WorldWideScience

Sample records for domestic waste water

  1. Phyto-treatment of domestic waste water using artificial marshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaca, Rodrigo; Sanchez, Fabian [Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados (OCP), Quito (Ecuador)

    2009-12-19

    The phyto-treatment of domestic waste water by the use of artificial marshes system consists in beds of treatment working in series, this beds are constituted basically by inverse filters of inert granular material where the nutrients are cached from the residual water. Most of the treatment is carried in roots steams and leaves of defined species of plants. The rest of the treatment is performed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria that grow within the beds. In the proximities of the roots and the area near the bed surface, aerobic processes take place and in deepest zones, anaerobic processes take place. It is desirable that the aerobic process will be the predominant one, mainly to avoid bad odors; this is obtained with the correct selection of plants which must have dense and deep roots. The economic factor is also important for the selection of this type of treatment system, the cost of operation and maintenance is minimum compared with other type of systems. The operation cost is practically zero because it is not required provision of electrical energy for its operation; energy used is the solar energy through the photosynthesis process. The maintenance is reduced to pruning and cleaning that can be performed twice a year. The goals of this paper is to show our experiences during the construction, stabilization and operation of these systems installed in 13 OCP locations with different types of weather and explain the conclusions arrived after construction and operation; present this kind of systems as an alternative of economic wastewater treatment in terms of construction, operation and maintenance and as environment friendly treatment. (author)

  2. Case study of the effectiveness of passive grease trap for management on domestic kitchen waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Juffrizal, K.; Mustapha, F.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Household waste, generally known as trash or garbage is mostly includes food wastes, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes that are coming from domestic household. Grease waste such as oil and fats can contaminate water and also clot on pipes provoking blockages. Thus, waste water from kitchen sink need a proper way of filtration. Grease trap developed in this paper is viable in trapping the grease residue. The experiments have been conducted in controlled environment and the objectives are to investigate the effectiveness of grease trap by proving the existence of retention time and the expected ratio of collected water and oil during experiment process using a prototype model.

  3. Projection and enterprises controlling in domestic waste water econom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Reinhard

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the cost of communal waste water disposal is widely discussed among the population, among politicians and experts. Not only the absolute amount of the charged fees are the cause of concern, but also their increase over the last few years. As part of this thesis, the PC software SloVaKon, which facilitates project and operation decision, will be designed to apply the experience gained during the building and expansion of the waste water industry in Germany´s five new federal states to the conditions in the Slovak republic. For this, a comparison of both country´s topographical, technical, legal and economical conditions proved necessary.

  4. [A laboratory and field study on the disposal of domestic waste water based on soil permeation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, G

    1989-02-01

    The present study was conducted to get information necessary for the disposal of domestic waste water by soil permeation. The clarifying ability of soil was examined by conducting laboratory experiments using soil columns and making inquiries about practical disposal facilities based on soil permeation using trenches. In the column experiment, soil columns were prepared by packing polyvinyl chloride pipes with volcanic-ash loam, river sand, or an equivolume mixture of both, and secondary effluent of domestic waste water was poured into each soil column at a daily rate of 100 l/m2. In this experiment, loam and sand loam, both containing fine silt and clay, gave BOD removals of over 95% when the influent BOD load per 1 m3 of soil was less than 10 g/d and gave the coliform group removals of 100% when the influent coliform group load per 1 m3 soil was less than 10(9)/d. Loam and sand loam gave T-P removals of over 90%. The P adsorption capacity of soil was limited to less than 12% of the absorption coefficient of phosphoric acid. All the soils gave low T-N removals, mostly less than 50%. The trench disposal gave high removals of 90-97% for BOD, 90-97% for T-P, and 94-99% for the coliform group but low removals of 11-49% for T-N, showing a trend similar to that of the column disposal. Thus, we can roughly estimate the effectiveness of actual soil permeation disposal from the results of the column experiments. In the waste water permeation region, the extent of waste water permeation exceeded 700 cm horizontally from the trench, but the waste water load within 100 cm laterally from the trench occupied 60.3% of the total. The concentrations of T-C and T-N at almost all observation spots in the permeation region were lower than in the control region, and were not caused to accumulate in soil by waste water loading. In contrast, T-P was accumulated concentratively in the depth range from 50-100 cm right below the trench. The conditions for effective disposal of domestic waste water by soil permeation have been estimated to be: (1) the soil should contain more than 30% silt and clay, (2) the absorption coefficient of phosphoric acid should be more than 1000, (3) the permeation rate should be 1.0-1.8 mm/min, and (4) the soil volume to be permeated should be more than 6.86 m3/person. PMID:2746976

  5. Domestic Waste: Sources, Effects, and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste is any discarded material. Domestic wastes are those produced by individual activities. In common with other living organisms, humans discharge waste substances to the environment that in turn re-energize the endless cycle of nature. Human activities are closely associated with ambient environment (soil , water, or air) through accumulation of domestic waste. Such household hazardous waste deposit arise from the discharge of domestic activities in the form of municipal solid waste (household, commercial and public street wastes), night soil (human and animal body wastes, excreta, or excrement). In rural areas, night soil is one of several components of the refuse that pollute the land. The surface water may be also directly polluted by domestic wastes or agricultural wastes. But in urbanized areas, household wastes, bathroom and laundry are conveniently flushed away by water as domestic wastewater through sewerage system, and disposed onto land or into receiving water, or in some countries it is treated and re-discharged for domestic usage. Solid waste in the form of kitchen garbage and other household refuse is collected for landfill disposal or for re-industrialization. Many domestic waste influence indoor air quality in urban and rural areas as for example the fuel used for cooking, smoke from cooking and from smoking habits, modern building materials, insulation, fabrics and furniture, cleaning materials, solvents, pesticides, personal care products, organic material or vegetable origin and dander from domestic life

  6. Anaerobe-Aerobe Submerged Biofilter Technology for Domestic Waste Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water pollution in the big cities in Indonesia, especially in DKI Jakarta has shown serious problems. One of the potential sources of water pollution is domestic wastewater that is wastewater from kitchens, laundry, bathing and toilets. These problems have become more serious since the spreads of sewerage systems are still low, so that domestic, institutional and commercial wastewater cause severe water pollution in many rivers or shallow ground water. Bases on the fact that the progress of development of sewerage system is still low, it is important to develop low cost technology for individual house hold or semi communal wastewater treatment such as using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. This paper describes alternative technology for treatment of household wastewater or organic wastewater using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. Using this technology can decrease BOD, COD and Suspended Solids (SS) concentration more than 90 %. (author)

  7. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, T. Z. D.; Graaff, M. S.; Abu-ghunmi, L. N. A. H.; Mels, A. R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B. G.; Buisman, C. J. N.; Lier, J. B.; Lettinga, G.

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in co...

  8. The application of membrane Bio-Reactor for East Java Domestic waste water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah E. Palupi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment research have been carried out. In this system, membrane replaces the function of the sedimentation tank. Until recent time, fouling was still the main problem for membrane processes. This research has investigated the effect of MLSS concentration and back flushing on external membrane bioreactor performances such as COD and BOD reduction, and the back flushing effect for domestic wastewater treatment. Polyacrylonitril hollow fiber membrane with pore diameter 0.1-0.01 m, surface area 0.075 m2 was used in this research. This process was at HRT 5 hour, no sludge disposal, intermittent operation, and permeate exiting from membrane shell side. Optimum condition was obtained at a transmembrane pressure (TMP of 1.45 bar. Back flushing was conducted for 10 minute at 3.0 bar pressure. Effective back flushing was shown after operation at MLSS of 7500 and 10000 mg/l. The result of this research shows that COD and BOD in the domestic wastewater decreased almost 98%. MLSS and MLVSS degradations were 98.6% and 98%, respectively.

  9. Aspects of contamination produced by domestic waste landfills on receiving waters in Madrid province

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Pin?eiro, Jesu?s; Urcelay, A.; Adarve, M. J.; Herna?ndez, A. J.; Sa?nchez, A.

    1993-01-01

    This study describes some aspects of the anión contení in surface waters and ground waters as well as in the soils affected by three landfills in the Province of Madrid. The anions concerned are chlorides, fluorides, sulfates, phosphates and nitrales. The pH and conductivity were also determined. These parameters may constitute abiotic indicators lo observe the alterations produced in the water and soil by the leachates from the landfills. The results show that the concentration...

  10. Aspects of contamination produced by domestic waste landfills of receiving waters in Madrid province

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Pin?eiro, Jesu?s; Urcelay, A.; Adarve, M. J.; Herna?ndez, A. J.; Sa?nchez, A.

    1993-01-01

    This study describes some aspects of the anion content in surface waters and ground waters as well as ín the soils affected by three landfills in the Province of Madrid. The anions concerned are chlorides, fluorides, sulfates, phosphates and nitrates. The pH and conductivity were also determíned. These parameters may constitute abiotic índicators to observe the alterations produced in the water and soil by the leachates from the landfills. The results show that the concentratio...

  11. Pharmaceuticals in domestic and agricultural waste waters - problem and its solution.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, Petr; Soudek, Petr; Hudcová, T.; Syrovátka, J.; Van?k, Tomáš

    Shanghai : Tongji University, 2014, s. 523-530. [International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control (ICWS2014). Shanghai (CN), 12.10.2014-16.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01020573; GA ?R(CZ) GA14-22593S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Constructed wetland * pharmaceutical * Phragmites Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality

  12. Resource recovery from source separated domestic waste(water) streams, full scale results

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, G.; Kujawa-roeleveld, K.

    2010-01-01

    A major fraction of nutrients emitted from households are originally present in only 1% of total wastewater volume. New sanitation concepts enable the recovery and reuse of these nutrients from feces and urine. Two possible sanitation concepts are presented, with varying degree of source separation leading to various recovery products. Separate vacuum collection and transport followed by anaerobic treatment of concentrated black water (BW) demonstrated on a scale of 32 houses preserve 7.6 g/N...

  13. Influence of domestic and industrial waste discharges on water quality at Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudio P., Jordão; Madson de G., Pereira; Antônio T., Matos; José L., Pereira.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A contaminação aquática provinda de indústrias de processamento de caulim e de esgotos municipais tratados e não tratados, foi avaliada nos ribeirões Ubá e Vermelho, respectivamente, em Ubá e Vermelho Novo, em Minas Gerais. Com esta finalidade, amostras de água, material em suspensão e vegetais fora [...] m coletadas e analisadas. As análises envolveram a determinação da concentração de metais, nitrito, nitrato, cloreto, fosfato, demanda química de oxigênio e demanda bioquímica de oxigênio. O material em suspensão apresentou altas concentrações (em mg kg-1) de Zn (2.400) e Fe (14.900), enquanto que a vegetação coletada nas proximidades dos ribeirões mostrou-se contaminada com Al (7.120). As concentrações de nitrito, nitrato e cloreto nas águas dos ribeirões apresentaram-se abaixo dos valores máximos estabelecidos pela Legislação Brasileira. Os valores de fosfato e demanda bioquímica de oxigênio excederam em 7 e 3 vezes, respectivamente, as concentrações máximas para águas superficiais de qualidade satisfatória. Abstract in english The aquatic contamination from kaolin processing plants, as well as from untreated or inadequately treated municipal sewage, was evaluated in the Ubá Stream and Vermelho Stream, at the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. With this purpose, samples of water, suspended material and vegetation were collected a [...] nd analysed. The analyses involved the determination of the concentration of metals, nitrite, nitrate, chloride, phosphate, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. The suspended material showed high concentrations (in mg kg-1) of Zn (2,400) and Fe (14,900), while the vegetation collected closed to the streams was heavily contaminated with Al (7,120). The concentrations of nitrite, nitrate and chloride in stream water were lower than the maximum values established by the Brazilian Environmental Standards. The phosphate and biochemical oxygen demand values exceeded 7 and 3 times respectively, the maximum concentrations for superficial water of satisfactory quality.

  14. Experience on domestic waste segregation in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Osei Bonsu Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Pollution from domestic wastes is a major environmental challenge in Ghana and many developing countries. Most of these countries depend almost entirely on landfills for waste management, which has proved to be expensive, inefficient and unsustainable. A sustainable solution to this problem is productive use of waste such as recycling. The main challenge that may limit recycling in Ghana and some of these countries is that a chunk of the wastes are littered on the environment, and the rest is...

  15. Experience on domestic waste segregation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Bonsu Patterson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollution from domestic wastes is a major environmental challenge in Ghana and many developing countries. Most of these countries depend almost entirely on landfills for waste management, which has proved to be expensive, inefficient and unsustainable. A sustainable solution to this problem is productive use of waste such as recycling. The main challenge that may limit recycling in Ghana and some of these countries is that a chunk of the wastes are littered on the environment, and the rest is collected in bulk in the same waste bin, thereby mixing them. The cost of collecting littered wastes, or separating mixed wastes could be prohibitive, making recycling uneconomical. In order to productively utilize wastes, adequate and separate waste bins must be provided for collecting the different components of wastes. However, budgetary constraints may not allow many countries to purchase expansive waste bins for the different components of wastes. Consequently, a simple waste bin, comprising a metal frame on which polypropylene sack (pp-sack can be hanged to collect inorganic wastes has been developed by the author. The waste bin (new bin can be manufactured industrially using plastic or fabricated by local artisans at an affordable price. This document describes the new bin. Experience in collecting organic and inorganic wastes generated in a house in separate waste bins (waste segregation for the past 16 years is also highlighted.

  16. Domestic Waste Disposal Practice of Sylhet City

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Tauhid-Ur-Rahman

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses the analysis of current practices of household waste disposal, problems faced by the residents during waste disposal and their views for improvement of the waste management system. However, it has been found that traditional concepts and technologies usually adopted in waste collection is becoming insufficient and ineffective causing more than half of the generated wastes (44%) remain uncollected and disposed of locally, which results in adverse impacts like water pollution...

  17. Waste water treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Badulescu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues, food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water, which is in the atmospheric equilibrum, is introduced in a closed space where the depression is 0,3 – 0,5 bar. Our paper presents the hypobaric flotation cell and the technological flow of cleaning of domestic waste waters

  18. Bituminization process of radioactive liquid wastes by domestic bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out of the incorporation of intermediate level wastes in bitumen. Two kinds of wastes: a) an evaporator concentrate from a PWR (containing boric acid), b) second cycle wastes from the Purex process (containing sodium salts), were satisfactorily incorporated into a mixture of straight and blown domestic bitumen, to yield a product containing 50wt% solids. The products were stable to radiation exposure of 5'8x108 rads. Leach rates were measured in both distilled and sea water over periods up to 200 days at 50C and 250C and at both 1 atm and 8 atm pressure. Results confirmed that long term storage of the products would be satisfactory

  19. Water potential characteristics of domestic bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Gi [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    A review was made for the measurement techniques of water potential to select an appropriate technique applicable to highly dense bentonite buffer. With an domestic bentonite, an investigation was made in the effect of water content, dry density, and temperature on water potential. Also, measured water potentials were fitted to van Genuchten expression to determine its parameters A and B

  20. Application of ecological modelling to investigate the impact of domestic waste water to one natural river system in tropical area (the nhue river, outskirts of hanoi, vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh Anh, D.; Bonnet, M. P.; Prieur, N.

    2003-04-01

    Water quality modelling has been employed as an effective tool to investigate the ecological situation of surface water sources. Within a researching collaboration of Vietnamese and French scientists, one portion, 40 km, of the Nhue river, outskirts of Hanoi city, northern Vietnam, has been investigated since the river has been highly impacted from anthropogenic activities and one 1-D ecological river model was formed based on the investigation. In this paper, biochemical process equations integrated with hydraulic conditions and human alterations are presented as the basis for ecological variation of this river system. Investigation showed that at the origin the river water remains untouched (nutrients are low in natural tropical water) while downstream the river is full of domestic pollutants (organic materials and nutrients). From the hydraulic, biological, chemical data and fieldwork experiments, the sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation have been carried out to verify the biochemical processes and optimise this model. Most calculations (simulation, sensitivity functions and parameter estimation) were performed with AQUASIM, a computer program designed for simulation and data analysis of 1-D river and other aquatic systems. The other supporting calculations for system analysis were implemented with IDENT based on output of a sensitivity analysis carried out with AQUASIM. The simulation results accomplished with available data indicate that the sediment exchanges and biodegradation processes emerge as the most important features that influence the water quality of the river where water is usually overloaded by domestic wastewater and where hydraulic characters are less pronounced. The model construction and simulation results have also pointed out that the river water quality has been spoiled dramatically after the main open-air sewer of the Hanoi city, the To Lich river, excesses to the Nhue. Beside, a metal speciation module was proposed to integrate with existing biochemical model in order to simulate the metal fractions in water column and metal exchange between river water and sediment.

  1. Characteristics and management of domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Lei, Yunhui; Wu, Jing; Li, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    With its rapid development, the rural area of Southwest China has been puzzled by the waste management problem, especially for increasing solid waste and water pollution from the domestic waste. Therefore, in order to efficiently and effectively manage the domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China, 22 villages were selected randomly to analyse the characteristics of domestic waste, the influence factors of characteristics and resident's willingness of participation in domestic waste management by questionnaires, field samplings and laboratory tests. The results of the rural area of Southwest China indicated that the generation of domestic waste was 178?g?d(-1) per capita and it was mainly composed of kitchen waste, inert waste, plastics and paper with a total proportion of 81.98%. The waste bulk density, moisture, ash, combustible and lower calorific value were 107?kg?m(-3), 37.04%, 25.73%, 37.23% and 8008?kJ?kg(-1), respectively. These characteristics were influenced by the topography, the distance from towns or cities, the villagers' ethnicities and income sources to some extent. Moreover, the distance of 50-800?m between each collection facility and the disposal fee of around ¥5.00 per household per month could be accepted. The working hours of participation in waste management is suggested as 5?hours per day with the income of ¥1000 per capita per month. Based on the outcome of this survey, a waste management system consisting of classified collection, centralised treatment and decentralised treatment was proposed. It is important to ensure financial viability and practical considerations of this system. PMID:25423957

  2. Concrete Production Using Technogenical, Constructional and Domestic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vai?ien?

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes investigations carried out by the scientists from various countries in order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. The grained rubber of tyres, modified sawdust, crushed ceramic bricks, plastic waste and remains of glass are utilised to produce concrete mixtures. The results of research conducted by the scientists show that in the process of producing concrete we can use different types of waste to change natural aggregates and to get concrete with specific properties. Currently, waste handling and utilization are burning ecological problems. Therefore, intensive investigations are carried out in order to utilise technogenical, constructional and domestic waste for concrete mixtures. Article in Lithuanian

  3. Methanobrevibacter ruminantium as an Indicator of Domesticated-Ruminant Fecal Pollution in Surface Waters?

    OpenAIRE

    Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Wang, Shiao Y.; Ufnar, David F.; Ellender, R. D.

    2007-01-01

    A PCR-based assay (Mrnif) targeting the nifH gene of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium was developed to detect fecal pollution from domesticated ruminants in environmental water samples. The assay produced the expected amplification product only when the reaction mixture contained DNA extracted from M. ruminantium culture, bovine (80%), sheep (100%), and goat (75%) feces, and water samples from a bovine waste lagoon (100%) and a creek contaminated with bovine lagoon waste (100%). The assay appea...

  4. Domestic rooftop water harvesting (DRWH- A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Dwivedi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Although water is as important for survival of human being as much as food, air etc., but hardly any attention is paid for its economical use and conservation of this precious resource. Due to indiscriminate pumping of ground water, the water table is going down abnormally and if the problem is not given a serious look, then the future generations may have to face severe crisis of water. Rains are the main source of water and if rain water is harvested, the scarcity of water can be eliminated altogether. This is an ideal solution of water problem where there is inadequate groundwater supply quantitatively and qualitatively and surface sources are either lacking or insignificant. Rain water is bacteriologically pure, free from organic matter and soft in nature. In urban areas, rain water available from rooftop of buildings, paved and unpaved areas goes waste. This water can be stored in tank and can be used directly and also indirectly by diverting to recharge the aquifers through existing GW tapping arrangements and thereafter can be utilized gainfully at the time of need. The paper aims towards the development of the framework for domestic rooftop harvesting for drinking water. The paper is based on the analysis of survey record of around 50 houses of different rooftop areas of peri-urban area of Dhule city. The estimation of the appropriate size of the water tanks & their costs required to fulfill the annual drinking water demand through DRWH from rooftop of different areas are done. A mathematical equation expressing the relationship between the required size of water tank and different rooftop areas is developed. The DRWH systems for all houses are designed considering the existing rain water outlets and cost estimation for each individual house is done. A cost model expressing the relationship between rooftop area and cost of DRWH system is developed.

  5. Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

  6. Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

  7. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V. L. Hunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

  8. Reduction of the waste from domestic production of the orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research subject is (reduction of the waste from domestic production of orange) we find there is a lot of wastage after harvest, because the process of packaging, loading, transportation, and store is not adequate. The purpose of this research is to solve this problem of wastage by following a number of steps after harvesting and pre-harvest process. This process is called COLD CHAIN. Cold chain is: cold store in production place, cold vehicles for transportation, cold room in the market, cold car for distribution, cold and freezer refrigerator home. After adopting the cold chain we achieved the following results: orange wastage is reduced, the orange quality improved. (Author)

  9. Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Bovendeur, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.In this thesis the possibilities are presented for fixed-film post-treatment of anaerobically digested domestic sewage and water reconditioning in aquacultural water recirculation systems. Emphasis is put on ...

  10. Bonding material containing ashes after domestic waste incineration for cementation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that cement minerals hydration is accompanied with heat emission. Heat of hardening influences formation of a cement compound structure and its properties. It is important to reduce the heat quantity at continuous cementation of waste and filling of compartments of a repository or containers by a cement grout. For reduction of heating, it is necessary to use cement of mineral additives (fuel ashes, slag and hydraulic silica). Properties of ashes after domestic waste incineration can be similar to ones of fly fuel ashes. However, ash after domestic waste incineration is toxic industrial waste as it contains toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, Zn). Utilization of secondary waste (slag and ash) of combustion plants is an important environmental approach to solving cities' issues. Results of the research have shown that ashes of combustion plants can be used for radioactive waste conditioning. Co-processing of toxic and radioactive waste is ecologically and economically effective. At SIA 'Radon', experimental batches of cement compositions are used for cementation of oil containing waste. (authors)

  11. Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

  12. Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar Bahura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes. In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I, industrial waste water (group II, sewage treatment hub (group III, unorganized collected waste water (group IV and old residential waste collection center (group V, of Bikaner city (Rajasthan, India was carried out from February, 2010 to May, 2010. Water samples were taken from surface only owing to low depth and investigated for various abiotic factors (viz. transparency, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, total alkalinity, total hardness, salinity, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, nitrate, silica, and inorganic phosphorous and biotic factors (viz. number and diversity of bacteria. The domestic sewage water causes major water borne diseases basing upon Total Bacterial Count (TBC and coliform Count (CC. The coliform count in the present study ranged from 2.5 to 5.12 MPN/mL. Comparision of microbial population in sewage water from all different Groups was done and the higher values of TBC and CC were recorded only in Sewage treatement hub (Group III.

  13. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  14. The domestic wastes incinerators; Les incinerateurs d'ordures menegares: quels risques? quelles politiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    This document presents the opinion of the Committee of Prevention and Precaution (CPP), on the domestic wastes incinerators, in the framework of the global wastes policy. The seven chapters detail and bring advices on the following topics: the elements which are going in and out of the incinerators, the technical processes, the occupational activities and the risks bound to the incinerators use, the transfer modes towards the different environmental areas, the exposure estimation, the risks of people living near the domestic wastes incinerators compared to the other concerning a cancer development, the legislation concerning the domestic wastes and the social acceptability of the incinerators. (A.L.B.)

  15. Production of biogas from municipal solid waste with domestic sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the production of biogas from municipal solid waste (MSW) and domestic sewage by using anaerobic digestion process. The batch type of reactor was operated at room temperature varying from 26 to 36 deg. C with a fixed hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25 days. The digester was operated at different organic feeding rates of 0.5, 1.0, 2.3, 2.9, 3.5 and 4.3 kg of volatile solids (VS)/m3 of digester slurry per day. Biogas generation was enhanced by the addition of domestic sewage to MSW. The maximum biogas production of 0.36 m3/kg of VS added per day occurred at the optimum organic feeding rate of 2.9 kg of VS/m3/day. The maximum reduction of total solids (TS) (87.6%), VS (88.1%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (89.3%) occurred at the optimum organic loading rate of 2.9 kg of VS/m3/day. The quality of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion process was 68-72%

  16. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  17. Waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste water containing over 2 ppm Mo and at least one heavy metal impurity selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, and also containing cyanide ion (CN) is treated by passing waste water having an adjusted pH value ranging from about 3 to 4 through an ion-exchange resin column selective to the removal of Mo and provide an ion-exchange effluent containing at least one of said heavy metal impurities and said cyanide ion. The ph value of the effluent is then adjusted to a range of about 7 to 11 sufficient to precipitate the heavy metal impurity having the highest pH requirement for precipitation, following which the precipitate is flocculated and the effluent containing the flocculated precipitate then subjected to electrolysis using insoluble electrodes to form electrolytic oxygen and hydrogen and effect electroflotation of the flocculated precipitate and form a froth thereof which is separated from the effluent by skimming

  18. Feasibility of biomass domestic water heating: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a feasibility study of a biomass-powered hot water heater for domestic or small-scale use. A biomass reactor was designed and built to serve individuals at a golf course in Florida. The study found small-scale biomass reactor-powered heat exchangers to be useful as retrofitted preheaters to existing home water heating systems. (Author)

  19. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The initial design of a solar domestic hot water system is considered. The system performance specification and detailed design drawings are included. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  20. Domestic Hot Water Usage in Hotels; Tappvarmvattenanvaendning paa hotell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Stefan; Werner, Sven [FVB Sverige AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Sandberg, Martin; Wahlstroem, Aasa [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Historically, design curves for domestic hot water, have been well sized and therefore also the components oversized. The Swedish district heating companies have noticed this and some companies replace large valves with customer-required valves, which give several advantages. There are several reasons why valves and heat exchangers can be customer-required and still the customers demand for hot water comfort can be fulfilled. The domestic hot water flow is composed, the taps are often short, large simultaneous taps are not very likely. Also, the dimensioning flows occur in the winter period, while the components are dimensioned for the summer case. The water pipes level off temporary temperature drops and the user seldom notices these because water with 55 deg C is not used in the tap. For residential buildings there are dimensioning recommendations on domestic hot water flow, but not for hotels. The purpose of this project has been to evaluate the domestic hot water use in relation to size and number of occupied beds. If the patterns of the chosen hotels coincide regarding to the sizes, dimensioning curves for domestic hot water use can be suggested. They can be used when hotels, or buildings with the same use pattern, are being built or restored. Measurements on 3 hotels with different sizes have been made. The hotels have 36, 52 and 158 rooms. The hotels are situated in the cities of Boraas and Kinna in Sweden. A short period of measurements from another hotel in the city of Gaevle (199 rooms) has also been included in this project. The measurements show that large hot water taps in hotels are rare and short. For the hotels, relative, cumulative relative frequencies and likely extreme values have been estimated. For residential buildings, The Swedish District Heating Association have recommendations for dimensioned domestic hot water flows. Formerly, these recommendations have been levelled so a cumulative relative frequency of 1 %, is reached, i.e. 99 % of all hot water taps are below this flow. The new recommended dimensioning curve for residential buildings involve a cumulative relative frequency of 7 %. This can not be directly transferred to hotels due to variations in number of occupied beds during the period of measurements. This project has shown that maximum domestic hot water flow not necessarily occurs when the hotel is fully occupied. Instead, it indicates likely maximum flows for the three hotels. These recommendations are for heat exchangers and primary valves dimensioning. The water pipes in the houses are included in a special dimensioning.

  1. Fibre reinforced concrete using domestic waste plastics as fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kandasamy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC is a composite material consisting of cement based matrix with an ordered or random distribution of fibre which can be Steel, Nylon, Polythene etc. The addition of steel fibre increases the properties of concrete, viz., flexural strength, impact strength and shrinkage properties to name a few. A number of papers have already been published on the use of steel fibres in concrete and a considerable amount of research has been directed towards studying the various properties of concrete as well as reinforced concrete due to the addition of steel fibres. Hence, an attempt has been made in the present investigations to study the influence of addition of polythene fibers (domestic waste plastics at a dosage of 0.5% by weight of cement. The properties studied include compressive strength and flexural strength. The studies were conducted on a M20 mix and tests have been carried out as per recommended procedures of relevant codes. The results are compared and conclusions are made.

  2. The Status of Domestic Water at Velezizweni, Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Tfwala

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the sources of domestic water and its status in terms of quality at Velezizweni, a rural area in Swaziland. A questionnaire was developed and administered to 190 homesteads that were randomly selected from a total of 360 homesteads in the study area. The information solicited by the questionnaire included sources of domestic water, perception of community members on degradation of water resources and measures taken to purify drinking water. Water samples were taken from 14 water sources during the month of January 2011, and analysed for total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli and Faecal streptococci (F. streptococci. The sources of domestic water with the proportion of respondents accessing water from each one of them were (piped water, 45%, rivers and streams (31%, unprotected wells (24%, boreholes (15%, roof-water harvesting (8% and dams (0.5%. Each homestead accessed water from more than one source in most cases. The piped water was diverted from rivers/streams, springs and wells and piped to homesteads or within the vicinity of the homesteads. However the water was not potable as it was not treated. Water from boreholes was suitable for drinking as no E. coli or F. streptococci were detected. However water from the other sources was not suitable for drinking as E. coli and F. streptococci were detected. Total coliform was also present in amounts above the acceptable limit of 10 counts per 100 mL of water. The communities were exposed to waterborne diseases such as cholera and diarrhea, especially because only 6% of the respondents reported that they boiled water before drinking.

  3. Legionella Infection Risk from Domestic Hot Water

    OpenAIRE

    Borella, Paola; Montagna, M. Teresa; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo; Stampi, Serena; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Triassi, Maria; Neglia, Rachele; Marchesi, Isabella; Fantuzzi, Guglielmina; Tatò, Daniela; Napoli, Christian; Quaranta, Gianluigi; Laurenti, Patrizia; Leoni, Erica; Luca, Giovanna

    2004-01-01

    We investigated Legionella and Pseudomonas contamination of hot water in a cross-sectional multicentric survey in Italy. Chemical parameters (hardness, free chlorine, and trace elements) were determined. Legionella spp. were detected in 33 (22.6%) and Pseudomonas spp. in 56 (38.4%) of 146 samples. Some factors associated with Legionella contamination were heater type, tank distance and capacity, water plant age, and mineral content. Pseudomonas presence was influenced by water source, hardnes...

  4. Prototype solar domestic hot water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

  5. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  6. Cooling performance of R510A in domestic water purifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooling performance of R510A is examined both numerically and experimentally in an effort to replace HFC134a in the refrigeration system of domestic water purifiers. Although the use of HFC134a is currently dominant, it is being phased out in Europe and most developed countries due to its high potential contribution to global warming. To solve this problem, cycle simulation and experimental measurements are conducted with a new refrigerant mixture of 88%RE170/12%R600a using actual domestic water purifiers. This mixture has been recently numbered and listed as R510A by ASHRAE. Test results show that, due to the small internal volume of the refrigeration system of the domestic water purifiers, system performance with R510A is greatly influenced by the amount of charge. With the optimum charge amount of 20 to 21 g, approximately 50% that of HFC134a, the energy consumption of R510A is 22.3% lower than that of HFC134a. The compressor discharge temperature of R510A is 3.7 .deg. C lower than that of HFC134a at the optimum charge. Overall, R510A, a new, long term, and environmentally safe refrigerant, is a good alternative for HFC134a. Furthermore, it requires only minor changes in the refrigeration system of the domestic water purifiers

  7. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  8. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters, comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  9. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  10. Treating water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Lab. includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated

  11. Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O

    1995-01-01

    During the last decade, a growing interest in recycling of domestic waste has emerged, and action plans to increase the recycling of domestic waste have been agreed by many governments. A common feature of these plans is the implementation of new systems and equipment for the collection of domestic waste which has been separated at source. However, only limited information exists on possible occupational health problems related to such new systems. Occupational accidents are very frequent among waste collectors. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the risk factors should be considered as an integrated entity, i.e. technical factors (poor accessibility to the waste, design of equipment) may act in concert with high working rate, visual fatigue due to poor illumination and perhaps muscle fatigue due to high work load. Musculoskeletal problems are also common among waste collectors. A good deal of knowledge has accumulated on mechanical load on the spine and energetic load on the cardio-pulmonary system in relation to the handling of waste bags, bins, domestic containers and large containers. However, epidemiologic studies with exposure classification based on field measurement are needed, both to further identify high risk work conditions and to provide a detailed basis for the establishment of occupational exposure limits for mechanical and energetic load particularly in relation to pulling, pushing and tilting of containers. In 1975, an excess risk for chronic bronchitis was reported for waste collectors in Geneva (Rufèner-Press et al., 1975) and data from the Danish Registry of Occupational Accidents and Diseases also indicate an excess risk for pulmonary problems among waste collectors compared with the total work force. Surprisingly few measurements of potentially hazardous airborne exposures have been performed, and the causality of work-related pulmonary problems among waste collectors is unknown. Recent studies have indicated that implementation of some new waste collection systems may result in an increased risk of occupational health problems. High incidence rates of gastrointestinal problems, irritation of the eye and skin, and perhaps symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (influenza-like symptoms, cough, muscle pains, fever, fatigue, headache) have been reported among workers collecting the biodegradable fraction of domestic waste. The few data available on exposure to bio-aerosols and volatile compounds have indicated that these waste collectors may be simultaneously exposed to multiple agents such as dust containing bacteria, endotoxin, mould spores, glucans, volatile organic compounds, and diesel exhaust. Several studies have reported similar health problems as well as high incidence rates of pulmonary disease among workers at plants recycling domestic waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  12. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published information concerning the concentrations of uranium in 89,994 US surface, ground, and domestic waters is summarized. Sources surveyed included the open literature, state health departments, Federal agencies, and personal contacts. For each state, samples were geographically located, identified by type and use, and tabulated by decreasing uranium concentration. Histograms covering 14 concentration ranges were prepared for all surface, ground, and domestic water samples of each state and for the entire United States. Estimates were made of the population-weighted average concentrations of uranium in domestic waters of each state. Based on these averages, alpha radiation bone doses were computed for lifetime consumptions of each water. In addition, the fractions of water supplies in each state producing water containing uranium in excess of 1, 5, 10, and 20 pCi/L were estimated. An extensive discussion of analytical methods used to determine uranium in surface and ground waters is also included. The concentrations of uranium in 34,561 US surface waters ranged from 0.01 to 582.38 pCi/L and averaged 1.06 pCi/L. The median and modal concentration ranges for these samples were 0.1 to 0.2 pCi/L and 0.2 to 0.5 pCi/L, respectively. In 55,433 US ground water samples the concentrations of uranium ranged from 0.01 to 652.80 pCi/L and averaged 3.18 pCi/L. The median and modal concentration ranges were 0.2 to 0.5 pCi/L and 2 to 5 pCi/L, respectively. Of the listed sample pCi/L, respectively. Of the listed sample sites 28,239 were identified as domestic water sources. Uranium in these samples ranged from 0.07 to 652.80 pCi/L and averaged 1.73 pCi/L. Using state totals, it is estimated that 15% to 24% of all US water supplies would have uranium concentrations in excess of 1 pCi/L; 4% to 8%, in excess of 5 pCi/L; 0.1% to 3%, in excess of 10 pCi/L; and 0.04% to 1%, in excess of 20 pCi/L

  13. A Financial, Environmental and Social Evaluation of Domestic Water Management Options in the West Bank, Palestine:

    OpenAIRE

    Nazer, D.W.; Siebel, M.A.; P. Van der Zaag; Mimi, Z.; Gijzen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water is one of the most valuable natural resources in the West Bank, Palestine. Due to its limited availability, it is a resource that needs particular protection. Although agriculture consumes most of the water (70%) in the West Bank, the domestic water supply is strategically not less important. It is the aim of this study to evaluate domestic water management options suitable for Palestinian conditions that contribute to achieving water sufficiency in the domestic water use in the house o...

  14. Patterns, structures and regulations of domestic water cycle systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Junying; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Dayong

    2010-05-01

    Domestic water cycle systems serving as one critical component of artificial water cycle at the catchment's scale, is so closely related to public healthy, human rights and social-economic development, and has gained the highest priority in strategic water resource and municipal infrastructure planning. In this paper, three basic patterns of domestic water cycle systems are identified and analyzed, including rural domestic water system (i.e. primary level), urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) and metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level), with different "abstract-transport-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of water consumption (such as drinking, cooking, toilet flushing, showering or cleaning). The rural domestic water system is general simple with three basic "abstract-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of basic water consumption such as drinking, cooking, washing and sanitation. The urban domestic water system has relative complex mechanisms of "abstract-supply-consume-treatment-discharge" and more micro-components of water consumption such as bath, dishwashing or car washing. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) has the most complex mechanisms by considering internal water reuse, external wastewater reclamation, and nutrient recycling processes. The detailed structures for different water cycle pattern are presented from the aspects of water quantity, wastewater quality and nutrients flow. With the speed up of urbanization and development of social-economy in China, those three basic patterns are interacting, transforming and upgrading. According to the past experiences and current situations, urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) is the dominant pattern based on indicator of system number or system scale. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) is the idealized model for the future development and management. Current domestic water system management efforts typically fail in China, because the approach is generally narrowly-focused and fragmented. This paper put forward a total-process control framework following the water and pollutants (or nutrients) flows along the dualistic domestic water cycle process. Five key objectives of domestic water cycle system regulation are identified including water use safety, water use equity, water saving, wastewater reduction and nutrient recycling. Comprehensive regulatory framework regarding administrative, economic, technical and social measures is recommended to promote sustainable domestic water usage and demand management. Considering the relatively low affordability in rural area, economic measures should be mainly applied in urban domestic water systems and metropolitan domestic water systems. Engineering or technological measures which are suitable to the three domestic water cycle systems are discussed respectively.

  15. Radiation treatment of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation treatment of waste water is reviewed. The aspects considered are: effect on chemical oxygen demand or biochemical oxygen demand; effect on specific pollutants; effect on sewage sludge; disinfection. The basic radiation interactions are given. Potential radiation sources -accelerators or radioisotopes - are considered, and operating pilot plant systems are described. (U.K.)

  16. Application analysis of high integrity container on domestic radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper simply described three kinds of material high integrity containers, and accordingly emphasized the cross linked polyethylene HIC used in the domestic projects under construction, focusing on the waste treatment proposal coupling with HIC model and the advantages and disadvantages comparing with the cement solidification proposal. Many aspects are analyzed including waste filling and HIC lifting, transportation, and final disposal. The potential solutions are pointed out for the issues and the post actions as well. (authors)

  17. Experimental Analysis of Integrated System of Membrane Distillation for pure water with solar domestic hot water

    OpenAIRE

    Asim, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    In GCC countries, especially in UAE desalination of sea water is considered to be one of the most effective and strategic alternative for satisfying the current and future demand of water for domestic purposes. The depletion of ground water aquifers, rapid industrial development and increase of urban population in UAE lead to tremendous increase in fresh water demand during past decade. Although, desalinated fresh water is supplied to the consumers by local municipalities, people in the regio...

  18. The estimation of radiological impact from the disposal of radionuclides with domestic and commercial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the UK, limited quantities of radionuclides are disposed of with non-radioactive domestic and commercial wastes under the terms of Exemption Orders or Authorisations granted by the Radiochemical Inspectorate. This report presents a methodology and basis for the calculation of individual and collective doses to workers and to members of the public from such disposals. (author)

  19. Assessment of U.S. domestic capacity for producing reactor-grade thorium dioxide and controlling associated wastes and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demand for reactor-grade ThO2 is likely to increase as a result of the growing interest in the application of the thorium-uranium fuel cycle to nuclear reactors. The wastes and effluents identified with the production of ThO2 from monazite sand are waste water, tailings, dust, smoke and gas, and radionuclides (primarily, 232Th and 226Ra). There are currently an estimated 1,500 short tons of crude thorium hydroxide byproduct that can be readily converted to reactor-grade ThO2. The present maximum domestic capacity for producing reactor-grade ThO2 is about 65 to 100 ton/year. The current domestic capacity for producing reactor-grade ThO2 is sufficient to sustain a thorium-uranium fuel cycle of up to 11,000 MW(e) without recycling thorium, depending on the mix of reactor types selected. This range can be increased to 28,000 MW(e) by expanding ThO2 purification capacity to match the current production rate of crude thorium byproduct. Potential constraints identified which may impact the expansion of domestic ThO2 production are (1) uncertainty in the marketplace, (2) limited available thorium for production of reactor-grade ThO2, (3) limited production capacity, and (4) mounting public concern over current levels of radioactivity detected at various points in the production process of thorium and uranium products

  20. Domestic light water reactor fuel design evolution. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume III of this report examines the design evolution of domestic light water reactor fuel. The fuel of each vendor is individually described. Tables and figures detail the fuel's design parameters. A data base of this nature is required for the design of an underwater fuel disassembly and rod storage system. An assessment of fuel failure mechanisms and fuel performance is presented showing that spent fuel pool operational problems will be minimal or nonexistent. A summary and projection of spent fuel discharges, organized by reactor and fuel design type, is included to show the magnitude and composition of the spent fuel situation facing the nuclear industry

  1. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. PMID:24337891

  2. Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed recent research related to the use of peat in removing contaminants from domestic wastewater, oil-contaminated water, and soil. The review also discussed methods of pretreating peat before its application to polluted area. Pretreatment processes are needed to remove components in peat that interfere with treatment mechanisms. Polymers are added to peat in order to encourage the aggregation of the peat particles into larger colloidal particles that are easy to dewater. Phosphoric acid treatments are also applied to increase the swelling capacity of peat. Hydrogen peroxide is used to break down oil-contaminated peat in order to facilitate its subsequent decomposition. Experiments have demonstrated that peat is an effective adsorbent for many different types of oil. Studies have demonstrated that the removal rate for standard mineral and crude oils from wastewater using peat was 83 and 70 per cent. Applications of commercial peat to the surface of oily contaminated waters resulted in oil removal efficiencies of 99.998 per cent. It was concluded that peat is an effective, low-cost material for removing contaminants from domestic waste water and oil-contaminated water. The peat can also be used as a secondary energy source after the sorption process. While peat is an abundant resource in Canada, the resource is found mainly in wetlands. Effective harvesting strategies should be used to ensure the environmental sustainability of peat filtration systems.sustainability of peat filtration systems. 38 refs., 1 tab

  3. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  4. Fermentative Production of Ethanol fuel from Domestic Waste by Pichia stipitis

    OpenAIRE

    Modugu P

    2013-01-01

    Production of Ethanol fuel from the garbage/kitchen waste was carried out with the main purpose of converting the domestic waste into a useful material. The conversion of food waste or garbage by acid hydrolysis was carried out to obtain fermentable sugars, which was converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Pichia stipitis. The present study indicated that at 36 h of incubation resulted in utilization of 29 g/L of glucose with yield of 9.2 g/L ethanol. Compared to various sugars t...

