative (by lowering 92%–96% HRT ponds. The wastewater exposed plants revealed a relative growth rate of 1.15% per day, and no anatomical deformities were observed. Plant nutrient level averaged 27 ± 1.7 and 44 ± 2.3 mg N/g dry weight, and 5 ± 1.4 & 9±1.2 mg P/g dry weight in roots and shoots, respectively. Microorganisms immobilized on Bio-hedge media (4.06 × 107 cfu/cm2 and plant roots (3.12 × 104 cfu/cm were isolated and identified (a total of 23 strains. The capital cost was pre-estimated for 1 m3/d wastewater at 78 US$/m3inflow and 465 US$/kg BOD5 removed. This process is a suitable ecotechnology due to improved biofilm formation, reduced footprint, energy savings, and increased quality effluent.

Alireza Valipour

2015-01-01

232

High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

Dayan, M.

1997-12-31

233

Improving thermosyphon solar domestic hot water system model performance. Final report, March 1994--February 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data from an indoor solar simulator experimental performance test is used to develop a systematic calibration procedure for a computer model of a thermosyphoning, solar domestic hot water heating system with a tank-in-tank heat exchanger. Calibration is performed using an indoor test with a simulated solar collector to adjust heat transfer in the heat exchanger and heat transfer between adjacent layers of water in the storage tank. An outdoor test is used to calibrate the calculation of the friction drop in the closed collector loop. Additional indoor data with forced flow in the annulus of the heat exchanger leads to improved heat transfer correlations for the inside and outside regions of the tank-in-tank heat exchanger. The calibrated simulation model is compared to several additional outdoor tests both with and without auxiliary heating. Integrated draw energies are predicted with greater accuracy and draw temperature profiles match experimental results to a better degree. Auxiliary energy input predictions improve significantly. 63 figs., 29 tabs.

Swift, T.N.

1996-09-01

234

The potential of Zea mays, Commelina bengelensis, Helianthus annuus and Amaranthus hybridus for phytoremediation of waste water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Waste-water from domestic use and from industrial effluent burden the water systems with high levels of heavy metal hence there is need to remove these heavy metals so that the waste water can be recycled for use for household or irrigation. The present study has screened Zea mays (maize, Commelina bengelensis (wondering jew, Helianthus annuus (sunflower and Amaranthus hybridus (amaranthus for their ability to bioaccumulate Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn metals. The results obtained show that the H. annuus and C. bengelensis plant have promising potential for removal of Pb, Cu and Cd from wastewater though their ability to remove Zn from contaminated solutions is not much different from that of Z. mays and A. hybridus.

Chacha Joseph Sarima

2012-12-01

235

Phenols biodegradation in waste waters from petroleum industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Practical methods to isolate, adapt and propagate phenol biodegradation microorganisms were established. Fifteen different microorganism group were obtained, capable of eliminating phenol contained in production water, sour water and waste water from Barrancabermeja's Refinery (Colombia), and dehydration water from heavy oil-in-water emulsions. Elimination efficiencies higher than 95% in periods of time shorter than 24 hour were achieved at laboratory and pilot plant scales. A continuos system using this technology was successfully implemented in April 1994, for the treatment of waste water from Colombia's biggest refinery. Existing stabilizing pools were converted into bioreactors capable of handling water flow rates between 16.000 to 32.000 m3/d. Efficiencies close to 95% have obtained under controlled acidity, aeration and flow rate conditions. This technology is being implemented in other Ecopetrol refineries and production fields

236

Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilise soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As.

237

Potential Impacts of Organic Wastes on Small Stream Water Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO) and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River (SFBR) watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. The subwatersheds were chosen to reflect a range of land uses including forested, pasture, mixed, and developed. The SFBR watershed is heavily impacted by organic wastes, primarily from its large poultry industry, but also from its rapidly growing human population. The poultry litter is primarily disposed of by application to pastures. Our monthly monitoring results showed a strong inverse relationship between mean DOC and mean DO and suggested that concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), DOC, and the trace gases nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide are impacted by organic wastes and/or nutrients from animal manure applied to the land and/or human wastes from wastewater treatment plants or septic tanks in these watersheds. Here we estimate the organic waste loads of these watersheds and evaluate the impact of organic wastes on stream DOC and alkalinity concentrations, electrical conductivity, sediment potential denitrification rate and plant stable nitrogen isotope ratios. All of these water quality parameters are significantly correlated with watershed waste loading. DOC is most strongly correlated with total watershed waste loading whereas conductivity, alkalinity, potential denitrification rate and plant stable nitrogen isotope ratio are most strongly correlated with watershed human waste loading. These results suggest that more direct inputs (e.g., wastewater treatment plant effluents, near-stream septic tanks) have a greater relative impact on stream water quality than more dispersed inputs (land applied poultry litter, septic tanks far from streams) in the SFBR watershed. Conductivity, which is generally elevated in organic wastes, is also significantly correlated with total watershed waste loading suggesting it may be a useful indicator of overall watershed waste loading. Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

Kaushal, S. S.; Groffman, P. M.; Findlay, S. E.; Fischer, D. T.; Burke, R. A.; Molinero, J.

2005-05-01

238

Improvement in, or relating to, waste-waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention relates to a method for eliminating impurities consisting of fluorides, ammonia and uranium traces from waste waters. That method eliminates fluorides through precipitating alkaline earth fluoride, ammonia through evaporation and the excess alkaline earth metal through passing over an ion exchange resin. The water resulting from such a treatment contains but uranium traces and is suitable for re-cycling. The method can be applied to the treatment of waste waters resulting from the preparation of ammonium di-uranate from uranium hexafluoride

239

Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

1989-01-01

240

Factors influencing induced air flotation of oily waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The air flotation of an emulsion of natural crude oil in water was studied to determine the factors that influence polyelectrolyte flotation aid performance. The polyelectrolytes used were commercial TFL 383 and its experimental analog C-20, both polymeric tertiary amines of the same molecular weight which differed only in degree of quaternization and therefore, in charge density. Polyelectrolyte-induced acceleration of oily waste water clarification, a first-order process, increased with ionic strength to a maximum of about 40-fold at ionic strengths that encouraged polyelectrolyte precipitation. The selection of flotation aids with consideration of the ionic strength of the waste water, or possible adjustment of the ionic strength of the waste water, are discussed.

Burkhardt, C.W.; Janes, J.V.; Griffiths, D.W.

1978-02-26

241

A Study of Waste Water Treatment of Microbiological Laboratories of Hospitals by Electrolyzed Oxidized Water  

OpenAIRE

Hospital liquid infectious waste is one of the most important aspects of water contamination. The presentinvestigation was undertaken to evolve a cost effective alternate method of waste water treatment by usingOxidized Water as a disinfectant for hospital effluents. Liquid infectious waste coming from diagnosticlaboratories of hospitals (Urine, Blood and Mix of both) was treated with electrolyzed Oxidized Water. Differentv/v ratios (95:5, 85:15, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75) of Sample to Electroly...

Fiza Sarwar; Aroos Munir; Ilyas Ahmed Faridi

2011-01-01

242

Analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The object of this study was dynamic modeling, simulation and optimum design of solar DHW (domestic hot water) systems, with respect to different whether conditions, and accurate dynamic behaviour of the heat load. Special attention was paid to systems with thermosyphon and drain-back design. The solar radiation in Beijing (China) and in Denmark are analyzed both by theoretical calculations and the analysis of long-term measurements. Based on the weather data from the Beijing Meteorological Station during the period of 1981-1993, a Beijing Test Reference Year has been formulated by means of statistical analysis. A brief introduction about the Danish Test Reference Year and the Design Reference Year is also presented. In order to investigate the heat loss as a part of the total heat load, dynamic models for distribution networks have been developed, and simulations have been carried out for typically designed distribution networks of the circulation type. The influence of operation parameters such as the tank outlet temperature, the hot-water load and the load pattern, on the heat loss from the distribution networks in presented. It was found that the tank outlet temperature has a significant influence on the heat loss from a circulation type of distribution network, while the hot-water load and the load pattern have no obvious effect. Dynamic models of drain-back tanks, both as a separated tank and combined with a mantle tank, have been developed and presented. Models of the other basic components commonly used in solar DHW systems, such as flat-plate collectors, connection pipes, storage tanks with a heat exchanger spiral, and controllers, are also described. (LN) 66 refs.

Lin Qin

1998-12-31

243

Delevopment and use of a model for incinerators of oil spills and domestic waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments in flow models have been used to study various problems concerning incineration of contaminated matter. The basic philosophies are: (1) The fixed bed of burning material in most cases acts as a pyrolyzer, and combustion is completed in the space above the bed. (2) Regardless of existing knowledge of the mechanisms for formation of various air pollutants, the task of the incinerator is to maintain certain conditions regarding the distribution of temperature, residence, time, and concentration of oxidizing agents. The consequence of this is that many problems can be solved in an efficient and cost effective way using experiments in cold and hot models. Similarity criteria and experimental methods are discussed and illustrated by two case studies: finding remedies against fouling problems in an existing incinerating plant for municipal waste, and development of a mobile incinerator for oil-contaminated solid matter

244

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01

245

Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This manual provides test procedures approved for the monitoring of water supplies, waste discharges, and ambient waters, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, and Ambient Monitoring Requirements of Section 106 and 208 of Public Law 92-500. The test methods have been selected to meet the needs of federal legislation and to provide guidance to laboratories engaged in the protection of human health and the aquatic environment.

1979-03-01

246

Vitrification treatability studies of actual waste water treatment sludges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatability studies have been conducted at the laboratory-scale to evaluate vitrification of waste water sludges at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These studies are being conducted jointly by Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These studies include testing with surrogate waste formulations at both the laboratory-scale and pilot-scale, and testing with actual waste at the laboratory-scale, pilot-scale, and field-scale. ORR was chosen as the host site for the field-scale demonstration. The Y12 West End Treatment Facility (WETF) waste water treatment sludges, which are RCRA F-listed wastes, were chosen as the candidate waste stream for the first field-scale demonstration. The laboratory-scale ''proof-of-principle'' demonstrations reported in this study and the pilot-scale studies planned for FY95 on the WETF sludge will provide needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration. These laboratory-scale ''proof-of-principle'' and pilot-scale studies also provide needed data for the evaluation of the feasibility of vitrification as a stabilization option for a variety of wastes which do not currently meet RCRA/LDR (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Land Disposal Restrictions) requirements for storage/disposal and/or those for which treatment capacity does not presently exist

247

Outdoor test method to determine the thermal behavior of solar domestic water heating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of the market, the generation of new promotion programs, fiscal incentives and many other factors are to be considered for the massive application of solar domestic water heating systems (SDWHS) mainly of the compact thermosiphon type, makes it necessary to choose simple and inexpensive procedure tests that permit to know their characteristic thermal behaviors without an official standard being necessary. Moreover, it allows the comparison among systems and offers enough and reliable information to consumers and manufacturers. In most developing countries, an official national standard for SDWHS is not available, therefore it is necessary to adopt an international test procedure in which the cost and time of implementation is very important. In this work, a simple and inexpensive test method to determine the thermal behavior of SDWHS is proposed. Even though these procedure tests do not have an official standard structure they permit, by comparing different solar systems under identical solar, ambient, and initial conditions, the experimental determination of: (a) the maximum available volume of water for solar heating; (b) water temperature increment and available thermal energy at the end of the day; (c) temperature profiles (stratification) and the average temperature in the storage tank after it is homogenized; (d) the average global thermal efficiency; (e) water temperature decrement and energy lost overnight; and (f) the relationship between hot wat; and (f) the relationship between hot water volume and solar collector area as function of the average heating temperature. An additional proposed test permits to know the heat losses caused by the reverse flow in the collector loop. These tests will be carried out independently of the configuration between the solar collector and the storage tank, the way the fluid circulates and the type of thermal exchange. The results of this procedure test can be very useful, firstly, for the local solar manufacturers' equipment in order to design and optimize its products comparing their systems against a reference system under identical test conditions and secondly, by the consumers in order to select the most suitable system. The resulting experimental data for a particular thermosiphon system is presented and discussed. (author)

248

The Fundamentals of Waste Water Sludge Characterization and Filtration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The move to greater emphasis on the disposal of waste water sludges through routes such as incineration and the added cost of landfill emplacement puts high demands on dewatering technology for these sludges. A dear problem in this area is that waste water sludges are slow and difficult to dewater and traditional methods of laboratory measurement for prediction of filtration performance are inadequate. This is highly problematic for the design and operational optimisation of centrifuges, filters and settling devices in the waste water industry. The behaviour is assessed as being due to non-linear behaviour of these sludges which negates the use of classical approaches. These approaches utilise the linear portion of a t versus V{sup 2} plot (where t is the time to filtration and V is the specific filtrate volume) to extract a simple Darcian permeability. Without this parameter, a predictive capacity for dewatering using current theory is negated. (author)

Scales, Peter J.; Dixon, David R.; Harbour, Peter J.; Stickland, Anthony D.

2003-07-01

249

Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting  

Science.gov (United States)

As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

2012-04-01

250

APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING FIXED BED BIOFILM AND MEMBRAN BIOREACTOR FOR WATER REUSE IN URBAN HOUSING AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate application of water reuse technologies, with major emphasis of water reuse for non-potable applications in urban housing area. To study the systems performance, secondary treatment development at pilot scale has been studied to achieve desired water reuse quality. There were two systems applied for water reuse scheme using biofilter or fixed bed biofilm system for treating wastewater from Turangga’s flat in Bandung City and membrane bioreactor system for treating wastewater from anaerobic pond of Bojong Soang’s Wastewater Treatment Plant, Bandung City, West Java. The systems produce water quality meets water reuse for domestic purposes, such as toilet flushing, washing, garden irrigation, etc. In general, these applications show assessing a treatment process ability to produce water contains turbidity is less than 2 mgL-1 and BOD is less than 5 mgL-1. This paper concludes that treated wastewater is potential reuse for public/domestic purposes mainly for water scared urban area, which depends on characteristic of wastewater and the methods or degree of treatment required.

ELIS HASTUTI

2011-09-01

251

Impact of Persistent Degassing of Kilauea Volcano on Domestic Water Supplies  

Science.gov (United States)

In March, 2008, a small explosive eruption in the summit crater of Kilauea Volcano marked the initiation of a new, persistently degassing vent at Kilauea. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide initially exceeded 1000 tons per day but declined to a longer term rate of ~800 tons per day. Because of its location farther inland, the plume from this vent generated more severe and more frequent adverse air quality impacts on the surrounding and downwind communities than has the longer lived degassing vents at Pu'u O'o. Because many residents on Hawaii Island derive their domestic water supply from roof catchment systems, deposition of aerosols produced in the volcanic plume could pose a significant health threat to the community. In order to quantify that risk, a program of screening of water catchment systems was undertaken in three communities: Lower Puna, upwind of the vent; Volcano Village, immediately adjacent to the Kilauea summit; and Hawaiian Ocean View Estates, located ~65 km downwind from the vent. An aggregate of 439 samples were collected and analyzed for pH, and fluoride, chloride and sulfate ion concentrations; the median values and extrema are shown in Table I below. The pH values for the catchments proved not to be a good indicator of plume influence: the Volcano and Ocean View communities showed a bimodal distribution of values reflecting residents managing their water systems (median pH = 6.2 and 7.2 respectively) and those that didn't (median pH = 4.5 and 4.3 respectively); however, the lower extremes for pH gave values of 2.9 and 3.3 respectively. Chloride values were also variable due to the use of sodium hypochlorite to treat for biological contaminants. The median values for fluoride and sulfate show a progressive increase from the Puna catchments to Volcano and Ocean View. We believe that these values are consistent with the relative exposure of the communities to the volcanic plume: although the Volcano community is closer to the source, wind conditions conducive to exposure are infrequent whereas the more distant Ocean View community is exposed to a more dilute plume but at a much higher frequency. Even though the median values are within accepted limits for drinking water, the extreme values observed are cause for concern: the pH values are well below those recommended for drinking water and the fluoride values are approaching WHO recommended drinking water levels. With even modest increases in plume output or exposure times, some of the community catchment systems can accumulate sufficient acid or fluoride ion concentrations to pose a significant health threat if drinking water is drawn from those catchments. Continued monitoring of catchment water quality is recommended.Table I. Catchment Water Supply Analytical Results Concentrations in parts per million

Thomas, D. M.; Macomber, T.

2010-12-01

252

Viruses and ionizing radiation in respect to waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a short survey of viruses and the diseases they can cause in man the effects of ionizing radiation on viruses are discussed. Ionizing radiation inactivates viruses by direct and indirect effects, and it is well established that the radiosensitive target is the nucleic acid. Factors affecting the radiosensitivity are temperature and suspending medium. The possible influence of oxygen on viral radiosensitization remains unclear. For the effective application of radiation treatment on waste waters information is required concerning the concentration of viruses in waste waters in order that treatment doses may be determined. (orig.)