  5. Fermentative Production of Ethanol fuel from Domestic Waste by Pichia stipitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modugu P

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Production of Ethanol fuel from the garbage/kitchen waste was carried out with the main purpose of converting the domestic waste into a useful material. The conversion of food waste or garbage by acid hydrolysis was carried out to obtain fermentable sugars, which was converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Pichia stipitis. The present study indicated that at 36 h of incubation resulted in utilization of 29 g/L of glucose with yield of 9.2 g/L ethanol. Compared to various sugars the glucose resulted in the production of ethanol.

  6. Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water

    OpenAIRE

    Chandan Kumar Bahura; Dau Lal Bohra; Vikas Modasiya

    2012-01-01

    Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes). In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I), industrial waste water (group II), sewage treatment hub (group III), unorganized collected waste water (group IV) and old residential waste colle...

  7. Caffeine and pharmaceuticals as indicators of waste water contamination in wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Zaugg, S.D.; Thomas, J.M.; Howcroft, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of caffeine or human pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations can provide a clear, unambiguous indication that domestic waste water is a source of some of the nitrate. Water from domestic, public supply, and monitoring wells in three communities near Reno, Nevada, was sampled to test if caffeine or pharmaceuticals are common, persistent, and mobile enough in the environment that they can be detected in nitrate-contaminated ground water and, thus, can be useful indicators of recharge from domestic waste water. Results of this study indicate that these compounds can be used as indicators of recharge from domestic waste water, although their usefulness is limited because caffeine is apparently nonconservative and the presence of prescription pharmaceuticals is unpredictable. The absence of caffeine or pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations does not demonstrate that the aquifer is free of waste water contamination. Caffeine was detected in ground water samples at concentrations up to 0.23 ??g/L. The human pharmaceuticals chlorpropamide, phensuximide, and carbamazepine also were detected in some samples.

  8. Assessment of Determinants of Domestic Water Demand in Rural Areas of Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    K. Gamedze; Tevera, D.S.; G.B. Chemhaka

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on a study in which questionnaire interviews were administered to investigate the determinants of domestic water demand in rural areas of Swaziland. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed in Siphofaneni area to provide primary data for this study. The study discovered that average domestic water use per person per day was only 10 L and most households had unmet water demand for most domestic uses. The results suggest that income, household size and distance from h...

  9. Willingness to Pay for Domestic Water Service Improvements in Selangor, Malaysia: A Choice Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Rusli Yacob; Alias Radam; Zaiton Samdin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The tasks and responsibilities of domestic water service management in Malaysia are handled by various government agencies. Sufficient water service and resources management is required for sustainable water resources conservation. In order to realized water resource conservation, economic effectiveness of water utilization (consumers), maintenance of water quality supply (source of water supply) and efficiency in allocating water resources (agencies) ne...

  10. Domestic production of control parts for the nuclear waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control part IND-100, which interfaces the field signals to the control networks in the control systems of PIEF (Post-Irradiated Examination Facility) and RWTF (Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility), was designed and fabricated. Preamplifier boards for radiation detectors, proportional counter and Geiger-Mueller tube which are in use in the radiation monitoring systems, were also designed and fabricated. Control parts which may be replaced with the domestic parts were surveyed, and a domestic relay model and a recorder model were selected as the replaceable ones. To improve the control systems, adoption of programmable controller to the conventional relay logic system were considered and analyzed. (Author)

  11. Departmental plans of domestic wastes management - evaluation 2002; Plans departementaux d'elimination des dechets menager assimiles - bilan 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The departmental plans of domestic wastes management are official documents which manage the actions needed to realize the legislative and regulation objectives concerning the domestic wastes and related wastes. A first evaluation has been realized in 1997 for 47 edited plans. In the context of the new wastes policy a new evaluation has been realized by the ADEME in 2002 for 98 plans. It provides the methodology of the study, the analysis of the plans, the sites and management of wastes, economic data, the equipment and investments. (A.L.B.)

  12. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME -Domestic Water Use per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the community domestic water use was calculated using local domestic water use per capita in gallons of water per day...

  13. Ground water share in supplying domestic water in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research study of the sources of groundwater from wells and stations that rely on the national authority for urban water in the state of Khartoum, this study includes three areas, namely the Khartoum area, North Khartoum and Omdurman area. This research evaluate and identify the sources of groundwater from wells and stations and find out the productivity of wells and underground stations. The study period were identified from 2004 to 2008 during this commoners were Alabaralgeoffip Knowledge Production and stations from the water. The methods used in this study was to determine the sources of groundwater from wells and stations in the three areas with the knowledge of the percentage in each year and the total amount of water produced from wells and stations in Khartoum, North Khartoum and Omdurman it is clear from this study that the percentage of productivity in the annual increase to varying degrees in floater from 2004 to 2008 and also clear that the Omdurman area depends on groundwater wells over a maritime area of stations based on stations with more and more consumption of Khartoum and the sea. Also been identified on the tank top and bottom of the tank where the chemical properties and physical properties after the identification of these qualities and characteristics have been identified the quantity and quality of water produced from wells and stations. (Author)

  14. Does women's representation in local water management lead to better meeting women's domestic water needs?

    OpenAIRE

    Mandara, C.G.; Niehof, A.; Horst, H.M., van der

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interface between gender roles in water provision and use at household and community level and its relationship with women’s practical and strategic gender needs. Data were collected in nine villages in the districts of Kondoa and Mpwapwa, Dodoma region in Tanzania. Results have shown that women gain more knowledge on the appropriateness of water for consumptive and productive uses while pursuing their reproductive roles in the provision and use of domestic water at ...

  15. Domestic water and sanitation as water security: monitoring, concepts and strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, David J.; Bartram, Jamie K.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic water and sanitation provide examples of a situation where long-term, target-driven efforts have been launched with the objective of reducing the proportion of people who are water-insecure, most recently through the millennium development goals (MDGs) framework. Impacts of these efforts have been monitored by an increasingly evidence-based system, and plans for the next period of international policy, which are likely to aim at universal coverage with basic water and sanitation, are...

  16. Sorting and recycling of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O

    1995-01-01

    In order to reduce the strain on the environment from the deposition of waste in landfills and combustion at incineration plants, several governments throughout the industrialized world have planned greatly increased recycling of domestic waste by the turn of the millennium. To implement the plans, new waste recycling facilities are to be built and the number of workers involved in waste sorting and recycling will increase steadily during the next decade. Several studies have reinforced the hypothesis that exposure to airborne microorganisms and the toxic products thereof are important factors causing a multitude of health problems among workers at waste sorting and recycling plants. Workers at transfer stations, landfills and incineration plants may experience an increased risk of pulmonary disorders and gastrointestinal problems. High concentrations of total airborne dust, bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria and fungal spores have been reported. The concentrations are considered to be sufficiently high to cause adverse health effects. In addition, a high incidence of lower back injuries, probably due to heavy lifting during work, has been reported among workers at landfills and incineration plants. Workers involved in manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste, as well as workers at compost plants experience more or less frequent symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) (cough, chest-tightness, dyspnoea, influenza-like symptoms such as chills, fever, muscle ache, joint pain, fatigue and headache), gastrointestinal problems such as nausea and diarrhoea, irritation of the skin, eye and mucous membranes of the nose and upper airways, etc. In addition cases of severe occupational pulmonary diseases (asthma, alveolitis, bronchitis) have been reported. Manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste may be associated with exposures to large quantities of airborne bacteria and endotoxin. Several work functions in compost plants can result in very high exposure to airborne fungal spores and thermophilic actinomycetes. At plants sorting separated domestic waste, e.g. the combustible fraction of waste composed of paper, cardboard and plastics, the workers may have an increased risk of gastrointestinal symptoms and irritation of the eyes and skin. At such plants the bioaerosol exposure levels are in general low, but at some work tasks, e.g. manual sorting and work near the balers, exposure levels may occasionally be high enough to be potentially harmful. Workers handling the source-sorted paper or cardboard fraction do not appear to have an elevated risk of occupational health problems related to bioaerosol exposure, and the bioaerosol exposure is generally low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  17. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot-water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand, the volume is large; in periods with a small hot-water demand, the volume is small. Two small SDHW systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25%by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large or small hot-water consumption and the risk of oversized solar heating systems and oversized tank volumes is reduced by using smart solar tanks. Based on the investigations it is recommended to start development of smart solar tank units with an oil-fired boiler or a natural gas burner as auxiliary energy supply system.

  18. Design a Close Loop Cooling System for EA-P1 and Its Auxiliaries to Prevent Loss of Domestic Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any one of four machines i.e. EA-P1, EA-J4, EA-J5 and EA-J6 may be used to develop vacuum in water box side of main condenser in KANUPP. As per design and operating experience, most efficient one is EA-P1. But since it consumes ample quantity of domestic water which is already very short at KANUPP (even tankers are purchased), its use is avoided. If water used for its cooling is prevented from going to waste and is recycled. EA-P1 operation may be resumed thereby improving efficiency of condenser. We made a close loop for EA-P1 in order to prevent water from going to waste. For this purpose we suggested two close loop schemes and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Feasibility of both schemes is present in this report and efficient one is proposed for installation at KANUPP. (author)

  19. Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Uçkun Kiran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, food wastes such as waste bread, savory, waste cakes, cafeteria waste, fruits, vegetables and potatoes were used as sole substrate for glucoamylase production by solid state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the fermentation conditions for improving the production of high activity enzyme. It was found that waste cake was the best substrate for glucoamylase production. Among all the parameters studied, glucoamylase activity was significantly affected by the initial pH and incubation time. The highest glucoamylase activity of 108.47 U/gds was achieved at initial pH of 7.9, moisture content of 69.6% wt., inoculum loading of 5.2×105 cells/gram substrate (gs and incubation time of 6 d. The enzyme preparation could effectively digest 50% suspension of domestic food waste in 24 h with an almost complete saccharification using an enzyme dose of only 2U/g food waste at 60°C.

  20. State of Art About water Uses and Waste water Management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the real situation about management of water and waste water in Lebanon and focuses on problems related to urban water pollution released in environment. Water and waste water infrastructures have been rebuilt since 1992. However, waste water management still remains one of the greatest challenges facing Lebanese people, since water supply projects have been given priority over wastewater projects. As a consequence of an increased demand of water by agricultural, industrial and household sectors in the last decade, waste water flows have been increased. In this paper, the existing waste water treatment plants (WWTP) operating in Lebanon are presented. Most of them are small-scale community-based ones, only two large-scale plants, constructed by the government, are currently operational. Lebanese aquatic ecosystems are suffering from the deterioration of water quality because of an insufficient treatment of waste water, which is limited mostly to pre-treatment processes. In fact, domestic and industrial effluents are mainly conducted together in the sewer pipes to the WWTP before being discharged, without adequate treatment into the rivers or directly into the Mediterranean Sea. Such discharges are threatening the coastal marine ecosystem in the Mediterranean basin. This paper aims at giving the current state of knowledge about water uses and wastewater management in Lebanon. The main conclusion drawn from this state of art is a lack of data. In fact, state of art is a lack of data. In fact, the available data are limited to academic research without being representative on a national scale. (author)

  1. EnviroAtlas - Domestic Water Demand by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes domestic water demand attributes which provide insight into the amount of water currently used for indoor and outdoor residential...

  2. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  3. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  4. Solar domestic hot water technology evaluation program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center, under contract to the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), installed 12 solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems in single-family residences in downstate New York and instrumented them to determine energy consumption and time-of-day electrical demand. Annual performance data was collected on both the SDHW systems and the original electric resistance water heaters and has been analyzed to determine energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and the impact on electrical utility peak demand. The average New York SDHW system installed during this program operated with approximately 63 percent higher annual electrical energy efficiency than the average electric resistance water heater. The energy savings for the twelve New York SDHW systems ranged from approximately 900 to 3,100 kWh per year, with a mean of 1,980 kWh per year. Hence, at the 1995 residential electricity rates of LILCO, Con Edison, and Orange and Rockland Utilities, the average utility customer could save approximately $325 per year due to a typical SDHW system. The average installed cost for a SDHW system in this program was $3,850, so the average tax-free rate of return for the 12 SDHW systems was 8.4 percent. However if the utility owned the SDHW system and sold the hot water to the customer for a monthly fee, the after-tax internal rate of return to the utility could be higher than the customer`s rate of return, because of the utility`s ability to take depreciation and the federal solar energy investment tax credit.

  5. Feasibility analysis of domestic solar water heating systems in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excessive usage of fossil fuels has world-widely caused chain environmental consequences. An interesting solution to this problem is the systematic exploitation of available renewable energy sources, including solar energy. Greece is located in a major geographical region with an abundant and reliable supply of solar energy, even during the winter. In as much, one cannot disregard the significant dependency of the country on imported fuels, since almost 70% of its domestic energy consumption is covered by oil and natural gas imports. Despite the relative local sun abundance, during the last 10 years the local solar collectors market illustrates a sluggish behaviour, in comparison with the impressive numbers of sales during the 1980-1990 decade. At a first glance, such an occurrence characterizes a controversy. In an attempt to find a rational explanation of this peculiar situation, an integrated cost-benefit analysis is carried out taking into consideration the vast majority of the parameters affecting solar thermal energy production cost. The resulting numerical values are then compared with the corresponding ones coming from alternative hot-water production techniques. Accordingly, a quite extensive sensitivity analysis is carried out, in order to demonstrate the impact of the main techno-economic parameters on the fiscal behaviour of contemporary solar hot water production systems. The results obtained not only explain with sufficient accuracy the current localwith sufficient accuracy the current local market situation but also demonstrate the specific actions that if realized they may boost solar collector sales in the corresponding local market. (author)

  6. Waste water from dewatering of peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of waste water from mechanical dewatering of peat was tested on two species of stream invertebrates. We compared the effects of waste water from peat without any chemical treatment, and waste water from peat where one of the following treatments of the peat had preceded dewatering; a: acidification combined with addition of the cationic polymer Zetag 78 FS40, b: addition of aluminium in combination with the anionic polymer Magnafloc E10, c: polymerisation of the peat by acidification and addition of ferrous chloride and hydrogen peroxide. Waste water from Al/Magnafloc and from the polymerisation treatments had a higher content of suspended matter and a higher oxygen demand than those of other treatments. Total metal content of the water from all treatments was higher than in water from non-treated peat. Survival and growth of nymphs of the mayfly Heptagenia fuscogrisa and the stonefly Nemoura cinerea were compared in waste water from the different treatments. In all tests, the waste water was diluted to 5% (volume) with unchlorinated tapwater and pH was between 7.0-8.0 in all treatments during the experiment. The nymphs were fed with birch leaves that had been incubated in natural stream water for one month. Under these conditions, we did not find any significant effect of waste water on either survival or growth of these two species

  7. Onsite Waste Water Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs have evolved from the pit privies used widely throughout history to installations capable of producing a disinfected effluent that is fit for human consumption. Although achieving such a level of effluent quality is seldom necessary, the ability of onsite systems to remove settles able solids, floatable grease and scum, nutrients, and pathogens. From wastewater discharges defines their importance in protecting human health and environmental resources. In the modern era, the typical onsite system has consisted primarily of a septic tank and a soil absorption field, also known as a subsurface wastewater infiltration system, or SWIS. In this manual, such systems are referred to as conventional systems. Septic tanks remove most settle able and floatable material and function as an anaerobic bioreactor that promotes partial digestion of retained organic matter. Septic tank effluent, which contains significant concentrations of pathogens and nutrients, has traditionally been discharged to soil, sand, or other media absorption fields (SWISs for further treatment through biological processes, adsorption, filtration, and infiltration into underlying soils. Conventional systems work well if they are installed in areas with appropriate soils and hydraulic capacities; designed to treat the incoming waste load to meet public health, ground water, and surface water performance standards; installed properly; and maintained to ensure long-term performance. These criteria, however, are often not met. Only about one-third of the land area in the United States has soils suited for conventional subsurface soil absorption fields. System densities in some areas exceed the capacity of even suitable soils to assimilate wastewater flows and retain and transform their contaminants. In addition, many systems are located too close to ground water or surface waters and others, particularly in rural areas with newly installed public water lines, are not designed to handle increasing wastewater flows.

  8. Spectrographic analysis of waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Influence of sodium and calcium, up to a maximum concentration of 1000 mg/1 Na and 300 mg/1 Ca, in the spectrographic determination of Cr, Cu, Fe,Mn and Pb in waste waters using graphite spark excitation has been studied. In order to eliminate this influence, each of the elements Ba, Cs, In, La, Li, Sr and Ti, as well as a mixture containing 5% Li-50% Ti, have been tested as spectrochemical buffers. This mixture allows to obtain an accuracy better than 25%. Sodium and calcium enhance the line intensities of impurities, when using graphite or gold electrodes, but they produce an opposite effect if copper or silver electrodes are used. (Author) 1 refs

  9. Biological cleaning method for radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depending on the size of power plants, the waste water consisting of laundry drains and rinsing liquids from the nuclear laundry and the wash rooms within the controlled area may vary between some hundred and some thousand cubic meters. Common practice so far for water cleaning is careful filtration/sedimentation for extraction of radioactive substances, and subsequent discharge into the draining body. If radioactivity removal is insuffient, the water is evaporated for enhancing purification. The paper describes a biological method developed at the Gundremmingen reactor station. The organic matter in the waste water is removed by bacterial biodegradation, boosted by air. The time required for waste water treatment in the collecting tanks of the power plant for removal of the washing agents is approx. 10 hours, and the resulting waste water is then filtered for radioactivity removal from the water, which in the absence of detergents is much more efficient. (orig./CB)

  10. 77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural...to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants program, which provides water and waste disposal facilities and services to...

  11. 77 FR 43149 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ...1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural...to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants Program, which provides water and waste disposal facilities and services to...

  12. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy [Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh_thermal)] for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goal is attainable and prioritize R&D for cold-climate SDWH, life-cycle analyses were done with hypothetical lower-cost components in glycol, drainback, and thermosiphon systems. Balance-of-system (BOS, everything but the collector) measures included replacing metal components with polymeric versions and system simplification. With all BOS measures in place, Csav could be reduced more than 50% with a low-cost, selectively-coated, glazed polymeric collector, and slightly less than 50% with either a conventional selective metal-glass or a non-selective glazed polymer collector. The largest percent reduction in Csav comes from replacing conventional pressurized solar storage tanks and metal heat exchangers with un-pressurized polymer tanks with immersed polymer heat exchangers, which could be developed with relatively low-risk R&D.

  13. TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER IN SHALLOW WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS FOR AGRICULTURAL IRRIGATION REUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste stabilization ponds are a well established wastewater treatment system being considered by World Health Organization as one of the most appropriated technology for domestic wastewater when agricultural reuse is considered, especially in developing countries. This study was performed in a series of pilot-scale stabilization ponds, being one facultative and three maturation ponds, with depths varying from 0.44 to 0.57 m. The substrate to be treated was composed of a mixture of domestic wastewater and previously anaerobicaly treated leachate. The experimental system was monitored in two different phases, in which the hydraulic retention times were 15 (phase 1 and 10 days (phase 2. Termotolerant coliform removal efficiencies were 3.8 log10 units in both phases while organic matter (BOD5 removal was 87 and 68% for phases 1 and 2, respectively.

  14. Feasibility analysis of domestic hot water systems using TRNSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted in which 17 conventional and solar-based domestic hot water (DHW) systems were simulated using the TRYNSYS simulation model, and their results were compared. According to Natural Resources Canada, DHW heating currently accounts for 25 per cent of Canadian residential energy consumption and 25 per cent of Canadian residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate the fuel consumption of DHW systems, their GHG emissions and 30-year life cycle costs. Another aspect of the study was to model and analyze the effect of time of use (TOU) electricity pricing which was developed by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) to provide stable and predictable electricity pricing. TOU electricity pricing also promotes energy conservation. In addition, the TOU electricity price charged per kilowatt-hour changes throughout the day to reflect the changes in cost to produce electricity at different times of the day. The Ontario government plans to equip all homes and businesses with smart meters using TOU pricing by 2010. Therefore, this study also investigated the effects of the TOU feature by optimizing its use in the effort to reduce overall energy costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results revealed that a DHW system with solar pre-heat and electrical back-up is the best system for energy conservation and GHG reduction. The best system in terms of 30-year life cycle cost is a high efficiency DHW system with aost is a high efficiency DHW system with an on demand modulating gas combo boiler with gray water heat recovery. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  15. Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

  16. Domestic water uses: Characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. - Highlights: • This paper presents a method to find out the pattern of water use in dwellings. • The number of uses per person a day, by domestic device, is presented. • The volume spent per type of use by domestic device is presented. • The daily cycles per domestic device are presented. • Sociodemographic characteristics seem to affect the daily cycles

  17. Management of domestic solid wastes at the Akwapim South Municipality: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key findings of a solid waste characterization study conducted at Nsawam and Adoagyiri of the Akwapim South Municipality are reported. Household waste generated by a number of residents of these two important towns of the Municipality, were collected through a two-way stratification based on differences in income levels and class of residential areas over a 12- week period, between December 2007 and March 2008. A total of 24 collections were made and about 2319 kg of household solid wastes were collected, weighed and classified according to the various components of the waste streams after thoroughly sorting the waste. Each component of the waste stream (i.e. organic, paper, plastics, metals/cans, textiles, glass, inert materials/residues and miscellaneous components) was then reweighed and the weights recorded. Information on demographics such as household size, characteristics and detailed information on household waste management practices of the study areas were obtained through a self administered questionnaire. Other physico-chemical characteristics of the collected household solid waste such as moisture content, density and volumes and heavy metals were measured. The average waste composition from Nsawam were 62% organic component, 7% paper and card component, 8% plastic and rubber component, 1 % glass component, 3% metal/can component, 2% textile component, 14% residues or inert materials and 3% miscellaneous or other waste component. However, for Adoagyirher waste component. However, for Adoagyiri, average composition revealed 50% organic component, 10% paper component, 12% plastics and rubber, 3% glass, 4% metal, 2 % textile, 15% residues or inert materials and 4% miscellaneous or other waste. The study also sought to examine the extent to which household demographics influenced waste stream character. Physico-chemical analysis was also conducted on composite samples of domestic solid waste from the two towns. The results of this analysis yielded information on the compostable and combustible proportions of the waste, moisture content, and elemental concentrations of the wastes. The range of compostable proportions was 42-44% whereas the range of the combustible proportions was 39-45%. The moisture content range was 49.6% - 60.0%. The analysis of metal ions concentrations in composite samples of household solid organic waste, plastic and paper waste were done using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for (Ca, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Al, Cl, V ) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for (Fe, Ni, Pb, Co, Cr and Cd). Higher average concentrations of 3.79?g/g and 0.35?g/g were recorded for Pb and Cd respectively in organic waste stream component as compared to 3.48?g/g and 0.32?g/g in paper/cardboard waste stream and 0.66?g/g and 0.32?g/g in rubber/plastic waste stream components respectively. These values are comparable to literature values (au).

  18. The speciation and subtyping of campylobacter isolates from sewage plants and waste water from a connected poultry abattoir using molecular techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Koenraad, P. M. F. J.; Ayling, R.; Hazeleger, W. C.; Rombouts, F. M.; Newell, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    In this study the distribution of phenotypes of campylobacter strains in sewage and surface waters was investigated by subtyping and by speciation of isolates from various aquatic environments. These environments included two municipal sewage plants (SPA and SPB) and waste water from a poultry abattoir (WWA). Both the sewage plants SPA and SPB collected domestic and industrial waste, and SPA received drain water from WWA. SPB received no waste water from any meat-processing plant. The isolate...

  19. Use of Industrial Waste Water for Agricultural Purpose: Pb and Cd in Vegetables in Bikaner City, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Singh; Verma, R. S.; Yogita Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Shortage of irrigation water resources is leading to the use of domestic and industrial waste water in agriculture. esp. in urban areas. Being contaminated by metals and various toxic chemicals these waste waters leads to the exposure of heavy metals and hazardous chemicals and the subsequent human health hazards through agriculture products and live stocks. Increasing cases of cancer and kidney problems is also related with this aspect. In present study human health risk assessment taken in ...

  20. Numerical hydraulic modeling of urban waste water collecting systems : Working Project at Chazelles-sur-Lyon, France

    OpenAIRE

    Genty, Stanislas

    2014-01-01

    Urban waste water collecting systems are designed to convey domestic, industrial and storm water. When sizing sewer network, heavy rainfall must be considered to provide the needed hydraulic capacity for collection. Maintenance is also required in order to avoid anomalies such as inflow, infiltration and unusual polluted discharges from Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs). Inflow and infiltration decrease the treatment yield at the Waste water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and participate in hydraulic o...

  1. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  2. Domestic water uses: characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Cristina; Teixeira, Carlos A; Duarte, A A L S; Bentes, I

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:23685370

  3. Brucellosis in domestic water bufallo (Bubalus bubalis) of Trinidad and Tobago with comparative epidemiology to cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Fosgate, Geoffrey T.; Diptee, Michael D.; Ramnanan, Anil; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

    2011-01-01

    The water buffalo is an important domestic animal worldwide and the local Buffalypso variety was developed in Trinidad to have improved beef qualities. Brucellosis was diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago during 1998 in both cattle and domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations. Brucellosis in the latter species is caused by infection with Brucella abortus, similar to bovine brucellosis. Control of brucellosis is of paramount importance to preservation of the genetic dive...

  4. Integration and control of domestic solar water heater and photovoltaic water pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiqin, M.; Jianhui, S. [HeFei Univ. of Technology, Hefei (China). Research Center for Photovoltaic System Engineering; Chang, L. [HeFei Univ. of Technology, Hefei (China). Research Center for Photovoltaic System Engineering]|[New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2008-08-15

    China is now producing and purchasing more domestic solar water heaters (DSWHs) than any other country in the world. This study presented details of a new DSWH integrated with a photovoltaic (PV) water pump system (PVWPS). Designed in China, the system consists of an evacuated tube solar water heater, a PV panel, a water pump with a magnetic brushless direct current (DC) motor, and a central control system. The PV panel is used as a power supply to the PVWPS with an inverter. The controller is designed to lift water from a well and feed it into the water tank of the DSWH. The system can operate without relying on utility and water supply systems. Solar energy produced by the PV panel can also able to be stored in a battery for later use or fed back into the electricity grid using a grid-connected inverter. The system also controls water levels in the cold water tank, as well as the pump and electrical components when water levels are below preset points. The control system controls the rate at which the PV panel charges batteries and operates as a bidirectional converter. It was concluded that use of system will facilitate the widespread adoption of DSWHs in rural areas which have inadequate electricity and water supply systems. 3 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project will develop and implement a methodology to compare and prioritize these technologies and optimizations based on a holistic approach. This will be achieved through the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) along with cost/efficiency analysis with focus on the effects of nutrients, pathogens and micropollutants (i.e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies.

  6. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  7. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  8. The artificial water cycle: emergy analysis of waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianoni, Simone; Fugaro, Laura; Principi, Ilaria; Rosini, Marco

    2003-04-01

    The artificial water cycle can be divided into the phases of water capture from the environment, potabilisation, distribution, waste water collection, waste water treatment and discharge back into the environment. The terminal phase of this cycle, from waste water collection to discharge into the environment, was assessed by emergy analysis. Emergy is the quantity of solar energy needed directly or indirectly to provide a product or energy flow in a given process. The emergy flow attributed to a process is therefore an index of the past and present environmental cost to support it. Six municipalities on the western side of the province of Bologna were analysed. Waste water collection is managed by the municipal councils and treatment is carried out in plants managed by a service company. Waste water collection was analysed by compiling a mass balance of the sewer system serving the six municipalities, including construction materials and sand for laying the pipelines. Emergy analysis of the water treatment plants was also carried out. The results show that the great quantity of emergy required to treat a gram of water is largely due to input of non renewable fossil fuels. As found in our previous analysis of the first part of the cycle, treatment is likewise characterised by high expenditure of non renewable resources, indicating a correlation with energy flows. PMID:12817633

  9. Water supply, waste water cleaning and waste disposal. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the book contains fundamentals of chemistry, always having environmental protection in mind. Numerous examples are calculated. The second part gives detailed explanations of the material-scientific and analytical bases of the indispensable resource water and its conditioning, waste water cleaning and sludge treatment. Collection, transport, handling, disposal and recycling of unavoidable wastes and toxic wastes are finally dealt with. (orig./EF)

  10. Synergistic effects of irradiation of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical considerations of the use of high level radiation in the treatment of waste water have failed to consider the effects of the hydrated electron and the potential of possible synergistic effects of combining chlorine, oxygen, and irradiation. An extensive testing program at the University Center for Pollution Research of Florida Institute of Technology over the past four years has shown that irradiation of waste water samples immersed in an aqueous environment provide bacterial kill and reduction in organic pollution far greater than that obtained from theoretical considerations of G values and earlier experiments where the waste samples were not immersed in an aqueous environment. These testing programs have investigated the synergistic effects of combining oxygen and irradiation. Each of these combined treatments resulted in an increased bacterial kill factor. Tests on Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and fecal streptococcus bacteria indicate that the synergistic effects observed for fecal coliform bacteria also apply to the pathogenic bacteria. A statistical analysis of the data obtained shows the interrelationships between the various effects on the bacteria. A definite shielding factor due to the turbidity of the waste water has been shown to exist. Synergistic effects have been shown to significantly offset the shielding effects. Optimization of these synergistic effects can greatly increase the effectiveness of irradiation in the treatment of waste wateirradiation in the treatment of waste water. (orig.)

  11. Efficiency Evaluation of Heat Exchanger Based Domestic Solar Water Heater - A Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kumar Dehariya; Dr. A. R. Jaurker 2

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to review the literature of performance improving techniques for solar water heater. In view of energy crisis, the application of solar energy in the form of solar water heater is most useful for domestic, commercial and industrial purpose but it is found that the application of its limited due to its demerits. Hence attempt to be made to find out the demerits of solar water heater and improve its performance so that it becomes more popular in domestic, ...

  12. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  13. Treatment of leachate from a domestic solid waste sanitary landfill by an electrolysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlyssides, A; Karlis, P; Loizidou, M; Zorpas, A; Arapoglou, D

    2001-12-01

    This study deals with the characteristisation and the treatability of leachates from the new municipal domestic waste (DW) landfill site in Athens, Greece, using an electrolysis system. This site has been in operation since July 1998. The leachate from this site has mean COD and BOD5 values of 53300 and 30300 mg l(-1), respectively, and constitutes a major environmental problem that must be taken into serious consideration. An electrolysis system, using Ti/Pt electrode in alkaline conditions was used to treat the leachate. The study showed, that the COD was reduced by 84%, and that VSS, N-NH4 and Total Phosphorus were reduced by 100% within one hour of electolysis and at pH 9. The efficiency of electrolysis went up to 32 g COD removed (CODr)/h-A-m2 and the energy consumption was 12.6 kWh kg(-1)CODr. PMID:11873882

  14. Waste water treatment in Triglav national park

    OpenAIRE

    Peterlin, Blaz?

    2012-01-01

    The thesis presents the pollution problems caused by municipal waste water in the protected area of the Triglav National Park. Although most people are not detecting the problem, the consequences of water pollution in the area are clearly visible in the mountain lakes and downstream springs. Water resources near the mountain huts and agricultural land show obvious signs of nurient overload. Non- native plant and animal species recklessly discharged into the natural environment also pose a thr...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Domestic Water Demand per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in this EnviroAtlas dataset, community level domestic water demand is calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Domestic Water Use per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the community level domestic water use was calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Domestic Water Use per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the community domestic water use was calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water per...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Domestic Water Use per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the community level domestic water use was calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water...

  19. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - Domestic Water Use per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the community level domestic water use is calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Domestic Water Use per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the community level domestic water use is calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - Domestic Water Use per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the community level domestic water use is calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Domestic Water Use per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in the EnviroAtlas, the community level domestic water use is calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water per day...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Domestic Water Use per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in this EnviroAtlas dataset, the community level domestic water use is calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Domestic Water Demand per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in this EnviroAtlas dataset, community level domestic water demand is calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Domestic Water Use per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in the EnviroAtlas, the community level domestic water use is calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water per day...

  6. Domestic rooftop water harvesting (DRWH)- A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kumar Dwivedi; Sudhir Singh Bhadauria

    2009-01-01

    Although water is as important for survival of human being as much as food, air etc., but hardly any attention is paid for its economical use and conservation of this precious resource. Due to indiscriminate pumping of ground water, the water table is going down abnormally and if the problem is not given a serious look, then the future generations may have to face severe crisis of water. Rains are the main source of water and if rain water is harvested, the scarcity of water can be eliminated...

  7. First domestic primary loop recircuration pump for boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two primary loop recirculation (PLR) pumps for the second unit of the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., have been manufactured by Ebara Corporation. They are the first domestically produced pumps for commercial power plants and were manufactured under license from Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg Warner Corporation. This article describes the special features of pump design and stress analysis, and the results of the 700 hours of factory loop tests, which are all essential for the PLR pump. (author)

  8. Willingness to Pay for Domestic Water Service Improvements in Selangor, Malaysia: A Choice Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rusli Yacob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The tasks and responsibilities of domestic water service management in Malaysia are handled by various government agencies. Sufficient water service and resources management is required for sustainable water resources conservation. In order to realized water resource conservation, economic effectiveness of water utilization (consumers, maintenance of water quality supply (source of water supply and efficiency in allocating water resources (agencies needs to be addressed. The objective of the study is to assess community preferences and values relating to alternative water service management with particular concentration on water service improvement. This study has applied Choice Experiment (CE to investigate the current policies and potential alternative of water service management in Selangor. The studies are based on 230 respondents in Subang Jaya that were randomly interviewed for data collection in October to December 2008. The findings indicates that respondents are willing to pay higher for drinking water as compared to the current rate with improved in water quality (WQ, reduced the frequency of water interruption (WI and increases in the consumer trust to tap water (CT. The finding of this study is very important in order to assists and recommends the policy makers towards efficiency of domestic water service management in Malaysia.
    Key words: Choice experiment; Water conservation; Consumer preference; Choice modelling; Willingness to pay

  9. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Erik Bundgaard unknown

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved.

  10. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This Document is the Final Technical Report of the Solar Energy System located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. The building was air conditioned with an electric drive 300-ton chilled water central system in 1973. The building contains 126,000 square feet and the solar energy system will preheat 100 percent of domestic hot water and supply 47.5 percent of annual building heating requirements. During the building cooling seasons, the solar energy system will supply 100 percent of domestic hot water. The solar energy system consists of 4800 square feet (320 panels) Lennox/Honeywell flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 10,000 gallon steel tank storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 686.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/year (specified) building heating and domestic hot water heating. The start up date is December 4, 1979. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  11. Efficiency Evaluation of Heat Exchanger Based Domestic Solar Water Heater - A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Dehariya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to review the literature of performance improving techniques for solar water heater. In view of energy crisis, the application of solar energy in the form of solar water heater is most useful for domestic, commercial and industrial purpose but it is found that the application of its limited due to its demerits. Hence attempt to be made to find out the demerits of solar water heater and improve its performance so that it becomes more popular in domestic, commercial, as well as in industrial applications. The main objective of this research paper is to present the current status and future aspects of Solar water heater in the world by comprehensively reviewing various solar water heater related studies. This review paper shows comprehensive review and researches on solar water heater by various researchers of the world

  12. Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn

      Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (?2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management.

  13. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  14. Process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from nuclear power stations is proposed, characterized by the fact that the water is taken continuously through a water decomposition cell. If the water does not have sufficient conductivity itself, a substance raising the electrical conductivity is added to the water to be treated. The electrolysis is situated in the waste water tank. (orig./RB)

  15. Waste water discharges into natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point

  16. Chemical Industry Waste water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of chemical industrial wastewater from building and construction chemicals factory and plastic shoes manufacturing factory was investigated. The two factories discharge their wastewater into the public sewerage network. The results showed the wastewater discharged from the building and construction chemicals factory was highly contaminated with organic compounds. The average values of COD and BOD were 2912 and 150 mg O2/l. Phenol concentration up to 0.3 mg/l was detected. Chemical treatment using lime aided with ferric chloride proved to be effective and produced an effluent characteristics in compliance with Egyptian permissible limits. With respect to the other factory, industrial wastewater was mixed with domestic wastewater in order to lower the organic load. The COD, BOD values after mixing reached 5239 and 2615 mg O2/l. The average concentration of phenol was 0.5 mg/l. Biological treatment using activated sludge or rotating biological contactor (RBe) proved to be an effective treatment system in terms of producing an effluent characteristic within the permissible limits set by the law

  17. Surgical hand scrub: Lots of water wasted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Surgical hand scrub (SHS is an important antisepsis measure before participating in surgical operation. It reduces the risk of microbial contamination of the surgical wound by skin flora. SHS is usually performed in a scrub sink with taps that have hand operated handles. During the scrub process large volume of water is wasted. The aim of this study was to determine the volume of water used during SHS in comparison to the actual volume necessary. Method : Unknown to them various cadreof the operation team were timed during their first scrubbing of the day for scheduled operations. Duration of scrubbing (ST and that during which the hands were being washed with flowing water (WT were recorded. The amount of water flowing through the tap per minute was also recorded. Using the mean ST, WT and water flow per minute the total volume of water used during scrubbing and that necessary to wash the hand were calculated. Results : Overall, the ST ranged between 3 and 7 minutes with a mean of 4.8 ± 0.5 SD minutes. Mean WT was 1.4 ± 0.4 SD minutes. The mean water flow was 4,217mls per minutes. The volume of water used per scrubbing was 20.2 litres while only 5.9 litres was used for washing the hands. Between January and December 2002, the volume of water used for scrubbing was 200,283 litres while only 58,498.5 litres (29.2% was necessary. Conclusion : Plenty water is wasted during SHS. Reducing the amount of water flowing unused would provide cost saving to the hospital. The use of taps operated with foot pedal would reduce the waste.

  18. Installation and operation of the Plantwide Fire Protection Systems and related Domestic Water Supply Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safe work environment is needed to support the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission of producing special nuclear material. This Environmental Assessment (EA) assesses the potential environmental impact(s) of adding to and upgrading the Plantwide Fire Protection System and selected related portions of the Domestic Water Supply System at SRS, Aiken, South Carolina. The following objectives are expected to be met by this action: Prevent undue threat to public health and welfare from fire at SRS; prevent undue hazard to employees at SRS from fire; prevent unacceptable delay to vital DOE programs as a result of fire at SRS; keep fire related property damage at SRS to a manageable level;, and provide an upgraded supply of domestic water for the Reactor Areas. The Reactor Areas' domestic water supplies do not meet current demand capacity due to the age and condition of the 30-year old iron piping. In addition, the water quality for these supplies is not consistent with current SCDHEC requirements. Therefore, DOE proposes to upgrade this Domestic Water Supply System to meet current demand and quality levels, as well as the needs of fire protection system improvement

  19. Water: Waste Not, Want Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Bureau of Statistics

    Focusing on Australia's water use and conservation efforts, this site provides teachers with activities and ideas for encouraging students to analyze their own use as well as learn about the nation's use. Activities include conducting an individual and a family-based water consumption log, learning to gather, record and report data, and using the web to compare data submitted by other classes. Teachers will find discussion topics, forms to download for data gathering and reporting, a computer-based quiz, as well as information about water in general and Australian use specifically.

  20. Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, S. K.; Idris, M. H.; Hamli, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3). However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW) as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Different concentration (0.05...

  1. Process for treating waste water containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for treating waste water containing radioactive substances comprising treating the waste water by reverse osmosis in the presence of at least one organic surfactant selected from the group consisting of anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants and nonionic surfactants

  2. Waste water treatment technique for a uranium tailings pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compositions of waste water from a uranium tailings pond and main pollution factors were analyzed. A method of treating the waste water was determined through experiments, that is, neutra-lization with milk of lime-adsorption with manganese sand method, and the waste water was treated by the method. Contents of U, Ra and Mn, and pH value in the treated waste water meet the national discharge standard. (authors)

  3. Attributes of Domestic Water Sources in a Rapidly Urbanizing State Capital in a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Olajuyigbe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The efficiency and effectiveness of domestic water sources are often gauged by availability, accessibility and adequacy. This study examined various variables that could be harnessed in measuring these parameters with respect to water supply in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Approach: The purpose of this study is to investigate the various attributes of domestic water sources in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Three residential zones were identified in the city. They included the urban core, transitional zone and urban periphery. A sample size of 1,200 amounting to 4.0% of the total number of households in Ado-Ekiti, was chosen. Specific areas referred to as Data Delineation Areas (DDAs were identified in each zone. Based on the estimated population of each DDA, the number of households to be interviewed was estimated. In consonance with some assumptions, 600 (50.0% questionnaires were administered in the city core while 420 (35.0% and 180 (15.0% questionnaires were administered in the transitional zone and urban periphery, respectively. Subsequently, systematic sampling procedure was adopted in the choice of households to be interviewed. Some of the attributes investigated included the main source of domestic water used by household, access to improved source of water, distance from improved source to residence, average time spent to fetch from main source, average number of trips per person per day, quantity of water used per person per day and attack by water-borne diseases. Results: Households in Ado-Ekiti had access to diverse sources of domestic water including wells, boreholes, streams/rivers/springs, tanker-drawn water and rainwater. However, most households (59.8% depended on wells. Nevertheless, 84.3% had access to improved sources. Only 10.0% of these households obtained supplies from piped water while piped network is largely restricted to the city core. The research showed that distance, time, number of trips and adequacy of supplies placed limitations on access to improved source. Only 63.2% of the households in the city obtained water supplies within 1 km from their dwelling places. About 67.0% spent less than 30 min round trip to obtain water from improved sources while 61.6% made more than three (3 trips to water sources per day. Only 22.7% of the households had access to at least 40 L per person per day while 36.9% were annually afflicted with water-borne diseases such as typhoid, diarrhea and stomach ache. Conclusion: Domestic water supply system in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria is characterized by low level of access, inadequate supplies from improved sources while these sources are usually distant away from the households.