253

Treatment of radioactive wastes from pressurized water reactor operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of the treatment processes recently used for the various types of radioactive wastes from pressurized water reactors in nuclear power plants. The following topics are dealt with: purification and concentration processes applied to active waters, incorporation of the residues of these processes, treatment of dry solid wastes, retention and/or separation processes for radioactive gases and aerosols. The possibilities of application, technological concepts, and the practice in countries operating PWRs are pointed out. In conclusion, trends of the development are briefly mentioned. (author)

254

Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity < 2?S/cm) from sea water. The probability of the scale formation is practically eliminated by operating it at low temperature and controlling the brine concentration. It also does not require elaborate chemical pretreatment of sea water except chlorination, so it has no environmental impact. LTE technology has found major applications in nuclear reactors where large quantity of low quality waste heat is available to produce high quality desalted water for make up water requirement replacing conventional ion exchange process. Successful continuous operation of 30 Te/day LTE desalination plant utilizing waste heat from nuclear research reactor has demonstrated the safety, reliability, extreme plant availability areliability, extreme plant availability and economics of nuclear desalination by LTE technology. It is also proposed to utilize waste heat from Main Heat Transport (MHT) purification circuit of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) to produce about 250 Te/ day high quality desalinated water by Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) process for the reactor make up and plant utilization. Recently we have commissioned a 50 Te/day 2-effect low temperature desalination plant with cooling tower where the specific energy and cooling water requirement are significantly reduced. In this paper salient feature of LTE desalination plant, its applications and advantages are discussed. (author)

255

Isotopic Investigation of the Origin of Nitrate of Waters Outflowing from a Waste Deposit Site Near Scuol (Lower Engadine, South Eastern Switzerland)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Near the village of Scuol in the Lower Engadine Valley (South Eastern Switzerland) Sot Ruinas, a waste disposal site for domestic and construction refuse, has been in use since the 1960s. It is situated in the vicinity of the Inn River. Over the last years enhanced concentrations of ammonia were found in the outflow of this waste site. But the observed elevated ammonia concentrations could also be a result of natural origin, by inflows of mineral water as observed in the mineral springs of the area. These springs could have acquired their high ammonia content by water-rock interaction with adjacent ultramafic rocks. The isotope analyses were oriented towards the hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes on the ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen molecules. The effect of the waste on the outflowing water downstream could be proved by isotope ratios based on chemical processes of the nitrogen cycle and an influence of natural spring water was excluded. (author)

256

The DST method for solar domestic hot water systems - research and development for ISO and CEN standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dynamic system test (DST) method for performance characterisation of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems has been the subject of international research for a number of years. At present, several countries are using the method and it is being standardised on international and European levels. This paper describes the state-of-the-art of research on the DST method and the activities planned to bring it to the level of a fully validated, standardised test method. (orig.)

Visser, H.; Ree, B.G.C. van der [TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

257

Tracer studies on the removal of water endangering substances from municipal waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation deals with the behaviour of selected water endangering compounds and with possibilities of their holdback or elimination in water treatment plants. The investigations were carried out by use of 82Br-bromoxynil and sodium-32P-hydrogenphosphate in a pilot plant for the biological clarification of municipal waste waters. It is shown that only P > 10 mg P/l) from municipal waste water it was found that the phosphate concentration of the biologically cleaned water leaving the pilot plant is < 2 mg P/l. The pilot plant and details of the tracer experiments are described. (author)

258

Effect of ingredients in waste water on property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of ingredients in waste water on the property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment was studied by the method of static ad- sorption combined with dynamic experiment. The experimental result shows that the efficiency or breackthrough volume of resin is reduced if there are other general anions, triethanolamine and oil in the solution. When the concentrations of CO32-, HCO3-, SO32-, Cl- in the solution are more than 0.24, 0.28, 0.23 and 0.09 mol/L, respectively, the concentrations of uranium in the outlet waste water will exceed 20 ?g/L. The maximal allowable concentration of triethanolamine through the resin is no more than 250 mg/L. When the content of oil in the resin exceeds 1%(by quality), the breackthrough volume reduces by 16%, and when it exceeds 11%, the breackthrough volume almost loses at all. (authors)

259

Impact of Solid Waste Disposal on Ground Water Quality in Different Disposal Site at Jaipur, India  

OpenAIRE

This research paper here to present to examine the adverse effect of dumping of solid waste at disposal site on ground water quality at various disposal site at Jaipur city, India. This effect on ground water causes due to the unsystematic or unscientific dumping of solid waste. The water, which already presents in the waste, generates with the biodegradable waste or due to the infiltration of water by rainfall. This water which generates or occurs due to that process pours in...

Rahul Nandwana

2014-01-01

260

Monitoring the waste water of LEP  

CERN Document Server

Along the LEP sites CERN is discharging water of differing quality and varying amounts into the local rivers. This wastewater is not only process water from different cooling circuits but also water that infiltrates into the LEP tunnel. The quality of the discharged wastewater has to conform to the local environmental legislation of our Host States and therefore has to be monitored constantly. The most difficult aspect regarding the wastewater concerns LEP Point 8 owing to an infiltration of crude oil (petroleum), which is naturally contained in the soil along octant 7-8 of the LEP tunnel. This paper will give a short summary of the modifications made to the oil/water separation unit at LEP Point 8. The aim was to obtain a satisfactory oil/water separation and to install a monitoring system for a permanent measurement of the amount of hydrocarbons in the wastewater.

Rühl, I

1999-01-01

261

Waste water shows traces of radioactive substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sludge at sewage treatment plants has been found to contain radioactive substances originating in hospitals, nuclear weapon tests, the Chernobyl accident, the Finnish nuclear power plants and natural sources. Radioactive substances also enter sewers together with excretions after patients have left the hospital. Hospitals used to let the excretions of patients receiving the iodine 131 treatment into the sewer system only after the activity of the excretions had decreased. Today, excretions can be led into the sewer directly. Calculations have shown that hospital staff receive higher radiation doses when the waste is collected than sewage treatment plant staff receive when the radioactive iodine is led directly into the sewer

262

Methods of industrial waste water cleaning  

OpenAIRE

The issue of „acid mine water“ (or AMD) is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of the old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphateelimination at this locality. Recently, several methods of the sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are the biological and physical-chemical oness and the chemical precipitat...

Ján Brehuv; Tomislav Špaldon; Silvie Heviánková

2005-01-01

263

Waste water reuse as an alternative to the traditional water resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After e brief presentation of the most significant international projects carried out in order to quantify the risk of infection in waste water reuse for irrigation, this paper examines, in a critical way, the disinfection technologies which are available today

264

N-SINK - reduction of waste water nitrogen load  

Science.gov (United States)

Protection of the Baltic Sea from eutrophication is one of the key topics in the European Union environmental policy. One of the main anthropogenic sources of nitrogen (N) loading into Baltic Sea are waste water treatment plants, which are currently capable in removing only 40-70% of N. European commission has obliged Finland and other Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which would require high monetary investments on nitrate removal processes in treatment plants. In addition, forced denitrification in treatment plants would increase emissions of strong greenhouse gas N2O. In this project (LIFE12 FI/ENV/597 N-SINK) we will develop and demonstrate a novel economically feasible method for nitrogen removal using applied ecosystem services. As sediment is known to have enormous capacity to reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas through denitrification, we predict that spatial optimization of the waste water discharge would be an efficient way to reduce nitrate-based load in aquatic systems. A new sediment filtration approach, which will increase both the area and time that nitrified waste water will be in contact with the reducing microbes of the sediment, is tested. Compared to the currently implemented practice, where purified waste water is discharged though one-point outlet system, we expect that sediment filtration system will result in more efficient denitrification and decreased N load to aquatic system. We will conduct three full-scale demonstrations in the receiving water bodies of waste water treatment plants in Southern and Central Finland. The ecosystem effects of sediment filtration system will be monitored. Using the most advanced stable isotope techniques will allow us accurately measure denitrification and unfavoured DNRA (reduction of nitrite to ammonium) activity.

Aalto, Sanni; Tiirola, Marja; Arvola, Lauri; Huotari, Jussi; Tulonen, Tiina; Rissanen, Antti; Nykänen, Hannu

2014-05-01

265

STRATEGIES FOR WATER AND WASTE REDUCTION IN DAIRY FOOD PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was undertaken to reduce water and waste discharges in a complex, multiproduct dairy food plant through management control and modifications of equipment and processes. The objectives were to develop approaches that would be broadly applicable throughout the dairy industr...

266

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

267

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

268

Passive recovery : heat from domestic grey hot water; Recuperation passive : de la chaleur des eaux chaudes usees domestiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is estimated that annual consumption of domestic hot water is more than 1000 kWh per year per capita in an average household. A large part of this energy is lost down the drains in the form of heat contained in the grey hot water discharge. A variety of grey-water heat recovery systems have been developed in an effort to recuperate some of the energy used to produce hot water. This paper described some of these technologies. Most of the systems have a principal heat exchanger for transferring grey water and pre-heating cold water. Some of these systems have a reservoir for grey-water storage, while other systems have a reservoir seal filled with thermal fluid between the two flows. It was estimated that less than 40 per cent of residential hot water is used for showers. It was noted that there is room for improvement in hot water used for laundry, baths, and dishwashers. There are means of recuperating heat through internal gains in a building by using the natural cooling of pipes where there is exclusive drainage of tepid or hot grey-water. Passive heat recovery was presented as a simple alternative for households with a basement where the grey-water comes from higher levels of the house. More than 4.5 kWh per day can be recovered if 200 L per day of used hot water is rejected, simply by slowing the evacuation process. 1 tab., 3 figs.

Labrecque, R.; Laflamme, C.B. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Research Inst

2007-06-15

269

Lessons Learned for Construction and Waste Water Management at Radioactive Waste Closure Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental remediation of three different radioactive waste closure sites each required exhaustive characterization and evaluation of sampling and analytical information in resolving regulatory and technical issues that impact cleanup activities. One of the many regulatory and technical issues shared by all three and impacting the cleanup activities is the compliant management and discharge of waste waters generated and resulting from the remediation activities. Multiple options were available for each closure site in resolving waste water management challenges depending upon the base regulatory framework defined for the cleanup or closure of the site. These options are typically regulated by the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), with exemptions available under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) or Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between regulatory agencies. In general, all parties must demonstrate equivalent compliance when concerns related to the protection of the general public and the environment. As such, all options for management of waste water resulting from closure activities must demonstrate compliance to or equivalent actions under the CWA. The CWA provides for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) that is typically maintained by individual states through permitting process to generators, public utilities, and more receenerators, public utilities, and more recently, construction sites. Of the three sites, different compliance strategies were employed for each. The approach for the Columbus Closure Project (CCP) was to initiate full scale compliance to the Ohio EPA General Construction Permit No. OHC000002. The CCP provided Notice of Intent (NOI) to the Ohio EPA to discharge under the general permit according to the regulator approved Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan. For the second site, the Li Tungsten Superfund Site in Glen Cove, New York, the option was to manage and discharge waste water under a due diligence process to New York State General Permit No. GP-02-01. For the third site, the Middlesex Sampling Plant in Middlesex, New Jersey, the options was to manage and discharge waste water to the Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). Each option has resulted in a safe, cost-effective, and compliant approach to managing discharging waste waters from the site closure activities. (authors)

270

Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

2014-12-16

271

Methods of industrial waste water cleaning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of „acid mine water“ (or AMD is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of the old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphateelimination at this locality. Recently, several methods of the sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are the biological and physical-chemical oness and the chemical precipitation. The method described in this contribution deals with the chemical precipitation by polyaluminium chloride and calcium hydrate. By appliying of this method, very interesting results were obtained. The amount of SO42- anions decreased to almost zero-value, using optimal doses of the chemical reagents.

Ján Brehuv

2005-11-01

272

Employing Interim Water Management Barriers at Waste Disposal Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project Act (the Act) of 1980 authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to lead a high-level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the site of the former spent fuel reprocessing plant in West Valley, New York. The site is owned by the State of New York, through the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and its predecessor company, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), have been the prime contractors at the site since the beginning of the Project. One of the primary missions of the Act - demonstrating solidification techniques which can be used for preparing high-level liquid waste for disposal - was completed in 2002. Since that time, wide-scale decontamination and dismantlement activities to prepare for Project completion were begun and continue through present-day operations. Current site activities are focused on preparing and shipping Project wastes off-site for disposal, reducing the site's footprint by removing unneeded facilities, and managing the site in a safe configuration while a Draft Site Decommissioning Environmental Impact Statement is being prepared to evaluate alternatives for site closure and/or long-term stewardship. Remaining site facilities include the former nuclear fuel reprocessing facility building, an associated underground waste tank farm, and a 7-acre area that contains an inactive radioactive waste landfilains an inactive radioactive waste landfill. Major objectives for safe management of those facilities include protecting employees, the public, and the environment while reducing management costs and risks associated with those facilities. In 2007, DOE began preparations to install water control barriers to prevent clean ground and surface water from coming in contact with buried waste in the inactive Nuclear Regulatory Commission- licensed Disposal Area (NDA). Field work was initiated and completed in 2008. This paper discusses the history of the NDA, the rationale and construction experience in installing these barriers, and the expected results. (authors)

273

Olive oil waste waters: Controlled fermentation and materials recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land and water pollution due to waste water and oils deriving from the processing of olives to produce oil represents a serious environmental problem for Spain, Italy and Greece. This paper reports and discusses the results (time dependent enzyme activity) of performance tests on an innovative fermentation process to be used in olive oil waste water anaerobic digestion. An outline is then given of a demonstration depolymerization/materials recovery (including polyphenols, enzymes, etc.) process scheme based on the the tested fermentation method. The fermentation process tests involved the use of an albidus yeast in an Applikon bench scale experimental device. Process parameters were varied to determine optimum fermentation conditions. The European Communities sponsored one cubic meter/day demonstration plant utilizes a preliminary treatment process based on the use of gelatin, bentonite and polyclar.

Federici, F.; Montedoro, G.F.; Pozzi, V. (Tuscia Univ., Viterbo (Italy). Detp. di Agrobiologia e Agrochimica Perugia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Industrie Agrarie UNIECO s.c.r.l., Reggio Emilia (Italy))

274

The Effects of Industrial Wastes of Memphis and Shelby County on Primary Planktonic Producers  

Science.gov (United States)

Diversity and total numbers of plankton, particularly diatoms, were analyzed and correlated with physical factors of water. Diversity index values appear to provide an indication of pollution of water by industrial and domestic wastes. (AL)

Staub, R.; And Others

1970-01-01

275

Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Meck, A.; Robinson, P. [N,P Energy, Inc. (United States); Robison, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

276

High-level radioactive waste from light-water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of radioactive nuclei during the operation of a light-water reactor is traced, and their decay history is followed. The potential environmental impacts of this waste are calculated and shown to be comparable to those of other materials we produce. Assuming deep burial, it is shown that there are important time delays which prevent the waste from reaching the biosphere in the first few hundred years while its toxicity is decreasing by several orders of magnitude. In the long term,,the most important pathway to man was found to be through groundwater into food and water supplies, with consequences calculated t to be 0.4 fatalities in 106 years from each year of all-nuclear power in U.S. Other pathways considered and found to be less important include meteorites, volcanism, release through ground water to airborne particulate, and human intrusion by drilling and mining for unspecified materials and for salt. For time scales longer than 106 years, nuclear power is shown to reduce man's exposure to radiation by consuming uranium. A cost-benefit analysis is developed for surveillance of buried waste. It is shown that buried high-level waste is environmentally much less dangerous than uranium mill tailings

277

Chemical treatment of radioactive waste waters of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the average composition of radioactive waste waters a new waste treatment method was developed to concentrate the solutions. Organic components such as oxalic and citric acids, hydrasine, were decomposed and eliminated by permanganate solution, then boric acid was stabilized by the addition of NaOH thus assuring the proper alkaline hydroxide - boric acid ratio. As a result of chemical treatment, the total salt concentration of the distillation residue could be increased up to 580 g/dm3. After about one-year cooling time the concentrate can be easily cementized. The method was tested by laboratory and plant experiments. (V.N.)

278

Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas  

Science.gov (United States)

The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

1980-11-01

279

Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas  

Science.gov (United States)

The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

1980-01-01

280

Determination of radioactive elements and heavy metals in sediments and soil from domestic water sources in northern peninsular Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it posseses an ability to bind various chemicals together. To safeguard the members of the public from an unwanted exposure, studies were conducted on the sediments and soil from water bodies that form the major sources of domestic water supply in northern peninsular Malaysia for their trace element concentration levels. Neutron Activation Analysis, using Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Zaria, Nigeria was employed as the analytical tool. The elements identified in major quantities include Na, K, and Fe while As, Br, Cr, U, Th, Eu, Cs, Co, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Ba, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Sb were also identified in trace quantities. Gamma spectroscopy was also employed to analyze some soil samples from the same area. The results indicated safe levels in terms of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index as well as the mean external exposure dose rates from the soil. The overall screening of the domestic water sources with relatively high heavy metals concentration values in sediments and high activity concentration values in soil is strongly recommended as their accumulation overtime as a consequence of leaching into the water may be of health concern to the members of the public. PMID:21901308

Muhammad, Bashir G; Jaafar, Mohammad Suhaimi; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Ingawa, Farouk Abdulrasheed

2012-08-01

281

Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola Area, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the shallow groundwater quality of Pindiga Gombe area for irrigation and domestic purposes. Fifteen water samples collected from wells tapping shallow aquifer was used. The water samples were analyzed for major cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+ and anions: C-, HCO3-1, SO4 2- and NO3-. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR, Permeability Index (PI, Kellys Ratio (KR, and Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC were assessed and compared with standard limits. The values of total dissolved solids (<166 mg/L, electrical conductivity (<0.249 ds/m, soluble sodium percentage (2.60 to 38.40%, permeability index (0.19 to 7.40%, magnesium adsorption ratio (37.34 to 66.50%, kellys ratio (0.0004 to 0.029 meq/L, residual sodium bicarbonate (0.35 to 3.02 meq/L and sodium adsorption ratio (0 to 0.035 were found to be within the safe limits and thus largely suitable for irrigation purposes. The groundwater will thus neither cause salinity hazards nor have an adverse effect on the soil properties of the study area. Furthermore, the water samples also fall within the recommended limits and are found suitable for domestic purposes.

G.I. Obiefuna

2011-03-01

282

Artificial sweeteners as waste water markers in a shallow unconfined aquifer  

Science.gov (United States)

One key factor in groundwater quality management is the knowledge of flow paths and recharge. In coupled ground- and surface water systems the understanding of infiltration processes is therefore of paramount importance. Recent studies show that artificial sweeteners - which are used as sugar substitutes in food and beverages - are suitable tracers for domestic wastewater in the aquatic environment. As most rivers receive sewage discharges, artificial sweeteners might be used for tracking surface waters in groundwater. In this study artificial sweeteners are used in combination with conventional tracers (inert anions Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes ?18O, ?2H) to identify river water infiltration and the influence of waste water on a shallow unconfined aquifer used for drinking water production. The investigation area is situated in a mesoscale alpine head water catchment. The alluvial aquifer consists of quaternary gravel deposits and is characterized by high hydraulic permeability (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1), high flow velocities (vmax 250 md-1) and a considerable productivity (2,5 m3s-1). A losing stream follows the aquifer in close proximity and is susceptible to infiltrate substantial volumes of water into the alluvial sediments. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (Acesulfam ACE, Sucralose SUC, Saccharin SAC and Cyclamat CYC) at the investigated site. The local sewage treatment plant was identified as point source of artificial sweeteners in the river water, with ACE concentrations up to 0,6 ?gL-1. ACE concentrations in groundwater where approximately of one order of magnitude lower: ACE was present in 33 out of 40 sampled groundwater wells with concentrations up to 0,07 ?gL-1, thus indicating considerable influence of sewage water loaded surface water throughout the aquifer. Elevated concentrations of ACE and SAC in single observation wells denote other sources of locally limited contamination. Also, the temporal variability of sweeteners in surface water and the drinking water production well is compared with other tracers. ACE, Cl-and SO42- exhibit similar patterns in the river water. However, this behaviour cannot be observed in the production well, where ACE concentrations are varying compared to Cl- and SO42-.This suggests that the production well does receive groundwater being infiltrated prior to the sewage water treatment plant. Time series analysis of 18O, ?2H will give more insight in travel times and the location of infiltration zones.

Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

2013-04-01

283

Consequences of the minimum requirements for waste-water effluent set in the water conservation law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modification of the law for water conservation and the new law for water effluents showed that during the planning of power plants, the problems with regard to official authorization of waste water effluents into the water with the limiting values accordingly, have become more important than a while ago, when the problematics for the later operation of the power plants were mainly seen in the requirements of the Federal law for the protection against immissions, and the herewith connected clean air technology and noise control. The considerable influence of the often discussed technical guidelines TA Luft and TA Laerm on the air- and noise emissions, will obviously constitute the administrative regulation concerning the minimum requirements on waste water conductions, according to paragraph 7a of the Law for Water Conservation, as far as the discharge of water from power plants is concerned. The main results of the regulations to be expected are discussed. (orig./RW)

284

Determination of cyanide in drinking water and waste water by voltametry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive, cost-effective and efficient voltammetric method is described for the analysis of cyanide in water. A potassium hydroxide and boric acid buffer was mixed with water sample in 1:1 ratio and cyanide was measured, using differential pulse mode and scanning in the negative direction. Cyanide peak appears at about - 0.24 V versus saturated calomel reference electrode Chloride, Sulfate, nitrate, sulfide and phosphate don't interfere. After developing analytical method numerous drinking water and waste water samples were collected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad areas and measured in triplicate. Usually the levels of cyanide in water were within the recommended limits with few exceptions. Levels of cyanide in waste water are in the range of 0 - 0.5 mug/ml and in drinking water are in the range of 0 - 0.01 mug/ml with few exceptions. (author)

285

Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

1978-09-01

286

RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE IMPACT POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS OF THE SOIL AND VEGETATION ON THE AREA OF DOMESTIC WASTES DEPOSIT AT TOME?TI – IASI  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents the results of research concerning the heavy metals content (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni) from the soil and vegetation on the area of domestic wastes platform at Tomesti – Iasi. The concentration of heavy metals from the soil is bigger in the superficial layer (0-23 cm) exceeded the maximum allowed values 3.4 times for Ni, 2.9 for Cr, 1.4 times for Pb and 1.1 times for Cu. The plants which grow on these soils represent resistant ecotypes to heavy metals concentration which they ac...

ALEXANDRINA MURARIU; ANI?OARA STRATU; NAELA COSTIC?; Costica?, M.; Secu, C.; Ra?s?canu, D.

2007-01-01

287

Hydrolysis behavior of tofu waste in hot compressed water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tofu waste (TW) is a typical high water-containing biomass; and the hydrothermal process is preferred to utilize it with low energy cost. TW is also a special biomass characterized by high proportion of proteins and fatty acids, which will lead to a different hydrolysis result. In this work, TW was hydrolyzed by hot compressed water below 390 °C in a batch reactor heated by a salt bath. Four parameters including water density, reaction time, the ratio of TW to water and reaction temperature were investigated. Results showed that CO2 was the major component of the produced gas, a measurable fraction of H2 was produced above 300 °C and 65–75% or more of TW can be transformed into water-soluble fraction. It was found that the influence of the treatment temperature on TW conversion was the most significant. Based on the product distribution (gases, water-insolubles, oils, and water-solubles) along with temperature, a four-stage hydrothermal conversion mechanism was put forward in macroscopic view. In combination with the evolution of gas composition and infrared spectrum, the understanding about the conversion of TW in hot compressed water was further improved. -- Highlights: ? The conversion of high water content biomass in hot compressed water is investigated with Tofu waste as model biomass. ? TW conversion was seriously dependent on the reaction temperature. ? The conversion process can be divided into four stages. ? 200–250 °C, no oil but gas is generated; 250–300 °C, oil begin to be yielded. ? 300–350 °C, water-insoluble product decreases; above 350 °C oil product decreases.

288

Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots  

OpenAIRE

Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this...

Tchounwou, Paul B.; Owens, William E.; Hill, Dagne D.

2005-01-01

289

Removal of actinides from dilute waste waters using polymer filtration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More stringent US Department of Energy discharge regulations for waste waters containing radionuclides (30 pCi/L total alpha) require the development of new processes to meet the new discharge limits for actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium, while minimizing waste. We have been investigating a new technology, polymer filtration, that has the potential for effectively meeting these new limits. Traditional technology uses basic iron precipitation which produces large amounts of waste sludge. The new technology is based on using water-soluble chelating polymers with ultrafiltration for physical separation. The actinide metal ions are selectively bound to the polymer and can not pass through the membrane. Small molecules and nonbinding metals pass through the membrane. Advantages of polymer filtration technology compared to ion, exchange include rapid kinetics because the binding is occurring in a homogenous solution and no mechanical strength requirement on the polymer. We will present our results on the systematic development of a new class of water-soluble chelating polymers and their binding ability from dilute acid to near neutral waters

290

Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khan, S.U.M. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [and others

1996-12-01

291

Nutrient Removal From Waste Water by Macrophytes – An Eco-Friendly Approach to Waste Water Treatment and Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wastes are resources out of place. Waste management technique essentially includes nutrient removal for better uses through low cost sustainable eco-technology. In this paper, local indigenous Macrophytes (Ipomoea aquatic, Trapa, Nymphaearubra, and Pistia sp. are investigated to assess their ability to reclaim nutrients and remove pollutants from sewage water in West Bengal. Nitrogen, phosphorus, BOD and salinity characteristics are investigated. These Macrophytes have adopted the environment and are found to grow in the vicinity of wastewater command areas. Results indicate that their potential is very high in removing nutrient pollutants cost-effectively. Nutrient thus removed can be used in cultivation process, reducing demand of chemical fertilizers.

Sukhen Roy

2014-05-01

292

An assessment of availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria, between May and December 2009 using structured questionnaire. The study populations were household members living in the study area. Two hundred (200 respondents were randomly selected with 74% responses. Majority of the respondents, 38.5% and 90% were civil servants and females respectively. Their commonest source of water supply was well (41% which is inadequate in 74% of cases due to the seasonal variation of their water content. Other sources of water included tap bore hole and purchase of water from vendors. About 41% of the respondents spend N2000 ($13 on buying water for home use daily and 62.4% store water in drum/bucket/galloon. Cleaning of the storage facilities were done once in a year in majority of cases (54%. A significant percentage (48% does not treat their water before using it. On the medical history, 74% claimed to have had illness (68% of such was typhoid fever which they believed was from the poor quality of water they are using and 68% were treated in the hospital.

Stanley A.M.

2012-05-01

293

SUMMARY REPORT: SMALL COMMUNITY WATER AND WASTE- WATER TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

This summary report presents information on the unique needs of small communities facing new water and wastewater treatment requirements. t contains three main sections: technology overviews (each presents a process description, O&M requirements, technology limitations, and finan...

294

FEMWATER BLT, Water or Waste Transport in Soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: FEMWATER,BLT is used to model release and transport of contaminants from wastes stored in metallic containers in saturated or unsaturated soil systems including low- level waste disposal sites. Both programs provide two-dimensional, time-dependent, finite-element analyses. FEMWATER calculates water velocity, moisture content, and pressure head in unsaturated/ saturated porous media. BLT, a modification of the FEMWATER code, predicts container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide migration in unsaturated porous media. 2 - Method of solution: FEMWATER and BLT perform two-dimensional time- dependent analyses using the finite element method. Nonlinearities in the unsaturated flow equations are handled through Picard iteration. The transport equations in BLT are linear, and Gaussian elimination is used to solve the matrix equations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 528 finite elements (FEMWATER), 595 nodal points (FEMWATER), 225 finite elements (BLT), 252 nodal points (BLT), 100 waste-containing elements, 20 different waste types. These limits may be changed by re-dimensioning the appropriate arrays

295

Liquid radioactive waste processing system for light water reactor plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This standard supersedes ANS-55.2-1976(N199-1976) and ANS-55.3-1976(N197-1976), and establishes minimum design, construction and performance requirements for the liquid radioactive waste processing system for light water reactor plants. It is applicable for routine operation including design basis fuel leakage and other design basis occurrences. Liquid radioactive waste sources are categorized as to type in terms of their physical and chemical characteristics, including high- and low-purity waste, chemical waste and detergent waste. Sections of the standard cover overall system requirements, equipment requirements, controls and instrumentation, physical arrangement, operation and maintenance, and pre-operational testing and cleaning. Requirements of this standard take precedence over those set forth in ANSI/ANS-52.1-1978, ANS-51.1-1973(N18.2-1973) and ANS-51.8-1975(N18.2a-1975). Radioactive materials in liquid effluents must meet requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Section 50.34a, and limits specified in Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20 and Part 50, Appendix A. As a special feature, all statements in this standard which are related to nuclear safety are set off in boxes

296

Integrated water and waste management system for future spacecraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 200 days of continuous testing have been completed on an integrated waste management-water recovery system developed by General Electric under a jointly funded AEC/NASA/AF Contract. The 4 man system provides urine, feces, and trash collection; water reclamation; storage, heating and dispensing of the water; storage and disposal of the feces and urine residue and all of other nonmetallic waste material by incineration. The heat required for the 1200 deg F purification processes is provided by a single 420-w radioisotope heater. A second 836-w radioisotope heater supplemented by 720 w of electrical heat provides for distillation and water heating. Significant test results are no pre-or-post treatment, greater than 98 per cent potable water recovery, approximately 95 per cent reduction in solids weight and volume, all outflows are sterile with the water having no bacteria or virus, and the radioisotope capsule radiation level is only 7.9 mrem/hr unshielded at 1 m (neutrons and gamma).

Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

1974-01-01

297

Energy production from waste-water using microbial fuel cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural energy sources like fossil fuels are depleting due to increased human activities. Different types of alternatives are being explored to solve this problem with the consideration that they are sustainable. There are many environmental concerns connected with fossil fuel burning which after oxidation processes release greater amounts of carbon emissions in atmosphere. Now the trends are shifting towards exploiting renewable energy options, such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, biogas, and bioelectricity. Bioelectricity is harvested from organic substrates using Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) that operate on oxidation reduction (redox) reactions. MFCs produce electricity in the presence of microorganisms from biodegradable substances. Waste-water contains enormous amount of organic matter that can be oxidized in MFC for electricity harvesting. In this review, the main focus is made on the applicability of microbial fuels cells for simultaneous waste-water treatment and electricity production. (author)

298

Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

1980-06-01

299

Characterization of domestic gray water from point source to determine the potential for urban residential reuse: a short review  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to discern the domestic gray water (GW) sources that is least polluting, at the urban households of India, by examining the GW characteristics, comparing with literature data, reuse standards and suitable treatment technologies. In view of this, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of domestic GW originating from bath, wash basin, laundry and kitchen sources are determined and compared with established standards for reuse requirements. Quality of different gray water sources is characterized with respect to the physical, chemical, biological, nutrient, ground element and heavy metal properties. The pollutant loads indicate that the diversion techniques are not suitable for household application and, therefore, treatment is necessary prior to storage and reuse. It is observed that the total volume of GW generated exceeds the reuse requirement for suggested reuse such as for flushing and gardening/irrigation. In spite of generating less volume, the kitchen source is found to be the major contributor for most of the pollutant load and, therefore, not recommended to be considered for treatment. It is concluded that treatment of GW from bathroom source alone is sufficient to meet the onsite reuse requirements and thereby significantly reduce the potable water consumption by 28.5 %. Constructed wetland systems and constructed soil filters are suggested as suitable treatment alternatives owing to its ability to treat highly variable pollutant load with lower operational and maintenance cost, which is more practical for tropical and developing countries.

Edwin, Golda A.; Gopalsamy, Poyyamoli; Muthu, Nandhivarman

2014-03-01

300

Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Station, Kansas City, Missouri. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is the final report of the solar energy heating and hot water system installed at the Kansas City Fire Station, Number 24, 2309 Hardesty Street, Kansas City, Missouri. The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1428 cubic feet of 1/2 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71 1/2 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120-gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30-kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation. This project is part of the Department of Energy PON-1 Solar Demonstration Program with DOE cost sharing $154,282 of the $174,372 solar system cost. The Final Design Review was held March 1977, the system became operational March 1979 and acceptance test was completed in September 1979.

None

1980-07-01

301

Potential of solar domestic hot water systems in rural areas for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Poland  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of solar energy for preparing domestic hot water is one of the easiest methods of utilization of this energy. At least part of the needs for warm tap water could be covered by solar systems. At present, mainly coal is used for water heating at dwellings in rural areas in Poland. Warm tap water consumption will increase significantly in the future as standards of living are improved. This can result in the growth of electricity use and an increase in primary fuel consumption. Present and future methods of warm sanitary water generation in rural areas in Poland is discussed, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are estimated. It is predicted that the emission of CO2 and NO x will increase. The emission of CO and CH4 will decrease because of changes in the structure of the final energy carriers used. The economic and market potentials of solar energy for preparing warm water in rural areas are discussed. It is estimated that solar systems can meet 30% 45% of the energy demand for warm water generation in rural areas at a reasonable cost, with a corresponding CO2 emission reduction. The rate of realization of the economic potential of solar water heaters depends on subsidies for the installation of equipment.

Skowronski, Pawel; Wisniewski, Grzegorz

1996-01-01

302

Tertiary Treatment for Textile Waste Water-A Review  

OpenAIRE

Tertiary treatment is the Industrial waste water treatment process which removes stubborn contaminants that have not been removed in secondary treatment. Effluent becomes even cleaner by Tertiary treatment through the use of stronger and more advanced treatment systems. The present work is an attempt to review all possible tertiary treatment methods for removal of dyestuff from textile effluent. Conventional method for treatment of textile effluent has own certain limitations ...