  4. How mixing during hot water draw-offs influence the thermal performance of small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2005-01-01

    CFD calculations on the mixing during hot water draw-offs in vertical hot water tanks with different diameters have been carried out. The calculations, which were carried out with the same cold water inlet design, showed that the extent of mixing is strongly influenced by the tank diameter. The extent of mixing is increasing for increasing tank diameter. Further, calculations of the yearly thermal performance of small solar domestic hot water systems with hot water tanks with different mixing rates during hot water draw-offs were carried out. Both solar domestic hot water systems with mantle tanks and with spiral tanks were investigated. Tanks with different volumes, auxiliary volumes and height/diameter ratios were considered. The investigations showed that the thermal performance of systems with mantle tanks is higher than the thermal performance of systems with spiral tanks, and that a decreased auxiliary volume in the tanks and an increased height/diameter ratio of the tanks will increase the thermal performance of the systems. The investigations showed further, that mixing during hot water draw-offs decreases the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water systems. The mixing decreases the thermal performance of systems with spiral tanks more than the thermal performance of systems with mantle tanks. The mixing decreases the thermal performance stronger for systems based on tanks with low height/diameter ratios and with large auxiliary volumes than for systems with tanks with high height/diameter ratios and small auxiliary volumes. Based on the investigations, it is recommended to design hot water tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems as mantle tanks with as high height/diameter ratio as possible and with as small an auxiliary volume as possible, of course under consideration of the required hot water comfort.

  5. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas is discussed. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  6. Neutron Activation analysis of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 1013 cm-2 s-1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

  7. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  8. Domestic water treatment appliances and the fluoride ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S N; Davies, E H; Williams, B

    Specific ion metering of fluoride ion levels of water samples obtained after passage through water softeners and a conditioner showed no alteration in concentration when compared with controls. Similar comparison of water samples passed through water filters demonstrated that highly significant amounts of fluoride ion were removed. In one filter tested, 90% of the fluoride content was lost in the filtration process. The findings of this study suggest that, in a household using a filter, it may be necessary to increase the fluoride supplement or in some cases to initiate use of fluoride supplements as children are not receiving as much fluoride as was thought. New guidelines are required to take account of this surprising effect. PMID:1888589

  9. Nutrient pollution in shallow aquifers underlying pit latrines and domestic solid waste dumps in urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P M; Foppen, J W; Kulabako, R; Muwanga, A; Uhlenbrook, S

    2013-06-15

    The lack of proper on-site sanitation in unsewered low-income areas is becoming an important source of nutrient-rich wastewater leaching to groundwater and can potentially lead to eutrophication. For typical conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, the nutrient loading of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from on-site sanitation systems to aquifers is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the dissolved nutrient loads (nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4) and orthophosphate (o-PO4)) and the processes likely affecting them in aquifers underlying two on-site sanitation systems in an unsewered low-income urban slum in Kampala, Uganda; a domestic solid waste dump and a site with two pit latrines. The impact of the two types of sites was assessed by comparing the upgradient and downgradient nutrient concentrations and loads along groundwater flow lines. Significant pollution to groundwater originated from the pit latrine site with downgradient nutrient loads increasing by factors of 1.7 for NO3, 10.5 for NH4 and 49 for o-PO4. No effect of leaching of nutrients to groundwater was found from the waste dump. We estimated that approximately 2-20% of total N and less than 1% of total P mass input was lost to groundwater from the pit latrines. The bulk of N leached to groundwater was in the form of NH4. Mn-reducing conditions prevailed in the shallow aquifer which suggested that nitrification was the main process affecting NH4 concentrations. Phosphorus was likely retained in the soils by precipitating as MnHPO4 and Ca5(PO4)3(OH). Our results indicated that pit latrines in alluvial aquifer systems can be highly effective for the removal of nutrients depending on hydrological, hydrochemical and geochemical conditions in the aquifer receiving wastewater. Improvements to make the current pit latrine systems better for nutrient containment are suggested based on findings from this study. PMID:23542227

  10. Demand side management potential of domestic water heaters and space heaters

    OpenAIRE

    Qazi, Hassan Wajahat; Flynn, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Demand side management (DSM) is a viable strategy for facilitating integration of renewable energy into power systems. The demand resource from water and space heating can be used to reduce or delay system demand peaks, and in combination with other flexible loads, reshape the aggregate demand profile and manage system ramping. In this paper, the aggregate power draw profiles for heat pump based water heating and under floor space heating systems for the Irish domestic sector have been synthe...

  11. EFFICIENCY OF DOMESTIC REVERSE OSMOSIS IN REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mazloomi ? R. Nabizadeh ? S. Nasseri ? K. Naddafi ? S. Nazmara ? A. H. Mahvi

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs) are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO) in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound,...

  12. Environmental impact on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Egwari L; Aboaba O O

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of town planning, infrastructure, sanitation and rainfall on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies. METHODS: Water samples obtained from deep and shallow wells, boreholes and public taps were cultured to determine the most probable number of Escherichia coli and total coliform using the multiple tube technique. Presence of enteric pathogens was detected using selective and differential media. Samples were collected during both periods of heavy ...

  13. Solar domestic water heating performance test program - Interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auris, R. H.

    Performance results from utility-installed or monitored flat plate collector systems on 13 residences are reported. The systems comprised either drain-down, i.e., emptying the water-working fluid into a reservoir in response to thermistor sensing of sufficiently low temperatures, or water/glycol mixture as freeze protection measures. Installation errors committeed by commercial solar contractors employed by the utility customers are outlined, indicating the uncertainty involved in obtaining a quality installation. Most system failures occurred with the drain-down systems, which also featured the highest system efficiencies. Redundancy in the control systems is suggested to offer significant improvements in system efficiency. The systems provided an average of 40% of the annual hot water needs, and the development of low cost materials, better system designs, low cost financing, and increased tax credits are concluded to be methods of making the systems cost effective.

  14. Environmental sustainability of waste water ozonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and endocrine disrupters). As part of this work a holistic based prioritisation among technologies and optimisations have been done. Tools for this prioritisation include life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost/efficiency. The LCA is performed as a comparative LCA and the concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts is introduced in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) part. A relatively high number of micropollutants, especially pharmaceuticals, have been included. Furthermore, as novel approaches, preliminary methodologies for impact categories on pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been developed. About 15 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies (or combinations) have been assessed. This paper will present the LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation.

  15. Environmental sustainability of ozonating municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and endocrine disrupters). As part of this work a holistic based prioritisation among technologies and optimisations is to be done. Tools for this prioritisation include life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost/efficiency. The LCA is performed as a comparative LCA and the concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts is introduced in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) part. Furthermore, as novel approaches, potential ecotoxicity impact from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impact from pathogens (and whole effluent toxicity) are to be included. In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation.

  16. Domestic wastes incineration in France situation in 2000 evolution and perspectives the 31.12.2002; Incineration des dechets menagers en France situation en 2000 evolution et perspectives au 31.12.2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document presents the analysis and the conclusions of a working group, concerning the domestic wastes incineration. It presents successively the place of the domestic wastes in the wastes management approach, the regulations, the methodology and the corresponding results of an inquiry realized in 2000 and the research programs on the incineration as the Best Available Techniques, the sanitary impacts of the UIOM (domestic wastes incineration plants), the vitrification, the greenhouse effect. (A.L.B.)

  17. Effective utilization of waste water through recycling, reuse, and remediation for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajamani; Krishnamoorthy, Renga

    2014-01-01

    Water is vital for human, animal, and plant life. Water is one of the most essential inputs for the production of crops. Plants need it in enormous quantities continuously during their life. The role of water is felt everywhere; its scarcity causes droughts and famines, its excess causes floods and deluge. During the next two decades, water will increasingly be considered a critical resource for the future survival of the arid and semiarid countries. The requirement of water is increasing day by day due to intensive agriculture practices, urbanization, population growth, industrialization, domestic use, and other uses. On the other hand, the availability of water resources is declining and the existing water is not enough to meet the needs. To overcome this problem, one available solution is utilization of waste water by using recycling, reuse, and remediation process. PMID:24663224

  18. Application of an Integrated Heat Recovery Technology for Domestic Hot Water Supply System and Air Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is to design an integrated heat recovery and air conditioner system and to investigate the feasibility and the potential performance of this system in changing conditions. Different season conditions and operating modes are studied based on the items of one hotel. In winter, heat recovered from wastewater is used on water heating and air condition and the surplus energy of air conditioner system is used on hot water system in summer. Dynamic energy simulation was performed with a comprehensive Domestic Hot Water (DHW heating and air conditioning system composed of some components like High Temperature Heat Pump (HTHP unit, water tanks, heat exchangers and pumps.

  19. Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

  20. Method of disposing radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To efficiently remove radioactive materials to such an extent as causing no troubles to the subsequent use or disposal, thereby greatly reduce the volume of radioactive wastes upon disposal of radioactive waste water. Method: Waste water containing radioactive materials is filtered by using easily combustible ion exchange paper filters prepared by mixing synthetic fibers made of polyethylene or the like with ion exchange fibers to which sulfonic or like other functional groups are chemically bonded, cellulose and a small amount of synthetic fibers to make paper and then applying hot pressing. Then, ion exchange paper filters are burnt out together with the radioactive materials captured by filtration. By making paper while adding 30 - 50 parts of cellulose to 50 parts of fibers, the burnability can greatly be improved, the combustion is rendered extremely moderate and complete incineration can be attained with no generation of soots and sagging. Accordingly, since the volume of ashes is reduced, significant volume-reduction of radioactive wastes can be attained. (Takahashi, M.)

  1. Semipilot Waste Water Treatment by Photocatalysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morozová, Magdalena; Spá?ilová, Lucie; Maléterová, Ywetta; Šolcová, Olga

    - : -, 2014, P.31. ISBN N. [Pannonian Symposium on Catalysis /12./. T?eš? (CZ), 16.09.2014-20.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01020804; GA TA ?R TA03010548 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : verification * waste water * degradation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://pannonia2014.icpf.cas.cz/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/abstrakty_final.pdf

  2. Factors Affecting Domestic Water Consumption in Rural Households upon Access to Improved Water Supply: Insights from the Wei River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improv...

  3. Quantitative bacterial examination of domestic water supplies in the Lesotho Highlands: water quality, sanitation, and village health.

    OpenAIRE

    Kravitz, J. D.; Nyaphisi, M.; Mandel, R.; Petersen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of an examination of domestic water supplies for microbial contamination in the Lesotho Highlands, the site of a 20-year-old hydroelectric project, as part of a regional epidemiological survey of baseline health, nutritional and environmental parameters. The population's hygiene and health behaviour were also studied. A total of 72 village water sources were classified as unimproved (n = 23), semi-improved (n = 37), or improved (n = 12). Based on the estimation of tot...

  4. Use of Industrial Waste Water for Agricultural Purpose: Pb and Cd in Vegetables in Bikaner City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Singh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of irrigation water resources is leading to the use of domestic and industrial waste water in agriculture. esp. in urban areas. Being contaminated by metals and various toxic chemicals these waste waters leads to the exposure of heavy metals and hazardous chemicals and the subsequent human health hazards through agriculture products and live stocks. Increasing cases of cancer and kidney problems is also related with this aspect. In present study human health risk assessment taken in concern with the respect of some heavy metals of toxicological interest.

  5. Removal of ammonia from power plant waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of ammonia in surface waters from power plant waste water is investigated. Several methods for the removal of ammonia from waste water are described (steam stripper, air stripper, catalytic oxidation), the performance and efficiency is tested. For each water treatment method the mass and energy balance and the efficiency are determined. (SR)

  6. Method of decontaminating radioactive process waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process waste waters at a pH of about 7 contaminated with radioactive isotopes are decontaminated by (A) adjusting the pH to about 5.8, (B) adding CaO or Ca(OH)2 to raise the pH to about 5, (C) agitating the mixture for at least 5 minutes to affect intimate contact and produce a suspension of solids containing radioactive contaminants, and (D) separating the suspension of solids from the water by centrifuging. Removal of radioactive uranium isotopes with an alpha emission is effected at a ph of about 10. The process provides a method for concentrating radioactive contaminants in water for subsequent ultimate storage and also purifies the contaminated water so it may be safe to discharge it into the sewer. The treatment may be carried out in a plurality of stages in series

  7. Hybrid PV/T solar systems for domestic hot water and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems can simultaneously provide electricity and heat, achieving a higher conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation than standard PV modules. When properly designed, PV/T systems can extract heat from PV modules, heating water or air to reduce the operating temperature of the PV modules and keep the electrical efficiency at a sufficient level. In this paper, we present TRNSYS simulation results for hybrid PV/T solar systems for domestic hot water applications both passive (thermosyphonic) and active. Prototype models made from polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV module types combined with water heat extraction units were tested with respect to their electrical and thermal efficiencies, and their performance characteristics were evaluated. The TRNSYS simulation results are based on these PV/T systems and were performed for three locations at different latitudes, Nicosia (35 deg.), Athens (38 deg.) and Madison (43 deg.). In this study, we considered a domestic thermosyphonic system and a larger active system suitable for a block of flats or for small office buildings. The results show that a considerable amount of thermal and electrical energy is produced by the PV/T systems, and the economic viability of the systems is improved. Thus, the PVs have better chances of success especially when both electricity and hot water is required as in domestic applicationsations

  8. Integrating the simulation of domestic water demand behaviour to an urban water model using agent based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutiva, Ifigeneia; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The urban water system's sustainable evolution requires tools that can analyse and simulate the complete cycle including both physical and cultural environments. One of the main challenges, in this regard, is the design and development of tools that are able to simulate the society's water demand behaviour and the way policy measures affect it. The effects of these policy measures are a function of personal opinions that subsequently lead to the formation of people's attitudes. These attitudes will eventually form behaviours. This work presents the design of an ABM tool for addressing the social dimension of the urban water system. The created tool, called Urban Water Agents' Behaviour (UWAB) model, was implemented, using the NetLogo agent programming language. The main aim of the UWAB model is to capture the effects of policies and environmental pressures to water conservation behaviour of urban households. The model consists of agents representing urban households that are linked to each other creating a social network that influences the water conservation behaviour of its members. Household agents are influenced as well by policies and environmental pressures, such as drought. The UWAB model simulates behaviour resulting in the evolution of water conservation within an urban population. The final outcome of the model is the evolution of the distribution of different conservation levels (no, low, high) to the selected urban population. In addition, UWAB is implemented in combination with an existing urban water management simulation tool, the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT) in order to create a modelling platform aiming to facilitate an adaptive approach of water resources management. For the purposes of this proposed modelling platform, UWOT is used in a twofold manner: (1) to simulate domestic water demand evolution and (2) to simulate the response of the water system to the domestic water demand evolution. The main advantage of the UWAB - UWOT model integration is that it allows the investigation of the effects of different water demand management strategies to an urban population's water demand behaviour and ultimately the effects of these policies to the volume of domestic water demand and the water resources system. The proposed modelling platform is optimised to simulate the effects of water policies during the Athens drought period of 1988-1994. The calibrated modelling platform is then applied to evaluate scenarios of water supply, water demand and water demand management strategies.

  9. Occurrence of haemolytic & cytotoxic Aeromonas species in domestic water supplies in Chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Subashini, M S; Ananthan, S

    1999-08-01

    A study on the occurrence of Aeromonas species in the domestic water supplies in Chennai showed that as much as 37.9 per cent of the water samples analyzed from various sources harbored Aeromonas spp. Majority of the isolates belonged to Aeromonas sobria (13.7%), A. caviae (11.6%) and A. hydrophila (9.5%). Among the 37 metropolitan water samples analyzed, 11 samples yielded Aeromonas spp. inclusive of three isolates of A. hydrophila, four of A. sobria and two isolates each of A. caviae and A. jandaei. From a total of 28 bore well water samples analyzed, Aeromonas spp. were recovered from 15 samples, comprising five isolates of A. hydrophila, six of A. sobria and four isolates of A. caviae. Aeromonas spp. inclusive of one isolate of A. hydrophila, five of A. caviae, three of A. sobria and one isolate of A. veronii were isolated from 10 of the 30 water packets of various commercial brands sold in Chennai. Of a total of 36 isolates obtained, 32 (89%) produced beta-haemolysin with the titres ranging from 2-32 and 20 isolates (56%) were cytotoxic to vero cell monolayers. All the Aeromonas isolates were resistant to ampicillin and polymyxin B. All A. hydrophila and A. caviae isolates were also resistant to cephalothin and erythromycin and 83.3 per cent of Aeromonas isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Aeromonads resistant to tetracycline, gentamycin, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid appear to be emerging. The study revealed that Aeromonas spp. occur in the potable and domestic water supplies and even in the chlorinated water supplies in Chennai city, which are potentially enteropathogenic and hence may be hazardous to public health. In view of these findings drinking and domestic water quality standards need to be re-evaluated. PMID:10573655

  10. The Use of Solar Energy for Preparing Domestic Hot Water in a Multi-Storey Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the possibilities of solar collectors used for a domestic hot water system and installed on the roofs of modernized multi-storey buildings under the existing climate conditions. A number of combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors with accumulation tank systems of various sizes have been examined. Heat from the district heating system is used as an additional heat source for preparing domestic hot water. The paper compares calculation results of energy and economy regarding the combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors and the size of the accumulation tank. The influence of variations in the main indicators on the final economic results has also been evaluated. Research has been supported applying EC FP7 CONCERTO program (‘‘Sustainable Zero Carbon ECO-Town Developments Improving Quality of Life across EU - ECO-Life’’ (ECO-Life Project Contract No. TREN/FP7EN/239497/”ECOLIFE”.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Actual problems of municipal cleaner?s waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Konko¾ová Patrícia

    2000-01-01

    In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner?s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

  12. Prototype Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (A collation of Quarterly Reports)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This report is a collection of quarterly reports from Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company (SEMCO) covering the period from November 1976 through September 1977. SEMCO, under NASA/MSFC Contract NAS8-32248, is developing two prototype solar domestic hot water systems consisting of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy. These two systems are being installed at sites in Loxahatchee, Florida (OTS-27) and Macon, Georgia (OTS-28).

  13. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS TO DOMESTIC WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN SALT LAKE COUNTY, UTAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Lynn M.

    1985-01-01

    A magnitude-7. 5 earthquake occurring along the central portion of the Wasatch Fault, Utah, may cause significant damage to Salt Lake County's domestic water system. This system is composed of water treatment plants, aqueducts, distribution mains, and other facilities that are vulnerable to ground shaking, liquefaction, fault movement, and slope failures. Recent investigations into surface faulting, landslide potential, and earthquake intensity provide basic data for evaluating the potential earthquake hazards to water-distribution systems in the event of a large earthquake. Water supply system components may be vulnerable to one or more earthquake-related effects, depending on site geology and topography. Case studies of water-system damage by recent large earthquakes in Utah and in other regions of the United States offer valuable insights in evaluating water system vulnerability to earthquakes.

  14. Public health aspects of waste-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the bacteria, viruses and parasites which may be found in waste-water and polluted waters, those that are pathogenic to man are briefly described. The efficiency of different conventional waste-water treatments in removing the pathogens is reviewed, as well as additional factors of importance for the presence of micro-organisms in recipient waters. It is concluded that at present for treated waters no conventional treatment results in an effluent free from pathogens if they are present in the original waste-water. This is also true for sludges apart from pasteurization. The importance to public health of the presence of pathogens in recipient waters is briefly discussed. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the thermal performance of dead-legs in domestic hot water supply installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burberry, P.J.; Edwards, R.E.; Irwin, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes, in brief, the first stage of a programme of research carried out at UMIST as part of the programme of the Building Research Establishment, (Garston), which is intended to establish a realistic model of thermal performance and water consumption for domestic hot water supply installations, a design procedure and a basis for design standards. The work involves the laboratory validation of a dynamic mathematicl simulation of the combined heat and mass transfer concerned in the operation of simple ''dead-leg'' configurations, for a variety of pipe diameters, pipe lengths, draw-off rates and demand profiles.

  16. Investigation on Kombiterm GE Domestic Hot Water Tank. : Performance Measurements and Calculations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Heuer, Andreas Walter

    1996-01-01

    Investigation of a hot water tank with a high heat exchanger spiral with a small pipe diameter in the upper part of the heat exchanger spiral and a large pipe diameter in the lower part of the heat exchanger spiral in cooperation with Kãhler&Breum Beholder- og Maskinfabrik K/S. First preprint of project resulting in final "Sagsrapport": Andreas Heuer, "High Spiral Heat Exchanger in Domestic Hot Water Tanks.", SR-9711, 1997, ISSN 1396-402X.Andreas Heuer, "User Manual for Simulation Program GETANK", SR-9712, 1997, ISSN1396-402X.

  17. Theoretical and experimental evaluations of the convective and conductive heat transfers in a domestic hot-water store

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvet, L. P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a water based thermal store for use in a domestic central heating system has been investigated theoretically, experimentally and numerically. The transient operation of the store during both the space heating and domestic hot-water modes of operation have been investigated separately. Heat transfer correlations in terms of Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers have been developed in order to predict the natural convection heat transfer coefficient for the outside sur...

  18. Simulation Programs for Ph.D. Study of Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin

    1999-01-01

    The design of solar domestic hot water system is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. This report presents the detailed programs or units that were developed in the Ph.D study of " Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems".

  19. Quantitative Assessment of Water Use Efficiency in Urban and Domestic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Santiago-Fandiño

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential of water savings at property, household and urban levels, through the application of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs, as well as their quantification using the software Wise Water. Household centered measures are identified that allow for significant reduction of drinking water consumption with comparatively small effort, and without limitation of comfort. Furthermore, a method for the estimation of water recycling, for rainwater harvesting and for the utilization potential as locally available renewable freshwater is presented. Based on this study, the average drinking water consumption in urban households of industrialized countries could be reduced by approximately one third, without significant investment costs, either within the framework of new constructions or by the remodeling of water and sanitation systems in residential buildings. By using a secondary water quality, the drinking water demand could even be reduced by 50%. In the case of an area-wide application, the overall fresh water demand of cities and the exploitation of fresh water resources could be significantly reduced. Due to the comparability of the domestic water use of the investigated households, the findings are internationally transferable, for example to countries in Europe, Asia, and also the USA.

  20. Patterns of domestic water use in rural areas of Zimbabwe, gender roles and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Fungai S.; Manase, Gift; Ndamba, Jerry

    This paper presents practical experiences into the pattern of domestic water use, benefits and the gender realities. The study was undertaken in two districts of Zimbabwe, Mt Darwin and Bikita covering a total of 16 villages. The study aimed to assess the patterns of domestic water use, benefits derived from its use among the gender groups. Methodology for participatory assessment (MPA) was used for data collection and was done in a participatory manner. Traditionally most people in Zimbabwe are subsistence farmers who rely on rain fed agriculture. Where primary water sources are available such as shallow wells, family wells, deep wells and boreholes households use the water for household water and sanitation, irrigate small family gardens as well as their livestock. The survey established that women and men usually rank uses of water differently. In the two districts it was evident that women are playing more roles in water use and it is apparent that women are most often the users, managers and guardians of household water and hygiene. Women also demonstrated their involvement in commercial use of water, using water for livestock watering (20%) as well as brick moulding (21%). These involvement in commercial use were influenced by survival economics as well as the excess and reliability of the supply. The different roles and incentives in water use of women and men was demonstrated in how they ranked the benefits of water and sanitation. Men ranked clean drinking water among others as a top priority while women ranked improved health and hygiene and reduced distance as top priority. Overall the benefits highlighted by the communities and especially women were meeting the practical needs such as better access to water and reducing their work load. The assessment demonstrated the active role of women in water sources management highlighting quality, reliability and restrictions to their use. Though the communities gave the impression that decision making in the sitting and construction of water points was equally among the gender groups, however it was evident that men have a greater role than women in public decision making.

  1. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  2. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  3. Performance of alternative refrigerant R430A on domestic water purifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, performance of R430A is examined numerically and experimentally in an effort to replace HFC134a used in refrigeration system of domestic water purifiers. Even though HFC134a is used predominantly in such a system these days, it needs to be phased out in near future in most of the developed countries due to its high global warming potential. To solve this problem, cycle simulation and experiments are carried out with a new refrigerant mixture of 76%R152a/24%R600a using actual water purifiers. This mixture is numbered and listed as R430A by ASHRAE recently. Test results show that the system performance is greatly influenced by the amount of charge due to the small internal volume of the refrigeration system in water purifiers. With the optimum amount of charge of 21-22 g, about 50% of HFC134a, the energy consumption of R430A is 13.4% lower than that of HFC134a. The compressor dome and discharge temperatures and condenser center temperature of R430A are very similar to those of HFC134a for the optimum charge. Overall, R430A, a new long term environmentally safe refrigerant, is a good alternative for HFC134a in domestic water purifiers requiring no major change in the system.

  4. Development of MFC using sulphonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane for electricity generation from waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2011-12-01

    Polyether ether ketone was sulphonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) and utilized as a proton exchange membrane (PEM) in a single chamber MFC (SCMFC). The SPEEK was compared with Nafion® 117 in the SCMFC using Escherichia coli. The MFC with the SPEEK membrane produced 55.2% higher power density than Nafion® 117. The oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K(O)) for SPEEK and Nafion® 117 was estimated to be 2.4 × 10(-6)cm/s and 1.6 × 10(-5)cm/s, respectively resulting in reduced substrate loss and increased columbic efficiency (CE) in the case of SPEEK. When the dairy and domestic waste water was treated in SPEEK-SCMFC, fitted with a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), a higher maximum power density was obtained for dairy waste water (5.7 W/m(3)). The results of this study indicate that SPEEK membrane has the potential to greatly enhance the efficiency of MFCs. PMID:22000968

  5. Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site

  6. Decontamination of Waste Water Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, František; Kaštánek, P.; Demnerová, K.; Maléterová, Ywetta

    2003. s. 1. [International Symposium on Waste Water Reclamation and Reuse /4./. 12.11.2003-14.11.2003, Mexico City] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : decontamination * waste water * polychlorinated biphenyls Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  7. Modern methods for the treatment of heavily polluted waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological processes are playing an increasingly important role alongside physical, chemical, and thermal processes in integrated process concepts for treatment of industrial waste water. The individual processes are complementary. Biological processes are particularly important in combination with membrane processes, adsorption, or oxidation in the treatment of seepage water from waste dumps. (orig.)

  8. Treatment of uranium-containing waste water by phosphate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of eliminating uranium from waste water by the phosphate method on the basis of practice and theory is described. The optimum operation conditions were investigated. This method is suitable for treatment of low level uranium-containing waste water

  9. Thermal Energy Storage using PCM for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, S. A.; Sane, N. K.; Gawali, B. S.

    2012-06-01

    Thermal energy storage using phase chase materials (PCM) has received considerable attention in the past two decades for time dependent energy source such as solar energy. From several experimental and theoretical analyses that have been made to assess the performance of thermal energy storage systems, it has been demonstrated that PCM-based systems are reliable and viable options. This paper covers such information on PCMs and PCM-based systems developed for the application of solar domestic hot water system. In addition, economic analysis of thermal storage system using PCM in comparison with conventional storage system helps to validate its commercial possibility. From the economic analysis, it is found that, PCM based solar domestic hot water system (SWHS) provides 23 % more cumulative and life cycle savings than conventional SWHS and will continue to perform efficiently even after 15 years due to application of non-metallic tank. Payback period of PCM-based system is also less compared to conventional system. In conclusion, PCM based solar water heating systems can meet the requirements of Indian climatic situation in a cost effective and reliable manner.

  10. Technical comparison of domestic hot water system which used in China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of where they are in the world, people depend on a reliable and sufficient supply of domestic hot water (DHW) for daily use. Some countries, which have district heating infrastructure, combine spacing heating (SH) and DHW together, with the aim of having a smart, energy efficient and environmentally friendly energy-consumption system, such as Denmark and China. Nevertheless, the development of DHW networks in these two countries differs significantly. This article detailed the comparisons in technical aspect: common preparation methods of DHW through district heating was introduced in China and Denmark with the analysis on temperature level, hygienic situation of DHW system, circular system, flow capacity and heat metering.

  11. Modelling a directly coupled photovoltaic pumping system in a solar domestic hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Fraisse, G. [Savoy Univ., Le Bourget du lac (FR). Design Optimization and Environmental Engineering Laboratory (LOCIE)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a photovoltaic (PV) powered pumping system applying in a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system. Two circulators ('Standard' and 'Solar') are employed respectively. A new model of circulator is developed in TRNSYS based on a 'Standard' type that consists of a DC-brushless motor and a centrifugal pump. Model validation is carried out by comparing with the experimental measurement. The experimental performance of these two circulators is analyzed on the aspects of startup and the stable operation stage. (orig.)

  12. Use of ionizing radiation in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is presented of methods and possibilities of applying ionizing radiation in industrial waste water treatment. The most frequently used radiation sources include the 60Co and 137Cs isotopes and the 90Sr-90Y combined source. The results are reported and the methods used are described of waste water treatment by sedimenting impurities and decomposing organic and inorganic compounds by ionizing radiation. It was found that waste water irradiation accelerated sedimentation and decomposition processes. The doses used varied between 50 and 500 krads. Ionizing radiation may also be used in waste water disinfection in which the effects are used of radiation on microorganisms and of the synthesis of ozone which does not smell like normally used chlorine. The described methods are still controversial from the economic point of view but the cost of waste water treatment by irradiation will significantly be reduced by the use of spent fuel elements. (J.B.)

  13. Effect of color removal agent on textiles waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of color removal agent (CRA) on textile waste water has been studied. The aim of this work is to determine the optimum condition for CRA to react on the textile waste water and to see the effect of CRA on waste water with different Chemical Oxygen Demand. 8 ml CRA was used to treat 800 mls of sample with various COD ranging between 2500 mg/ l-500 mg/ l. The results showed that CRA totally remove the colour of textile waste water at pH ranging from 6 to 8. At an optimum condition CRA works efficiently on waste water with COD 2300 mg/ l for reduction of suspended solid and turbidity. It also observed, sludge accumulation was depended on COD concentration. Color removal curves for different initial COD concentration also obtained. (author)

  14. U.S. Biofuel Policies and Domestic Shifts in Agricultural Land Use and Water Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Policies promoting domestic biofuels production could lead to significant changes in cropping patterns. Types of direct and indirect land use change include: switching among crops (displacement), expanding cropped area (extensification), and altering water/soil management practices (e.g. irrigation, tillage) (intensification). Most studies of biofuels water use impacts calculate the water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/total evapotranspired water per unit energy of biofuels. But estimates based on this approach are sensitive to assumptions (e.g. co-product allocation, system boundaries), and do not convey policy-relevant information, as highlighted by the issue of land use change. We address these shortcomings by adopting a scenario-based approach that combines economic modeling with crop-water modeling of major crops and biofuel feedstocks. This allows us to holistically compare differences in water balances across policy scenarios in an integrated economic/agricultural system. We compare high spatial resolution water balance estimates under three hypothetical policy scenarios: 1) a counterfactual no-policy scenario, 2) modified Renewable Fuels Standard mandates (M-RFS2), & 3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard plus a modified RFS2 scenario (LCFS+RFS2). Differences between scenarios in crop water balances (i.e. transpiration, evaporation, runoff, groundwater infiltration, & irrigation) are regional and are a function of changes in land use patterns (i.e. displacement, intensification, & extensification), plus variation in crop water-use characteristics. Cropped land area increases 6.2% and 1.6% under M-RFS2 and LCFS+RFS2 scenarios, respectively, by 2030. Both policy scenarios lead to reductions in net irrigation volumes nationally compared to the no-policy scenario, though more irrigation occurs in regions of the Midwest and West. The LCFS+RFS2 reduces net irrigation water use by 3.5 times more than M-RFS2. However, both policies drive extensification and hence greater net transpiration (i.e. economically useful water consumption), at the expense of groundwater infiltration, which recharges surface & groundwater stocks. Our study illustrates potential tradeoffs in water resource availability that might result from domestic policies promoting bioenergy.

  15. The influence of waste water on the water quality in Zemplínska ?írava

    OpenAIRE

    Búgel Milan

    1999-01-01

    The water quality in the Zemplínska Šírava water reservoir directly depends on the water quality in Laborec river. This is mainly in -fluenced by waste water discharged from point sources of pollution (public canalization) and waste water from area sources of pollution. In the contribution, the water quality data in 6 river and 4 water reservoir profiles are presented for the period of 1993 - 1997.

  16. Discussing simply waste water treatment in building green mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis simplfy it is important and necessary that uran ore enterprise build the green mine .According to focusing on waste water treatment in building green mine of some uran ore enterprise,analysis the problem in treating mine water, technics waste water, tailings water before remoulding the system of waster water treatment, evaluate the advanced technics, satisfy ability, steady effect, reach the mark of discharge. According to the experimental unit of building the green mine,some uran ore enterprise make the waster water reaching the mark of discharge after remoulding the system of waster water treatment.It provides valuable experienceto uran ore enterprise in building green mine. (authors)

  17. REVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE WASTE WATER TREATMENT OPTION FOR URBAN SANITATION FACILITIES IN DEVELOPING COUTRIES, CASE STUDY: UPPER BHIMA BASIN, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. MAPUSKAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generation and accumulation of domestic waste from fast growing human settlements is becoming a major environment and health problem in developing country like India. The problem is becoming very acute in urban areas. Appropriate management of these wastes is very important for a positive improvement in the quality of life in cities. With unprecedented growth of cities, the present waste management facilities have been found to be very haphazard and inadequate. Conventional methodologies like conventional sewerage systems presently in use are grossly inadequate to manage the generated waste. As a result, untreated domestic waste finds direct access to water systems or lies untreated on the land surface. Solid waste management also is a major problem in virtually all the cities. This is grossly detrimental to the environment and to the health of the community. Therefore, it becomes necessary to take an overview of the existing situation and to think about appropriate solutions and alternative technologies for the management of these wastes. This paper will highlight one of such treatment option that has been employed in Pune District of Maharashtra State (India.

  18. Co-digestion of source segregated domestic food waste to improve process stability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J.; Heaven, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Cattle slurry and card packaging were used to improve the operational stability of food waste digestion, with the aim of reducing digestate total ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations compared to food waste only. Use of cattle slurry could have major environmental benefits through reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with current management practices; whilst card packaging is closely linked to food waste and could be co-collected as a source segregated material. Both options increase the...

  19. Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author)

  20. Treatment of Oily Waste Water Emulsions from Metallurgical Industries Using Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion waste water is one of the important industrial wastewaters, which results from the various manufacturing industries including the metal manufacturing and its processing. Wastewater treatment technologies utilizing flocculation and electrolysis have been used but these technologies have not been very helpful in resolving the problems in view of process consistency and economic merit. Aiming to mitigate the environmental hazard that these waste emulsions represent, a study was carried to investigate the microwave methods to destabilise water/oil emulsions without the addition of any destabilizing chemical agent. The experimental work consisted on breaking the simplest of the emulsions in terms of content, in order to obtain preliminary data that can help to extend the method to manage actual waste material. The samples consisted in water/oil emulsions waste (spent cutting oil, which was obtained from local metal industries. The sample emulsions underwent a domestic microwave radiating process at several exposure times. Certain factors, such as aromatic components and sodium hydroxide content and total heat exposure time proved to be the factors that more strongly affect the results. Within the category of paraffinic oils, light oils allow for quicker water separation than heavy oils. Also oils with higher aromatic content have higher viscosity, which makes the separation of water more difficult. It was observed in this study that emulsions added with acid up to a final concentration of 0.48 M, the separation efficiency and demulsification rate increased with increasing acid concentration. Hence microwave irradiation is an economical and rapid method for oil separation from oily waste water. Although this study was carried out on a lab scale basis, the process can scale up to a large industrial scale system. By using the microwave radiation, an aqueous phase recovery that ranged from 65 to 90% was obtained, which is a significant outcome that reveals the study of this technique needs to be taken further

  1. Domestic and agricultural water use by rural households in the Oueme River Basin (Benin): an economic analysis using recent econometric approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Arouna, Aminou

    2009-01-01

    Improving the management of water resources as well as an efficient use of available water are particularly important to address the increasing scarcity of water and the low level of water accessibility in many developing countries. However, better water management requires an understanding of the existing pattern of water use for domestic and agricultural activities. With a view towards contributing to such knowledge, this dissertation analyzes domestic and agricultural water use by rural ho...

  2. Water and waste water reclamation in a 21st century space colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebens, H. J.; Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on closed-life support systems initiated during a system design study on space colonization and concentrates on the water and waste water components. Metabolic requirements for the 10,000 inhabitants were supplied by an assumed earth-like diet from an intensive agriculture system. Condensed atmospheric moisture provided a source of potable water and a portion of the irrigation water. Waste water was reclaimed by wet oxidation. The dual-water supply required the condensation of 175 kg/person-day of atmospheric water and the processing of 250 kg/person-day of waste water.

  3. Diagnosis of small capacity reverse osmosis desalination unit for domestic water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunisian norm of drinking water tolerates a maximum TDS of 1.5 g/L, and the domestic water presents usually a salinity grater than 500 mg/L. In the last years, several small capacity reverse osmosis desalination prototypes have been marketed. They are used to desalinate brackish water with TDS lower than 1.5 g/L. This RO unit, tested with tap waters during four years, was diagnosed. The RO unit produces 10-15 L/Hour with a recovery rate between 25 and 40 pour cent and salt rejection in order of 90 pour cent. The salinity of the tested domestic water is located between 0.4 and 1.4 g/L. Water pretreatment is composed of three filtration operations (cartridge filter, granulate active carbon filter and 5 =m cartridge filter). Pretreated water is pumped through RO membrane with maximum pressure of 6 bars. At the 4th year, the RO unit performances were substantial decreased. Recovery rate and salt rejection fall down more than 50 and 100% respectively and the pressure drop increase from 1 to 2.1 bar The membrane regeneration allowed only the rate recovery restoration. The membrane selectivity was not improved. The membrane seems irreversibly damaged by the tap water chlorine none retained by the deficient pretreatment. An autopsy of the used RO membrane was done by different analysis techniques as SEM/EDX, AFM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of membrane (proper and used) surfaces show a deposit film on the used membrane witch evaluated to environ 2 =m, it indicatesch evaluated to environ 2 =m, it indicates a fooling phenomenon. The SEM photos show deterioration on the active layer material of the membrane witch seems attacked by the tap water chlorine. The X Rays Diffraction and FTIR show that the deposit collected on the used membrane contains organic and mineral (Gypsum, SiO2 and clays) materials. Silicates and clays can exist in tap waters and reach the RO membrane when the pretreatment micro-filter became deficient. The Gypsum presence is due only to germination on the membrane.

  4. Isotope Technique (14C, 131I) for Safety Analysis of Domestic Solid Waste Disposal Site in Jakarta, Indonesia- A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Syafalni Syafalni; Abustan, I.; Tadza Abdul Rahman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Bekasi is one of city around Jakarta which has been developed for the last 10 years. In the south of Bekasi placed sanitary landfill area for domestic solid waste of Jakarta Metropolitan as a Disposal Site. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the location of Bantar Gebang Bekasi solid waste disposal site for safety analysis. The geohydrologycal parameters are determined by using isotopes techniques (14C, 131I) to study the shallow groundwater characteristics of the site. From th...

  5. EFFICIENCY OF DOMESTIC REVERSE OSMOSIS IN REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mazloomi ? R. Nabizadeh ? S. Nasseri ? K. Naddafi ? S. Nazmara ? A. H. Mahvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound, Tape wrapping module was used. Feed solution was made by using of pure chloroform. The samples containing chloroform were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. By increasing the flow, the removal rate of chloroform decreased and with declining removal of EC, the removal of chloroform declined too. In this research, at the worst condition, the efficiency of the pilot scale reverse osmosis reached to 80 % removal of chloroform.

  6. Enhancement of natural circulation type domestic solar hot water system performance by using a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, K. K.; Srinivasan, P. S. S.

    2011-08-01

    Performance improvement of existing 200 litres capacity natural convection type domestic solar hot water system is attempted. A two-stage centrifugal pump driven by a vertical axis windmill having Savonius type rotor is added to the fluid loop. The windmill driven pump circulates the water through the collector. The system with necessary instrumentation is tested over a day. Tests on Natural Circulation System (NCS) mode and Wind Assisted System (WAS) mode are carried out during January, April, July and October, 2009. Test results of a clear day are reported. Daily average efficiency of 25-28 % during NCS mode and 33-37 % during WAS mode are obtained. With higher wind velocities, higher collector flow rates and hence higher efficiencies are obtained. In general, WAS mode provides improvements in efficiency when compared to NCS mode.

  7. A process for treating radioactive water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and other locations in the complex of experimental and production facilities operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have generated an appreciable quantity of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) enacted by the United States Congress in 1976 and subsequently amended in 1984, 1986, and 1988 requires that every hazardous waste must be rendered nonhazardous before disposal. Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. These wastes, called mixed wastes, require applying appropriate regulations for radioactive waste disposal and the regulations under RCRA. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category

  8. Review of Various Solutions for avoiding critical levels of Legionella Bacteria in Domestic Hot Water System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature district heating (DH) is designed as 55/25oC for supply/return temperature to fulfill the low energy demand of future buildings. However, to secure the safety of domestic hot water, the supply temperature has to be kept around 60oC to avoid the existence of legionella, which reproduces rapidly at the temperature around 25oC- 45 oC. After several outbreaks of pheumonia and fever caused by legionella bacteria, most countries require 60 oC in the network and 50-55 oC at the faucets with periodic flush by hot water above 60 oC as disinfection solution. That makes obstacles of low temperature DH implementation. Therefore, effective solution of legionella bacteria is in urgent demand. To select optimal disinfection treatments for certain cases which are quite different in dimension or purpose of use, various methods were reviewed, including shock hyperchlorination, super heating, electric boiler, compact heat exchanger, water filter, chlorine dioxide, Monochloramine, UV sterilization, copper and silver electrodes. The implementary conditions, effect, limits as well as economic performance of them are demonstrated. For buildings with complicated networks and large volume, chemical approach is widely used, and oxidizing disinfectants have a better effect and economic performance. For buildings with DHW volume less than 3 liters, implementation of compact heat exchangers is an effective solution. By reviewing the efficacy of each method, the optimal solution for low temperature domestic hot water system is recommended by this study, which is of great use to realize low temperature DH system without any risk of legionella.

  9. Determining the optimum solar water pumping system for domestic use, livestock water, or irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    For several years we have field tested many different types of solar powered water pumping systems. In this paper, several steps are given to select a solar-PV water pumping system. The steps for selection of stand-alone water pumping system were: deciding whether a wind or solar water pumping sys...

  10. Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

    Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpechín filtrado «defenolado» con ácido de Caro (H2SO5 (tipo B, con DCX igual a 30 g/l; los complexos LLMO y PSBIO se utilizan en alpechines provenientes de la elaboración de otras variedades de aceitunas, filtradas y diluidas en la relación 1:0,5 (tipo C con DQO inicial igual a 44 g/l, y también en alpechín filtrado y sometido previamente a criotratamiento (tipo D, con DQO inicial de 22 g/l aproximadamente. La DQO residual, con la formulación microbiana SNKD, ha resultado igual a 15 g/l (Tipo A y a 5 g/l (tipo B, con el PSBIO a 7 g/l (tipo C y a 1,5 g/l (tipo D; con la formulación microbiana LLMO a 6 g/l (tipo C y a 1,3 g/l (tipo D.