Manali Desai, Mehali Mehta

2014-01-01

303

Real-time monitor for tritium in waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automatic on-line tritium monitoring system has been developed for a combined industrial and sanitary waste water stream. It will allow early detection and mitigation of either chronic or acute tritium spills to the sewer. Two major tasks were identified: to provide a means of obtaining relatively pure and representative samples, and to develop a reliable low-level tritium detector. The article review the highlights of progress made during the past year in solving these two tasks

304

Process and device for decontamination of radioactive waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device contains an evaporator, which is connected with a separation column via a waste water or evaporator sump or a steam chamber. The separation column is connected after the distillate collector. The radio isotope aerosols are separated out in one or more electric filters above the steam chamber. The decontamination factor of the distillate is increased by a factor of 100 compared with the usual process. (DG)

305

Treatment of radioactive waste waters using electroflotation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Review of the procedures for decontamination of radioactive waste water is presented. The outlook for the application of the electroflotation method with insoluble electrodes on the stage of separation in liquid and solid phases was shown. Scheme, technical and economic characteristics and account of the electroflotation plant operation are demonstrated. The electroflotation procedure performs well on the stage of previous purification, for example, before the application of sorption and membrane methods

306

Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems in Buildings Supplied by Low-Temperature District Heating  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

District heating (DH) systems supplied by renewable energy sources are one of the main solutions for achieving a fossil-free heating sector in Denmark by 2035. To reach this goal, the medium temperature DH used until now needs to transform to a new concept reflecting the requirement for lower heat loss from DH networks required by the reduced heating demand of low-energy and refurbished buildings combined with the lower supply temperatures required by using renewable heat sources. Both these needs meet in the recently developed concept of low-temperature DH designed with supply/return temperatures as low as 50°C/25°C and highly insulated pipes with reduced inner diameter. With this design, the heat loss from the DH networks can be reduced to one quarter of the value for traditional DH designed and operated for temperatures of 80°C/40°C. However, such low temperatures bring challenges for domestic hot water (DHW) and space heating (SH) systems, from the perspective of both DH customers and the DH company. The aim of this work was therefore to identify, evaluate and suggest solutions. The first part of the research focused on the feasibility of supplying DHW with no increased risk of Legionella and on the performance of low-temperature DH substations. The Danish Standard DS 439 for DHW requires that DHW should be delivered in reasonable time, without unwanted changes in desired temperatures (comfort) and without increased risk of bacterial growth (hygiene). While the comfort requirements set the minimum DHW temperature to 45°C, the hygiene requirements set it to 60°C, which is simply not reachable for low-temperature DH. However, the German DHW standard DVGW 551 makes no requirement about minimum DHW temperature if the overall DHW volume is below 3L. This rule was adopted as a cornerstone for the research and for the whole low-temperature DH concept in general, so the minimum DHW temperature is defined by a requirement for 45°C at the kitchen tap.   The performance of a low-temperature DH substation with instantaneous DHW preparation was evaluated based on the results from laboratory measurements supplemented with results from the verified numerical model developed in MATLAB-Simulink. The laboratory measurements showed that the low-temperature substation can heat the required flow of DHW to 47°C with 50°C DH water while keeping the return temperature as low as 20°C. The results of numerical simulations considering the influence of the DH network, represented by a 10 m long service pipe connection for the substation equipped with an external bypass with a set-point temperature of 35°C, showed that the time needed to produce 40°C DHW was 11 s with and 15 s without the external bypass, respectively. DS 439 suggests 10 s as the reasonable waiting time for DHW, so a low-temperature DH substation based on the instantaneous principle of DHW preparation should be equipped with bypass solution keeping the service pipe warm and reducing the waiting time. Traditional bypass solutions simply redirect the bypassed water back tothe DH network without additional cooling, but bypassed water can instead be redirected to floor heating in the bathroom to be further cooled and thus reduce heat loss from the DH network while improving comfort for occupants and still ensure fast DHW preparation. Various solutions for the redirection and control of bypass flow were developed and their detailed performance tested on the example of a low-energy single-family house modelled in building energy performance simulation tool IDA-ICE 4.22. The effect on the DH network was simulated with the commercial program Termis on a case study of 40 single-family houses supplied by low-temperature DH. In comparison to the reference case with a traditional external bypass, the proposed solution resulted in average cooling of bypassed water by 7.5°C, reducing the heat loss from DH network during non-heating period by 13% and increasing the average floor temperature by 0.6-2.2°C without causing overheating. The price for heating the bathroom floor durin

Brand, Marek

2014-01-01

307

Nitrification of highly contaminated waste water with retention of biomass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AIF Research Project No 7698 was concerned with the nitrification of highly contaminated waste water with retention of biomass. A compact system for the nitrification was developed and optimized in the investigations. This is an over-dammed fixed bed reactor with structured packing elements and membrane gasification. The fixed bed reactor was successfully installed in a multi-stage compact plant on the laboratory scale for the biological treatment of dump trickled water. With the conclusion of the investigations, design data are available for the technical scale realisation of nitrification in fixed bed reactors. (orig.)

308

Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

Goto, Motonobu

2010-11-01

309

Disinfection of municipal waste-water with gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation of gamma radiation disinfection of various effluents from the Johannesburg City Council's Northern Waste-Water Purification Works is discussed. The results of gamma radiation disinfection, chlorine disinfection and a combination of chlorine and gamma radiation treatment are compared. It is concluded that to reduce the E.coli content of settled filter effluent to less than 1000 per 100 ml, that is to produce water intended for irrigational and industrial reuse, a total gamma radiation dose of 50 krad is required

310

Health hazards associated with dissemination of bacterial strains in waste water recycling  

OpenAIRE

Treated waste effluents with low levels of chemical and microbiological contents are used for domestic, industrial, agricultural and aquacultural purposes worldwide, and it is estimated that one tenth or more of the world’s population consume food produced through irrigation with wastewater. Treated hospital waste effluents may contain pathogenic and drug resistant bacteria, which constitutes the most dangerous single risk factor for dissemination of pathogenic and drug re...

Rahman, Mokhlasur

2005-01-01

311

Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 150/sup 0/C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables. (DLC)

Fullam, H.T.

1981-06-01

312

Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 1500C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables

313

A Study of Waste Water Treatment of Microbiological Laboratories of Hospitals by Electrolyzed Oxidized Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hospital liquid infectious waste is one of the most important aspects of water contamination. The presentinvestigation was undertaken to evolve a cost effective alternate method of waste water treatment by usingOxidized Water as a disinfectant for hospital effluents. Liquid infectious waste coming from diagnosticlaboratories of hospitals (Urine, Blood and Mix of both was treated with electrolyzed Oxidized Water. Differentv/v ratios (95:5, 85:15, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 of Sample to Electrolyzed Oxidized Water (EOW were culturedand incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. EOW showed a direct relationship with the decontamination of inorganicurine but for blood, an unidentified pattern was observed that may be due to change in pH and/or OxidationReduction Potential (ORP of EOW because of organic nature of blood. The most effective ratio of sample toEOW, at which decontamination was found to be maximum for urine, was 25:75 with treatment efficiency of96.15 % and 85:15 with treatment efficiency of 84.8 % for blood. The study revealed that Electrolyzed OxidizedWater may be used as a better alternative for treatment of liquid infectious waste.

Fiza Sarwar

2011-04-01

314

Water and waste water, when brine's just fine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Desalination has always sounded a good solution to rainfall shortages, who wouldn't rather drink purified seawater than recycled sewage? But projects in Australia and around the world have often been dogged by question marks over cost and greenhouse effects and saline discharge issues. Solar powered pilot plant is being developed in South Australia which will not discharge a drop of briny reject water back to the sea

315

Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

1983-01-01

316

Method for reduction in volume and encapsulation of water-containing weakly radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solutions and slurries of waste material in water are dehydrated and enclosed in a polymerizate for final storage. The water is removed as an azeotropic mixture and the dehydrated waste residue is then enclosed in an organic polymerizate. The method and system disclosed in this patent claim are particularly suitable for safe removal of radioactive waste. (orig.)

317

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in Switzerland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF. This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2 sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated.

Dettwiler Martina

2011-12-01

318

Thermal stratification in vertical mantle heat-exchangers with application to solar domestic hot-water systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Experimental and numerical investigations of vertical mantle heat exchangers for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been carried out. Two different inlet positions are investigated. Experiments based on typical operation conditions are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different positions of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, side-by-side laboratory tests have been carried out with SDHW systems with different mantle inlet positions. It is shown that for a high inlet temperature to the mantle it is an advantage to have the inlet located at the top and for a low inlet temperature it is an advantage to have the inlet moved down. Marketed tanks have typical the mantle inlet located at the top of the mantle. The side-by-side laboratory tests indicated that it is an advantage to move the inlet down from the top.

Knudsen, SØren; Furbo, Simon

2004-01-01

319

Water detritiation processing of JET purified waste water using the TRENTA facility at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Operation of a water detritiation facility under optimized conditions for high detritiation performances. • Improvement of operational procedures to process tritiated waste water. • Handling and reduction of tritiated waste water to achieve enriched low volume tritiated water for sufficient storage. • Demonstration of the efficient availability of the TRENTA WDS facility for technical scale operation. -- Abstract: A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is required for any Fusion machine in order to process tritiated waste water, which is accumulated in various subsystems during operation and maintenance. Regarding the European procurement packages for the ITER tritium fuel cycle, the WDS test facility TRENTA applying the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process was developed, installed and is currently in operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Besides the on-going R and D work for the design of ITER WDS, the current status of the TRENTA facility provides the option to utilize the WDS for processing tritiated water. Therefore, in the framework of the EFDA JET Fusion Technology Work Programme 2011, the TLK was able to offer the capability on a representative scale to process tritiated water, which was produced during normal operation at JET. The task should demonstrate the availability of the CECE process to handle and detritiate the water in terms of tritium enrichment and volume reduction. The operational program comprised the processing of purified tritiated water from JET, with a total volume of 180 l and an activity of 74 GBq. The paper will give an introduction to the TRENTA WDS facility and an overview of the operational procedure regarding tritiated water reduction. Data concerning required operation time, decontamination and enrichment performances and different operating procedures will be presented as well. Finally, a preliminary study on a technical implementation of processing the entire stock of JET tritiated water by means of water reduction and tritium recovery and an impact of storage capacity at JET will be discussed.

Michling, R., E-mail: robert.michling@kit.edu; Bekris, N.; Cristescu, I.; Lohr, N.; Plusczyk, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.

2013-10-15

320

The role of waste thermal water in the soil degradation  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal water exploitation is widespread, because it is considered to a "green" renewable energy source, the transporter of the Earth crust's heat. It is suitable for very diverse purposes: balneology, heating, mineral water, municipal hot water supply, technological water, etc. After usage, large amount of thermal water becomes sewage water with high concentrations of salts, heavy metals, ammonia, nitrate, and high temperature. Besides that, most of these waters have an unfavourable ion composition. Na+ (and in some cases Mg+) is predominant among cations. A common way of treatment is to let off the waste thermal water in unlined ground channels to leak into the soil. This can cause physical and chemical soil degradation. Continouos Na+ supply occurs, that occupies the place of Ca2+ on the ion exchange surfaces. Thus, adverse effects of Na+ can appear, like formation of extreme moisture regime, peptization, liquefaction. Beside Na+, Mg2+ also helps the formation of physical degradation in the soil. High water retain and unfavourable structure evolves. Not only the physical features of the soil are touched, fertility of production sites as well. Namely sorrounding the unlined ground channels, agricultural areas are seated, so it is important to protect productivity of the soil to maintain yield. Because of the seepage of high salt concentration waters, salt accumulation can be observed near to the channel lines. The investigated sample sites are located in the Great Hungarian Plane. We determined the main pollutants of the thermal waters, and the effects to the sorrounding soils. On two selected investigation areas (Cserkesz?l?, Tiszakécske) salt profiles and Na+ adsorption isotherms are presented to characterize soil degradation. Genetic soil types are differ on the investigated areas, so the aspect of impact is different, as well.

Balog, Kitti; Farsang, Andrea

2010-05-01

321

The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

322

Ariab acidic min-influenced water: a waste to waste treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six samples of acidic mine-influenced water (AMIW) from Ariab area, Red Sea Hills, northeastern part of Sudan, were analyzed for some waste water parameters. The investigation showed that, the pH ranged between 1.30 to 1.88, sulphate content between 40200 to 235300 mg/1, total iron 9879 to 103969 mg/1, copper, 280.0 to 1112.5 mg/1, zinc, 1825 to 3345 mg/1, manganese, 210.0 to 570.0 mg /1 in addition to high contents of cobalt and cadmium which are known for their negative impact on the environment. Khartoum Refinery Sour Water (KRSW) sample was analyzed for some pollutants, the analysis showed that it is alkaline industrial waste having a pH of 10.10, alkalinity of 26381 mg/1 as CaC3/1, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of 29400 mg/1 as O2. It was found to be relatively free of heavy and environmentally hazardous elements such as Fe, Co, Ca, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Mg. A waste to waste treatment was carried to Ariab AMIW with KRSW, satisfactory results were obtained in reduction of the parameters studied in the treated effluent. The pH of AMIW was raised to about 8.50, and the element contents of Fe, Co, Ca, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb were either completely removed or reduced to levels that meet the allowed limits of the industrial effluent disposal threshold. Sulphate content, however, decreased due to dilution, but still above the specified limits of the effluent disposal. (Author)

323

Disinfection of municipal sludge and waste water by energized electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public health concern over the disposal of municipal sludges on land and the discharge of chlorinated waste water into rivers and coastal waters has stimulated the efforts to use ionizing radiation to achieve more thorough disinfection. The ionizing energy required for sludge disinfection raises its temperature less than 2 deg C, and achieves far more complete control of pathogens than can be accomplished by conventional biological digestion. Energized electrons are the most available and economic form of ionizing energy for the treatment of liquid wastes. The use of electron beam power is not limited to the treatment of municipal sludges. Electron treatment can replace the chlorination for the disinfection of effluent municipal waste water. There is evidence that electron treatment tends to destory the trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyl and similar persistent toxic chemicals which may already be present in water solution. A few examples are shown. Electron disinfection studies at M.I.T. and Deer Island, virus inactivation by energized electrons, and sludge disinfection at Miami. The cost per liquid ton to disinfect sludge using a 100 kW modular electron system is estimated to be about 80 cents with 400 krad dose. This estimate includes capital recovery cost over 20 years, electric power, supervision and maintenance expenses. Such a system can disinfect 260,000 liquid tons per year. Next, the application on land and the ocean feeding of electron-disinfected the ocean feeding of electron-disinfected sludges as a converter to fertile soil or ocean nutrients are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

324

Conceptual solutions to drainage water and treatment of waste water for the settlement Muljava and its surroundings  

OpenAIRE

In this diploma thesis, conceptual solutions of drainage and treatment of waste water for the settlements Muljava and Potok pri Muljavi are described. The procedures of designing a separate sewer system including all the supporting facilities are represented. Hydraulic calculation of the waste water and rain water sewerage is presented separately. Concerning rain water sewer system, various solutions of rain water drainage with regard to the existing situation are described. A ...

Malovrh, Gas?per

2008-01-01

325

Treatment of tritiated water wastes. Achievements and future perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper a review of the activity in the cryogenic power plant laboratory of ICSI is presented. The main test of this activity is to develop the technology for tritium separation from heavy and light water. The technology developed at ICSI is based upon catalytic isotope exchange between water/tritiated water and hydrogen/deuterium, followed by cryogenic distillation of hydrogen and its isotopes. Initially, the technology was conceived in order to separated tritium from tritiated heavy water infested in the moderators and cooling circuits in the CANDU type reactors (NPP Cernavoda). The results obtained on the pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation are presented. The detritiation process was simulated using as working fluids water with a low deuterium content and a gaseous hydrogen-deuterium mixture. In order to achieve the experimental and tritium production facilities, the main measures necessary for licensing the plant as a nuclear facilities, are mentioned. In the end of the paper we shall discussed several scenarios for developing current researches with the aim of utilizing the existing experimental facilities of the pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation, in the frame of the EU's programme EURATOM. There will be analyzed the possibilities of achieving the theoretical and experimental necessary for preparing the nuclear fuel cycle for fusion reactors, and also for treatment of important waste of tritieted light water resulting from experimitieted light water resulting from experimental activity and in the future from the operation of a fusion reactor. (authors)

326

Warm water aquaculture using waste heat and water from zero discharge power plants in the Great Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two series of experiments were completed to determine (a) toxicity of waste water from power plants on warm water fish and (b) multiple use of waste heat and water for aquatic animal and plant production. All three types of waste water from a typical coal-fired power plant are acceptable for growing catfish and tilapia following aeration. This growth was compared with fish raised in spring water. Closed, recirculating polyculture systems using evaporation pond water operated efficiently for plant (duckweed) and animal (fish and freshwater prawns) production. Duckweed is an excellent supplement for fish feed. Tilapia and freshwater prawns grew rapidly in the tanks containing duckweed only. 10 references, 13 tables.

Heckmann, R.A.; Winget, R.N.; Infanger, R.C.; Mickelsen, R.W.; Hendersen, J.M.

1984-01-31

327

Anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery of beverage industry waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD

328

Water reuse for domestic consumption. A key element for environmental and economic sustainability  

OpenAIRE

In a context of increasing social awareness about resources conservation, residential water management is essential in ensuring environmental and economic sustainability. An adequate management is attained with integrated solutions, which simultaneously reduce potable water consumption at least in 25% and enable the storage of recovered water. The recovery and storage of underground water can be ensured with the installation of a groundwater drainage network and an underground water deposi...

Coimbra, Jose?; Almeida, Manuela Guedes

2013-01-01

329

The technology, propose and prospect of disposal waste water at the uranium milling plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Precipitation method of neutralizing waste pulp and waste water with lime milk, treatment of the tailings pond water by pyrolusite adsorption and air earation and barium chloride precipitation-precipitates of hydroxides to flocculate as carriers and technology feature, amenability and application for one comprehensive treatment of waste water and waste pulp before they release to tailing pond are described. Practice shows that using new technique and technology for processing uranium ores, using comprehensively resource, recovering useful materials, utilizing wastes for disposing wastes, cycling technological water, strengthening production management can perfect waste water disposal and treatment system which is of short process, low cost and better effect, whereby can reach aim at both temporary solution and permanent control. (16 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.)

330

Experience with primary water cleaning and waste water treatment plant in nuclear power stations with pressurised and boiling water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Powder resin alluvial filtration using structured filter layers permits constantly improving adaption of the water treatment technology to even the most demanding problem situations - particularly in the field of primary water and waste water treatment in nuclear power stations. From experience in operation the authors show the advantages of this technique compared to other techniques, which can be deduced from theoretical concepts, taking into account the various target figures decisive in operating nuclear power stations. (orig.)

331

Potential of Waste Water Use for Jatropha Cultivation in Arid Environments  

OpenAIRE

Water is crucial for socio-economic development and healthy ecosystems. With the actual population growth and in view of future water scarcity, development calls for improved sectorial allocation of groundwater and surface water for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Instead of intensifying the pressure on water resources, leading to conflicts among users and excessive pressure on the environment, sewage effluents, after pre-treatment, provide an alternative nutrient-rich water source...