  11. Microbiological and technical aspects of anaerobic waste water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic waste water purification is likely to be another example of how innovations can result from the joint use of biological and technical concepts. No matter how far the optimization of oxygen input with aerobic waste water purification advances it will still be the less a real competitor for anaerobic techniques the more polluted the waste water is. The principle of carrier fixation to avoid their washing out, too, has often been observed in nature with sessile microorganisms. With highly polluted water, anaerobic purification does not only work at no expenditure of energy but it can also make excess energy available for use in other processes. Another important argument for anaerobic methods of waste water purification is probably the clearly reduced production of excess sludge. (orig.)

  12. Method for the treatment of waste water with sludge granules:

    OpenAIRE

    Loosdrecht, M. C.; Kreuk, M. K.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste water comprising an organic nutrient. According to the invention, the waste water is in a first step fed to sludge granules, after the supply of the waste water to be treated the sludge granules are fluidised in the presence of an oxygen-comprising gas, and in a third step, the sludge granules are allowed to settle in a settling step. This makes it possible to effectively remove not only organic nutrients but optionally also nitroge...

  13. Method of processing water-containing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To asphalt-solidify water-containing radioactive wastes with use of a compact device and by a simple operation. Method: A drum accommodating therein an asphalt solidified body is mounted on a holder in a heater provided with measuring and vibrating means, and a water-containing radioactive waste inlet pipe, a molten asphalt inlet pipe and a vapor exhaust pipe are connected to said drum. In said drum accommodated are molten asphalts and water-containing radioactive wastes after directly measuring the quantities thereof, and these materials are mixed, heated and evaporated while horizontally rolling the holder. (Aizawa, K.)

  14. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Karlsson; Henrik Davidsson; Bernardo, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with differe...

  15. Comparative health risks of domestic waste combustion in urban and rural Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová, Jana; Eschenroeder, Alan Q

    2007-10-01

    This paper addresses the health risk incurred by two alternative waste management schemes: open burning of household waste in barrels practiced in rural Slovakia and controlled municipal waste combustion in the city of Bratislava. Using agricultural land use data and village population data we formulate three prototype villages, each representing about one-third of the rural population. The two configurations of the controlled combustion are an outdated municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a modern waste-to-energy (WTE) plant equipped with modern air pollution control devices. These configurations actually exist(ed) in Bratislava, Slovakia at the same site, but in different time frames. The CALPUFF model provides direct exposure data and the EMERAM software (developed in this paper) computes indirect exposure. A major source of uncertainty is that of the fraction of waste burned in the open. The analysis presented here assumed 10%. At this level, the cancer risk from open burning ranges from 10 to 80 times the commonly regarded de minimus value of one in a million. This means that underthe U.S. contemporary regulatory culture, some regulatory action to control or enforce the burning ban would be expected. Cancer risks from the incinerator ranged from 7 to 371 in a million while the WTE risks were below 1 in a million. Cancer risks from open burning are higher than those of the WTE plant and at the same time affect a larger portion of concerned population. PMID:17969705

  16. Where There Is No Toilet: Water and Sanitation Environments of Domestic and Facility Births in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Lenka; Cumming, Oliver; Gordon, Bruce A.; Magoma, Moke; Campbell, Oona M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate water and sanitation during childbirth are likely to lead to poor maternal and newborn outcomes. This paper uses existing data sources to assess the water and sanitation (WATSAN) environment surrounding births in Tanzania in order to interrogate whether such estimates could be useful for guiding research, policy and monitoring initiatives. Methods We used the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to characterise the delivery location of births occurring between 2005 and 2010. Births occurring in domestic environments were characterised as WATSAN-safe if the home fulfilled international definitions of improved water and improved sanitation access. We used the 2006 Service Provision Assessment survey to characterise the WATSAN environment of facilities that conduct deliveries. We combined estimates from both surveys to describe the proportion of all births occurring in WATSAN-safe environments and conducted an equity analysis based on DHS wealth quintiles and eight geographic zones. Results 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 41.6%–44.2%) of all births occurred in the woman's home. Among these, only 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%–2.0%) were estimated to have taken place in WATSAN-safe conditions. 74% of all health facilities conducted deliveries. Among these, only 44% of facilities overall and 24% of facility delivery rooms were WATSAN-safe. Combining the estimates, we showed that 30.5% of all births in Tanzania took place in a WATSAN-safe environment (range of uncertainty 25%–42%). Large wealth-based inequalities existed in the proportion of births occurring in domestic environments based on wealth quintile and geographical zone. Conclusion Existing data sources can be useful in national monitoring and prioritisation of interventions to improve poor WATSAN environments during childbirth. However, a better conceptual understanding of potentially harmful exposures and better data are needed in order to devise and apply more empirical definitions of WATSAN-safe environments, both at home and in facilities. PMID:25191753

  17. Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

    1983-11-21

    An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

  18. METHODS FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER AND WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual provides test procedures approved for the monitoring of water supplies, waste discharges, and ambient waters, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System, and Ambient Monitoring Requirements of Section 106 and of Public Law 9...

  19. Actual problems of municipal cleaner?s waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konko¾ová Patrícia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner?s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

  20. The impact of industrial waste of Venezuelan marine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Frank [Bechtel Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Guarino, Carmen [Guarino Engineers, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Arias, Marlene [Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    The Puerto Cabello-Marron coastal area of Venezuela is an ideal location for industries that require large land areas, water, marine transportation, minimum habitation, cooling water, etc. However, mercury spills have produced concern in the entire coastal zone. The area was investigated and negative impacts were identified. Consequently, recommendations for waste water management were proceeded. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Economic feasibility of solar domestic hot water systems in Syria and Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulayman, S.S. [Higher Inst. for Applied Sciences and Technology, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Ananikyan, N.; Martoya, G. [AREV Scientific, Yerevan (Armenia). Industrial Inst.

    2009-07-01

    Solar domestic hot water (DHW) production is the most common application of solar energy. This paper reported on an economic feasibility study of solar DHW systems in Syria and Armenia with particular emphasis on the life cycle savings method. The available technologies for solar water heating equipment were first evaluated. The analysis showed that the most suitable DHW solar system for the Syrian and Armenian markets is one composed of flat plate solar collectors and a storage tank located horizontally slightly above the collectors, connected by pipes where a thermosyphon circulation of water is established in a closed loop between the solar collector absorber and an appropriate heat exchanger. This technology was shown to be much more reliable than pumped systems because it does not have the maintenance problems associated with a pump. The study showed that solar hot water systems (SHWS) are feasible in both countries and should be widely distributed. The cost of useful energy yielded by a solar system with a relatively low efficiency of 20 per cent and sold at $800/m{sup 2}, is 17.44 cents/kWh for a net discount rate of 0 per cent and 23.2 cents/kWh for a net discount rate of 5 per cent. It was concluded that such a system is economically competitive against electric heaters and oil fired boilers, particularly if accompanied by government incentives. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Experimental analysis of a domestic electric hot water storage tank. Part II: dynamic mode of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Uhia, Francisco J.; Sieres, Jaime [Area de aquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad e Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No. 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, the experimental analysis of a full-scale Domestic Electric Hot Water Storage Tank (DEHWST) with a capacity of 150l is reported. The tank is equipped with three different inlets and two different outlets of practical interest. The dynamic mode of operation of the tank has been experimentally analyzed taking into account the six possible inlet-outlet port arrangements and water draw-off flow rates of 5, 10 and 15l/min. The analysis is based on the transient temperature distributions of the outlet and inlet water flow and on the transient temperature profiles of the water inside the tank measured by an appropriate data acquisition system. Performance parameters to evaluate the thermal stratification in the tank and the discharging energy and exergy efficiencies are defined and calculated from the experimental data. The characteristic performance of the tank with different inlet-outlet port configurations is analyzed and the best one is identified and proposed to use in practice. (author)

  3. Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, Northern Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l-1, 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l-1 and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l-1 in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l-1. From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of 222Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from 222Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y-1, for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively. (authors)

  4. Design, Simulation, and Analysis of Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fresart, Edouard Thomas

    Research was conducted to quantify the energy and cost savings of two different domestic solar water heating systems compared to an all-electric water heater for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona. The knowledge gained from this research will enable utilities to better align incentives and consumers to make more informed decisions prior to purchasing a solar water heater. Daily energy and temperature data were collected in a controlled, closed environment lab. Three mathematical models were designed in TRNSYS 17, a transient system simulation tool. The data from the lab were used to validate the TRNSYS models, and the TRNSYS results were used to project annual cost and energy savings for the solar water heaters. The projected energy savings for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona are 80% when using the SunEarthRTM system with an insulated and glazed flat-plate collector, and 49% when using the FAFCO RTM system with unglazed, non-insulated flat-plate collectors. Utilizing all available federal, state, and utility incentives, a consumer could expect to recoup his or her investment after the fifth year if purchasing a SunEarth RTM system, and after the eighth year if purchasing a FAFCO RTM system. Over the 20-year analysis period, a consumer could expect to save 2,519 with the SunEarthRTM system, and 971 with the FAFCORTM system.

  5. Solar water heating systems feasibility for domestic requests in Tunisia: Thermal potential and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using Domestic Solar Water Heating systems. • The payback period is between 8 and 7.5 years. • The annual savings in electrical energy is between 1316 and 1459 kW h/year. • The savings by using the solar systems is about 3969–4400.34 $. • The annual GHG emission per house is reduced by 27,800 tCO2. - Abstract: The main goal of the present work is to study the energetic and the economic potential of the deployment of Domestic Solar Water Heating systems (DSWHs) instead of using electric/gas/town gas water heaters. A case study related to Tunisian scenario was performed according to a typical Tunisian households composed of 4–5 persons. In this scenario we evaluated the performance and the life cycle perspective of the two most popular DSWHs over the recent years (i.e. DSWH with flat-plate solar collector, FPC, and DSWHs with evacuated-tube solar collector, ETC). The dynamic behavior of DSWHs according to Tunisian data weather was achieved by means of TRNSYS simulation. The Results showed that the FPC and ETC provide about 8118 and 12032 kW h/year of thermal energy. The economic potential of DSWHs in saving electricity and reducing carbon dioxide emissions was also investigated. Results showed that the annual savings in electrical energy relatively to the FPC and ETC are about 1316 and 1459 kW h/year, with a payback period of around 8 and 10 years, respectively. Based on gas/town gas water heater, the FPC and ETC save about 306 m3 and 410 m3 of gas/town gas with a payback period about 6 and 7.5 years, respectively. We found that the life cycle savings by installing the solar system instead of buying electricity to satisfy hot water needs are about $3969 (FPC) and $4400 (ETC). We establish also that the use of the DSWHs instead of installing gas/town gas water heaters save about $1518 (FPC) and $2035 (ETC). From an environmental point of view the annual GHG emission per house is reduced by 27800 tCO2

  6. Integration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila in drinking water biofilms grown on domestic plumbing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Miriam M; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Wingender, Jost

    2010-06-01

    Drinking water biofilms were grown on coupons of plumbing materials, including ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (EPDM) rubber, silane cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X b), electron-ray cross-linked PE (PE-X c) and copper under constant flow-through of cold tap water. After 14 days, the biofilms were spiked with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila and Enterobacter nimipressuralis (10(6) cells/mL each). The test bacteria were environmental isolates from contamination events in drinking water systems. After static incubation for 24 h, water flow was resumed and continued for 4 weeks. Total cell count and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) of biofilms were monitored, and P. aeruginosa, L. pneumophila and E. nimipressuralis were quantified, using standard culture-based methods or culture-independent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). After 14 days total cell counts and HPC values were highest on EPDM followed by the plastic materials and copper. P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila became incorporated into drinking water biofilms and were capable to persist in biofilms on EPDM and PE-X materials for several weeks, while copper biofilms were colonized only by L. pneumophila in low culturable numbers. E. nimipressuralis was not detected in any of the biofilms. Application of the FISH method often yielded orders of magnitude higher levels of P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila than culture methods. These observations indicate that drinking water biofilms grown under cold water conditions on domestic plumbing materials, especially EPDM and PE-X in the present study, can be a reservoir for P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila that persist in these habitats mostly in a viable but non-culturable state. PMID:20556878

  7. NATURAL WASTE WATER PURIFICATION IN CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGNES SULI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive enhancement of the environment is an important task in Hungary too in order to maintain and improve the life quality of both humans and other living creatures. Waste water treatment and solid waste management have become significant issues since joining the European Union. Thus it has become timely to develop or borrow an effective and attainable sewage water treatment technology adapted to Hungarian circumstances. Some prototypes of waste water treatment plants that use natural or constructed wetlands (reed beds mainly have already been established in Hungary as experiments or everyday function. In Hódmezövásárhely (HU a demonstration site has built that shows different types of treatment systems based on plants. Present paper introduces environment friendly waste water treatment technologies and the principles of their establishment and function.

  8. MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

  9. Influence of domestic hot water parameters on the energy consumption of large buildings in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the effects of domestic hot water (DHW) parameters on the energy consumption of large buildings in Senegal. Three types of reference buildings have been selected and developed (residence, office and hotel), and for each of them, the standard values of the three studied parameters (distribution temperature, flow rate and heat tank losses) are defined. The DOE-2.1E building energy program has been employed for computer simulations. It has been found that if the magnitude of their positive incremental impact is considered, the DHW parameters can be classified according to the following decreasing order: 1. heat tank losses, 2. flow rate and 3. distribution temperature. Then, for each of the three types of buildings, we established a discrete series of options of electricity consumption reduction by limitation of the DHW parameters values. For further developments, these options can be employed by researchers to build an Energy Efficiency Code applicable to large buildings in West Africa

  10. Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennehy, G

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

  11. Optimization of China´s centralized domestic hot water system by applying Danish elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of where they are in the world, people depend on a reliable and sufficient supply of domestic hot water (DHW) for daily use. Some countries that have district heating (DH) infrastructure, such as Denmark and China, combine spacing heating (SH) and DHW together, with the aim of having a smart, energy efficient and environmentally friendly energy-consumption system. Nevertheless, the development of centralized DHW (CDHW) systems in these two countries differs significantly. This article details the challenges China’s CDHW system is currently encountering and proposes to apply the flat station concept to improve China’s CDHW system. Meanwhile, the technical advantages of the Danish CDHW, which would benefit China, are analyzed. Overall, from a technical point of view, the flat station concept is not only in line with China’s current DH conditions but would compensate for some technical defects of the existing CDHW system.

  12. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, ?-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activa...

  13. Plant for de-contaminating radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plant for de-contaminating radioactive waste water from nuclear medicine departments of hospitals is described, which works continuously. The waste water is released from a collecting container from time to time to a tube-shaped radioactive decay container, so that the whole contents become turbulent. After this there are quiet periods, during which non-return flaps or valves prevent back mixing. (HP)

  14. Tertiary Treatment for Textile Waste Water-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Desai*1, Mehali Mehta2

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary treatment is the Industrial waste water treatment process which removes stubborn contaminants that have not been removed in secondary treatment. Effluent becomes even cleaner by Tertiary treatment through the use of stronger and more advanced treatment systems. The present work is an attempt to review all possible tertiary treatment methods for removal of dyestuff from textile effluent. Conventional method for treatment of textile effluent has own certain limitations that can be well overcome by tertiary waste water treatment.

  15. Survey and analysis of the domestic technology level for the concept development of high level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Sun; Kim, Byung Su; Song, Jae Hyok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kwang Hon; Hwang, Ju Ho; Park, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joung Sang; Kim, Ku Young [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon [Hangyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    The objectives of this study are the analysis of the status of HLW disposal technology and the investigation of the domestic technology level. The study has taken two years to complete with the participation of forty five researchers. The study was mainly carried out through means of literature surveys, collection of related data, visits to research institutes, and meetings with experts in the specific fields. During the first year of this project, the International Symposium on the Concept Development of the High Level Waste Disposal System was held in Taejon, Korea in October, 1997. Eight highly professed foreign experts whose fields of expertise projected to the area of high level waste disposal were invited to the symposium. This study is composed of four major areas; disposal system design/construction, engineered barrier characterization, geologic environment evaluation and performance assessment and total safety. A technical tree scheme of HLW disposal has been illustrated according to the investigation and an analysis for each technical area. For each detailed technology, research projects, performing organization/method and techniques that are to be secured in the order of priority are proposed, but the suggestions are merely at a superfluous level of propositional idea due to the reduction of the budget in the second year. The detailed programs on HLW disposal are greatly affected by governmental HLW disposal policy and in this study, the primary decisions to be made in each level of HLW disposal enterprise and a rough scheme are proposed. (author). 20 refs., 97 figs., 33 tabs.

  16. Irradiation as an alternative for disinfection of domestic waste in the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of various methods for disinfecting wastewater in the Canadian Arctic with specific reference to gamma radiation. More conventional disinfection practices, such as chlorination, chlorination-dechlorination, and ozonation were compared to gamma radiation along with ultraviolet irradiation and lime disinfection. The quality of lagoon effluent, highly diluted (weak) sewage, holding tank wastes and honey-bag wastes, which are the typical waste types found in northern communities, was established from data available in the literature. Further literature reviews were undertaken to establish a data base for design and effectiveness of disinfection systems operated in cold climates. Capital and operating costs for all technically feasible disinfection process alternates were estimated based on historical cost data adjusted to 1977 for the construction and instalation of similar systems in the north. The costs of equipment, chemicals, fuel and electrical power were obtained from suppliers. The environmental impact of each of the disinfection processes was reviewed with emphasis on gamma irradiation. Safety and health aspects were also considered. The study concluded that gamma irradiation was capable of providing safe, reliable disinfection for concentrated honey-bag and holding wastes. Pilot-scale testing was recommended prior to construction of full-scale disinfection facilities. For lagoon effluents and weak sewage, gamma irradiation was not cost competitive with other alternates; rather chlorination-dechlorination was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternative

  17. Low Temperature District Heating Consumer Unit with Micro Heat Pump for Domestic Hot Water Preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse the feasibility of a district heating (DH) consumer unit with micro heat pump for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a low temperature (40 °C) DH network. We propose a micro booster heat pump of high efficiency (COP equal to 5,3) in a consumer DH unit in order to boost the temperature of the district heating water for heating the DHW. The paper presents the main designs of the suggested system and different alternative micro booster heat pump concepts. Energy efficiency and thermodynamic performance of these concepts are calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system has the highest efficiency. Furthermore, we compare thermodynamic and economic performance of the suggested heat pump-based concept with different solutions, using electric water heater. The micro booster heat pump system has the highest annualised investment (390 EUR/year) and the lowest operation (320 EUR/year) expenditures. Electric heater-based concepts consume 5-14 times more electricity, which leads to relatively high annual operation costs (530-970 EUR/year); while investment costs are lower (326-76 EUR/year). The suggested DHW heat pump-based system is cost-efficient for private consumers already today. Furthermore, application of the micro booster heat pump in low energy houses complies with the energy consumption requirements, set by the recent Danish Building Regulations. The use of electrical heater variants would exceed this limit.

  18. Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria K. Graves

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

  19. Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system

  20. Waste disposal from the light water reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative nuclear fuel cycles for support of light water reactors are described and wastes containing naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactivity reviewed. General principles and objectives in radioactive waste management are outlined, and methods for their practical application to fuel cycle wastes discussed. The paper concentrates upon management of wastes from upgrading processes of uranium hexafluoride manufacture and uranium enrichment, and, to a lesser extent, nuclear power reactor wastes. Some estimates of radiological dose commitments and health effects from nuclear power and fuel cycle wastes have been made for US conditions. These indicate that the major part of the radiological dose arises from uranium mining and milling, operation of nuclear reactors, and spent fuel reprocessing. However, the total dose from the fuel cycle is estimated to be only a small fraction of that from natural background radiation

  1. Solar domestic hot water system sizing for Whitehorse, YT, and Dawson, YT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenard, D. [Numerical Logics Inc., Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2008-08-18

    The Yukon Housing Corporation is considering the installation of solar domestic hot water systems at 2 residences in Whitehorse and Dawson. This report documented the solar resource in Whitehorse and Dawson and described possible system designs in terms of the type of collector, size of collector, size of tank, and slope of collector. The best source for assessing the solar resource in Whitehorse is the Canadian Weather Energy and Engineering Data Sets (CWEEDS). Similar files are available for Dawson, but solar radiation measurements are not available. Instead, solar radiation is estimated by a model using earth-sun geometry and cloud cover information. The average solar radiation data for Whitehorse and Dawson was summarized from 3 sources, notably the CWEEDS files; the Canadian Forest Service's Photovoltaic Potential and Solar Resource Maps of Canada; and solar radiation estimates derived from satellite data from NASA's Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy Data Set. All sources agreed that solar radiation is about 2.8 kWh/m{sup 2} per day in Whitehorse and about 2.6 kWh/m{sup 2} per day in Dawson. The solar domestic hot water systems currently on the market include unglazed collectors, glazed collectors, and evacuated tube collectors. Unglazed collectors are not suitable for the Yukon because of the cold ambient temperatures and high thermal losses from the collector to the environment. A typical solar collector is usually connected to a preheat tank through a heat exchanger. The preheat tank works together with the solar collector and the heat exchanger to collect solar energy. It then delivers preheated water to the auxiliary tank/heater. On bright sunny days, the temperature of the preheated water may be high enough that the auxiliary heater does not need to turn on. On overcast days, the solar heater contributes only a small fraction of the temperature rise, with the bulk being provided by the auxiliary heater. This paper included a list of potential suppliers for evacuated tubes and flat-plate collector systems. The solar collector systems were sized using Natural Resource Canada's RETScreen program version 3.1. the type of collector, the number of collectors, the size of the tank, and the slope of the collectors were considered for the calculation. Other assumptions were that the heat exchanger had 80 per cent efficiency; 3 per cent piping and solar tank losses; and 5 per cent losses due to snow and dirt. Collectors were also assumed to face due South. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  2. 226Ra adsorption on active coals from waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the mining and extraction of uranium, the principle means of protection measurement is to prevent uranium and its products diffusing into the environment. The main carriers of radioactive elements in the environment are air and water. Therefore, reduction of the pollution at a uranium mine can be achieved by the treatment of waste waters contaminated with 226Ra Radium contaminated waste waters represent a major biological risk. This paper presents the results of the study of the sorption of 226Ra on active coal mechanisme and the influence of the physical and chemical characteristics of fluid. The 226Ra removal from the residue pond water at the uranium ore processing plant was studied using eight types of indigenous active coals. The experimental results for each type of active coal and their effect on removal of 226Ra from waste waters are presented in this paper. (author)

  3. Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Various Industrial Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ?ahin Dündar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Important part of the environmetal pollution consists of waste water and water pollution. The water polluted by anthropogenical, industrial, and agricultural originated sources are defined as waste waters which are the main pollution sources for reservoirs, rivers, lakes, and seas. In this work, waste waters of leather, textile, automotive side, and metal plating industries were used to determine the levels of Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Ni by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. As a result, highest mean levels of copper in supernatants of plating and textile industries were observed as 377,18 ng ml-1, respectively 103 ng ml-1 lead and 963,6 ng ml-1 nickel in plating industry, 1068,2 ng ml-1 zinc and 14557,1 ng ml-1 chromium in plating and leather industries were determined.

  4. Assessing domestic water use habits for more effective water awareness campaigns during drought periods: a case study in Alicante, eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, H.; Hernández, M.; Saurí, D.

    2015-05-01

    The design of water awareness campaigns could benefit from knowledge of the specific characteristics of domestic water use and the factors that may influence certain water consumption habits. This paper investigates water use in 450 households in 10 municipalities of drought-prone Alicante (Spain). We aim to increase knowledge about existing domestic water behaviors and therefore help to improve the design and implementation of future water awareness campaigns and even to consolidate reductions in water use after drought periods. The survey suggests that awareness campaigns should revise their scope and their channels of diffusion on a regular basis. In a more specific way, for the Alicante case we propose policy-oriented recommendations on the scope of action for further reductions.

  5. Waste management in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important objectives of concentrate and solid waste treatment are reduction of the waste to the smallest volume, radioactive exposure of the personnel of the power plants and outside for operation, handling and transportation, protection against migration of the concentrated radioactive substances after final disposal and observance of shipping requirements, national laws and ministerial waste storage regulations. A variety of technologies is available for the realization of these objectives. Important parameters for the selection and design of concentrate and solid waste treatment processes are waste type, quantity, activity, means for immobilization and the achievable reduction factors. The most important technologies for the treatment of liquid concentrates, combustible and non-combustible solid waste are available for example: In-Drum-Drying, Borate-Solidification (PWR), Drum Drier, Residue Filter Drying, Bituminization, Solidification with cement, Incineration, Shredding, Compacting etc. and of course combinations of the various mentioned procedures which result in the best possible waste disposal for the entire power plant. (orig./RW)

  6. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF COMBINED POTATO PROCESSING AND MUNICIPAL WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demonstration and evaluation of the treatment of combined potato processing waste-water and domestic wastes using various combinations of anaerobic and aerated lagoons. Measured parameters included: BOD, COD, TSS, VSS, nitrogen, phosphorus, volatile acids, total coliform, fecal c...

  7. Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ? model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperaturunt of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

  8. The Human Right to Water: The Importance of Domestic and Productive Water Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Ralph P.; Koppen, Barbara; Houweling, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discr...

  9. Smart solar domestic hot water systems. Development and test; Intelligente solvarmeanlaeg. Udvikling og afproevning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, E.; Knudsen, S.; Furbo, S.; Vejen, N.K.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to develop and test smart solar domestic hot water systems (SDHW systems) where the energy supply from the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a flexible way fitted to the hot water consumption in such a way, that the SDHW systems are suitable for large as well as small hot water demands. In a smart SDHW system the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a smart way. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the water in the hot water tank from the top and only the hot water volume needed by the consumers is heated. Further the water is heated immediately before tapping. The control system includes a number of temperature sensors which cover the temperatures in the auxiliary heated volume. Based on these temperatures the energy content in the hot water tank is calculated. Only water heated to a temperature above 50 deg. C contributes to the total energy content in the hot water tank. Furhter the control system includes a timer that only allows the auxiliary energy supply system to be active in certain time periods and only if the energy content in the hot water tank is lower than wanted. In this way the water in the tank is heated immediately before the expected time of tapping and only the hot water volume needed is heated. The report is divided into five main sections. The sections deals with: Developing and testing storage tanks, laboratory test of SDHW systems based on some of the developed storage tanks, validation of simulation programs for smart solar heating systems, optimisation of system design and control strategy and measurements on two smart SDHW systems installed in single family houses. In all the developed hot water tanks, attempt is made to heat the water in the tank from the top of the tank and not as in traditional tanks where the water is heated from the lowest level of the auxiliary energy supply system, normally a helix or a electrical heating element placed in the tank. It is very important that the water is heated from the top of the tank because only in this way, the size of the auxiliary volume can be controlled, which makes the SDHW system suitable for large as well as small hot water demands. The gain experience in one part of the project is immediately implemented in the following parts of the project. Therefore the design of some of the SDHW systems has been changed during the project. The expected advantages by using smart SDHW systems are: Reduced auxiliary energy use compared to the auxiliary energy use in a similar traditional SDHW system; Reduced heat loss compared to the heat loss in a similar traditional SDHW system; Really good thermal stratification and due to that, and the way the tank is heated, a higher collector performance; Reduced domestic water volume in the tank compared to traditional SDHW systems and therefore a reduced risk of legionella. Based on the results in the project it can be concluded that: A smart SDHW system has a lower auxiliary energy consumption than a similar traditional SDHW system; A smart SDHW system has a reduced heat loss from the hot water tank compared to the tank heat loss for a similar traditional SDHW system because the top of the hot water tank is not constantly heated to a high temperature level; It is possible to build up a good thermal stratification both for large and for small auxiliary heated volumes where the water is heated from the top of the tank; The simulation programs, which are developed in the project, are suitable as tools for system design and analysis for smart SDHW systems; A consumer that buys a smart SDHW system must be willing to take action part in the control of the system, because the thermal performance of the system strongly depends on the correct control parameters. (au)

  10. Impact of poor solid waste management on ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, P; Kaliappan, S; Srinivasaraghavan, R

    2008-08-01

    The leachate produced by waste disposal sites contains a large amount of substances which are likely to contaminate ground water. The impact of such sites upon ground water can be judged by monitoring the concentration of potential contaminants at a number of specific monitoring points. In this study, the quality of ground water around a municipal solid waste disposal site in Chennai was investigated. Chemical analyses were carried out on water samples collected at various radial distances from the boundary of the dumping yard, at intervals of 3 months and for a period of 3 years. The study has revealed that the ground water quality does not conform to the drinking water quality standards as per Bureau of Indian Standards. The effects of dumping activity on ground water appeared most clearly as high concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness, chlorides, chemical oxygen demand, nitrates and sulphates. Leachate collected from the site showed presence of heavy metals. The contaminant concentrations tend to decrease, during the post monsoon season and increase, during the pre monsoon season in most of the samples. The study clearly indicates that landfills in densely populated cities should have the ground water monitored on regular basis. Furthermore, ground water in and around the landfill sites shall not be used for drinking purposes unless it meets specific standards. Indiscriminate dumping of wastes in developed areas without proper solid waste management practices should be stopped. PMID:17999155

  11. A generic method for projecting and valuing domestic water uses, application to the Mediterranean basin at the 2050 horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice

    2014-05-01

    The aim is to be able to assess future domestic water demands in a region with heterogeneous levels of economic development. This work offers an original combination of a quantitative projection of demands (similar to WaterGAP methodology) and an estimation of the marginal benefit of water. This method is applicable to different levels of economic development and usable for large-scale hydroeconomic modelling. The global method consists in building demand functions taking into account the impact of both the price of water and the level of equipment, proxied by economic development, on domestic water demand. Our basis is a 3-blocks inverse demand function: the first block consists of essential water requirements for food and hygiene; the second block matches intermediate needs; and the last block corresponds to additional water consumption, such as outdoor uses, which are the least valued. The volume of the first block is fixed to match recommended basic water requirements from the literature, but we assume that the volume limits of blocks 2 and 3 depend on the level of household equipment and therefore evolve with the level of GDP per capita (structural change), with a saturation. For blocks 1 and 2 we determine the value of water from elasticity, price and quantity data from the literature, using the point-extension method. For block 3, we use a hypothetical zero-cost demand and maximal demand with actual water costs to linearly interpolate the inverse demand function. These functions are calibrated on the 24 countries part of the Mediterranean basin using data from SIMEDD, and are used for the projection and valuation of domestic water demands at the 2050 horizon. They enable to project total water demand, and also the respective shares of the different categories of demand (basic demand, intermediate demand and additional uses). These projections are performed under different combined scenarios of population, GDP and water costs.

  12. A study on migration of contaminants and effect on the groundwater system at the Gemencheh domestic waste disposal site, Negeri Sembilan using integrated nuclear, geophysical and hydrogeochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The domestic waste disposal site at Gemencheh, Negeri Sembilan has been in operation since 1981. Integration of three methods namely nuclear, geophysical and hydrogeochemical were used to study the migration and effects of contaminants on the groundwater system at this particular site. Nuclear method was used to determine groundwater system flow velocity that delineates the migration pattern of contaminant species in the groundwater system at the study area. The groundwater flow velocity is found to be heterogeneous and depend on hydraulic conductivity caused by soil permeability except in the low-lying downstream area where the flow velocity is found to be low and constant at 2.0 x 10-6 ms-1. However, the flow velocity increases to as high as 17.8 x 10-5 ms-1 during rainy season due to the influence of weather on hydraulic gradient. Weather condition also influences the flow direction, whereby during draught season, the groundwater flow direction at the middle of the study site moves from an area of high topography to the northeast and southeast of low topography areas. On the other hand, at the downstream the groundwater flows partially towards northeast and southeast whereas flow direction at the upstream is towards the east. A similar pattern was observed during rainy season in both upstream and downstream of the study site but at the middle, the flow is basically towards south-east with a side flow to the north-east andast with a side flow to the north-east and east direction. Geophysical method comprising geo electrical-imaging and electromagnetic transient techniques was used to determine the extent, depth and distribution of contamination in the groundwater system. This method shows that the most seriously contaminated areas at the middle and the downstream regions of the study site within the shallow depth of 3-6 metres. The distribution of the contaminants in groundwater is not widespread but confined within the study site only. Finally, hydrogeochemical method was used to determine the species concentration, rate and extent of contamination. This method shows that the species of chlorides, nitrates, iron, manganese, lead, mercury, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphates, chromium and cadmium originating from the leachate of domestic waste had contaminated the middle and the downstream regions of the study site. The concentration of these species is tens of times higher than the limits of the Drinking Water Quality 1984 as stipulated by the World Health Organisation except for ferum that had reached a value of 700 times higher. It can be concluded that the domestic waste dumped at the Gemencheh disposal site has seriously contaminated the groundwater. This work also shows that the integration of the three methods is useful because it was possible to compile a lot of data and information which were complete, detailed and extensive as well as able to provide a clear picture of the contaminants species, migration and distribution pattern of contamination as well as impact to groundwater quality at the study site. (author)

  13. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs

  14. Speciation of chromium in the waste water from a tannery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the different toxicity of chromium (VI) and chromium (III) and the different toxicity of free hydrated metal ions versus stable complexes of the ions, the determination of the physicochemical form of the chromium is necessary in addition to the total metal content. In this investigation a strategy of analysis has been developed which provides information about the physicochemical form, toxicity and ecochemical behaviour of the chromium in the waste water. The strategy was used for the analysis of two waste water samples. The investigations were not able to give exact quantitative results for the different species initially present because each method shifted the equilibrium state. It was shown that the more toxic chromium (VI) species was unstable in both the waste water samples investigated. Although the two waste waters came from very different sources, most of the chromium (III) in both waste waters after centrifugation were not free ionic species but were associated with macromolecular particles (complexed or colloidal). 36% and 46% of the total chromium of the two samples was bound in a very stable complex; 25% and 15% was bound as colloids. Only a small part of the chromium was ionic (and hence particularly toxic). Despite the stable binding, most of the chromium could be coprecipitated with Fe(OH)3 or Al(OH)3 in laboratory experiments and would probably be mineralised in natural water. (orig.).)

  15. Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Colin; Tyrer, Mark; Cheeseman, Christopher R; Graham, Nigel J D

    2010-03-15

    Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilize soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As. PMID:20153878

  16. Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilise soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As.

  17. Chemical characterization of blue stains in domestic fixtures in contact with drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, María V; Lagos, Gustavo E; Reyes, Arturo

    2008-04-01

    Bluish green staining in domestic fixtures was observed in three to 9-year-old houses in the city of Talca, located 256 km. south of Santiago, the capital of Chile. The houses contained copper pipes which were exposed to soft well water, with low pH and low buffer capacity. The aim of this paper is to establish the chemical composition of the stains and to determine the conditions by which they were formed. X-ray diffraction analysis of the stains revealed the presence of malachite, a copper compound that caused green coloring in kettles and water boilers. Dioptase, which is deep green in coloring, was identified in a bathtub tile. In one house, where blue stains were found in a toilet bowl, the presence of chrysocolla was suggested by means of X-ray fluorescence. In the field conditions studied it was concluded that the bluish green stains in bathroom home appliances were generated by the precipitation of copper compounds in places were leakages occur. PMID:17574543

  18. Effectiveness of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Using a Bio-Hedge Water Hyacinth Wetland System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Valipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available onstructed wetland applications have been limited by a large land requirement and capital investment. This study aimed to improve a shallow pond water hyacinth system by incorporating the advantages of engineered attached microbial growth technique (termed Bio-hedge for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. A laboratory scale continuous-flow system consists of the mesh type matrix providing an additional biofilm surface area of 54 m2/m3. Following one year of experimentation, the process showed more stability and enhanced performance in removing organic matter and nutrients, compared to traditional water hyacinth (by lowering 33%–67% HRT and facultative (by lowering 92%–96% HRT ponds. The wastewater exposed plants revealed a relative growth rate of 1.15% per day, and no anatomical deformities were observed. Plant nutrient level averaged 27 ± 1.7 and 44 ± 2.3 mg N/g dry weight, and 5 ± 1.4 & 9±1.2 mg P/g dry weight in roots and shoots, respectively. Microorganisms immobilized on Bio-hedge media (4.06 × 107 cfu/cm2 and plant roots (3.12 × 104 cfu/cm were isolated and identified (a total of 23 strains. The capital cost was pre-estimated for 1 m3/d wastewater at 78 US$/m3inflow and 465 US$/kg BOD5 removed. This process is a suitable ecotechnology due to improved biofilm formation, reduced footprint, energy savings, and increased quality effluent.

  19. Experimental verification of a method for estimating energy for domestic hot water production in a 2-stage district heating substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yliniemi, Kimmo; Delsing, Jerker; van Deventer, Jan [Luleaa University of Technology, Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Division EISLAB, 971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    In this paper we compare our estimate of energy consumption for domestic hot water production in a building with the measured value. The energy consumption for hot water production is estimated from the measured total power consumption. The estimation method was developed using computer simulations, and it is based on the assumption that hot water production causes rapid and detectable changes in power consumption. A comparison of our estimates with measurements indicates that the uncertainty in estimation of hot water energy consumption is {+-}10%. Thus, the estimate is comparable to class 3 energy meter measurements, which have an uncertainty of {+-}2-10%. (author)

  20. AN INVESTIGATION OF COMPRESSION AND PURIFICATION OF BIOGAS AND IT’S USE FOR DOMESTIC INSTANT WATER HEATING APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surve Prajakta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work a method of compressing, purification and storing of biogas is investigated. A burner is designed and developed for instant water heating application by using bio gas. Experimentation is carried out with purified and unpurified bio gas and the parameter like total quantity of water heated, maximum temperature of water, mass flow rate of bio gas are measured. The results are compared with LPG geyser. It is found that biogas can be a good replacement for LPG for domestic instant water heating application.

  1. A Study of Waste Water Treatment of Microbiological Laboratories of Hospitals by Electrolyzed Oxidized Water

    OpenAIRE

    Fiza Sarwar; Aroos Munir; Ilyas Ahmed Faridi

    2011-01-01

    Hospital liquid infectious waste is one of the most important aspects of water contamination. The presentinvestigation was undertaken to evolve a cost effective alternate method of waste water treatment by usingOxidized Water as a disinfectant for hospital effluents. Liquid infectious waste coming from diagnosticlaboratories of hospitals (Urine, Blood and Mix of both) was treated with electrolyzed Oxidized Water. Differentv/v ratios (95:5, 85:15, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75) of Sample to Electroly...

  2. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  3. Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3. However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Different concentration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% of FKW were used to treat tilapia in tank culture for a period of twelve weeks. Physico-chemical parameters were also taken every week. Treatment with 0.1% FKW resulted in significant (p<0.05 decrease in ammonia, nitrite and nitrate levels. The survival rates of tilapia treated with 0.05 and 0.1% FKW were comparable to the untreated control. Growth performance of the tilapia was measured in term of length and weight. Highest relative growth rate was observed in tilapia treated with 0.05% FKW. However, all the fish died in 0.2% FKW due to severe pH drop. Therefore, low concentration of FKW could severe as a potential water additive to improve water quality and promote growth in tilapia aquaculture.

  4. Analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The object of this study was dynamic modeling, simulation and optimum design of solar DHW (domestic hot water) systems, with respect to different whether conditions, and accurate dynamic behaviour of the heat load. Special attention was paid to systems with thermosyphon and drain-back design. The solar radiation in Beijing (China) and in Denmark are analyzed both by theoretical calculations and the analysis of long-term measurements. Based on the weather data from the Beijing Meteorological Station during the period of 1981-1993, a Beijing Test Reference Year has been formulated by means of statistical analysis. A brief introduction about the Danish Test Reference Year and the Design Reference Year is also presented. In order to investigate the heat loss as a part of the total heat load, dynamic models for distribution networks have been developed, and simulations have been carried out for typically designed distribution networks of the circulation type. The influence of operation parameters such as the tank outlet temperature, the hot-water load and the load pattern, on the heat loss from the distribution networks in presented. It was found that the tank outlet temperature has a significant influence on the heat loss from a circulation type of distribution network, while the hot-water load and the load pattern have no obvious effect. Dynamic models of drain-back tanks, both as a separated tank and combined with a mantle tank, have been developed and presented. Models of the other basic components commonly used in solar DHW systems, such as flat-plate collectors, connection pipes, storage tanks with a heat exchanger spiral, and controllers, are also described. (LN) 66 refs.

  5. Vitrification treatability studies of actual waste water treatment sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatability studies have been conducted at the laboratory-scale to evaluate vitrification of waste water sludges at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These studies are being conducted jointly by Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These studies include testing with surrogate waste formulations at both the laboratory-scale and pilot-scale, and testing with actual waste at the laboratory-scale, pilot-scale, and field-scale. ORR was chosen as the host site for the field-scale demonstration. The Y12 West End Treatment Facility (WETF) waste water treatment sludges, which are RCRA F-listed wastes, were chosen as the candidate waste stream for the first field-scale demonstration. The laboratory-scale ''proof-of-principle'' demonstrations reported in this study and the pilot-scale studies planned for FY95 on the WETF sludge will provide needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration. These laboratory-scale ''proof-of-principle'' and pilot-scale studies also provide needed data for the evaluation of the feasibility of vitrification as a stabilization option for a variety of wastes which do not currently meet RCRA/LDR (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Land Disposal Restrictions) requirements for storage/disposal and/or those for which treatment capacity does not presently exist

  6. Heavy metals in the waste and in the water discharge area of municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ermindo Cavallet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The county of Paranaguá discards 80 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW daily in the Embocuí landfill without proper treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the concentration of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb and mercury (Hg in the dump area and to compare it with reference values for soil and water quality stipulated by CETESB (2005. The methodology of the study involved the collection of waste samples (organic waste mixed with soil from a depth of 1 m deep at 12 points of the dump, and the collection of water samples from a depth of 3 m at 3 points in the deposited waste. Extraction of heavy metals in the water samples was performed according to the USEPA (1999 method and analysis followed ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Analysis of the solid waste samples showed the following concentrations: (mg kg -1: As < 10; Cd < 1; Cr = 26; Pb = 52; e Hg = 0.2. The water samples showed the following concentrations: (mg L- 1: As < 5; Cd < 5; Cr =29 e Pb = 10. The amounts of heavy metals in samples of tailings and water from the landfill area fall below the values considered to create a risk of contamination.