Folkard Asch; Rajaona, Arisoa M.; Nele Sutterer

2012-01-01

332

Effect of gamma irradiation on textile waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies the use of gamma irradiation for textile waste water treatment. Prior to irradiation, the raw waste water was diluted using tap water to targeted concentration of COD 400 mg/l. The sample was irradiated at selected dose between the ranges of 2 kGy to 100 kGy. The results showed that Irradiation was effective in removing the highly colored refractory organic pollutants. The COD removal at lowest dose, 2 kGy is about 310 mg/l. Meanwhile, at highest dose, 100 kGy the COD reduced to 100 mg/l. The degree of removal influenced by the dose introduced during the treatment process. As the dose increased, higher removal of organic pollutant was recorded. On the other hand, other properties of the wastewater such as pH, turbidity, suspended solid, BOD and color shows tremendous changes as the dose increases. This shows the concentration of pollutants and dose of irradiation applied are directly proportional to each other. (Author)

333

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

2010-12-31

334

Heavy metal removal from waste waters by ion flotation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flotation studies were carried out to investigate the removal of heavy metals such as copper (II), zinc (II), chromium (III) and silver (I) from waste waters. Various parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations and airflow rate were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide were used as collectors. Ethanol and methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) were used as frothers. Metal removal reached about 74% under optimum conditions at low pH. At basic pH it became as high as 90%, probably due to the contribution from the flotation of metal precipitates. PMID:17374447

Polat, H; Erdogan, D

2007-09-01

335

Removal of Sulfate from Waste Water by Activated Carbon  

OpenAIRE

Activated carbon was Produced from coconut shell and was used for removing sulfate from industrial waste water in batch Processes. The influence of various parameter were studied such as pH (4.5 ? 9.) , agitation time (0 ? 120)min and adsorbent dose (2 ? 10) gm.The Langmuir and frandlich adsorption capacity models were been investigated where showed there are fitting with langmmuir model with squre regression value ( 0.76). The percent of removal of sulfate (22% - 38%) at (PH=7) in the iso...

Mohammed Sadeq Salman

2009-01-01

336

Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

Husted, R. R.

1974-01-01

337

Alcohol production from algal starch. [Patent: waste water culture medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Starch-accumulating single-cell algae such as Chlamydomonas and Scenedesmus were cultured in a medium containing C, N, and mineral elements and the starch formed was saccharified and fermented to EtOH. Industrial waste water could be used as culture media. Thus, Scenedesmus basiliensis IAMC-66 was cultured aerobically at 30/sup 0/ for 3 days in a medium containing starch plant waste water (org matter 16.8, glucose 13.4, inorganic matter 0.02 mg/ml) enriched with NaNO/sub 3/ 2, MgSO/sub 4/7H/sub 2/O 0.2, CaCl/sub 2/2H/sub 2/O 0.05, FeSO/sub 4/7H/sub 2/O 0.025, K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/ 0.8, and KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ 0.2 g/l. Algal cells were collected, suspended in a small amount of water, and sonicated at 10 kHz for 10 to 20 minutes. The sonciate (10 g dry wt) was suspended in a solution of 2 g H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in 25 ml water and heated in boiling water for 30 minutes under pressure (2 kg/cm/sup 2/) to complete saccharification. The saccharified solution was neutralized and filtered. The filtrate was enriched with MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O 0.02, K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/ 0.2, and urea 0.19 and with an alcohol producing yeast. EtOH was produced.

Tatsumi, T.; Ohgaki, M.; Tanabe, I.

1977-07-11

338

Effect of gamma radiation on microorganisms in waste water from hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma radiation to the total count and indicative bacteria in waste water from hospitals were studied. It showed that radiation can effectively reduce the quantity of microflora. Total count and MPN of coliform, faecal coliform and E coli was proportionally reversed to the dose applied. Radiation at 2.8 kGy could reduce the total count of waste water from 1.91x106-4.21x106 cells per ml. of waste water to 33.6-3.83x102 cells per ml. of waste water or 4 log cycle. MPN of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria were reduced from 7.31x106-1.57x107 and 2.33x106->1.30x107 per 100 ml. of waste water respectively to 1.4-4.75 and 0-1.5 per 100 ml. of waste water respectively. And E. coli was absent

339

Radioactive and industrial waste water collection system study, Phase I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phase I of the Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) Collection System Study has been completed, and the deliverables for this portion of the study are enclosed. The deliverables include: The Work Break-down Structure (WBS) for Phase II; The Annotated Outline for the Collection Study Report; The Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) of the RLW collection system based on current literature and knowledge; The Configuration database; The Reference Index, listing all currently held documents of the RLW collection system; The Reference Drawing Index listing all currently held, potentially applicable, drawings reviewed during the PFD development; The Regulation Identification Document for RCRA and CWA; The Regulation Database for RCRA and CWA; The Regulation Review Log, including statements justifying the non-applicability of certain regulations; Regulation Library, including the photocopied regulations with highlighted text for RCRA and CWA; The summary of RTG's waste water treatment plant design experience and associated regulations on which RTG based the design of these treatment facilities; TA-50 Influent Database; Radioactive Liquid Waste Stream Characterization Database

340

An experimental study on the leaching of borate waste and spent resin waste forms in a simulated sea water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In general, leaching test is performed and mostly employed in the acceptance criteria for radioactive waste disposal and is considered very important because the rate of release of radionuclides from a waste form is one of the most important parameter in defining and evaluating the radionuclide source term in the disposal environment. NRC strongly recommended that the chosen leachant should be the most aggressive one. Therefore it is considered that the certain results of the leaching test should supply the information to evaluate the radionuclide source term and the basis to determine the most aggressive leachant in the leaching test. In this study, leaching test of borate waste and spent resin waste forms is performed in order to compare the leaching characteristics of the waste forms in a simulated sea-water with those in a distilled water. In addition, the sea-water with different quantities of NaCl is used as a leachant to evaluate the effect of NaCl concentration. The IAEA test method (standard leaching test) and apparent dissolution model are applied to analyze the leaching characteristics. The representative radionuclides are Cs137,: Co60 and Sr90. According to this experimental results, the amounts of leached radionuclides in the sea-water is more than that in the distilled water for borate waste and resin waste forms

341

Influences on domestic well water testing behavior in a Central Maine area with frequent groundwater arsenic occurrence.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2001 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a new standard for arsenic (As) in drinking water of 10 ?g/L, replacing the old standard of 50 ?g/L. However, for the 12% of the U.S. population relying on unregulated domestic well water, including half of the population of Maine, it is solely the well owner's responsibility to test and treat the water. A mailed household survey was implemented in January 2013 in 13 towns of Central Maine with the goal of understanding the population's testing and treatment practices and the key behavior influencing factors in an area with high well-water dependency and frequent natural groundwater As. The response rate was 58.3%; 525 of 900 likely-delivered surveys to randomly selected addresses were completed. Although 78% of the households reported that their well has been tested, half of it was more than 5 years ago. Among the 58.7% who believe they have tested for As, most do not remember the results. Better educated, higher income homeowners who more recently purchased their homes are most likely to have included As when last testing. While households agree that water and As-related health risks can be severe, they feel low personal vulnerability and there are low testing norms overall. Significant predictors of including As when last testing include: having knowledge that years of exposure increases As-related health risks (risk knowledge), knowing who to contact to test well water (action knowledge), believing that regular testing does not take too much time (instrumental attitude), and having neighbors who regularly test their water (descriptive norm). Homeowners in As-affected communities have the tendency to underestimate their As risks compared to their neighbors. The reasons for this optimistic bias require further study, but low testing behaviors in this area may be due to the influence of a combination of norm, ability, and attitude factors and barriers. PMID:24875279

Flanagan, Sara V; Marvinney, Robert G; Zheng, Yan

2015-02-01

342

Domestic Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

... to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender. Domestic violence affects people of all socioeconomic backgrounds and education levels. Domestic violence occurs in both opposite-sex and same-sex relationships and can happen to ...

343

Domestic Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

344

Status of the membrane procedure - Possible applications to waste water digestion; Stand der Technik von Membranverfahren. Einsatzmoeglichkeiten bei der Vergaerung von Abwaessern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In waste water with low organic loadings anaerobic microorganisms are working at a low efficiency. The plant's energy balance becomes negative because a big need of process energy to warm up the 'unproductive' water is created. This can be dealt with by concentrating the waste waters my means of membrane systems. Separation of slightly loaded flows into purified permeate and digestible concentrate may therefore increase the potential of digestion in industrial waste water significantly. As a basis for this report the following connections were used: congresses and exhibitions, personal contacts with people and companies who work and have published in this field as well as data base research. According to the technical standard the different processes of nano filtration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis are used to purify industrial or domestic waste water. Therefore, the majority of classic suppliers of waste water technology offer membrane systems. The membrane bio-reactors belong to the typical systems used. In this system the biomass is separated and retained by a membrane. Due to this combination the volume of the reactor can be reduced and the grade of degradation increased. Simultaneously a permeate is produced which can reach the quality of the desired effluent and which can be re-used manifold. Additional concentration of weakly loaded waste water to be used in a subsequent digestion can reduce energy consumption. Due to the fact that mainly the technical feasibility of the membrane technology was emphasised, some further evaluation in regard of energy consumption and cost has to be made. (author)

Engeli, H.; Edelmann, W.

2001-07-01

345

Disinfection and physical and chemical changes in waste waters, sludge and agricultural wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is of interest for agriculture to consider recycling scenarios that use undigested sludges as they contain higher concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter than digested sludges. Also from the point of view of waste water management, this approach is of interest because it reduces the time and number of treatments of sludges, thus resulting in technological and economic advantages. However, the utilization of this type of sludge in agriculture is restricted by the presence of human pathogens. Therefore studies concerning the disinfection efficiency of gamma irradiation in undigested sludge at pilot plant level were performed and results compared with the disinfection efficiency of this radiation treatment in digested sludge. (Auth.)

346

External Auditing on Absorbed Dose Using a Solid Water Phantom for Domestic Radiotherapy Facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the results of an external audit on the absorbed dose of radiotherapy beams independently performed by third parties. For this effort, we developed a method to measure the absorbed dose to water in an easy and convenient setup of solid water phantom. In 2008, 12 radiotherapy centers voluntarily participated in the external auditing program and 47 beams of X-ray and electron were independently calibrated by the third party's American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) task group (TG)-51 protocol. Even though the AAPM TG-51 protocol recommended the use of water, water as a phantom has a few disadvantages, especially in a busy clinic. Instead, we used solid water phantom due to its reproducibility and convenience in terms of setup and transport. Dose conversion factors between solid water and water were determined for photon and electron beams of various energies by using a scaling method and experimental measurements. Most of the beams (74%) were within ±2% of the deviation from the third party's protocol. However, two of 20 X-ray beams and three of 27 electron beams were out of the tolerance (±3%), including two beams with a >10% deviation. X-ray beams of higher than 6 MV had no conversion factors, while a 6 MV absorbed dose to a solid water phantom was 0.4% less than the dose to water. The electron dose conversion factors between the solid water phantom and water were determined: The higher the electron energy, the less is the conversion factor. rgy, the less is the conversion factor. The total uncertainty of the TG-51 protocol measurement using a solid water phantom was determined to be ±1.5%. The developed method was successfully applied for the external auditing program, which could be evolved into a credential program of multi-institutional clinical trials. This dosimetry saved time for measuring doses as well as decreased the uncertainty of measurement possibly resulting from the reference setup in water.

347

External Auditing on Absorbed Dose Using a Solid Water Phantom for Domestic Radiotherapy Facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the results of an external audit on the absorbed dose of radiotherapy beams independently performed by third parties. For this effort, we developed a method to measure the absorbed dose to water in an easy and convenient setup of solid water phantom. In 2008, 12 radiotherapy centers voluntarily participated in the external auditing program and 47 beams of X-ray and electron were independently calibrated by the third party's American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) task group (TG)-51 protocol. Even though the AAPM TG-51 protocol recommended the use of water, water as a phantom has a few disadvantages, especially in a busy clinic. Instead, we used solid water phantom due to its reproducibility and convenience in terms of setup and transport. Dose conversion factors between solid water and water were determined for photon and electron beams of various energies by using a scaling method and experimental measurements. Most of the beams (74%) were within {+-}2% of the deviation from the third party's protocol. However, two of 20 X-ray beams and three of 27 electron beams were out of the tolerance ({+-}3%), including two beams with a >10% deviation. X-ray beams of higher than 6 MV had no conversion factors, while a 6 MV absorbed dose to a solid water phantom was 0.4% less than the dose to water. The electron dose conversion factors between the solid water phantom and water were determined: The higher the electron energy, the less is the conversion factor. The total uncertainty of the TG-51 protocol measurement using a solid water phantom was determined to be {+-}1.5%. The developed method was successfully applied for the external auditing program, which could be evolved into a credential program of multi-institutional clinical trials. This dosimetry saved time for measuring doses as well as decreased the uncertainty of measurement possibly resulting from the reference setup in water.

Choi, Chang Heon; Kim, Jung In; Park, Jong Min; Park, Yang Kyun; Ye, Sung Joon [Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kun Woo; Cho, Woon Kap [Radiation Research, Korean Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Il [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-11-15

348

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM WASTE WATER USING MICROBIAL FUEL CELL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs an electricity producing device using waste-water treatment, biosensor, eco-friendly and low cost management of energy production. In this study, investigation power generation from waste water compared with their pure culture, mixed culture and different medium ingredients with microorganism. Enhance the power production with different ingredients like monosaccharide’s, nitrogen source and amino acids, these sources increasing the electron shuttle in the medium. Glucose (0.98 V, beef extract (0.85 V and Leucine (0.92 V exhibited maximum power production with the anodic chamber. Different electrode was used; platinum showed that maximum electron capturing in the anodic chamber. The SEM photography clearly showed that biofilm formation of microorganism on the electrode. The output power was compared with mixed culture to pure culture and different ingredients, thus bio electric power was retained maximum 1.03 V in pure culture from Morganella morganii and 1.2 V in mixed culture.

Mannarreddy Prabu

2012-09-01

349

Use of Hanford waste water ponds by waterfowl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Census and environmental surveillance information on waterfowl that use the Hanford Site 200 Area waste water ponds are described and evaluated. Physical features of the ponds are discussed in relation to their use and suitability for waterfowl. Seasonal distributions observed for the years 1971 through 1974 indicate that the highest use by waterfowl occurs during the spring and fall migratory periods. Base population estimates are 300 to 400 resident waterfowl with a few tens of pairs nesting during the summer. Environmental surveillance data on 137Cs in muscle tissue are presented for the years 1971 through 1977. Comparisons are made between Columbia River and waste water pond waterfowl, between waterfowl groups, and among ponds. Waterfowl collected from ponds frequently have easily detected levels of 137Cs in muscle tissue. However, those waterfowl collected from the Columbia River seldom show a 137Cs level above that expected from worldwide fallout. Waterfowl collected from the pond with the smallest 137Cs inventory and the poorest waterfowl habitat contained the lowest levels of 137Cs in muscle tissue

350

TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WATER USING CERAMIC FILTER FROM NATURAL CLAY AND FLY-ASH  

OpenAIRE

The declining water quality in Sriwijaya University has been caused by the presence of heavy metal contents such as Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) in the treatment and distribution of water. A simple method is proposed in this work to minimize the heavy metal content in water by using filtration technology. This research was carried out using ceramic filter made of 77.5% natural clay, 20% fly ash, and 2.5% iron powder. The results showed an increase in the quality of raw water that is in accordance ...

NASIR SUBRIYER

2013-01-01

351

Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system  

Science.gov (United States)

The installation of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is described. The systems consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy.

1978-01-01

352

Treatment of waste waters from special laundries of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste water treatment methods applied in the purification of waste waters discharged from the laundries are presented. The most usually applied method is vaporization, the most frequently designed procedure is reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration and coagulation. Currently the Nuclear Research Institute in Rez is developing a technology of waste water purification which is aimed at introducing such a method of processing in which a minimum amount of solid wastes will be generated at minimum costs. From the point of view of waste water treatment it is most suitable to wash with soap with an addition of detergent such as sodium alkylaryl sulphonate. A promising preparation is the ROMY suspension. Waste water treatment with the use of coagulation by lime salt, sorption of the residues of organic substances on activated coal and of radionuclide residues on a selective ion exchanger without regeneration should be a sufficiently low-cost and effective technology. (J.P.)

353

Influence of waste water from oil refinery on species and biomass of microzoon in rootzone of water hyacinth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are lots of biological species in rootzone of water hyacinth, which can purify waste water from oil refinery. Rootzone of water hyacinth is an ecological subsystem. There are 20 microzoon species including 13 protozoa, 3 rotifer and 4 others. The main species are Vorticella convallaria, Rotaria rotatoria and Lepadella patella with percentages of 18.5%, 17.5% and 34.5%, respectively. The longer retention time of the waste water is in the oxidation pond, the more species and the bigger population of microzoon in rootzone of water hyacinth. The total biomass increases along with waste water flow. The maximum value of the population is 1.91 x 107 ind/m2. There is no microzoon except Englena which is an autotrophic organism in control pond. Increase of retention time of waste water is beneficial to biomass of microzoon and has no effect on the content of aerobic and facultative aerobic microbes in oxidation pond

354

An improved area-based guideline for domestic water demand estimation in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Increased infrastructural development and potable water consumption have highlighted the importance of accurate water-demand estimates for effective municipal water services infrastructure planning and design. In the light of evolving water consumption trends, the current guideline for municipal wat [...] er demand estimation, published in 1983, needs to be revised. This study investigated, using regression analyses, the combined effect of various socio-economic and climatic parameters on municipal water consumption with the objective of determining the dominant influencing parameters and suggesting a new guideline for water-demand estimation. To this end, an initial database comprising more than 2.5 x10(6) metered water consumption records extracted from 48 municipal treasury databases, which are located within 5 out of the 7 South African water regions was analysed. Each of the 48 municipal treasury databases spanned a period of at least 12 months. The final amalgamated database, after rigorous cleaning and filtering, comprised 1 091 685 consumption records. Single variable and stepwise multiple variable regression analyses were utilised. Results show that stand area, stand value and geographical location are the dominant parameters influencing municipal water consumption, with stand area and stand value positively correlated to water consumption. In suggesting a new municipal water-demand estimation guideline, these three parameters were considered. Stand value, however, fell away as a reliable parameter for estimating water consumption because of the inconsistent basis for predicting stand values due to the constant fluctuations in the value of property, and municipal valuations that often become outdated. Inland and coastal geographical locations exhibited different consumption patterns, with coastal stands of the same stand area and stand value consistently consuming less water than inland stands. These should therefore be treated separately in any design guideline. Stand area then became the best parameter on which to base water-demand estimations. A single guideline curve is therefore proposed which gives various confidence limits for estimating water demand in South Africa, based on stand area.