  7. Radioactive waste disposal and related water management aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legislative measures and prescriptions are listed for the protection of surface and ground water quality. Water quality must be monitored in case of the discharge of radioactive wastes. The monitoring is recommended of somatic and genetic changes in water organisms, such as growth curves of chlorococal algae, the propagation, the rate of sloughing skin and life-time of daphnias, in fish the development of roe. Also the application of one method is recommended to evaluate the self-cleaning capacity of water. Problem areas are given related to the protection of water management in connection with the implementation of the nuclear power programme. (E.S.)

  8. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  9. Outdoor test method to determine the thermal behavior of solar domestic water heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of the market, the generation of new promotion programs, fiscal incentives and many other factors are to be considered for the massive application of solar domestic water heating systems (SDWHS) mainly of the compact thermosiphon type, makes it necessary to choose simple and inexpensive procedure tests that permit to know their characteristic thermal behaviors without an official standard being necessary. Moreover, it allows the comparison among systems and offers enough and reliable information to consumers and manufacturers. In most developing countries, an official national standard for SDWHS is not available, therefore it is necessary to adopt an international test procedure in which the cost and time of implementation is very important. In this work, a simple and inexpensive test method to determine the thermal behavior of SDWHS is proposed. Even though these procedure tests do not have an official standard structure they permit, by comparing different solar systems under identical solar, ambient, and initial conditions, the experimental determination of: (a) the maximum available volume of water for solar heating; (b) water temperature increment and available thermal energy at the end of the day; (c) temperature profiles (stratification) and the average temperature in the storage tank after it is homogenized; (d) the average global thermal efficiency; (e) water temperature decrement and energy lost overnight; and (f) the relationship between hot wat; and (f) the relationship between hot water volume and solar collector area as function of the average heating temperature. An additional proposed test permits to know the heat losses caused by the reverse flow in the collector loop. These tests will be carried out independently of the configuration between the solar collector and the storage tank, the way the fluid circulates and the type of thermal exchange. The results of this procedure test can be very useful, firstly, for the local solar manufacturers' equipment in order to design and optimize its products comparing their systems against a reference system under identical test conditions and secondly, by the consumers in order to select the most suitable system. The resulting experimental data for a particular thermosiphon system is presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Development of electrochemical denitrification from waste water containing ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors developed processes to dentrify waste water containing ammonium nitrate discharged from the nuclear fuel manufacturing works and to recover nitric acid and ammonia. For denitrification they applied the operating method and the conditions of operation to make 0.4mM or less from NH4NO3 waste water of 1.5 M by 3 stages of electrodialysis cells. To recover nitric acid and ammonium water, they separated HNO3 solution of 6 M and NH4OH solution with one unit of electrolysis cell, then absorbed NH3 gas from NH4OH solution with water and applied the condition of operation to recover 8 M NH4OH solution. The authors demonstrated that treatment and recovery can be carried out stably with actual waste water with a system through the combination of previously mentioned electrodialysis cells, electrolysis cells and an ammonia gas absorber. At present they are planning a plant where NH4NO3 waste water of 4,500 mol can be treated per day

  11. A New System to Estimate and Reduce Electrical Energy Consumption of Domestic Hot Water in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption rose about 28% over the 2001 to 2011 period in the Spanish residential sector. In this environment, domestic hot water (DHW represents the second highest energy demand. There are several methodologies to estimate DHW consumption, but each methodology uses different inputs and some of them are based on obsolete data. DHW energy consumption estimation is a key tool to plan modifications that could enhance this consumption and we decided to update the methodologies. We studied DHW consumption with data from 10 apartments in the same building during 18 months. As a result of the study, we updated one chosen methodology, adapting it to the current situation. One of the challenges to improve efficiency of DHW use is that most of people are not aware of how it is consumed in their homes. To help this information to reach consumers, we developed a website to allow users to estimate the final electrical energy needed for DHW. The site uses three estimation methodologies and chooses the best fit based on information given by the users. Finally, the application provides users with recommendations and tips to reduce their DHW consumption while still maintaining the desired comfort level.

  12. Low-Cost Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Mild Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Christensen, C.; Merrigan, T.; Hewett, R.; Jorgensen, G.

    2005-01-01

    In FY99, Solar Heating and Lighting set the goal to reduce the life-cycle cost of saved-energy for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems in mild climates by 50%, primarily through use of polymer technology. Two industry teams (Davis Energy Group/SunEarth (DEG/SE) and FAFCO) have been developing un-pressurized integral-collector-storage (ICS) systems having load-side heat exchangers, and began field-testing in FY04. DEG/SE?s ICS has a rotomolded tank and thermoformed glazing. Based upon manufacturing issues, costs, and poor performance, the FAFCO team changed direction in late FY04 from an un-pressurized ICS to a direct thermosiphon design based upon use of pool collectors. Support for the teams is being provided for materials testing, modeling, and system testing. New ICS system models have been produced to model the new systems. A new ICS rating procedure for the ICS systems is undergoing testing and validation. Pipe freezing, freeze protection valves, and overheating have been tested and analyzed.

  13. APPLICATION OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING FIXED BED BIOFILM AND MEMBRAN BIOREACTOR FOR WATER REUSE IN URBAN HOUSING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIS HASTUTI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate application of water reuse technologies, with major emphasis of water reuse for non-potable applications in urban housing area. To study the systems performance, secondary treatment development at pilot scale has been studied to achieve desired water reuse quality. There were two systems applied for water reuse scheme using biofilter or fixed bed biofilm system for treating wastewater from Turangga’s flat in Bandung City and membrane bioreactor system for treating wastewater from anaerobic pond of Bojong Soang’s Wastewater Treatment Plant, Bandung City, West Java. The systems produce water quality meets water reuse for domestic purposes, such as toilet flushing, washing, garden irrigation, etc. In general, these applications show assessing a treatment process ability to produce water contains turbidity is less than 2 mgL-1 and BOD is less than 5 mgL-1. This paper concludes that treated wastewater is potential reuse for public/domestic purposes mainly for water scared urban area, which depends on characteristic of wastewater and the methods or degree of treatment required.

  14. Isotopic Investigation of the Origin of Nitrate of Waters Outflowing from a Waste Deposit Site Near Scuol (Lower Engadine, South Eastern Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near the village of Scuol in the Lower Engadine Valley (South Eastern Switzerland) Sot Ruinas, a waste disposal site for domestic and construction refuse, has been in use since the 1960s. It is situated in the vicinity of the Inn River. Over the last years enhanced concentrations of ammonia were found in the outflow of this waste site. But the observed elevated ammonia concentrations could also be a result of natural origin, by inflows of mineral water as observed in the mineral springs of the area. These springs could have acquired their high ammonia content by water-rock interaction with adjacent ultramafic rocks. The isotope analyses were oriented towards the hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes on the ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen molecules. The effect of the waste on the outflowing water downstream could be proved by isotope ratios based on chemical processes of the nitrogen cycle and an influence of natural spring water was excluded. (author)

  15. Physico-chemical properties of biodiesel manufactured from waste frying oil using domestic adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-elmonem A.; Ali, Rehab Farouk M.

    2015-06-01

    We have evaluated the efficiency of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA), date palm seed carbon (DPSC), and rice husk ash (RHA) as natural adsorbents and compared them with the synthetic adsorbent Magnesol XL for improving the quality of waste frying oil (WFO) and for the impact on the physicochemical properties of the obtained biodiesel. We measured moisture content, refractive index (RI), density, acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), and saponification value (SV), as well as fatty acid profile. Purification treatments with various levels of adsorbents caused significant (P ? 0.05) decreases in free fatty acids (FFAs), PVs, and IVs. The highest yields (86.45 and 87.80%) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with 2% Magnesol and 3% of RHA, respectively, followed by samples treated with 2 and 3% of DPSC or RHA. Pre-treatments caused a significant decrease in the content of C 18:2 linoleic acids, consistent with a significant increase in the content of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the treated samples. The highest oxidation value (COX) (1.30) was observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO without purification treatments. However, the lowest values (0.44–0.73) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with different levels of adsorbents. Our results indicate that pre-treatments with different levels of adsorbents regenerated the quality of WFO and improved the quality of the obtained biodiesel.

  16. Army Reserve Expands Net Zero Energy, Water, Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.

    2015-04-14

    In 2012, the Army initiated a Net Zero (NZ) program to establish NZ energy, water, and/or waste goals at installations across the U.S. In 2013, the U.S. Army Reserve expanded this program to cover all three categories at different types of Reserve Centers (RCs) across 5 regions. Projects identified at 10 pilot sites resulted in an average savings potential from recommended measures of 90% for energy, 60% for water, and 83% for waste. This article provides results of these efforts.

  17. Viruses and ionizing radiation in respect to waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short survey of viruses and the diseases they can cause in man the effects of ionizing radiation on viruses are discussed. Ionizing radiation inactivates viruses by direct and indirect effects, and it is well established that the radiosensitive target is the nucleic acid. Factors affecting the radiosensitivity are temperature and suspending medium. The possible influence of oxygen on viral radiosensitization remains unclear. For the effective application of radiation treatment on waste waters information is required concerning the concentration of viruses in waste waters in order that treatment doses may be determined. (orig.)

  18. Treatment of radioactive wastes from pressurized water reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the treatment processes recently used for the various types of radioactive wastes from pressurized water reactors in nuclear power plants. The following topics are dealt with: purification and concentration processes applied to active waters, incorporation of the residues of these processes, treatment of dry solid wastes, retention and/or separation processes for radioactive gases and aerosols. The possibilities of application, technological concepts, and the practice in countries operating PWRs are pointed out. In conclusion, trends of the development are briefly mentioned. (author)

  19. Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity < 2?S/cm) from sea water. The probability of the scale formation is practically eliminated by operating it at low temperature and controlling the brine concentration. It also does not require elaborate chemical pretreatment of sea water except chlorination, so it has no environmental impact. LTE technology has found major applications in nuclear reactors where large quantity of low quality waste heat is available to produce high quality desalted water for make up water requirement replacing conventional ion exchange process. Successful continuous operation of 30 Te/day LTE desalination plant utilizing waste heat from nuclear research reactor has demonstrated the safety, reliability, extreme plant availability areliability, extreme plant availability and economics of nuclear desalination by LTE technology. It is also proposed to utilize waste heat from Main Heat Transport (MHT) purification circuit of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) to produce about 250 Te/ day high quality desalinated water by Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) process for the reactor make up and plant utilization. Recently we have commissioned a 50 Te/day 2-effect low temperature desalination plant with cooling tower where the specific energy and cooling water requirement are significantly reduced. In this paper salient feature of LTE desalination plant, its applications and advantages are discussed. (author)

  20. Impact of Solid Waste Disposal on Ground Water Quality in Different Disposal Site at Jaipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Nandwana

    2014-01-01

    This research paper here to present to examine the adverse effect of dumping of solid waste at disposal site on ground water quality at various disposal site at Jaipur city, India. This effect on ground water causes due to the unsystematic or unscientific dumping of solid waste. The water, which already presents in the waste, generates with the biodegradable waste or due to the infiltration of water by rainfall. This water which generates or occurs due to that process pours in...

  1. Recovery of Heavy Metals from Waste Water.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jochová, Miluše; Horá?ek, Jan; Pun?ochá?, Miroslav; Drahoš, Ji?í

    Kraków : Works & Studies Prace I Studia, 2000 - (Suchecki, T.; Tsunashima, A.), s. 87-93 ISBN 83-909846-9-5. [Proceedings of the International Workshop on Effective Utilization of Waste for Minimum Emission and its Safety . Kraków (PL), 07.03.2000-09.03.2000] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA104/97/S002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  2. Tracer studies on the removal of water endangering substances from municipal waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation deals with the behaviour of selected water endangering compounds and with possibilities of their holdback or elimination in water treatment plants. The investigations were carried out by use of 82Br-bromoxynil and sodium-32P-hydrogenphosphate in a pilot plant for the biological clarification of municipal waste waters. It is shown that only P > 10 mg P/l) from municipal waste water it was found that the phosphate concentration of the biologically cleaned water leaving the pilot plant is < 2 mg P/l. The pilot plant and details of the tracer experiments are described. (author)

  3. Effect of ingredients in waste water on property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ingredients in waste water on the property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment was studied by the method of static ad- sorption combined with dynamic experiment. The experimental result shows that the efficiency or breackthrough volume of resin is reduced if there are other general anions, triethanolamine and oil in the solution. When the concentrations of CO32-, HCO3-, SO32-, Cl- in the solution are more than 0.24, 0.28, 0.23 and 0.09 mol/L, respectively, the concentrations of uranium in the outlet waste water will exceed 20 ?g/L. The maximal allowable concentration of triethanolamine through the resin is no more than 250 mg/L. When the content of oil in the resin exceeds 1%(by quality), the breackthrough volume reduces by 16%, and when it exceeds 11%, the breackthrough volume almost loses at all. (authors)

  4. Improving Water Supply Systems for Domestic Uses in Urban Togo: The Case of a Suburb in Lomé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisha Venort

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization facing developing countries is increasing pressure on public institutions to provide adequate supplies of clean water to populations. In most developing countries, the general public is not involved in strategies and policies regarding enhancement, conservation, and management of water supply systems. To assist governments and decision makers in providing potable water to meet the increasing demand due to the rapid urbanization, this study sought to characterize existing water supply systems and obtain public opinion for identifying a community water supply system model for households in a residential neighborhood in Lomé, Togo. Existing water supply systems in the study area consist of bucket-drawn water wells, mini water tower systems, rainwater harvesting, and public piped water. Daily domestic water consumption in the study area compared well with findings on water uses per capita from Sub-Saharan Africa, but was well below daily water usage in developed nations. Based on the surveys, participants thought highly of a large scale community water tower and expressed interest in maintaining it. Even though people rely on water sources deemed convenient for drinking, they also reported limited confidence in the quality of these sources.

  5. Framework for Assessing the Rainwater Harvesting Potential of Residential Buildings at a National Level as an Alternative Water Resource for Domestic Water Supply in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Hsien Liaw; Yu-Chuan Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) is widely recognized as an alternative source of water in Taiwan because of water shortages. This suggests that rainwater potential should be maximized and quantified. In this article, we assess the potential of DRWH at a national level. To consider the climatic, building characteristic, economic, and ecological aspects of DRWH, we propose three categories: (1) theoretical; (2) available; and (3) environmental bearable rainwater potential. Four main steps...

  6. Water recovery and disposal of clay waste slimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of research conducted in its mission to effect pollution abatement, the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, is developing a dewatering technique that allows for disposal of mineral wastes, for reuse of water now lost with these wastes, and for reclamation of mined land. The technique utilizes a high-molecular-weight nonionic polyethylene oxide polymer (PEO) that has the ability to flocculate and dewater materials containing clay wastes. A variety of different clay wastes have been successfully dewatered in laboratory experiments. Coal-clay waste was consolidated from 4 to 57 weight-percent; potash-clay brine waste from 20 to 62 weight-percent; phosphatic clay waste from 16 to 49 weight-percent; uranium mill tailings from 15 to 67 weight-percent; talc tailings from 10 to 53 weight-percent. The consolidated materials can be handled by mechanical devices such as trucks and conveyors for disposal in mined-out areas

  7. Monitoring the waste water of LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Rühl, I

    1999-01-01

    Along the LEP sites CERN is discharging water of differing quality and varying amounts into the local rivers. This wastewater is not only process water from different cooling circuits but also water that infiltrates into the LEP tunnel. The quality of the discharged wastewater has to conform to the local environmental legislation of our Host States and therefore has to be monitored constantly. The most difficult aspect regarding the wastewater concerns LEP Point 8 owing to an infiltration of crude oil (petroleum), which is naturally contained in the soil along octant 7-8 of the LEP tunnel. This paper will give a short summary of the modifications made to the oil/water separation unit at LEP Point 8. The aim was to obtain a satisfactory oil/water separation and to install a monitoring system for a permanent measurement of the amount of hydrocarbons in the wastewater.

  8. Waste water reuse as an alternative to the traditional water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After e brief presentation of the most significant international projects carried out in order to quantify the risk of infection in waste water reuse for irrigation, this paper examines, in a critical way, the disinfection technologies which are available today

  9. Waste Water Treatment Plants and the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Tychsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Denmark's political ambitions of a fossil fuel free energy system by 2050 calls for more renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. These green energy resources fluctuate and the transition to a green energy system requires a Smart Grid with flexible consumers that balance the fluctuating power production. The energy-heavy processes for waste water transport and treatment could potentially provide a flexible operation with storage capabilities and be a valuable asset to a Smart Grid. In order to enable Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) as flexible prosumers in the future Smart Grid, we must update their process control system to model based predictive control that monitors the changed flexible operation and plans ahead. The primary aim of a WWTP is to treat the incoming waste water as much as possible to ensure a sufficient effluent water quality and protect the environment of the recipient. The secondary aim is to treat the waste water using as little energy as possible. In the future waste water will be considered an energy resource, that contains valuable nutrients convertible to green biogas and in turn electricity and heat. In a Smart Grid consuming or producing energy at the right time is key to both lower plant electricity costs and actively help to balance the energy system. Predictions of the WWTP and sewer system operation could help a model based controller to adapt power consumption and production according to the energy system flexibility needs; incentivized through energy markets and prices. We are in the process of upgrading the current control system to prepare a flexible operation and Smart Grid market integration. The prototype system will be tested online at a plant in Denmark, that in the current market could save up to 300.000 DKK/year in electricity costs. The solution is based on existing available online plant sensors and is expected to be part of Krüger’s advanced process control software STAR control® already used at plants worldwide.

  10. Methods of industrial waste water cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Brehuv; Tomislav Špaldon; Silvie Heviánková

    2005-01-01

    The issue of „acid mine water“ (or AMD) is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of the old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphateelimination at this locality. Recently, several methods of the sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are the biological and physical-chemical oness and the chemical precipitat...

  11. Relative potential hazards of radioactive waste in various water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential hazard to man arising from the hypothetical release of radioactive spent fuel waste into various water systems has been evaluated. Radionuclide transport and human exposure were simulated for six water systems: a large Northwestern river, a small Northeastern river, a small Northwestern river, a large Central Region river, a lake with no outflow in an arid region, and an aquifer discharging directly into an ocean

  12. Rapid methods for the determination of natural radionuclides in waste waters from a phosphogypsum waste repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross alpha and beta activity measurements can give useful and quickly available information about the radioactivity content of waste waters. A rapid method based on liquid scintillation counting with alpha/beta discrimination was applied in the framework of a periodical screening of waste waters from a phosphogypsum repository, and for waste waters with high salts content the sensitivity is generally better than that obtained with standard thick source methods. (author)

  13. Waste water biology. 2. rev. and enlarged ed. Abwasserbiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeck-Tropfke, L.; Habeck-Tropfke, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The book attempts to combine the knowledge of two professional groups, i.e. engineers and biologists, so that both groups will benefit. There have been great advances in the field of waste water biology, and the better understanding of the basic biological processes has helped to improve the pollutant degradation efficiency considerably. (EF).

  14. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  15. Attenuation of Chromium toxicity in mine waste water using water hyacinth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa (India showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6. Cr+6 contaminated mine waste water poses potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The current field based phytoremediation study is an in situ approach for attenuation of Cr+6 from mine waste water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes weeds by rhizofiltration method. The weeds significantly reduced (up to 54% toxic concentrations of Cr+6 from contaminated mine waste water when passed through succeeding water hyacinth ponds. The reduction of toxic chromium level varied with the plant age and passage distance of waste water. Chromium phytoaccumulation and Bio-Concentration Factor (BCF was maximum at growing stage of plant i.e. 75 days old plant. High BCF (10,924 and Transportation Index (32.09 for water hyacinth indicated that the weeds can be used as a tool of phytoremediation to combat the problem of in situ Cr contamination in mining areas.

  16. Lessons Learned for Construction and Waste Water Management at Radioactive Waste Closure Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental remediation of three different radioactive waste closure sites each required exhaustive characterization and evaluation of sampling and analytical information in resolving regulatory and technical issues that impact cleanup activities. One of the many regulatory and technical issues shared by all three and impacting the cleanup activities is the compliant management and discharge of waste waters generated and resulting from the remediation activities. Multiple options were available for each closure site in resolving waste water management challenges depending upon the base regulatory framework defined for the cleanup or closure of the site. These options are typically regulated by the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), with exemptions available under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) or Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between regulatory agencies. In general, all parties must demonstrate equivalent compliance when concerns related to the protection of the general public and the environment. As such, all options for management of waste water resulting from closure activities must demonstrate compliance to or equivalent actions under the CWA. The CWA provides for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) that is typically maintained by individual states through permitting process to generators, public utilities, and more receenerators, public utilities, and more recently, construction sites. Of the three sites, different compliance strategies were employed for each. The approach for the Columbus Closure Project (CCP) was to initiate full scale compliance to the Ohio EPA General Construction Permit No. OHC000002. The CCP provided Notice of Intent (NOI) to the Ohio EPA to discharge under the general permit according to the regulator approved Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan. For the second site, the Li Tungsten Superfund Site in Glen Cove, New York, the option was to manage and discharge waste water under a due diligence process to New York State General Permit No. GP-02-01. For the third site, the Middlesex Sampling Plant in Middlesex, New Jersey, the options was to manage and discharge waste water to the Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). Each option has resulted in a safe, cost-effective, and compliant approach to managing discharging waste waters from the site closure activities. (authors)

  17. Uranium microbial treatment in waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metals and uranium treatment and stabilization methods include microbial activities. Up to now the most successful biological treatment processes were bio sorption and precipitation, other processes such as connection to specific macromolecules, are used to control radioactive wastes containing uranium from mines and industrial plants. In a research project, gram - negative bacteria, called MGF - 48, were obtained from soils contaminated with lead in the south of Tehran, and their uranium absorption and storage capacities were examined. Preliminary results show that these microorganisms absorb uranium from solutions, form microbial flocks and settle. Uranium absorption rate increased linearly with concentration up to a maximum of 174 mg uranium/g dry weight cells. In comparison with other known uranium absorbing bacteria, MGF - 48 with 17.4% uranium dry mass are in the third place. Uranium can be eliminated from cells using chemical methods, therefore, cells can be reused. Research on effects of environmental parameters on absorption rate continues. (Author)

  18. Methods of industrial waste water cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Brehuv

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of „acid mine water“ (or AMD is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of the old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphateelimination at this locality. Recently, several methods of the sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are the biological and physical-chemical oness and the chemical precipitation. The method described in this contribution deals with the chemical precipitation by polyaluminium chloride and calcium hydrate. By appliying of this method, very interesting results were obtained. The amount of SO42- anions decreased to almost zero-value, using optimal doses of the chemical reagents.

  19. Employing Interim Water Management Barriers at Waste Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project Act (the Act) of 1980 authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to lead a high-level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the site of the former spent fuel reprocessing plant in West Valley, New York. The site is owned by the State of New York, through the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and its predecessor company, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), have been the prime contractors at the site since the beginning of the Project. One of the primary missions of the Act - demonstrating solidification techniques which can be used for preparing high-level liquid waste for disposal - was completed in 2002. Since that time, wide-scale decontamination and dismantlement activities to prepare for Project completion were begun and continue through present-day operations. Current site activities are focused on preparing and shipping Project wastes off-site for disposal, reducing the site's footprint by removing unneeded facilities, and managing the site in a safe configuration while a Draft Site Decommissioning Environmental Impact Statement is being prepared to evaluate alternatives for site closure and/or long-term stewardship. Remaining site facilities include the former nuclear fuel reprocessing facility building, an associated underground waste tank farm, and a 7-acre area that contains an inactive radioactive waste landfilains an inactive radioactive waste landfill. Major objectives for safe management of those facilities include protecting employees, the public, and the environment while reducing management costs and risks associated with those facilities. In 2007, DOE began preparations to install water control barriers to prevent clean ground and surface water from coming in contact with buried waste in the inactive Nuclear Regulatory Commission- licensed Disposal Area (NDA). Field work was initiated and completed in 2008. This paper discusses the history of the NDA, the rationale and construction experience in installing these barriers, and the expected results. (authors)

  20. How much water is enough? Domestic metered water consumption and free basic water volumes: the case of Eastwood, Pietermaritzburg

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JA, Smith.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on an in-depth case study of urban water services to poor households in the community of Eastwood, Pietermaritzburg, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, for the period 2005-2007. The article adopts a mixedmethodological approach. Despite government progress in deliv [...] ering water infrastructure post-1994, ability to pay for the service limited access. The free basic water policy, initiated by national Government in 2001, sought to provide all citizens, but particularly the poor, with a basic supply of free water. The concessions were envisaged to improve public health, gender and equity, affordability, and as an instrument of post-apartheid redress and poverty alleviation. Once free basic water (FBW) was declared a new imperative for local government the debate on exactly how much was enough, why 6 kl was chosen, the structure of the offering and broader state intentions opened up. This article positions the FBW offering within the prevailing international discourse on 'need' calculation. Through the exploration of actual water consumption patterns of urban poor households, the ideological assumptions and 'scientific' calculations underpinning this discourse were found to have ignored the fluidness of use as well as the value of water beyond mere physiological need. In this regard, access to FBW was conditioned on a small household size and further predicated the modification of normal water activities and lifestyle and carried a disproportionate social cost. The free basic volume of 6 kl was found to have no resonance with actual water volumes consumed by the majority of Eastwood households.

  1. Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R ampersand D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex

  2. Method for incorporating water-containing radioactive waste in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low- to intermediate-activity wastes, as e.g. spent resins from ion exchange filters in LWR's, are pourably dried and, in dosed quantities, filled into a storage drum in which dry cement is contained. By means of a stirrer, mounted on a hood which can be put on the drum, cement and wastes are mixed together while adding an amount of water - also in dosed quantities. The hood can be removed again from the drum which then may be closed by means of a cover. Subsequently the drum is brought to the ultimate storage. (DG)

  3. Chemical treatment of radioactive waste waters of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the average composition of radioactive waste waters a new waste treatment method was developed to concentrate the solutions. Organic components such as oxalic and citric acids, hydrasine, were decomposed and eliminated by permanganate solution, then boric acid was stabilized by the addition of NaOH thus assuring the proper alkaline hydroxide - boric acid ratio. As a result of chemical treatment, the total salt concentration of the distillation residue could be increased up to 580 g/dm3. After about one-year cooling time the concentrate can be easily cementized. The method was tested by laboratory and plant experiments. (V.N.)

  4. Volume of baseline data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes of the annual report 1988 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This WaBoLu volume is a shortened version of the annual report by the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure' and gives an overview of the data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes, compiled for the area of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1988 by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) of the Federal Health Office. (BBR) With 22 figs., 15 tabs

  5. Artificial sweeteners as waste water markers in a shallow unconfined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    One key factor in groundwater quality management is the knowledge of flow paths and recharge. In coupled ground- and surface water systems the understanding of infiltration processes is therefore of paramount importance. Recent studies show that artificial sweeteners - which are used as sugar substitutes in food and beverages - are suitable tracers for domestic wastewater in the aquatic environment. As most rivers receive sewage discharges, artificial sweeteners might be used for tracking surface waters in groundwater. In this study artificial sweeteners are used in combination with conventional tracers (inert anions Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes ?18O, ?2H) to identify river water infiltration and the influence of waste water on a shallow unconfined aquifer used for drinking water production. The investigation area is situated in a mesoscale alpine head water catchment. The alluvial aquifer consists of quaternary gravel deposits and is characterized by high hydraulic permeability (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1), high flow velocities (vmax 250 md-1) and a considerable productivity (2,5 m3s-1). A losing stream follows the aquifer in close proximity and is susceptible to infiltrate substantial volumes of water into the alluvial sediments. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (Acesulfam ACE, Sucralose SUC, Saccharin SAC and Cyclamat CYC) at the investigated site. The local sewage treatment plant was identified as point source of artificial sweeteners in the river water, with ACE concentrations up to 0,6 ?gL-1. ACE concentrations in groundwater where approximately of one order of magnitude lower: ACE was present in 33 out of 40 sampled groundwater wells with concentrations up to 0,07 ?gL-1, thus indicating considerable influence of sewage water loaded surface water throughout the aquifer. Elevated concentrations of ACE and SAC in single observation wells denote other sources of locally limited contamination. Also, the temporal variability of sweeteners in surface water and the drinking water production well is compared with other tracers. ACE, Cl-and SO42- exhibit similar patterns in the river water. However, this behaviour cannot be observed in the production well, where ACE concentrations are varying compared to Cl- and SO42-.This suggests that the production well does receive groundwater being infiltrated prior to the sewage water treatment plant. Time series analysis of 18O, ?2H will give more insight in travel times and the location of infiltration zones.

  6. Monochloramine for Remediation of Legionella Only in Domestic Hot Water Systems: An Iron Fist in a Velvet Glove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Melada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monochloramine is a well-known disinfectant for drinking water with several advantages over chlorine and chlorine dioxide. With these two biocides, monochloramine is included in the US-EPA list of disinfectants for drinking water. At the beginning of XXI century, epidemiological studies demonstrated its superior ability to control Legionella in hot water health-care premises. In 2005 a research program started to set up a reliable and effective method to produce monochloramine directly in domestic hot water systems, at the safest concentration and without accumulation of by-products. Results of these researches, which has been carried out with the collaboration of Italian and American Institutions showed that monochloramine can be safely and reliably prepared and that it is the best approach to Legionella remediation in health-care facilities.

  7. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  8. Consequences of the minimum requirements for waste-water effluent set in the water conservation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modification of the law for water conservation and the new law for water effluents showed that during the planning of power plants, the problems with regard to official authorization of waste water effluents into the water with the limiting values accordingly, have become more important than a while ago, when the problematics for the later operation of the power plants were mainly seen in the requirements of the Federal law for the protection against immissions, and the herewith connected clean air technology and noise control. The considerable influence of the often discussed technical guidelines TA Luft and TA Laerm on the air- and noise emissions, will obviously constitute the administrative regulation concerning the minimum requirements on waste water conductions, according to paragraph 7a of the Law for Water Conservation, as far as the discharge of water from power plants is concerned. The main results of the regulations to be expected are discussed. (orig./RW)

  9. Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Tchounwou, Paul B.; Owens, William E.; Hill, Dagne D.

    2005-01-01

    Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this...

  10. The potential of (waste)water as energy carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Energy input and potential output of the Dutch communal water cycle. Highlights: ? Municipal wastewater is a large carrier of chemical and thermal energy. ? The recovery of chemical energy from wastewater can be maximised by digestion. ? The potential of thermal energy recovery from wastewater is huge. ? Underground thermal energy storage is a rapidly developing renewable energy source. - Abstract: Next to energy efficiency improvements in the water sector, there is a need for new concepts in which water is viewed as a carrier of energy. Municipal wastewater is a potential source of chemical energy, i.e. organic carbon that can be recovered as biogas in sludge digestion. The recovery of chemical energy can be maximised by up-concentration of organic carbon and maximised sludge digestion or by source separation and anaerobic treatment. Even more so, domestic wastewater is a source of thermal energy. Through warm water conservation and heat recovery, for example with shower heat exchangers, substantial amounts of energy can be saved and recovered from the water cycle. Water can also be an important renewable energy source, i.e. as underground thermal energy storage. These systems are developing rapidly in the Netherlands and their energy potential is large.

  11. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life cycle impact assessment methods on pathogens, whole effluent toxicity and micropollutants will be developed within the project. As part of this work a review of more than 20 previous LCA studies on WWTTs has been done and the findings are summarised on this poster. The review is focused on the relative importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and even more treatment trains/scenarios) have already been the subject of more or less detailed LCAs. All life cycle stages may be important and all impact categories (except stratospheric ozone depletion) typically included in LCAs may show significance depending on the actual scenario. Potential impacts of pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have not been included in any study, and only a few studies have included micropollutants (in total less than 20 different micropollutants).

  12. Water state changes during the composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Yu-Qiang; Huang, Huan-Lin; Hu, Li-Fang; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste were determined. Three experiments, R(55), R(60), and R(65), with different initial moisture contents, 55%, 60%, and 65%, respectively, were performed. Three water states, entrapped water (EW), capillary water (CW), and multiple-molecular-layer water (MMLW), were monitored during the experiments. Changes only occurred with the EW and CW during the composting process. The percentage of EW increased, and the percentage of CW decreased as the composting process progressed. The R(60) experiment performed better than the other experiments according to changes in the temperature and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N). The percentage of EW correlated well (Pcarbon content (DOC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N, and was affected by the hemicellulose and cellulose contents. PMID:25661690

  13. Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khan, S.U.M. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [and others

    1996-12-01

    This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

  14. Removal of Heavy Metals from Waste Water Using Water Hyacinth

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Lissy, P. N.; G, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution has become one of the most serious problems of today's civilization. In the last few years considerable amount of research has been done on the potential of aquatic macrophytes for pollutant removal or even as bio-indicators for heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems. Water hyacinth is one of the aquatic plant species successfully used for wastewater treatment. It is very efficient in removing pollutants like suspended solids, BOD, organic matter, heavy metals and pathogens. This ...

  15. Integrated water and waste management system for future spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Over 200 days of continuous testing have been completed on an integrated waste management-water recovery system developed by General Electric under a jointly funded AEC/NASA/AF Contract. The 4 man system provides urine, feces, and trash collection; water reclamation; storage, heating and dispensing of the water; storage and disposal of the feces and urine residue and all of other nonmetallic waste material by incineration. The heat required for the 1200 deg F purification processes is provided by a single 420-w radioisotope heater. A second 836-w radioisotope heater supplemented by 720 w of electrical heat provides for distillation and water heating. Significant test results are no pre-or-post treatment, greater than 98 per cent potable water recovery, approximately 95 per cent reduction in solids weight and volume, all outflows are sterile with the water having no bacteria or virus, and the radioisotope capsule radiation level is only 7.9 mrem/hr unshielded at 1 m (neutrons and gamma).

  16. Food for thought?--A UK pilot study testing a methodology for compositional domestic food waste analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Joseph; Yoxall, Alaster; Heppell, Geoff; Rodriguez, Elena Maria; Bradbury, Steve; Lewis, Roger; Luxmoore, Joe; Hodzic, Alma; Rowson, Jenny

    2010-03-01

    Recent media attention has amply demonstrated the need for changes in our society regarding waste. The cost of waste is rising, European legislation is driving forward waste reduction policies and industry is being made responsible for the waste that all products make. This legislation is also driving a reduction in biodegradable municipal waste. In general there are a number of factors ranging from the media, financial and political to environmental, that are driving forward an agenda to decrease both general waste and food waste going to landfill. A necessary requirement of such an agenda is a benchmark of the current composition and scale of both general waste and food waste. Hence, this can then be used as a measure to demonstrate improvement. A measurement methodology and the benchmark data already exists for general waste. However, there is little or no previous work about the compositional make up of food waste. This paper discusses the necessity for a compositional food waste analysis and the pros and cons of various food waste measurement methodologies. Results for a specific methodology are illustrated and suggestions for a revision of this methodology are proposed. PMID:19470547

  17. Treatment of oilfield produced water by waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpiner, R; Vathi, S; Stuckey, D C

    2007-01-01

    Produced water (PW) from oil wells can serve as an alternative water resource for agriculture if the main pollutants (hydrocarbons and heavy metals) can be removed to below irrigation standards. Waste stabilization ponds seem like a promising solution for PW treatment, especially in the Middle East where solar radiation is high and land is available. In this work, hydrocarbon removal from PW in a biological waste stabilization pond was examined at lab-scale followed by an intermittent slow sand filter. The system was run for 300 days and removed around 90% of the oil in the pond, and 95% after the sand filter. COD removal was about 80% in the pond effluent, and 85% after the filter. The system was tested under various operational modes and found to be stable to shock loads. Installation of oil booms and decantation of surface oil seem to be important in order to maintain good system performance over time. PMID:17591220

  18. Energy production from waste-water using microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural energy sources like fossil fuels are depleting due to increased human activities. Different types of alternatives are being explored to solve this problem with the consideration that they are sustainable. There are many environmental concerns connected with fossil fuel burning which after oxidation processes release greater amounts of carbon emissions in atmosphere. Now the trends are shifting towards exploiting renewable energy options, such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, biogas, and bioelectricity. Bioelectricity is harvested from organic substrates using Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) that operate on oxidation reduction (redox) reactions. MFCs produce electricity in the presence of microorganisms from biodegradable substances. Waste-water contains enormous amount of organic matter that can be oxidized in MFC for electricity harvesting. In this review, the main focus is made on the applicability of microbial fuels cells for simultaneous waste-water treatment and electricity production. (author)

  19. The process for recovery of uranium from dam waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the treatment of dam waste water containing micro quantities of uranium, the so-called chemical precipitation method is conventionally used, that is, acidic sodium phosphate is added to it and so the uranium (UO22+) is removed in coprecipitation with the then occurring calcium phosphate (solid). The method, however, has several problems, such as the large space required and large quantities of sludge. For the pupose of eliminating such difficulties and removal and recovery of the uranium, development of the new uranium adsorption method was started. Of the many uranium adsorbents available, excellent ones were selected and then the continuous treatment test was made with small apparatus. Subsequently, the dam waste water uranium recovery facility was completed in 1983. (Mori, K.)

  20. Radiation chemical studies on the treatment of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation induced reaction in aqueous solution was studied to develope the radiation treatment as a new technique for waste water and to elevate the effectiveness of radiation. The effectiveness of radiation was enhanced by combination of radiation induced reaction with conventional methods such as biological treatment and coagulation treatment. The synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was studied by using phenol and ethylene glycol. The chain reaction was observed in the radiation induced oxidation. The combination of radiation and ozone is considered to be one of the most useful method. In this report, the mechanism of each reaction and the applicability of the reaction to the treatment of waste water are discussed. (author)

  1. Brown coal coke in biological waste water cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological sewage plants working by the activated sludge process are often confronted by the following problems: the formation of expanded bubbles, lack of decomposition performance, unstable operation and insufficient excess sludge dewatering. In the former East Germany, there is also the problem of too little nitrificaion/denitrification, caused by obsolete plant. The use of brown coal coke guarantees efficient cleaning of waste water. (orig.)

  2. Tertiary Treatment for Textile Waste Water-A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Manali Desai*1, Mehali Mehta2

    2014-01-01

    Tertiary treatment is the Industrial waste water treatment process which removes stubborn contaminants that have not been removed in secondary treatment. Effluent becomes even cleaner by Tertiary treatment through the use of stronger and more advanced treatment systems. The present work is an attempt to review all possible tertiary treatment methods for removal of dyestuff from textile effluent. Conventional method for treatment of textile effluent has own certain limitations ...

  3. Process and device for decontamination of radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device contains an evaporator, which is connected with a separation column via a waste water or evaporator sump or a steam chamber. The separation column is connected after the distillate collector. The radio isotope aerosols are separated out in one or more electric filters above the steam chamber. The decontamination factor of the distillate is increased by a factor of 100 compared with the usual process. (DG)

  4. Characterization of domestic gray water from point source to determine the potential for urban residential reuse: a short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Golda A.; Gopalsamy, Poyyamoli; Muthu, Nandhivarman

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to discern the domestic gray water (GW) sources that is least polluting, at the urban households of India, by examining the GW characteristics, comparing with literature data, reuse standards and suitable treatment technologies. In view of this, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of domestic GW originating from bath, wash basin, laundry and kitchen sources are determined and compared with established standards for reuse requirements. Quality of different gray water sources is characterized with respect to the physical, chemical, biological, nutrient, ground element and heavy metal properties. The pollutant loads indicate that the diversion techniques are not suitable for household application and, therefore, treatment is necessary prior to storage and reuse. It is observed that the total volume of GW generated exceeds the reuse requirement for suggested reuse such as for flushing and gardening/irrigation. In spite of generating less volume, the kitchen source is found to be the major contributor for most of the pollutant load and, therefore, not recommended to be considered for treatment. It is concluded that treatment of GW from bathroom source alone is sufficient to meet the onsite reuse requirements and thereby significantly reduce the potable water consumption by 28.5 %. Constructed wetland systems and constructed soil filters are suggested as suitable treatment alternatives owing to its ability to treat highly variable pollutant load with lower operational and maintenance cost, which is more practical for tropical and developing countries.

  5. Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

  6. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at theat are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  7. The Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive: Observations on the water quality of Windermere, Grasmere, Derwent Water and Bassenthwaite Lake, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Maberly, S. C.; Ville, M. M.; Elliott, J. A.; Fletcher, J. M.; James, J. B.; Thackeray, S. J.; Vincent, C.

    2007-01-01

    This report continues a sequence of annual reviews of water quality in Windermere and Bassenthwaite Lake that are subject to the provisions of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive. Grasmere, which feeds into Windermere is also included because of concerns over a deterioration in water quality over the last, approximately 30 years and Derwent Water is included, partly as a comparison with Bassenthwaite Lake and partly because it is the sole refuge of a healthy population of the vendace...

  8. New waste water treatment method combined electrolysis and filtering with

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical polishing (CP) has a much faster removal speed (10 mm/min) compared with electropolishing (EP: 0.4 mm/min) in the surface treatment of niobium superconducting (sc) RF cavities. EP has the superiority with high gradient performance (Eacc > 25 MV/m) for the sc cavities, however, CP has a possibility to be used as a pre-polishing before the EP. CP acid consists of phosphoric, nitric and hydrofluoric acids (1:1:1 V/V). For the CP, where a lot of waste water containing these acids is exhausted, however, it has been difficult to remove phosphorus (P) or nitrogen (N) in the waste water by the conventional method. This is a future problem for earth environment. We have successfully developed an elemental technology to solve this problem, which is a new method combining electrolysis and filtering with reverse osmosis membrane. Here, the results are presented. This new method is very effective and might open to reuse the waste water in the chemistry. (JPN)

  9. Certification of a small waste water treatment plant SBR

    OpenAIRE

    Dragos?, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The basic aim of the presented study was to evaluate testing procedures for the determination of the efficiency of the small WWTP type SBR. Testing has been performed in various operating phases with test methods complying with SIST EN 12566-3:2005 and with the water quality monitoring for both the influent and the effluent. In the first part of this study are presented the legislation from waste water area, and the purpose of testing the quality of wastewater. Later on, in the study, are des...

  10. Disinfection of municipal waste-water with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of gamma radiation disinfection of various effluents from the Johannesburg City Council's Northern Waste-Water Purification Works is discussed. The results of gamma radiation disinfection, chlorine disinfection and a combination of chlorine and gamma radiation treatment are compared. It is concluded that to reduce the E.coli content of settled filter effluent to less than 1000 per 100 ml, that is to produce water intended for irrigational and industrial reuse, a total gamma radiation dose of 50 krad is required

  11. Photocatalysis of Hg2+ y Cr6+ in waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out to propose a treatment for the elimination of Hg2+ and Cr6+ ions that are present in wastewaters of the CIA and ISA laboratories. These ions are present in waste waters because in these laboratories analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD), are performed in which HgSO4 and K2Cr2O7 are used. COD is a parameter very important to evaluate. In this paper water pollution results of chemical reduction of Hg2+ and Cr6+ ions using photo catalysis are reported and the elimination of both ions by using an adsorbent

  12. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  13. Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems in Buildings Supplied by Low-Temperature District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek

    2014-01-01

    District heating (DH) systems supplied by renewable energy sources are one of the main solutions for achieving a fossil-free heating sector in Denmark by 2035. To reach this goal, the medium temperature DH used until now needs to transform to a new concept reflecting the requirement for lower heat loss from DH networks required by the reduced heating demand of low-energy and refurbished buildings combined with the lower supply temperatures required by using renewable heat sources. Both these needs meet in the recently developed concept of low-temperature DH designed with supply/return temperatures as low as 50°C/25°C and highly insulated pipes with reduced inner diameter. With this design, the heat loss from the DH networks can be reduced to one quarter of the value for traditional DH designed and operated for temperatures of 80°C/40°C. However, such low temperatures bring challenges for domestic hot water (DHW) and space heating (SH) systems, from the perspective of both DH customers and the DH company. The aim of this work was therefore to identify, evaluate and suggest solutions. The first part of the research focused on the feasibility of supplying DHW with no increased risk of Legionella and on the performance of low-temperature DH substations. The Danish Standard DS 439 for DHW requires that DHW should be delivered in reasonable time, without unwanted changes in desired temperatures (comfort) and without increased risk of bacterial growth (hygiene). While the comfort requirements set the minimum DHW temperature to 45°C, the hygiene requirements set it to 60°C, which is simply not reachable for low-temperature DH. However, the German DHW standard DVGW 551 makes no requirement about minimum DHW temperature if the overall DHW volume is below 3L. This rule was adopted as a cornerstone for the research and for the whole low-temperature DH concept in general, so the minimum DHW temperature is defined by a requirement for 45°C at the kitchen tap.   The performance of a low-temperature DH substation with instantaneous DHW preparation was evaluated based on the results from laboratory measurements supplemented with results from the verified numerical model developed in MATLAB-Simulink. The laboratory measurements showed that the low-temperature substation can heat the required flow of DHW to 47°C with 50°C DH water while keeping the return temperature as low as 20°C. The results of numerical simulations considering the influence of the DH network, represented by a 10 m long service pipe connection for the substation equipped with an external bypass with a set-point temperature of 35°C, showed that the time needed to produce 40°C DHW was 11 s with and 15 s without the external bypass, respectively. DS 439 suggests 10 s as the reasonable waiting time for DHW, so a low-temperature DH substation based on the instantaneous principle of DHW preparation should be equipped with bypass solution keeping the service pipe warm and reducing the waiting time. Traditional bypass solutions simply redirect the bypassed water back tothe DH network without additional cooling, but bypassed water can instead be redirected to floor heating in the bathroom to be further cooled and thus reduce heat loss from the DH network while improving comfort for occupants and still ensure fast DHW preparation. Various solutions for the redirection and control of bypass flow were developed and their detailed performance tested on the example of a low-energy single-family house modelled in building energy performance simulation tool IDA-ICE 4.22. The effect on the DH network was simulated with the commercial program Termis on a case study of 40 single-family houses supplied by low-temperature DH. In comparison to the reference case with a traditional external bypass, the proposed solution resulted in average cooling of bypassed water by 7.5°C, reducing the heat loss from DH network during non-heating period by 13% and increasing the average floor temperature by 0.6-2.2°C without causing overheating. The price for heating the bathroom floor durin

  14. Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 1500C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables

  15. Health hazards associated with dissemination of bacterial strains in waste water recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mokhlasur

    2005-01-01

    Treated waste effluents with low levels of chemical and microbiological contents are used for domestic, industrial, agricultural and aquacultural purposes worldwide, and it is estimated that one tenth or more of the world’s population consume food produced through irrigation with wastewater. Treated hospital waste effluents may contain pathogenic and drug resistant bacteria, which constitutes the most dangerous single risk factor for dissemination of pathogenic and drug re...

  16. A Study of Waste Water Treatment of Microbiological Laboratories of Hospitals by Electrolyzed Oxidized Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiza Sarwar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hospital liquid infectious waste is one of the most important aspects of water contamination. The presentinvestigation was undertaken to evolve a cost effective alternate method of waste water treatment by usingOxidized Water as a disinfectant for hospital effluents. Liquid infectious waste coming from diagnosticlaboratories of hospitals (Urine, Blood and Mix of both was treated with electrolyzed Oxidized Water. Differentv/v ratios (95:5, 85:15, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 of Sample to Electrolyzed Oxidized Water (EOW were culturedand incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. EOW showed a direct relationship with the decontamination of inorganicurine but for blood, an unidentified pattern was observed that may be due to change in pH and/or OxidationReduction Potential (ORP of EOW because of organic nature of blood. The most effective ratio of sample toEOW, at which decontamination was found to be maximum for urine, was 25:75 with treatment efficiency of96.15 % and 85:15 with treatment efficiency of 84.8 % for blood. The study revealed that Electrolyzed OxidizedWater may be used as a better alternative for treatment of liquid infectious waste.

  17. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  18. Water and waste water, when brine's just fine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desalination has always sounded a good solution to rainfall shortages, who wouldn't rather drink purified seawater than recycled sewage? But projects in Australia and around the world have often been dogged by question marks over cost and greenhouse effects and saline discharge issues. Solar powered pilot plant is being developed in South Australia which will not discharge a drop of briny reject water back to the sea

  19. Baseline data on radioactivity in drinking water, groundwater, waste water, sewage sludge, residues, and wastes, referring to annual report 1989 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the WaBoLu series gives a comprehensive survey of the radioactivity in drinking water, groundwater, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes in the FRG, as measured in the year 1989 and compiled by the Leitstelle of the WaBoLu Institute of the Federal Board of Health. (orig.)

  20. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dettwiler Martina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF. This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2 sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated.

  1. Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuijs, Alexander L.N. van [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: alexander.vannuijs@ua.ac.be; Pecceu, Bert [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Theunis, Laetitia; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne [Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, University of Liege, (ULg), CHU Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Jorens, Philippe G. [Department of Clinical Pharmacology/Clinical Toxicology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), University Hospital of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Neels, Hugo [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Laboratory of Toxicology, ZNA Stuivenberg, Lange Beeldekensstraat 267, 2060 Antwerp (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-01-15

    Cocaine abuse, a growing social problem, is currently estimated from population surveys, consumer interviews and crime statistics. A new approach based on the analysis of cocaine (COC) and metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in water samples was applied to 28 rivers and 37 waste water treatment plants in Belgium using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. While EME was undetectable, COC and BE were detectable with concentrations ranging from <1 to 753 ng/L and <1 to 2258 ng/L, respectively. BE concentrations were employed to calculate the local amount of abused cocaine. The highest values (up to 1.8 g/day cocaine per 1000 inhabitants) were found in large cities and during weekends. The estimation of cocaine abuse through water analysis can be executed on regular basis without cooperation of patients. It also gives clear geographical information, while prevention campaigns can easily be implemented and evaluated. - Cocaine consumption can be evaluated through analysis of waste and surface water.

  2. Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocaine abuse, a growing social problem, is currently estimated from population surveys, consumer interviews and crime statistics. A new approach based on the analysis of cocaine (COC) and metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in water samples was applied to 28 rivers and 37 waste water treatment plants in Belgium using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. While EME was undetectable, COC and BE were detectable with concentrations ranging from <1 to 753 ng/L and <1 to 2258 ng/L, respectively. BE concentrations were employed to calculate the local amount of abused cocaine. The highest values (up to 1.8 g/day cocaine per 1000 inhabitants) were found in large cities and during weekends. The estimation of cocaine abuse through water analysis can be executed on regular basis without cooperation of patients. It also gives clear geographical information, while prevention campaigns can easily be implemented and evaluated. - Cocaine consumption can be evaluated through analysis of waste and surface water

  3. Conceptual solutions to drainage water and treatment of waste water for the settlement Muljava and its surroundings

    OpenAIRE

    Malovrh, Gas?per

    2008-01-01

    In this diploma thesis, conceptual solutions of drainage and treatment of waste water for the settlements Muljava and Potok pri Muljavi are described. The procedures of designing a separate sewer system including all the supporting facilities are represented. Hydraulic calculation of the waste water and rain water sewerage is presented separately. Concerning rain water sewer system, various solutions of rain water drainage with regard to the existing situation are described. A ...

  4. The role of waste thermal water in the soil degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Kitti; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Thermal water exploitation is widespread, because it is considered to a "green" renewable energy source, the transporter of the Earth crust's heat. It is suitable for very diverse purposes: balneology, heating, mineral water, municipal hot water supply, technological water, etc. After usage, large amount of thermal water becomes sewage water with high concentrations of salts, heavy metals, ammonia, nitrate, and high temperature. Besides that, most of these waters have an unfavourable ion composition. Na+ (and in some cases Mg+) is predominant among cations. A common way of treatment is to let off the waste thermal water in unlined ground channels to leak into the soil. This can cause physical and chemical soil degradation. Continouos Na+ supply occurs, that occupies the place of Ca2+ on the ion exchange surfaces. Thus, adverse effects of Na+ can appear, like formation of extreme moisture regime, peptization, liquefaction. Beside Na+, Mg2+ also helps the formation of physical degradation in the soil. High water retain and unfavourable structure evolves. Not only the physical features of the soil are touched, fertility of production sites as well. Namely sorrounding the unlined ground channels, agricultural areas are seated, so it is important to protect productivity of the soil to maintain yield. Because of the seepage of high salt concentration waters, salt accumulation can be observed near to the channel lines. The investigated sample sites are located in the Great Hungarian Plane. We determined the main pollutants of the thermal waters, and the effects to the sorrounding soils. On two selected investigation areas (Cserkesz?l?, Tiszakécske) salt profiles and Na+ adsorption isotherms are presented to characterize soil degradation. Genetic soil types are differ on the investigated areas, so the aspect of impact is different, as well.

  5. Disinfection of municipal sludge and waste water by energized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public health concern over the disposal of municipal sludges on land and the discharge of chlorinated waste water into rivers and coastal waters has stimulated the efforts to use ionizing radiation to achieve more thorough disinfection. The ionizing energy required for sludge disinfection raises its temperature less than 2 deg C, and achieves far more complete control of pathogens than can be accomplished by conventional biological digestion. Energized electrons are the most available and economic form of ionizing energy for the treatment of liquid wastes. The use of electron beam power is not limited to the treatment of municipal sludges. Electron treatment can replace the chlorination for the disinfection of effluent municipal waste water. There is evidence that electron treatment tends to destory the trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyl and similar persistent toxic chemicals which may already be present in water solution. A few examples are shown. Electron disinfection studies at M.I.T. and Deer Island, virus inactivation by energized electrons, and sludge disinfection at Miami. The cost per liquid ton to disinfect sludge using a 100 kW modular electron system is estimated to be about 80 cents with 400 krad dose. This estimate includes capital recovery cost over 20 years, electric power, supervision and maintenance expenses. Such a system can disinfect 260,000 liquid tons per year. Next, the application on land and the ocean feeding of electron-disinfected the ocean feeding of electron-disinfected sludges as a converter to fertile soil or ocean nutrients are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Anaerobic treatment with biogas recovery of beverage industry waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly describes the application, by a leading Italian non-alcoholic beverage firm, of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket process in the treatment of waste water deriving from the production and bottling of beverages. In addition to describing the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the treatment process, the paper focuses on the economic benefits being obtained through the use of the innovative expansive sludge bed anaerobic digestion system which has proven itself to be particularly suitable for the treatment of food and beverage industry liquid wastes. The system, which has already been operating, with good results, for six months, has shown itself to be capable of yielding overall COD removal efficiencies of up to 94.8% and of producing about 0.43 Ncubic meters of biogas per kg of removed COD

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on textile waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the use of gamma irradiation for textile waste water treatment. Prior to irradiation, the raw waste water was diluted using tap water to targeted concentration of COD 400 mg/l. The sample was irradiated at selected dose between the ranges of 2 kGy to 100 kGy. The results showed that Irradiation was effective in removing the highly colored refractory organic pollutants. The COD removal at lowest dose, 2 kGy is about 310 mg/l. Meanwhile, at highest dose, 100 kGy the COD reduced to 100 mg/l. The degree of removal influenced by the dose introduced during the treatment process. As the dose increased, higher removal of organic pollutant was recorded. On the other hand, other properties of the wastewater such as pH, turbidity, suspended solid, BOD and color shows tremendous changes as the dose increases. This shows the concentration of pollutants and dose of irradiation applied are directly proportional to each other. (Author)

  8. Waste Water Treatment by Some Prepared Polymers by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of hydrophilic polymeric material having certain function groups with the ability to absorbs some heavy metals and some dyes from waste water is of a great importance from the point of view of environmental studies. The present work may be represented as the following : The two different methods have been used for the modification of PE-co- PP non woven fabric via two different techniques:- 1. Coating of (PE-co-PP) with mixture of CMC and AAc by using (E.B) irradiation. 2. The modification of (PE-co-PP) non-woven fabric by ?- irradiation induced grafting of (AAm) monomer . 3. The modification of hydrophilic substrate to hydrogel was carried out through the following: The preparation of clay/PVA hydrogel through freezing and thawing followed by E.B. irradiation. The different factors which affect the properties of the modified substrate were investigated. Moreover, the structure properties of the modified substrate were characterized by SEM, XRD, and IR. Thermal properties was also investigated by TGA and DSC. Hydrophilic property of the modified substrate was investigated by water uptake %. The results obtained show that the prepared substrates can be used in the removal of heavy metals and dyes from waste water.

  9. Water Pollution and Treatments Part II: Utilization of Agricultural Wastes to Remove Petroleum Oils From Refineries Pollutants Present in Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several natural agricultural wastes, of lignocellulose nature, such as Nile flower plant (ward El-Nil), milled green leaves, sugar cane wastes, palm tree leaves (carina), milled cotton stems, milled linseed stems, fine sawdust, coarse sawdust and palm tree cover were dried and then crushed to suitable size to be evaluated and utilized as adsorbents to remove oils floating or suspended in the waste water effluents from refineries and petroleum installations. The parameters investigated include effect of adsorbent type (adsorptive efficiency), adsorbate (type and concentration), mixing time, salinity of the water, adsorbent ratio to treated water, temperature, ph and stirring. Two different Egyptian crude oils varying in their properties and several refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil and lubricating oil were employed in this work in addition to the skimmed oil from the skim basin separator. Most of the agricultural wastes proved to be very effective in adsorbing oils from waste water effluents.

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on microorganisms in waste water from hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation to the total count and indicative bacteria in waste water from hospitals were studied. It showed that radiation can effectively reduce the quantity of microflora. Total count and MPN of coliform, faecal coliform and E coli was proportionally reversed to the dose applied. Radiation at 2.8 kGy could reduce the total count of waste water from 1.91x106-4.21x106 cells per ml. of waste water to 33.6-3.83x102 cells per ml. of waste water or 4 log cycle. MPN of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria were reduced from 7.31x106-1.57x107 and 2.33x106->1.30x107 per 100 ml. of waste water respectively to 1.4-4.75 and 0-1.5 per 100 ml. of waste water respectively. And E. coli was absent

  11. Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

  12. Determination of phosphorus in waste water by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a method developed for the determination of phosphorus in aqueous solutions, phosphorus was changed to the phosphate form, coprecipitated with hydrated iron(III)oxide, bound with activated charcoal and measured by EDXRF. The detection limit was 0.89 mg P/g activated charcoal. The method was used to determine the total phosphorus content of a waste water sample from a paper mill. Investigation of two sample destruction methods, dry ashing/HCl digestion and persulphate oxidation, showed the former to be more suitable for our purpose. (orig.)

  13. Qualitative analysis of waste-water from ametryne production

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Alasdair M.; Beilstein, Paul; Hu?tter, Ralf

    1983-01-01

    s-Triazines in waste-water from the synthesis of ametryne (2-(ethylamino)4[(1-methylethyl) amino]-6-(methylthio)-l,3,5-triazine) were tentatively identified co-chromatographically by HPLC and by UV-spectra. Alkylated s-triazines (e.g. hydroxyametryne, 4-(ethylamino)-6-(methylthio)-1,3,5-triazine-2(1H)-one, and N-ethylammelide) were isolated by preparative chromatography on a reversed phase support, and were identified by mass spectrometry. Putative cyanuric acid was desalted on activated char...

  14. Radiation oxidation of phenol in petrochemical waste water. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation destruction was studied of phenol in aqueous solutions and in actual waste water in the presence of dissolved oxygen, benzene and hydroquinone. The solutions were 60Co gamma irradiated with a dose rate of 2.1 W.kg-1 and with doses of up to 10 kGy. A favourable effect was found of the dissolved oxygen on the yield of the radiation destruction of phenol while no effect was found of the irradiation on changes in the chemical oxygen demand values and pH values. (B.S.)

  15. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  16. An experimental study on the leaching of borate waste and spent resin waste forms in a simulated sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, leaching test is performed and mostly employed in the acceptance criteria for radioactive waste disposal and is considered very important because the rate of release of radionuclides from a waste form is one of the most important parameter in defining and evaluating the radionuclide source term in the disposal environment. NRC strongly recommended that the chosen leachant should be the most aggressive one. Therefore it is considered that the certain results of the leaching test should supply the information to evaluate the radionuclide source term and the basis to determine the most aggressive leachant in the leaching test. In this study, leaching test of borate waste and spent resin waste forms is performed in order to compare the leaching characteristics of the waste forms in a simulated sea-water with those in a distilled water. In addition, the sea-water with different quantities of NaCl is used as a leachant to evaluate the effect of NaCl concentration. The IAEA test method (standard leaching test) and apparent dissolution model are applied to analyze the leaching characteristics. The representative radionuclides are Cs137,: Co60 and Sr90. According to this experimental results, the amounts of leached radionuclides in the sea-water is more than that in the distilled water for borate waste and resin waste forms

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Water Use Efficiency in Urban and Domestic Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Santiago-Fandiño; Thorsten Schuetze

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential of water savings at property, household and urban levels, through the application of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs), as well as their quantification using the software Wise Water. Household centered measures are identified that allow for significant reduction of drinking water consumption with comparatively small effort, and without limitation of comfort. Furthermore, a method for the estimation of water recycling, for rainwater harvesting and for...

  18. Status of the membrane procedure - Possible applications to waste water digestion; Stand der Technik von Membranverfahren. Einsatzmoeglichkeiten bei der Vergaerung von Abwaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeli, H.; Edelmann, W.

    2001-07-01

    In waste water with low organic loadings anaerobic microorganisms are working at a low efficiency. The plant's energy balance becomes negative because a big need of process energy to warm up the 'unproductive' water is created. This can be dealt with by concentrating the waste waters my means of membrane systems. Separation of slightly loaded flows into purified permeate and digestible concentrate may therefore increase the potential of digestion in industrial waste water significantly. As a basis for this report the following connections were used: congresses and exhibitions, personal contacts with people and companies who work and have published in this field as well as data base research. According to the technical standard the different processes of nano filtration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis are used to purify industrial or domestic waste water. Therefore, the majority of classic suppliers of waste water technology offer membrane systems. The membrane bio-reactors belong to the typical systems used. In this system the biomass is separated and retained by a membrane. Due to this combination the volume of the reactor can be reduced and the grade of degradation increased. Simultaneously a permeate is produced which can reach the quality of the desired effluent and which can be re-used manifold. Additional concentration of weakly loaded waste water to be used in a subsequent digestion can reduce energy consumption. Due to the fact that mainly the technical feasibility of the membrane technology was emphasised, some further evaluation in regard of energy consumption and cost has to be made. (author)

  19. Removal of high-level radioactive substances contained with water from the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Stations. Some technical problems in waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese government and plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Co. announced to process the highly radioactive water amounting to about 250,000 cubic meters by the end of fiscal year 2011. Radiation-contaminated water will be moved to the waste facility to remove oil and radioactive cesium using zeolite. The process using Prussian Blue is expected for the effectiveness. Other radioactive substances will be removed through precipitation using special chemicals and radioactivity in the water will be reduced to 10-6 of its original level. The water will be then be returned to the reactors and used to cool them after going through a desalination process. The facility can process about 1,200 tons of contaminated water a day. TEPCO will store radioactive materials and other waste from the cleansing process at the Fukushima plant. They need to decide how the waste will finally be disposed of and to figure out what to do with the highly radioactive waste produced in the above process. Kurion Inc., Areva SA, and some domestic firms provide equipment and technology, but all the Japanese facilities and institutions should join to settle the problems. (S. Ohno)

  20. Radioactive and industrial waste water collection system study, Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase I of the Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) Collection System Study has been completed, and the deliverables for this portion of the study are enclosed. The deliverables include: The Work Break-down Structure (WBS) for Phase II; The Annotated Outline for the Collection Study Report; The Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) of the RLW collection system based on current literature and knowledge; The Configuration database; The Reference Index, listing all currently held documents of the RLW collection system; The Reference Drawing Index listing all currently held, potentially applicable, drawings reviewed during the PFD development; The Regulation Identification Document for RCRA and CWA; The Regulation Database for RCRA and CWA; The Regulation Review Log, including statements justifying the non-applicability of certain regulations; Regulation Library, including the photocopied regulations with highlighted text for RCRA and CWA; The summary of RTG's waste water treatment plant design experience and associated regulations on which RTG based the design of these treatment facilities; TA-50 Influent Database; Radioactive Liquid Waste Stream Characterization Database

  1. An improved area-based guideline for domestic water demand estimation in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    HJ, van Zyl; AA, Ilemobade; JE, van Zyl.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased infrastructural development and potable water consumption have highlighted the importance of accurate water-demand estimates for effective municipal water services infrastructure planning and design. In the light of evolving water consumption trends, the current guideline for municipal wat [...] er demand estimation, published in 1983, needs to be revised. This study investigated, using regression analyses, the combined effect of various socio-economic and climatic parameters on municipal water consumption with the objective of determining the dominant influencing parameters and suggesting a new guideline for water-demand estimation. To this end, an initial database comprising more than 2.5 x10(6) metered water consumption records extracted from 48 municipal treasury databases, which are located within 5 out of the 7 South African water regions was analysed. Each of the 48 municipal treasury databases spanned a period of at least 12 months. The final amalgamated database, after rigorous cleaning and filtering, comprised 1 091 685 consumption records. Single variable and stepwise multiple variable regression analyses were utilised. Results show that stand area, stand value and geographical location are the dominant parameters influencing municipal water consumption, with stand area and stand value positively correlated to water consumption. In suggesting a new municipal water-demand estimation guideline, these three parameters were considered. Stand value, however, fell away as a reliable parameter for estimating water consumption because of the inconsistent basis for predicting stand values due to the constant fluctuations in the value of property, and municipal valuations that often become outdated. Inland and coastal geographical locations exhibited different consumption patterns, with coastal stands of the same stand area and stand value consistently consuming less water than inland stands. These should therefore be treated separately in any design guideline. Stand area then became the best parameter on which to base water-demand estimations. A single guideline curve is therefore proposed which gives various confidence limits for estimating water demand in South Africa, based on stand area.

  2. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Figueira, Va?nia; Vaz-moreira, Ivone; Silva, Ma?rcia; Manaia, Ce?lia M.

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas ver...

  3. Influences on domestic well water testing behavior in a Central Maine area with frequent groundwater arsenic occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara V; Marvinney, Robert G; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In 2001 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a new standard for arsenic (As) in drinking water of 10 ?g/L, replacing the old standard of 50 ?g/L. However, for the 12% of the U.S. population relying on unregulated domestic well water, including half of the population of Maine, it is solely the well owner's responsibility to test and treat the water. A mailed household survey was implemented in January 2013 in 13 towns of Central Maine with the goal of understanding the population's testing and treatment practices and the key behavior influencing factors in an area with high well-water dependency and frequent natural groundwater As. The response rate was 58.3%; 525 of 900 likely-delivered surveys to randomly selected addresses were completed. Although 78% of the households reported that their well has been tested, half of it was more than 5 years ago. Among the 58.7% who believe they have tested for As, most do not remember the results. Better educated, higher income homeowners who more recently purchased their homes are most likely to have included As when last testing. While households agree that water and As-related health risks can be severe, they feel low personal vulnerability and there are low testing norms overall. Significant predictors of including As when last testing include: having knowledge that years of exposure increases As-related health risks (risk knowledge), knowing who to contact to test well water (action knowledge), believing that regular testing does not take too much time (instrumental attitude), and having neighbors who regularly test their water (descriptive norm). Homeowners in As-affected communities have the tendency to underestimate their As risks compared to their neighbors. The reasons for this optimistic bias require further study, but low testing behaviors in this area may be due to the influence of a combination of norm, ability, and attitude factors and barriers. PMID:24875279

  4. Disinfection and physical and chemical changes in waste waters, sludge and agricultural wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of interest for agriculture to consider recycling scenarios that use undigested sludges as they contain higher concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter than digested sludges. Also from the point of view of waste water management, this approach is of interest because it reduces the time and number of treatments of sludges, thus resulting in technological and economic advantages. However, the utilization of this type of sludge in agriculture is restricted by the presence of human pathogens. Therefore studies concerning the disinfection efficiency of gamma irradiation in undigested sludge at pilot plant level were performed and results compared with the disinfection efficiency of this radiation treatment in digested sludge. (Auth.)

  5. Treatment of waste waters from special laundries of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste water treatment methods applied in the purification of waste waters discharged from the laundries are presented. The most usually applied method is vaporization, the most frequently designed procedure is reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration and coagulation. Currently the Nuclear Research Institute in Rez is developing a technology of waste water purification which is aimed at introducing such a method of processing in which a minimum amount of solid wastes will be generated at minimum costs. From the point of view of waste water treatment it is most suitable to wash with soap with an addition of detergent such as sodium alkylaryl sulphonate. A promising preparation is the ROMY suspension. Waste water treatment with the use of coagulation by lime salt, sorption of the residues of organic substances on activated coal and of radionuclide residues on a selective ion exchanger without regeneration should be a sufficiently low-cost and effective technology. (J.P.)

  6. Influence of waste water from oil refinery on species and biomass of microzoon in rootzone of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are lots of biological species in rootzone of water hyacinth, which can purify waste water from oil refinery. Rootzone of water hyacinth is an ecological subsystem. There are 20 microzoon species including 13 protozoa, 3 rotifer and 4 others. The main species are Vorticella convallaria, Rotaria rotatoria and Lepadella patella with percentages of 18.5%, 17.5% and 34.5%, respectively. The longer retention time of the waste water is in the oxidation pond, the more species and the bigger population of microzoon in rootzone of water hyacinth. The total biomass increases along with waste water flow. The maximum value of the population is 1.91 x 107 ind/m2. There is no microzoon except Englena which is an autotrophic organism in control pond. Increase of retention time of waste water is beneficial to biomass of microzoon and has no effect on the content of aerobic and facultative aerobic microbes in oxidation pond

  7. An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1977-01-01

    The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using isolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in isolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

  8. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM WASTE WATER USING MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannarreddy Prabu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs an electricity producing device using waste-water treatment, biosensor, eco-friendly and low cost management of energy production. In this study, investigation power generation from waste water compared with their pure culture, mixed culture and different medium ingredients with microorganism. Enhance the power production with different ingredients like monosaccharide’s, nitrogen source and amino acids, these sources increasing the electron shuttle in the medium. Glucose (0.98 V, beef extract (0.85 V and Leucine (0.92 V exhibited maximum power production with the anodic chamber. Different electrode was used; platinum showed that maximum electron capturing in the anodic chamber. The SEM photography clearly showed that biofilm formation of microorganism on the electrode. The output power was compared with mixed culture to pure culture and different ingredients, thus bio electric power was retained maximum 1.03 V in pure culture from Morganella morganii and 1.2 V in mixed culture.

  9. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  10. Surface Water Modeling Using an EPA Computer Code for Tritiated Waste Water Discharge from the heavy Water Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium releases from the D-Area Heavy Water Facilities to the Savannah River have been analyzed. The U.S. EPA WASP5 computer code was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the D-Area Drum Wash, Rework, and DW facilities. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at U.S. Highway 301. At the maximum tritiated waste water concentrations, the calculated tritium concentration in the Savannah River at U.S. Highway 301 due to concurrent releases from D-Area Heavy Water Facilities varies from 5.9 to 18.0 pCi/ml as a function of the operation conditions of these facilities. The calculated concentration becomes the lowest when the batch releases method for the Drum Wash Waste Tanks is adopted

  11. Experimental and modeling studies on thermosiphon domestic solar water heaters with flat-plate collectors at clear nights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate effects of water temperature in the storage tank and height difference between collector loop connections at the tank on freeze protection of flat-plate collectors at clear nights in terms of outlet water temperature of the thermosiphonic reverse flow from the collector (referred to as Tout), two sets of thermosiphon domestic solar water heaters (DSWH, in short) were constructed and tested. Experimental measurements showed that, for given water temperature in tanks, Tout in the system with a vertical cylindrical tank was slightly higher than that in the one with a horizontal cylindrical tank; Tout increased with the increase of water temperature in the tank but was lower than the ambient air temperature all night. Meanwhile, a mathematical model was developed and experimentally validated for further investigating effects of structural and performance parameters of the system on Tout at clear nights. This model allows predicting Tout and the time at the moment ice formation inside absorber of the collector begins. Results by simulations showed that the collector-tank height difference and the thermal emissivity of absorbers had significant effects on the freeze protection of collectors in terms of Tout; for the system with a collector of non-selective absorber, the expected Tout was lower than the ambient air temperature, as observed in experiments; whereas for the system with aexperiments; whereas for the system with a collector of solar selective absorber, the Tout, depending on water temperature in the storage tank, was higher than the ambient air temperature. This finding implied that, in thermosiphon DSWHs, flat-plate collectors with a non-solar-selective absorber might suffer from freezing-damage, but those with a solar selective absorber would not at clear nights with the ambient air temperature near or even lower than the freezing temperature.

  12. Mexico. Country Case Study on Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation in the Water Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background information for presentation given at the Annex I Expert Group Seminar in Conjunction with the OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development on 28 March 2006. The main subjects concern the situation in Mexico with regard to Water Resources and their Use, Institutional Arrangements, Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources, Preparedness and Adaptation to Climate Change, and finally Recommendations are given

  13. Zimbabwe. Country Case Study on Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation in the Water Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background information for presentation given at the Annex I Expert Group Seminar in Conjunction with the OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development on 28 March 2006. The main subjects concern the situation in Zimbabwe with regard to Water Resources and their Use, Institutional Arrangements, Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources, Preparedness and Adaptation to Climate Change, and finally Recommendations are given

  14. Argentina. Country Case Study on Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation in the Water Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background information for presentation given at the Annex I Expert Group Seminar in Conjunction with the OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development on 28 March 2006. The main subjects concern the situation in Argentina with regard to Water Resources and their Use, Institutional Arrangements, Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources, Preparedness and Adaptation to Climate Change, and finally Recommendations are given

  15. India. Country Case Study on Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation in the Water Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background information for presentation given at the Annex I Expert Group Seminar in Conjunction with the OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development on 28 March 2006. The main subjects concern the situation in India with regard to Water Resources and their Use, Institutional Arrangements, Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources, Preparedness and Adaptation to Climate Change, and finally Recommendations are given

  16. Evaluating the impact of consumer behaviour on the performance of domestic solar water heating systems in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pamela, Ijumba; Adoniya Ben, Sebitosi.

    Full Text Available South Africa experienced a rapid expansion in the electric power consumer base after 1994 that was not matched by corresponding investment in the country's generation capacity. By the dawn of 2008, the situation had reached a critical point, with regular countrywide blackouts and load shedding and i [...] s expected to persist for several years, before the proposed new base stations can come online. Currently, 92% of the country's electricity is generated in coal-based power stations and are responsible for the country's heavy carbon footprint. Additionally this power must crisscross the country to distant load centres via an aging transmission infrastructure and in the process massive amounts of energy are lost particularly during peak power demand. Electricity consumption in South African households accounts for approximately 35% of peak demand, with water heating constituting 40% of that. The country has abundant sunshine and solar water heating technology and offers one of the most viable compiementary solutions to the country's energy and environmental crises. Moreover the location of the systems at the consumer end means that the need to upgrade the transmission infrastructure can also be differed. Application of technology alone however, may not necessarily result in the required energy savings particularly in cases of uninformed consumer usage. In this paper the authors evaluate the impact of consumer behaviour on the performance of domestic solar water heaters in South Africa and suggest measures that could be taken to optimize this performance.

  17. Risk in the mist? Deriving data to quantify microbial health risks associated with aerosol generation by water-efficient devices during typical domestic water-using activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, J; Keywood, M; Sinclair, M; Leder, K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address existing data gaps and to determine the size distribution of aerosols associated with water-efficient devices during typical domestic activities. This information is important to assist in understanding infection spread during water-using activities and in designing water regulations. Three water-using scenarios were evaluated: i) showering using a water-efficient showerhead; ii) use of a high pressure spray unit for cleaning cars and iii) toilet flushing using a dual flush low volume flush device. For each scenario a control condition (conventional lower efficiency device) was selected for benchmarking purposes. Shower module results highlighted the complexity of particle generation and removal processes and showed that more than 90% of total particle mass in the breathing zone was attributed to particle diameters greater than 6 mum. Conversely, results for car washing experiments showed that particle diameters up to 6 mum constituted the major part of the total mass generated by both water-efficient and conventional devices. Even under worse case scenario conditions for toilet flushing, particle measurements were at or below the level of detection of the measuring instrumentation. The data provide information that assists in health risk assessment and in determining future research directions, including methodological aspects. PMID:19934513

  18. Waste storage in the vadose zone affected by water vapor condensation and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major concerns associated with waste storage in the vadose zone is that toxic materials may somehow be leached and transported by advecting water down to the water table and reach the accessible environment through either a well or discharge to a river. Consequently, care is taken to provide barriers over and around the storage sites to reduce contact between infiltrating water and the buried waste form. In some cases, it is important to consider the intrusion of water vapor as well as water in the liquid phase. Water vapor diffuses through porous material along vapor pressure gradients. A slightly low temperature, or the presence of water-soluble components in the waste, favors water condensation resulting in leaching of the waste form and advection of water-soluble components to the water table. A simple analysis is presented that allows one to estimate the rate of vapor condensation as a function of waste composition and backfill materials. An example using a waste form surrounded by concrete and gravel layers is presented. The use of thermal gradients to offset condensation effects of water-soluble components in the waste form is discussed. Thermal gradients may be controlled by design factors that alter the atmospheric energy exchange across the soil surface or that interrupt the geothermal heat field. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Domestic policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in the water sector. Part 1. Annex 1 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaptation to climate change needs to be integrated into policy development. This paper examines domestic policy frameworks in the water sector and analyses how adaptation could be incorporated into these frameworks. Global climate change will have a significant impact on water resources in all countries. Consequently, a key challenge that countries face is how to govern and manage their water resources in the conditions of changing climate. What should be done, when and by whom, is a function of the rate of climate change, but also of the existing water policy frameworks of each country. This study examines current water policy frameworks in four countries (Canada, Finland, United Kingdom and United States). It reviews the existing legal frameworks, institutional arrangements, key players and water planning mechanisms. One objective was to determine to what extent adaptation to climate change is beginning to be incorporated into water policy frameworks and whether there are some lessons that can be drawn from current experiences. The study concludes that a certain degree of adjustment to climate variability and extreme weather events is inherent to the water sector. However, adaptation to long-term climate change is generally not a significant factor in the management of water resources in the four countries, although some initiatives are being undertaken in several countries to build climate change into decision making. All four countries have water policy frameworkfour countries have water policy frameworks, which to different extents, can help them adapt to climate change. These water policy frameworks, which differ in each country, can be enhanced to promote adaptation to climate change. They generally include the following elements: A system of laws (legal frameworks) that stipulate rights and responsibilities of different levels of government and private entities. These may include, for example, a system of water rights and abstraction permits; A variety of national, regional and sub-national institutions that are responsible for developing policies and overseeing their implementation; A set of policies that guide the implementation of national, state and provincial laws; Clearly defined roles for the key players, including government ministries, departments, water suppliers, regulators and other local authorities; Physical water infrastructure, that is dams, levees, reservoirs and sewerage systems that are capable of managing the flow and distribution of water; A set of water management plans (long-term strategic plans, drought plans and flood plans) with flexibility to anticipate and respond to climate changes; and a system to share current and projected climatic information. For the most part, national governments will have to determine how current policy frameworks should be modified in order to prepare for climate change. However, there is little doubt that broadening the exchange of information will be a crucial element, if countries are to be prepared to properly manage their water resources

  20. Remaking waste as water: The governance of recycled effluent for potable water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Moore

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water managers increasingly rely on the indirect potable reuse (IPR of recycled effluent to augment potable water supplies in rapidly growing cities. At the same time, the presence of waste – as abject material – clearly remains an object of concern in IPR projects, spawning debate and opposition among the public. In this article, we identify the key governance factors of IPR schemes to examine how waste disrupts and stabilises existing practices and ideologies of water resources management. Specifically, we analyse and compare four prominent IPR projects from the United States and Australia, and identify the techno-scientific, legal, and socio-economic components necessary for successful implementation of IPR projects. This analysis demonstrates that successful IPR projects are characterised by large-scale, centralised infrastructure, state and techno-scientific control, and a political economy of water marked by supply augmentation and unchecked expansion. We argue that – despite advanced treatment – recycled effluent is a parallax object: a material force that disrupts the power geometries embedded in municipal water management. Consequently, successful IPR schemes must stabilise a particular mode of water governance, one in which recycled effluent is highly regulated and heavily policed. We conclude with insights about the future role of public participation in IPR projects.

  1. Amendment of the administrative skeleton provision for minimum requirements to be met by waste water discharged into bodies of water. Administrative skeleton provision on waste water of 25 November, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This provision applies to waste water to be discharged into bodies of water and whose pollution load stems mainly from the sectors indicated in appendices. Without prejudice to stricter requirements governing the execution of the Water Resources Act, the requirements to be met by the discharge of waste water, as indicated in appendices, are defined in accordance with section 7a, subsection 1, number 3 of the Water Resources Act. - The maximum concentrations indicated in appendices, for instance for waste water from brown coal briquetting plant, black coal treatment plant, petroleum refineries and flue gas scrubbers at combustion plant, relate to waste water in the discharge pipe of the waste water treatment plant. Contrary to technical rules that may apply in each instance, these concentrations must not be attained by dilution or mixing. (orig.)

  2. Treatment of waste water from special laundries of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of present methods of treating waste waters from special laundries of nuclear power plants, and the development is described of this problem in Czechoslovakia. Variant methods were developed for the disposal of these liquid radioactive wastes, based on precipitation, i.e., on an adsorption-precipitation technology, and were tried in pilot plant operation with model and real waste waters. Further research aimed at the complex optimization of the whole process ranging from washing to the treatment of the waste waters, anticipates the use of new detergents specially developed for washing contaminated laundry. (author)

  3. Utilization of high energy electron beam in the treatment of drinking and waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of drinking water and waste water were irradiated using high energy electron beam with doses from 0.37kGy to 100kGy. Preliminary data show the removal of about 100% tri halomethanes (THM) in drinking water (concentration from 2.7 ?g/1 to 45?g/1, 90% of the color of the Public Owned Wastewater Treatment Plant effluent and 87% of oil and grease of the cutting fluid waste water. (author)

  4. Innovation in radioactive waste water-stream management, part one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of radioactive wastewater streams is receiving considerable attention in most countries containing nuclear reactors. Among these countries is Egypt, which has two research nuclear reactors. The first research reactor ETRR-1 is being operated since 40 years resulting in accumulation of large quantities of wastewater collected in special drainage tanks SDTs. Previous attempts were aimed at the volumetric reduction of streams present in SDTs, by reverse osmoses system. The proposed RO system previously succeeded in reducing the water volume present in SDTs from 450 m3 to 50 m3 (during the period 1998 to 2000). The main drawbacks of the RO system is the additional amount of secondary wastes (turbidity and emulsion filters media replacement, and the excessive amounts of chemicals for the membranes cleaning, flushing, and storing), and a limited contaminant release in the SDTs area, resulting in the decommissioning of the RO system. Meanwhile, the SDTs waste contents recently reached 500 m3, resulted from the inspection project of ETRR-1. Recently an invention of a system for volume reduction of the wastewater streams present in SDTs has been achieved. This system substantially utilized the air conditioning and ventilation techniques in water transfer from the wastewater to air. This process is promoted by a mutual heating and humidification of a compressed dry air introduced through SDTs (or in another tank). From the probable relor in another tank). From the probable release of radioactive nuclides point of view, the analysis of the evaporation of waste streams present in SDTs have been indicated that the proposed optimal evaporating temperature is round 75 deg. C. The design curve of the daily volumetric reduction of the wastewater streams versus the necessary volumetric airflow rates at different operating temperature has been achieved. The evaporating temperature varied from 40 deg. C to 95 deg. C with a step of 5 deg. C. The obtained curve illustrates that the required volumetric airflow rate utilized to evaporate one m3/day at SDTs temperature of 75 deg. C) is less than 90 m3/h. The assessments of the recent method is distinguished by the simplicity, costless, and almost secondary waste less process. Moreover, from the emission of radioactive nuclides point of view, which may release from, ETTR-1 and ETRR-2 reactors and their analysis are listed and analyzed. It is worth mentioning that, the most important parameter in the thermal methods is the probable release of the radioactive nuclides. Actually, the radioactive nuclides may exist as a chemical compounds. These compounds may evaporate at a temperature lower than the original nuclides. Therefore, a study of the existing nuclides is considered. This study handled the classified isotopes concerning the melting and boiling temperatures, number of existing isotopes, and their minimum and maximum half-life, the number of their chemical compounds and the lowest temperature at which the compounds decompose. Moreover, a list of the radioactive nuclides This recent innovated method may be the best of all methods that deals with the wastewater tanks that generate a high quantity of residual heats. In Hanford site, air lift system circulating system to mix the waste during storage, where air passes through it as bubbles. By the recent method, a mutual cooling and volume reduction can be performed by the same process. Moreover, in this case the airflow is the governing parameter that can control the wastewater tanks temperature. In addition, it is distinguished by the secondary waste less and low operating cost

  5. The Quality of Fog Water Collected for Domestic and Agricultural Use in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemenauer, Robert S.; Cereceda, Pilar

    1992-03-01

    One exciting new application of meteorology is the prospect of using high-elevation fogs as an and land's water resource. This has now become reality in northern Chile where a pilot project has used 50 fog collectors to generate an average of 7200 1 of water per day during three drought years. The chemical composition of the fog water is of primary importance and is examined in this paper.A small, carefully cleaned fog-water collector was used at the site (elevation 780 m) to study the incoming fog (cloud). The ion and trace-element concentrations met Chilean and the World Health Organization's (WHO) drinking-water standards. The pH values, however, were at times extremely low. Samples from 1987 and 1988 were consistent with those from the larger dataset in 1989. The lowest observed pH was 3.46. The acidity was associated with high concentrations (89%) of excess sulfate in the 15 fog-water samples (based on Cl as the seawater tracer element). The NO3/SO4 equivalents ratio for the fog samples was 0.18, showing the dominance of SO4 in determining the acidity of the fog samples. The relative abundances of ions and trace elements in the dry deposition are very similar to those in the fog water, suggesting that the aerosols originate primarily from evaporated cloud droplets over the ocean. Based on enrichment-factor calculations (with Cl as the indicator element for seawater and A1 for the earth's crust), sea salts were the main source of Na+, Mg++, and Cl in the fog water; soil dust was the main source of Fe, Al and Ti; and other sources provided Ca++, K+, NH4+, Br SO4NO3 As,Cd,Pb,V,Mn,Ni,Cu,SrSb,and Ba in the fog water.The use of enrichment factors based on the relative abundances in soil extracts suggests that As, V, Cu, and Sr may be available from wetted soil dust.The output from the large (48 m2) fog collectors was also acceptable, except for several of the 24 trace elements, which exceeded the maximum allowable values in the first flush of water after a dry period of a few days. The pH values were again near 4 and would have to undergo a simple treatment to raise them to a value of 6 or more to meet the drinking-water standard. The output from a 2000-1 fog-water storage tank was completely acceptable and that from a 25 000-1 storage tank completely acceptable, except for a low pH. In contrast, both the water presently being used in a nearby village and local spring water were unacceptable. It is concluded that fog water is an attractive alternative as a water supply even after collection on the large meshes at this site.