HJ, van Zyl; AA, Ilemobade; JE, van Zyl.

2008-03-01

355

Surface Water Modeling Using an EPA Computer Code for Tritiated Waste Water Discharge from the heavy Water Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium releases from the D-Area Heavy Water Facilities to the Savannah River have been analyzed. The U.S. EPA WASP5 computer code was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the D-Area Drum Wash, Rework, and DW facilities. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at U.S. Highway 301. At the maximum tritiated waste water concentrations, the calculated tritium concentration in the Savannah River at U.S. Highway 301 due to concurrent releases from D-Area Heavy Water Facilities varies from 5.9 to 18.0 pCi/ml as a function of the operation conditions of these facilities. The calculated concentration becomes the lowest when the batch releases method for the Drum Wash Waste Tanks is adopted

356

Zimbabwe. Country Case Study on Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation in the Water Sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background information for presentation given at the Annex I Expert Group Seminar in Conjunction with the OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development on 28 March 2006. The main subjects concern the situation in Zimbabwe with regard to Water Resources and their Use, Institutional Arrangements, Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources, Preparedness and Adaptation to Climate Change, and finally Recommendations are given

357

Argentina. Country Case Study on Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation in the Water Sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background information for presentation given at the Annex I Expert Group Seminar in Conjunction with the OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development on 28 March 2006. The main subjects concern the situation in Argentina with regard to Water Resources and their Use, Institutional Arrangements, Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources, Preparedness and Adaptation to Climate Change, and finally Recommendations are given

358

India. Country Case Study on Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation in the Water Sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background information for presentation given at the Annex I Expert Group Seminar in Conjunction with the OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development on 28 March 2006. The main subjects concern the situation in India with regard to Water Resources and their Use, Institutional Arrangements, Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources, Preparedness and Adaptation to Climate Change, and finally Recommendations are given

359

Exergy and Energy analysis of a ground-source heat pump for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents detailed analysis of a water to water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) to provide all the hot water needs in a 345 m2 house located in DOE climate zone 4 (mixed-humid). The protocol for hot water use is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which aims to capture the living habits of the average American household and its impact on energy consumption. The entire house was operated under simulated occupancy conditions. Detailed energy and exergy analysis provides a complete set of information on system efficiency and sources of irreversibility, the main cause of wasted energy. The WW-GSHP was sized at 5.275 kW (1.5-ton) for this house and supplied hot water to a 303 L (80 gal) water storage tank. The WW-GSHP shared the same ground loop with a 7.56 kW (2.1-ton) water to air ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) which provided space conditioning needs to the entire house. Data, analyses, and measures of performance for the WW-GSHP in this paper complements the results of the WA-GSHP published in this journal (Ally, Munk et al. 2012). Understanding the performance of GSHPs is vital if the ground is to be used as a viable renewable energy resource.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

2012-01-01

360

Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of access to safe water remains a significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries. There has been little research into the health effects of frequently carrying containers of water. The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health effects of the task. Methods Mixed methods of data collection from six were used to explore water carrying performed by people in six rural villages of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and through observation and measurement. Linear regression modelling were used to identify significant correlations between potential risk factors and rating of perceived exertion (RPE or self reported pain. Independent t-tests were used to compare the mean values of potential risk factors and RPE between sub-groups reporting pain and those not reporting pain. Results Water carrying was mainly performed by women or children carrying containers on their head (mean container weight 19.5 kg over a mean distance of 337 m. The prevalence of spinal (neck or back pain was 69% and back pain was 38%. Of participants who carried water by head loading, the distance walked by those who reported spinal pain was significantly less than those who did not (173 m 95%CI 2-343; p = 0.048. For head loaders reporting head or neck pain compared to those who did not, the differences in weight of water carried (4.6 kg 95%CI -9.7-0.5; p = 0.069 and RPE (2.5 95%CI -5.1-0.1; p = 0.051 were borderline statistically significant. For head loaders, RPE was significantly correlated with container weight (r = 0.52; p = 0.011 and incline (r = 0.459; p = 0.018 Conclusions Typical water carrying methods impose physical loading with potential to produce musculoskeletal disorders and related disability. This exploratory study is limited by a small sample size and future research should aim to better understand the type and strength of association between water carrying and health, particularly musculoskeletal disorders. However, these preliminary findings suggest that efforts should be directed toward eliminating the need for water carrying, or where it must continue, identifying and reducing risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and physical injury.

Geere Jo-Anne L

2010-08-01

361

Water intake in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from open dishes and nipple drinkers under different water and feeding regimes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are often presented suffering from urolithiasis. A high water intake is important in the prophylaxis of uroliths. We investigated the influence factors for water intake using 12 rabbits subjected to different feed and water regimes with practical relevance: Hay, fresh parsley, a seed mix and two different pelleted feed were offered in diverse combinations. Water was provided either by open dish or nipple drinker. Water was accessible ad libitum except for four treatments with 6 h or 12 h water access. Under the different feeding regimes, the drinker had no influence on water intake, but faecal dry matter content was significantly higher with nipple drinkers [60.0 ± 2.1 vs. 57.2 ± 2.1% of wet weight (mean ± 95% confidence interval), p = 0.003]. Dry food led to a higher drinking water intake but total water intake was still lower than with addition of 'fresh' food. With restricted water access, rabbits exhibited a significantly higher water intake with open dishes compared with nipple drinkers (54.9 ± 9.8 vs. 48.1 ± 8.2 g/kg(0.75) /day (mean ± 95% confidence interval), p = 0.04). High proportions of fresh parsley or hay in the diet enhanced total water intake and urine output, and led to lower urinary dry matter content and lower urinary calcium concentrations. Restricted access to drinkers led to a decreased total daily water intake and increased dry matter content of urine and faeces. For optimal water provision and urolith prophylaxis, we recommend a diet with a high 'fresh food' proportion as well as additionally hay ad libitum with free water access, offered in an open bowl. PMID:21091544

Tschudin, A; Clauss, M; Codron, D; Liesegang, A; Hatt, J-M

2011-08-01

362

Domestic policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in the water sector. Part 1. Annex 1 countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adaptation to climate change needs to be integrated into policy development. This paper examines domestic policy frameworks in the water sector and analyses how adaptation could be incorporated into these frameworks. Global climate change will have a significant impact on water resources in all countries. Consequently, a key challenge that countries face is how to govern and manage their water resources in the conditions of changing climate. What should be done, when and by whom, is a function of the rate of climate change, but also of the existing water policy frameworks of each country. This study examines current water policy frameworks in four countries (Canada, Finland, United Kingdom and United States). It reviews the existing legal frameworks, institutional arrangements, key players and water planning mechanisms. One objective was to determine to what extent adaptation to climate change is beginning to be incorporated into water policy frameworks and whether there are some lessons that can be drawn from current experiences. The study concludes that a certain degree of adjustment to climate variability and extreme weather events is inherent to the water sector. However, adaptation to long-term climate change is generally not a significant factor in the management of water resources in the four countries, although some initiatives are being undertaken in several countries to build climate change into decision making. All four countries have water policy frameworkfour countries have water policy frameworks, which to different extents, can help them adapt to climate change. These water policy frameworks, which differ in each country, can be enhanced to promote adaptation to climate change. They generally include the following elements: A system of laws (legal frameworks) that stipulate rights and responsibilities of different levels of government and private entities. These may include, for example, a system of water rights and abstraction permits; A variety of national, regional and sub-national institutions that are responsible for developing policies and overseeing their implementation; A set of policies that guide the implementation of national, state and provincial laws; Clearly defined roles for the key players, including government ministries, departments, water suppliers, regulators and other local authorities; Physical water infrastructure, that is dams, levees, reservoirs and sewerage systems that are capable of managing the flow and distribution of water; A set of water management plans (long-term strategic plans, drought plans and flood plans) with flexibility to anticipate and respond to climate changes; and a system to share current and projected climatic information. For the most part, national governments will have to determine how current policy frameworks should be modified in order to prepare for climate change. However, there is little doubt that broadening the exchange of information will be a crucial element, if countries are to be prepared to properly manage their water resources

363

Effects of plumbing attachments on heat losses from solar domestic hot water storage tanks. Final report, Part 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has established a standardized methodology for determining the performance rating of the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems it certifies under OG-300. Measured performance data for the solar collector component(s) of the system are used along with numerical models for the balance of the system to calculate the system`s thermal performance under a standard set of rating conditions. SRCC uses TRNSYS to model each of the components that comprise the system. The majority of the SRCC certified systems include a thermal storage tank with an auxiliary electrical heater. The most common being a conventional fifty gallon electric tank water heater. Presently, the thermal losses from these tanks are calculated using Q = U {center_dot} A {center_dot} {Delta}T. Unfortunately, this generalized formula does not adequately address temperature stratification both within the tank as well as in the ambient air surrounding the tank, non-uniform insulation jacket, thermal siphoning in the fluid lines attached to the tank, and plumbing fittings attached to the tank. This study is intended to address only that part of the problem that deals with the plumbing fittings attached to the tank. Heat losses from a storage tank and its plumbing fittings involve three different operating modes: charging, discharging and standby. In the charging mode, the tank receives energy from the solar collector. In the discharge mode, water flows from the storage tank through the distribution pipes to the faucets and cold city water enters the tank. In the standby mode, there is no forced water flow into or out of the tank. In this experimental study, only the standby mode was considered.

Song, J.; Wood, B.D. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Ji, L.J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

1998-03-01

364

Waste storage in the vadose zone affected by water vapor condensation and leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the major concerns associated with waste storage in the vadose zone is that toxic materials may somehow be leached and transported by advecting water down to the water table and reach the accessible environment through either a well or discharge to a river. Consequently, care is taken to provide barriers over and around the storage sites to reduce contact between infiltrating water and the buried waste form. In some cases, it is important to consider the intrusion of water vapor as well as water in the liquid phase. Water vapor diffuses through porous material along vapor pressure gradients. A slightly low temperature, or the presence of water-soluble components in the waste, favors water condensation resulting in leaching of the waste form and advection of water-soluble components to the water table. A simple analysis is presented that allows one to estimate the rate of vapor condensation as a function of waste composition and backfill materials. An example using a waste form surrounded by concrete and gravel layers is presented. The use of thermal gradients to offset condensation effects of water-soluble components in the waste form is discussed. Thermal gradients may be controlled by design factors that alter the atmospheric energy exchange across the soil surface or that interrupt the geothermal heat field. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

365

21st colloquium on waste water management - Special issues: industrial waste water, WRRL/trace materials, waste water and energy, abundant (waste) water; 21. Kolloquium zur Abwasserwirtschaft - Themenschwerpunkte Abwaesser aus Gewerbe und Industrie, WRRL/Spurenstoffe, Abwasser und Energie, viel (Ab)Wasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proceedings of the 21st colloquium on waste water management includes 20 contributions on the following topics: industrial waste water treatment using electroflotation; pretreatment of cosmetic industry waste water; waste water management planning and mitigation program according EG-WRRL; drug agents in the aquatic environment; perfluorinated tensides in waste water and sewage sludge; diffuse loading of rain water by organic materials and open questions on rainwater management; implementation of trace elements elimination in sewage plants; heat recycling from sewer; boundary conditions for an ecologically water course compatible cooling water usage; sewage sludge disintegration using thermo-pressure hydrolysis; sludge gas processing using bio-natural gas; consequences of the aggravated maximum permissible formaldehyde value for the sewage gas power generation; off-shore storage and extended mixed water cleaning; rainwater drainage in settlement areas by roadside ditches; the future of decentralized rainwater management; comparative evaluation of disintegration processes; oil-containing waste water processing using membrane technology; floodwater protection for drainage systems; energy retrieving from waste water in buildings.

Gulyas, Holger; Otterpohl, Ralf (eds.)

2009-07-01

366

Application of an Integrated Heat Recovery Technology for Domestic Hot Water Supply System and Air Conditioning  

OpenAIRE

This study is to design an integrated heat recovery and air conditioner system and to investigate the feasibility and the potential performance of this system in changing conditions. Different season conditions and operating modes are studied based on the items of one hotel. In winter, heat recovered from wastewater is used on water heating and air condition and the surplus energy of air conditioner system is used on hot water system in summer. Dynamic energy ...

Chen Yan; Zhang Yufeng

2013-01-01

367

Isotope Technique (14C, 131I for Safety Analysis of Domestic Solid Waste Disposal Site in Jakarta, Indonesia- A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bekasi is one of city around Jakarta which has been developed for the last 10 years. In the south of Bekasi placed sanitary landfill area for domestic solid waste of Jakarta Metropolitan as a Disposal Site. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the location of Bantar Gebang Bekasi solid waste disposal site for safety analysis. The geohydrologycal parameters are determined by using isotopes techniques (14C, 131I to study the shallow groundwater characteristics of the site. From the results of 14C the direction of groundwater movement is found to be from South to the North and turned to North West of Jakarta at Jakarta Center. From radiotracer method (131I the direction of shallow groundwater in the rainy is observed to be from the disposal site to the surrounding area and the Ciketing canal which flows to the North. For the dry season from the disposal site to the surrounding area. The results from environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry analysis indicate that the pollutants from the site have given an impact to the surrounding area of disposal site which was shown by migration of nitrate. It is recommended that the decision maker should give high priority to the geology, geohydrology and environmental pollution studies for consideration of disposal site for the safety of sanitary landfill.

Syafalni Syafalni

2010-02-01

368

Domestic Solid Waste Management and its Impacts on Human Health and the Environment in Sharg El Neel Locality, Khartoum State, Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to rapid urbanization in Khartoum State, Domestic Solid Waste (DSW management remains the biggest obsession that recurrently attracts the attention of the concern authorities and stakeholders. As one of the seven localities comprised the state, the Sharg El Neel Locality was chosen to study the DSW management efficiency. The materials and methods employed in collection of data is a package of techniques, one of which was by conducting interviews using structured and unstructured questions mainly directed to appropriate persons i.e., householders and particular government employees directly engaged in DSW management operations. The main findings reached in this study were that local authorities lack the necessary capacities to handle the immense problems of DSW management. Shortages of funds, inadequate number of workers, lack of transport and facilities and weakness of attitudes of respondents found to be among factors hindering the DSW management. Accordingly, proper scheduled and timing, well-trained public health officers and sanitary overseers and strict sustainable program to controlling flies, rodents, cockroach and other disease vectors are essential to properly managing DSW. Otherwise, problems resulting from solid waste generation in the study area will be magnitudized and the surrounding environment will definitely be deteriorated.

A.M. Abdellah

2013-01-01

369

Amendment of the administrative skeleton provision for minimum requirements to be met by waste water discharged into bodies of water. Administrative skeleton provision on waste water of 25 November, 1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This provision applies to waste water to be discharged into bodies of water and whose pollution load stems mainly from the sectors indicated in appendices. Without prejudice to stricter requirements governing the execution of the Water Resources Act, the requirements to be met by the discharge of waste water, as indicated in appendices, are defined in accordance with section 7a, subsection 1, number 3 of the Water Resources Act. - The maximum concentrations indicated in appendices, for instance for waste water from brown coal briquetting plant, black coal treatment plant, petroleum refineries and flue gas scrubbers at combustion plant, relate to waste water in the discharge pipe of the waste water treatment plant. Contrary to technical rules that may apply in each instance, these concentrations must not be attained by dilution or mixing. (orig.)

370

Treatment of waste water from special laundries of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is given of present methods of treating waste waters from special laundries of nuclear power plants, and the development is described of this problem in Czechoslovakia. Variant methods were developed for the disposal of these liquid radioactive wastes, based on precipitation, i.e., on an adsorption-precipitation technology, and were tried in pilot plant operation with model and real waste waters. Further research aimed at the complex optimization of the whole process ranging from washing to the treatment of the waste waters, anticipates the use of new detergents specially developed for washing contaminated laundry. (author)

371

Microbiological and Chemical Aspects on Some Fresh Water and Industrial Waste Water Samples  

OpenAIRE

Both microbiological and chemical analysis of water and industrial wastewater samples collected from Dakahlia governorate (Egypt) were carried out. The microbiological examination involved the measurement of microbial total count, specific bacterial groups, pathogenic bacteria yeast, and fungi. The isolation and purification of different bacterial groups were also performed from different samples of industrial wastes. Trial to reuse the industrial effluents was also made. The chemical analysi...

El-Fadaly H.; El-defrawy, M.; El-zawawy, F.; Makia, D.

1999-01-01

372

FORUM ON INNOVATIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL. Third, Dallas, Texas, June 11-13, 1991 - TECHNICAL PAPERS  

Science.gov (United States)

On June 11 -13,1991, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Technology Innovation Office and Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory hosted an international conference in Dallas, TX, to exchange solutions to hazardous waste treatment problems. This conference, the Third Forum...