  6. REVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE WASTE WATER TREATMENT OPTION FOR URBAN SANITATION FACILITIES IN DEVELOPING COUTRIES, CASE STUDY: UPPER BHIMA BASIN, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    S.V. MAPUSKAR; P.M. RAVAL; SAMEER SHASTRI

    2010-01-01

    Generation and accumulation of domestic waste from fast growing human settlements is becoming a major environment and health problem in developing country like India. The problem is becoming very acute in urban areas. Appropriate management of these wastes is very important for a positive improvement in the quality of life in cities. With unprecedented growth of cities, the present waste management facilities have been found to be very haphazard and inadequate. Conventional methodologies like...

  7. Possible uses of sewage sludge from the urban waste water treatment plant Murska Sobota

    OpenAIRE

    Bernjak, Andreja

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis examines the current situation of sewage sludge management at the waste-water treatment plant in Murska Sobota. The export of sewage sludge to neighbour countries was found to be an unsuitable solution at the given knowledge in this field. Sewage sludge from the municipal waste-water treatment plant in Murska Sobota is not waste but has energetic potential, among others. Analyses were performed, following procedures which are regulated by the current legislation. These ana...

  8. Design and operational parameters of transportable supercritical water oxidation waste destruction unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is the destruction of hazardous waste by oxidation in the presence of water at temperatures and pressures above its critical point. A 1 gal/h SCWO waste destruction unit (WDU) has been designed, built, and operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This unit is transportable and is intended to demonstrate the SCWO technology on wastes at Department of Energy sites. This report describes the design of the WDU and the preliminary testing phase leading to demonstration

  9. Water Hardness as Basic Indicator the Presence Fouling in Domestic Sanitary Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián–Soto F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the water quality was done in the central valleys of Oaxaca state, finding very high concentrations of calcium, magnesium and carbonate in the waters from of deep wells that are located in the periphery of the river Atoyac, unlike the water that comes from the high parts of Etla valley, where there are maximum hardnesses of 140ppm, so for the distribution of both effluent to the city of Oaxaca and neighboring municipalities, suggesting a further dilution of the water treatment plant in "Fortin" in the city of Oaxaca, that after determining the Langelier index and other, with software found in the universal bibliography. The results indicate that water from the river Atoyac, have corrosive properties. In laboratory doing tests, the best dilution was 60 to 40% by volume, of water from Etla Valley and the periphery of the river respectively. Langelier index was converted to a negative, indicating saturation with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3 and will tend to dissolve, avoiding the deterioration of the sanitary units.

  10. Microbiological and Chemical Aspects on Some Fresh Water and Industrial Waste Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    El-Fadaly H.; El-defrawy, M.; El-zawawy, F.; Makia, D.

    1999-01-01

    Both microbiological and chemical analysis of water and industrial wastewater samples collected from Dakahlia governorate (Egypt) were carried out. The microbiological examination involved the measurement of microbial total count, specific bacterial groups, pathogenic bacteria yeast, and fungi. The isolation and purification of different bacterial groups were also performed from different samples of industrial wastes. Trial to reuse the industrial effluents was also made. The chemical analysi...

  11. Process and device for removing radioactive iodine from waste water containing contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contaminants are removed in a first stage, and in a second stage the radioactivity is largely extracted from the waste water. The waste water free of contaminants is continuously taken through a column with a carrier material covered by silver or silver halogenide. The invention also concerns a self-regenerating reactor for carrying out this process. (orig./PW)

  12. Eco-technological procedure of the waste water and sludge treatment of the galvanic process

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, E. S.

    2007-01-01

    The subject of the paper is eco-technological procedure of the wast water treatment of galvanic process with the following processing of sludge generated during the conventiotal purification of the waste water. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/17402

  13. Sulfate-reducing bacteria and their roles in treatment of sulfate-containing waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classification, cultivation and metabolism mechanism of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are presented. The origin of sulfate-containing waste water are discussed. The principle of treating waste water by the sulfate-reducing bacteria and the current research hot spots are described. (authors)

  14. Isotope Technique (14C, 131I for Safety Analysis of Domestic Solid Waste Disposal Site in Jakarta, Indonesia- A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafalni Syafalni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bekasi is one of city around Jakarta which has been developed for the last 10 years. In the south of Bekasi placed sanitary landfill area for domestic solid waste of Jakarta Metropolitan as a Disposal Site. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the location of Bantar Gebang Bekasi solid waste disposal site for safety analysis. The geohydrologycal parameters are determined by using isotopes techniques (14C, 131I to study the shallow groundwater characteristics of the site. From the results of 14C the direction of groundwater movement is found to be from South to the North and turned to North West of Jakarta at Jakarta Center. From radiotracer method (131I the direction of shallow groundwater in the rainy is observed to be from the disposal site to the surrounding area and the Ciketing canal which flows to the North. For the dry season from the disposal site to the surrounding area. The results from environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry analysis indicate that the pollutants from the site have given an impact to the surrounding area of disposal site which was shown by migration of nitrate. It is recommended that the decision maker should give high priority to the geology, geohydrology and environmental pollution studies for consideration of disposal site for the safety of sanitary landfill.

  15. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Karlsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with different system configurations and control strategies were simulated and analysed in the study. A comparison with a standard solar thermal system was also presented based on the annual solar fraction. The simulation results indicate that the retrofitting configuration achieving the highest annual performance consists of a system where the existing tank is used as storage for the solar heat and a smaller tank with a heater is added in series to make sure that the required outlet temperature can be met. An external heat exchanger is used between the collector circuit and the existing tank. For this retrofitted system an annual solar fraction of 50.5% was achieved. A conventional solar thermal system using a standard solar tank achieves a comparable performance for the same total storage volume, collector area and reference conditions.

  16. Thirty years of domestic solar hot water systems use in Greece. Energy and environmental benefits. Future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsilingiridis, G.; Martinopoulos, G. [Process Equipment Design Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.C. 541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-02-15

    The effort to reduce the dependence on imported crude oil in Greece, after the oil crises in the '70s, has resulted, among others, in a total installed area of 3.57 million m{sup 2} solar collectors in 2007, making Greece one of the pioneers in the use of domestic solar hot water system (DSHWS) worldwide. In the present work, the contribution of DSHWS to the reduction of conventional energy and greenhouse gases and other air pollutant emissions in Greece from its early years in mid '70s up to now is assessed. DSHWS market penetration, solar system technological changes and development and demographic changes in association with the climatic conditions in all regions of the country have been taken into account in order to calculate energy conservation and emissions reduction. The results show that the conserved energy ranges from 21.27 GW h{sub el} (0.1% of the domestic sector energy use) in 1978 to 1513 GW h{sub el} (2.4%) in 2007, resulting in an abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions, which for the year 2000 was 1.67 Mt, exceeding by 76% the objectives of the Greek Program of 'Climatic Change', which indicated savings of 0.95 Mt CO{sub 2} for 2000. Moreover DSHWS maximum technical potential is assessed to be about three times the current installed area, showing that they can play an important role in energy end environmental policy of the country. (author)

  17. Environmental impact on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies in Lagos, Nigeria Impacto ambiental sobre a qualidade bacteriológica do abastecimento domiciliar de água em Lagos, Nigéria

    OpenAIRE

    Egwari, L.; Aboaba, O. O.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of town planning, infrastructure, sanitation and rainfall on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies. METHODS: Water samples obtained from deep and shallow wells, boreholes and public taps were cultured to determine the most probable number of Escherichia coli and total coliform using the multiple tube technique. Presence of enteric pathogens was detected using selective and differential media. Samples were collected during both periods of heavy ...

  18. State waste discharge permit application: 400 Area secondary cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by the Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered in to Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges

  19. FORUM ON INNOVATIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL. Third, Dallas, Texas, June 11-13, 1991 - TECHNICAL PAPERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 11 -13,1991, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Technology Innovation Office and Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory hosted an international conference in Dallas, TX, to exchange solutions to hazardous waste treatment problems. This conference, the Third Forum...

  20. Method of processing waste water containing actinide element by fixed tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the waste water from a nuclear power plant is generally in an alkaline range above pH 8, in the case of processing waste water by using fixed tannin, fixed tannin is partially leached to unstable, and the adsorbing elimination rate of actinide elements contained in waste water is decreased. Accordingly, the fixed tannin is immersed and brought into contact with an aqueous solution of ammonia for pre-treatment. it is necessary that the pH value of the aqueous solution of ammonia used is higher than that of the waste water containing the actinide elements, and preferably, within a range of 10 to 12. The time of contact for ensuring the effect of the pre-treatment is at least 30 minutes for the lower limit and 60 minutes for the upper limit. In this way, the adsorbing performance itself can be improved and the processing performance for radioactive waste water can be improved. (T.M.)

  1. Process for fabricating products resistant to leaching for fixation of harmful water containing wastes and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for fabricating products resistent to leaching by water and brine for fixation of harmful water containing wastes and cement, with or without additions (fixation matrix), is described. The water containing wastes are concentrated by evaporation and mixed with the fixation matrix. Evaporation and mixing are performed simultaneously at temperatures of 100 degrees C to 180 degrees C, comprising a) the content of the waste in the end product lying between 20 and 50 wt. % and in case of polluted ion exchangers as wastes between 26 and 50 wt. % related to the dry weight of waste, and b) the water content in the end product corresponding to a water-to-cement ratio of 0.2 to 0.45. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Degradation of methyl orange waste water by electrochemical oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of methyl orange (MO) waste water was conducted by electrochemical oxidation method with PbO2/Ti electrode as anode. PbO2/Ti electrode was fabricated by electrochemical deposition of PbO2 on Ti foil. The micrograph and crystal structure of PbO2 show that uniform coating of PbO2 on titanium foil was obtained and the dominant crystal structure was ?-PbO2. Degradation experiments of MO solution indicate that the degradation rate increased with cell voltage and solution conductivity. In addition, air aeration also improved the degradation of MO solution; but an increase in cell voltage or input energy decreased the energy efficiency of MO removal. The energy efficiency reached over 0.1mg kJ?1 under a cell voltage lower than 15V, and the removal rate could reach 90%.

  3. Modification of laundry waste water cleanup technology for water containing new washing powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2 kg of dry laundry with a contamination level of 40-50 Bq/cm2 were washed in a modified commercial washing machine. The Alfa-DEO washing powder was used and the following operations gradually undertaken: soaking, pre-wash, rinse, wash, treble rinse and spinning. Then the Alfa-DES detergent was used for the following operations: pre-wash, rinse, spinning, washing with a foam suppressing agent, treble rinse and spinning. Both procedures reduced radioactivity of the working garments to under 3 Bq/cm2. Tabulated are the average contents of surfactants, phosphates, sodium ions, and the most important nuclides in the wash water after the individual operations. Wash waters were cleaned using three alternative methods: 1. the procedure designed for treatment plants for contaminated laundry wash waters in Mochovce and Temelin, 2. biological waste water treatment, 3. biological procedure with chemical treatment. The results of the three procedures are tabulated. It was found that new detergents can make waste water treatment more efficient. The possibility was also opened for solidification of sludges from chemical treatment and their subsequent fixation in a cement mixture. (E.S.). 6 tabs., 4 refs

  4. Experimental Investigation of a Natural Circulation Solar Domestic Water Heater Performance under Standard Consumption Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Taherian, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports experimental studies on the performance of a natural circulation solar water heater considering the weather condition of a city in north of Iran. The tests are done on clear and partly cloudy days. The variations of storage tank temperature due to consumption from the tank, daily consumption influence on the solar water heater efficiency, and on the input temperature of the collector are studied and the delivered daily useful energy has been obtained. The results show that by withdrawing from storage tank, the system as well as its collector efficiency will increase. Considering the value of the coefficient FRUL and ??, which are obtained experimentally as 6.03 and 0.83 respectively, average. monthly total load that is covered by this solar water heating system is estimated.

  5. Potencial de recuperación de residuos sólidos domésticos dispuestos en un relleno sanitario / Potential Recovery of Domestic Solid Waste Disposed of in A Landfill

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Quetzalli, Aguilar-Virgen; Carolina, Armijo-de Vega; Paul, Taboada-González; Xochitl M., Aguilar.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Conocer las cantidades y tipos de residuos sólidos domésticos (RSD) que son depositados en el relleno sanitario, brinda la posibilidad de proponer opciones sustentables para su aprovechamiento. Los residuos de cualquier localidad manejados de forma apropiada se pueden convertir en insumos de algún o [...] tro proceso. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar los componentes de los RSD susceptibles de ser reciclados, depositados en el relleno sanitario de la ciudad de Ensenada (Baja California, México), para ser valorizados en el mercado de los reciclables. En promedio se podrían comercializar semanalmente 643.67 toneladas de residuos alimenticios para composta, 389.45 toneladas de papel y cartón, 217.55 toneladas de plástico, 78.81 toneladas de vidrio, 37.20 toneladas de metales y 8.11 toneladas de aluminio. Se obtendría en total un aproximado de MXP $911,224.18 (USD $ 71,693.48) por la comercialización de los principales reciclables. Abstract in english Knowing the amount and type of Domestic Solid Waste (DSW) that is deposited in the land fill gives us the possibility to consider options in how to make sustainable use of it. Waste from any location, if properly handled, can be turned into the raw material for other processes. The aim of this study [...] was to quantify the components of the DSW likely to be recycled, deposited in the landfill in the city of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, so that they could be valued on the market as recyclables. The average weekly market could be 643.67 tons of food waste for composting, 389.45 tons of paper and cardboard, 217.55 tons of plastic, 78.81 tons of glass, 32.20 tons of metal and 8.11 tons of aluminum. This should result in a total of approximately MXP $ 911,224.18 (USD $ 71693.48) for the marketing of major recyclables.

  6. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: estimation of bathing-associated disease risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Walter Q; Duarte, Diana C; Vásquez, Rosa C; Gurian, Patrick L

    2014-08-15

    Sewage is a major contributor to pollution problems involving human pathogens in tropical coastal areas. This study investigated the occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with sewage. The potential risks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection from recreational water exposure were estimated from the levels of viable (oo) cysts (DIC+, DAPI+, PI-) found in near-shore swimming areas using an exponential dose response model. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed in order to determine the probability distribution of risks. Microbial indicators of recreational water quality (enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) and genetic markers of sewage pollution (human-specific Bacteroidales marker [HF183] and Clostridium coccoides) were simultaneously evaluated in order to estimate the extent of water quality deterioration associated with human wastes. The study revealed the potential risk of parasite infections via primary contact with tropical marine waters contaminated with sewage; higher risk estimates for Giardia than for Cryptosporidium were found. Mean risks estimated by Monte Carlo were below the U.S. EPA upper bound on recreational risk of 0.036 for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis for both children and adults. However, 95th percentile estimates for giardiasis for children exceeded the 0.036 level. Environmental surveillance of microbial pathogens is crucial in order to control and eradicate the effects that increasing anthropogenic impacts have on marine ecosystems and human health. PMID:24975093

  7. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water in the heating system. The heat storage was tested in a heat storage test facility. The most important characteristics of the heat storage were determined by means of the tests and recommendations for the design of the heat storage were given.

  8. MELODIE, Radiological Assessment of Nuclear Waste Migration in Ground Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: MELODIE assesses radiological consequences associated with a nuclear waste repository in a deep geological formation. MELODIE consists of three parts: MELO for deterministic evaluation; PREP and SPOP for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis: MELO is a modular deterministic code composed mainly of a geosphere model adopted from METIS, developed at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris; and of the ABRICOT biosphere model, developed at CEA/IPSN. - The geosphere model is a 2D finite element code which first solves the groundwater flow equation (considered as a steady state), and then in a second step the transport (advection-diffusion-dispersion) equation for each radionuclide. The geosphere is taken into account as an equivalent porous medium with explicit description of the main fractures. The retardation of the radionuclides is modeled through the Kd concept, and nuclear decay chains are processed inside this model. The boundary conditions represent: - for the groundwater flow calculation, the hydraulic head or the groundwater flow rate; - for the transport calculation, the activity released by the repository itself to the geosphere (using, for low soluble radionuclides, the solubility limit concept). Three cases may be taken into account for computing the value of this boundary condition: consequence of the degradation of the matrix (vitrified waste,...); uniform release during a given period of time; wastelease during a given period of time; waste already degraded at the initial time. - The biosphere model converts the activity released at the water outlets to the corresponding individual dose through intake, inhalation, or external irradiation from the use of contaminated water in the main food chains. This model is compartmental and takes into account farming and dietetic considerations. - PREP provides samples using the Latin Hypercube techniques for the distribution functions of the input variables, such as permeability, solubility limit value for radionuclides, retardation factors, etc. - SPOP performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses on the output of the MELO simulation runs. PREP and SPOP have been developed at the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities. 2 - Method of solution: The equation systems are discretized by the method of Galerkin using elements of four, three and two nodes. The algebraic equations are solved by the direct Gauss algorithm. The time discretization is made by the Crank-Nicholson method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Groundwater flow is considered at a steady state and in a saturated medium. Thermal effects are not taken into account

  9. Renewable energy in Switzerland - Potential of waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems - Strategical decisions in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses how waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems make an important contribution to the production of renewable energy in Switzerland. Financing by the 'Climate-Cent' programme, which finances projects involving the use of renewable energy, is discussed. Figures are quoted on the electrical energy produced in waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and combined heat and power generation plant. Eco-balances of the various systems are discussed. Political efforts being made in Switzerland, including the 'Climate Cent', are looked at and promotion provided by new energy legislation is discussed. Eco-power and the processing of sewage gas to meet natural gas quality standards are discussed, as are energy analysis, co-operation between various research institutions and external costs

  10. Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Georgia L.; Moriarty, Patrick; Fonseca, Catarina; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled. PMID:24157507

  11. Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Bartram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled.

  12. Instrumentation and methods evaluations for shallow land burial of waste materials: water erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The erosion of geologic materials by water at shallow-land hazardous waste disposal sites can compromise waste containment. Erosion of protective soil from these sites may enhance waste transport to the biosphere through water, air, and biologic pathways. The purpose of this study was to review current methods of evaluating soil erosion and to recommend methods for use at shallow-land, hazardous waste burial sites. The basic principles of erosion control are: minimize raindrop impact on the soil surface; minimize runoff quantity; minimize runoff velocity; and maximize the soil's resistance to erosion. Generally soil erosion can be controlled when these principles are successfully applied at waste disposal sites. However, these erosion control practices may jeopardize waste containment. Typical erosion control practices may enhance waste transport by increasing subsurface moisture movement and biologic uptake of hazardous wastes. A two part monitoring program is recommended for US Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous waste disposal sites. The monitoring programs and associated measurement methods are designed to provide baseline data permitting analysis and prediction of long term erosion hazards at disposal sites. These two monitoring programs are: (1) site reconnaissance and tracking; and (2) site instrumentation. Some potential waste transport problems arising from erosion control practices are identified. This report summarizes current literature regarding water erizes current literature regarding water erosion prediction and control

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the waste composition and water content parameters on the biogas production models on solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco; Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are commonly used as the final deposit of urban solid waste. Despite the waste is previously processed on a treatment plant, the final amount of organic matter which reaches the landfill is large however. The biodegradation of this organic matter forms a mixture of greenhouse gases (essentially Methane and Carbon-Dioxide as well as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide). From the environmental point of view, solid waste landfills are therefore considered to be one of the main greenhouse gas sources. Different mathematical models are usually applied to predict the amount of biogas produced on real landfills. The waste chemical composition and the availability of water in the solid waste appear to be the main parameters of these models. Results obtained when performing a sensitivity analysis over the biogas production model parameters under real conditions are shown. The importance of a proper characterizacion of the waste as well as the necessity of improving the understanding of the behaviour and development of the water on the unsaturated mass of waste are emphasized.

  14. Comparison between secondary and tertiary treatment of waste waters effluents and their developments in irrigation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Tunisia, the reuse of the treated waste water effluent for agricultural production, constitute a new source of irrigation water. In fact, it allows promoting the use of these waters and the fertilizing matters that they contain. This application also to safeguard the resources in water that are limited, especially in the arid and semi arid regions. (Author)

  15. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Deep Geological Repository: A Domestic and Global Blueprint for Safe Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste - 12081

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2011, the world's first used/spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is projected to open in 2020, followed by two more in 2025. The related pre-opening periods will be at least 40 years, as it also would be if USA's candidate HLW-repository is resurrected by 2013. If abandoned, a new HLW-repository site would be needed. On 26 March 1999, USA began disposing long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological repository in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The related pre-opening period was less than 30 years. WIPP has since been re-certified twice. It thus stands to reason the WIPP repository is the global proof of principle for safe deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also stands to reason that the lessons learned since 1971 at the WIPP site provide a unique, continually-updated, blueprint for how the pre-opening period for a new HLW repository could be shortened both in the USA and abroad. (authors)

  16. Low- and medium-level aqueous radioactive waste immobilization with water-extendible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of water-extendible polymers as an alternative to cement for the immobilization of aqueous radioactive wastes is detailed. The process involves formation of a water-in-oil emulsion between the aqueous waste and the organic polymer and solidification of the emulsion by addition of suitable peroxide catalyst/promoter combinations. Emulsion quality is critical to the attainment of satisfactory waste forms. High speed, high shear agitation is needed to obtain the aqueous phase droplet size and dispersion needed to give stable emulsions. The pH of the aqueous waste should be adjusted to between 7 and 9 to facilitate emulsion formation. It is also suggested that the aqueous waste: polymer ratio should not exceed 1.5:1 by volume. As incorrect waste condition, unsuitable mixing or improper cure agents can cause a process malfunction, small-scale trials with all wastes are recommended to determine special requirements before commencing production runs. Immobilized wastes should be smooth, hard monolith forms with high compressive strengths and good freeze/thaw and water resistance. If fully exposed to air the waste form will slowly lose water by evaporation. This feature may dictate the use of plastic or lined containers to prevent corrosion if any water condensation occurs in the ullage space above the waste form. Wastes immobilized with water-extendible polymer are considered to have acceptable leaching resistance and waste type appears to have little effect on leachype appears to have little effect on leach rate. Over a one-year test period cumulative percentage activity released was about 1%. (author)

  17. System design package for SIMS Prototype System 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air type solar energy collection techniques. The system consists of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit containing solar collctors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with inforation sufficient to assemble a similar system. The prepackage solar unit has been installed at the Mississippi Power and Light Company, Training Facilities, Clinton, Mississippi.

  18. Production and distribution of domestic hot water in selected Danish apartment buildings and institutions. Analysis of consumption, energy efficiency and the significance for energy design requirements of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Circulation system heat losses were 23–70% in apartment buildings. ? The use of additional heat meters in large buildings is recommended. ? The demand for domestic hot water, space heating and ventilation should be obtained. ? Domestic hot water will constitute a major part of future energy demand of dwellings. - Abstract: The goal of this work has been to document the efficiency of domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems and to propose more energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions for DHW systems based on analyses of existing conditions. In the article, measurements from 13 apartment buildings and two institutions are presented, i.e. consumption of DHW, heat loss from circulation lines and efficiency of the DHW system. The heat load and the cooling of the district heating water for DHW are documented as well. Possibilities for improving the DHW system include new types of circulation pipes, which have the potential of a 40% reduction of heat losses. In addition to the reduction of heat losses inside the building, a low return temperature from the hot water system will have a large impact on the heat losses from the district heating network when the building is being heated by district heating. It is likely that the production and distribution of DHW in buildings will constitute a dominant share of both the present, and in particular, the future energy design requirements of buildings. The results of this project could influence not only future buildings, but also existing buildings when renovation of installations take place

  19. The Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Wetland Soil Irrigated by Pulp Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ding

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution characteristics of eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the pulp waste water and in seashore wetland soil irrigated by the waste water were detected by GC-ECD. The result shows that the concentrations of PAHs in the gray water, bleached water, black liquid and integrated waste water ranged from 12.826 to 16.83 ? g-1. The total amount of PAHs in the seashore wetland soil irrigated with the papermaking waste water containing PAHs increased significantly and the quantity is still increasing over time. The concentration of PAHs in the unirrigated soil and in soil after irrigated for one year and two years was 7.83, 22.04 and 29.96 mg kg-1, respectively.

  20. Environmental performance evaluation of hot water supplying systems for domestic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre Kulay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption profile of Brazilian citizens is changing as alternatives are sought to reduce costs. A major focus of this change of attitude involves expenditures for electricity, particularly in relation to water heating systems. The manufacturers of these devices add value to their products beyond price. A usual strategy is the enhancement of the environmental performance of the product. This study compared four water heating systems: electric, gas, solar and hybrid, using an environmental perspective. The systems were operated under similar conditions. The analysis was conducted by using the Life Cycle Assessment technique, for the impact categories of Climate Change, Acidification Eutrophication and Water, Metal and Fossil Resource depletion. The results indicated that the electric and hybrid systems are less harmful to the environment for all the impact categories under analysis. On the other hand, the gas system provided the worst performance of the group. The solar heating system was penalized due to its dependence on electricity to operate under the conditions in which the study was conducted.

  1. Microbiological and Chemical Aspects on Some Fresh Water and Industrial Waste Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Fadaly H

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Both microbiological and chemical analysis of water and industrial wastewater samples collected from Dakahlia governorate (Egypt were carried out. The microbiological examination involved the measurement of microbial total count, specific bacterial groups, pathogenic bacteria yeast, and fungi. The isolation and purification of different bacterial groups were also performed from different samples of industrial wastes. Trial to reuse the industrial effluents was also made. The chemical analysis included the measurement of conductivity, alkalinity, hardness, sulphate, PH, total dissolved solids, chloride, as well as dissolved oxygen. Results of the microbiological examination exhibited presence of yeast, fungi and bacteria. Short rods were the most bacterial isolates followed by spore formers and coccoid-shaped bacteria which came last in their count. Data also showed that neither water samples nor industrial wastes contain pathogenic bacteria when using specific cultivation media. Results of the chemical analysis showed that all measured parameters were found within the limitation either national or that of international law. Some samples exhibited higher values than that of permissible limits for some measured parameters. Furthermore, data proved the possibility of using the tested industrial wastes in production of both biomass and microbial enzymes as well. The bacterial treatment of industrial wastewater leads also to heavy metal reduction up to more than 50 per cent in some cases.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on textile waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the use of gamma irradiation for textile waste water treatment. Prior to irradiation, the raw wastewater was diluted to using tap water to targeted concentration of COD 400 mg/ l. The sample was irradiated at selected dose between the ranges of 2 kGy to 100 kGy. The results showed that Irradiation was effective in removing the highly colored refractory organic pollutants. The degree of removal influenced by the dose introduced during the treatment process. As the dose increased, higher removal of organic pollutant was recorded. The COD removal at lowest dose, 2 kGy is about 310 mg/ l. Meanwhile, at highest dose, 100 kGy the COD reduced to 100 mg/ l. On the other hand, other properties of the wastewater such as pH, turbidity, suspended solid, BOD and color shows tremendous changes as the dose increases. This showed the concentration of pollutants and dose of irradiation applied are directly proportional to each other. (author)

  3. Antibacterial polyphenols from olive oil mill waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, R; Evidente, A; Schivo, L; Orru, G; Marcialis, M A; Cristinzio, G

    1995-10-01

    Olive oil vegetation waters (VW) were highly toxic to both phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae (Smith, Yung et al.) pv. savastanoi (Gram-negative) and Corynebacterium michiganense (Gram-positive) and showed bactericidal activity in their original concentration (in raw form). Among the main polyphenols, present in the waste waters, methylcatechol proved to be the most toxic to Ps. savastanoi at 10(-4) mol l-1, and also demonstrated bactericidal activity, while on Coryne. michiganense it was only slightly active; catechol and hydroxytyrosol were less active on Ps. savastanoi, but inactive on Coryne. michiganense; tyrosol and its synthetic isomers 1,2- and 1,3-tyrosol were completely inactive on both bacteria. Among the derivatives of VW polyphenols considered, acetylcatechol and guaiacol were selectively toxic for Ps. savastanoi, while o-quinone was strongly toxic for both bacteria. The minor carboxylic polyphenols of VW at 10(-4) mol l-1 were all inactive on the bacteria. VW, catechol, 4-methylcatechol and the less abundant carboxylic polyphenols proved to be toxic on Hep2 human cells. Finally the possibility of using the active polyphenols in agriculture in an integrated pest management program for the protection of the olive plant is discussed. PMID:7592132

  4. Lipid profiling of some authotrophic microalgae grown on waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Microalgae can be a new source of lipids for the aquaculture industry. Moreover, their potential as natural sources of antioxidants has gained recent attention. About 40 species of microalgae are used in aquaculture worldwide. A full characterization of lipid components is critical for selecting the most suitable microalgae and downstream processing for food and feed production. The present study is part of a big project funded by GUDP (green development and demonstration program of ministry of agriculture and fisheries of Denmark) which aims at developing new processing technologies, so that microalgae-biomass can be used as an alternative valuable resource in fish feed. In this work, 10 fresh water and marine microalgae from Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Haematococcus, Nannochloropsis, Nannochloropsis and Dunialiella species grown in waste water in Kalundborg micro algal facility were harvested by membrane microfiltration and analyzed for fatty acid (GC), triacylglycerol (HPLC), sterol (GC) and tochol (HPLC) composition and also for amounts of phospholipids . Lipid composition in micro algae varied strongly between species.

  5. innovation in radioactive waste water-stream management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    treatment of radioactive waste dtreams is receiving considereble attention in most countries. the present work is for the radioactive wastewater stream management, by volume reduction by a mutual heating and humidificaction of a compressed dry air introduced through the wastewater. in the present work, a mathematical model describing the volume reduction by at the optimum operating condition is determined. a set of coupled first order differential equations, obtained through the mass and energy conservations laws, are used to obtain the humidity ratio, water diffused to the air stream, water temperature, and humid air stream temperature distributions through the bubbling column. these coupled differential equations are simulataneously solved numerically by the developed computer program using fourth order rung-kutta method. the results obtained, according to the present mathematical model, revealed that the air bubble state variables such as mass transfer coefficient (KG) and interfacial area (a) have a strong effect on the process. therefore, the behavior of the air bubble state variables with coulmn height can be predicted and optimized. moreover, the design curves of the volumetric reduction of the wastewater streams are obtained and assessed at the different operating conditions. an experimental setup was constructed to verify the suggested model. comperhensive comparison between suggested model results, recent experimental measurements and the results of previous work was carried out

  6. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Water and waste disposal systems which have become part...Grants § 1951.232 Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal system serving an area...

  7. Investigation of the Performance of a Heat Pump Using Waste Water as a Heat Source

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kahraman; Alaeddin Çelebi

    2009-01-01

    In this research, a water-water heat pump system using waste water as a heat source, a type that is not often used in Turkey and the World, was experimentally modeled. The experiments were performed under the conditions of simulated waste water temperature values of 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C. Inlet and outlet water temperatures of the evaporator and condenser, water flow rates in the evaporator and condenser circuits, pressures at the compressor inlet and outlet and power consumption of the s...

  8. Biology of waste water purification. 2. rev. ed. Biologie der Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudrack, K.; Kunst, S.

    1988-01-01

    The book starts with a description of the substrates waste water and sewage sludge and their physical and chemical properties. Its focus is on the description of the fundamentals of and processes for biological waste water and sludge treatment. The processes in waters, soil and sewers are dealt with additionally. Biological facts and technical procedures are presented in understandable form. (EF) With 89 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Discharge and Treatment of Waste Water in Denmark : a case study about Esbjerg

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the waste water treatment situation in the area of Esbjerg. This example was chosen because the situation in Esbjerg is typical of that of most towns in Denmark, and because Esbjerg is closest to the British situation with respect to the receiving water. Esbjerg has a population of 70.000 inhabitans, and waste water treatment takes place in two treatment plants. These plants are now being extended to perform tertiary treatment, to fulfil the new Danish requirements. From ...

  10. Treatment of fuel oil contaminated waste water from liquid fuel processing plants associated to thermal power plants or heat and power cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the statistical data presented in the most important European and world meetings on environmental protection, the oil product amounts which pollute the surface water is estimated to be of about 6 mill. tones yearly out of which 35 %, 10 %, and 1 % come from oil tanks, natural sources, and offshore drilling, respectively, while 54 % reach seas and oceans trough rivers, rains a.o. Among the water consumers and users of Romania, the thermal power plants, belonging to RENEL (Romanian Electricity Authority), are the greatest. A part of the water with modified chemical-physical parameters, used for different technological processes, have to be discharged from the user precinct directly towards natural agents or indirectly through public sewage networks as domestic and industrial waste water. These waste waters need an adequate treatment before discharging as to meet the requirements imposed by the norms and regulations related to environment protection. For this purpose, before discharging, after using, the water must be circulated through the treatment plants designed and operated as to ensure the correction of the inadequate values of the residual water parameters. The paper presents the activities developed in the Institute for Power Studies and Design concerning the environmental protection against pollution produced by the entire power generation circuit, from the design phase up to product supplying. (author). 1 tab., 2 refsab., 2 refs

  11. An indicator to evaluate the environmental Impact of olive oil waste water’s shedding on cultivated fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Silvestri

    Full Text Available Several climatic, soil and topographic factors need to be considered when evaluating the impact of human actions on the environment. Such variables may be related in a complex way to environmental impact, thus making its evaluation difficult. Problems of this type emerge when evaluating the risks olive oil waste water pose to the environment when shed on cultivated soils. This paper proposes a fuzzy expert system to calculate a modular indicator, ICARO, which allows an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the application of olive oil waste water in a field. Five modules were formulated, one (“Waste water” reflecting the nature of the waste water, two (“Groundwater”, “Surface water” reflecting the risk for the most sensitive agro-environmental compartments (groundwater, surface water, one (“Crop” reflecting possible consequences on the cropping system adopted, and one (“Soil” reflecting the soil aptitude to receive waste waters.The input variables are therefore waste water amount and properties, site-specific conditions, and characteristics of the application considered. For each input variable, two functions describing membership to the fuzzy subsets Favorable (F and Unfavorable (U have been defined. The expert system calculates the value of each module according to both the degree of membership of the input variables to the subsets F and U, and a set of decision rules. The five modules can be considered individually or can be aggregated (again according to level of membership to fuzzy subsets F and U and a set of decision rules into the synthetic indicator ICARO. Outcomes of a sensitivity analysis are presented. The system is flexible and can be used as a decision aid tool to authorize waste water’s shedding or subordinate the distribution on fields to acceptance of some limitations (amount, timing, site, etc.

  12. An indicator to evaluate the environmental Impact of olive oil waste water’s shedding on cultivated fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bonari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several climatic, soil and topographic factors need to be considered when evaluating the impact of human actions on the environment. Such variables may be related in a complex way to environmental impact, thus making its evaluation difficult. Problems of this type emerge when evaluating the risks olive oil waste water pose to the environment when shed on cultivated soils. This paper proposes a fuzzy expert system to calculate a modular indicator, ICARO, which allows an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the application of olive oil waste water in a field. Five modules were formulated, one (“Waste water” reflecting the nature of the waste water, two (“Groundwater”, “Surface water” reflecting the risk for the most sensitive agro-environmental compartments (groundwater, surface water, one (“Crop” reflecting possible consequences on the cropping system adopted, and one (“Soil” reflecting the soil aptitude to receive waste waters.The input variables are therefore waste water amount and properties, site-specific conditions, and characteristics of the application considered. For each input variable, two functions describing membership to the fuzzy subsets Favorable (F and Unfavorable (U have been defined. The expert system calculates the value of each module according to both the degree of membership of the input variables to the subsets F and U, and a set of decision rules. The five modules can be considered individually or can be aggregated (again according to level of membership to fuzzy subsets F and U and a set of decision rules into the synthetic indicator ICARO. Outcomes of a sensitivity analysis are presented. The system is flexible and can be used as a decision aid tool to authorize waste water’s shedding or subordinate the distribution on fields to acceptance of some limitations (amount, timing, site, etc.

  13. Domestic policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in the water sector. Part 2. Non-Annex I Countries. Lessons Learned from Mexico, India, Argentina and Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper represents Part II of the analysis of the roles that domestic policy frameworks can play in adaptation to climate change in the water sector, conducted under the auspices of the Annex I Expert Group. Part I focused on Annex I countries and synthesised experiences of four case study countries: Canada, Finland, UK and the US. This paper focuses on non-Annex I countries and is based on four case studies in non-Annex I countries: Argentina, India, Mexico, and Zimbabwe. As in the previous paper, the water sector is defined as water resources (surface water and groundwater), their use (e.g. irrigation, public water supply, environmental needs) and their governance and management (legal and institutional issues, abstraction permitting, water infrastructure, water policies). Water quality issues are touched upon, as water quality and quantity issues cannot be looked at in isolation, but are not specifically analysed. The paper is based on four developing country case studies developed by local consultants. It is structured around the selected four elements that construct policy frameworks: (1) legislation, (2) institutional arrangements, (3) water management and policies, and (4) information availability and use in decisionmaking. Section 2 briefly examines current and projected future climatic conditions that necessitate adaptation. Section 3 focuses on domestic and international legal issues and informal rules that govern the water sector while Section 4 identifi the water sector while Section 4 identifies institutions and key players in the water sector who should also become the key actors in adaptation. Section 5 examines water management approaches and policies and analyses how adaptation could be incorporated into the everyday management of water. Section 6 evaluates information needs and existing mechanisms for information sharing and dissemination that would be instrumental for successful adaptation. The paper concludes with a summary of key findings. The comparison with Annex I countries is provided throughout the paper

  14. A portable system for the treatment of water-reactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category. Besides their tendency to react with water, the wastes also produce alkaline hydroxides and hydrogen gas as products of the reactions. If in aqueous form and if the pH exceeds 12.5, the alkaline hydroxides must be further processed to lower the pH to the range of 2--12.5 to remove the corrosive hazardous characteristic. The hydrogen gas formed during treatment is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste, but the hydrogen poses a substantial safety hazard because it can form explosive mixtures with air. Tritium may also be substituted for hydrogen in the LiH. If tritium is present, special processing may be necessary to avoid exhausting tritium into the environment. Because of the requirement to control environmental exposure to radioactivity contained in the wastes, the process design requires a reaction within enclosed vessels. These vessels require inert gas purging with subsequent off-gas scrubbing and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration before discharge to the atmosphere. The process described involves directly immersing the water-reactive waste in a volume of water, controlling the reaction rate by the rate of addition of the waste to the reactor. The possibility of explosion is avoided by excluding oxygen

  15. Using Magnetically Responsive Tea Waste to Remove Lead in Waters under Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yeo, Siang Yee

    2013-06-20

    We report the use of a simple yet highly effective magnetite-waste tea composite to remove lead(II) (Pb2+) ions from water. Magnetite-waste tea composites were dispersed in four different types of water–deionized (DI), artificial rainwater, artificial groundwater and artificial freshwater–that mimic actual environmental conditions. The water samples had varying initial concentrations (0.16–5.55 ppm) of Pb2+ ions and were mixed with the magnetite-waste tea composite for at least 24 hours to allow adsorption of the Pb2+ ions to reach equilibrium. The magnetite-waste tea composites were stable in all the water samples for at least 3 months and could be easily removed from the aqueous media via the use of permanent magnets. We detected no significant leaching of iron (Fe) ions into the water from the magnetite-waste tea composites. The percentage of Pb adsorbed onto the magnetite-waste tea composite ranged from ~70% to 100%; the composites were as effective as activated carbon (AC) in removing the Pb2+ ions from water, depending on the initial Pb concentration. Our prepared magnetite-waste tea composites show promise as a green, inexpensive and highly effective sorbent for removal of Pb in water under environmentally realistic conditions.

  16. Standard Guide for On-Site Inspection and Verification of Operation of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures and test methods for conducting an on-site inspection and acceptance test of an installed domestic hot water system (DHW) using flat plate, concentrating-type collectors or tank absorber systems. 1.2 It is intended as a simple and economical acceptance test to be performed by the system installer or an independent tester to verify that critical components of the system are functioning and to acquire baseline data reflecting overall short term system heat output. 1.3 This guide is not intended to generate accurate measurements of system performance (see ASHRAE standard 95-1981 for a laboratory test) or thermal efficiency. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine th...

  17. Standard Practice for Installation and Service of Solar Domestic Water Heating Systems for One- and Two-Family Dwellings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides descriptions of solar domestic water heating systems and sets forth installation and service practices in new and existing one- and two-family dwellings to help ensure adequate operation and safety., 1.2 This practice applies regardless of the fraction of heating requirement supplied by solar energy, the type of conventional fuel used in conjunction with solar, or the heat transfer fluid (or fluids) used as the energy transport medium. However, where more stringent requirements are recommended by the manufacturer, these manufacturer requirements shall prevail. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Sections 6 and 7.