373

Utilization of high energy electron beam in the treatment of drinking and waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of drinking water and waste water were irradiated using high energy electron beam with doses from 0.37kGy to 100kGy. Preliminary data show the removal of about 100% tri halomethanes (THM) in drinking water (concentration from 2.7 ?g/1 to 45?g/1, 90% of the color of the Public Owned Wastewater Treatment Plant effluent and 87% of oil and grease of the cutting fluid waste water. (author)

374

Water supply and waste disposal strategies for Madras  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on a schematical model, an attempt is made to relate the magnitude of material flow into and out of Madras, a coastal city in Southeast India. The focus is on the role of the household sector. Water scarcity and seasonal variation in precipitation together with a flat topography are significant problems for proper material-flow management. The comparatively large number of people living in slums, with virtually no sanitary or other facilities, means that the activities and livelihood of about 1.5 million people are outside the control of most planning efforts. In addition, the large cattle population within the city contributes to a wide range of environmental and health hazards. The prevailing socioeconomic conditions mean that most material is reused or recycled. The average amount of garbage is less than one kilo per person and day. However, due to the size of the city and the overall amount of waste it produces, more efforts must be devoted to making proper use of renewable resources to reduce waste production. Special concern must be given to slum areas and to vulnerable communities. 23 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

Appasamy, P. (MIDS, Gandhi Nagar, Adyar, Madras (India)); Lundqvist, J. (Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Water and Environmental Studies)

1993-01-01

375

Occurrence of contaminant accumulation in lead pipe scales from domestic drinking-water distribution systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, contaminants, such as AI, As, and Ra, have been shown to accumulate in drinking-water distribution system solids. Accumulated contaminants could be periodically released back into the water supply causing elevated levels at consumers taps, going undetected by most current regulatory monitoring practices and consequently constituting a hidden risk. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of over 40 major scale constituents, regulated metals, and other potential metallic inorganic contaminants in drinking-water distribution system Pb (lead) or Pb-lined service lines. The primary method of analysis was inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, following complete decomposition of scale material. Contaminants and scale constituents were categorized by their average concentrations, and many metals of potential health concern were found to occur at levels sufficient to result in elevated levels at the consumer's taps if they were to be mobilized. The data indicate distinctly nonconservative behavior for many inorganic contaminants in drinking-water distribution systems. This finding suggests an imminent need for further research into the transport and fate of contaminants throughout drinking-water distribution system pipes, as well as a re-evaluation of monitoring protocols in order to more accurately determine the scope and levels of potential consumer exposure. PMID:18613340

Schock, Michael R; Hyland, Robert N; Welch, Meghan M

2008-06-15

376

Quantification of nitrous oxide emissions during biological nitrogen removal from waste water- A system comparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is strong evidence that the biological removal of nitrogen from waste water emits considerable amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Up to 80% of removal nitrogen is emitted in the form of N2O, which is a strong greenhouse gas and ozone depletant. This fact is well reported for treatment of agricultural wastes but not for the treatment of communal/industrial waste water. (Author)

377

Volume reduction and encapsulation process for water containing low level radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In encapsulating solutions or slurries of radio-active waste within polymeric material for disposal, the water is removed therefrom by adding a water insoluble liquid forming a low boiling azeotrope and evaporating the azeotrope, and then a polymerisable composition is dispersed throughout the dewatered waste and allowed to set. (author)

378

42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports...Sanitary Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports...approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, Food and...

2010-10-01

379

Experimental Investigation of a Natural Circulation Solar Domestic Water Heater Performance under Standard Consumption Rate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper reports experimental studies on the performance of a natural circulation solar water heater considering the weather condition of a city in north of Iran. The tests are done on clear and partly cloudy days. The variations of storage tank temperature due to consumption from the tank, daily consumption influence on the solar water heater efficiency, and on the input temperature of the collector are studied and the delivered daily useful energy has been obtained. The results show that by withdrawing from storage tank, the system as well as its collector efficiency will increase. Considering the value of the coefficient FRUL and ??, which are obtained experimentally as 6.03 and 0.83 respectively, average. monthly total load that is covered by this solar water heating system is estimated.

Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Taherian, H.

2012-01-01

380

In-situ parameter estimation for solar domestic hot water heating systems components. Final report, June 1995--May 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three different solar domestic hot water systems are being tested at the Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory; an unpressurized drain-back system with a load side heat exchanger, an integral collector storage system, and an ultra low flow natural convection heat exchanger system. The systems are fully instrumented to yield data appropriate for in-depth analyses of performance. The level of detail allows the observation of the performance of the total system and the performance of the individual components. This report evaluates the systems based on in-situ experimental data and compares the performances with simulated performances. The verification of the simulations aids in the rating procedure. The whole system performance measurements are also used to analyze the performance of individual components of a solar hot water system and to develop improved component models. The data are analyzed extensively and the parameters needed to characterize the systems fully are developed. Also resulting from this indepth analysis are suggested design improvements wither to the systems or the system components.

Smith, T.R.

1997-03-01

381

Genetic diversity in the prion protein gene (PRNP) of domestic cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been an accumulation of information on frequencies of insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms within the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) and on the number of octapeptide repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of bovine PRNP related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility. We investigated the frequencies of 23-bp indel polymorphism in the promoter region (23indel) and 12-bp indel polymorphism in intron 1 region (12indel), octapeptide repeat polymorphisms and SNPs in the bovine PRNP of cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. The frequency of the deletion allele in the 23indel site was significantly low in cattle of Indonesia and Thailand and water buffaloes. The deletion allele frequency in the 12indel site was significantly low in all of the cattle and buffaloes categorized in each subgroup. In both indel sites, the deletion allele has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to classical BSE. In some Indonesian local cattle breeds, the frequency of the allele with 5 octapeptide repeats was significantly high despite the fact that the allele with 6 octapeptide repeats has been reported to be most frequent in many breeds of cattle. Four SNPs observed in Indonesian local cattle have not been reported for domestic cattle. This study provided information on PRNP of livestock in these Southeast Asian countries. PMID:24705506

Uchida, Leo; Heriyanto, Agus; Thongchai, Chalermchaikit; Hanh, Tran Thi; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishihara, Kanako; Tamura, Yutaka; Muramatsu, Yasukazu

2014-07-01

382

Degradation of methyl orange waste water by electrochemical oxidation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation of methyl orange (MO) waste water was conducted by electrochemical oxidation method with PbO2/Ti electrode as anode. PbO2/Ti electrode was fabricated by electrochemical deposition of PbO2 on Ti foil. The micrograph and crystal structure of PbO2 show that uniform coating of PbO2 on titanium foil was obtained and the dominant crystal structure was ?-PbO2. Degradation experiments of MO solution indicate that the degradation rate increased with cell voltage and solution conductivity. In addition, air aeration also improved the degradation of MO solution; but an increase in cell voltage or input energy decreased the energy efficiency of MO removal. The energy efficiency reached over 0.1mg kJ?1 under a cell voltage lower than 15V, and the removal rate could reach 90%.

383

Surface water considerations for low-level radioactive waste site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To ensure that the objective of isolation of low-level radioactive wastes and stability of the disposal site after closure can be achieved, the surface hydrology of the potential sit must be carefully characterized prior to engineering and operation. At a site the most important considerations with regard to flooding, infiltration, erosion, and pathway of radionuclides are addressed as they relate to streams, ponds, hydraulic structures, and surface water users. To satisfactorily characterize the site, the type and amount of data and analyses needed for license applications and the environmental report are discussed. The discussion also includes potential sources of available data, the field data collection program that may be necessary, and methodologies that can be used for analysis

384

Unique wood-fired system for domestic hot water generation. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project has proven that it is possible to construct in a home workshop situation, a simple, durable, reasonably modest-cost stove and heat-exchanger which will conveniently generate wood-fueled hot water year-round to meet household needs and daily demand schedules. Included with this report are the illustrations, descriptions, and details which should make it possible for someone with the proper skills to construct their own system. However, before rushing out to buy copper and steel, it would be important for anyone to consider the costs, benefits, and possible alternatives available. Whatever the source of hot water, conservation is a major way of saving energy and money. Some major ways of conserving are to add extra insulation to the water heater tank, turning the heating elements down to 115 to 120/sup 0/F thermostat settings, using a timer to turn on the elements only during the time of day that hot water will be needed, using warm or cold water for laundry, and using flow-restricting shower heads. These measures can save up to 50% of the energy previously used, with very little investment. Total costs for the system using an existing water heater for the storage tank could range from $200 to over $1000. Assuming free firewood, at current utility prices this would make a pay-back period for original investment of only 8 months to 3 years 4 months for the average family. Considering these costs, one might reasonably wonder if it would be worthwhile to purchase and use a wood-fired system which would save only a dollar or less per daily use. This would amount to a rate of savings pay equal to no more than the minimum wage for the time involved.

1981-09-01

385

System design package for SIMS prototype system 3, solar heating and domestic hot water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plat collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system. The SIMS Prototype Heating and Hot Water System, Model Number 3 has been installed in a residence at Glendo State Park, Glendo, Wyoming.

1978-11-01

386

Potencial de recuperación de residuos sólidos domésticos dispuestos en un relleno sanitario / Potential Recovery of Domestic Solid Waste Disposed of in A Landfill  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Conocer las cantidades y tipos de residuos sólidos domésticos (RSD) que son depositados en el relleno sanitario, brinda la posibilidad de proponer opciones sustentables para su aprovechamiento. Los residuos de cualquier localidad manejados de forma apropiada se pueden convertir en insumos de algún o [...] tro proceso. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar los componentes de los RSD susceptibles de ser reciclados, depositados en el relleno sanitario de la ciudad de Ensenada (Baja California, México), para ser valorizados en el mercado de los reciclables. En promedio se podrían comercializar semanalmente 643.67 toneladas de residuos alimenticios para composta, 389.45 toneladas de papel y cartón, 217.55 toneladas de plástico, 78.81 toneladas de vidrio, 37.20 toneladas de metales y 8.11 toneladas de aluminio. Se obtendría en total un aproximado de MXP $911,224.18 (USD $ 71,693.48) por la comercialización de los principales reciclables. Abstract in english Knowing the amount and type of Domestic Solid Waste (DSW) that is deposited in the land fill gives us the possibility to consider options in how to make sustainable use of it. Waste from any location, if properly handled, can be turned into the raw material for other processes. The aim of this study [...] was to quantify the components of the DSW likely to be recycled, deposited in the landfill in the city of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, so that they could be valued on the market as recyclables. The average weekly market could be 643.67 tons of food waste for composting, 389.45 tons of paper and cardboard, 217.55 tons of plastic, 78.81 tons of glass, 32.20 tons of metal and 8.11 tons of aluminum. This should result in a total of approximately MXP $ 911,224.18 (USD $ 71693.48) for the marketing of major recyclables.

Quetzalli, Aguilar-Virgen; Carolina, Armijo-de Vega; Paul, Taboada-González; Xochitl M., Aguilar.

2010-11-01

387

Process for fabricating products resistant to leaching for fixation of harmful water containing wastes and cement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for fabricating products resistent to leaching by water and brine for fixation of harmful water containing wastes and cement, with or without additions (fixation matrix), is described. The water containing wastes are concentrated by evaporation and mixed with the fixation matrix. Evaporation and mixing are performed simultaneously at temperatures of 100 degrees C to 180 degrees C, comprising a) the content of the waste in the end product lying between 20 and 50 wt. % and in case of polluted ion exchangers as wastes between 26 and 50 wt. % related to the dry weight of waste, and b) the water content in the end product corresponding to a water-to-cement ratio of 0.2 to 0.45. 1 fig., 4 tabs

388

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: estimation of bathing-associated disease risks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sewage is a major contributor to pollution problems involving human pathogens in tropical coastal areas. This study investigated the occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with sewage. The potential risks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection from recreational water exposure were estimated from the levels of viable (oo) cysts (DIC+, DAPI+, PI-) found in near-shore swimming areas using an exponential dose response model. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed in order to determine the probability distribution of risks. Microbial indicators of recreational water quality (enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) and genetic markers of sewage pollution (human-specific Bacteroidales marker [HF183] and Clostridium coccoides) were simultaneously evaluated in order to estimate the extent of water quality deterioration associated with human wastes. The study revealed the potential risk of parasite infections via primary contact with tropical marine waters contaminated with sewage; higher risk estimates for Giardia than for Cryptosporidium were found. Mean risks estimated by Monte Carlo were below the U.S. EPA upper bound on recreational risk of 0.036 for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis for both children and adults. However, 95th percentile estimates for giardiasis for children exceeded the 0.036 level. Environmental surveillance of microbial pathogens is crucial in order to control and eradicate the effects that increasing anthropogenic impacts have on marine ecosystems and human health. PMID:24975093

Betancourt, Walter Q; Duarte, Diana C; Vásquez, Rosa C; Gurian, Patrick L

2014-08-15

389

Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water in the heating system. The heat storage was tested in a heat storage test facility. The most important characteristics of the heat storage were determined by means of the tests and recommendations for the design of the heat storage were given.

Vejen, Niels Kristian

1998-01-01

390

Occurrence of Male-Specific Bacteriophage in Feral and Domestic Animal Wastes, Human Feces, and Human-Associated Wastewaters  

OpenAIRE

Male-specific bacteriophage (MSB) densities were determined in animal and human fecal wastes to assess their potential impact on aquatic environments. Fecal samples (1,031) from cattle, chickens, dairy cows, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, hogs, horses, seagulls, sheep, and humans as well as 64 sewerage samples were examined for MSB. All animal species were found to harbor MSB, although the great majority excreted these viruses at very low levels. The results from this study demonstrate that in ar...

Calci, Kevin R.; Burkhardt, William; Watkins, William D.; Rippey, Scott R.

1998-01-01

391

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Deep Geological Repository: A Domestic and Global Blueprint for Safe Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste - 12081  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the end of 2011, the world's first used/spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is projected to open in 2020, followed by two more in 2025. The related pre-opening periods will be at least 40 years, as it also would be if USA's candidate HLW-repository is resurrected by 2013. If abandoned, a new HLW-repository site would be needed. On 26 March 1999, USA began disposing long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological repository in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The related pre-opening period was less than 30 years. WIPP has since been re-certified twice. It thus stands to reason the WIPP repository is the global proof of principle for safe deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also stands to reason that the lessons learned since 1971 at the WIPP site provide a unique, continually-updated, blueprint for how the pre-opening period for a new HLW repository could be shortened both in the USA and abroad. (authors)

Eriksson, Leif G. [Nuclear Waste Dispositions, Winter Park, Florida 32789 (United States); Dials, George E. [B and W Conversion Services, LLC, Lexington, Kentucky 40513 (United States)

2012-07-01

392

Renewable energy in Switzerland - Potential of waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems - Strategical decisions in politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses how waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems make an important contribution to the production of renewable energy in Switzerland. Financing by the 'Climate-Cent' programme, which finances projects involving the use of renewable energy, is discussed. Figures are quoted on the electrical energy produced in waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and combined heat and power generation plant. Eco-balances of the various systems are discussed. Political efforts being made in Switzerland, including the 'Climate Cent', are looked at and promotion provided by new energy legislation is discussed. Eco-power and the processing of sewage gas to meet natural gas quality standards are discussed, as are energy analysis, co-operation between various research institutions and external costs

393

System design package for SIMS Prototype System 4, solar heating and domestic hot water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air type solar energy collection techniques. The system consists of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit containing solar collctors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with inforation sufficient to assemble a similar system. The prepackage solar unit has been installed at the Mississippi Power and Light Company, Training Facilities, Clinton, Mississippi.

1978-11-01

394

Sensitivity analysis of the waste composition and water content parameters on the biogas production models on solid waste landfills  

Science.gov (United States)

Landfills are commonly used as the final deposit of urban solid waste. Despite the waste is previously processed on a treatment plant, the final amount of organic matter which reaches the landfill is large however. The biodegradation of this organic matter forms a mixture of greenhouse gases (essentially Methane and Carbon-Dioxide as well as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide). From the environmental point of view, solid waste landfills are therefore considered to be one of the main greenhouse gas sources. Different mathematical models are usually applied to predict the amount of biogas produced on real landfills. The waste chemical composition and the availability of water in the solid waste appear to be the main parameters of these models. Results obtained when performing a sensitivity analysis over the biogas production model parameters under real conditions are shown. The importance of a proper characterizacion of the waste as well as the necessity of improving the understanding of the behaviour and development of the water on the unsaturated mass of waste are emphasized.

Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco; Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena

2014-05-01

395

Use of zeolitized pumice waste as a water softening agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Important pumice quarries are located on the island of Lipari (Italy) where an intense activity of extraction, transformation and trade of pumice takes place. Nevertheless, the finest fraction amounting to about 60% of mined pumice is discarded and disposed off in open-sky pits. This implies economic losses for mining industries and environmental problems for neighbouring villages. In order to find a sustainable use of this waste, we resumed and improved an old extractive process with aqueous sodium alkali, where a sodium silicate concentrated solution was produced together with an unextracted residue partially converted into zeolite P in Na+ form and now we are searching for suitable applications of this residue. In this paper, we relate about its use as a low cost water softening agent on the basis of results obtained from several tests both in batch systems and column. They show that, at room temperature, the residue works well with calcium and badly with magnesium, whereas, at 60 degrees C, also the affinity toward Mg ions increases to acceptable levels. Repeated regenerations of the residue with concentrated NaCl solutions do not appreciably compromise the performance. The limits for the possible use as water softening agent are defined. PMID:17320286

Arrigo, I; Catalfamo, P; Cavallari, L; Di Pasquale, S

2007-08-17

396

Vessel for solidifying water-impermeable radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A blend prepared by admixing silica sand, alumina powder or glass fiber, as aggregates, to epoxy resin elastic adhesives is coated on an inner surface of a steel drum can or an inner surface of a concrete vessel at a thickness of greater than 1mm followed by hardening. The addition amount of the silica sand, alumina powder or glass fiber is determined as 20 to 40% by weight, 30 to 60% by weight or 5 to 15% by weight respectively. A lid having a hole for injecting fillers is previously bonded to a container for use in solidifying radioactive materials. The strength of the coating layer is increased and a coating performance and an adhesion force are improved by admixing the aggregates, to provide a satisfactory water-impermeability. The container for use in solidifying radioactive wastes having a coating layer with an advantage of the elastic resin adhesives, strong strength and adhesion and being excellent in the water-impermeability can be obtained relatively economically. (N.H.)

397

Effect of gamma irradiation on textile waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies the use of gamma irradiation for textile waste water treatment. Prior to irradiation, the raw wastewater was diluted to using tap water to targeted concentration of COD 400 mg/ l. The sample was irradiated at selected dose between the ranges of 2 kGy to 100 kGy. The results showed that Irradiation was effective in removing the highly colored refractory organic pollutants. The degree of removal influenced by the dose introduced during the treatment process. As the dose increased, higher removal of organic pollutant was recorded. The COD removal at lowest dose, 2 kGy is about 310 mg/ l. Meanwhile, at highest dose, 100 kGy the COD reduced to 100 mg/ l. On the other hand, other properties of the wastewater such as pH, turbidity, suspended solid, BOD and color shows tremendous changes as the dose increases. This showed the concentration of pollutants and dose of irradiation applied are directly proportional to each other. (author)

398

Comparison between secondary and tertiary treatment of waste waters effluents and their developments in irrigation applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Tunisia, the reuse of the treated waste water effluent for agricultural production, constitute a new source of irrigation water. In fact, it allows promoting the use of these waters and the fertilizing matters that they contain. This application also to safeguard the resources in water that are limited, especially in the arid and semi arid regions. (Author)

Thabet, I.; Mkaddem, M.; El Ferjani, E.; Abichou, T.; Romdhane, M.

2009-07-01

399

Microbiological and Chemical Aspects on Some Fresh Water and Industrial Waste Water Samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Both microbiological and chemical analysis of water and industrial wastewater samples collected from Dakahlia governorate (Egypt were carried out. The microbiological examination involved the measurement of microbial total count, specific bacterial groups, pathogenic bacteria yeast, and fungi. The isolation and purification of different bacterial groups were also performed from different samples of industrial wastes. Trial to reuse the industrial effluents was also made. The chemical analysis included the measurement of conductivity, alkalinity, hardness, sulphate, PH, total dissolved solids, chloride, as well as dissolved oxygen. Results of the microbiological examination exhibited presence of yeast, fungi and bacteria. Short rods were the most bacterial isolates followed by spore formers and coccoid-shaped bacteria which came last in their count. Data also showed that neither water samples nor industrial wastes contain pathogenic bacteria when using specific cultivation media. Results of the chemical analysis showed that all measured parameters were found within the limitation either national or that of international law. Some samples exhibited higher values than that of permissible limits for some measured parameters. Furthermore, data proved the possibility of using the tested industrial wastes in production of both biomass and microbial enzymes as well. The bacterial treatment of industrial wastewater leads also to heavy metal reduction up to more than 50 per cent in some cases.

El-Fadaly H

1999-01-01

400

Annual analysis of heat pipe PV/T systems for domestic hot water and electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A novel heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal system with freeze protection was proposed. ? A detailed annual simulation model for the HP-PV/T system was presented. ? Annual performance of HP-PV/T was predicted and analyzed under different condition. - Abstract: Heat-pipe photovoltaic/thermal (HP-PV/T) systems can simultaneously provide electrical and thermal energy. Compared with traditional water-type photovoltaic/thermal systems, HP-PV/T systems can be used in cold regions without being frozen with the aid of a carefully selected heat-pipe working fluid. The current research presents a detailed simulation model of the HP-PV/T system. Using this model, the annual electrical and thermal behavior of the HP-PV/T system used in three typical climate areas of China, namely, Hong Kong, Lhasa, and Beijing, are predicted and analyzed. Two HP-PV/T systems, with and without auxiliary heating equipment, are studied annually under four different kinds of hot-water load per unit collecting area (64.5, 77.4, 90.3, and 103.2 kg/m2).

401

Practical guidelines for small-volume additions of uninhibited water to waste storage tanks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Allowable volumes of uninhibited water additions to waste tanks are limited to volumes in which hydroxide and nitrite inhibitors reach required concentrations by diffusion from the bulk waste within five days. This diffusion process was modeled conservatively by Fick's second law of diffusion. The solution to the model was applied to all applicable conditions which exist in the waste tanks. Plant engineers adapted and incorporated the results into a practical working procedure for controlling and monitoring the addition of uninhibited water. Research, technical support, and field engineers worked together to produce an effective solution to a potential waste tank corrosion problem

402

Investigation of the Performance of a Heat Pump Using Waste Water as a Heat Source  

OpenAIRE

In this research, a water-water heat pump system using waste water as a heat source, a type that is not often used in Turkey and the World, was experimentally modeled. The experiments were performed under the conditions of simulated waste water temperature values of 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C. Inlet and outlet water temperatures of the evaporator and condenser, water flow rates in the evaporator and condenser circuits, pressures at the compressor inlet and outlet and power consumption of the s...

Ali Kahraman; Alaeddin Çelebi

2009-01-01

403

Discharge and Treatment of Waste Water in Denmark : a case study about Esbjerg  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the waste water treatment situation in the area of Esbjerg. This example was chosen because the situation in Esbjerg is typical of that of most towns in Denmark, and because Esbjerg is closest to the British situation with respect to the receiving water. Esbjerg has a population of 70.000 inhabitans, and waste water treatment takes place in two treatment plants. These plants are now being extended to perform tertiary treatment, to fulfil the new Danish requirements. From ...

Larsen, Torben

2012-01-01

404

EU legislation on waste water treatment and mutual comparison of major dairies in Slovenia  

OpenAIRE

The thesis deals with European and Slovenian legislation in the field of waste water in the dairy industry and achieving sustainable development objectives in terms of lower consumption of raw materials, energy, water and consequently pollution reduction. The theoretical part presents both Slovenian and European legislation, which was implemented in Slovenia's legislation and it pursues its recommendations. The problem for most dairy plants is untreated waste water containing high concentrati...

Kocijanc?ic?, Urs?ka

2012-01-01

405

Standard Practice for Installation and Service of Solar Domestic Water Heating Systems for One- and Two-Family Dwellings  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This practice provides descriptions of solar domestic water heating systems and sets forth installation and service practices in new and existing one- and two-family dwellings to help ensure adequate operation and safety., 1.2 This practice applies regardless of the fraction of heating requirement supplied by solar energy, the type of conventional fuel used in conjunction with solar, or the heat transfer fluid (or fluids) used as the energy transport medium. However, where more stringent requirements are recommended by the manufacturer, these manufacturer requirements shall prevail. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Sections 6 and 7.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1985-01-01

406

Theoretical model and experimental validation of a direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump for domestic hot water applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper has shown the development of a theoretical model to determine the operating parameters and consumption of a domestic hot water (DHW) installation, which uses a direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump (DXSAHP) with refrigerant R-134a, a compressor with a rated capacity of 1.1 kW and collectors with a total area of 5.6 m2. The model results have been compared and validated the experimental results obtained with the equipment installed at the University Carlos III, South of Madrid. The analysis was conducted over the course of a year, and the results have been represented depending on the meteorological and process variables of several representative days. Taking into account the thermal losses of the installation and the dependency on the operating conditions, the acquired experimental coefficient of performance is between 1.7 and 2.9, while the DHW tank temperature over the course of the study is 51 °C. -- Highlights: ? The study aims to present a new theoretical model and an experimental validation. ? The experimental COP vary between 1.7 and 2.9 (max. condensation temperature 57 °C). ? The operating parameters respond to the solar radiation. The COP may increase up to 50%. ? The useful surface area varies between 50% and 85% of the total surface. ? The system stops if conditions exceed the maximum value of the absorbed heat.

407

Domestic policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in the water sector. Part 2. Non-Annex I Countries. Lessons Learned from Mexico, India, Argentina and Zimbabwe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper represents Part II of the analysis of the roles that domestic policy frameworks can play in adaptation to climate change in the water sector, conducted under the auspices of the Annex I Expert Group. Part I focused on Annex I countries and synthesised experiences of four case study countries: Canada, Finland, UK and the US. This paper focuses on non-Annex I countries and is based on four case studies in non-Annex I countries: Argentina, India, Mexico, and Zimbabwe. As in the previous paper, the water sector is defined as water resources (surface water and groundwater), their use (e.g. irrigation, public water supply, environmental needs) and their governance and management (legal and institutional issues, abstraction permitting, water infrastructure, water policies). Water quality issues are touched upon, as water quality and quantity issues cannot be looked at in isolation, but are not specifically analysed. The paper is based on four developing country case studies developed by local consultants. It is structured around the selected four elements that construct policy frameworks: (1) legislation, (2) institutional arrangements, (3) water management and policies, and (4) information availability and use in decisionmaking. Section 2 briefly examines current and projected future climatic conditions that necessitate adaptation. Section 3 focuses on domestic and international legal issues and informal rules that govern the water sector while Section 4 identifi the water sector while Section 4 identifies institutions and key players in the water sector who should also become the key actors in adaptation. Section 5 examines water management approaches and policies and analyses how adaptation could be incorporated into the everyday management of water. Section 6 evaluates information needs and existing mechanisms for information sharing and dissemination that would be instrumental for successful adaptation. The paper concludes with a summary of key findings. The comparison with Annex I countries is provided throughout the paper

408

Treatment of fuel oil contaminated waste water from liquid fuel processing plants associated to thermal power plants or heat and power cogeneration plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the statistical data presented in the most important European and world meetings on environmental protection, the oil product amounts which pollute the surface water is estimated to be of about 6 mill. tones yearly out of which 35 %, 10 %, and 1 % come from oil tanks, natural sources, and offshore drilling, respectively, while 54 % reach seas and oceans trough rivers, rains a.o. Among the water consumers and users of Romania, the thermal power plants, belonging to RENEL (Romanian Electricity Authority), are the greatest. A part of the water with modified chemical-physical parameters, used for different technological processes, have to be discharged from the user precinct directly towards natural agents or indirectly through public sewage networks as domestic and industrial waste water. These waste waters need an adequate treatment before discharging as to meet the requirements imposed by the norms and regulations related to environment protection. For this purpose, before discharging, after using, the water must be circulated through the treatment plants designed and operated as to ensure the correction of the inadequate values of the residual water parameters. The paper presents the activities developed in the Institute for Power Studies and Design concerning the environmental protection against pollution produced by the entire power generation circuit, from the design phase up to product supplying. (author). 1 tab., 2 refsab., 2 refs

409

Analysis of thermosyphon heat exchangers for use in solar domestic hot water heating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent innovation in the solar industry is the use of thermosyphon heat exchangers. Determining the performance of these systems requires knowledge of how thermosyphon flow rate and heat exchanger performance vary with operating conditions. This study demonstrates that several thermosyphon heat exchanger designs operate in the laminar mixed convection regime. Empirical heat transfer and pressure drop correlations are obtained for three tube-in-shell heat exchangers (four, seven, and nine tube). Thermosyphon flow is on the shell side. Correlations are obtained with uniform heat flux on the tube walls and with a mixture of glycol and water circulating inside the tubes. Ranges of Reynolds, Prandtl, and Grashof numbers are 50 to 1800, 2.5 and 6.0, and 4×105 to 1×108, respectively. Nusselt number correlations are presented in a form that combines the contributions of forced and natural convection, Nu4Mixed=Nu4Forced+Nu4Natural. The Nusselt number is influenced by natural convection when the term Raq0.25/(Re0.5Pr0.33) is greater than unity. Pressure drop through these three designs is not significantly affected by mixed convection because most pressure drop losses are at the heat exchanger inlet and outlet. A comparison and discussion of the performance of several other heat exchanger designs (tube-in-shell and coil-in- shell designs) are presented. Generally, the coil-in- shell heat exchangers perform better than the tube-in- shell heat exchangers. Data from all heat exchanger designs is used to develop a new one-dimensional model for thermosyphon heat exchangers in solar water heating systems. The model requires two empirically determined relationships, pressure drop as a function of water mass flow rate and the overall heat transfer coefficient-area product (UA) as a function of Reynolds, Prandtl, and Grashof number. A testing protocol is presented that describes the procedure to obtain the data for the correlations. Two new TRNSYS component models are presented, for the thermosyphon heat exchanger and thermosyphon loop. Unlike previous models, which are based on forced flow relationships, the new heat exchanger model accounts for mixed convection heat transfer and accurately predicts pressure drop in the connecting piping around the thermosyphon loop. Comparison between the model and experimental data shows excellent agreement. Daily and annual ratings for a sample thermosyphon system are presented.

Dahl, Scott David

1998-11-01

410

Domestic Violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem that affects the lives of many women both in urban and rural areas. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are the most prevalent mental health problems related with domestic violence. Children of battered women are also affected from the domestic violence. Children who grow up in families with intimate partner violence may suffer from a range of behavioral and emotional disturbances that can be associated with the perpetration or experiencing of violence later in life. The mental health care sector can have a significant impact on publicizing and addressing violence against women and children and on reducing the mental health problems related to abuse. This review focuses on domestic violence victims, most of whom are women and children victimized by their spouses or parents, along with the causes and cycle of domestic violence.

Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

2012-06-01

411

An indicator to evaluate the environmental Impact of olive oil waste water’s shedding on cultivated fields  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several climatic, soil and topographic factors need to be considered when evaluating the impact of human actions on the environment. Such variables may be related in a complex way to environmental impact, thus making its evaluation difficult. Problems of this type emerge when evaluating the risks olive oil waste water pose to the environment when shed on cultivated soils. This paper proposes a fuzzy expert system to calculate a modular indicator, ICARO, which allows an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the application of olive oil waste water in a field. Five modules were formulated, one (“Waste water” reflecting the nature of the waste water, two (“Groundwater”, “Surface water” reflecting the risk for the most sensitive agro-environmental compartments (groundwater, surface water, one (“Crop” reflecting possible consequences on the cropping system adopted, and one (“Soil” reflecting the soil aptitude to receive waste waters.The input variables are therefore waste water amount and properties, site-specific conditions, and characteristics of the application considered. For each input variable, two functions describing membership to the fuzzy subsets Favorable (F and Unfavorable (U have been defined. The expert system calculates the value of each module according to both the degree of membership of the input variables to the subsets F and U, and a set of decision rules. The five modules can be considered individually or can be aggregated (again according to level of membership to fuzzy subsets F and U and a set of decision rules into the synthetic indicator ICARO. Outcomes of a sensitivity analysis are presented. The system is flexible and can be used as a decision aid tool to authorize waste water’s shedding or subordinate the distribution on fields to acceptance of some limitations (amount, timing, site, etc.

Enrico Bonari

2011-02-01

412

An indicator to evaluate the environmental Impact of olive oil waste water’s shedding on cultivated fields  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several climatic, soil and topographic factors need to be considered when evaluating the impact of human actions on the environment. Such variables may be related in a complex way to environmental impact, thus making its evaluation difficult. Problems of this type emerge when evaluating the risks olive oil waste water pose to the environment when shed on cultivated soils. This paper proposes a fuzzy expert system to calculate a modular indicator, ICARO, which allows an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the application of olive oil waste water in a field. Five modules were formulated, one (“Waste water” reflecting the nature of the waste water, two (“Groundwater”, “Surface water” reflecting the risk for the most sensitive agro-environmental compartments (groundwater, surface water, one (“Crop” reflecting possible consequences on the cropping system adopted, and one (“Soil” reflecting the soil aptitude to receive waste waters.The input variables are therefore waste water amount and properties, site-specific conditions, and characteristics of the application considered. For each input variable, two functions describing membership to the fuzzy subsets Favorable (F and Unfavorable (U have been defined. The expert system calculates the value of each module according to both the degree of membership of the input variables to the subsets F and U, and a set of decision rules. The five modules can be considered individually or can be aggregated (again according to level of membership to fuzzy subsets F and U and a set of decision rules into the synthetic indicator ICARO. Outcomes of a sensitivity analysis are presented. The system is flexible and can be used as a decision aid tool to authorize waste water’s shedding or subordinate the distribution on fields to acceptance of some limitations (amount, timing, site, etc.

Nicola Silvestri

413

Using Magnetically Responsive Tea Waste to Remove Lead in Waters under Environmentally Relevant Conditions  

KAUST Repository

We report the use of a simple yet highly effective magnetite-waste tea composite to remove lead(II) (Pb2+) ions from water. Magnetite-waste tea composites were dispersed in four different types of water–deionized (DI), artificial rainwater, artificial groundwater and artificial freshwater–that mimic actual environmental conditions. The water samples had varying initial concentrations (0.16–5.55 ppm) of Pb2+ ions and were mixed with the magnetite-waste tea composite for at least 24 hours to allow adsorption of the Pb2+ ions to reach equilibrium. The magnetite-waste tea composites were stable in all the water samples for at least 3 months and could be easily removed from the aqueous media via the use of permanent magnets. We detected no significant leaching of iron (Fe) ions into the water from the magnetite-waste tea composites. The percentage of Pb adsorbed onto the magnetite-waste tea composite ranged from ~70% to 100%; the composites were as effective as activated carbon (AC) in removing the Pb2+ ions from water, depending on the initial Pb concentration. Our prepared magnetite-waste tea composites show promise as a green, inexpensive and highly effective sorbent for removal of Pb in water under environmentally realistic conditions.

Choi, Siwon

2013-06-20