  18. Theoretical model and experimental validation of a direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump for domestic hot water applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has shown the development of a theoretical model to determine the operating parameters and consumption of a domestic hot water (DHW) installation, which uses a direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump (DXSAHP) with refrigerant R-134a, a compressor with a rated capacity of 1.1 kW and collectors with a total area of 5.6 m2. The model results have been compared and validated the experimental results obtained with the equipment installed at the University Carlos III, South of Madrid. The analysis was conducted over the course of a year, and the results have been represented depending on the meteorological and process variables of several representative days. Taking into account the thermal losses of the installation and the dependency on the operating conditions, the acquired experimental coefficient of performance is between 1.7 and 2.9, while the DHW tank temperature over the course of the study is 51 °C. -- Highlights: ? The study aims to present a new theoretical model and an experimental validation. ? The experimental COP vary between 1.7 and 2.9 (max. condensation temperature 57 °C). ? The operating parameters respond to the solar radiation. The COP may increase up to 50%. ? The useful surface area varies between 50% and 85% of the total surface. ? The system stops if conditions exceed the maximum value of the absorbed heat.

  19. Radon-222 concentration in domestic water supply within some selected areas in the Accra Metropolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater samples from selected wells in the Accra Metropolis have been investigated for Rn-22 concentrations. Samples were drawn from three communities namely Dome, Kwabenya and Adenta. Measurements were carried using a High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) gamma spectrometry and MCB 32 computer based software for spectrum analysis. The Radon-222 concentrations determined from 6 wells at Dome vary from 2.58 to 15.40 mBq/L with an average of (6.7±4.61) mBq/L, while concentrations determined in 8 wells from Kwabenya vary from 2.15 to 11.04 mBq/L with an average of (5.53±3.44) mBq/L and that of Adenta in 7 wells vary from 3.85 to 28.69 mBq/L withan average of (12±8.61) mBq/L. The annual effective dose due to ingestion of radon in water from Dome varied from 3.72 pSv to 222.0 with an average of (97.0±66.58) pSv, Kwabenya varied from 30.9 pSv to 159.0 pSv with an average of (80.0±33.28) pSv and Adenta varied from 55.4 pSv to 413.0 pSv with an average of (173.0±30.98) pSv. The results compare favourably with the standard value recommended for radon in drinking water by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and data from other countries (au).

  20. Characterization of waste waters of tannery, fertilizer and textile industries in Multan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates various physico-chemical characteristics such as pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved solids, hardness, apparent color, odor, elemental concentrations, chloride contents, carbonates, bicarbonates, residual sodium carbonate and sodium absorption ratio of waste waters of three major industries, i.e. tannery, fertilizer and textile, situated in Multan District of the Punjab province, Pakistan. Waste waters, in general, have been found to be hard, alkaline in nature and contain variable amounts of dissolved solids. High concentration of chromium (10.7 mg 1-1) was found in tannery wastewater. Zinc and copper concentrations were not quantifiable. Water quality classes (C4-S4), (C4-S1) and (C4-S1, C3-S1, C3-S4 and C3-S2) have been assigned to tannery, fertilizer and textile waste waters respectively. Results indicate that these untreated industrial waste waters are potential hazards to human health and unsuitable for irrigation usage. (author)

  1. Automatic deodorizing system for waste water from radioisotope facilities using an ozone generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied an ozone generator to sterilize and to deodorize the waste water from radioisotope facilities. A small tank connected to the generator is placed outside of the drainage facility founded previously, not to oxidize the other apparatus. The waste water is drained 1 m3 at a time from the tank of drainage facility, treated with ozone and discharged to sewer. All steps proceed automatically once the draining work is started remotely in the office. The waste water was examined after the ozone treatment for 0 (original), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h. Regarding original waste water, the sum of coliform groups varied with every examination repeated - probably depend on the colibacilli used in experiments; hydrogen sulfide, biochemical oxygen demand and the offensive odor increased with increasing coliform groups. The ozone treatment remarkably decreased hydrogen sulfide and the offensive odor, decreased coliform groups when the original water had rich coliforms. (author)

  2. Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem that affects the lives of many women both in urban and rural areas. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are the most prevalent mental health problems related with domestic violence. Children of battered women are also affected from the domestic violence. Children who grow up in families with intimate partner violence may suffer from a range of behavioral and emotional disturbances that can be associated with the perpetration or experiencing of violence later in life. The mental health care sector can have a significant impact on publicizing and addressing violence against women and children and on reducing the mental health problems related to abuse. This review focuses on domestic violence victims, most of whom are women and children victimized by their spouses or parents, along with the causes and cycle of domestic violence.

  3. Transuranic wastes from the commercial light-water-reactor cccle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne and transuranic-contaminated wastes generated in postfission activities are identified by quantity and radioactivity for the case in which spent fuel is declared waste (once-through cycle) and that in which spent fuel is reprocessed and the recovered uranium and plutonium are recycled. Because no standard defining transuranic wastes is available at this time, in this chapter the waste source is used as the basis for such a definition. Radioactive wastes are generally treated to reduce their volume and/or mobility. For convenience the radioactive wastes discussed are categorized according to the treatment they require. A selected treatment process as well as the final treated volume is presented for each of the seven categories of waste

  4. Anaerobic Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Recirculation of Process Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2008-01-01

    A new concept of a wet anaerobic digestion treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is investigated. Once the waste is diluted with water, the entire liquid fraction of the effluent is recirculated and used as process water for dilution of the waste. This enables a well-mixed process without additional water supply. A methane yield of 400 and 445 ml/gVS from OFMSW was achieved in batch and reactor experiments, respectively. Reactor performance with 15 days retention ...

  5. Implementation of the cogeneration using biogas issued from urban waste water treatment plants in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the paper is to present the potential of using biogas issued from urban waste water treatment plants. First part presents the technology of waste water treatment, including the energy consumptions. Authors have used a soft, applied for waste water plant in Cluj-Napoca, and they have determined the potential of saving in electricity bill. Using a specific indicator, the results have been extended to the majority of big cities in Romania. In conclusion, for this project, annual reduction about USD 2 mil. could be obtained. (abstract)

  6. Domestic hot water use study, multi-family building energy monitoring and analysis for DHW system sizing criteria development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty New York City multifamily building combined steam heating and domestic hot water (DHW) plants were instrumented for monitoring (mostly hourly) apartment, outdoor, boiler and DHW temperatures and burner on-off times. In nine of these buildings, which had been upgraded, additional data collected were: stack temperature, DHW flow in 15-minute increments, oil ampersand boiler make-up water flows, and DHW temperature before and after the mixing (tempering) valve and on the circulating return line. The project's objectives are to develop comprehensive operating data on combined DHW and heating systems to be used in system design and specifications and for improving operating procedures. DHW requirements in multi-family buildings are currently calculated on the basis of questionable standards. These new, more precise DHW flow data result in a better basis for sizing than existed heretofore. There is a critical need for improved specifications and performance in newly constructed and renovated buildings. Better system choices among various instantaneous generation and storage scenarios will result in savings derived from smaller initial equipment investments as well as more energy efficient operations. The data being generated define figures for DHW energy use so that more reliable and accurate predictions of savings can be calculated. This paper presents DHW demand patterns, seasonal variations, weekday vs. weekend consumption, consumption vs. occupancy levels, coinci, consumption vs. occupancy levels, coincidence of 15- and 60-minute demand periods, and average vs. peak demand levels. This project is sponsored by New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The results of this research are being reviewed for inclusion in a revision of DHW guidelines for the next edition of the ASHRAE Handbook

  7. Emission factors and sources of ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid in waste water--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerhacker, M; Lorbeer, G; Haberl, R

    2003-07-01

    Ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a complexing agent and has the ability to form stable water-soluble complexes with metal ions. It is used in a variety of industrial applications including pulp and paper, metal, textile, leather rubber, pharmaceuticals, food, polymer production and others. Most of these applications are water based and lead to emissions into the waste water and reach sewage treatment plants. Industrial sources and municipal waste waters were monitored simultaneously. Mixed samples were taken over periods of one week at nine sample sites. The concentrations of EDTA were measured in waste water samples by gas chromatography using N-selective detection. The results showed that, although, the concentrations and loads were variable the paper manufacturing industry was the major EDTA contributor to the influent of the waste water treatment plant and contributed more than 98% of the total load. All the other sources including two household areas, were comparably low. In waste water of households concentrations between 10 and 70 microg/l EDTA could be detected. Concentrations of EDTA from different industrial waste water sources ranged from 28 up to 3980 microg/l. Influent and effluent concentrations of the WWTP were usually high in the range of 500-940 and 390-760 microg/l; respectively. Elimination rates averaged 15%, the calculation is based on emission loads. Specific emission factors were calculated based on population equivalents. PMID:12729709

  8. Reduction of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Domestic Water Heating by Means of Direct Expansion Solar Assisted Heat Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domestic water heating in households sector is usually performed by either fossil fuel fired or electric boilers. Both the combustion process of the former and large electricity consumption of the latter strongly influence overall greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, very high specific heat of water requires large quantity of energy for water heating making a significant impact on the overall energy consumption in the households sector whose total consumption of 80,81 PJ equals to 19,6% of total primary energy supply in Croatia in 2010. Considering the mentioned impact on energy consumption and CO2 emissions as well as goals set by European Commission (so called 20-20-20), new technologies based on renewable energy sources are more than welcome in the field of domestic water heating. Direct expansion solar assisted heat pump is presented in this paper. Its working principle is based on single-stage vapour-compression cycle. Representing a gradual step to commercial application with a water tank of 300 l, the developed mobile unit is designed as a test rig enabling all necessary measurements to evaluate potential of solar irradiation for domestic water heating on various locations. Besides the unit description, trial testing results are presented and analyzed as well as a basic comparison of CO2 emissions between solar assisted heat pump and conventionally used water heating systems. Taking into account both the decentralized water heating and favourable climatic conditions (especially along the Croatian Adriatic coast) as well as rising fossil fuel prices, it is expected that solar assisted heat pumps will be commercialized in the near future.(author)

  9. Use of electrodialysis bipolar membranes for waste water treatment of municipal waste incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrodialysis bipolar membranes (EDB M) is a combination of a conventional electrodialysis process with a electrodialytic water splitting device and can be used to generate acids and bases from their salts. Applying this technique to flue gas scrubber effluent provides the advantages of recovering resources as well as avoiding problematic residues. The effects of the individual independent variables of EDBM, such as current density, product and salt concentration, an the current efficiency, voltage drop and product purity was investigated. Current efficiency and product purity were shown to decrease with increasing product concentrations and ion flux density and specific energy consumption were shown to increase with current density. Current efficiency was not substantially affected by current density. Only minor changes in current efficiency and product purity resulted from a change in salt concentration. Voltage drop was found to increase severely at low salt concentrations. A pilot plant was built and run in a municipal waste incineration plant in order to investigate the long-term behaviour of the membrane under operating conditions. The scrubber effluent was neutralised and treated both with Na2CO3 and with selective ion-exchange resins to remove multivalent metallic cations in order to prevent precipitation of hydroxides in the bipolar membrane. A decrease of membrane performance, resulting from fouling, could be controlled using activateouling, could be controlled using activated carbon and periodical cleaning with an alkali agent. An economic comparison between EDBM and conventional processes shows that the total cost of EDBM (capital and operating costs) is significantly lower. A further advantage of this process is the enormous reduction of waste, which would otherwise have to be deposited. (author)

  10. Effect of solid waste on heavy metal composition of soil and water at Nathiagali-Abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment concluded that the waste material produced tangible impacts on soil and water system of Nathiagali. The dumping of waste resulted in a marked increase in the concentration of metals in soils and the measured metals varied in the order of Mn > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cu. The metal species were found higher on the site of waste accumulation and decreased with the increasing distance from the dumping site. The dumping place had the highest soil EC as compared to the nearby soils. The pH trend was found apparently inconsistent. Water samples exhibited higher content of heavy metals. This could be attributed to the leachates percolated from the solid and liquid wastes. Metal concentrations were found in excess to the WHO water quality standards. Therefore, an effective awareness, recycling and land filling techniques for the solid waste management in the study area is urgently needed. (author)

  11. Elimination of water from an exhaust air during the incineration of liquid scintillation cocktail waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the incineration of liquid scintillation cocktail waste, the steam of the exhaust air is condensed to water in the duct, thereby causing corrosion and pinholes. To prevent the corrosion of the duct and the degradation of the filter, we designed a condenser and connected it between the incineration system and the duct to remove the condensed water. Upon incineration of about 10 L of liquid scintillation cocktail, about 11 L of water including circulating cooling water was removed by a submerged method. The pH value of the trapped water in the condenser was found to be lower than the original cocktail waste. (author)

  12. Selection of Optimal Storage Strategy for Reduction in Fresh Water Intake and Waste Water Generation for Multipurpose Batch Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand P. Dhanwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work an optimum storage strategy is proposed for fresh water and waste water minimization in multipurpose batch plants. Three intermediate storage strategies considered for cost comparison. The graphical approach of representation of water composite curves and the concept of water surplus which is similar to the grand composite curve in heat pinch analysis is applied here for targeting fresh water and wastewater minimization. Analysis of results reveals that intermediate storage strategy helps in reuse of low COD wash water for further washings. This strategy reduces fresh water intake by approximately 40% for the industrial case study under consideration

  13. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE IMPACT POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS OF THE SOIL AND VEGETATION ON THE AREA OF DOMESTIC WASTES DEPOSIT AT TOME?TI – IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRINA MURARIU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research concerning the heavy metals content (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni from the soil and vegetation on the area of domestic wastes platform at Tomesti – Iasi. The concentration of heavy metals from the soil is bigger in the superficial layer (0-23 cm exceeded the maximum allowed values 3.4 times for Ni, 2.9 for Cr, 1.4 times for Pb and 1.1 times for Cu. The plants which grow on these soils represent resistant ecotypes to heavy metals concentration which they accumulate in leaves or in roots. Among heavy metals with implication in animal nutrition, Cr is the last accumulated in plants, but the physical- chemical properties of soil facilitate the excesses of toxicity limits (< 5 mg/ kg in the analyzed species. For Ni, the toxicity appears at higher concentration than 80 mg /kg in the following species: Amaranthus retroflexus, Erigeron canadensis. Among heavy metals with implication on environment, Pb is accumulated in high quantities in roots in the species: Amaranthus albus, Atriplex tatarica, Amaranthus retroflexus. Cd presents a higher mobility achieving much superior contents than those in soil in the species: Erigeron canadensis, Amaranthus albus. Comparing with the soil content in Cu, accumulation in plants are more than 3-5 times in the species: Amaranthus albus, Erigeron canadensis. Referring to the fact that the Atriplex tatarica and Convolvulus arvensis species are good as fodder and melliferous plants, the contamination risk from the primary customer is higher.

  14. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  15. Occurrence and Potential Human-Health Relevance of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water from Domestic Wells in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Price, Curtis V.

    2007-01-01

    Background As the population and demand for safe drinking water from domestic wells increase, it is important to examine water quality and contaminant occurrence. A national assessment in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey reported findings for 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on 2,401 domestic wells sampled during 1985–2002. Objectives We examined the occurrence of individual and multiple VOCs and assessed the potential human-health relevance of VOC concentrations. We also identified hydrogeologic and anthropogenic variables that influence the probability of VOC occurrence. Methods The domestic well samples were collected at the wellhead before treatment of water and analyzed for 55 VOCs. Results were used to examine VOC occurrence and identify associations of multiple explanatory variables using logistic regression analyses. We used a screening-level assessment to compare VOC concentrations to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and health-based screening levels. Results We detected VOCs in 65% of the samples; about one-half of these samples contained VOC mixtures. Frequently detected VOCs included chloroform, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethene. VOC concentrations generally were VOC concentrations were greater than MCLs in 1.2% of samples, including dibromochloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and ethylene dibromide (fumigants); perchloroethene and trichloroethene (solvents); and 1,1-dichloroethene (organic synthesis compound). Conclusions Drinking water supplied by domestic wells is vulnerable to low-level VOC contamination. About 1% of samples had concentrations of potential human-health concern. Identifying factors associated with VOC occurrence may aid in understanding the sources, transport, and fate of VOCs in groundwater. PMID:18007981

  16. Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance Observed in Escherichia coli Isolates Obtained from Domestic- and Wild-Animal Fecal Samples, Human Septage, and Surface Water

    OpenAIRE

    Sayah, Raida S.; Kaneene, John B; Johnson, Yvette; Miller, RoseAnn

    2005-01-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in 1,286 Escherichia coli strains isolated from human septage, wildlife, domestic animals, farm environments, and surface water in the Red Cedar watershed in Michigan. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method was conducted for neomycin, gentamicin, strep...

  17. Antioxidative properties of some phototropic microalgae grown in waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Microalgae can be a new source of oil and protein in the aquaculture industry while their potential as natural sources of antioxidants has gained recent attention. Not only the fatty acid and amino acid composition but also the antioxidative properties of the micro algae biomass is important when selecting the species to be used for fish feed. The present study is part of a project which aims at developing new processing technologies, so that microalgae-biomass can be used as an alternative valuable resource in fish feed. Lipid and protein composition as well as antioxidative properties were used for the screening and selection of the species. In this study,the potential antioxidant activities of 12 micro algal sample from Chlorella., Spirulina., Euglena, Scenedesmus and Haematococcus species grown in waste water in Kalundborg micro algal facilities were evaluated using three antioxidant assays, including the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. Total phenolic contents (FolinCio-Calteau), tochols (HPLC), carotenoids (HPLC), flavones and ubiquinone (HPLC) contents also were measured. Antioxidant activity in micro algae varied strongly between species.

  18. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2011-01-06

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  19. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  20. Framework for Assessing the Rainwater Harvesting Potential of Residential Buildings at a National Level as an Alternative Water Resource for Domestic Water Supply in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsien Liaw

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH is widely recognized as an alternative source of water in Taiwan because of water shortages. This suggests that rainwater potential should be maximized and quantified. In this article, we assess the potential of DRWH at a national level. To consider the climatic, building characteristic, economic, and ecological aspects of DRWH, we propose three categories: (1 theoretical; (2 available; and (3 environmental bearable rainwater potential. Four main steps were followed to develop the proposed framework: (1 Fifteen rainfall zones across Taiwan were generated through cluster analysis based on the average annual 10-day rainfall distributions of rainfall stations and administrative districts; (2 The roof area in each rainfall zone was estimated using a geographic information system (GIS and land use classification database; (3 The weighted percentage of rainwater use in each rainfall zone was determined by the optimal point on the storage capacity and rainwater supply reliability curve for an equivalent building from each building type; (4 The percentage of the total roof area used to harvest rainwater in each region depends on the downstream impact of the stream flow. The procedures developed in this study constitute an effective tool for preliminarily estimation of the national DRWH potential.

  1. Impact of Solid Waste Disposal on Ground Water Quality in Different Disposal Site at Jaipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Nandwana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper here to present to examine the adverse effect of dumping of solid waste at disposal site on ground water quality at various disposal site at Jaipur city, India. This effect on ground water causes due to the unsystematic or unscientific dumping of solid waste. The water, which already presents in the waste, generates with the biodegradable waste or due to the infiltration of water by rainfall. This water which generates or occurs due to that process pours in the soil and causes contamination with ground water. And that contamination causes the water pollution and changes in the some parameters of the ground water. However, most of the parameters tested fall within WHO recommendation while some are not. The physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, Hardness, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids were studied using various analytical techniques. To control the further pollution of ground water the open area dumping of the solid waste should be prohibited by the municipals authorities.

  2. Decomposition of Fe-EDTA in nuclear waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the cleaning of the steam generator performed at Paks NPP radioactive solution waste containing Fe-EDTA was generated in 1998 and 2000. Laboratory experiments were started for the treatment of the waste solution. A continuous, industrial size technology was developed for the treatment of the solution waste and for the decrease of its EDTA concentration. As the result of the treatment the original EDTA quantity is decomposed with at least 96.5% conversion. (R.P.)

  3. Elimination of ammonium from waste water by means of chemical precipitation. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of this research project, a process for precipitating ammonium salts contained in waste water was developed. The precipitate can be used as fertilizer. The purification process was tested in a pilot plant. (EF)

  4. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results showed that both temperature and concentration of the coagulants substantially impact corrosion rates. The corrosion rates increased with the increase of temperature and concentration. The results from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that chloride caused more serious pitting than sulfate anion on both aluminum and steel specimens. Although SEM confirmed the existence of pitting corrosion, the results of weight loss indicated that the uniform corrosion predominate the corrosion mechanism, and pitting corrosion played a less important role. The test proved that PFS was less corrosive than FC, which may lead to the large-scale application of PFS in waste treatment. The kinetics of the new desulfurization process has been studied. The study results provide the theoretical guidance for improving sulfur removal efficiency and controlling the quality of PFS.

  5. Water transport mechanisms across inorganic membranes in rad waste treatment by electro dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described in this paper deals with effects and mechanisms of water transport across an inorganic membrane, as related to some studied on the concentration of caesium, strontium, plutonium and other cations of interest to radioactive waste treatment. Several different water transport mechanisms are analysed and assessed as to their individual contribution towards the total transference of water during electro-dialysis using inorganic membranes. Water transfer assisted by proton jump mechanism, water of hydration transferred along with the ions, water related to thermo-osmotic effect, water transferred by concentration gradient and water transferred electrolytically under zeta potential surface charge drive are some of the different mechanism discussed. (author)

  6. Waste design for households with respect to water, organics and nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1997-01-01

    Waste design couples handling and treatment of waste with the production and control of waste materials. This integrated approach will allow for a reduced use of non renewable resources in waste treatment The paper discusses the use of waste design for households and its impact on the composition of household wastewater. This will allow for the design of a wastewater with characteristics quite different from those normally found. The separation of toilet wastes or just urine can reduce the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the wastewater to a level where no further nutrient removal is needed. The BOD and COD load to wastewater can be significantly reduced by separating toilet wastes and part of the kitchen wastes. The phosphate content of detergents influences the phosphorus load significantly. Kitchen wastes can be diverted to the solid waste system or the compostable fraction of solid wastes can be incorporated into the wastewater by use of garbage grinders. The change in pollutant load can be achieved separately or in combination with water savings. It is thus possible to reduce or increase the overall concentration of pollutants, and to design wastewater with a given COD/TN or COD/TP ratio, which is of significant influence on biological nutrient removal processes. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems[Solar Domestic Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Soeren

    2004-07-01

    This thesis, 'Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems', describes a study of the heat transfer and flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers for low-flow Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems. The heat storage is a key component in SDHW systems and the vertical mantle heat exchanger is one of the most promising heat storage designs for low-flow SDHW systems. The study was carried out using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Thermal experiments of mantle heat exchangers with different mantle inlet designs showed that the mantle inlet port with advantage can be located a distance from the top of the mantle. Consequently, the mantle heat exchangers marketed today can be improved by changing the mantle inlet position. The heat transfer and flow structure in mantle heat exchangers are rather complex and the thermal experiments were followed by investigations by means of advanced experimental and numerical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Using a transparent glass mantle tank, experimental flow visualisation was carried out with a PIV system. The flow structures inside the mantle and inside the tank were visualised and then compared with the flow structures predicted by CFD-models. The investigations showed that the CFD-models were able to model the flow in the mantle and in the tank correctly. The CFD-models were also validated by means of thermal experiments with a steel mantle tank. With the verified CFD-models, a parameter analysis was carried out for differently designed mantle heat exchangers for different typical conditions to reveal how the mantle tank parameters influence the flow structure and heat transfer in mantle heat exchangers. The heat transfer in the mantle near the mantle inlet port showed to be in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from the inlet increased, natural convection started to dominate. The heat transfer between the tank wall and the domestic water in the tank is governed by natural convection. Dimensionless heat transfer theory was applied, and Nusselt number correlations for the heat transfer in vertical mantle heat exchangers were developed, based on the CFD-analysis. The CFD-calculations and PIV measurements revealed that thermal stratification is built up in the inner tank above the mantle due to natural convection flow along the tank wall. Based on CFD-calculations, a method was developed for determining the heat transfer caused by the natural convection flow inside the tank. Furthermore, a method was developed for determining the mixing inside the mantle due to the mantle inlet jet. The developed heat transfer correlations, the method for determining the heat transfer in the inner tank caused by natural convection and the method for determining the mixing in the mantle were implemented in a simulation program for SDHW systems, MantlSim. The simulation program predicts the yearly thermal performance of low-flow SDHW systems based on mantle tanks. MantlSim was verified and afterwards used as a tool for heat storage design analysis. The heat storage design analysis showed that vertical mantle heat exchangers could be designed in a better way than done today. (au)

  8. Consulting services in the area of nuclear treatments of waste water in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing international interest by industry in the use of gamma irradiation for the disinfection of waste water sludges since these sludges are redistributed for use in agriculture after treatment. A Swiss waste water treatment plant was converted and an irradiation unit installed. The establishment of a coordinated research programme between ITAL in the Netherlands, the plant in Switzerland and the plant manufacturer in Germany is reported

  9. Recovery of uranium from uranium refining waste water by using immobilized persimmon tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some attempts were made to examine the practical conditions for uranium recovery from uranium refining waste water. The adsorbent was highly effective in recovering uranium. The uranium adsorption was affected by pH, temperature, and uranium concentration of the uranium refining waste water. The adsorbent also recovered uranium effectively in column system. It aquires better mechanical properties and can be used repeatedly in the uranium adsorption-desorption cycles. (author)

  10. Decontamination of waste waters and soils from heavy metals using artificial aluminosilicate sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physico-chemical properties of the commercial artificial aluminosilicate sorbent 'beringite' and a newly prepared sorbents (named 'S') were tested in order to test compare usefulness for decontamination of waste waters from heavy metals. Beringite and lime doses were applied to contaminated soils and their effects on plants growth and heavy metals uptake were estimated. The test showed a possible better usefulness of 'S' sorbents for waste water treatment. On the soils studied no differences between beringite and lime application were detected

  11. Impacts of Waste from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations on Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Burkholder, JoAnn; Libra, Bob; Weyer, Peter; Heathcote, Susan; Kolpin, Dana; Thorne, Peter S.; Wichman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on a...

  12. Internationalization Decision Making : Case: Finnish Waste Water Treatment Company to Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Thi Thanh Ha

    2010-01-01

    As the local waste water treatment market in Finland becomes more and more saturated, many companies head out to developing markets such as China, India or Vietnam. The biggest problem for their internationalization decision making is the serious lack of information about the target markets. The goal of this thesis is to assist Case Company, a Finnish waste water treatment company in the decision to expand its business to Vietnam. In order to achieve this goal, information about the Case ...

  13. Internalization decision making : case: Finnish waste water treatment company to Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Thanh Ha , Do

    2010-01-01

    As the local waste water treatment market in Finland becomes more and more saturated, many companies head out to developing markets such as China, India or Vietnam. The biggest problem for their internationalization decision making is the serious lack of information about the target markets. The goal of this thesis is to assist Case Company, a Finnish waste water treatment company in the decision to expand its business to Vietnam. In order to achieve this goal, information about the Case ...

  14. Causal Model for Peak and Off Peak Waste Heat Recovery for Chilled Water Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop a causal model for estimating the amount of chilled water that can be produced from generated waste heat during off peak period of a district cooling plant. The methodology adopted is to calculate the amount of waste heat generated by the gas turbines of the plant during peak and off peak operations. Ten months of 2009 historical data of waste heat generated during peak and off peak periods were analyzed. The chilled water produced by absorption cooling for the ten months during peak period was also analyzed. Mathematical models using the causal relationship of the waste heat generated with the chilled water produced during the peak period for the ten months were formulated. Three models were formulated using the data namely linear, quadratic and exponential. The R2 values obtained are 0.5034, 0.784 and 0.5128 for the linear, quadratic and exponential respectively. Since the R2 value for the quadratic model is the highest, the quadratic model is used to evaluate the amount of chilled water that could be generated from the off peak waste heat. From the calculation, it is estimated that an average of 520,310 RTh of chilled water could be produced monthly from the off peak waste heat. This is 79.7% of the chilled water produced during peak period. Based on these findings the waste heat during off peak if converted to chilled water using absorption process will lead to economic benefits as well as reduced emission to atmosphere. Further detail study will be undertaken to enhance the model and to establish the design configuration of the system to recover the off peak waste heat for chilled water production by absorption process.

  15. Sulfate reduction and fermentation of amino acids in industrial waste water.

    OpenAIRE

    Nanninga, Hendrik Jan,

    1987-01-01

    Waste water from the industrial production of potato-starch contains a large quantity of qualitatively heterogeneous organic and inorganic compounds. Therefore, the anaerobic treatment of this type of waste water involves a large number of microbial processes such as the fermentation of carbohydrates and amino acids, the acetogenic degradation of fatty acids, methane production and sulfate reduction. The bacterial reduction of sulfate, resulting in the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), is ...

  16. Use of radionuclides at small water purification plants and in industrial waste water treatment by radiation adsorption method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irradiation technique for potable water treatment is described. Use of radionuclides as a source of radiation allows for the automation of the process. The treatment is considered to be effective in waste water treatment to remove phenols, pesticides, and other toxic compounds

  17. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  18. Simulation of a combined heating, cooling and domestic hot water system based on ground source absorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A combined heating/cooling/DHW system based on GSAHP is proposed in cold regions. • The soil imbalance is effectively reduced and soil temperature can be kept stable. • 20% and 15% of condensation/absorption heat is recovered by GSAHP to produce DHW. • The combined system can improve the primary energy efficiency by 23.6% and 44.4%. - Abstract: The amount of energy used for heating and domestic hot water (DHW) is very high and will keep increasing. The conventional ground source electrical heat pump used in heating-dominated buildings has the problems of thermal imbalance, decrease of soil temperature, and deterioration of heating performance. Ground source absorption heat pump (GSAHP) is advantageous in both imbalance reduction and primary energy efficiency (PEE) improvement; however, the imbalance is still unacceptable in the warmer parts of cold regions. A combined heating/cooling/DHW (HCD) system based on GSAHP is proposed to overcome this problem. The GSAHPs using generator absorber heat exchange (GAX) and single-effect (SE) cycles are simulated to obtain the performance under various working conditions. Different HCD systems in Beijing and Shenyang are simulated comparatively in TRNSYS, based on which the thermal imbalance, soil temperature, heat recovery, and energy efficiency are analyzed. Results show that GSAHP–GAX–HCD is suitable for Beijing and GSAHP–SE–HCD is suitable for Shenyang. The imbalance ratio can be reduced to ?14.8% in Beijing and to 6.0% in Shenyang with an annual soil temperature variation of only 0.5 °C and 0.1 °C. Furthermore, about 20% and 15% of the total condensation/absorption heat is recovered to produce DHW, and the PEE can reach 1.516 in Beijing and 1.163 in Shenyang. The combined HCD systems can achieve a PEE improvement of 23.6% and 44.4% compared with the normal heating/cooling systems

  19. A Serological Investigation of Some Etiological Agents Associated with Abortion in Domestic Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linneaus, 1758) in the Samsun Province of Northern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    OZAN, Emre; TURAN, Hatice Mahur; ALBAYRAK, Harun; CAVUNT, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In Turkey, there is a lack of information about the frequency and etiology of abortions in breeding water buffalo. In this study, the presence of Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), Bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), Neospora caninum and Brucella abortus were investigated serologically in 82 domestic water buffaloes in the Samsun province of northern Turkey. Seropositivity rates for BVDV, BHV-1, N. caninum and B. abortus were found to be 68.3% (56/82), 80.5% (66/82), 28% (23/82) and 2....

  20. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases

  1. Treatment plants for radioactively contaminated water in nuclear power stations with pressurised water reactors (waste-water treatment plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a plant for treatment of radioactively contaminated water (waste water treatment plant) takes place under consideration of the effects on the environment. Going out from the point that during the design two limiting conditions have to be seen as so-called fixed points - on one hand, all waters occurring in a power plant, and on the other hand all legal and licensing-technical requirements for the release of treated waters from the power plant - leaves the intermediate space as clearance for the plant designer for the indication of a process technology to solve the problem. Exact knowledge of these limiting conditions, however, is necessary for the layout of the plant. In regard to the occurring waters, it is the type and quantity. The layout of the plant concerning the collection of radioactive contaminated waters is depending on this knowledge. This must satisfy in their capacity the operational requirements, as well as the subsequently-added treatment procedure. (orig./RW)

  2. Bio-hydrogen Production from Biodiesel Glycerol Waste from Used Oil by Bacterium Isolated from Waste Water Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Thalisa Yuwa-amornpitak

    2012-01-01

    Among the bacterial strains which were isolated from the sludge of a milk industry waste water treatment plant, HB41 was found to be the most efficient strain for releasing hydrogen from biodiesel glycerol waste from used oil. The use of 16S rDNA sequences analysis identified HB41 as Escherichia coli U5/41 (Accession No. NR_024570.1) with 99% similarity. Then, it was named E. coli HB41. The effects of substrate, pH, temperature and N-sources on hydrogen production were determined. The optimum...

  3. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Ellison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn and metalloids (As and Se in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in “clean” water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se. Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions.

  4. WATER SAVING, ECONOMY OF WATER INSTALLATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, J.; Fernández, L.

    2014-01-01

    [EN]Water is a scare resource and for this reason it is necessary to use it wisely. This paper puts forward some techniques and strategies which have been developed in different countries, to minimize wasteful water consumption for domestic use. The reason for this is to avoid considerable public expense which is caused by the purifying oí unneccessarily polluted water and by equipment and pipes which are too large for their purpose. Also this paper deals with the stat...

  5. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co 100%, and over 60% for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. (authors)

  6. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides 58Co and 60Co 100%, and over 60% for 134Cs and 137Cs. (authors)

  7. Upgrading and extended testing of the MSC integrated water and waste management hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.; Hurley, T. L.; Jasionowski, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of upgrading and testing an integrated water and waste management system, which uses the compression distillation, reverse osmosis, adsorption filtration and ion-exchange processes to recover potable water from urine, flush water and used wash water. Also included is the development of techniques for extending the useful biological life of biological filters, activated carbon filters and ion-exchange resins to at least 30 days, and presterilizing ion-exchange resins so that sterile water can be recovered from waste water. A wide variety of reverse osmosos materials, surfactants and germicides were experimentally evaluated to determine the best combination for a wash water subsystem. Full-scale module tests with real wash water demonstrated that surface fouling is a major problem.

  8. RESOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER GENERATED BY CAR WASHES AND TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna

    2012-12-01

    big cities of Russia. At the same time, the quality of the waste water treated by local water treatment stations fails to meet the present-day standard requirements. Moreover, potable water shall not be used for the purpose of washing transport vehicles. Within the recent 10 years, MGSU has developed a number of research projects aimed at the resolution of this problem. The concept developed by the MGSU specialists is to attain the highest quality of treated waste water generated by car washes and transport enterprises using the most advanced technologies of water treatment rather than to design new water treatment plants. Various methods may be applied for this purpose: restructuring of water treatment facilities, advanced feed, updated regulations governing the operation of water treatment plants.

  9. Physicochemical basics for production of uranium concentrate from wastes of hydrometallurgical plants and technical waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicochemical and technological basics for reprocessing of uranium industry wastes of Northern Tajikistan shows that the most perspective for reprocessing is Chkalovsk tailing's wastes. Engineer and geological condition and content of radionuclides in wastes are investigated. It is determined that considered wastes by radioactivity are low-active and they can be reprocessed with the purpose of U3O8 production. Grinding, crumbling, thickening and etc. operations are decreased during the wastes reprocessing process. Uranium output is more than 90%. Optimal parameters of products extraction from uranium mining industry wastes are found. Characteristics of mine and technical waters of uranium industry wastes are studied. Characteristics of mine and technical waters of Kiik-Tal and Istiklol city (former Taboshar) showed the expediency of uranium oxide extraction from them. The reasons for non-additional recovery extraction from dumps of State Enterprise 'Vostokredmet' by classical methods of uranium leaching are studied. Kinetics of sulfuric leaching of residues from anthropogenic deposit of Map 1-9 (Chkalovsk city) is investigated. Carried out investigations are revealing the flow mechanism process of residues' sulfuric leaching and enable selection of radiation regime of U3O8 production. Kinetics of sorption process of uranium extraction from mine and technical waters of uranium industry wastes is studied. High sorption properties of apricot's shell comparing to other sorbents are revealed. Basic process flow diagram for reprocessing of uranium tailing wastes is developed as well as diagram for uranium extraction from mine and technical waters from uranium industry wastes which consists of the following stages: acidification, sorption, burning, leaching, sedimentation, filtration, drying.

  10. Determination of the source and degree of waste-water infiltration by radiotracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A surface water of small flow rate was continuously contaminated by infiltrating waste-water from one of the workshops of a neighbouring big chemical factory. The contaminant could not be identified chemically. In order to determine the origin of the waste-water, 82Br tracer isotope was injected into the drain of the suspected workshop and the appearance of the radioactivity was continuously checked by a nuclear detector immersed into the surface water for several days. By detecting the appearance of the tracer the source of the pollution was located. By measuring the intensity of the detected tracer after appropriate calibration the quantity of the infiltrating waste-water could be determined. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs

  11. Low temperature vacuum evaporation process for sea water desalination using waste heat from PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the nuclear reactors in India are of the PHWR type and use natural uranium oxide (UO2) as fuel. Heavy water (D2O) is used as the coolant and moderator. About 40 and 100 MW(th) waste heat are available in the moderator system of 220 and 500 MW(e) PHWRs, respectively. A significant part of this waste heat can be utilized for sea water desalination, producing fresh water in the coastal nuclear power stations. Coastal regions generally face water scarcity problems and normally do not have any source of good quality water. The available raw waters have a higher salt content, leading to a high production cost for makeup demineralized (DM) water. A scheme has been suggested that produces up to 1000 t/d of pure water by sea water desalination using the waste heat of the D2O moderator in a 500 MW(e) coastal PHWR to meet the makeup DM water requirements of the power station. The low temperature vacuum evaporation (LTE) deserting system, using the waste heat of the D2O moderator for producing low cost pure water from sea water, is discussed. The technical specifications and performance of the 30 t/d LTE desalination plant set up and operated at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) are presented. Also discussed is the performance of a water jet ejector for creating and maintaining the vacuum in the system and for pumping out the concentrated brine from the evaporator system. Details are given of a proposed 15 t/d LTE desalinare given of a proposed 15 t/d LTE desalination pilot plant coupled to a nuclear research reactor (CIRUS) at BARC, utilizing part of the waste heat of the reactor coolant for conducting an immediate practical demonstration. (author)

  12. Removal of sulphates from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Luptáková Alena

    2002-01-01

    are present in almost all types of water, usually as a simple anion SO42-. The sulphates together with hydrogencarbonates and chlorides are principal anions in natural waters. In typical underground and surface waters, the concentration of sulphates is in the range from ten to hundreds milligrams per litre.Nowadays, the importance of the control of sulphate concentration in waste waters increases. According to the Slovak legislation the limit concentration of sulphates in surface and drinking...

  13. Quantification of water-content of simulated nuclear waste glasses using nuclear reaction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water content of glasses is an important factor in glass manufacture. In the case of slurry-fed processing of waste glass melters, the water content of waste glasses may change the waste form properties significantly. A reliable, non-contact and quantitative measurement technique, with a spatial resolution of about 2-mm was used to determine the concentration of dissolved water molecules in simulated nuclear waste glasses. The 19F resonant reaction was used. The 1H (19F, ??)16O reaction requires a resonance energy that is available by use of a 6.471 MeV 19F beam. A series of ten segments of slurry-fed, joule-heated, research-scale melter tests were conducted to determine the redox effects on processing of various feeds. Representative glass samples were collected at the middle of each segment. Their hydrogen contents were measured. The hydrogen content was correlated to the feed processing and redox of the glasses

  14. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of Hanford's underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford's organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes' future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as at sign ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures

  15. Biogas production from black water, kitchen refuse and farm waste :lab assessment and practical application at MCF Yatta, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiadis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The possibilities for biogas production from black water, kitchen waste and farm waste are examined in this thesis. Theory on the subject of anaerobic digestion and biogas production is presented. Mulli’s Children Family (MCF) farm at Yatta, Kenya is used as a real life example. In addition to this, a biogas lab experiment is included. The available resources for biogas production at MCF Yatta include animal waste, vegetable waste and human waste. The estimated biogas potential of th...

  16. Active carbon preparation from treads of tire waste for dye removal in waste water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michael R., Nunes; Giordana M., Perez; Lara F., Loguercio; Eliete W., Alves; Neftali L. V., Carreño; Jorge L., Martins; Irene T. S., Garcia.

    2027-20-01

    Full Text Available Bandas de rodagem de sucatas de pneus apresentam baixos teores de cargas inorgânicas e grande quantidade de negro de fumo em sua formulação. Neste trabalho, esse material foi tratado com hidróxido de potássio e cloreto de zinco e, em seguida, realizou-se a pirólise a 500 e 700 °C. Foi investigado o [...] desempenho dos produtos na remoção dos corantes azul de metileno e alaranjado de metila em condições ambientais de pH e concentração. Carbonos obtidos com KOH e pirólise a 700 °C apresentam uma melhor capacidade de adsorção. A simulação deste processo permitiu a caracterização dos gases que contribuem para o desenvolvimento da superfície. Os produtos obtidos apresentam estrutura mesoporosa e estreita distribuição no tamanho de partícula. A presença de contaminantes oriundos desses carbonos foi investigada em meio aquoso. A ausência de zinco e enxofre e o excelente desempenho para remoção de corantes fazem esses materiais úteis no tratamento de água. Abstract in english Treads of scrap tires present low contents of inorganic fillers and a large amount of carbon black. In this work, this material was treated with potassium hydroxide and zinc chloride followed by pyrolysis at 500 and 700 °C. The ability to remove methylene blue and methyl orange were investigated und [...] er environmental conditions of pH and concentration. Carbons obtained with KOH at 700 °C present superior adsorption capacity. A simulation of this process permitted the characterization of the gases which contributed to surface development. The obtained products present a mesoporous structure and narrow particle size distribution. The presence of contaminants originated from these carbons was investigated in the aqueous media. The absence of zinc and sulfur releasing and the excellent ability to remove organic dye make these materials useful in the treatment of waste water.

  17. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management. [Shallow Land Burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. L.; Gee, G. W.; Kirkham, R. R.; Gibson, D. D.

    1982-08-01

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs. (DMC)

  18. Water quality analysis of mixtures obtained from tannery waste effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajza, Z; Vrcek, I V

    2001-09-01

    In this study, the mixing of waste solution obtained from chrome tanning process and waste solution derived from liming of bovine leather was investigated. The liming process of bovine leather was performed using calcium carbonate and sodium sulfide, and the tanning process was performed using alkaline chromium sulfate. The analyses of waste solutions and sediments formed during the mixing process include pH values, the concentration of sulfides, the concentration of chromium(III) oxide, and parameters such as chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. All measurements were carried out before and after the mixing process. Results indicate that the mixing of the corresponding waste solutions yields the mixture effluents that are ecologically acceptable. PMID:11534948

  19. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  20. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond