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1

Technological Variations for Domestic Waste Water Heat Recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recovery and use of the heat generated by waste water is an active concern both internationally andnationally. This paper is a study on the technological alternatives used for the recovery of heat from domestic wastewater. The advantages and the technical aspects of the structural alternatives have been emphasized in the study.

GABOR Timea

2010-12-01

2

Technological Variations for Domestic Waste Water Heat Recovery  

OpenAIRE

The recovery and use of the heat generated by waste water is an active concern both internationally andnationally. This paper is a study on the technological alternatives used for the recovery of heat from domestic wastewater. The advantages and the technical aspects of the structural alternatives have been emphasized in the study.

Gabor, Timea; Rusu, T.; Dan, V.

2010-01-01

3

Phyto-treatment of domestic waste water using artificial marshes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phyto-treatment of domestic waste water by the use of artificial marshes system consists in beds of treatment working in series, this beds are constituted basically by inverse filters of inert granular material where the nutrients are cached from the residual water. Most of the treatment is carried in roots steams and leaves of defined species of plants. The rest of the treatment is performed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria that grow within the beds. In the proximities of the roots and the area near the bed surface, aerobic processes take place and in deepest zones, anaerobic processes take place. It is desirable that the aerobic process will be the predominant one, mainly to avoid bad odors; this is obtained with the correct selection of plants which must have dense and deep roots. The economic factor is also important for the selection of this type of treatment system, the cost of operation and maintenance is minimum compared with other type of systems. The operation cost is practically zero because it is not required provision of electrical energy for its operation; energy used is the solar energy through the photosynthesis process. The maintenance is reduced to pruning and cleaning that can be performed twice a year. The goals of this paper is to show our experiences during the construction, stabilization and operation of these systems installed in 13 OCP locations with different types of weather and explain the conclusions arrived after construction and operation; present this kind of systems as an alternative of economic wastewater treatment in terms of construction, operation and maintenance and as environment friendly treatment. (author)

Vaca, Rodrigo; Sanchez, Fabian [Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados (OCP), Quito (Ecuador)

2009-12-19

4

Projection and enterprises controlling in domestic waste water econom  

OpenAIRE

The development of the cost of communal waste water disposal is widely discussed among the population, among politicians and experts. Not only the absolute amount of the charged fees are the cause of concern, but also their increase over the last few years. As part of this thesis, the PC software SloVaKon, which facilitates project and operation decision, will be designed to apply the experience gained during the building and expansion of the waste water industry in Germany´s five new federa...

Schröder Reinhard; Franz Anselm; Augustínová Edita

2000-01-01

5

Projection and enterprises controlling in domestic waste water econom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of the cost of communal waste water disposal is widely discussed among the population, among politicians and experts. Not only the absolute amount of the charged fees are the cause of concern, but also their increase over the last few years. As part of this thesis, the PC software SloVaKon, which facilitates project and operation decision, will be designed to apply the experience gained during the building and expansion of the waste water industry in Germany´s five new federal states to the conditions in the Slovak republic. For this, a comparison of both country´s topographical, technical, legal and economical conditions proved necessary.

Schröder Reinhard

2000-03-01

6

Domestic Waste: Sources, Effects, and Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste is any discarded material. Domestic wastes are those produced by individual activities. In common with other living organisms, humans discharge waste substances to the environment that in turn re-energize the endless cycle of nature. Human activities are closely associated with ambient environment (soil , water, or air) through accumulation of domestic waste. Such household hazardous waste deposit arise from the discharge of domestic activities in the form of municipal solid waste (household, commercial and public street wastes), night soil (human and animal body wastes, excreta, or excrement). In rural areas, night soil is one of several components of the refuse that pollute the land. The surface water may be also directly polluted by domestic wastes or agricultural wastes. But in urbanized areas, household wastes, bathroom and laundry are conveniently flushed away by water as domestic wastewater through sewerage system, and disposed onto land or into receiving water, or in some countries it is treated and re-discharged for domestic usage. Solid waste in the form of kitchen garbage and other household refuse is collected for landfill disposal or for re-industrialization. Many domestic waste influence indoor air quality in urban and rural areas as for example the fuel used for cooking, smoke from cooking and from smoking habits, modern building materials, insulation, fabrics and furniture, cleaning materials, solvents, pesticides, personal care products, organic material or vegetable origin and dander from domestic life

7

Anaerobe-Aerobe Submerged Biofilter Technology for Domestic Waste Water Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water pollution in the big cities in Indonesia, especially in DKI Jakarta has shown serious problems. One of the potential sources of water pollution is domestic wastewater that is wastewater from kitchens, laundry, bathing and toilets. These problems have become more serious since the spreads of sewerage systems are still low, so that domestic, institutional and commercial wastewater cause severe water pollution in many rivers or shallow ground water. Bases on the fact that the progress of development of sewerage system is still low, it is important to develop low cost technology for individual house hold or semi communal wastewater treatment such as using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. This paper describes alternative technology for treatment of household wastewater or organic wastewater using anaerobic and aerobic submerged biofilter. Using this technology can decrease BOD, COD and Suspended Solids (SS) concentration more than 90 %. (author)

8

Phytodepuration plant for the treatment of domestic waste water - realized in a hotel. La fitodepurazione degli effluenti domestici - il caso di una struttura alberghiera  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The processes and the parameters which cause eutrophization of a water system are reported. In addition, the advantage of a phytodepuration plant with respect to conventional plants for the treatment of waste waters are listed. In this paper the phytodepuration plant for the treatment of domestic waste water is described which was by ENEA during 1980 and 1981 in collaboration with the Grand Hotel S. Michele in Cetraro (Italy). The plant utilizes the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a biological filter. The results so far obtained suggest the convenience of the phytodepuration system for touristic village, camping or industries which are operating during the summer time.

Bonetti, M.

1982-12-01

9

Resource recovery from source separated domestic waste(water) streams; Full scale results  

OpenAIRE

A major fraction of nutrients emitted from households are originally present in only 1% of total wastewater volume. New sanitation concepts enable the recovery and reuse of these nutrients from feces and urine. Two possible sanitation concepts are presented, with varying degree of source separation leading to various recovery products. Separate vacuum collection and transport followed by anaerobic treatment of concentrated black water (BW) demonstrated on a scale of 32 houses preserve 7.6 g/N...

Zeeman, G.; Kujawa-roeleveld, K.

2011-01-01

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Influence of domestic and industrial waste discharges on water quality at Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A contaminação aquática provinda de indústrias de processamento de caulim e de esgotos municipais tratados e não tratados, foi avaliada nos ribeirões Ubá e Vermelho, respectivamente, em Ubá e Vermelho Novo, em Minas Gerais. Com esta finalidade, amostras de água, material em suspensão e vegetais fora [...] m coletadas e analisadas. As análises envolveram a determinação da concentração de metais, nitrito, nitrato, cloreto, fosfato, demanda química de oxigênio e demanda bioquímica de oxigênio. O material em suspensão apresentou altas concentrações (em mg kg-1) de Zn (2.400) e Fe (14.900), enquanto que a vegetação coletada nas proximidades dos ribeirões mostrou-se contaminada com Al (7.120). As concentrações de nitrito, nitrato e cloreto nas águas dos ribeirões apresentaram-se abaixo dos valores máximos estabelecidos pela Legislação Brasileira. Os valores de fosfato e demanda bioquímica de oxigênio excederam em 7 e 3 vezes, respectivamente, as concentrações máximas para águas superficiais de qualidade satisfatória. Abstract in english The aquatic contamination from kaolin processing plants, as well as from untreated or inadequately treated municipal sewage, was evaluated in the Ubá Stream and Vermelho Stream, at the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. With this purpose, samples of water, suspended material and vegetation were collected a [...] nd analysed. The analyses involved the determination of the concentration of metals, nitrite, nitrate, chloride, phosphate, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. The suspended material showed high concentrations (in mg kg-1) of Zn (2,400) and Fe (14,900), while the vegetation collected closed to the streams was heavily contaminated with Al (7,120). The concentrations of nitrite, nitrate and chloride in stream water were lower than the maximum values established by the Brazilian Environmental Standards. The phosphate and biochemical oxygen demand values exceeded 7 and 3 times respectively, the maximum concentrations for superficial water of satisfactory quality.

Cláudio P., Jordão; Madson de G., Pereira; Antônio T., Matos; José L., Pereira.

2005-04-01

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Experience on domestic waste segregation in Ghana  

OpenAIRE

Pollution from domestic wastes is a major environmental challenge in Ghana and many developing countries. Most of these countries depend almost entirely on landfills for waste management, which has proved to be expensive, inefficient and unsustainable. A sustainable solution to this problem is productive use of waste such as recycling. The main challenge that may limit recycling in Ghana and some of these countries is that a chunk of the wastes are littered on the environment, and the rest is...

Osei Bonsu Patterson

2013-01-01

12

Experience on domestic waste segregation in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollution from domestic wastes is a major environmental challenge in Ghana and many developing countries. Most of these countries depend almost entirely on landfills for waste management, which has proved to be expensive, inefficient and unsustainable. A sustainable solution to this problem is productive use of waste such as recycling. The main challenge that may limit recycling in Ghana and some of these countries is that a chunk of the wastes are littered on the environment, and the rest is collected in bulk in the same waste bin, thereby mixing them. The cost of collecting littered wastes, or separating mixed wastes could be prohibitive, making recycling uneconomical. In order to productively utilize wastes, adequate and separate waste bins must be provided for collecting the different components of wastes. However, budgetary constraints may not allow many countries to purchase expansive waste bins for the different components of wastes. Consequently, a simple waste bin, comprising a metal frame on which polypropylene sack (pp-sack can be hanged to collect inorganic wastes has been developed by the author. The waste bin (new bin can be manufactured industrially using plastic or fabricated by local artisans at an affordable price. This document describes the new bin. Experience in collecting organic and inorganic wastes generated in a house in separate waste bins (waste segregation for the past 16 years is also highlighted.

Osei Bonsu Patterson

2013-06-01

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Domestic Waste Disposal Practice of Sylhet City  

OpenAIRE

This study focuses the analysis of current practices of household waste disposal, problems faced by the residents during waste disposal and their views for improvement of the waste management system. However, it has been found that traditional concepts and technologies usually adopted in waste collection is becoming insufficient and ineffective causing more than half of the generated wastes (44%) remain uncollected and disposed of locally, which results in adverse impacts like water pollution...

Md. Tauhid-Ur-Rahman

2006-01-01

14

Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

Idiri, Z.; Mazrou, H.; Amokrane, A.; Bedek, S.

2010-01-01

15

Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

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Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

Idiri, Z., E-mail: zmidiri@yahoo.f [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P399, Alger-Gare (Algeria); Mazrou, H. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P399, Alger-Gare (Algeria); Amokrane, A. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Alger (Algeria); Bedek, S. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P399, Alger-Gare (Algeria)

2010-01-15

17

Domestic Waste Disposal Practice of Sylhet City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focuses the analysis of current practices of household waste disposal, problems faced by the residents during waste disposal and their views for improvement of the waste management system. However, it has been found that traditional concepts and technologies usually adopted in waste collection is becoming insufficient and ineffective causing more than half of the generated wastes (44% remain uncollected and disposed of locally, which results in adverse impacts like water pollution, drainage congestion and finally, the degradation of the overall urban environment.

Md. Tauhid-Ur-Rahman

2006-01-01

18

Domestic and international nuclear waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1982, and subsequent 1987 amendments, allowed Congress to establish the plan to manage the nation's spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste. The principal elements in the waste management system include waste acceptance, storage, disposal, and transportation. Interim storage of spent fuel is proposed to be in Monitored Retrievable Storage facility. Studies are being implemented for research and design of multipurpose canisters which will be used for the storage, transport, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The potential repository site for permanent disposal is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Site characterization activities are currently being conducted. Underground construction has started for the Exploratory Studies Facility; surface based activities are currently under way. Factors considered in this phase include environmental concerns, geologic parameters, public safety, local economic impacts and ease and cost of constructing and operating the facility. The United States is involved in cooperative studies with other countries regarding fundamental aspects of radioactive waste storage and disposal systems for high-level waste. Most emphasize assessment of long-term performance of permanent geologic repositories for spent nuclear fuel and high level waste. By participating in international activities, the United States has been involved in transfer of technological developments and information exchological developments and information exchange. Most of the countries which produce electricity with nuclear power plants plan to dispose of the spent fuel within their own countries. The permanent disposal of high level waste for most countries will be in deep geological repositories. This paper will provide the status of the U.S. program in the storage and disposal of its nuclear waste. Strategies for addressing nuclear waste management in the domestic program will be compared to those of foreign countries. 6 refs

19

Waste water treatment by flotation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues, food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water, which is in the atmospheric equilibrum, is introduced in a closed space where the depression is 0,3 – 0,5 bar. Our paper presents the hypobaric flotation cell and the technological flow of cleaning of domestic waste waters

Camelia Badulescu

2005-11-01

20

EMISSIONS OF PCDD/F FROM UNCONTROLLED, DOMESTIC WASTE BURNING  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions of polychlorinated bibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) result from inefficiencies of combustion processes, most typically waste combustion. Uncontrolled combustion, such as occurs during so-called "backyard burning" of domestic waste, may therefore produce optimal ...

21

The Application of Microorganism for Swine Farm and Domestic Waste water Biodegradation and Enzyme Increasing by Radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bacillus sp. And mixed culture were carried out for biodegradation of domestic wastewater (in front of Office od Atoms for Peace) was found that 1%, 12 hours. Bacillus sp. and 1%, 12 hours. mixed culture had maximum removal efficiency in term of COD at 93.48%. Bacillus. alone could reduce COD in small amount. Gamma Radiation improvement efficiency of enzyme production of Bacillus sp. had been studied. The result indicated that Bacillus (Bs.), Bacillus pumilus megaterium (Bm) and Bacillus cereus (Bc) had no proteinase enzyme except Bm. After irradiation of 4 isolates, they all showed high proteinase increasing. The ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter of Bs, Bc, and Bp at 1 - 10 kGy showed more proteinase. After irradiation at 6, 2, 6 and 8 kGy, all Bs, Bc, Bm and Bp showed maximum ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter at 9, 9, 10 and 14 respectively. Thus irradiation of all 4 isolate effectively enhance proteinase production. But amylase could not increase; while lipase showed decreased effect in Bp, and no change in Bs. After irradiation of B13, B16, B35, B50 and B68 at 2, 6, 4, 10 and 10 kGy, the ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter were at 7,4 ,4, 5 and 4 respectively, Proteinase could effectively increase by radiation. According to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc), proteinase increases with the ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter were at 11.

22

Bituminization process of radioactive liquid wastes by domestic bitumen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been carried out of the incorporation of intermediate level wastes in bitumen. Two kinds of wastes: a) an evaporator concentrate from a PWR (containing boric acid), b) second cycle wastes from the Purex process (containing sodium salts), were satisfactorily incorporated into a mixture of straight and blown domestic bitumen, to yield a product containing 50wt% solids. The products were stable to radiation exposure of 5'8x108 rads. Leach rates were measured in both distilled and sea water over periods up to 200 days at 50C and 250C and at both 1 atm and 8 atm pressure. Results confirmed that long term storage of the products would be satisfactory

23

Domestic smoke detectors - a radioactive waste problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A common form of domestic smoke detector is the ionization chamber smoke detector. A small radioactive source provides the ionization and when smoke enters the sensitive volume the change in voltage is sensed electronically. The use of domestic ionization chamber smoke detectors is widespread and is recommended by fire authorities and insurance companies. That one million such detectors were imported into New South Wales in 1994 is an indication of the numbers involved. The typical radioactive source in a domestic smoke detector is Am 241, which is regarded as one of the more hazardous radionuclides. If it is such a hazardous material, should it be allowed in the normal household without any control? Or, in a smoke detector, is it in a less hazardous form than assumed in the ICRP recommendations and do its benefits outweigh its possible risks? In spite of the apparent hazard of Am 241, the possession of the radioactive source in smoke detectors is generally exempt from any form of regulation. Waste regulations, however, set requirements for the disposal of Am 241 and these regulations can be interpreted as applying to smoke detectors. We appear to have a situation where a home owner can legally purchase any number of smoke detectors but when they fail there are codes of practice that prevent them being disposed of. On the other hand, smoke detectors have a direct life saving function and reports indicate that smoke detectors can reduce both injury and property damage an reduce both injury and property damage by up to 50%. Do these benefits from the use of smoke detectors compensate for any radiological risk? (author)

24

Susceptibility of Domestic Cats to Chronic Wasting Disease  

OpenAIRE

Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intr...

Mathiason, Candace K.; Nalls, Amy V.; Seelig, Davis M.; Kraft, Susan L.; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R.; Hayes-klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A.

2013-01-01

25

Thermal power control process in a domestic wastes incinerator and its equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simple control process of the thermal output of a domestic wastes incinerator is described. Particles of coal (diameter up to 6 mm) are injected in the furnace, above the combustion matters, at a rate that is automatically controlled as a function of the hot water or vapour production needed, and as a function of the variations in the flow rate of the wastes or the variations in the calorific value of the wastes.

Bardou, M.M.; Lefebvre, G.

1987-01-09

26

Characteristics and management of domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China.  

Science.gov (United States)

With its rapid development, the rural area of Southwest China has been puzzled by the waste management problem, especially for increasing solid waste and water pollution from the domestic waste. Therefore, in order to efficiently and effectively manage the domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China, 22 villages were selected randomly to analyse the characteristics of domestic waste, the influence factors of characteristics and resident's willingness of participation in domestic waste management by questionnaires, field samplings and laboratory tests. The results of the rural area of Southwest China indicated that the generation of domestic waste was 178?g?d(-1) per capita and it was mainly composed of kitchen waste, inert waste, plastics and paper with a total proportion of 81.98%. The waste bulk density, moisture, ash, combustible and lower calorific value were 107?kg?m(-3), 37.04%, 25.73%, 37.23% and 8008?kJ?kg(-1), respectively. These characteristics were influenced by the topography, the distance from towns or cities, the villagers' ethnicities and income sources to some extent. Moreover, the distance of 50-800?m between each collection facility and the disposal fee of around ¥5.00 per household per month could be accepted. The working hours of participation in waste management is suggested as 5?hours per day with the income of ¥1000 per capita per month. Based on the outcome of this survey, a waste management system consisting of classified collection, centralised treatment and decentralised treatment was proposed. It is important to ensure financial viability and practical considerations of this system. PMID:25423957

Han, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Lei, Yunhui; Wu, Jing; Li, Shulan

2015-01-01

27

Concrete Production Using Technogenical, Constructional and Domestic Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes investigations carried out by the scientists from various countries in order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. The grained rubber of tyres, modified sawdust, crushed ceramic bricks, plastic waste and remains of glass are utilised to produce concrete mixtures. The results of research conducted by the scientists show that in the process of producing concrete we can use different types of waste to change natural aggregates and to get concrete with specific properties. Currently, waste handling and utilization are burning ecological problems. Therefore, intensive investigations are carried out in order to utilise technogenical, constructional and domestic waste for concrete mixtures. Article in Lithuanian

Marija Vai?ien?

2011-04-01

28

Domestic and international nuclear waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1982, and subsequent 1987 amendments, allowed Congress to establish the plan to manage the nation's spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste. The principal elements in the waste management system include waste acceptance, storage, disposal, and transportation. Interim storage of spent fuel is proposed to be in a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility. The Department has been relying on a voluntary siting processes for the temporary storage of spent fuel. A potential repository site is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Site characterizations are currently being conducted. Underground construction has started for the Exploratory Studies Facility; surface based activities, including drilling and trenching, are currently under way to acquire additional data. The United States is involved in cooperative studies with other countries. Most of these studies emphasize assessment of long-term performance. By participating in international activities, the United States has been involved in transfer of technological developments and information exchange. There are currently over 400 nuclear power reactors operating in 25 countries. Most countries producing electricity with nuclear power plan to dispose of the spent fuel within their own countries. This paper will provide the status of the US program in the storage and disposal of its nuclear waste

29

Treatment of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Takasaki-JAERI, studies on the radiation treatment of waste water have been continued in several aspects, i.e. (1) refractory compounds in industrial waste water may be treated by radiation, (2) utilization of a powerful electron accelerator may improve the economics and (3) combination of radiation processing with a conventional technique may improve the efficiency. The results are reviewed on these lines in this paper, though the future application may be in the combination of all the aspects. (author)

30

Exothermic hydrogen production system in supercritical water from biomass and usual domestic wastes with an exploitation of RuO2 catalyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with a method of producing hydrogen from biomass and sewage disposals in supercritical water by use of ruthenium dioxides as a catalyst. Experiments were carried out under argon atmosphere with a batch reactor made of INCONEL625. Reaction temperatures and pressures were changed in the ranges of 400-500degC and 30-50 MPa, respectively. The gas produced was quantitatively analyzed by online gas chromatography. In conclusion, considerably high ratios of hydrogen up to 38.5% were produced from the sewage disposals. This value was even higher than the hydrogen production ratios from other biomass: 15.0% from cellulose, 14.1% from pulp, 16.0% from waste paper, and 27.0% from paper sludge. The heat balance was calculated in the present reaction system using ruthenium oxide as the catalyst in supercritical water for the reaction of naphthalene and cellulose. The result showed that the total reaction was exothermic. This is rather surprising, because most of the hydrogen forming reactions are endothermic. The present result should be due to the excess heat derived by the partial formation of carbon dioxide. (author)

31

Solar water heating for domestic supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilization of solar energy for heating domestic hot water supply in Jordan is investigated, evaluated, and optimized. A system of a typical flat-plate solar collectors with a preheat tank was used as a simulations model to investigate its performance relevant to various important factors taking into consideration the typical meteorological conditions in Jordan. A computer simulation was used for the determination of the solar energy percentage coverage of hot-water thermal demand as a function of the number of collector panels and size, hot water demand cycle, preheat storage volume, collector tilt angle, and other parameters. The system performance is analyzed on hourly, monthly, half yearly and yearly bases. The results obtained indicated that the annual percentage coverage of the typical thermal demand using a typical 3-panel system of about 4m2 collector area reached as high as 65%, and 4-5 m2 of commercial collector area provide the best annual solar percentage coverage per JD invested. (author). 14 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

32

A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

Dexter V. L. Hunt

2014-05-01

33

Reduction of the waste from domestic production of the orange  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research subject is (reduction of the waste from domestic production of orange) we find there is a lot of wastage after harvest, because the process of packaging, loading, transportation, and store is not adequate. The purpose of this research is to solve this problem of wastage by following a number of steps after harvesting and pre-harvest process. This process is called COLD CHAIN. Cold chain is: cold store in production place, cold vehicles for transportation, cold room in the market, cold car for distribution, cold and freezer refrigerator home. After adopting the cold chain we achieved the following results: orange wastage is reduced, the orange quality improved. (Author)

34

Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems.  

OpenAIRE

Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.In this thesis the possibilities are presented for fixed-film post-treatment of anaerobically digested domestic sewage and water reconditioning in aquacultural water recirculation systems. Emphasis is put on ...

Bovendeur, J.

1989-01-01

35

Bonding material containing ashes after domestic waste incineration for cementation of radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is known that cement minerals hydration is accompanied with heat emission. Heat of hardening influences formation of a cement compound structure and its properties. It is important to reduce the heat quantity at continuous cementation of waste and filling of compartments of a repository or containers by a cement grout. For reduction of heating, it is necessary to use cement of mineral additives (fuel ashes, slag and hydraulic silica). Properties of ashes after domestic waste incineration can be similar to ones of fly fuel ashes. However, ash after domestic waste incineration is toxic industrial waste as it contains toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, Zn). Utilization of secondary waste (slag and ash) of combustion plants is an important environmental approach to solving cities' issues. Results of the research have shown that ashes of combustion plants can be used for radioactive waste conditioning. Co-processing of toxic and radioactive waste is ecologically and economically effective. At SIA 'Radon', experimental batches of cement compositions are used for cementation of oil containing waste. (authors)

36

Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

2014-08-01

37

Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c.-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and the cats progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by the i.c., p.o., and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (i.p./s.c.) routes. Upon subpassage, feline CWD was transmitted to all i.c.-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (Fel(CWD)) was demonstrated in the brains of all of the affected cats by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 i.p./s.c.- and 2 of 4 p.o. secondary passage-inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature. PMID:23236066

Mathiason, Candace K; Nalls, Amy V; Seelig, Davis M; Kraft, Susan L; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A

2013-02-01

38

Waste water treatment by flotation  

OpenAIRE

The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues), food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water...

Camelia Badulescu; Lorand Toth; Romulus Sarbu

2005-01-01

39

Waste Water Treatment  

OpenAIRE

One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data of the Waste Water Treatment. This site is developed to provide information on wastewater engineering, including features such as basic concepts of wastewater treatment and an introduction to wastewater treatment systems and equipment. A virtual site visit to the three major Hong Kong Sewage Treatment Plants at Shatin, Stonecutters Island and Stanley is provided.

Kumaraswamy, Mohan

2002-01-01

40

Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-12-31

41

The domestic wastes incinerators; Les incinerateurs d'ordures menegares: quels risques? quelles politiques?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the opinion of the Committee of Prevention and Precaution (CPP), on the domestic wastes incinerators, in the framework of the global wastes policy. The seven chapters detail and bring advices on the following topics: the elements which are going in and out of the incinerators, the technical processes, the occupational activities and the risks bound to the incinerators use, the transfer modes towards the different environmental areas, the exposure estimation, the risks of people living near the domestic wastes incinerators compared to the other concerning a cancer development, the legislation concerning the domestic wastes and the social acceptability of the incinerators. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-10-01

42

Optimal sizing of rain water tanks for domestic water conservation  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryMelbourne is facing a severe drought having its 12th consecutive below average rainfall year. Water authorities have been forced to impose rigorous water restrictions including voluntary per capita water use targets after more than 20 years of unrestricted water supply. The current severe drought and dwindling water resources have accelerated the use of alternative water sources including domestic rainwater. There is a large variation in average annual rainfall in the Greater Melbourne area ranging from 1050 mm in the east to 450 mm in the west. Hence, there is a significant difference in the tank size required in the west and the east of Melbourne to meet a similar demand and to provide the same supply reliability. The paper presents a novel methodology and a relationship for optimal sizing of rainwater tanks considering the annual rainfall at the geographic location, the demand for rainwater, the roof area (catchment area) and the desired supply reliability. The characteristic of the developed dimensionless curve reflects these variables and paves the way for developing a web based interactive tool for selecting the optimum rainwater tank size.

Khastagir, Anirban; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

2010-02-01

43

Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

44

Waste water treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste water containing over 2 ppm Mo and at least one heavy metal impurity selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, and also containing cyanide ion (CN) is treated by passing waste water having an adjusted pH value ranging from about 3 to 4 through an ion-exchange resin column selective to the removal of Mo and provide an ion-exchange effluent containing at least one of said heavy metal impurities and said cyanide ion. The ph value of the effluent is then adjusted to a range of about 7 to 11 sufficient to precipitate the heavy metal impurity having the highest pH requirement for precipitation, following which the precipitate is flocculated and the effluent containing the flocculated precipitate then subjected to electrolysis using insoluble electrodes to form electrolytic oxygen and hydrogen and effect electroflotation of the flocculated precipitate and form a froth thereof which is separated from the effluent by skimming.

Laferty, J.M.; Van Riper, G.G.; Zundel, W.P.

1980-02-19

45

Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

2011-11-01

46

A CONSIDERATION OF DOMESTIC WATER FORECASTING WITH MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of forecasting domestic water demand in the long term are important for planning water supply facilities and operation and management systems. In Japan, recently, domestic water demand has been decreasing because of the progress of a water saving society such as spread of water-saving equipment. The trend methods has been used for forecasting water demand, however, water demand structures are complicated due to the variation of factors affecting them. It has therefore become difficult to forecast domestic water demand by the trend methods. Some waterworks have used multivariate analysis method using quantification method theory 1 for water demand forecasting. However, the method includes a issue not to be able to set in the changes of prescriptive factors in the future. The selection of explanatory variables is also a large issue. The aim of this study was to analyze changes of the prescriptive factors using quantification theory type 1 by the results of questionnaire surveys carried out at intervals and to reflect how far the water demand should be expressed on practical level focused on the selection of explanatory variables. As the results, changes of the factors and its contribution were revealed across the age. However, results of the water demand forecasting were not enough accurate because of the changes of factors. And, the considerations in water demand forecasting using multivariate analysis were mentioned.

Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Higashi, Yusuke; Taniguchi, Kumiko; Yamada, Kiyoshi

47

A waste-free thermal power station firing domestic wastes with the use of new combustion technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors causing an extremely negative situation with respect to the environment in cities of Russia that has been created continuously over the last 40 years by numerous storage sites of domestic wastes, which at the same time are a considerable resource of renewable (inexhaustible) fuel, are considered. A combustion theory for multicomponent and high-moisture domestic wastes as nontraditional fuel is developed, and technology for their thermal reprocessing is developed on the basis of this theory.

Purim, V. R.

2009-11-01

48

Energy requirements for waste water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant. PMID:22214091

Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

2011-01-01

49

Design package for solar domestic hot water system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

None

1980-09-01

50

The Status of Domestic Water at Velezizweni, Swaziland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the sources of domestic water and its status in terms of quality at Velezizweni, a rural area in Swaziland. A questionnaire was developed and administered to 190 homesteads that were randomly selected from a total of 360 homesteads in the study area. The information solicited by the questionnaire included sources of domestic water, perception of community members on degradation of water resources and measures taken to purify drinking water. Water samples were taken from 14 water sources during the month of January 2011, and analysed for total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli and Faecal streptococci (F. streptococci. The sources of domestic water with the proportion of respondents accessing water from each one of them were (piped water, 45%, rivers and streams (31%, unprotected wells (24%, boreholes (15%, roof-water harvesting (8% and dams (0.5%. Each homestead accessed water from more than one source in most cases. The piped water was diverted from rivers/streams, springs and wells and piped to homesteads or within the vicinity of the homesteads. However the water was not potable as it was not treated. Water from boreholes was suitable for drinking as no E. coli or F. streptococci were detected. However water from the other sources was not suitable for drinking as E. coli and F. streptococci were detected. Total coliform was also present in amounts above the acceptable limit of 10 counts per 100 mL of water. The communities were exposed to waterborne diseases such as cholera and diarrhea, especially because only 6% of the respondents reported that they boiled water before drinking.

S.S. Tfwala

2012-03-01

51

Prototype solar domestic hot water systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

1978-01-01

52

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium concentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

53

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

54

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

1981-04-01

55

Space, Identity and Health Risks: a study of domestic waste in Ibadan, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor waste management has characterized Ibadan’s modern and historical identity.  As a consequence, residents of Ibadan (indigenes hold diverse views about the city's image, while non-indigenes label it "filthy" and "dirty".  These perceptions, spatial and cultural, are deep rooted, intertwining with the political and cultural plane of Nigerian society. A distinction between “self” and “others” is seen to mark a discourse and counter discourse in the perception of health risks associated with domestic waste in the Ibadan.  Through survey and descriptive ethnography, our paper examines the nature and extent of domestic waste in Ibadan, as a physical, community and psychological reality, where we seek to explain how generation and poor waste management  impacts on these spaces and the very mechanics of identity. Different perceptions of health risks are observed as well the vulnerability to diseases associated with domestic waste and poor hygiene, bringing into play the socioeconomic variables and residential patterns which constitute the daily reality of this city.  Our study establishes that the increase in urban population, the low economic status, the indiscriminate setting up of artisans’ shops or outlets and the overall inability of government agencies to monitor the menace of domestic waste and its attendant health risks, are central factors to the problem generically deemed one of “waste”.  

Aderemi Suleiman Ajala

2011-11-01

56

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-12-01

57

Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the last decade, a growing interest in recycling of domestic waste has emerged, and action plans to increase the recycling of domestic waste have been agreed by many governments. A common feature of these plans is the implementation of new systems and equipment for the collection of domestic waste which has been separated at source. However, only limited information exists on possible occupational health problems related to such new systems. Occupational accidents are very frequent among waste collectors. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the risk factors should be considered as an integrated entity, i.e. technical factors (poor accessibility to the waste, design of equipment) may act in concert with high working rate, visual fatigue due to poor illumination and perhaps muscle fatigue due to high work load. Musculoskeletal problems are also common among waste collectors. A good deal of knowledge has accumulated on mechanical load on the spine and energetic load on the cardio-pulmonary system in relation to the handling of waste bags, bins, domestic containers and large containers. However, epidemiologic studies with exposure classification based on field measurement are needed, both to further identify high risk work conditions and to provide a detailed basis for the establishment of occupational exposure limits for mechanical and energetic load particularly in relation to pulling, pushing and tilting of containers. In 1975, an excess risk for chronic bronchitis was reported for waste collectors in Geneva (Rufèner-Press et al., 1975) and data from the Danish Registry of Occupational Accidents and Diseases also indicate an excess risk for pulmonary problems among waste collectors compared with the total work force. Surprisingly few measurements of potentially hazardous airborne exposures have been performed, and the causality of work-related pulmonary problems among waste collectors is unknown. Recent studies have indicated that implementation of some new waste collection systems may result in an increased risk of occupational health problems. High incidence rates of gastrointestinal problems, irritation of the eye and skin, and perhaps symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (influenza-like symptoms, cough, muscle pains, fever, fatigue, headache) have been reported among workers collecting the biodegradable fraction of domestic waste. The few data available on exposure to bio-aerosols and volatile compounds have indicated that these waste collectors may be simultaneously exposed to multiple agents such as dust containing bacteria, endotoxin, mould spores, glucans, volatile organic compounds, and diesel exhaust. Several studies have reported similar health problems as well as high incidence rates of pulmonary disease among workers at plants recycling domestic waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O

1995-01-01

58

Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information concerning the concentrations of uranium in 89,994 US surface, ground, and domestic waters is summarized. Sources surveyed included the open literature, state health departments, Federal agencies, and personal contacts. For each state, samples were geographically located, identified by type and use, and tabulated by decreasing uranium concentration. Histograms covering 14 concentration ranges were prepared for all surface, ground, and domestic water samples of each state and for the entire United States. Estimates were made of the population-weighted average concentrations of uranium in domestic waters of each state. Based on these averages, alpha radiation bone doses were computed for lifetime consumptions of each water. In addition, the fractions of water supplies in each state producing water containing uranium in excess of 1, 5, 10, and 20 pCi/L were estimated. An extensive discussion of analytical methods used to determine uranium in surface and ground waters is also included. The concentrations of uranium in 34,561 US surface waters ranged from 0.01 to 582.38 pCi/L and averaged 1.06 pCi/L. The median and modal concentration ranges for these samples were 0.1 to 0.2 pCi/L and 0.2 to 0.5 pCi/L, respectively. In 55,433 US ground water samples the concentrations of uranium ranged from 0.01 to 652.80 pCi/L and averaged 3.18 pCi/L. The median and modal concentration ranges were 0.2 to 0.5 pCi/L and 2 to 5 pCi/L, respectively. Of the listed sample pCi/L, respectively. Of the listed sample sites 28,239 were identified as domestic water sources. Uranium in these samples ranged from 0.07 to 652.80 pCi/L and averaged 1.73 pCi/L. Using state totals, it is estimated that 15% to 24% of all US water supplies would have uranium concentrations in excess of 1 pCi/L; 4% to 8%, in excess of 5 pCi/L; 0.1% to 3%, in excess of 10 pCi/L; and 0.04% to 1%, in excess of 20 pCi/L

59

Endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba Isolated from Domestic Tap Water in Korea  

OpenAIRE

In a previous study, we reported our discovery of Acanthamoeba contamination in domestic tap water; in that study, we determined that some Acanthamoeba strains harbor endosymbiotic bacteria, via our molecular characterization by mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (Mt DNA RFLP). Five (29.4%) among 17 Acanthamoeba isolates contained endosymbionts in their cytoplasm, as demonstrated via orcein staining. In order to estimate their pathogenicity, we conducted a genetic char...

Choi, Seon Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Ahn, Soon Cheol; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jong Soo; Kim, Dong-hee; Xuan, Ying-hua; Hong, Yeon Chul; Kong, Hyun Hee; Chung, Dong Il; Yu, Hak Sun

2009-01-01

60

Appraisal of domestic solid waste generation, components, and the feasibility of recycling in Erbil, Iraq.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid waste collection and disposal are among the most vital services provided to about 700 770 residents of the city of Erbil in northern Iraq. As such, proper waste management systems that consider both the quantity and composition of domestic solid waste are strongly required to address the increasing amount of solid waste. Unfortunately, these essential data are not easily available. The present study sought to gather data on the quantity and composition of domestic solid waste collected from different quarters in Erbil, and the feasibility of recycling these wastes. The solid waste generation rate (GR), uncompacted density, and weight percentages of combustible and incombustible materials were determined based on the collected materials (i.e., food, plastic, paper, metal, glass and cloth). The results show that the average GR and uncompacted density were 0.654 kg capita(-1) day(-1) and 175.72 kg m(-3), respectively. The weight percentages of food, plastic, paper, metal, glass, and cloth as components of domestic solid waste were 79.34, 6.28, 5.9, 3.6, 3.42 and 1.45%, respectively. PMID:21242179

Shuokr Qarani Aziz; Hamidi Abdul Aziz; Mohammed Jk Bashir; Mohd Suffian Yusoff

2011-08-01

61

Waste water and sewage sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monitoring of waste water and sewage sludge within the framework of environmental radioactivity monitoring is based on samples taken from sewage treatment plants and from sewer systems. Its main purpose is surveillance of emissions from potential polluters, making use of the fact that most of the radioactive nuclides are discharged with the waste water, and detection is more easy with large amounts of waste water available for treatment and sampling, (enrichment of ? and ? activities and of I-131 in large volumina). Municipal sewage treatment plants need not be generally monitored for radionuclides in the sewage sludge destined for use in agriculture, as emissions of long-lived isotopes are extremely low. (orig./DG)

62

Domestic Separation and Collection of Municipal Solid Waste: Opinion and Awareness of Citizens and Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The state of the art on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW management is based on the domestic separation of materials produced. After domestic separation, the resident has to transfer the separated materials to the MSW manager through the hands of collection workers. It is exactly at this stage that an end-use product changes its status and property becomes waste. This paper analyzes and compares the opinions and awareness of citizens and kerbside collection workers on this subject by means of two structured questionnaires in the city of Mercato San Severino (about 22,000 people, in Southern Italy.

Giovanni De Feo

2010-05-01

63

Radon in domestic water supplies in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a novel experiment carried out by school children the level of naturally occurring 222Rn has been measured in domestic tap water at 504 locations throughout the UK. Most values were close to 1 Bq.1-1 and none were above the limit suggested by the UK National Radiological Protection Board of 100 Bq.1-1. The values are considerably lower than in many US tap waters and provide a negligible contribution to the level of inhaled radon in room air. (author)

64

Anaerobic psychrophilic treatment of household waste water in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor  

OpenAIRE

Hammarby Sjöstad is a new district in southern Stockholm. A main objective with the Sjöstad project was to halve the environmental impact compared to other construction work. The environmental goals involve a halved water consumption rate, a local treatment of storm water and trials aiming to extract nutrients from the waste water. Sjöstadsverket is an experimental treatment plant used for testing new treatment processes for domestic waste water from Hammarby Sjöstad. The results are to b...

Hesselgren, Frida

2004-01-01

65

Simultaneous treatment of SO2 containing stack gases and waste water  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for simultaneously removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and the like and purifying waste water such as derived from domestic sewage is described. A portion of the gas stream and a portion of the waste water, the latter containing dissolved iron and having an acidic pH, are contacted in a closed loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone to effect absorption of the sulfur dioxide into the waste water. A second portion of the gas stream and a second portion of the waste water are controlled in an open loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone. The second portion of the waste water contains a lesser amount of iron than the first portion of the waste water. Contacting in the openloop scrubbing zone is sufficient to acidify the waste water which is then treated to remove solids originally present.

Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D. (inventors)

1978-01-01

66

Progress on water chemistry control in domestic PWR plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Every possible efforts on water chemistry control of both primary and secondary water have been made to improve the plant reliability for these ten years. The calm technical responses for the quiet behavior of primary water and the dynamic responses for the unstable behavior of secondary water have been done as the water chemistry control techniques, which are presented here. For the secondary system, the water chemistry has been charged from phosphate treatment to all volatile treatment and new all domestic PWR plants are controlled by this treatment. Consequently, the excellent secondary water conditions have been maintained with the installation of the condensate polisher and the careful water chemistry control. On the other hand, for the primary system, the water chemistry has been finely controlled by settling not only the standard value but also the limiting value. The water chemistry control for reducing radioactive corrosion products, the automatization of chemical analyses and new corrosion inhibiter for component cooling water system are also reported here. (author)

67

Flotation process for purification of waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a flotation method for purification of industrial or municipal waste water, waste water comes in contact with electrodes having an electrical potential capable of electrolytically decomposing a portion of the waste water, thereby creating an ascending stream of gas bubbles. The waste water is mixed before or during the electrolytic decomposition with wettable particles of polymer material which are practically insoluble in water and have an absolute density of 1.3 g/cm3 at the most. Polymeric materials, especially polyalkane fibrids, are suitable for use as particles. This process makes it possible to purify oil-containing waste water by electroflotation without forming an oil film on the electrodes.

Julke, E.

1982-01-19

68

The estimation of radiological impact from the disposal of radionuclides with domestic and commercial wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the UK, limited quantities of radionuclides are disposed of with non-radioactive domestic and commercial wastes under the terms of Exemption Orders or Authorisations granted by the Radiochemical Inspectorate. This report presents a methodology and basis for the calculation of individual and collective doses to workers and to members of the public from such disposals. (author)

69

DETERMINATION OF WASTE WATER AND WASTE SLUDGE QUALITY FROM WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT USING CHEMOMETRICS METHODS  

OpenAIRE

Data from monitoring of waste water and waste sludge were gathered from waste water treatment plant during 1999 to 2004. Additionally data from year 2007 for two months, namely November and December were provided. For data evaluation different chemometric methods were used: basic statistical methods for determination of mean and median values, standard deviation, minimal and maximal values of measured physical and chemical parameters and their mutual correlation coefficients, principal co...

Rihter Zagoric?nik, Urs?ka

2009-01-01

70

Assessment of U.S. domestic capacity for producing reactor-grade thorium dioxide and controlling associated wastes and effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Demand for reactor-grade ThO2 is likely to increase as a result of the growing interest in the application of the thorium-uranium fuel cycle to nuclear reactors. The wastes and effluents identified with the production of ThO2 from monazite sand are waste water, tailings, dust, smoke and gas, and radionuclides (primarily, 232Th and 226Ra). There are currently an estimated 1,500 short tons of crude thorium hydroxide byproduct that can be readily converted to reactor-grade ThO2. The present maximum domestic capacity for producing reactor-grade ThO2 is about 65 to 100 ton/year. The current domestic capacity for producing reactor-grade ThO2 is sufficient to sustain a thorium-uranium fuel cycle of up to 11,000 MW(e) without recycling thorium, depending on the mix of reactor types selected. This range can be increased to 28,000 MW(e) by expanding ThO2 purification capacity to match the current production rate of crude thorium byproduct. Potential constraints identified which may impact the expansion of domestic ThO2 production are (1) uncertainty in the marketplace, (2) limited available thorium for production of reactor-grade ThO2, (3) limited production capacity, and (4) mounting public concern over current levels of radioactivity detected at various points in the production process of thorium and uranium products

71

The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. PMID:24337891

Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

2014-12-01

72

Fermentative Production of Ethanol fuel from Domestic Waste by Pichia stipitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of Ethanol fuel from the garbage/kitchen waste was carried out with the main purpose of converting the domestic waste into a useful material. The conversion of food waste or garbage by acid hydrolysis was carried out to obtain fermentable sugars, which was converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Pichia stipitis. The present study indicated that at 36 h of incubation resulted in utilization of 29 g/L of glucose with yield of 9.2 g/L ethanol. Compared to various sugars the glucose resulted in the production of ethanol.

Modugu P

2013-05-01

73

Fermentative Production of Ethanol fuel from Domestic Waste by Pichia stipitis  

OpenAIRE

Production of Ethanol fuel from the garbage/kitchen waste was carried out with the main purpose of converting the domestic waste into a useful material. The conversion of food waste or garbage by acid hydrolysis was carried out to obtain fermentable sugars, which was converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Pichia stipitis. The present study indicated that at 36 h of incubation resulted in utilization of 29 g/L of glucose with yield of 9.2 g/L ethanol. Compared to various sugars t...

Modugu P

2013-01-01

74

[Municipal waste water treatment plants.  

OpenAIRE

This document on municipal waste water treatment plants has been published within the WESP cooperation project: the Working group Emissions of Service industries and Product use. In this project information has been collected on processes in the target groups of consumers, construction, service industries, environmental firms and recreation to get agreement about the data used bij different institutes and to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This ...

Cj, Peek

2007-01-01

75

Endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba isolated from domestic tap water in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study, we reported our discovery of Acanthamoeba contamination in domestic tap water; in that study, we determined that some Acanthamoeba strains harbor endosymbiotic bacteria, via our molecular characterization by mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (Mt DNA RFLP). Five (29.4%) among 17 Acanthamoeba isolates contained endosymbionts in their cytoplasm, as demonstrated via orcein staining. In order to estimate their pathogenicity, we conducted a genetic characterization of the endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba isolated from domestic tap water via 16S rDNA sequencing. The endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba sp. KA/WP3 and KA/WP4 evidenced the highest level of similarity, at 97% of the recently published 16S rDNA sequence of the bacterium, Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus. The endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba sp. KA/WP8 and KA/WP12 shared a 97% sequence similarity with each other, and were also highly similar to Candidatus Odyssella thessalonicensis, a member of the alpha-proteobacteria. The endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. KA/WP9 exhibits a high degree of similarity (85-95%) with genus Methylophilus, which is not yet known to harbor any endosymbionts. This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, to show that Methylophilus spp. can live in the cytoplasm of Acanthamoeba. PMID:19967080

Choi, Seon Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Ahn, Soon Cheol; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jong Soo; Kim, Dong-Hee; Xuan, Ying-Hua; Hong, Yeon Chul; Kong, Hyun Hee; Chung, Dong Il; Yu, Hak Sun

2009-12-01

76

Features of waste water quality in Zongguan water plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper takes waste water from Zongguan waterworks as a research object. The waste water was monitored consecutively and found that: the SS of waste water was more than 90 times of which in original water, COD was more than 30 times, and Fe was 58 times. The SS and turbidness showed no linear relation except when they were lower. The SS and Fe accord with linearity relation was better. The difference between waste water that from overhead crane at the beginning and in the end was wide. Although the flux of backwash wastes was small but the impact of it over the quality of water was very high.

Hadi Naba Shakir

2008-10-01

77

Domestic production of control parts for the nuclear waste treatment facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The control part IND-100, which interfaces the field signals to the control networks in the control systems of PIEF (Post-Irradiated Examination Facility) and RWTF (Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility), was designed and fabricated. Preamplifier boards for radiation detectors, proportional counter and Geiger-Mueller tube which are in use in the radiation monitoring systems, were also designed and fabricated. Control parts which may be replaced with the domestic parts were surveyed, and a domestic relay model and a recorder model were selected as the replaceable ones. To improve the control systems, adoption of programmable controller to the conventional relay logic system were considered and analyzed. (Author)

78

Departmental plans of domestic wastes management - evaluation 2002; Plans departementaux d'elimination des dechets menager assimiles - bilan 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The departmental plans of domestic wastes management are official documents which manage the actions needed to realize the legislative and regulation objectives concerning the domestic wastes and related wastes. A first evaluation has been realized in 1997 for 47 edited plans. In the context of the new wastes policy a new evaluation has been realized by the ADEME in 2002 for 98 plans. It provides the methodology of the study, the analysis of the plans, the sites and management of wastes, economic data, the equipment and investments. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-03-01

79

Willingness to Pay for Domestic Water Service Improvements in Selangor, Malaysia: A Choice Modeling Approach  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: The tasks and responsibilities of domestic water service management in Malaysia are handled by various government agencies. Sufficient water service and resources management is required for sustainable water resources conservation. In order to realized water resource conservation, economic effectiveness of water utilization (consumers), maintenance of water quality supply (source of water supply) and efficiency in allocating water resources (agencies) ne...

Mohd. Rusli Yacob; Alias Radam; Zaiton Samdin

2011-01-01

80

Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot-water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand, the volume is large; in periods with a small hot-water demand, the volume is small. Two small SDHW systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25%by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large or small hot-water consumption and the risk of oversized solar heating systems and oversized tank volumes is reduced by using smart solar tanks. Based on the investigations it is recommended to start development of smart solar tank units with an oil-fired boiler or a natural gas burner as auxiliary energy supply system.

Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

2005-01-01

81

Reliability assessment of solar domestic hot water systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents reliability and mean-time-between-failure studies of six generic solar domestic hot water systems. Failure rate data for system components were obtained from product literature or from consumer product industries. Reliability block diagrams are employed for the analyses, and exponential distribution functions are assumed for individual components. Since some components do not operate continuously, a duty-cycle factor is developed and defined as the ratio of operating time to total mission time. To accommodate systems experiencing different duty cycles, an averaged duty cycle is introduced to estimate mean lives. Large variations in system reliability and mean life were found and result from wide failure-rate bands for some of the components.

Wang, P. Y.; Wolosewicz, R. M.

82

Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.

1973-01-01

83

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01

84

A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

85

Investigating the Effectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV) Water Purification as Replacement of Chlorine Disinfection in Domestic Water Supply  

OpenAIRE

Domestic water supply to residential buildings through hand-dug wells has been widely accepted as a reliable substitute to government owned municipal water supply system in Nigeria. This Paper investigates theeffectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV) Water Sterilizers as a suitable replacement of chlorine disinfection in the removal of microbiological contaminants in domestic water supply. Water from an established contaminated well in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, were subjected, simultaneously and in parallel...

Olaoye; Adedayo Ayodele; Adegbola; Rebecca Adepate

2012-01-01

86

Feasibility analysis of domestic solar water heating systems in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The excessive usage of fossil fuels has world-widely caused chain environmental consequences. An interesting solution to this problem is the systematic exploitation of available renewable energy sources, including solar energy. Greece is located in a major geographical region with an abundant and reliable supply of solar energy, even during the winter. In as much, one cannot disregard the significant dependency of the country on imported fuels, since almost 70% of its domestic energy consumption is covered by oil and natural gas imports. Despite the relative local sun abundance, during the last 10 years the local solar collectors market illustrates a sluggish behaviour, in comparison with the impressive numbers of sales during the 1980-1990 decade. At a first glance, such an occurrence characterizes a controversy. In an attempt to find a rational explanation of this peculiar situation, an integrated cost-benefit analysis is carried out taking into consideration the vast majority of the parameters affecting solar thermal energy production cost. The resulting numerical values are then compared with the corresponding ones coming from alternative hot-water production techniques. Accordingly, a quite extensive sensitivity analysis is carried out, in order to demonstrate the impact of the main techno-economic parameters on the fiscal behaviour of contemporary solar hot water production systems. The results obtained not only explain with sufficient accuracy the current localwith sufficient accuracy the current local market situation but also demonstrate the specific actions that if realized they may boost solar collector sales in the corresponding local market. (author)

87

TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER IN SHALLOW WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS FOR AGRICULTURAL IRRIGATION REUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Waste stabilization ponds are a well established wastewater treatment system being considered by World Health Organization as one of the most appropriated technology for domestic wastewater when agricultural reuse is considered, especially in developing countries. This study was performed in a series of pilot-scale stabilization ponds, being one facultative and three maturation ponds, with depths varying from 0.44 to 0.57 m. The substrate to be treated was composed of a mixture of domestic wastewater and previously anaerobicaly treated leachate. The experimental system was monitored in two different phases, in which the hydraulic retention times were 15 (phase 1 and 10 days (phase 2. Termotolerant coliform removal efficiencies were 3.8 log10 units in both phases while organic matter (BOD5 removal was 87 and 68% for phases 1 and 2, respectively.

Valderi Duarte Leite

2009-12-01

88

Solar Domestic Hot Water System manual for Day's Inn, Garland, Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Solar Domestic Hot Water System installed at Day's Inn, I-30 and 6222 Beltline, Garland, Texas, is described. The system is a solar collector array used to provide from 39.9 percent in December, to 84.7 percent in August, of the domestic hot water usage of the Day's Inn in Garland, Texas. The system is an automatic draindown design employing an atmospheric vented storage tank for storing the hot water collected by the 998 sq. ft. collector array.

1981-01-01

89

Feasibility analysis of domestic hot water systems using TRNSYS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted in which 17 conventional and solar-based domestic hot water (DHW) systems were simulated using the TRYNSYS simulation model, and their results were compared. According to Natural Resources Canada, DHW heating currently accounts for 25 per cent of Canadian residential energy consumption and 25 per cent of Canadian residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate the fuel consumption of DHW systems, their GHG emissions and 30-year life cycle costs. Another aspect of the study was to model and analyze the effect of time of use (TOU) electricity pricing which was developed by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) to provide stable and predictable electricity pricing. TOU electricity pricing also promotes energy conservation. In addition, the TOU electricity price charged per kilowatt-hour changes throughout the day to reflect the changes in cost to produce electricity at different times of the day. The Ontario government plans to equip all homes and businesses with smart meters using TOU pricing by 2010. Therefore, this study also investigated the effects of the TOU feature by optimizing its use in the effort to reduce overall energy costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results revealed that a DHW system with solar pre-heat and electrical back-up is the best system for energy conservation and GHG reduction. The best system in terms of 30-year life cycle cost is a high efficiency DHW system with aost is a high efficiency DHW system with an on demand modulating gas combo boiler with gray water heat recovery. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

90

Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

Bradley, D.E.

1997-12-31

91

Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

92

Environmental sustainability of waste water ozonation  

OpenAIRE

The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and endocrine disrupters). As part of this work a holistic based prioritisation among technologies and optimisations have been done. Tools for this prioritisation include li...

Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

2010-01-01

93

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT  

OpenAIRE

The present study has been undertaken to evaluate performance efficiency of a waste water treatment plant. A sewage treatment plant operating on biological treatment method (Activated Sludge Process) with an average wastewater inflow of 23MLD bas been considered for case study. Waste water samples were collected at different stages of treatment units and analysed for the major water quality parameters, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid...

Sundara Kumar, K.; P. SUNDARA KUMAR,; Ratnakanth Babu, Dr M. J.

2010-01-01

94

Integrated waste and water management system  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

1986-01-01

95

Brucellosis in domestic water bufallo (Bubalus bubalis) of Trinidad and Tobago with comparative epidemiology to cattle  

OpenAIRE

The water buffalo is an important domestic animal worldwide and the local Buffalypso variety was developed in Trinidad to have improved beef qualities. Brucellosis was diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago during 1998 in both cattle and domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) populations. Brucellosis in the latter species is caused by infection with Brucella abortus, similar to bovine brucellosis. Control of brucellosis is of paramount importance to preservation of the genetic dive...

Fosgate, Geoffrey T.; Diptee, Michael D.; Ramnanan, Anil; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

2011-01-01

96

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT DOLENJSKE TOPLICE  

OpenAIRE

Because of the lack of capacity of the existing waste water treatment plant Dolenjske Toplice we need to build a new capacity, which would enlarge its total capacity from 2000PE to 4000PE. Enlarged waste water treatment plant will have to be modernized and equipped with automatic regulation and operational tell-tale. In the first part of dissertation the current state and existing technology of waste water treatment is being described. In the second part of dissertation, economical and t...

Hrvatin, Mitja

2009-01-01

97

SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT ON WASTE WATER  

OpenAIRE

The graduation thesis introduces the possibility of using waste water to generate electricity in high-rise residential and service buildings. The opening chapters deal with small hydroelectric power plants and waste water potential. The following chapter presents similar projects in Slovenia and around the world. Moreover, the equipment for utilizing these sorts of energy potentials is being described. In the final chapters, there are energy potentials in high-rise residential building ...

Knuplez?, Matej

2013-01-01

98

Emissions of PCDD/F and PCB from uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste in Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combustion-related activities are the principal source of dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions. However, municipal waste combustion is thought to have a low impact on total PCDD/F and PCB total emissions. This study investigated the impacts of uncontrolled backyard combustion of domestic waste. The aim of the study was to determine levels of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Sweden. Nineteen combustion tests were conducted in a steel barrel, and a further 2 tests were conducted using open fires. The garden waste was comprised of wood branches, leaves, and grass. Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) consisted of municipal waste where the combustible fractions had been mechanically sorted from non-combustible waste and waste suitable for composting. PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the flue gas were iso-kinetically sampled with a cooled probe and sampling train. Emission factors were calculated from the relative amounts of carbon in fuel and in sampled emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO) and HC. Values were corrected for the loss of flue-gas in sampling. Results of the tests were comparable with other studies on uncontrolled combustion. The emissions from the open fires had relatively high levels of PCDD/Fs. It was not possible to determine the cause of significantly higher PCDD/F emissions noted during one of the combustion tests conducted in the steel barrel. It was concluded that levels of PCDD/F emissions in backyard fires are difficult to assess. 4 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

Gonczi, M.; Gunnarsson, M.; Johansson, N. [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Assessment; Hedman, B.; Naslund, M.; Marklund, S. [Umea Univ., Umea (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

2005-07-01

99

Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

100

Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

2014-04-01

101

Simulation of the Effect of Water Temperature on Domestic Biomass Boiler Performance  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a methodology to simulate the combustion of fixed beds of biomass particles using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The models presented were used in the simulation of a domestic pellet boiler working under operating conditions and the model predictions were compared with measurements of heat transfer, temperature and species concentration. The same procedure was then used to simulate the same domestic boiler working with different values of water temperature ...

Pablo Eguía; A?lvarez Feijoo, Miguel A.; Roberto Comesaña; Go?mez, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

102

On site domestic organic waste treatment through vermitechnology using indigenous earthworm species.  

Science.gov (United States)

In India the exotic epigeic species, Eisenia fetida is mostly used for vermicomposting. The introduction of exotic species into local bio system may affect the indigenous earthworm species population. A comparative study between exotic species (Eisenia fetida) and indigenous species Perionyx sansibaricus and Perionyx excavates was performed to determine the potential of indigenous species of the area vis-à-vis the exotic species for composting of domestic organic waste blended with cattle manure. The results of the study show a significant reduction in initial C/N ratio from 55 to 13 for P. excavates and 15 for P. sansibaricus of the ready product which was within the agronomic acceptable limit (?vermicompost) which is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and free from pathogens. PMID:21628345

Rajpal, Ankur; Bhargava, Renu; Sasi, Salin Kumar; Chopra, Ak

2012-03-01

103

Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

Rudd, A.

2012-08-01

104

Efficiency Evaluation of Heat Exchanger Based Domestic Solar Water Heater - A Review.  

OpenAIRE

In this paper an attempt has been made to review the literature of performance improving techniques for solar water heater. In view of energy crisis, the application of solar energy in the form of solar water heater is most useful for domestic, commercial and industrial purpose but it is found that the application of its limited due to its demerits. Hence attempt to be made to find out the demerits of solar water heater and improve its performance so that it becomes more popular in domestic, ...

Sandeep Kumar Dehariya; Jaurker, Dr A. R.

2013-01-01

105

Yeasts and yeast-like fungal contaminants of water used for domestic purposes in Jos, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Water used for domestic purposes is ideally required to be free from contaminants. Various contaminants have frequently affected the quality of such water. Water samples were obtained from 150 sources including 72 wells, 60 streams, 17 taps, and one borehole, randomly selected from five residential areas in Jos, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires and one-to- one interview was used to obtain information on features of location and use of facilities in each area. Eighty (53.3%) water sources we...

Grace Mebi Ayanbimpe; Clement Akpenpuun Ior; Victoria Eyiojo Abbah

2012-01-01

106

First domestic primary loop recircuration pump for boiling water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two primary loop recirculation (PLR) pumps for the second unit of the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., have been manufactured by Ebara Corporation. They are the first domestically produced pumps for commercial power plants and were manufactured under license from Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg Warner Corporation. This article describes the special features of pump design and stress analysis, and the results of the 700 hours of factory loop tests, which are all essential for the PLR pump. (author)

107

Pesticides Removal from Drainage Waste Water Using Some Agricultural Wastes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The agricultural wastes proposed for the removal of water pollutants in this study are seeds of two Saudi date lines which are quite abundant in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, having high ion exchange capacity for organic compounds. Two goals can be achieved when using these type of date stones: the first is to evaluate the potentiality of date stones to sorb inorganic and organic pollutants from drainage water to render it suitable for irrigation of crops in the Kingdom and the second is to get rid of harmful agricultural wastes. Chemical and elemental analyses were carried out for date stones. Batch technique experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption properties of date stones to harmful pesticides such as Endrin, Lindane and Aldrin. Affecting parameters such as adsorbent weight, contact time and polluted water pH values were also studied to control and increase the efficiency of adsorption. The obtained results showed that the date stones can be considered as an efficient adsorbent for the investigated pesticides from prepared waste water. The resultant uptake efficiency was found to be more than 75% for the tested pollutants. Moreover, it was found that the adsorbed pesticides can not be disturbed from the loaded date stones. Comparative methods between the Saudi and Egyptian date stones were also studied.

Ali S. Al-Barrak

2005-01-01

108

Willingness to Pay for Domestic Water Service Improvements in Selangor, Malaysia: A Choice Modeling Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The tasks and responsibilities of domestic water service management in Malaysia are handled by various government agencies. Sufficient water service and resources management is required for sustainable water resources conservation. In order to realized water resource conservation, economic effectiveness of water utilization (consumers, maintenance of water quality supply (source of water supply and efficiency in allocating water resources (agencies needs to be addressed. The objective of the study is to assess community preferences and values relating to alternative water service management with particular concentration on water service improvement. This study has applied Choice Experiment (CE to investigate the current policies and potential alternative of water service management in Selangor. The studies are based on 230 respondents in Subang Jaya that were randomly interviewed for data collection in October to December 2008. The findings indicates that respondents are willing to pay higher for drinking water as compared to the current rate with improved in water quality (WQ, reduced the frequency of water interruption (WI and increases in the consumer trust to tap water (CT. The finding of this study is very important in order to assists and recommends the policy makers towards efficiency of domestic water service management in Malaysia.
Key words: Choice experiment; Water conservation; Consumer preference; Choice modelling; Willingness to pay

Mohd Rusli Yacob

2011-06-01

109

Water management aspects of waste waters from radioisotope establishments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technological, technical and legal problems are discussed of waste waters discharged from radioisotope workplaces, proceeding from data obtained in investigations carried out by the State Water Management Inspection. The problems are assessed with regard to established limits, standards and other regulations. The main causes of the detected shortcomings are analyzed. (B.S.). 8 refs

110

Solar Energy for Domestic Hot Water: Case Studies in Sisimiut 1999-2005  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two pioneer solar domestic hot water systems were installed at Bygge- og Anlægsskolen in Sisimiut in 1999 and 2000. Detailed measurements of energy flows and solar radiation incl. snow reflectance has been undertaken for both plants. Since August 2004 data logging of the measurements was made available online on the website www.arcticsolar.com. Measurements show that solar plant 1 and 2 cover 22% and 23%, respectively, of the energy spent for domestic hot water heating. This paper summarises the findings from the past 5 years.

Reimann, Gregers Peter Technical University of Denmark,

2005-01-01

111

Efficiency Evaluation of Heat Exchanger Based Domestic Solar Water Heater - A Review.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to review the literature of performance improving techniques for solar water heater. In view of energy crisis, the application of solar energy in the form of solar water heater is most useful for domestic, commercial and industrial purpose but it is found that the application of its limited due to its demerits. Hence attempt to be made to find out the demerits of solar water heater and improve its performance so that it becomes more popular in domestic, commercial, as well as in industrial applications. The main objective of this research paper is to present the current status and future aspects of Solar water heater in the world by comprehensively reviewing various solar water heater related studies. This review paper shows comprehensive review and researches on solar water heater by various researchers of the world

Sandeep Kumar Dehariya

2013-10-01

112

Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (?2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management.

Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn

113

Waste water discharges into natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point

114

Influence of water scale on thermal flow losses of domestic appliances  

OpenAIRE

Research results of how the precipitated water scale on heaters of small domestic appliances influences the consumption of electricity are presented. It shows that the majority of water scale samples are composed of aragonite, calcite and dolomite and that those components have an extraordinary low thermal conductivity. Also, the results show that at 2 mm thick deposit, depending on the chemical composition of water scale, the thermal flow is reduced for 10% to 40%

Dobers?ek, Danijela; Goric?anec, Darko

2012-01-01

115

MACROWater: a Top-down, Policy-driven Model for Forecasting Domestic Water Demand  

OpenAIRE

MACROWater is a top-down domestic water demand model developed for the WaND project (Water Cycle Management for New Developments). Forecasts have been produced for all local authorities in England and Wales. They can be aggregrated for different reporting areas (such as Government Office Regions, Sustainable Communities and water companies). Sustainable community is the official term for key strategic areas, earmarked for rapid expansion of housing supply (such as the M11 corridor, Ashford, M...

Parsons, J.; Rees, P.; Sim, P.; Mcdonald, A.

2007-01-01

116

Water: Waste Not, Want Not  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing on Australia's water use and conservation efforts, this site provides teachers with activities and ideas for encouraging students to analyze their own use as well as learn about the nation's use. Activities include conducting an individual and a family-based water consumption log, learning to gather, record and report data, and using the web to compare data submitted by other classes. Teachers will find discussion topics, forms to download for data gathering and reporting, a computer-based quiz, as well as information about water in general and Australian use specifically.

Statistics, Australian B.; Myinternet

117

Impact of Training Program to Rationalize Consumption of Domestic Water Usages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Reducing water consumption in terms of scarcity of water in Jordan which needs to rationalize consumption of the domestic water usages by some families in Amman-Jordan. Approach: This study aimed to decrease water consumption in household usages and to involve and encouraging the pioneer students in voluntary efforts to reduce domestic water. The study sample consisted of 121 female students of Princessâ?? Alia University College represented 121 Jordanian families in Amman. They trained to reduce flow of water and the time during usage water in kitchen; toilet; bathroom; washing cars; and to put a plastic bottle full of half liter of water in the toiletâ??s water tank. Economical and social variables of families were obtained from special questionnaire of this study, data were formed from previous measurements and information; the data analyzed throughout a simple statistical approach. Results: The families whom represented this study sample have positively responded for the proposed program; through reducing water consumption in domestic usages. The most important factor effects on rationalized water consumption are: Average monthly income, average family members, average of family members ages, the size of water tank of the toilet, size of shower used. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study concluded that the amount of preserved water in a bathroom may reach 25%, in kitchen 29, in toilet 10%, in washing cars 9%, of water consumption before implementation program at each of the previous sectors. The total amount of preserved water in Amman may reach to 11 million cubic meters annually. The study recommends implementing this simple program on the whole of Jordanian families as much as possible and encouraging the Jordanian citizens to use different tools, means, programs that may control water consumption and to recycle the used water as possible.""

Mohammad Said Damanhouri

2012-01-01

118

Integrated waste water treatment accompanied by minimal generation of excessive activated sludge or sediment ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ??????  

OpenAIRE

The authors have demonstrated the possibility of development of a process technology of treatment of domestic and similar types of sewage waste water accompanied by minimal generation of excessive activated sludge or sediment using bioreactors that have biomass attached to them. Wet sludge rate reduction is driven by intensification of aerobic stabilization. The article has experimental data generated in the course of the project implementation. There are various aspects to be considered, inc...

Makisha Nikolay Alekseevich; Smirnov Dmitriy Gennad'evich

2012-01-01

119

Surgical hand scrub: Lots of water wasted  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Surgical hand scrub (SHS is an important antisepsis measure before participating in surgical operation. It reduces the risk of microbial contamination of the surgical wound by skin flora. SHS is usually performed in a scrub sink with taps that have hand operated handles. During the scrub process large volume of water is wasted. The aim of this study was to determine the volume of water used during SHS in comparison to the actual volume necessary. Method : Unknown to them various cadreof the operation team were timed during their first scrubbing of the day for scheduled operations. Duration of scrubbing (ST and that during which the hands were being washed with flowing water (WT were recorded. The amount of water flowing through the tap per minute was also recorded. Using the mean ST, WT and water flow per minute the total volume of water used during scrubbing and that necessary to wash the hand were calculated. Results : Overall, the ST ranged between 3 and 7 minutes with a mean of 4.8 ± 0.5 SD minutes. Mean WT was 1.4 ± 0.4 SD minutes. The mean water flow was 4,217mls per minutes. The volume of water used per scrubbing was 20.2 litres while only 5.9 litres was used for washing the hands. Between January and December 2002, the volume of water used for scrubbing was 200,283 litres while only 58,498.5 litres (29.2% was necessary. Conclusion : Plenty water is wasted during SHS. Reducing the amount of water flowing unused would provide cost saving to the hospital. The use of taps operated with foot pedal would reduce the waste.

Ahmed A

2007-03-01

120

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

None

1980-11-01

121

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

122

Installation and operation of the Plantwide Fire Protection Systems and related Domestic Water Supply Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A safe work environment is needed to support the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission of producing special nuclear material. This Environmental Assessment (EA) assesses the potential environmental impact(s) of adding to and upgrading the Plantwide Fire Protection System and selected related portions of the Domestic Water Supply System at SRS, Aiken, South Carolina. The following objectives are expected to be met by this action: Prevent undue threat to public health and welfare from fire at SRS; prevent undue hazard to employees at SRS from fire; prevent unacceptable delay to vital DOE programs as a result of fire at SRS; keep fire related property damage at SRS to a manageable level;, and provide an upgraded supply of domestic water for the Reactor Areas. The Reactor Areas' domestic water supplies do not meet current demand capacity due to the age and condition of the 30-year old iron piping. In addition, the water quality for these supplies is not consistent with current SCDHEC requirements. Therefore, DOE proposes to upgrade this Domestic Water Supply System to meet current demand and quality levels, as well as the needs of fire protection system improvement

123

Tin Sulfide Nanoparticle Synthesis from Waste Waters  

OpenAIRE

Tin and its derivatives are extensively used in modern technology tools which lead requirement for development of green methods for its waste management and profitable recycling. Presence of tin in water bodies causes enormous environmental concern due to its acute toxicity to living beings. We demonstrate a simple and zero emission process for extraction of tin ions from...

Jitender Gaur; Shilpa Jain; Suresh Chand; Narender Kumar Kaushik

2014-01-01

124

Process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from nuclear power stations is proposed, characterized by the fact that the water is taken continuously through a water decomposition cell. If the water does not have sufficient conductivity itself, a substance raising the electrical conductivity is added to the water to be treated. The electrolysis is situated in the waste water tank. (orig./RB)

125

Process for treating waste water containing radioactive substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for treating waste water containing radioactive substances comprising treating the waste water by reverse osmosis in the presence of at least one organic surfactant selected from the group consisting of anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants and nonionic surfactants

126

Waste water treatment technique for a uranium tailings pond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compositions of waste water from a uranium tailings pond and main pollution factors were analyzed. A method of treating the waste water was determined through experiments, that is, neutra-lization with milk of lime-adsorption with manganese sand method, and the waste water was treated by the method. Contents of U, Ra and Mn, and pH value in the treated waste water meet the national discharge standard. (authors)

127

The concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra in domestic and imported bottled waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past few years, the use of commercially available bottled potable water has become very in vogue. Since many of the producers and/or distributors of these bottled waters claim that the water originated from natural mineral springs, there is a likelihood that some of these bottled waters could contain 226Ra and 228Ra in measurable quantities. This article presents the quantitative results obtained from the analyses of 11 domestic and imported brand named bottled waters sold commercially in retail stores in the northeastern United States. (author)

128

Neutron Activation analysis of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 1013 cm-2 s-1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

129

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study has been undertaken to evaluate performance efficiency of a waste water treatment plant. A sewage treatment plant operating on biological treatment method (Activated Sludge Process with an average wastewater inflow of 23MLD bas been considered for case study. Waste water samples were collected at different stages of treatment units and analysed for the major water quality parameters, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS and total dissolved solids (TDS. Theperformance efficiency of each unit in treating the pollutants was calculated. Overall performance of the plant also has been estimated. The obtained results were very much useful in identification and rectification of operational and maintenance problems as well as the future expansion to be carried out in the plant to meet the increased hydraulic and organic loadings.

K. SUNDARA KUMAR

2010-12-01

130

Waste and water: A global problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After centuries of use - and abuse - of the world's lakes and rivers to dilute and carry away the wastes of society, water pollution became a major driving force behind the birth of environmental consciousness in the world. Only in recent years, however, have scientists and the public come to recognize the full dimensions of the problem. They now recognize, for example, that atmospheric organic compounds are eventually deposited on surface waters; that land contaminants leach into groundwater; and that non-point pollution is widespread and difficult to identify and correct. This means, that reducing the impacts of wastes on water must be accomplished as part of an integrated strategy that deals with impacts that cut across environmental media and political jurisdictions.

Kamrin, M.A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

131

Impact of landfills, domestic and industrial waste on the aquifer in Raipur city and contribution of karst feature to the groundwater contaminations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Karst features (landscapes that result from dissolution and surface drainage of carbonate terrains) are potentially a large source of water. They have distinctive features, which distinguish them from fissured and porous aquifers. These features include a general lack of permanent surface streams, existence of surface holes into which surface stream sink, presence of underground big channels and large springs etc. Karst environments are used for potable water supply as well as disposal sites for municipal, agricultural and industrial waste dumping. The peculiar geomorphologic and hydrological features of karst make them highly vulnerable for groundwater pollution. The ease with which they can be polluted make a fit case of taking protection measures in advance. Raipur is a major business, educational center as well as capital city of Chhattisgarh state in India. The city has been rapidly expanding during the last two decades, as a result of rapid industrialisation and various economic developments. Wastes generated from a wide variety of industrial, commercial, agricultural and domestic activities are dumped into pits or low - lying area around the Raipur City. The climate in the area is characterised by very hot summer and well distributed rain over four months during monsoon season. Monsoon precipitation begins from mid June and generally remains active till the end of September. The average annual precipitation is ?1250 mm. In the study area, groundwater lies in In the study area, groundwater lies in the karstified nature of geological formation and is naturally susceptible to contamination by landfills, domestic and industrial wastes. The karstification feature is exposed to the surface in Raipur city at many places. Environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O and 13C) as well as chemistry of the water samples were used to identify a few places, which are prone to contamination in Raipur city. Deterioration of the groundwater quality is not alarming due to thin shale (impervious layer) cover over the limestone. (author)

132

Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

1997-12-31

133

Nutrient pollution in shallow aquifers underlying pit latrines and domestic solid waste dumps in urban slums.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of proper on-site sanitation in unsewered low-income areas is becoming an important source of nutrient-rich wastewater leaching to groundwater and can potentially lead to eutrophication. For typical conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, the nutrient loading of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from on-site sanitation systems to aquifers is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the dissolved nutrient loads (nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4) and orthophosphate (o-PO4)) and the processes likely affecting them in aquifers underlying two on-site sanitation systems in an unsewered low-income urban slum in Kampala, Uganda; a domestic solid waste dump and a site with two pit latrines. The impact of the two types of sites was assessed by comparing the upgradient and downgradient nutrient concentrations and loads along groundwater flow lines. Significant pollution to groundwater originated from the pit latrine site with downgradient nutrient loads increasing by factors of 1.7 for NO3, 10.5 for NH4 and 49 for o-PO4. No effect of leaching of nutrients to groundwater was found from the waste dump. We estimated that approximately 2-20% of total N and less than 1% of total P mass input was lost to groundwater from the pit latrines. The bulk of N leached to groundwater was in the form of NH4. Mn-reducing conditions prevailed in the shallow aquifer which suggested that nitrification was the main process affecting NH4 concentrations. Phosphorus was likely retained in the soils by precipitating as MnHPO4 and Ca5(PO4)3(OH). Our results indicated that pit latrines in alluvial aquifer systems can be highly effective for the removal of nutrients depending on hydrological, hydrochemical and geochemical conditions in the aquifer receiving wastewater. Improvements to make the current pit latrine systems better for nutrient containment are suggested based on findings from this study. PMID:23542227

Nyenje, P M; Foppen, J W; Kulabako, R; Muwanga, A; Uhlenbrook, S

2013-06-15

134

Isolation of Aeromonas spp. from an unchlorinated domestic water supply.  

OpenAIRE

The recovery of Aeromonas spp. from the unchlorinated water supply for a Western Australian city of 21,000 people was monitored at several sampling points during a period of 1 year. Membrane filtration techniques were used to count colonies of Aeromonas spp., coliforms, and Escherichia coli in water sampled before entry to service reservoirs, during storage in service reservoirs, and in distribution systems. Aeromonas spp. were identified by subculture on blood agar with ampicillin, oxidase t...

Burke, V.; Robinson, J.; Gracey, M.; Peterson, D.; Meyer, N.; Haley, V.

1984-01-01

135

Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste waters have been generated as result of operations conducted at the Hanford Facility for over 40 years. These waste waters were previously discharged to cribs, ponds, or ditches. Examples of such waste waters include steam condensates and cooling waters that have not been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste and process condensates that may have been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste. Many measures have been taken to reduce the amount of contamination being discharged in these effluents. However, some of these waste waters still require additional treatment before release to the environment. Systems are being designed and built to treat these waste waters along with any future waste waters resulting from remediation activities on the Hanford Facility

136

Lesion profiling and subcellular prion localization of cervid chronic wasting disease in domestic cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted, fatal, and progressive prion disease of cervids with an as yet to be fully clarified host range. While outbred domestic cats (Felis catus) have recently been shown to be susceptible to experimental CWD infection, the neuropathologic features of the infection are lacking. Such information is vital to provide diagnostic power in the event of natural interspecies transmission and insights into host and strain interactions in interspecies prion infection. Using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry, we detail the topographic pattern of neural spongiosis (the "lesion profile") and the distribution of misfolded prion protein in the primary and secondary passage of feline CWD (Fel(CWD)). We also evaluated cellular and subcellular associations between misfolded prion protein (PrP(D)) and central nervous system neurons and glial cell populations. From these studies, we (1) describe the novel neuropathologic profile of Fel(CWD), which is distinct from either cervid CWD or feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), and (2) provide evidence of serial passage-associated interspecies prion adaptation. In addition, we demonstrate through confocal analysis the successful co-localization of PrP(D) with neurons, astrocytes, microglia, lysosomes, and synaptophysin, which, in part, implicates each of these in the neuropathology of Fel(CWD). In conclusion, this work illustrates the simultaneous role of both host and strain in the development of a unique Fel(CWD) neuropathologic profile and that such a profile can be used to discriminate between Fel(CWD) and FSE. PMID:24577721

Seelig, D M; Nalls, A V; Flasik, M; Frank, V; Eaton, S; Mathiason, C K; Hoover, E A

2015-01-01

137

Domestic water uses and values in Swaziland : a contigent valuation analysis  

OpenAIRE

The paper reports on the use of the contingent valuation method to study the determinants of Swazi households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for an improvement in their water quantity and quality. A sample of 374 households was surveyed and a Tobit model was applied to explain household preferences for quality and quantity of domestic water supply and derive estimates of WTP for such a service. The results confirm that household income had a positive and statistically significant impact on WTP f...

Farolfi, Stefano; Mabugu, R. E.; Ntshingila, S. N.

2007-01-01

138

The role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases in Korea  

OpenAIRE

A survey was carried out from August to December 2004 in Pusan, Korea to document the presence of free-living amoeba (FLA), including the genus Acanthamoeba, in both contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water. Acanthamoeba was isolated from 5 (4.2%) in 120 contact lens storage cases. Four house tap water samples from residents, whose contact lens storage cases had been contaminated by Acanthamoeba, were also found to be contaminated with Acanthamoeba. Therefore, the contamination rate ...

Jeong, Hae Jin; Yu, Hak Sun

2005-01-01

139

The Swedish biogas potential from domestic waste products; Den svenska biogaspotentialen fraan inhemska restprodukter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report is an inventory of raw material amounts of waste, parks- and garden waste, sewage sludge, manure and residues from industrial, agricultural and forestry in Sweden which are suitable for biogas production. The inventory has mainly been county by county in order to obtain an overview of how the raw materials are distributed across the country. For each waste category it is described how data collection, boundaries and assumptions have been made. The total biogas potential from domestic raw materials, excluding raw material from forests, is estimated to over 15.2 TWh/year, and the total biogas feasible potential 10.6 TWh/year. However, these limitations can quickly be changed by changing competition, energy prices etc. Residues from the forest represents a significant potential for future methane production. The residues from forestry and forest industry have a total energy potential of about 59 TWh methane per year. Methane production from wood performed by thermal gasification, which is used to a limited extent today. It is difficult to specify when the technology will be commercially available. The total biogas and energy potential is then of the order of 74 TWh/year, of which forest-related products account for approximately 80%. The Swedish EPA is aiming, by 2010, to have at least 35% of food waste from households, restaurants, shops and recycled by biological treatment. This report assumes that 60% of all food waste can be accessible for biogas production. This amount corresponds to approximately 760 GWh annually and represents 7% of the total biogas potential range. The total biogas potential from all food waste in Sweden amounts to 1346 GWh/year. Residues from different industries have a great potential, approximately 10% of the total biogas potential range is estimated to be from here. Crops residues and manure is a significant future potential, 10.8 TWh/year. The total feasible biogas potential in the current environment, however, is assessed to be lower, about 8 TWh/year, since manure from grazing cattle is not included and that some straw may need to be left in order not to jeopardize the soil humus content, etc. Sewage treatment plants have a long tradition of digesting sludge, since it has been a way to stabilize and reduce the amount of sewage sludge. A large part of Sweden sewage sludge is digested today, but with slightly increased amounts and by optimizing processes, more biogas is produced. Of the total feasible biogas potential for the sewage sludge is 7%. Apart from supply of raw materials, it is important to ensure the possibility of disposing of biogas and bio-fertilizers. Prerequisites for a common gas network, and proximity to productive land, is seen as advantageous

Linne, Marita; Ekstrandh, Alexandra; Englesson, Rolf; Persson, Emelie (Biomil AB, Lund (Sweden)); Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Lantz, Mikael (Envirum AB, Lund (Sweden))

2008-07-01

140

Environmental sustainability of waste water ozonation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and endocrine disrupters). As part of this work a holistic based prioritisation among technologies and optimisations have been done. Tools for this prioritisation include life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost/efficiency. The LCA is performed as a comparative LCA and the concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts is introduced in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) part. A relatively high number of micropollutants, especially pharmaceuticals, have been included. Furthermore, as novel approaches, preliminary methodologies for impact categories on pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been developed. About 15 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies (or combinations) have been assessed. This paper will present the LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation.

Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

141

Domestic wastes incineration in France situation in 2000 evolution and perspectives the 31.12.2002; Incineration des dechets menagers en France situation en 2000 evolution et perspectives au 31.12.2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the analysis and the conclusions of a working group, concerning the domestic wastes incineration. It presents successively the place of the domestic wastes in the wastes management approach, the regulations, the methodology and the corresponding results of an inquiry realized in 2000 and the research programs on the incineration as the Best Available Techniques, the sanitary impacts of the UIOM (domestic wastes incineration plants), the vitrification, the greenhouse effect. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2003-07-01

142

Application of an Integrated Heat Recovery Technology for Domestic Hot Water Supply System and Air Conditioning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is to design an integrated heat recovery and air conditioner system and to investigate the feasibility and the potential performance of this system in changing conditions. Different season conditions and operating modes are studied based on the items of one hotel. In winter, heat recovered from wastewater is used on water heating and air condition and the surplus energy of air conditioner system is used on hot water system in summer. Dynamic energy simulation was performed with a comprehensive Domestic Hot Water (DHW heating and air conditioning system composed of some components like High Temperature Heat Pump (HTHP unit, water tanks, heat exchangers and pumps.

Chen Yan

2013-01-01

143

Features of waste water purification by electroflotation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods are described and results are presented for studies of the dependence of the effect of purification and sterilization of waste waters of the Novograd-Volynskii meat packing plant on the current density and duration of treatment of them on a semiproduction electroflotation machine. Optimal values of the current density (10mA/cm/sup 2/) and process time (10 min) were determined. Recommendations are given for increasing the sterilization effect.

Kucherenko, G.S.; Golovash, E.A.; Salyuk, A.I.

1981-01-01

144

Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China  

OpenAIRE

Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improv...

Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C. J.

2013-01-01

145

Anatomical root variations in response to water deficit: wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Root anatomical responses to water deficit are diverse and regulation of water uptake strongly depends on plant anatomy. The ancestors of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars are the wild common beans. Because wild beans adapt and survive well in theon atural environment, it is hypothesized that wild common bean roots are less affected than those of domesticated beans at low substrate water potential (?W. A wild common bean accession from Chihuahua Mexico and cv. Bayomex were studied. Seedlings with a mean root length between 3 and 4 cm were maintained for 24 h in vermiculite at ?W of -0.03 (well hydrated, -0.65, -1.48 and -2.35 MPa (partially dry. Ten anatomical characteristics of differentiation and cell division in root regions were evaluated. Thickness of epidermis and protoderm diminished similarly in wild and domesticated beans growing at low substrate ?W (between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa. At the same time, parenchymatic cell area diminished by 71 % in the domesticated variety, but by only 32 % in the wild bean at -2.35 MPa. Theon umber of cells in the cortex and the thickness of the xylem wall increased in both wild and domesticated beans at low substrate ?W;on evertheless, the effect was significantly lower in the wild bean. Theon umber of xylem vessels increased in the cultivar (up to 40 % while in the wild bean it decreased (up to 33 %. The diameter of xylem vessels and transverse root area diminished (15 and 57 %, respectively in the cultivar, but in the wild common bean wereon ot affected. Anatomical root characteristics and their modifications in both differentiation and cell division in root regions demonstrated that the wild bean reacted quite differently to substrate ?W than the domesticated common bean.

Cecilia B Peña-Valdivia

2010-01-01

146

Anatomical root variations in response to water deficit: wild and domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Root anatomical responses to water deficit are diverse and regulation of water uptake strongly depends on plant anatomy. The ancestors of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars are the wild common beans. Because wild beans adapt and survive well in theon atural environment, it is hypothesized [...] that wild common bean roots are less affected than those of domesticated beans at low substrate water potential (?W). A wild common bean accession from Chihuahua Mexico and cv. Bayomex were studied. Seedlings with a mean root length between 3 and 4 cm were maintained for 24 h in vermiculite at ?W of -0.03 (well hydrated), -0.65, -1.48 and -2.35 MPa (partially dry). Ten anatomical characteristics of differentiation and cell division in root regions were evaluated. Thickness of epidermis and protoderm diminished similarly in wild and domesticated beans growing at low substrate ?W (between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa). At the same time, parenchymatic cell area diminished by 71 % in the domesticated variety, but by only 32 % in the wild bean at -2.35 MPa. Theon umber of cells in the cortex and the thickness of the xylem wall increased in both wild and domesticated beans at low substrate ?W;on evertheless, the effect was significantly lower in the wild bean. Theon umber of xylem vessels increased in the cultivar (up to 40 %) while in the wild bean it decreased (up to 33 %). The diameter of xylem vessels and transverse root area diminished (15 and 57 %, respectively) in the cultivar, but in the wild common bean wereon ot affected. Anatomical root characteristics and their modifications in both differentiation and cell division in root regions demonstrated that the wild bean reacted quite differently to substrate ?W than the domesticated common bean.

Cecilia B, Peña-Valdivia; Adriana B, Sánchez-Urdaneta; Joel, Meza Rangel; Juana, Juárez Muñoz; Rodolfo, García-Nava; Raquel, Celis Velázquez.

147

Disposal of liquid radioactive waste - discharge of radioactive waste waters from hospitals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is given about legal prescriptions in the FRG concerning composition and amount of the liquid waste substances and waste water disposal by emitting into the sewerage, waste water decay systems and collecting and storage of patients excretions. The radiation exposure of the population due to drainage of radioactive waste water from hospitals lower by more than two orders than the mean exposure due to nuclear-medical use. (HP)

148

Method of decontaminating radioactive process waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Process waste waters at a pH of about 7 contaminated with radioactive isotopes are decontaminated by (A) adjusting the pH to about 5.8, (B) adding CaO or Ca(OH)2 to raise the pH to about 5, (C) agitating the mixture for at least 5 minutes to affect intimate contact and produce a suspension of solids containing radioactive contaminants, and (D) separating the suspension of solids from the water by centrifuging. Removal of radioactive uranium isotopes with an alpha emission is effected at a ph of about 10. The process provides a method for concentrating radioactive contaminants in water for subsequent ultimate storage and also purifies the contaminated water so it may be safe to discharge it into the sewer. The treatment may be carried out in a plurality of stages in series

149

Hybrid PV/T solar systems for domestic hot water and electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems can simultaneously provide electricity and heat, achieving a higher conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation than standard PV modules. When properly designed, PV/T systems can extract heat from PV modules, heating water or air to reduce the operating temperature of the PV modules and keep the electrical efficiency at a sufficient level. In this paper, we present TRNSYS simulation results for hybrid PV/T solar systems for domestic hot water applications both passive (thermosyphonic) and active. Prototype models made from polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV module types combined with water heat extraction units were tested with respect to their electrical and thermal efficiencies, and their performance characteristics were evaluated. The TRNSYS simulation results are based on these PV/T systems and were performed for three locations at different latitudes, Nicosia (35 deg.), Athens (38 deg.) and Madison (43 deg.). In this study, we considered a domestic thermosyphonic system and a larger active system suitable for a block of flats or for small office buildings. The results show that a considerable amount of thermal and electrical energy is produced by the PV/T systems, and the economic viability of the systems is improved. Thus, the PVs have better chances of success especially when both electricity and hot water is required as in domestic applicationsations

150

Photosynthetic membranes. Part 75. Photocatalytic membrane modules for drinking water purification in domestic and community appliances  

OpenAIRE

In the present paper, the performance of a pilot plant for domestic use was investigated, able to operate continuously, and in which tap water was fed (inorg. carbon IC: 81.6 ? 0.5 ppm; total org. carbon TOC content: 1.52 ? 0.02 ppm). This plant produced 130 L/d of purified water. The tap water was first subjected to a prefiltration by a membrane microfiltration unit, followed by filtration through a membrane immobilizing activated carbon, then through a reverse osmosis membrane, at a trans...

Bellobono, Ignazio Renato

2005-01-01

151

Environmental assessment for the domestic water supply upgrades and consolidation on the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The domestic water systems on the Savannah River Site (SRS) are currently in need of upgrading to ensure compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Drinking Water Regulations. The SRS has 28 separate goundwater-based drinking water systems in use across the site. These aging systems were designed and constructed in the 1950s and are now facing increasing difficulties in meeting cur-rent regulations. Audits of the systems conducted by SCDHEC in 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1993 identified shortfalls in meeting the requirements for secondary maximum containment levels (MCLS) and SCDHEC design standards. Secondary MCLs are those items, such as odor or appearance, that do not pose a direct health impact. SRS has committed to SCDHEC to correct the drinking water discrepancies and construct two new consolidated inter-area drinking water systems. Upgrading the SRS drinking water systems would be necessary to support site activities regardless of the makeup or the mission at SRS. As such, the proposed upgrade and consolidation of SRS domestic water systems is treated as part of the ``No Action`` alternative for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Reconfiguration of the Nuclear Weapons Complex .

1994-06-01

152

WASTE WATER TREATMENT DEVICE IN HAIR DYE PRODUCTION  

OpenAIRE

The subject of this thesis is the research and analysis of the waste water treatment device for the company Henkel Slovenia. Some basic principles of theory and practice of waste water treatment are covered and presented in this thesis. Presented herein are all of the activities that must be taken into account when designing the industrial waste water treatment plant. Special attention is paid to chemical and physical properties of water. Due to the large scale of the subject of this thesi...

Bulatovic?, Sveto

2011-01-01

153

The Use of Solar Energy for Preparing Domestic Hot Water in a Multi-Storey Building  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses the possibilities of solar collectors used for a domestic hot water system and installed on the roofs of modernized multi-storey buildings under the existing climate conditions. A number of combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors with accumulation tank systems of various sizes have been examined. Heat from the district heating system is used as an additional heat source for preparing domestic hot water. The paper compares calculation results of energy and economy regarding the combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors and the size of the accumulation tank. The influence of variations in the main indicators on the final economic results has also been evaluated. Research has been supported applying EC FP7 CONCERTO program (‘‘Sustainable Zero Carbon ECO-Town Developments Improving Quality of Life across EU - ECO-Life’’ (ECO-Life Project Contract No. TREN/FP7EN/239497/”ECOLIFE”.Article in Lithuanian

Giedrius Šiupšinskas

2012-12-01

154

Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

1980-01-01

155

Domestic hot water consumption vs. solar thermal energy storage: the optimum size of the storage tank  

OpenAIRE

Many efforts have been made in order to adequate the production of a solar thermal collector field to the consumption of domestic hot water of the inhabitants of a building. In that sense, much has been achieved in different domains: research agencies, government policies and manufacturers. However, most of the design rules of the solar plants are based on steady state models, whereas solar irradiance, consumption and thermal accumulation are inherently transient processes. As a result of thi...

Rodri?guez Hidalgo, Mari?a Del Carmen; Rodri?guez Aumente, Pedro A.; Lecuona Newman, Antonio; Legrand, Mathieu; Ventas Garzo?n, Rube?n

2012-01-01

156

Investigating the Effectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV Water Purification as Replacement of Chlorine Disinfection in Domestic Water Supply  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domestic water supply to residential buildings through hand-dug wells has been widely accepted as a reliable substitute to government owned municipal water supply system in Nigeria. This Paper investigates theeffectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV Water Sterilizers as a suitable replacement of chlorine disinfection in the removal of microbiological contaminants in domestic water supply. Water from an established contaminated well in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, were subjected, simultaneously and in parallel, to chlorine dosing and contact withUV light, over a period of seven (7 days without pre-filtration, and additional seven (7 days with pre-filtration. Pre-filtration was accomplished by the use of a calibrated pressure filter. Effluent water samples were taken daily for the two (2 scenarios to the laboratory for physical, chemical and biological analyses. The resultsindicated that UV water purification method was more effective only when pre-filtration of raw water was introduced. With monitored prefiltration prior to ultraviolet purification, the colony count, MPN Coliform Organisms and MPN E. Coli Organisms recorded seven day-average values of 1, 0 and 0, respectively. In both scenarios, it was confirmed that UV method produced no bi-products and did not alter the taste, pH or other properties of water, in contradistiction to chlorine disinfection method

Olaoye

2012-08-01

157

The use of helical heat exchanger for heat recovery domestic water-cooled air-conditioners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study on the performance of a domestic water-cooled air-conditioner (WAC) using tube-in-tube helical heat exchanger for preheating of domestic hot water was carried out. The main aims are to identify the comprehensive energy performance (space cooling and hot water preheating) of the WAC and the optimum design of the helical heat exchanger taking into account the variation in tap water flow rate. A split-type WAC was set up for experimental study at different indoor and outdoor conditions. The cooling output, the amount of recovered heat, and the power consumption for different hot water flow rates were measured. The experimental results showed that the cooling coefficient of performance (COP) of the WAC improves with the inclusion of the heat recovery option by a minimum of 12.3%. This can be further improved to 20.6% by an increase in tap water flow rate. Same result was observed for the comprehensive COP of the WAC. The maximum achievable comprehensive COP was 4.92 when the tap water flow rate was set at 7.7 L/min. The overall heat transfer coefficient of the helical heat exchanger under various operating conditions were determined by Wilson plot. A mathematical model relating the over all heat transfer coefficient to the outer pipe diameter was established which provides a convenient way of optimising the design of the helical heat exchanger

158

EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS TO DOMESTIC WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN SALT LAKE COUNTY, UTAH.  

Science.gov (United States)

A magnitude-7. 5 earthquake occurring along the central portion of the Wasatch Fault, Utah, may cause significant damage to Salt Lake County's domestic water system. This system is composed of water treatment plants, aqueducts, distribution mains, and other facilities that are vulnerable to ground shaking, liquefaction, fault movement, and slope failures. Recent investigations into surface faulting, landslide potential, and earthquake intensity provide basic data for evaluating the potential earthquake hazards to water-distribution systems in the event of a large earthquake. Water supply system components may be vulnerable to one or more earthquake-related effects, depending on site geology and topography. Case studies of water-system damage by recent large earthquakes in Utah and in other regions of the United States offer valuable insights in evaluating water system vulnerability to earthquakes.

Highland, Lynn M.

1985-01-01

159

Advanced waste water treatment for radionuclide removal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced Liquid Radwaste Treatment processes can be defined as those technologies which provide substantial solid radwaste reduction and improved water quality when compared to conventional processes such as demineralization and evaporation. Advanced processes have recently been developed and implemented for use in applications where radionuclide removal is the treatment objective. This novel application of Advanced Liquid Radwaste Treatment processes primarily benefits Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) which treat their liquid radwaste for subsequent discharge. Hence the treatment objective is to produce effluent with less than the Lower Limit of Detection (< LLD) concentrations of gamma emitting isotopes in the water discharged to the environment. Advanced processes have successfully processed over 800,000 gallons of outage and non-outage generated floor drain and let down water at two PWRs. Operating results show that advanced systems are capable of processing widely varying waste water streams while lowering product water impurities and solid radwaste generation rates. This paper relates full scale operating experiences encountered since startup, as well as, feed and effluent chemistry results. Specific information is provided on chemical parameters such as conductivity, pH, silica, boron and radioactivity for the system feed and product streams. Advanced systems show continuing promise for aiding nuclear facilities in meeting solid radwaste, ALARA and offsite dose ng solid radwaste, ALARA and offsite dose goals. (author)

160

Treatment of cyanide-contained Waste Water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work contains results of theoretical and experimental investigations of possibility to apply industrial ionites of different kinds for recovering complex cyanide of some d-elements (Cu, Zn, an dso on) and free CN-ions with purpose to develop technology and unit for plating plant waste water treatment. Finally, on basis of experimental data about equilibrium kinetic and dynamic characteristic of the sorption in model solutions, strong base anionite in CN- and OH-forms was chosen. This anionite has the best values of operational sorption uptake. Recommendations of using the anionite have been developed for real cyanide-contained wastewater treatment

161

Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

Nilsen, David N. (Lebanon, OR); Galvan, Gloria J. (Albany, OR); Hundley, Gary L. (Corvallis, OR); Wright, John B. (Albany, OR)

1997-01-01

162

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. CASE PRESENTATION: The buffalo cow presented ...

Dettwiler, M.; Stahel, A. B. J.; Kru?ger, S.; Gerspach, C.; Braun, U.; Engels, M.; Hilbe, M.

2011-01-01

163

Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae) on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP), Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25?1?C u...

Mostafa, Soha S. M.; Shalaby, Emad A.; Mahmoud, Ghada I.

2012-01-01

164

On the Possibilities of Producing Hydrogen by High Temperature Electrolysis of Water Steam Supplied from Biomass or Waste Incineration Units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incineration of biomass and waste is considered to produce water steam, which then would feed the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process in order to produce hydrogen. For these energy sources, in a French context, results show that water steam production cost could be in a range of 0.02 to 0.06 euros per steam kilogram. Potentially 78 million vehicles could be fed with hydrogen coming from the steam produced by the incineration of the currently non valorized biomass and domestic waste. Furthermore, for each energy source the optimized hydrogen production cost estimation has been performed, including investment and operation costs. (authors)

165

Quantitative Assessment of Water Use Efficiency in Urban and Domestic Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential of water savings at property, household and urban levels, through the application of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs, as well as their quantification using the software Wise Water. Household centered measures are identified that allow for significant reduction of drinking water consumption with comparatively small effort, and without limitation of comfort. Furthermore, a method for the estimation of water recycling, for rainwater harvesting and for the utilization potential as locally available renewable freshwater is presented. Based on this study, the average drinking water consumption in urban households of industrialized countries could be reduced by approximately one third, without significant investment costs, either within the framework of new constructions or by the remodeling of water and sanitation systems in residential buildings. By using a secondary water quality, the drinking water demand could even be reduced by 50%. In the case of an area-wide application, the overall fresh water demand of cities and the exploitation of fresh water resources could be significantly reduced. Due to the comparability of the domestic water use of the investigated households, the findings are internationally transferable, for example to countries in Europe, Asia, and also the USA.

Vicente Santiago-Fandiño

2013-08-01

166

Assessing domestic water use habits for more effective water awareness campaigns during drought periods: a case study in Alicante, Eastern Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of water awareness campaigns could benefit from knowledge on the specific characteristics of domestic water use and of the factors that may influence certain water consumption habits. This paper investigates water use in 450 households of 10 municipalities of drought prone Alicante (Spain) with the objective of increasing knowledge about existing domestic water behavior and therefore help to improve the design and implementation of future water awareness campaigns. The survey results indicate that users already follow many of the conservation practices mentioned in messages. Moreover, campaigns need to take into account the differences in water use and habits derived from differences in urban models (concentrated or disperse).

March, H.; Hernández, M.; Saurí, D.

2014-11-01

167

Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

Yade, N.

1986-01-01

168

Development of a process to neutralize water-reactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mixed waste storage area at Los Alamos National Laboratory contains a considerable amount of lithium hydride and other water-reactive wastes. A process to neutralize these wastes by controlled hydration in an atmosphere of humid nitrogen is being developed. The kinetics of reaction of lithium hydride with water vapor has been studied at bench scale. The reaction progress can be predicted using the Unreacted Shrinking Core Model for noncatalytic solid-fluid reactions. This model will be utilized in designing of a skid-mounted treatment unit to neutralize water-reactive wastes

169

Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site.

Sanchez, H.F.; Quinn, G.J.

1983-02-01

170

Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site

171

How to reduce risk of climate change: Domestic hot water production methanization and programmed timing of heaters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper first identifies a significant and deleterious trend, in terms of poor energy efficiency and high carbon dioxide emissions, towards the increased use of electric water heaters for sanitary hot water production in single family units. It then points out how the use of wall mounted methane fired boilers can result in overall energy savings (overall electric power consumption for domestic hot water production is estimated to represent one- quarter of Italy's total domestic power demand), as well as air pollution abatement. The feasibility of other methods of energy conservation and pollution abatement in domestic water heating are also examined. These include the use of solar hot water heaters, computerized timers which allow users to program the operation of their heating plants, and the adoption by residential communities of methane fuelled district heating plants

172

Treatment of contaminated waste water by reverse osmosis membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper present the results obtained in treatment by reverse osmosis membrane of waste waters containing radioactive elements and other dissolved heavy or rare metals. Cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membranes were used for removal and recovery uranium from mine waters, pond waters and the other waste waters from ore processing. The flux permeate and rejection for solutes presented in solution were determined. The experiments were performed at laboratory scale. The operation conditions are described

173

Radiotracer investigations of industrial waste water equalizer-clarifiers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology and results of radiotracer investigations of an industrial equalizer-clarifier for waste water treatment are presented. Potassium bromide activated in nuclear reactor for sewage labelling was used. The dynamic characteristics of the tank and principal parameters of its operation were determined. The waste water flow model in apparatus was proposed. (author)

174

Thermal Energy Storage using PCM for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: A Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal energy storage using phase chase materials (PCM) has received considerable attention in the past two decades for time dependent energy source such as solar energy. From several experimental and theoretical analyses that have been made to assess the performance of thermal energy storage systems, it has been demonstrated that PCM-based systems are reliable and viable options. This paper covers such information on PCMs and PCM-based systems developed for the application of solar domestic hot water system. In addition, economic analysis of thermal storage system using PCM in comparison with conventional storage system helps to validate its commercial possibility. From the economic analysis, it is found that, PCM based solar domestic hot water system (SWHS) provides 23 % more cumulative and life cycle savings than conventional SWHS and will continue to perform efficiently even after 15 years due to application of non-metallic tank. Payback period of PCM-based system is also less compared to conventional system. In conclusion, PCM based solar water heating systems can meet the requirements of Indian climatic situation in a cost effective and reliable manner.

Khot, S. A.; Sane, N. K.; Gawali, B. S.

2012-06-01

175

Effect of color removal agent on textiles waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of color removal agent (CRA) on textile waste water has been studied. The aim of this work is to determine the optimum condition for CRA to react on the textile waste water and to see the effect of CRA on waste water with different Chemical Oxygen Demand. 8 ml CRA was used to treat 800 mls of sample with various COD ranging between 2500 mg/ l-500 mg/ l. The results showed that CRA totally remove the colour of textile waste water at pH ranging from 6 to 8. At an optimum condition CRA works efficiently on waste water with COD 2300 mg/ l for reduction of suspended solid and turbidity. It also observed, sludge accumulation was depended on COD concentration. Color removal curves for different initial COD concentration also obtained. (author)

176

Discussing simply waste water treatment in building green mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis simplfy it is important and necessary that uran ore enterprise build the green mine .According to focusing on waste water treatment in building green mine of some uran ore enterprise,analysis the problem in treating mine water, technics waste water, tailings water before remoulding the system of waster water treatment, evaluate the advanced technics, satisfy ability, steady effect, reach the mark of discharge. According to the experimental unit of building the green mine,some uran ore enterprise make the waster water reaching the mark of discharge after remoulding the system of waster water treatment.It provides valuable experienceto uran ore enterprise in building green mine. (authors)

177

REVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE WASTE WATER TREATMENT OPTION FOR URBAN SANITATION FACILITIES IN DEVELOPING COUTRIES, CASE STUDY: UPPER BHIMA BASIN, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generation and accumulation of domestic waste from fast growing human settlements is becoming a major environment and health problem in developing country like India. The problem is becoming very acute in urban areas. Appropriate management of these wastes is very important for a positive improvement in the quality of life in cities. With unprecedented growth of cities, the present waste management facilities have been found to be very haphazard and inadequate. Conventional methodologies like conventional sewerage systems presently in use are grossly inadequate to manage the generated waste. As a result, untreated domestic waste finds direct access to water systems or lies untreated on the land surface. Solid waste management also is a major problem in virtually all the cities. This is grossly detrimental to the environment and to the health of the community. Therefore, it becomes necessary to take an overview of the existing situation and to think about appropriate solutions and alternative technologies for the management of these wastes. This paper will highlight one of such treatment option that has been employed in Pune District of Maharashtra State (India.

S.V. MAPUSKAR

2010-12-01

178

Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity difference between the make-up water production and consumption of make-up water. (EG)

Aagaard, Joergen

1998-07-01

179

The influence of waste water on the water quality in Zemplínska ?írava  

OpenAIRE

The water quality in the Zemplínska Šírava water reservoir directly depends on the water quality in Laborec river. This is mainly in -fluenced by waste water discharged from point sources of pollution (public canalization) and waste water from area sources of pollution. In the contribution, the water quality data in 6 river and 4 water reservoir profiles are presented for the period of 1993 - 1997.

Búgel Milan

1999-01-01

180

78 FR 64905 - Carriage of Conditionally Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk  

Science.gov (United States)

...Carriage of Conditionally Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk AGENCY...letter concerning the carriage of shale gas extraction waste water in bulk via...letter allowing the barge to transport shale gas extraction waste water in...

2013-10-30

181

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Science.gov (United States)

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2010-07-01

182

77 FR 6548 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid Waste...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid Waste Sustainability Initiatives at Fort...implementation of the Energy, Water, and Solid Waste Initiatives at Fort Bliss. These...implement energy, water, and solid waste technologies at Fort Bliss in...

2012-02-08

183

Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author)

184

Treatment of Oily Waste Water Emulsions from Metallurgical Industries Using Microwave Irradiation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emulsion waste water is one of the important industrial wastewaters, which results from the various manufacturing industries including the metal manufacturing and its processing. Wastewater treatment technologies utilizing flocculation and electrolysis have been used but these technologies have not been very helpful in resolving the problems in view of process consistency and economic merit. Aiming to mitigate the environmental hazard that these waste emulsions represent, a study was carried to investigate the microwave methods to destabilise water/oil emulsions without the addition of any destabilizing chemical agent. The experimental work consisted on breaking the simplest of the emulsions in terms of content, in order to obtain preliminary data that can help to extend the method to manage actual waste material. The samples consisted in water/oil emulsions waste (spent cutting oil, which was obtained from local metal industries. The sample emulsions underwent a domestic microwave radiating process at several exposure times. Certain factors, such as aromatic components and sodium hydroxide content and total heat exposure time proved to be the factors that more strongly affect the results. Within the category of paraffinic oils, light oils allow for quicker water separation than heavy oils. Also oils with higher aromatic content have higher viscosity, which makes the separation of water more difficult. It was observed in this study that emulsions added with acid up to a final concentration of 0.48 M, the separation efficiency and demulsification rate increased with increasing acid concentration. Hence microwave irradiation is an economical and rapid method for oil separation from oily waste water. Although this study was carried out on a lab scale basis, the process can scale up to a large industrial scale system. By using the microwave radiation, an aqueous phase recovery that ranged from 65 to 90% was obtained, which is a significant outcome that reveals the study of this technique needs to be taken further

N. Saifuddin

2006-01-01

185

Simulation programs for ph.D. study of analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in the solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. One of the main objects of the Ph.D. study of `Analysis, Modelling and optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems` is to develop and verify programs for carrying out the simulation and evaluation of the dynamic performance of solar DHW systems. During this study, simulation programs for hot water distribution networks and for certain types of solar DHW systems were developed. (au)

Lin Qin

1998-12-31

186

A Study of Waste Water Treatment of Microbiological Laboratories of Hospitals by Electrolyzed Oxidized Water  

OpenAIRE

Hospital liquid infectious waste is one of the most important aspects of water contamination. The presentinvestigation was undertaken to evolve a cost effective alternate method of waste water treatment by usingOxidized Water as a disinfectant for hospital effluents. Liquid infectious waste coming from diagnosticlaboratories of hospitals (Urine, Blood and Mix of both) was treated with electrolyzed Oxidized Water. Differentv/v ratios (95:5, 85:15, 75:25, 50:50 and 25...

Fiza Sarwar; Aroos Munir; Ilyas Ahmed Faridi

2011-01-01

187

Attenuation of Chromium toxicity in mine waste water using water hyacinth  

OpenAIRE

The mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6). Cr+6 contaminated mine waste water poses potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The current field based phytoremediation study is an in situ approach for attenuation of Cr+6 from mine waste water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) weeds by rhizofiltration method. The weeds significantly reduced (up to 54%) toxic concentrations of C...

Mohanty M.; Patra, H. K.

2011-01-01

188

Efficiency Research on Meat Industry Waste Water Treatment Applying the Method of Dissolved Air Flotation  

OpenAIRE

To protect environment from industrial pollution, strict requirements for waste water treatment are imposed. The purpose of research is to establish an optimal ratio of saturated liquid and meat industry waste water. Research included JCC “Traidenis” waste water treatment system installed in JSC “BHJ Baltic”. Investigations into treated waste water indicated that an optimal ratio of waste water and saturated liquid was 2/1 under duration time of 8 minutes. Efficient waste water tre...

Valentinas Gerasimovas; Robertas Urbanavi?ius

2012-01-01

189

ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUND WATER AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE  

Science.gov (United States)

Arsenic in ground water can be a potential source of contamination to surface water. A case study will be presented to evaluate the fate of arsenic during ground water-surface water interactions downgradient from a hazardous waste site. An overview of the techniques employed to...

190

Diagnosis of small capacity reverse osmosis desalination unit for domestic water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tunisian norm of drinking water tolerates a maximum TDS of 1.5 g/L, and the domestic water presents usually a salinity grater than 500 mg/L. In the last years, several small capacity reverse osmosis desalination prototypes have been marketed. They are used to desalinate brackish water with TDS lower than 1.5 g/L. This RO unit, tested with tap waters during four years, was diagnosed. The RO unit produces 10-15 L/Hour with a recovery rate between 25 and 40 pour cent and salt rejection in order of 90 pour cent. The salinity of the tested domestic water is located between 0.4 and 1.4 g/L. Water pretreatment is composed of three filtration operations (cartridge filter, granulate active carbon filter and 5 =m cartridge filter). Pretreated water is pumped through RO membrane with maximum pressure of 6 bars. At the 4th year, the RO unit performances were substantial decreased. Recovery rate and salt rejection fall down more than 50 and 100% respectively and the pressure drop increase from 1 to 2.1 bar The membrane regeneration allowed only the rate recovery restoration. The membrane selectivity was not improved. The membrane seems irreversibly damaged by the tap water chlorine none retained by the deficient pretreatment. An autopsy of the used RO membrane was done by different analysis techniques as SEM/EDX, AFM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of membrane (proper and used) surfaces show a deposit film on the used membrane witch evaluated to environ 2 =m, it indicatesch evaluated to environ 2 =m, it indicates a fooling phenomenon. The SEM photos show deterioration on the active layer material of the membrane witch seems attacked by the tap water chlorine. The X Rays Diffraction and FTIR show that the deposit collected on the used membrane contains organic and mineral (Gypsum, SiO2 and clays) materials. Silicates and clays can exist in tap waters and reach the RO membrane when the pretreatment micro-filter became deficient. The Gypsum presence is due only to germination on the membrane.

191

Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education). PMID:23977190

Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

2013-01-01

192

Pore water chemistry of domestic bentonite for the buffer of a repository: analysis of experimental data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were conducted using synthetic ground water and domestic bentonite. Upon reaction of the bentonite and ground water, ionic concentration, ph and Eh nearly reached a steady-state within a few days. The pore water chemistry was dominated mainly by the mineralogical composition of bentonite. Analytic results showed that sodium, sulfate, and carbonate were major ions, and their concentrations increased to about 4-5 times those of original ground water. The ph increased from 8.1 to 8.9, and the Eh were between 365 mV and 375 mV. The concentration of most dissolved ions increased with increasing bentonite-to-ground water ratio. On the contrary, the ph and Eh were little affected by bentonite-to-ground water ratio. The dependence of ionic concentration upon temperature had different trends with different ions. Little change in the ph occurred up to 80 dg C, and decreased beyond the value of temperature. The Eh rather increased beyond 80 dg C on contrary to ph. (Author). 21 refs., 4 tabs., 18 figs

193

Enhancement of natural circulation type domestic solar hot water system performance by using a wind turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance improvement of existing 200 litres capacity natural convection type domestic solar hot water system is attempted. A two-stage centrifugal pump driven by a vertical axis windmill having Savonius type rotor is added to the fluid loop. The windmill driven pump circulates the water through the collector. The system with necessary instrumentation is tested over a day. Tests on Natural Circulation System (NCS) mode and Wind Assisted System (WAS) mode are carried out during January, April, July and October, 2009. Test results of a clear day are reported. Daily average efficiency of 25-28 % during NCS mode and 33-37 % during WAS mode are obtained. With higher wind velocities, higher collector flow rates and hence higher efficiencies are obtained. In general, WAS mode provides improvements in efficiency when compared to NCS mode.

Ramasamy, K. K.; Srinivasan, P. S. S.

2011-08-01

194

EFFICIENCY OF DOMESTIC REVERSE OSMOSIS IN REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound, Tape wrapping module was used. Feed solution was made by using of pure chloroform. The samples containing chloroform were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. By increasing the flow, the removal rate of chloroform decreased and with declining removal of EC, the removal of chloroform declined too. In this research, at the worst condition, the efficiency of the pilot scale reverse osmosis reached to 80 % removal of chloroform.

S. Mazloomi ? R. Nabizadeh ? S. Nasseri ? K. Naddafi ? S. Nazmara ? A. H. Mahvi

2009-10-01

195

A process for treating radioactive water-reactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Los Alamos National Laboratory and other locations in the complex of experimental and production facilities operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have generated an appreciable quantity of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) enacted by the United States Congress in 1976 and subsequently amended in 1984, 1986, and 1988 requires that every hazardous waste must be rendered nonhazardous before disposal. Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. These wastes, called mixed wastes, require applying appropriate regulations for radioactive waste disposal and the regulations under RCRA. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category

196

A process for treating radioactive water-reactive wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Los Alamos National Laboratory and other locations in the complex of experimental and production facilities operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have generated an appreciable quantity of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) enacted by the United States Congress in 1976 and subsequently amended in 1984, 1986, and 1988 requires that every hazardous waste must be rendered nonhazardous before disposal. Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. These wastes, called mixed wastes, require applying appropriate regulations for radioactive waste disposal and the regulations under RCRA. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category.

Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Munger, D. [Santa Fe Engineering, Ltd. (United States)

1995-02-01

197

Efficiency of unaerated waste water lagoons with primary settling tanks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To minimize the surface demand of unaerated waste water lagoons, primary settling tanks are more frequently being installed up stream to the lagoons. In comparison to the lagoons these settling tanks have operational advantages. The design principles of such tanks are shown by example of two waste water treatment plants in North Frisia operating with unaerated lagoons. The progress of water treatment within the lagoon and the achieved results are reported. (orig.)

198

Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water of contact lens wearers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms--including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae--can cause several eye infections in wearers. Extended wear of contact lenses is the major risk factor of eye infections such as microbial keratitis, besides contaminated contact lens storage case, contaminated lens care solutions, and inaccurate contact lens handling. In this study, we collected contact lens storage case and domestic tap water samples from 50 asymptomatic contact lens wearers. We determined that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 45 (90 %), Gram negative rod bacteria were isolated in 20 (40 %), Pseudomonas spp. were isolated in 2 (4 %) and fungi were isolated in 18 (36 %) out of 50 contact lens storage cases. Free living amoebae were not detected in investigated contact lens storage cases. At the same time, out of 50, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 34 (68 %), fungi were isolated in 15 (30 %) and free living amoebae were isolated in 15 (30 %) domestic tap water samples. No Gram-negative rod bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in investigated water samples. Two contact lens case samples and two tap water samples were excluded from the analysis for Pseudomonas spp. for technical reasons. According to our findings, inadequate contact lens maintenance during lens wear may result in the contamination of contact lens storage cases. This situation can lead to severe eye infections in contact lens wearers over time. PMID:23064864

Üstüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

2012-11-01

199

Radioactive waste disposal of water containing waste using urea-formaldehyde resin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of disposing of wet radioactive waste materials such as those generated in the water used to cool atomic reactors, comprises combining the waste material with a hydrophilic resin in proportions sufficient to provide a solid mass of the resin with the radioactive waste component distributed within. In its preferred form, the waste material is concentrated by separating water from the radioactive portions thereof by methods such as evaporation, taking up the waste components with an ion exchange resin and separating the resin from the bulk of the water, or by the addition of flocculating agents or the like and filtering. The preferred hydrophilic resinous material is a conventional ureaformaldehyde dispersion, which is partially polymerized and capable of taking up water and fully polymerizing upon the addition of an acidic curing agent. The method also contemplates adding a substantially waterproof resinous material to the surface of the solid block, or enclosing it in a waterproof container, or both

200

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC SOLID WASTE IN A BORDER MUNICIPALITY OF MEXICO  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports the behavior in the generation of DSW in an urban community (Ensenada) and two rural communities (San Quintin and Vicente Guerrero) in Baja California, Mexico, during a seasonal period. The analyzed waste came directly from the municipal garbage trucks, taking samples for a week. Per capita generation was determined considering the waste collected and the number of inhabitants; the composition was determined according to standard NMX-AA-015-1985 and the procedure proposed b...

Taboada-gonza?lez, Pau?l A.; Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen; Sara Ojeda-Benitez

2011-01-01

201

A survey of 222Rn concentrations in domestic water supplies of Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of a national program to determine public exposure to natural radiation, 222Rn concentrations were determined in domestic water supplies, including ground and surface waters, in 23 provincial centers using a liquid scintillation counting technique. The minimum and maximum mean concentrations of 222Rn in ground water were, respectively, 7.9 ± 4.5 kBq m-3 in Sanandaj and 46.5 ± 11.5 kBq m-3 in Tehran with an overall national mean value of 21 ± 8.3 kBq m-3. The 222Rn concentrations in surface waters ranged from less than 1 to 7 kBq m-3 with a mean value of 3.9 ± 1.9 kBq m-3. The mean concentration of 222Rn in tap water in different parts of Tehran is 3.8 ± 1.1 kBq m-3. The results are presented and discussed in this paper

202

Method for the treatment of waste water with sludge granules:  

OpenAIRE

The invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste water comprising an organic nutrient. According to the invention, the waste water is in a first step fed to sludge granules, after the supply of the waste water to be treated the sludge granules are fluidised in the presence of an oxygen-comprising gas, and in a third step, the sludge granules are allowed to settle in a settling step. This makes it possible to effectively remove not only organic nutrients but optionally also nitroge...

Loosdrecht, M. C.; Kreuk, M. K.

2004-01-01

203

Where There Is No Toilet: Water and Sanitation Environments of Domestic and Facility Births in Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Inadequate water and sanitation during childbirth are likely to lead to poor maternal and newborn outcomes. This paper uses existing data sources to assess the water and sanitation (WATSAN) environment surrounding births in Tanzania in order to interrogate whether such estimates could be useful for guiding research, policy and monitoring initiatives. Methods We used the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to characterise the delivery location of births occurring between 2005 and 2010. Births occurring in domestic environments were characterised as WATSAN-safe if the home fulfilled international definitions of improved water and improved sanitation access. We used the 2006 Service Provision Assessment survey to characterise the WATSAN environment of facilities that conduct deliveries. We combined estimates from both surveys to describe the proportion of all births occurring in WATSAN-safe environments and conducted an equity analysis based on DHS wealth quintiles and eight geographic zones. Results 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 41.6%–44.2%) of all births occurred in the woman's home. Among these, only 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%–2.0%) were estimated to have taken place in WATSAN-safe conditions. 74% of all health facilities conducted deliveries. Among these, only 44% of facilities overall and 24% of facility delivery rooms were WATSAN-safe. Combining the estimates, we showed that 30.5% of all births in Tanzania took place in a WATSAN-safe environment (range of uncertainty 25%–42%). Large wealth-based inequalities existed in the proportion of births occurring in domestic environments based on wealth quintile and geographical zone. Conclusion Existing data sources can be useful in national monitoring and prioritisation of interventions to improve poor WATSAN environments during childbirth. However, a better conceptual understanding of potentially harmful exposures and better data are needed in order to devise and apply more empirical definitions of WATSAN-safe environments, both at home and in facilities. PMID:25191753

Benova, Lenka; Cumming, Oliver; Gordon, Bruce A.; Magoma, Moke; Campbell, Oona M. R.

2014-01-01

204

Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis  

OpenAIRE

One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with differe...

Björn Karlsson; Henrik Davidsson; Bernardo, Luis R.

2012-01-01

205

Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

1983-11-21

206

Process for decontamination of radioactively contaminated waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The waste water from the nuclear medical stations are separated from coarse dispersed materials in a precipitation container and are made acid to reach a pH value greater than 9.5. Next, there is precipitation or absorption. Waste air produced is cleaned by means of filters. (DG)

207

Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola Area, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study is to assess the shallow groundwater quality of Pindiga Gombe area for irrigation and domestic purposes. Fifteen water samples collected from wells tapping shallow aquifer was used. The water samples were analyzed for major cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+ and anions: C-, HCO3-1, SO4 2- and NO3-. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Magnesium Ads...

Obiefuna, G. I.; Sheriff, A.

2011-01-01

208

Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Lack of access to safe water remains a significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries. There has been little research into the health effects of frequently carrying containers of water. The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health effects of the task. Methods Mixed methods of data collection from six ...

Geere Jo-Anne L; Hunter Paul R; Jagals Paul

2010-01-01

209

Solar water heating systems feasibility for domestic requests in Tunisia: Thermal potential and economic analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using Domestic Solar Water Heating systems. • The payback period is between 8 and 7.5 years. • The annual savings in electrical energy is between 1316 and 1459 kW h/year. • The savings by using the solar systems is about 3969–4400.34 $. • The annual GHG emission per house is reduced by 27,800 tCO2. - Abstract: The main goal of the present work is to study the energetic and the economic potential of the deployment of Domestic Solar Water Heating systems (DSWHs) instead of using electric/gas/town gas water heaters. A case study related to Tunisian scenario was performed according to a typical Tunisian households composed of 4–5 persons. In this scenario we evaluated the performance and the life cycle perspective of the two most popular DSWHs over the recent years (i.e. DSWH with flat-plate solar collector, FPC, and DSWHs with evacuated-tube solar collector, ETC). The dynamic behavior of DSWHs according to Tunisian data weather was achieved by means of TRNSYS simulation. The Results showed that the FPC and ETC provide about 8118 and 12032 kW h/year of thermal energy. The economic potential of DSWHs in saving electricity and reducing carbon dioxide emissions was also investigated. Results showed that the annual savings in electrical energy relatively to the FPC and ETC are about 1316 and 1459 kW h/year, with a payback period of around 8 and 10 years, respectively. Based on gas/town gas water heater, the FPC and ETC save about 306 m3 and 410 m3 of gas/town gas with a payback period about 6 and 7.5 years, respectively. We found that the life cycle savings by installing the solar system instead of buying electricity to satisfy hot water needs are about $3969 (FPC) and $4400 (ETC). We establish also that the use of the DSWHs instead of installing gas/town gas water heaters save about $1518 (FPC) and $2035 (ETC). From an environmental point of view the annual GHG emission per house is reduced by 27800 tCO2

210

ADVERSE IMPACTS OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT ­ A CASE STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial metal plating processes coat materials with metals, such as chromium, copper and nickel. After the plating process, excess metals are rinsed off and the rinse water is collected and then treated to remove metals prior to discharge of the rinse water into rivers. This waste water is typica...

211

DRINKING AND WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN ŠALESKA DOLINA REGION  

OpenAIRE

In the present diploma thesis we demonstrate the operation of the treatment plant Grmov vrh and the Central waste water treatment plant of the Šalek Valley. We have seen how the inhabitants of the Šalek Valley supply themselves with drinking water. Furthermore, we present the reconstruction of the sewerage and water supply system in the Šalek Valley and their wider benefit for the valley.

Stojakovic?, Mario

2013-01-01

212

The impact of industrial waste of Venezuelan marine water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Puerto Cabello-Marron coastal area of Venezuela is an ideal location for industries that require large land areas, water, marine transportation, minimum habitation, cooling water, etc. However, mercury spills have produced concern in the entire coastal zone. The area was investigated and negative impacts were identified. Consequently, recommendations for waste water management were proceeded. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Roberts, Frank [Bechtel Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Guarino, Carmen [Guarino Engineers, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Arias, Marlene [Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Caracas (Venezuela)

1993-12-31

213

Actual problems of municipal cleaner?s waste waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner?s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

Konko¾ová Patrícia

2000-03-01

214

Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, Northern Peninsular Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l-1, 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l-1 and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l-1 in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l-1. From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of 222Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from 222Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y-1, for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively. (authors)

215

Utilization of phase change materials in solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal energy storage systems which keep warm and cold water separated by means of gravitational stratification have been found to be attractive in low and medium temperature thermal storage applications due to their simplicity and low cost. This effect is known as thermal stratification, and has been studied experimentally thoughtfully. This system stores sensible heat in water for short term applications. Adding PCM (phase change material) modules at the top of the water tank would give the system a higher storage density and compensate heat loss in the top layer because of the latent heat of PCM. Tests were performed under real operating conditions in a complete solar heating system that was constructed at the University of Lleida, Spain. In this work, new PCM-graphite compounds with optimized thermal properties were used, such as 80:20 weight percent ratio mixtures of paraffin and stearic acid (PS), paraffin and palmitic acid (PP), and stearic acid and myristic acid (SM). The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) tank used in the experiments had a 150 L water capacity. Three modules with a cylindrical geometry with an outer diameter of 0.176 m and a height of 0.315 m were used. In the cooling experiments, the average tank water temperature dropped below the PCM melting temperature range in about 6-12 h. During reheating experiments, the PCM could increase the temperature of 14-36 L of water at the upper part of the SDHW tank by 3-4 C. This effect took place in 10-15 min. It can be concluded that PS gave the best results for thermal performance enhancement of the SDHW tank (74% efficiency). (author)

Mazman, Muhsin; Evliya, Hunay; Paksoy, Halime Oe. [Chemistry Dept., Art and Science Fac., Cukurova University, Balcali, Adana (Turkey); Cabeza, Luisa F.; Nogues, Miquel [Dept. Informatica i Eng. Industrial, Universitat de Lleida, Jaume II 69, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Mehling, Harald [ZAE Bayern, Division 1, Walther-Meissner-Str. 6, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2009-06-15

216

Generation of Domestic Solid Waste in Tikrit City and The Effects of Family Size and Incomes Level on the Rate of Generation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available     This research included collection and analysis of (2800 samples from four different neighborhoods in Tikrit over the seasons of the year to cover seasonal changes in the generation rate of domestic solid waste. The generation rate of domestic solid waste is (0.460 kg / person / day. The results also showed that summer season is the most season that produced solid waste (0.487 kg / person / day. While winter is the lowest season (0.422 kg / person / day. The results indicated that Friday and Saturday are the most producing days (0.629 , 0.557 kg / person / days, respectively. The results showed the impact of rural character of Aalam region in reducing the rate of generation of domestic solid waste as the rate of generation of the neighborhoods of the four studied areas was (0.460 kg / person / day. SPSS program using has been adopted as a method of statistical analysis to study the effect of family size and income level have on the generation rate in the city, where the results showed that family size adversely affects the generation rate of solid waste, also the lowest generation rate was recorded for families with high income level.                                                                                                                                  

Waleed M. Al Abed Raba

2013-04-01

217

Heavy metals in the waste and in the water discharge area of municipal solid waste  

OpenAIRE

The county of Paranaguá discards 80 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) daily in the Embocuí landfill without proper treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the concentration of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in the dump area and to compare it with reference values for soil and water quality stipulated by CETESB (2005). The methodology of the study involved the collection of waste samples (organic waste mixed with soil) from a depth of 1 m deep ...

Luiz Ermindo Cavallet; Sebastião Garcia de Carvalho; Paulo Fortes Neto

2013-01-01

218

A decade of successful domestic sea transports of radioactive waste in Sweden 1982-1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today the transports of radioactive waste in Sweden are done on routine basis without any negative publicity. An important contribution to this fact is probably the very good performance of the transport system and the receiving facilities. Since the start of operation of the transport system no accidents have occurred. Almost 1600 tonnes of spent fuel and 10,000 m3 of radioactive waste have been transported. The capacity and availability of the ship and of the transport system as a whole is large enough to cover all needs for transports of radioactive material in Sweden, at least up to the turn of this century. (J.P.N.)

219

NATURAL WASTE WATER PURIFICATION IN CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The comprehensive enhancement of the environment is an important task in Hungary too in order to maintain and improve the life quality of both humans and other living creatures. Waste water treatment and solid waste management have become significant issues since joining the European Union. Thus it has become timely to develop or borrow an effective and attainable sewage water treatment technology adapted to Hungarian circumstances. Some prototypes of waste water treatment plants that use natural or constructed wetlands (reed beds mainly have already been established in Hungary as experiments or everyday function. In Hódmezövásárhely (HU a demonstration site has built that shows different types of treatment systems based on plants. Present paper introduces environment friendly waste water treatment technologies and the principles of their establishment and function.

AGNES SULI

2009-05-01

220

MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

221

The Design and Management of Intelligent Systems in Mechanical Domestic Water Meters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The design and implementation of mechanical domestic water meters in current industrial organization and intellectual properties have been registered as an invention to solve the problems of current meters. The device operation includes inquiry of printing, subscription connection and disconnection in an emergency. This system includes a software and hardware parts on the users and the control center connecting with two-way mobile phone. Central control software sends the message through the wireless telecommunication lines to the user’s software, requesting the desired information and also provides the commands needed to be sent through the same. The same information can also be submitted to the control center. Through the same way, some of advantages of this method are as follows: installing on existing meters, cheap cost of inquiry call meter, the possibility of declaring illegal manipulation to the control center, the exchange of information using information encoding, and manipulating digital meters applying minor changes.

Majid Meghdadi

2011-10-01

222

Microbial growth in domestic hot water systems with special emphasis on connections to district heating networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is by now well-estalished that domestic hot water systems often harbour Legionella bacteria. Measurements into a number of Danish systems have revealed many other bacteria, among them the thermophilic species Thermus, which is predominantly found on heating coils, where local temperatures are higher. This bacterium not only hampers heat transfer due to fouling, but may also be pathogenic, due to release of endotoxins. Its presence may explain a wide spectrum of symptoms experienced by people after hot baths, such as rashes and itching. The paper summarizes these findings, and on this basis engineering and microbiological considerations are presented in an effort to find ways of future control strategies that go beyond Legionella prevention. Special attention is given to district heating connections, in which low supply and return temperatures are generally wanted in the primary circuit. (author) 16 refs.

Frederiksen, S. (Lund Institute of Technology, Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund (SE)); Krongaard Kristensen, K. (Regional Food and Hygiene Authority, Koebenhavns Amt Vest, Glostrup (DK))

1991-01-01

223

Optimization of China´s centralized domestic hot water system by applying Danish elements  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Regardless of where they are in the world, people depend on a reliable and sufficient supply of domestic hot water (DHW) for daily use. Some countries that have district heating (DH) infrastructure, such as Denmark and China, combine spacing heating (SH) and DHW together, with the aim of having a smart, energy efficient and environmentally friendly energy-consumption system. Nevertheless, the development of centralized DHW (CDHW) systems in these two countries differs significantly. This article details the challenges China’s CDHW system is currently encountering and proposes to apply the flat station concept to improve China’s CDHW system. Meanwhile, the technical advantages of the Danish CDHW, which would benefit China, are analyzed. Overall, from a technical point of view, the flat station concept is not only in line with China’s current DH conditions but would compensate for some technical defects of the existing CDHW system.

Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir

2014-01-01

224

Survey and analysis of the domestic technology level for the concept development of high level waste disposal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this study are the analysis of the status of HLW disposal technology and the investigation of the domestic technology level. The study has taken two years to complete with the participation of forty five researchers. The study was mainly carried out through means of literature surveys, collection of related data, visits to research institutes, and meetings with experts in the specific fields. During the first year of this project, the International Symposium on the Concept Development of the High Level Waste Disposal System was held in Taejon, Korea in October, 1997. Eight highly professed foreign experts whose fields of expertise projected to the area of high level waste disposal were invited to the symposium. This study is composed of four major areas; disposal system design/construction, engineered barrier characterization, geologic environment evaluation and performance assessment and total safety. A technical tree scheme of HLW disposal has been illustrated according to the investigation and an analysis for each technical area. For each detailed technology, research projects, performing organization/method and techniques that are to be secured in the order of priority are proposed, but the suggestions are merely at a superfluous level of propositional idea due to the reduction of the budget in the second year. The detailed programs on HLW disposal are greatly affected by governmental HLW disposal policy and in this study, the primary decisions to be made in each level of HLW disposal enterprise and a rough scheme are proposed. (author). 20 refs., 97 figs., 33 tabs.

Kang, Chang Sun; Kim, Byung Su; Song, Jae Hyok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kwang Hon; Hwang, Ju Ho; Park, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joung Sang; Kim, Ku Young [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon [Hangyang University, Seoul (Korea)

1998-09-01

225

Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement  

OpenAIRE

Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversit...

Graves, Alexandria K.; Murinda, Shelton E.; Mark Ibekwe, A.

2011-01-01

226

Simultaneous Waste Water Purification via Photocatalysis and Seed Germination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preliminary results of our study related to simultaneous waste water purification by photocatalytic degradation of organic impurity (Methylene Blue dye and its effects on seed germination are presented here. It is interesting and important to know that complete degradation of the dye occurs within 2 hours and does not adversely affect the seed germination process. It is concluded that waste water purification by photocatalysis and seed germination (agriculture can be carried out simultaneously, opening a way for advanced agriculture.

Sadhana A. Sawant

2013-07-01

227

Tertiary Treatment for Textile Waste Water-A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tertiary treatment is the Industrial waste water treatment process which removes stubborn contaminants that have not been removed in secondary treatment. Effluent becomes even cleaner by Tertiary treatment through the use of stronger and more advanced treatment systems. The present work is an attempt to review all possible tertiary treatment methods for removal of dyestuff from textile effluent. Conventional method for treatment of textile effluent has own certain limitations that can be well overcome by tertiary waste water treatment.

Manali Desai*1, Mehali Mehta2

2014-03-01

228

Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant  

OpenAIRE

In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste w...

Grigorieva, Ellina V.; Khailov, Evgenii N.

2010-01-01

229

Procedure and device for decontaminating radioactive waste waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decontamination of waste water containing short-lived radioactive materials, e.g. faecal waste water from hospitals with nuclear-medicine departments, takes place via decay plants. It is proposed that flow channeling of such plants should be arranged so that multiple mixing is carried out. This prevents single parts 'shooting through' too quickly and not dwelling for long enough. Turbulence can be achieved by blowing in air. A plant giving good results is described. (UWI)

230

Development of a household waste treatment subsystem, volume 1. [with water conservation features  

Science.gov (United States)

The domestic waste treatment subsystem was developed to process the daily liquid and non-metallic solid wastes provided by a family of four people. The subsystem was designed to be connected to the sewer line of a household which contained water conservation features. The system consisted of an evaporation technique to separate liquids from solids, an incineration technique for solids reduction, and a catalytic oxidizer for eliminating noxious gases from evaporation and incineration processes. All wastes were passed through a grinder which masticated the solids and deposited them in a settling tank. The liquids were transferred through a cleanable filter into a holding tank. From here the liquids were sprayed into an evaporator and a spray chamber where evaporation occurred. The resulting vapors were processed by catalytic oxidation. Water and latent energy were recovered in a combination evaporator/condenser heat exchanger. The solids were conveyed into an incinerator and reduced to ash while the incineration gases were passed through the catalytic oxidizer along with the processed water vapor.

Gresko, T. M.; Murray, R. W.

1973-01-01

231

The determinants of domestic water demand. Empirical evidence from Emilia-Romagna municipal data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents empirical evidence on the determinants of water demand for domestic use in one Italian region, the Emilia Romagna, by using municipal data. Two main stems in urban/domestic demand analysis cab be found in the empirical literature. The first deals with the estimation of price or income demand elasticities in the short and the long run. The price demand elasticities can be used for water demand managements purpose while the income price elasticities can be useful in the forecasting process of the water requirements. The second one deals with the estimate of customer willingness to pay increasing in water service quality in holistic sense or concerning single characteristics of the service: safety, flavour, continuity, appearance, pollution rate and cost. The aim of the analysis in this case the elicitation of the direct use, indirect use and non-use values associated to the water resource consumption, by means of direct or indirect techniques. In this paper we focused the analysis in the first stem of the empirical literature in which a cross section data set is required. The paper explores the topic problems of the estimating process whit the analysis of the empirical literature (with particular regard to investigations that use municipal data) and with the analysis of the econometric problems related to the demand estimate. The theoretical model for the water demand analysis is also presented and discussed. Two datasets have been implemented: one w Two datasets have been implemented: one with 125 municipalities and four years, the other with 40 municipalities and eleven years. Both the databases bring together municipal water consumption and tariffs data provided by local water utilities and other municipal data (inhabitants, surface, household, income, etc.) stemming from official sources. The econometric analysis is based on both fixed effects, performing better than random effects models, and dynamic panel models. The estimated coefficient of the tariff variable arises always significant and with negative sign: the water demand price elasticity is negative with a value between -0.88 and -1.11, but not significantly different from one, considering the different specifications. The results for the income variable are quite different: in the basic model specification the estimated coefficient is positive and significant while the introduction of the other socio-economic variables change the significance level and sometimes the sign. This applied study is an important starting point for the Italian environment, which lacks structured integrated datasets and consequently reliable estimates on elasticities concerning micro-economic oriented water demand studies. However, further analyses with more municipalities and more years have to be carried out to generalise and made results more robust, since the estimation of price elasticity and the investigation on the determinants of water demand is necessary information for both private and private-public management of water resources

232

Irradiation as an alternative for disinfection of domestic waste in the Canadian Arctic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of various methods for disinfecting wastewater in the Canadian Arctic with specific reference to gamma radiation. More conventional disinfection practices, such as chlorination, chlorination-dechlorination, and ozonation were compared to gamma radiation along with ultraviolet irradiation and lime disinfection. The quality of lagoon effluent, highly diluted (weak) sewage, holding tank wastes and honey-bag wastes, which are the typical waste types found in northern communities, was established from data available in the literature. Further literature reviews were undertaken to establish a data base for design and effectiveness of disinfection systems operated in cold climates. Capital and operating costs for all technically feasible disinfection process alternates were estimated based on historical cost data adjusted to 1977 for the construction and instalation of similar systems in the north. The costs of equipment, chemicals, fuel and electrical power were obtained from suppliers. The environmental impact of each of the disinfection processes was reviewed with emphasis on gamma irradiation. Safety and health aspects were also considered. The study concluded that gamma irradiation was capable of providing safe, reliable disinfection for concentrated honey-bag and holding wastes. Pilot-scale testing was recommended prior to construction of full-scale disinfection facilities. For lagoon effluents and weak sewage, gamma irradiation was not cost competitive with other alternates; rather chlorination-dechlorination was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternative

233

Prevalence of work-related rhino-conjunctivitis and respiratory symptoms among domestic waste collectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste collectors may suffer from acute and chronic health effects caused by organic dust (bioaerosols). Pathophysiological symptoms may originate either from allergic or irritative pathomechanisms, but an explicit distinction of the etiology is often complicated although crucial for proper risk assessment and workplace prevention. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 69 male waste collectors from the Ruhr area in Germany underwent a customized testing protocol including a modified questionnaire, basic clinical examination, spirometry, and immunologic parameters. Subjects were classified according to their work tasks into loaders (n?=?27), floaters (n?=?29), and drivers (n?=?13). We found that a high percentage of the workers had complaints (eyes 29.0 %, nose 39.1 %, and cough 34.8 %) which were strongly work-related. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that duration of employment in waste collection (per 10 years) was associated with an increased prevalence of cough (OR?=?1.64, 95 %CI 0.81; 3.35) and chronic bronchitis (OR?=?2.18, 95 %CI 0.80; 5.92). An association between rhinitis and cough (OR?=?2.62, 95 %CI 0.94; 7.27) was found, which supports the association between the prevalence of upper and lower airway disease. Furthermore, when adjusting for smoking status, atopic subjects suffered more frequently from irritation of the lower airways as indicated by cough (OR?=?2.71, 95 %CI 0.91; 8.08). In conclusion, the study demonstrates associations between the prevalence of upper and lower airway disease in waste collectors. Notably, an underlying allergic disease in waste collectors could be suspected more commonly than previously reported. PMID:25252907

Schantora, A L; Casjens, S; Deckert, A; van Kampen, V; Neumann, H-D; Brüning, T; Raulf, M; Bünger, J; Hoffmeyer, F

2015-01-01

234

Separation of Uranium from Waste Water by TBP Impregnated Resin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In the process of uranium purification for nuclear material development, it is necessary to remove the uranium contaminated in the waste water effluent from the processing facility. For the waste water contains little amount of the polluted elements, the effective separation method must be used. In this study, tributyl phosphate (TBP) impregnated resin was used to separate uranium from the prepared waste water simulating the waste water generated from the processing of monazite ore. The prepared waste water composes of uranium and some chemical reagents such as sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid which are used in the process. The concentration of uranium in the waste water is 1-5 mg/L and the concentration of sodium, chloride and nitrate ions are 20-100, 200-1000 and 100-500 mg/L respectively. It has been found that the uranium adsorption capacity on the TBP impregnated resin increases with the increasing uranium concentration and the highest adsorption capacity is about 0.032 mg U/g resin. The concentration of sodium, chloride and nitrate ions in this study slightly affect the extraction efficiency of the impregnated resin

235

BIBRA trademark - the biological treatment of radioactive waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BIBRA trademark, is the new bio-technological method developed in Gundremmingen for treating radioactive waste water, using bacteria in a process analogous to the long-established principle of communal sewage treatment plants. The method exploits the behaviour of the micro-organisms found there, to establish optimum adaptation of their population for decomposing the typical pollutants found in this washing water. This procedure is particularly suitable for nuclear engineering plants, because in such plants the waste water composition changes little so that the bacteria can achieve optimum adaptation to this waste water. The organic ingredients of the washing media are decomposed by introducing air. The advantage of the procedure is not only the significant reduction of the amount of waste material, but also enhanced efficiency of the cleaning process. The decontamination factor in Gundremmingen improved from a factor of 5 to a factor of 20. The waste water is clear and free from suspended materials. A further decisive advantage is the elimination of organic substances in relation to conditioning of evaporator concentrates for final disposal storage. The process entails only slight conversion costs - in Gundremmingen only DM 35 000 were required for converting the four washing water containers. The authors state that the savings amount to DM 250 000 per year. The conditioning process is suitable for boiling water plants already utilising centrifuge technolognts already utilising centrifuge technology, as well as for plants which exclusively evaporate their washing water. (orig.)

236

Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistant genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains that may result in increased duration and severity of morbidity.

Alexandria K. Graves

2011-11-01

237

Low Temperature District Heating Consumer Unit with Micro Heat Pump for Domestic Hot Water Preparation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present and analyse the feasibility of a district heating (DH) consumer unit with micro heat pump for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a low temperature (40 °C) DH network. We propose a micro booster heat pump of high efficiency (COP equal to 5,3) in a consumer DH unit in order to boost the temperature of the district heating water for heating the DHW. The paper presents the main designs of the suggested system and different alternative micro booster heat pump concepts. Energy efficiency and thermodynamic performance of these concepts are calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system has the highest efficiency. Furthermore, we compare thermodynamic and economic performance of the suggested heat pump-based concept with different solutions, using electric water heater. The micro booster heat pump system has the highest annualised investment (390 EUR/year) and the lowest operation (320 EUR/year) expenditures. Electric heater-based concepts consume 5-14 times more electricity, which leads to relatively high annual operation costs (530-970 EUR/year); while investment costs are lower (326-76 EUR/year). The suggested DHW heat pump-based system is cost-efficient for private consumers already today. Furthermore, application of the micro booster heat pump in low energy houses complies with the energy consumption requirements, set by the recent Danish Building Regulations. The use of electrical heater variants would exceed this limit.

Zvingilaite, Erika; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

2012-01-01

238

Biological treatment of cokery waste water. Phase 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop a biotechnological process for the treatment of cokery waste water a two stage bioreactor system of each 800 l volume was designed, built up and proven for its efficiency by treating process water of two different origins. A third type of cokery waste water was treated in a lab scale bioreactor. The bacterial culture used for the process consists of a basic population for the degradation of phenol and cresols. Additionally several special strains isolated for their ability to degrade polymethylated phenols, quinoline and thiocyanate were supplemented to obtain an effective mineralization of these compounds. The successful integration of these bacterial specialists could be confirmed by detection of the respective metabolic activities (e.g. pathway-specific enzyme) in the activated sludge. -In addition to chemical analyses of the waste waters before and after biological treatment a toxicological method based on bacterial bio-luminescence inhibition was applied to characterize the clean up. - The results obtained for the DMT-process reveal that independently from the constitution of the waste water a hydraulic retention time of 6 hours for phenol degradation and 12 hours for thiocyanate degradation is necessary. So thiocyanate degradation is the rate limiting step in the process. The degree of DOC removal resulted in 80 to 90%. The degradation capacities vary from 0,3 to 2,7 kg DOC/m3 d depending on the type of waste water used for the tren the type of waste water used for the treatment. In each case biological treatment of the waste water led to a strong reduction of water toxicity. - A feasibility study, based on the results obtained from pilot plant operation, revealed specific costs of 3 DM per kg DOC removal for a commercial plant with a capacity of 10 m3/h. (orig.). 13 refs., 13 tabs., 58 figs

239

Waste disposal from the light water reactor fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alternative nuclear fuel cycles for support of light water reactors are described and wastes containing naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactivity reviewed. General principles and objectives in radioactive waste management are outlined, and methods for their practical application to fuel cycle wastes discussed. The paper concentrates upon management of wastes from upgrading processes of uranium hexafluoride manufacture and uranium enrichment, and, to a lesser extent, nuclear power reactor wastes. Some estimates of radiological dose commitments and health effects from nuclear power and fuel cycle wastes have been made for US conditions. These indicate that the major part of the radiological dose arises from uranium mining and milling, operation of nuclear reactors, and spent fuel reprocessing. However, the total dose from the fuel cycle is estimated to be only a small fraction of that from natural background radiation

240

Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25?1?C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

Ghada I. MAHMOUD

2012-02-01

241

Efficiency Research on Meat Industry Waste Water Treatment Applying the Method of Dissolved Air Flotation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To protect environment from industrial pollution, strict requirements for waste water treatment are imposed. The purpose of research is to establish an optimal ratio of saturated liquid and meat industry waste water. Research included JCC “Traidenis” waste water treatment system installed in JSC “BHJ Baltic”. Investigations into treated waste water indicated that an optimal ratio of waste water and saturated liquid was 2/1 under duration time of 8 minutes. Efficient waste water treatment made 86% and the ratio of waste water and saturated liquid was 2/1.Article in Lithuanian

Valentinas Gerasimovas

2012-01-01

242

Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system

243

Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Various Industrial Waste Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Important part of the environmetal pollution consists of waste water and water pollution. The water polluted by anthropogenical, industrial, and agricultural originated sources are defined as waste waters which are the main pollution sources for reservoirs, rivers, lakes, and seas. In this work, waste waters of leather, textile, automotive side, and metal plating industries were used to determine the levels of Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Ni by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. As a result, highest mean levels of copper in supernatants of plating and textile industries were observed as 377,18 ng ml-1, respectively 103 ng ml-1 lead and 963,6 ng ml-1 nickel in plating industry, 1068,2 ng ml-1 zinc and 14557,1 ng ml-1 chromium in plating and leather industries were determined.

Mustafa ?ahin Dündar

2012-06-01

244

Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ? model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperaturunt of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

245

A study on migration of contaminants and effect on the groundwater system at the Gemencheh domestic waste disposal site, Negeri Sembilan using integrated nuclear, geophysical and hydrogeochemical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The domestic waste disposal site at Gemencheh, Negeri Sembilan has been in operation since 1981. Integration of three methods namely nuclear, geophysical and hydrogeochemical were used to study the migration and effects of contaminants on the groundwater system at this particular site. Nuclear method was used to determine groundwater system flow velocity that delineates the migration pattern of contaminant species in the groundwater system at the study area. The groundwater flow velocity is found to be heterogeneous and depend on hydraulic conductivity caused by soil permeability except in the low-lying downstream area where the flow velocity is found to be low and constant at 2.0 x 10-6 ms-1. However, the flow velocity increases to as high as 17.8 x 10-5 ms-1 during rainy season due to the influence of weather on hydraulic gradient. Weather condition also influences the flow direction, whereby during draught season, the groundwater flow direction at the middle of the study site moves from an area of high topography to the northeast and southeast of low topography areas. On the other hand, at the downstream the groundwater flows partially towards northeast and southeast whereas flow direction at the upstream is towards the east. A similar pattern was observed during rainy season in both upstream and downstream of the study site but at the middle, the flow is basically towards south-east with a side flow to the north-east andast with a side flow to the north-east and east direction. Geophysical method comprising geo electrical-imaging and electromagnetic transient techniques was used to determine the extent, depth and distribution of contamination in the groundwater system. This method shows that the most seriously contaminated areas at the middle and the downstream regions of the study site within the shallow depth of 3-6 metres. The distribution of the contaminants in groundwater is not widespread but confined within the study site only. Finally, hydrogeochemical method was used to determine the species concentration, rate and extent of contamination. This method shows that the species of chlorides, nitrates, iron, manganese, lead, mercury, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphates, chromium and cadmium originating from the leachate of domestic waste had contaminated the middle and the downstream regions of the study site. The concentration of these species is tens of times higher than the limits of the Drinking Water Quality 1984 as stipulated by the World Health Organisation except for ferum that had reached a value of 700 times higher. It can be concluded that the domestic waste dumped at the Gemencheh disposal site has seriously contaminated the groundwater. This work also shows that the integration of the three methods is useful because it was possible to compile a lot of data and information which were complete, detailed and extensive as well as able to provide a clear picture of the contaminants species, migration and distribution pattern of contamination as well as impact to groundwater quality at the study site. (author)

246

A generic method for projecting and valuing domestic water uses, application to the Mediterranean basin at the 2050 horizon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim is to be able to assess future domestic water demands in a region with heterogeneous levels of economic development. This work offers an original combination of a quantitative projection of demands (similar to WaterGAP methodology) and an estimation of the marginal benefit of water. This method is applicable to different levels of economic development and usable for large-scale hydroeconomic modelling. The global method consists in building demand functions taking into account the impact of both the price of water and the level of equipment, proxied by economic development, on domestic water demand. Our basis is a 3-blocks inverse demand function: the first block consists of essential water requirements for food and hygiene; the second block matches intermediate needs; and the last block corresponds to additional water consumption, such as outdoor uses, which are the least valued. The volume of the first block is fixed to match recommended basic water requirements from the literature, but we assume that the volume limits of blocks 2 and 3 depend on the level of household equipment and therefore evolve with the level of GDP per capita (structural change), with a saturation. For blocks 1 and 2 we determine the value of water from elasticity, price and quantity data from the literature, using the point-extension method. For block 3, we use a hypothetical zero-cost demand and maximal demand with actual water costs to linearly interpolate the inverse demand function. These functions are calibrated on the 24 countries part of the Mediterranean basin using data from SIMEDD, and are used for the projection and valuation of domestic water demands at the 2050 horizon. They enable to project total water demand, and also the respective shares of the different categories of demand (basic demand, intermediate demand and additional uses). These projections are performed under different combined scenarios of population, GDP and water costs.

Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice

2014-05-01

247

Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs

248

An assessment of availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to assess availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria, between May and December 2009 using structured questionnaire. The study populations were household members living in the study area. Two hundred (200) respondents were randomly selected with 74% responses. Majority of the respondents, 38.5% and 90% were civil servants and females respectively. Their commonest source of water supply was well (41%) which...

Stanley A.M.; Joshua I.A.

2012-01-01

249

ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF COMBINED POTATO PROCESSING AND MUNICIPAL WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

Demonstration and evaluation of the treatment of combined potato processing waste-water and domestic wastes using various combinations of anaerobic and aerated lagoons. Measured parameters included: BOD, COD, TSS, VSS, nitrogen, phosphorus, volatile acids, total coliform, fecal c...

250

New techniques for waste water treatment of waste treatment centers and landfills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this research project new techno-economically feasible and eco-efficient techniques for waste water treatment of waste treatment centers and landfills have been developed. In this publication water quality on existing Finnish waste treatment centers and landfills has been reviewed. Examples of segregated water treatment solutions at waste treatment centers and landfills in Finland and abroad have been introduced. Experimental research concentrated on treatment of heavy metal contaminated waters. Studied techniques were biological sulphate reduction and reactive by-product materials as filter media. Both techniques yielded promising results in the treatment of heavy metal bearing waters. Next step of the research should be more precise study on the boundary conditions of the chosen techniques. Good basis for scaling up the treatment techniques from laboratory to pilot-scale plants exists after this research project. In addition an excel-based site-specifically applicable procedure for comparing water management alternatives of waste treatment centers and landfills has been developed. Applying the procedure comparisons on e.g. economy of viable water management options can be made. (orig.)

Kaartinen, T.; Eskola, P.; Vestola, E.; Merta, E.; Mroueh, U.-M.

2009-10-15

251

Improving thermosyphon solar domestic hot water system model performance. Final report, March 1994--February 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data from an indoor solar simulator experimental performance test is used to develop a systematic calibration procedure for a computer model of a thermosyphoning, solar domestic hot water heating system with a tank-in-tank heat exchanger. Calibration is performed using an indoor test with a simulated solar collector to adjust heat transfer in the heat exchanger and heat transfer between adjacent layers of water in the storage tank. An outdoor test is used to calibrate the calculation of the friction drop in the closed collector loop. Additional indoor data with forced flow in the annulus of the heat exchanger leads to improved heat transfer correlations for the inside and outside regions of the tank-in-tank heat exchanger. The calibrated simulation model is compared to several additional outdoor tests both with and without auxiliary heating. Integrated draw energies are predicted with greater accuracy and draw temperature profiles match experimental results to a better degree. Auxiliary energy input predictions improve significantly. 63 figs., 29 tabs.

Swift, T.N.

1996-09-01

252

High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

Dayan, M.

1997-12-31

253

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

254

Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

Ellina V. Grigorieva

2010-09-01

255

Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

1989-01-01

256

Underground waste repository and ground water contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, a broad consensus has developed that the safest solution to the terminal storage of contaminated wastes is their disposal in deep geological formations. To assess the waste-isolation capacity of a candidate repository, estimates of basic hydrologic parameters are needed, such as the rate and direction of flow or travel times along groundwater pathways. Numerical groundwater flow models play an important role in the evaluation process. The analysis will be most useful for sensitivity studies performed to examine the implications of various design scenarios, and for determining the potential effects of uncertainties in key parameters. (author) 5 figs., 6 refs

257

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01

258

Analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The object of this study was dynamic modeling, simulation and optimum design of solar DHW (domestic hot water) systems, with respect to different whether conditions, and accurate dynamic behaviour of the heat load. Special attention was paid to systems with thermosyphon and drain-back design. The solar radiation in Beijing (China) and in Denmark are analyzed both by theoretical calculations and the analysis of long-term measurements. Based on the weather data from the Beijing Meteorological Station during the period of 1981-1993, a Beijing Test Reference Year has been formulated by means of statistical analysis. A brief introduction about the Danish Test Reference Year and the Design Reference Year is also presented. In order to investigate the heat loss as a part of the total heat load, dynamic models for distribution networks have been developed, and simulations have been carried out for typically designed distribution networks of the circulation type. The influence of operation parameters such as the tank outlet temperature, the hot-water load and the load pattern, on the heat loss from the distribution networks in presented. It was found that the tank outlet temperature has a significant influence on the heat loss from a circulation type of distribution network, while the hot-water load and the load pattern have no obvious effect. Dynamic models of drain-back tanks, both as a separated tank and combined with a mantle tank, have been developed and presented. Models of the other basic components commonly used in solar DHW systems, such as flat-plate collectors, connection pipes, storage tanks with a heat exchanger spiral, and controllers, are also described. (LN) 66 refs.

Lin Qin

1998-12-31

259

Effect of Fermented Kitchen Waste on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Growth Performance and Water Quality as a Water Additive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture contributes about 20% of domestic fish production in Malaysia. Tilapia has been identified as one of the main species for freshwater aquaculture in the Third National Agriculture Policy (DPN3. However, feed cost and water quality management remain as two major challenges to the industry. This study aim to analyse the effects of Fermented Kitchen Waste (FKW as water additives on water quality and growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Different concentration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% of FKW were used to treat tilapia in tank culture for a period of twelve weeks. Physico-chemical parameters were also taken every week. Treatment with 0.1% FKW resulted in significant (p<0.05 decrease in ammonia, nitrite and nitrate levels. The survival rates of tilapia treated with 0.05 and 0.1% FKW were comparable to the untreated control. Growth performance of the tilapia was measured in term of length and weight. Highest relative growth rate was observed in tilapia treated with 0.05% FKW. However, all the fish died in 0.2% FKW due to severe pH drop. Therefore, low concentration of FKW could severe as a potential water additive to improve water quality and promote growth in tilapia aquaculture.

S.K. Wong

2013-01-01

260

Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This manual provides test procedures approved for the monitoring of water supplies, waste discharges, and ambient waters, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, and Ambient Monitoring Requirements of Section 106 and 208 of Public Law 92-500. The test methods have been selected to meet the needs of federal legislation and to provide guidance to laboratories engaged in the protection of human health and the aquatic environment.

1979-03-01

261

The Fundamentals of Waste Water Sludge Characterization and Filtration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The move to greater emphasis on the disposal of waste water sludges through routes such as incineration and the added cost of landfill emplacement puts high demands on dewatering technology for these sludges. A dear problem in this area is that waste water sludges are slow and difficult to dewater and traditional methods of laboratory measurement for prediction of filtration performance are inadequate. This is highly problematic for the design and operational optimisation of centrifuges, filters and settling devices in the waste water industry. The behaviour is assessed as being due to non-linear behaviour of these sludges which negates the use of classical approaches. These approaches utilise the linear portion of a t versus V{sup 2} plot (where t is the time to filtration and V is the specific filtrate volume) to extract a simple Darcian permeability. Without this parameter, a predictive capacity for dewatering using current theory is negated. (author)

Scales, Peter J.; Dixon, David R.; Harbour, Peter J.; Stickland, Anthony D.

2003-07-01

262

Solubility effects in waste glass-demineralized water systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to determine the solubility limits of various elements found in waste glasses in demineralized water as a function of temperature. The work was sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation under contract to the Department of Energy. Solubility measurements were carried out at 350, 650, 950, and 1500C using three nonradioactive waste glass compositions. Subsaturation and supersaturation methods were used to determine the solubility limits. The two methods gave markedly different values for most glass components. The results obtained indicate that it is difficult to assign solubility limits to most glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water system. This includes not only defining the glass type, and system temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume (S/V) ratio of the system and its thermal history

263

Radioactivity monitoring of waste water from isotope laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the fact that radionuclide concentration measured in samples taken from the local sewage system do not yield information on any possible offense against section 46, sub-section (4) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, the procedure should be modified so as to provide for frequent sampling of waste water at the site of isotope-handling institutes or laboratories, and for comparative measurements to be made. For efficient radioactivity monitoring in sewage treatment works receiving waste water from a large number of potential polluters, continuous sampling at various stages of the treatment process is suggested, together with recurrent single-nuclide analyses. These may be supplemented by sewage sludge analyses, as the radionuclides are accumulated in the sewage sludge. Various means of efficient waste water monitoring are explained by some examples. (orig./HP)

264

Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing  

Science.gov (United States)

An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

1990-01-01

265

Radioactive waste disposal and related water management aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Legislative measures and prescriptions are listed for the protection of surface and ground water quality. Water quality must be monitored in case of the discharge of radioactive wastes. The monitoring is recommended of somatic and genetic changes in water organisms, such as growth curves of chlorococal algae, the propagation, the rate of sloughing skin and life-time of daphnias, in fish the development of roe. Also the application of one method is recommended to evaluate the self-cleaning capacity of water. Problem areas are given related to the protection of water management in connection with the implementation of the nuclear power programme. (E.S.)

266

Development of electrochemical denitrification from waste water containing ammonium nitrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors developed processes to dentrify waste water containing ammonium nitrate discharged from the nuclear fuel manufacturing works and to recover nitric acid and ammonia. For denitrification they applied the operating method and the conditions of operation to make 0.4mM or less from NH4NO3 waste water of 1.5 M by 3 stages of electrodialysis cells. To recover nitric acid and ammonium water, they separated HNO3 solution of 6 M and NH4OH solution with one unit of electrolysis cell, then absorbed NH3 gas from NH4OH solution with water and applied the condition of operation to recover 8 M NH4OH solution. The authors demonstrated that treatment and recovery can be carried out stably with actual waste water with a system through the combination of previously mentioned electrodialysis cells, electrolysis cells and an ammonia gas absorber. At present they are planning a plant where NH4NO3 waste water of 4,500 mol can be treated per day

267

Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of CELSS model wastes  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlled-Ecological-Life-Support-System (CELSS) model wastes were wet-oxidized at temperatures from 250 to 500°C, i.e., below and above the critical point of water (374°C and 218 kg/cm2 or 21.4 MPa). A solution of ammonium hydroxide and acetic acid and a slurry of human urine, feces, and wipes were used as model wastes. Almost all of the organic matter in the model wastes was oxidized in the temperature range from 400 to 500°C, i.e., above the critical conditions for water. In contrast, only a small portion of the organic matter was oxidized at subcritical conditions. Although the extent of nitrogen oxidation to nitrous oxide (N2O) and/or nitrogen gas (N2) increased with reaction temperature, most of the nitrogen was retained in solution as ammonia near 400°C. This important finding suggests that most of the nitrogen in the waste feed can be retained in solution as ammonia during oxidation at low supercritical temperatures and be subsequently used as a nitrogen source for plants in a CELSS while at the same time organic matter is almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. It was also found in this study the Hastelloy C-276 alloy reactor corroded during waste oxidation. The rate of corrosion was lower above than below the critical temperature for water.

Takahashi, Y.; Wydeven, T.; Koo, C.

268

Behavior of tritium water in radioactive waste incineration plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive waste incineration plant at Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, was installed in 1966 and has been operated routinely. The exhaust-gas system of the incinerator consists of spray scrubber, electrostatic precipitator, cloth filter, HEPA filter and so on. This experimental program was carried out to examine the behavior of tritium water to various parts of the incineration plant when combustible waste contaminated with tritium water was incinerated. The experimental results were as follows. The collection rate of tritium water in each dust collector was 85% in the spray scrubber, and 6% as condensation water in electrostatic precipitator, gas cooler and HEPA filter. Further the release rate of tritium water from stack was 9%. (author)

269

Experimental and numerical study of thermal stratification in a mantle tank of a solar domestic hot water system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The simulation and the optimisation of the mantle tank of solar domestic hot water systems needs dynamic simulation over long periods of time (e.g. 1 year). A model for such a mantle tank was developed by using the zonal approach. The dimensions of the zones are determined based on physical considerations. A mixing coefficient is identified to model the water flow in the mantle heat exchanger. Comparisons of the results of temperatures distribution of the model and of experiments show a difference <7% for three positions of the inlet water flow in the mantle heat exchanger. (author)

Kenjo, Lana [Universite de Tichrine, Lattaquie (Syria). Faculte de Genie Mecanique et Electrique; Inard, Christian [LEPTAB, Universite La Rochelle, La Rochelle Cedex (France); Caccavelli, Dominique [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France)

2007-08-15

270

Treatment of low level waste water by reverse osmosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Study on the removal of certain radioactive elements Such as 141Ce, 51Cr 134Cu, 106Ru and 131I by Reverse Osmosis and the effect of surface activity agent on property of membrance are described in this paper. RO model is carried out to examine the treatment of actual reactor waste water and radioactive laundry waste water. The removal efficiency of total ? is 98%. Three preprocessing (cloth pocket filtrator, hivefiltrator and zone) and membrane cleaning methods (acid, ozone and spongeball) are also investigated

271

Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity < 2?S/cm) from sea water. The probability of the scale formation is practically eliminated by operating it at low temperature and controlling the brine concentration. It also does not require elaborate chemical pretreatment of sea water except chlorination, so it has no environmental impact. LTE technology has found major applications in nuclear reactors where large quantity of low quality waste heat is available to produce high quality desalted water for make up water requirement replacing conventional ion exchange process. Successful continuous operation of 30 Te/day LTE desalination plant utilizing waste heat from nuclear research reactor has demonstrated the safety, reliability, extreme plant availability areliability, extreme plant availability and economics of nuclear desalination by LTE technology. It is also proposed to utilize waste heat from Main Heat Transport (MHT) purification circuit of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) to produce about 250 Te/ day high quality desalinated water by Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) process for the reactor make up and plant utilization. Recently we have commissioned a 50 Te/day 2-effect low temperature desalination plant with cooling tower where the specific energy and cooling water requirement are significantly reduced. In this paper salient feature of LTE desalination plant, its applications and advantages are discussed. (author)

272

Tritiated waste water fixation of solid materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exchange kinetics between tritiated and distilled water (THO/H2O) from various zeolites, natural and synthetic analcimes, saturated with THO are reported. Kinetic parameters for the diffusion process are calculated from experimental data. Tritiated water releases from the zeolites saturated with THO into distilled water is given for various temperatures and times. Ferric, zinc, cobalt and sodium zeolites are investigated. Results indicated that cobalt zeolite and synthetic analcime release rates of THO are superior to the other zeolites tested

273

An advective diffusion process on hot wasted water discharged to a depression angle direction into water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of change in wasted water from nuclear or fossil fuel power plants discharging direction from horizontal one to depression angle one on an advective diffusion process of hot wasted water was investigated. As a result, it could be confirmed that an effect of depression angle jet discharge on water temperature reduction and so forth could be applied present experimental equation on horizontal discharging by a coordinate transformation of various factors with discharging water angle. And, a judgement equation to obtain a limiting area of hot wasted water affecting with bed surface was obtained by using distance from the lowest point of jet to the sea bed, inner diameter of discharging pipe, and field number for parameters, to elucidate its effectiveness. Furthermore, a diagram to estimate an effect of depression angle discharging water in the area on water temperature reduction and so forth was also proposed. (G.K.)

274

Tracer studies on the removal of water endangering substances from municipal waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation deals with the behaviour of selected water endangering compounds and with possibilities of their holdback or elimination in water treatment plants. The investigations were carried out by use of 82Br-bromoxynil and sodium-32P-hydrogenphosphate in a pilot plant for the biological clarification of municipal waste waters. It is shown that only P > 10 mg P/l) from municipal waste water it was found that the phosphate concentration of the biologically cleaned water leaving the pilot plant is < 2 mg P/l. The pilot plant and details of the tracer experiments are described. (author)

275

Impact of Solid Waste Disposal on Ground Water Quality in Different Disposal Site at Jaipur, India  

OpenAIRE

This research paper here to present to examine the adverse effect of dumping of solid waste at disposal site on ground water quality at various disposal site at Jaipur city, India. This effect on ground water causes due to the unsystematic or unscientific dumping of solid waste. The water, which already presents in the waste, generates with the biodegradable waste or due to the infiltration of water by rainfall. This water which generates or occurs due to that process pours in...

Rahul Nandwana

2014-01-01

276

Integration of low capacity solar absorption systems into buildings - a solar multifunction approach : heating, domestic hot water and cooling  

OpenAIRE

The introduction of new low capacity absorption chillers opens new prospects for the multifunction multisource solar systems (MFSSYS) which exploit the full potential of the solar energy for heating, cooling and production of domestic hot water (DHW) purposes. The solar combisystems (SCS), which preceded the MFSSYS, lacked an adapted procedure for the sizing of their main components: the solar collector and the solar thermal storage tank. From the point of view of the energy and investment co...

Jabbour, Noe?l

2011-01-01

277

Water recovery and disposal of clay waste slimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of research conducted in its mission to effect pollution abatement, the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, is developing a dewatering technique that allows for disposal of mineral wastes, for reuse of water now lost with these wastes, and for reclamation of mined land. The technique utilizes a high-molecular-weight nonionic polyethylene oxide polymer (PEO) that has the ability to flocculate and dewater materials containing clay wastes. A variety of different clay wastes have been successfully dewatered in laboratory experiments. Coal-clay waste was consolidated from 4 to 57 weight-percent; potash-clay brine waste from 20 to 62 weight-percent; phosphatic clay waste from 16 to 49 weight-percent; uranium mill tailings from 15 to 67 weight-percent; talc tailings from 10 to 53 weight-percent. The consolidated materials can be handled by mechanical devices such as trucks and conveyors for disposal in mined-out areas

278

Improving Water Supply Systems for Domestic Uses in Urban Togo: The Case of a Suburb in Lomé  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid urbanization facing developing countries is increasing pressure on public institutions to provide adequate supplies of clean water to populations. In most developing countries, the general public is not involved in strategies and policies regarding enhancement, conservation, and management of water supply systems. To assist governments and decision makers in providing potable water to meet the increasing demand due to the rapid urbanization, this study sought to characterize existing water supply systems and obtain public opinion for identifying a community water supply system model for households in a residential neighborhood in Lomé, Togo. Existing water supply systems in the study area consist of bucket-drawn water wells, mini water tower systems, rainwater harvesting, and public piped water. Daily domestic water consumption in the study area compared well with findings on water uses per capita from Sub-Saharan Africa, but was well below daily water usage in developed nations. Based on the surveys, participants thought highly of a large scale community water tower and expressed interest in maintaining it. Even though people rely on water sources deemed convenient for drinking, they also reported limited confidence in the quality of these sources.

Taisha Venort

2012-02-01

279

Waste water shows traces of radioactive substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sludge at sewage treatment plants has been found to contain radioactive substances originating in hospitals, nuclear weapon tests, the Chernobyl accident, the Finnish nuclear power plants and natural sources. Radioactive substances also enter sewers together with excretions after patients have left the hospital. Hospitals used to let the excretions of patients receiving the iodine 131 treatment into the sewer system only after the activity of the excretions had decreased. Today, excretions can be led into the sewer directly. Calculations have shown that hospital staff receive higher radiation doses when the waste is collected than sewage treatment plant staff receive when the radioactive iodine is led directly into the sewer

280

Treatment of waste water from uranium ore preparation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved closed-loop process is described for treating waste water resulting from chemical extraction of uranium from ore. The water is evaporated to form a concentrated solution and is then subjected to crystallization of the least soluble salt component thereof via further evaporation, or cooling or simultaneous cooling and a partial vacuum. The crystallized component is then separated from the mother liquor, whereupon the latter is fed back after removal of residual uranium therefrom to the extraction installation to replace the acids used therein. Additionally, the pure condensate produced during evaporation of the waste waters is employed as a replacement for the fresh water employed in processing of the ore. 6 claims, 2 figures

281

Waste Water Treatment Plants and the Smart Grid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denmark's political ambitions of a fossil fuel free energy system by 2050 calls for more renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. These green energy resources fluctuate and the transition to a green energy system requires a Smart Grid with flexible consumers that balance the fluctuating power production. The energy-heavy processes for waste water transport and treatment could potentially provide a flexible operation with storage capabilities and be a valuable asset to a Smart Grid. In order to enable Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) as flexible prosumers in the future Smart Grid, we must update their process control system to model based predictive control that monitors the changed flexible operation and plans ahead. The primary aim of a WWTP is to treat the incoming waste water as much as possible to ensure a sufficient effluent water quality and protect the environment of the recipient. The secondary aim is to treat the waste water using as little energy as possible. In the future waste water will be considered an energy resource, that contains valuable nutrients convertible to green biogas and in turn electricity and heat. In a Smart Grid consuming or producing energy at the right time is key to both lower plant electricity costs and actively help to balance the energy system. Predictions of the WWTP and sewer system operation could help a model based controller to adapt power consumption and production according to the energy system flexibility needs; incentivized through energy markets and prices. We are in the process of upgrading the current control system to prepare a flexible operation and Smart Grid market integration. The prototype system will be tested online at a plant in Denmark, that in the current market could save up to 300.000 DKK/year in electricity costs. The solution is based on existing available online plant sensors and is expected to be part of Krüger’s advanced process control software STAR control® already used at plants worldwide.

Halvgaard, Rasmus; Tychsen, Peter

2014-01-01

282

Wash water waste pretreatment system study  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

1976-01-01

283

Relative potential hazards of radioactive waste in various water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential hazard to man arising from the hypothetical release of radioactive spent fuel waste into various water systems has been evaluated. Radionuclide transport and human exposure were simulated for six water systems: a large Northwestern river, a small Northeastern river, a small Northwestern river, a large Central Region river, a lake with no outflow in an arid region, and an aquifer discharging directly into an ocean.

Duffy, J.J.; Mealy, G.L.

1979-06-15

284

Relative potential hazards of radioactive waste in various water systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential hazard to man arising from the hypothetical release of radioactive spent fuel waste into various water systems has been evaluated. Radionuclide transport and human exposure were simulated for six water systems: a large Northwestern river, a small Northeastern river, a small Northwestern river, a large Central Region river, a lake with no outflow in an arid region, and an aquifer discharging directly into an ocean

285

Land subsidence in Yunlin, Taiwan, due to Agricultural and Domestic Water Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Subsidence in a layered aquifer is caused by groundwater excess extraction and results in complicated problems in Taiwan. Commonly, responsibility to subsidence for agricultural and domestic water users is difficulty to identify due to the lack of quantitative evidences. An integrated model was proposed to analyze subsidence problem. The flow field utilizes analytical solution for pumping in a layered system from Neuman and Witherspoon (1969) to calculate the head drawdown variation. The subsidence estimation applies Terzaghi (1943) one-dimensional consolidation theory to calculate the deformation in each layer. The proposed model was applied to estimate land subsidence and drawdown variation at the Yuanchang Township of Yunlin County in Taiwan. Groundwater data for dry-season periods were used for calibration and validation. Seasonal effect in groundwater variation was first filtered out. Dry-season pumping effect on land subsidence was analyzed. The results show that multi-layer pumping contributes more in subsidence than single-layer pumping on the response of drawdown and land subsidence in aquifer 2 with a contribution of 97% total change at Yuanchang station. Pumping in aquifer 2 contributes more significant than pumping in aquifer 3 to cause change in drawdown and land subsidence in aquifer 2 with a contribution of 70% total change at Yuanchang station. Larger area of subsidence in Yuanchang Township was attributed pumping at aquifer 2 while pumping at aquifer 3 results in significant subsidence near the well field. The single-layer user contributes most area of subsidence but the multi-layer user generates more serious subsidence.

Hsu, K.; Lin, P.; Lin, Z.

2013-12-01

286

The Determination of Anionic Surfactants in Natural and Waste Waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background information, procedures, and results of an experiment suitable for measuring subpart per million concentrations of anionic surfactants in natural waters and waste effluents are provided. The experiment required only a spectrophotometer or filter photometer and has been successfully performed by students in an undergraduate environmental…

Crisp, P. T.; And Others

1983-01-01

287

Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters  

OpenAIRE

The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

Juan Fernández-Bolaños; Mariana Trujillo; Guillermo Rodríguez; Raquel Mateos; Gema Pereira-Caro; Andrés Madrona; Espartero, Jose? L.

2009-01-01

288

Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol. PMID:19471196

Madrona, Andrés; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Mateos, Raquel; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Trujillo, Mariana; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Espartero, José L

2009-01-01

289

Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

Juan Fernández-Bolaños

2009-05-01

290

CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

291

Attenuation of Chromium toxicity in mine waste water using water hyacinth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa (India showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6. Cr+6 contaminated mine waste water poses potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The current field based phytoremediation study is an in situ approach for attenuation of Cr+6 from mine waste water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes weeds by rhizofiltration method. The weeds significantly reduced (up to 54% toxic concentrations of Cr+6 from contaminated mine waste water when passed through succeeding water hyacinth ponds. The reduction of toxic chromium level varied with the plant age and passage distance of waste water. Chromium phytoaccumulation and Bio-Concentration Factor (BCF was maximum at growing stage of plant i.e. 75 days old plant. High BCF (10,924 and Transportation Index (32.09 for water hyacinth indicated that the weeds can be used as a tool of phytoremediation to combat the problem of in situ Cr contamination in mining areas.

Mohanty M.

2011-12-01

292

Toxicity testing of ground water, surface water and waste water in the island of Cyprus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The island of Cyprus is an exporter of agricultural products to the European Community (EC). Public health and environmental toxicity testing programs on the island, especially in the Greek-dominated south, are based on EC models. Following EC guidelines, an environmental toxicology laboratory is being established at the State Laboratory in Nicosia. It will test water for toxicity using the acute Daphnia magna survival test, the chronic 4-day algal growth test (Selenastrum capricomutum), Microtox and Mutatox. During a 6-month survey of water and wastewater using the acute Ceriodaphnia dubia test and the algal growth test, the question of the relevance of environmental toxicity testing in an ecosystem devoid of natural year round freshwater sources, excepting ground water, was examined. Municipal wells, potable and agricultural water reservoirs, municipal and industrial effluent were tested. Preliminary studies showed some municipal well water to be toxic to freshwater species, probably due to high salt content. Water from a newly developed reservoir was toxic, probably due to its location at the base of eroding hills recently mined for copper. Effluent from a paper factory was toxic, but the reservoir into which it flows was not, nor was the sulfide-rich water toxic to untreated seeds. For the water-deficient ecosystem of Cyprus, the environmental testing program must be different from those developed for the European continent. The choice of appropriate test species, the need to focus on water quality for public health and agricultural use, and the possible benefits of nutrient-enriched waste water flowing into sterile ocean water, must all be considered.

McNaughton, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kouris, D. [Agricultural Research Inst., Nicosia (Cyprus); Guden, H. [Department of the Environment, Lefkosa (Cyprus); Gokcekus, H. [Near East Univ., Lefkosa (Cyprus)

1995-12-31

293

Lessons Learned for Construction and Waste Water Management at Radioactive Waste Closure Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental remediation of three different radioactive waste closure sites each required exhaustive characterization and evaluation of sampling and analytical information in resolving regulatory and technical issues that impact cleanup activities. One of the many regulatory and technical issues shared by all three and impacting the cleanup activities is the compliant management and discharge of waste waters generated and resulting from the remediation activities. Multiple options were available for each closure site in resolving waste water management challenges depending upon the base regulatory framework defined for the cleanup or closure of the site. These options are typically regulated by the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), with exemptions available under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) or Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between regulatory agencies. In general, all parties must demonstrate equivalent compliance when concerns related to the protection of the general public and the environment. As such, all options for management of waste water resulting from closure activities must demonstrate compliance to or equivalent actions under the CWA. The CWA provides for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) that is typically maintained by individual states through permitting process to generators, public utilities, and more receenerators, public utilities, and more recently, construction sites. Of the three sites, different compliance strategies were employed for each. The approach for the Columbus Closure Project (CCP) was to initiate full scale compliance to the Ohio EPA General Construction Permit No. OHC000002. The CCP provided Notice of Intent (NOI) to the Ohio EPA to discharge under the general permit according to the regulator approved Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan. For the second site, the Li Tungsten Superfund Site in Glen Cove, New York, the option was to manage and discharge waste water under a due diligence process to New York State General Permit No. GP-02-01. For the third site, the Middlesex Sampling Plant in Middlesex, New Jersey, the options was to manage and discharge waste water to the Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). Each option has resulted in a safe, cost-effective, and compliant approach to managing discharging waste waters from the site closure activities. (authors)

294

Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

2014-12-16

295

Performance characterization of water recovery and water quality from chemical/organic waste products  

Science.gov (United States)

The water reclamation subsystems currently being evaluated for the Space Shuttle Freedom are briefly reviewed with emphasis on a waste water management system capable of processing wastes containing high concentrations of organic/inorganic materials. The process combines low temperature/pressure to vaporize water with high temperature catalytic oxidation to decompose volatile organics. The reclaimed water is of potable quality and has high potential for maintenance under sterile conditions. Results from preliminary experiments and modifications in process and equipment required to control reliability and repeatability of system operation are presented.

Moses, W. M.; Rogers, T. D.; Chowdhury, H.; Cullingford, H. S.

1989-01-01

296

Methods of industrial waste water cleaning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of „acid mine water“ (or AMD is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of the old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphateelimination at this locality. Recently, several methods of the sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are the biological and physical-chemical oness and the chemical precipitation. The method described in this contribution deals with the chemical precipitation by polyaluminium chloride and calcium hydrate. By appliying of this method, very interesting results were obtained. The amount of SO42- anions decreased to almost zero-value, using optimal doses of the chemical reagents.

Ján Brehuv

2005-11-01

297

Measurements of physical-chemical characteristics of dairy plant waste waters  

OpenAIRE

Characteristics of waste waters of the dairy industry are specific and differ essentially from waste waters of other branches of the food industry. The complexity of production in dairy plants with several units for different products render the problem of waste waters of this industry particularly complex. Waste waters of the AD Imlek dairy plant were sampled and their chemical characteristics were determined at different seasons of the year and at different times of the day in the years 200...

Stefanovi? Dragoslav; Vojnovi?-Miloradov Mirjana; Lemi? Jovan; Kurajica Milorad; Kova?evi? Dragana

2008-01-01

298

Exergetic modeling and assessment of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump systems for residences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study deals with the exergetic modeling and performance evaluation of solar assisted domestic hot water tank integrated ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems for residences for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The model is applied to a system, which mainly consists of (i) a water-to-water heat pump unit (ii) a ground heat exchanger system having two U-boreholes with an individual depth of 90 m, (iii) a solar collector system composing of rooftop thermal solar collectors with a total surface area of 12 m{sup 2}, (iv) a domestic hot water tank with an electrical supplementary heater, and (v) a floor heating system with a surface of 154 m{sup 2}, and (vi) circulating pumps. Exergy relations for each component of the system and the whole system are derived for performance assessment purposes, while the experimental and assumed values are utilized in the analysis. Exergy efficiency values on a product/fuel basis are found to be 72.33% for the GSHP unit, 14.53% for the solar domestic hot water system and 44.06% for the whole system at dead (reference) state values for 19 degrees C and 101.325 kPa. Exergetic COP values are obtained to be 0.245 and 0.201 for the GSHP unit and the whole system, respectively. The greatest irreversibility (exergy destruction) on the GSHP unit basis occurs in the condenser, followed by the compressor, expansion valve and evaporator. (author)

Hepbasli, Arif [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2007-12-15

299

Optimization of large domestic hot water systems: use of "low flow" and "decentralized solar water tank" techniques  

OpenAIRE

During the twenty last years no major improvement was carried out on the solar collective installations, so it appeared important to search innovations in order to improve them from a thermal and an economic point of view.We designed a stratification storage tank, functioning as well in solar domestic systems as in large solar systems like buildings.The Fluent CFD code was used to simulate the fluid motion inside a domestic and a collective tank. The comparison between the numeric...

Johannes, Ke?vyn

2005-01-01

300

Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R ampersand D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex

301

Determination of cyanide in drinking water and waste water by voltametry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive, cost-effective and efficient voltammetric method is described for the analysis of cyanide in water. A potassium hydroxide and boric acid buffer was mixed with water sample in 1:1 ratio and cyanide was measured, using differential pulse mode and scanning in the negative direction. Cyanide peak appears at about - 0.24 V versus saturated calomel reference electrode Chloride, Sulfate, nitrate, sulfide and phosphate don't interfere. After developing analytical method numerous drinking water and waste water samples were collected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad areas and measured in triplicate. Usually the levels of cyanide in water were within the recommended limits with few exceptions. Levels of cyanide in waste water are in the range of 0 - 0.5 mug/ml and in drinking water are in the range of 0 - 0.01 mug/ml with few exceptions. (author)

302

Discharges in Water and Applications to Wasted Water Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently the electrical discharge in water has been used for the water treatment. In this study, various shape of electrodes were examined to observe and measure the electrical discharge phenomena in water. Both the Marx generator and the pulsed power generator were used to generate the discharge in water. The oscillation on the waveforms of both applied voltage and discharge current was observed using the pulsed power generator whose peak applied voltage was about 80-120 kV and its discharge repetition rate was about one pulse per thirty seconds although it wasn't observed on the waveforms in the practical use of the high voltage generator (peak applied voltage was about 30-40 kV) with high repetition rate of discharge (20-300 pulses per second). Bubbles were introduced into the discharge region of main electrode using the ejector and the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was confirmed by the measurement of emission spectrum of discharge in water and the intensity of OH radicals increased with the ratio of G/L (where, G is gas flow rate and L is water flow rate). The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was also measured and this reactor system was applied for the de-color of water.

Yamabe, Chobei; Yamashita, Takanori; Ihara, Satoshi

303

Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

1978-09-01

304

Treatment of a simulated mixed waste with supercritical water oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a series of tests using supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to process cutting oil containing a simulated radionuclide. The goal of the tests was to evaluate the technology's ability to process a highly chlorinated waste representative of many mixed waste streams generated in the US DOE complex. The testing was conducted with a bench-scale SCWO system developed by the Modell Development Corp. Significant test objectives included process optimization for adequate destruction efficiency, tracking the radionuclide simulant and certain metals in the effluent streams, and assessment of reactor material degradation resulting from processing a highly chlorinated waste. Test results have been summarized from lab. analysis of the liquid effluent, and of the solid effluent, and witness wire data for corrosion and deposition evaluation

305

The potential of (waste)water as energy carrier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Energy input and potential output of the Dutch communal water cycle. Highlights: ? Municipal wastewater is a large carrier of chemical and thermal energy. ? The recovery of chemical energy from wastewater can be maximised by digestion. ? The potential of thermal energy recovery from wastewater is huge. ? Underground thermal energy storage is a rapidly developing renewable energy source. - Abstract: Next to energy efficiency improvements in the water sector, there is a need for new concepts in which water is viewed as a carrier of energy. Municipal wastewater is a potential source of chemical energy, i.e. organic carbon that can be recovered as biogas in sludge digestion. The recovery of chemical energy can be maximised by up-concentration of organic carbon and maximised sludge digestion or by source separation and anaerobic treatment. Even more so, domestic wastewater is a source of thermal energy. Through warm water conservation and heat recovery, for example with shower heat exchangers, substantial amounts of energy can be saved and recovered from the water cycle. Water can also be an important renewable energy source, i.e. as underground thermal energy storage. These systems are developing rapidly in the Netherlands and their energy potential is large.

306

Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola Area, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the shallow groundwater quality of Pindiga Gombe area for irrigation and domestic purposes. Fifteen water samples collected from wells tapping shallow aquifer was used. The water samples were analyzed for major cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+ and anions: C-, HCO3-1, SO4 2- and NO3-. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR, Permeability Index (PI, Kellys Ratio (KR, and Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC were assessed and compared with standard limits. The values of total dissolved solids (<166 mg/L, electrical conductivity (<0.249 ds/m, soluble sodium percentage (2.60 to 38.40%, permeability index (0.19 to 7.40%, magnesium adsorption ratio (37.34 to 66.50%, kellys ratio (0.0004 to 0.029 meq/L, residual sodium bicarbonate (0.35 to 3.02 meq/L and sodium adsorption ratio (0 to 0.035 were found to be within the safe limits and thus largely suitable for irrigation purposes. The groundwater will thus neither cause salinity hazards nor have an adverse effect on the soil properties of the study area. Furthermore, the water samples also fall within the recommended limits and are found suitable for domestic purposes.

G.I. Obiefuna

2011-03-01

307

Determination of radioactive elements and heavy metals in sediments and soil from domestic water sources in northern peninsular Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil serves as a major reservoir for contaminants as it posseses an ability to bind various chemicals together. To safeguard the members of the public from an unwanted exposure, studies were conducted on the sediments and soil from water bodies that form the major sources of domestic water supply in northern peninsular Malaysia for their trace element concentration levels. Neutron Activation Analysis, using Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Zaria, Nigeria was employed as the analytical tool. The elements identified in major quantities include Na, K, and Fe while As, Br, Cr, U, Th, Eu, Cs, Co, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Ba, Lu, Hf, Ta, and Sb were also identified in trace quantities. Gamma spectroscopy was also employed to analyze some soil samples from the same area. The results indicated safe levels in terms of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index as well as the mean external exposure dose rates from the soil. The overall screening of the domestic water sources with relatively high heavy metals concentration values in sediments and high activity concentration values in soil is strongly recommended as their accumulation overtime as a consequence of leaching into the water may be of health concern to the members of the public. PMID:21901308

Muhammad, Bashir G; Jaafar, Mohammad Suhaimi; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Ingawa, Farouk Abdulrasheed

2012-08-01

308

Hydrolysis behavior of tofu waste in hot compressed water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tofu waste (TW) is a typical high water-containing biomass; and the hydrothermal process is preferred to utilize it with low energy cost. TW is also a special biomass characterized by high proportion of proteins and fatty acids, which will lead to a different hydrolysis result. In this work, TW was hydrolyzed by hot compressed water below 390 °C in a batch reactor heated by a salt bath. Four parameters including water density, reaction time, the ratio of TW to water and reaction temperature were investigated. Results showed that CO2 was the major component of the produced gas, a measurable fraction of H2 was produced above 300 °C and 65–75% or more of TW can be transformed into water-soluble fraction. It was found that the influence of the treatment temperature on TW conversion was the most significant. Based on the product distribution (gases, water-insolubles, oils, and water-solubles) along with temperature, a four-stage hydrothermal conversion mechanism was put forward in macroscopic view. In combination with the evolution of gas composition and infrared spectrum, the understanding about the conversion of TW in hot compressed water was further improved. -- Highlights: ? The conversion of high water content biomass in hot compressed water is investigated with Tofu waste as model biomass. ? TW conversion was seriously dependent on the reaction temperature. ? The conversion process can be divided into four stages. ? 200–250 °C, no oil but gas is generated; 250–300 °C, oil begin to be yielded. ? 300–350 °C, water-insoluble product decreases; above 350 °C oil product decreases.

309

Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots  

OpenAIRE

Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this...

Tchounwou, Paul B.; Owens, William E.; Hill, Dagne D.

2005-01-01

310

REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life cycle impact assessment methods on pathogens, whole effluent toxicity and micropollutants will be developed within the project. As part of this work a review of more than 20 previous LCA studies on WWTTs has been done and the findings are summarised on this poster. The review is focused on the relative importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and even more treatment trains/scenarios) have already been the subject of more or less detailed LCAs. All life cycle stages may be important and all impact categories (except stratospheric ozone depletion) typically included in LCAs may show significance depending on the actual scenario. Potential impacts of pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have not been included in any study, and only a few studies have included micropollutants (in total less than 20 different micropollutants).

Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

311

Immobilization of waste-water residues by embedding into concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-level radioactive waste water is concentrated by evaporation. The concentrate is further evaporated to dryness by means of a rotary drum drier. The dry solid is immobilized with cement. From the drum drier solid/cement/water-mixture samples are taken. After a period of 28 days the leach rate of Cs, Sr and Co and the compressive strength of the specimens are determined. The leach rate can be described by diffusion during a starting period of about 7 to 14 days. After about 300 to 550 days, depending on the composition of the specimen and the isotope, the leach rate becomes constant. The leach rate increases with increasing dry solid/cement ratio. Other waste components (e.g. sulphate) can increase the leach rate appreciably. The influence of sulphate can be overcome by addition of Ca(OH)2 and/or reduction of the dry solid/cement ratio. The compressive strength of the specimens is of the order of about 15 N/mm2 with a minimum of about 6.4 N/mm2 and a maximum of about 25 N/mm2. It increases with decreasing water/cement ratio and dry solid/cement ratio. As expected, the leach rate decreases with increasing compressive strength. However, this correlation is relatively weak because of the influence of many factors on the properties of the immobilized waste form and the limited amount of data from leaching experiments. Based on these results the formula for the conditioning of drum drier solid has been optimized as regards volur solid has been optimized as regards volume reduction and quality of the waste form as follows: 22% drum drier solid; 54% cement; 24% water. This corresponds to a dry solid/cement ratio of 0.40 and a water/cement ratio of 0.44. (author)

312

Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khan, S.U.M. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [and others

1996-12-01

313

Removal of Heavy Metals from Waste Water Using Water Hyacinth  

OpenAIRE

Water pollution has become one of the most serious problems of today's civilization. In the last few years considerable amount of research has been done on the potential of aquatic macrophytes for pollutant removal or even as bio-indicators for heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems. Water hyacinth is one of the aquatic plant species successfully used for wastewater treatment. It is very efficient in removing pollutants like suspended solids, BOD, organic matter, heavy metals and pathogens. This ...

Mary Lissy, P. N.; G, Madhu

2011-01-01

314

Hazardous waste, contaminated ground water, and common law  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, courts have imposed increasingly severe common law judgments on companies that operate leaking hazardous waste facilities. The case of Sterling v. Velsicol Chemical Corp., decided by the US District Court for the Western District of Tennessee, is an example of this trend. Plaintiffs were a class of persons who owned property or lived within a three mile radius of the northernmost boundary line of a 242 acre chemical waste burial site in Hardeman County, Tennessee, owned and operated by Velsicol from late 1964 until it was closed as hazardous in 1973 by order of the State of Tennessee. The plaintiffs sought damages for personal injury and property damage allegedly suffered when water in their home wells became contaminated by hazardous chemicals that escaped from Velsicol's burial site. Chemical waste from Velsicol's Memphis manufacturing plant was placed in 55-gallon metal drums (some dry waste was placed in boxes or other containers), loaded on trucks, and hauled from the Memphis plant to the Hardeman County site. more than 300,000 drums filled with hazardous waste were buried at the site. This paper discusses the decision found in the case.

Goldfarb, W.

1987-04-01

315

An assessment of availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria, between May and December 2009 using structured questionnaire. The study populations were household members living in the study area. Two hundred (200 respondents were randomly selected with 74% responses. Majority of the respondents, 38.5% and 90% were civil servants and females respectively. Their commonest source of water supply was well (41% which is inadequate in 74% of cases due to the seasonal variation of their water content. Other sources of water included tap bore hole and purchase of water from vendors. About 41% of the respondents spend N2000 ($13 on buying water for home use daily and 62.4% store water in drum/bucket/galloon. Cleaning of the storage facilities were done once in a year in majority of cases (54%. A significant percentage (48% does not treat their water before using it. On the medical history, 74% claimed to have had illness (68% of such was typhoid fever which they believed was from the poor quality of water they are using and 68% were treated in the hospital.

Stanley A.M.

2012-05-01

316

Integrated water and waste management system for future spacecraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 200 days of continuous testing have been completed on an integrated waste management-water recovery system developed by General Electric under a jointly funded AEC/NASA/AF Contract. The 4 man system provides urine, feces, and trash collection; water reclamation; storage, heating and dispensing of the water; storage and disposal of the feces and urine residue and all of other nonmetallic waste material by incineration. The heat required for the 1200 deg F purification processes is provided by a single 420-w radioisotope heater. A second 836-w radioisotope heater supplemented by 720 w of electrical heat provides for distillation and water heating. Significant test results are no pre-or-post treatment, greater than 98 per cent potable water recovery, approximately 95 per cent reduction in solids weight and volume, all outflows are sterile with the water having no bacteria or virus, and the radioisotope capsule radiation level is only 7.9 mrem/hr unshielded at 1 m (neutrons and gamma).

Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

1974-01-01

317

Energy production from waste-water using microbial fuel cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural energy sources like fossil fuels are depleting due to increased human activities. Different types of alternatives are being explored to solve this problem with the consideration that they are sustainable. There are many environmental concerns connected with fossil fuel burning which after oxidation processes release greater amounts of carbon emissions in atmosphere. Now the trends are shifting towards exploiting renewable energy options, such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, biogas, and bioelectricity. Bioelectricity is harvested from organic substrates using Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) that operate on oxidation reduction (redox) reactions. MFCs produce electricity in the presence of microorganisms from biodegradable substances. Waste-water contains enormous amount of organic matter that can be oxidized in MFC for electricity harvesting. In this review, the main focus is made on the applicability of microbial fuels cells for simultaneous waste-water treatment and electricity production. (author)

318

Radiation chemical studies on the treatment of waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation induced reaction in aqueous solution was studied to develope the radiation treatment as a new technique for waste water and to elevate the effectiveness of radiation. The effectiveness of radiation was enhanced by combination of radiation induced reaction with conventional methods such as biological treatment and coagulation treatment. The synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was studied by using phenol and ethylene glycol. The chain reaction was observed in the radiation induced oxidation. The combination of radiation and ozone is considered to be one of the most useful method. In this report, the mechanism of each reaction and the applicability of the reaction to the treatment of waste water are discussed. (author)

319

Treatment of waste thermal waters by ozonation and nanofiltration.  

Science.gov (United States)

After their use for heating, e.g. in greenhouses, waste thermal waters may cause environmental problems due to their high contents of ions, and in some cases organic matter (associated with an oxygen demand) or toxic compounds. The aims of this work were to decrease the high organic content of waste thermal water by a combination of ozone treatment and membrane separation, and to investigate the accompanying membrane fouling. The results demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand and the total organic content can be effectively decreased by a combination of ozone pretreatment and membrane filtration. Ozone treatment is more effective for phenol elimination than nanofiltration alone: with a combination of the two processes, 100% elimination efficiency can be achieved. The fouling index b proved to correlate well with the fouling and polarization layer resistances. PMID:23508151

Kiss, Z L; Szép, A; Kertész, S; Hodúr, C; László, Z

2013-01-01

320

Assessment of Domestic Wastewater Disposal in Some Selected Wards of Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study evaluates domestic wastewater disposal in some selected wards of urban Maiduguri. The unprecedented population growth in Maiduguri generally is directly proportional to its demand for water supply for both domestic and industrial needs. Consequently the more water is consumed, the more its waste is generated. This in turn encourages its indiscriminate disposal particularly in an environment with poor drainage system such as most parts of Maiduguri urban area. It is against this ...

Abba Kagu; Hauwa Lawan Badawi; Abba, Jimme M.

2013-01-01

321

Filtering device for treating radioactive waste water containing solids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pipe and a filter surrounding it are situated on one side of a lid for a vessel consisting of a sheet. The pipe is connected to a pipe connection on the other side of the sheet. A further pipe connection outside the flter is used to fill in the waste water, whose liquid part free of solids can be drawn off after the filter. (orig./HP)

322

Real-time monitor for tritium in waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automatic on-line tritium monitoring system has been developed for a combined industrial and sanitary waste water stream. It will allow early detection and mitigation of either chronic or acute tritium spills to the sewer. Two major tasks were identified: to provide a means of obtaining relatively pure and representative samples, and to develop a reliable low-level tritium detector. The article review the highlights of progress made during the past year in solving these two tasks

323

Tertiary Treatment for Textile Waste Water-A Review  

OpenAIRE

Tertiary treatment is the Industrial waste water treatment process which removes stubborn contaminants that have not been removed in secondary treatment. Effluent becomes even cleaner by Tertiary treatment through the use of stronger and more advanced treatment systems. The present work is an attempt to review all possible tertiary treatment methods for removal of dyestuff from textile effluent. Conventional method for treatment of textile effluent has own certain limitations ...

Manali Desai, Mehali Mehta

2014-01-01

324

Qualitative and quantitative characterization of waste water for small communities  

OpenAIRE

An understanding of thr waste water nature, from both the qualitative and quantitative points of view, is a fundamental factor in the selection of treatment techniques and their subsequent operation. This is even more so in the case of small communities whose discharges are more subject to variation. An analysis of French data in this field provides values for small communities in rural areas (the majority). So far as other communities are concerned there are three examples which particulary ...

Pujol, R.; Lie?nard, A.

1989-01-01

325

Brown coal coke in biological waste water cleaning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological sewage plants working by the activated sludge process are often confronted by the following problems: the formation of expanded bubbles, lack of decomposition performance, unstable operation and insufficient excess sludge dewatering. In the former East Germany, there is also the problem of too little nitrificaion/denitrification, caused by obsolete plant. The use of brown coal coke guarantees efficient cleaning of waste water. (orig.)

326

Treatment of radioactive waste waters using electroflotation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Review of the procedures for decontamination of radioactive waste water is presented. The outlook for the application of the electroflotation method with insoluble electrodes on the stage of separation in liquid and solid phases was shown. Scheme, technical and economic characteristics and account of the electroflotation plant operation are demonstrated. The electroflotation procedure performs well on the stage of previous purification, for example, before the application of sorption and membrane methods

327

Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Station, Kansas City, Missouri. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is the final report of the solar energy heating and hot water system installed at the Kansas City Fire Station, Number 24, 2309 Hardesty Street, Kansas City, Missouri. The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1428 cubic feet of 1/2 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71 1/2 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120-gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30-kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation. This project is part of the Department of Energy PON-1 Solar Demonstration Program with DOE cost sharing $154,282 of the $174,372 solar system cost. The Final Design Review was held March 1977, the system became operational March 1979 and acceptance test was completed in September 1979.

None

1980-07-01

328

Characterization of domestic gray water from point source to determine the potential for urban residential reuse: a short review  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to discern the domestic gray water (GW) sources that is least polluting, at the urban households of India, by examining the GW characteristics, comparing with literature data, reuse standards and suitable treatment technologies. In view of this, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of domestic GW originating from bath, wash basin, laundry and kitchen sources are determined and compared with established standards for reuse requirements. Quality of different gray water sources is characterized with respect to the physical, chemical, biological, nutrient, ground element and heavy metal properties. The pollutant loads indicate that the diversion techniques are not suitable for household application and, therefore, treatment is necessary prior to storage and reuse. It is observed that the total volume of GW generated exceeds the reuse requirement for suggested reuse such as for flushing and gardening/irrigation. In spite of generating less volume, the kitchen source is found to be the major contributor for most of the pollutant load and, therefore, not recommended to be considered for treatment. It is concluded that treatment of GW from bathroom source alone is sufficient to meet the onsite reuse requirements and thereby significantly reduce the potable water consumption by 28.5 %. Constructed wetland systems and constructed soil filters are suggested as suitable treatment alternatives owing to its ability to treat highly variable pollutant load with lower operational and maintenance cost, which is more practical for tropical and developing countries.

Edwin, Golda A.; Gopalsamy, Poyyamoli; Muthu, Nandhivarman

2014-03-01

329

Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

1980-06-01

330

Storage tank with double medium assigned to solar domestic hot water system - the result of experimental investigations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents experimental investigations related to the storage tanks with double medium (water and phase change material - PCM). Solar Domestic Hot Water System (SDHW) is now considered as a place of such tanks` employment. Two kinds of tanks were tested. The first tank was filled with thin-walled polyethylene spheres enclosed stearine. The second one contains parallel vertical tubes bank with PCM inside. Results of experimental tests show a major influence of PCM on charging and discharging of tanks processes. In conclusion, application of such solution should provide determined benefits. These tanks can more successfully collect energy when working in sequence of several sunny days compared to the traditional tanks. The advantages of propose storage tank innovation are as follows: - higher heat capacity compared to the water tank of the same volume - expected better thermal characteristics. (orig.)

Wnuk, R. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland). Helio- Ecostructures Centre. Inst. of Fundamental Technological Research

1994-12-31

331

Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems in Buildings Supplied by Low-Temperature District Heating  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

District heating (DH) systems supplied by renewable energy sources are one of the main solutions for achieving a fossil-free heating sector in Denmark by 2035. To reach this goal, the medium temperature DH used until now needs to transform to a new concept reflecting the requirement for lower heat loss from DH networks required by the reduced heating demand of low-energy and refurbished buildings combined with the lower supply temperatures required by using renewable heat sources. Both these needs meet in the recently developed concept of low-temperature DH designed with supply/return temperatures as low as 50°C/25°C and highly insulated pipes with reduced inner diameter. With this design, the heat loss from the DH networks can be reduced to one quarter of the value for traditional DH designed and operated for temperatures of 80°C/40°C. However, such low temperatures bring challenges for domestic hot water (DHW) and space heating (SH) systems, from the perspective of both DH customers and the DH company. The aim of this work was therefore to identify, evaluate and suggest solutions. The first part of the research focused on the feasibility of supplying DHW with no increased risk of Legionella and on the performance of low-temperature DH substations. The Danish Standard DS 439 for DHW requires that DHW should be delivered in reasonable time, without unwanted changes in desired temperatures (comfort) and without increased risk of bacterial growth (hygiene). While the comfort requirements set the minimum DHW temperature to 45°C, the hygiene requirements set it to 60°C, which is simply not reachable for low-temperature DH. However, the German DHW standard DVGW 551 makes no requirement about minimum DHW temperature if the overall DHW volume is below 3L. This rule was adopted as a cornerstone for the research and for the whole low-temperature DH concept in general, so the minimum DHW temperature is defined by a requirement for 45°C at the kitchen tap.   The performance of a low-temperature DH substation with instantaneous DHW preparation was evaluated based on the results from laboratory measurements supplemented with results from the verified numerical model developed in MATLAB-Simulink. The laboratory measurements showed that the low-temperature substation can heat the required flow of DHW to 47°C with 50°C DH water while keeping the return temperature as low as 20°C. The results of numerical simulations considering the influence of the DH network, represented by a 10 m long service pipe connection for the substation equipped with an external bypass with a set-point temperature of 35°C, showed that the time needed to produce 40°C DHW was 11 s with and 15 s without the external bypass, respectively. DS 439 suggests 10 s as the reasonable waiting time for DHW, so a low-temperature DH substation based on the instantaneous principle of DHW preparation should be equipped with bypass solution keeping the service pipe warm and reducing the waiting time. Traditional bypass solutions simply redirect the bypassed water back tothe DH network without additional cooling, but bypassed water can instead be redirected to floor heating in the bathroom to be further cooled and thus reduce heat loss from the DH network while improving comfort for occupants and still ensure fast DHW preparation. Various solutions for the redirection and control of bypass flow were developed and their detailed performance tested on the example of a low-energy single-family house modelled in building energy performance simulation tool IDA-ICE 4.22. The effect on the DH network was simulated with the commercial program Termis on a case study of 40 single-family houses supplied by low-temperature DH. In comparison to the reference case with a traditional external bypass, the proposed solution resulted in average cooling of bypassed water by 7.5°C, reducing the heat loss from DH network during non-heating period by 13% and increasing the average floor temperature by 0.6-2.2°C without causing overheating. The price for heating the bathroom floor durin

Brand, Marek

2014-01-01

332

Remote Water Lance Technology for Cleaning Waste Tanks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the use of remote water lances for cleaning sludge or solidified heel materials from waste tanks. S.A.Robotics has developed a long arm retrieval system to deploy ultra-high pressure water lances and vacuum recovery systems for tank cleanup operations. This system uses remote-operated telescoping long arms with light weight, high strength materials, innovative high capacity joint designs, and multiple degrees of freedom to deploy tank cleaning heads to all areas within the tanks. Arm designs can be scaled and adjusted to suit even the largest tanks. (authors)

333

Use of microphytoalgae for purification of radioactive waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work deals with a study on the purification of some radioactive waters, simulating radioactive waste waters, by some microbial collectors. For a given ion the retaining degree varies as 134 Cs- > 60 Co2- > 51 Cr3- > 55-59 Fe3-, but for same algae types, this parameter decreases as follows: Scenedesmus quadricauda > Cylindrospermum major > Nostoc microscopicum. Furthermore, using the radioactive 60 Co2- ions, the biochemical mechanism of retaining for such cations by different separated components of living cells was established. More retention is observed in proteins, pigments and polysaccharides, but the glycides are not able to keep such cations. (authors)

334

Nitrification of highly contaminated waste water with retention of biomass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AIF Research Project No 7698 was concerned with the nitrification of highly contaminated waste water with retention of biomass. A compact system for the nitrification was developed and optimized in the investigations. This is an over-dammed fixed bed reactor with structured packing elements and membrane gasification. The fixed bed reactor was successfully installed in a multi-stage compact plant on the laboratory scale for the biological treatment of dump trickled water. With the conclusion of the investigations, design data are available for the technical scale realisation of nitrification in fixed bed reactors. (orig.)

335

Certification of a small waste water treatment plant SBR  

OpenAIRE

The basic aim of the presented study was to evaluate testing procedures for the determination of the efficiency of the small WWTP type SBR. Testing has been performed in various operating phases with test methods complying with SIST EN 12566-3:2005 and with the water quality monitoring for both the influent and the effluent. In the first part of this study are presented the legislation from waste water area, and the purpose of testing the quality of wastewater. Later on, in the study, are des...

Dragos?, Ana

2008-01-01

336

Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

Goto, Motonobu

2010-11-01

337

Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 1500C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables

338

A Study of Waste Water Treatment of Microbiological Laboratories of Hospitals by Electrolyzed Oxidized Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hospital liquid infectious waste is one of the most important aspects of water contamination. The presentinvestigation was undertaken to evolve a cost effective alternate method of waste water treatment by usingOxidized Water as a disinfectant for hospital effluents. Liquid infectious waste coming from diagnosticlaboratories of hospitals (Urine, Blood and Mix of both was treated with electrolyzed Oxidized Water. Differentv/v ratios (95:5, 85:15, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 of Sample to Electrolyzed Oxidized Water (EOW were culturedand incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. EOW showed a direct relationship with the decontamination of inorganicurine but for blood, an unidentified pattern was observed that may be due to change in pH and/or OxidationReduction Potential (ORP of EOW because of organic nature of blood. The most effective ratio of sample toEOW, at which decontamination was found to be maximum for urine, was 25:75 with treatment efficiency of96.15 % and 85:15 with treatment efficiency of 84.8 % for blood. The study revealed that Electrolyzed OxidizedWater may be used as a better alternative for treatment of liquid infectious waste.

Fiza Sarwar

2011-04-01

339

Water and waste water, when brine's just fine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Desalination has always sounded a good solution to rainfall shortages, who wouldn't rather drink purified seawater than recycled sewage? But projects in Australia and around the world have often been dogged by question marks over cost and greenhouse effects and saline discharge issues. Solar powered pilot plant is being developed in South Australia which will not discharge a drop of briny reject water back to the sea

340

Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

1983-01-01

341

Method for reduction in volume and encapsulation of water-containing weakly radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solutions and slurries of waste material in water are dehydrated and enclosed in a polymerizate for final storage. The water is removed as an azeotropic mixture and the dehydrated waste residue is then enclosed in an organic polymerizate. The method and system disclosed in this patent claim are particularly suitable for safe removal of radioactive waste. (orig.)

342

The use of low-quality water on the transport and transformation of waste water in irrigation soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste water use for agricultural production in the semi-arid and arid climate areas is increasingly regarded as a solution for water shortage. Still today many questions remain unanswered about the mid- and long-term effect of irrigation by waste water on plant, soil and human health. In this paper the effect of the use of waste water on the soil hydraulic properties, the solute transport and transformation behaviour is being studied conducting steady state and non-steady state waste water application treatments on undisturbed soil columns and a field plot. Detailed spatial and temporal information on the propagation of water and solute is obtained using tensiometers, soil solute extraction and time domain reflectometry probes. The experimental data are processed using the HYDRUS-2D modeling tool. After calibration, the model is used in a predictive way as to simulate the mid- and long-term effects of the use of treated waste water as irrigation water. PMID:17191492

Erfani, A; Wyseure, G

2006-01-01

343

Baseline data on radioactivity in drinking water, groundwater, waste water, sewage sludge, residues, and wastes, referring to annual report 1989 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This issue of the WaBoLu series gives a comprehensive survey of the radioactivity in drinking water, groundwater, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes in the FRG, as measured in the year 1989 and compiled by the Leitstelle of the WaBoLu Institute of the Federal Board of Health. (orig.)

344

Water detritiation processing of JET purified waste water using the TRENTA facility at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Operation of a water detritiation facility under optimized conditions for high detritiation performances. • Improvement of operational procedures to process tritiated waste water. • Handling and reduction of tritiated waste water to achieve enriched low volume tritiated water for sufficient storage. • Demonstration of the efficient availability of the TRENTA WDS facility for technical scale operation. -- Abstract: A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is required for any Fusion machine in order to process tritiated waste water, which is accumulated in various subsystems during operation and maintenance. Regarding the European procurement packages for the ITER tritium fuel cycle, the WDS test facility TRENTA applying the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process was developed, installed and is currently in operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Besides the on-going R and D work for the design of ITER WDS, the current status of the TRENTA facility provides the option to utilize the WDS for processing tritiated water. Therefore, in the framework of the EFDA JET Fusion Technology Work Programme 2011, the TLK was able to offer the capability on a representative scale to process tritiated water, which was produced during normal operation at JET. The task should demonstrate the availability of the CECE process to handle and detritiate the water in terms of tritium enrichment and volume reduction. The operational program comprised the processing of purified tritiated water from JET, with a total volume of 180 l and an activity of 74 GBq. The paper will give an introduction to the TRENTA WDS facility and an overview of the operational procedure regarding tritiated water reduction. Data concerning required operation time, decontamination and enrichment performances and different operating procedures will be presented as well. Finally, a preliminary study on a technical implementation of processing the entire stock of JET tritiated water by means of water reduction and tritium recovery and an impact of storage capacity at JET will be discussed.

Michling, R., E-mail: robert.michling@kit.edu; Bekris, N.; Cristescu, I.; Lohr, N.; Plusczyk, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.

2013-10-15

345

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in Switzerland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF. This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2 sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated.

Dettwiler Martina

2011-12-01

346

Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cocaine abuse, a growing social problem, is currently estimated from population surveys, consumer interviews and crime statistics. A new approach based on the analysis of cocaine (COC) and metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in water samples was applied to 28 rivers and 37 waste water treatment plants in Belgium using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. While EME was undetectable, COC and BE were detectable with concentrations ranging from <1 to 753 ng/L and <1 to 2258 ng/L, respectively. BE concentrations were employed to calculate the local amount of abused cocaine. The highest values (up to 1.8 g/day cocaine per 1000 inhabitants) were found in large cities and during weekends. The estimation of cocaine abuse through water analysis can be executed on regular basis without cooperation of patients. It also gives clear geographical information, while prevention campaigns can easily be implemented and evaluated. - Cocaine consumption can be evaluated through analysis of waste and surface water.

Nuijs, Alexander L.N. van [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: alexander.vannuijs@ua.ac.be; Pecceu, Bert [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Theunis, Laetitia; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne [Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, University of Liege, (ULg), CHU Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Jorens, Philippe G. [Department of Clinical Pharmacology/Clinical Toxicology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), University Hospital of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Neels, Hugo [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Laboratory of Toxicology, ZNA Stuivenberg, Lange Beeldekensstraat 267, 2060 Antwerp (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

2009-01-15

347

Solidification of radioactive borated waste concentrates from pressurized water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New mixtures for solidification of borated waste concentrates have been developed under a Nagra contract by EIR in conjunction with staff of Beznau power station where the wastes are produced. The objective of the project was to find a solidification recipe which best enabled the wastes to fulfill the necessary conditions for geologic disposal with respect to their mechanical strength, water resistance, sulphate resistance, long-term stability and leachability. Boric acid or borates in concentrates require additional calcium hydroxide in cements used for solidification so that precipitation of calcium metaborate which is necessary for hardening will take place. An initial scoping study was performed on inactive concentrates before the range of cements and additives was further reduced in a second series of experiments. With active concentrates, 11 recipes were tested, including measurement of leach rates. Addition of Trass in the ratio to cement of 30:100 reduced caesium leach rates by around 2 orders of magnitude. The chosen mixture A.11. was then tested on a technological scale. In 200 l drums at the Beznau facility mixing and stirring techniques leading to hardening in acceptable times were established. The hardening process and the temperatures were monitored. The strength, water resistance and sulphate resistance were measured for the mix from the drum. Since the beginning of 1982 the method has been in use for borated concentrates at Beznau with the approval of ncentrates at Beznau with the approval of the safety authorities. The method is being patented; further details are available from the author. (author)

348

Conceptual solutions to drainage water and treatment of waste water for the settlement Muljava and its surroundings  

OpenAIRE

In this diploma thesis, conceptual solutions of drainage and treatment of waste water for the settlements Muljava and Potok pri Muljavi are described. The procedures of designing a separate sewer system including all the supporting facilities are represented. Hydraulic calculation of the waste water and rain water sewerage is presented separately. Concerning rain water sewer system, various solutions of rain water drainage with regard to the existing situation are described. A ...

Malovrh, Gas?per

2008-01-01

349

Treatment of tritiated water wastes. Achievements and future perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper a review of the activity in the cryogenic power plant laboratory of ICSI is presented. The main test of this activity is to develop the technology for tritium separation from heavy and light water. The technology developed at ICSI is based upon catalytic isotope exchange between water/tritiated water and hydrogen/deuterium, followed by cryogenic distillation of hydrogen and its isotopes. Initially, the technology was conceived in order to separated tritium from tritiated heavy water infested in the moderators and cooling circuits in the CANDU type reactors (NPP Cernavoda). The results obtained on the pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation are presented. The detritiation process was simulated using as working fluids water with a low deuterium content and a gaseous hydrogen-deuterium mixture. In order to achieve the experimental and tritium production facilities, the main measures necessary for licensing the plant as a nuclear facilities, are mentioned. In the end of the paper we shall discussed several scenarios for developing current researches with the aim of utilizing the existing experimental facilities of the pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation, in the frame of the EU's programme EURATOM. There will be analyzed the possibilities of achieving the theoretical and experimental necessary for preparing the nuclear fuel cycle for fusion reactors, and also for treatment of important waste of tritieted light water resulting from experimitieted light water resulting from experimental activity and in the future from the operation of a fusion reactor. (authors)

350

Gasifier waste water treatment: Phase I cooling tower assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Details of an advanced study of the treatability of waste waters from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite describe the test equipment and results at a pilot plant in North Dakota using stripped-gas liquor (SGL) as cooling tower makeup. Ammonia, alkalinity, phenol, and other non-hydantoin organics were removed from the cooling water by stripping and/or biological degradation, with the phenol concentration in the exhaust air exceeding the odor threshold. It will be necessary to control foaming of the circulating water, but both glycol and silicon based agents performed well during the test. It will also be necessary to reduce the high level of biofouling on heat transfer surfaces, although stainless steel fouling was not a major problem. The conclusion is that SGL is limited by potentially serious operating problems without additional treatment. 5 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

Mann, M.D.; Willson, W.G.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Winton, S.L.

1985-02-01

351

Treating waste waters in the meat industry; Tratamiento de aguas residuales en industrias carnicas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reports on a study of the production process in a meat processing facility ( a pig abattoir). The production process chart was analysed, focussing on the stages that use water as a raw material and those in which waste waters are generated. The contaminating parameters of the waste waters generated were then analysed and the treatment of the waste waters a physico/chemical treatment in this case describe. Finally, an economic analysis was made of the waste water treatment plant's operating costs as a guide. (Author) 12 refs.

Cancela Carral, M. A.; Taboas Araujo, R.

2002-07-01

352

Experience with primary water cleaning and waste water treatment plant in nuclear power stations with pressurised and boiling water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Powder resin alluvial filtration using structured filter layers permits constantly improving adaption of the water treatment technology to even the most demanding problem situations - particularly in the field of primary water and waste water treatment in nuclear power stations. From experience in operation the authors show the advantages of this technique compared to other techniques, which can be deduced from theoretical concepts, taking into account the various target figures decisive in operating nuclear power stations. (orig.)

353

Gaseous radioactive waste processing systems for light water reactor plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Minimum design, construction and performance requirements are established for Gaseous Radioactive Waste Processing Systems for light water reactor plants, covering both boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. The standard is applicable for routine operation, including design basis fuel leakage and other design basis occurrences. Sources of gaseous radioactive wastes considered for BWR plants include the main condenser air removal system, turbine steam seal system exhaust, and mechanical vacuum pump system exhaust; for PWR plants they include the vacuum control tank, reactor coolant drain tank, gas stripper, cover gases, pressurizer relief tank, air ejector exhaust, steam generator blowdown tank vent, and equipment vent header system. Sections of the standard are devoted to overall system requirements, equipment requirements, instrumentation and controls, physical arrangement, operation and maintenance and pre-operational testing and cleaning. Requirements of this standard are to take precedence over those set forth in ANSI/ANS-52.1-1978, ANS-51.1-1973(N18.2-1973) and ANS-51.8-1975(N18.2a-1975). Radioactive gaseous effluents must meet design objectives specified in Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix 1, and limits specified in Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20 and Part 50, Appendix A

354

Waste Water Treatment by Some Prepared Polymers by Radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synthesis of hydrophilic polymeric material having certain function groups with the ability to absorbs some heavy metals and some dyes from waste water is of a great importance from the point of view of environmental studies. The present work may be represented as the following : The two different methods have been used for the modification of PE-co- PP non woven fabric via two different techniques:- 1. Coating of (PE-co-PP) with mixture of CMC and AAc by using (E.B) irradiation. 2. The modification of (PE-co-PP) non-woven fabric by ?- irradiation induced grafting of (AAm) monomer . 3. The modification of hydrophilic substrate to hydrogel was carried out through the following: The preparation of clay/PVA hydrogel through freezing and thawing followed by E.B. irradiation. The different factors which affect the properties of the modified substrate were investigated. Moreover, the structure properties of the modified substrate were characterized by SEM, XRD, and IR. Thermal properties was also investigated by TGA and DSC. Hydrophilic property of the modified substrate was investigated by water uptake %. The results obtained show that the prepared substrates can be used in the removal of heavy metals and dyes from waste water.

355

Mercury and methylmercury contents in mine-waste calcine, water, and sediment collected from the Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines  

Science.gov (United States)

The Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines, produced about 2,900 t of mercury during mining of cinnabar ore from 1953 to 1976. More than 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining, much of which were used to construct a jetty in nearby Honda Bay. Since 1995, high Hg contents have been found in several people living near the mine, and 21 of these people were treated for mercury poisoning. Samples of mine-waste calcine contain high total Hg concentrations ranging from 43-660 ??g/g, whereas total Hg concentrations in sediment samples collected from a mine pit lake and local stream vary from 3.7-400 ??g/g. Mine water flowing through the calcines is acidic, pH 3.1-4.3, and total Hg concentrations ranging from 18-31 ??g/l in this water significantly exceed the 1.0-??g/l drinking water standard for Hg recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total Hg contents are generally lower in water samples collected from surrounding domestic wells, the mine pit lake, Honda Bay, and the nearby stream, varying from 0.008-1.4 ??g/l. Methylmercury concentrations in water draining mine calcines range from mine is similar to or higher than that found in other mercury mines worldwide. Much of the methylmercury generated in Palawan mine-waste calcines and those in Honda Bay is transferred to water, and then to marine fish and seafood. A food source pathway of Hg to humans is most likely in this coastal, high fish-consuming population.

Gray, J.E.; Greaves, I.A.; Bustos, D.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

2003-01-01

356

Potential of Waste Water Use for Jatropha Cultivation in Arid Environments  

OpenAIRE

Water is crucial for socio-economic development and healthy ecosystems. With the actual population growth and in view of future water scarcity, development calls for improved sectorial allocation of groundwater and surface water for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Instead of intensifying the pressure on water resources, leading to conflicts among users and excessive pressure on the environment, sewage effluents, after pre-treatment, provide an alternative nutrient-rich water source...

Folkard Asch; Rajaona, Arisoa M.; Nele Sutterer

2012-01-01

357

Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

Husted, R. R.

1974-01-01

358

Wet oxidation of waste water value recovery processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper wet oxidation of wastewater process is being presented. In many waste water treatment plant that is virtually no more scope for optimizing the bio-degradation process. Wet oxidation is of great importance for this field of application because of the inexpensive oxidizing agents that are used, i.e. oxygen air or nitric acid. In this process the recalcitrant organics that are difficult to bio-degrade are oxidized highly selectively or are broken down into smaller molecules. Nitric acid is a low-cost oxidizing agent that finds widespread use, especially in the chemical industry. (A.B.)

359

Removal of Sulfate from Waste Water by Activated Carbon  

OpenAIRE

Activated carbon was Produced from coconut shell and was used for removing sulfate from industrial waste water in batch Processes. The influence of various parameter were studied such as pH (4.5 ? 9.) , agitation time (0 ? 120)min and adsorbent dose (2 ? 10) gm.The Langmuir and frandlich adsorption capacity models were been investigated where showed there are fitting with langmmuir model with squre regression value ( 0.76). The percent of removal of sulfate (22% - 38%) at (PH=7) in t...

Mohammed Sadeq Salman

2009-01-01

360

Effect of gamma radiation on microorganisms in waste water from hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma radiation to the total count and indicative bacteria in waste water from hospitals were studied. It showed that radiation can effectively reduce the quantity of microflora. Total count and MPN of coliform, faecal coliform and E coli was proportionally reversed to the dose applied. Radiation at 2.8 kGy could reduce the total count of waste water from 1.91x106-4.21x106 cells per ml. of waste water to 33.6-3.83x102 cells per ml. of waste water or 4 log cycle. MPN of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria were reduced from 7.31x106-1.57x107 and 2.33x106->1.30x107 per 100 ml. of waste water respectively to 1.4-4.75 and 0-1.5 per 100 ml. of waste water respectively. And E. coli was absent

361

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

2010-12-31

362

Radioactive and industrial waste water collection system study, Phase I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phase I of the Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) Collection System Study has been completed, and the deliverables for this portion of the study are enclosed. The deliverables include: The Work Break-down Structure (WBS) for Phase II; The Annotated Outline for the Collection Study Report; The Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) of the RLW collection system based on current literature and knowledge; The Configuration database; The Reference Index, listing all currently held documents of the RLW collection system; The Reference Drawing Index listing all currently held, potentially applicable, drawings reviewed during the PFD development; The Regulation Identification Document for RCRA and CWA; The Regulation Database for RCRA and CWA; The Regulation Review Log, including statements justifying the non-applicability of certain regulations; Regulation Library, including the photocopied regulations with highlighted text for RCRA and CWA; The summary of RTG's waste water treatment plant design experience and associated regulations on which RTG based the design of these treatment facilities; TA-50 Influent Database; Radioactive Liquid Waste Stream Characterization Database

363

Interactive effects of a calcium and magnesium sulphate enriched waste water on crop growth and nutrition  

OpenAIRE

The coal industry of Mpumalanga Province is faced with the problem of developing cost effective ways of using large volumes of calcium and magnesium sulphate enriched waste waters. Use of the waste waters for agricultural production may contribute as a stabilising factor with regard to yields in this high potential agricultural area. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of such waste waters on yield and to compare crop response to calcium and magnesium sulphate salinity a...

Strohmenger, Petronella Hermina Elizabeth

2001-01-01

364

IMPROVEMENT OF POLUTANT REMOVAL FROM WASTE WATERS OF METAL TRETMENT INDUSTRY  

OpenAIRE

Processes of surface treatment of metals induce the occurrence of industrial waste water discharges, which are physic-chemically treated in the waste water treatment plant. The purpose of diploma was to decompose and separate by means of oil de-emulgators the emulgated oils in the waste water and then to find efficient combination of coagulant and polyelectrolyte, which could replace the Iron chloride (Feriklar) and polyelectrolyte (Praestol 2500), used nowadays in purifying industrial ...

Primoz?ic?, S?pela

2009-01-01

365

Modeling and Optimisation Based Control of Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants With Submerged Membrane Modules  

OpenAIRE

Waste water treatment plants with submerged membrane modules form an interesting alternative to common waste water plants where the separation of particulate substances from the purified water is achieved by large clarifiers. The advantages of the membrane bio reactor comprise better waste degradation resulting from higher biomass concentration, improved effluent quality even under strong feed fluctuations and a more compact plant layout due to the absence of the clarifier. However, operation...

Cruse, Andreas

2006-01-01

366

Selective Oxidation of Organic Compounds in Waste Water by ozone-based oxidation processes  

OpenAIRE

For many different types of waste water, treatment systems have been implemented in the past decades. Waste water treatment is usually performed by biological processes, either aerobic or anaerobic, complemented with physical / chemical post treatment techniques. However, in some sectors of industry, like the tanker cleaning industry, the pharmaceutical industry and the textile industry, waste water treatment is still difficult because of the irregular presence of varyin...

Boncz, M. A.

2002-01-01

367

TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WATER USING CERAMIC FILTER FROM NATURAL CLAY AND FLY-ASH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The declining water quality in Sriwijaya University has been caused by the presence of heavy metal contents such as Iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn in the treatment and distribution of water. A simple method is proposed in this work to minimize the heavy metal content in water by using filtration technology. This research was carried out using ceramic filter made of 77.5% natural clay, 20% fly ash, and 2.5% iron powder. The results showed an increase in the quality of raw water that is in accordance with the requirement of drinking water standard. The rejection percentage of TDS, Iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn content in feed water tended to be high and met the regulation number 492/MENKES/PER/IV/2010 for standards of drinking water in Indonesia.

NASIR SUBRIYER

2013-09-01

368

Disinfection and physical and chemical changes in waste waters, sludge and agricultural wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is of interest for agriculture to consider recycling scenarios that use undigested sludges as they contain higher concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter than digested sludges. Also from the point of view of waste water management, this approach is of interest because it reduces the time and number of treatments of sludges, thus resulting in technological and economic advantages. However, the utilization of this type of sludge in agriculture is restricted by the presence of human pathogens. Therefore studies concerning the disinfection efficiency of gamma irradiation in undigested sludge at pilot plant level were performed and results compared with the disinfection efficiency of this radiation treatment in digested sludge. (Auth.)

369

Removal of high-level radioactive substances contained with water from the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Stations. Some technical problems in waste treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japanese government and plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Co. announced to process the highly radioactive water amounting to about 250,000 cubic meters by the end of fiscal year 2011. Radiation-contaminated water will be moved to the waste facility to remove oil and radioactive cesium using zeolite. The process using Prussian Blue is expected for the effectiveness. Other radioactive substances will be removed through precipitation using special chemicals and radioactivity in the water will be reduced to 10-6 of its original level. The water will be then be returned to the reactors and used to cool them after going through a desalination process. The facility can process about 1,200 tons of contaminated water a day. TEPCO will store radioactive materials and other waste from the cleansing process at the Fukushima plant. They need to decide how the waste will finally be disposed of and to figure out what to do with the highly radioactive waste produced in the above process. Kurion Inc., Areva SA, and some domestic firms provide equipment and technology, but all the Japanese facilities and institutions should join to settle the problems. (S. Ohno)

370

Status of the membrane procedure - Possible applications to waste water digestion; Stand der Technik von Membranverfahren. Einsatzmoeglichkeiten bei der Vergaerung von Abwaessern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In waste water with low organic loadings anaerobic microorganisms are working at a low efficiency. The plant's energy balance becomes negative because a big need of process energy to warm up the 'unproductive' water is created. This can be dealt with by concentrating the waste waters my means of membrane systems. Separation of slightly loaded flows into purified permeate and digestible concentrate may therefore increase the potential of digestion in industrial waste water significantly. As a basis for this report the following connections were used: congresses and exhibitions, personal contacts with people and companies who work and have published in this field as well as data base research. According to the technical standard the different processes of nano filtration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis are used to purify industrial or domestic waste water. Therefore, the majority of classic suppliers of waste water technology offer membrane systems. The membrane bio-reactors belong to the typical systems used. In this system the biomass is separated and retained by a membrane. Due to this combination the volume of the reactor can be reduced and the grade of degradation increased. Simultaneously a permeate is produced which can reach the quality of the desired effluent and which can be re-used manifold. Additional concentration of weakly loaded waste water to be used in a subsequent digestion can reduce energy consumption. Due to the fact that mainly the technical feasibility of the membrane technology was emphasised, some further evaluation in regard of energy consumption and cost has to be made. (author)

Engeli, H.; Edelmann, W.

2001-07-01

371

Influences on domestic well water testing behavior in a Central Maine area with frequent groundwater arsenic occurrence.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2001 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a new standard for arsenic (As) in drinking water of 10 ?g/L, replacing the old standard of 50 ?g/L. However, for the 12% of the U.S. population relying on unregulated domestic well water, including half of the population of Maine, it is solely the well owner's responsibility to test and treat the water. A mailed household survey was implemented in January 2013 in 13 towns of Central Maine with the goal of understanding the population's testing and treatment practices and the key behavior influencing factors in an area with high well-water dependency and frequent natural groundwater As. The response rate was 58.3%; 525 of 900 likely-delivered surveys to randomly selected addresses were completed. Although 78% of the households reported that their well has been tested, half of it was more than 5 years ago. Among the 58.7% who believe they have tested for As, most do not remember the results. Better educated, higher income homeowners who more recently purchased their homes are most likely to have included As when last testing. While households agree that water and As-related health risks can be severe, they feel low personal vulnerability and there are low testing norms overall. Significant predictors of including As when last testing include: having knowledge that years of exposure increases As-related health risks (risk knowledge), knowing who to contact to test well water (action knowledge), believing that regular testing does not take too much time (instrumental attitude), and having neighbors who regularly test their water (descriptive norm). Homeowners in As-affected communities have the tendency to underestimate their As risks compared to their neighbors. The reasons for this optimistic bias require further study, but low testing behaviors in this area may be due to the influence of a combination of norm, ability, and attitude factors and barriers. PMID:24875279

Flanagan, Sara V; Marvinney, Robert G; Zheng, Yan

2015-02-01

372

Environmental Effect of Reservoirs Accumulating Highly Mineralized Oil-Field Waste Waters  

OpenAIRE

The effect of oilfield waste water on the ground, the soil and the underground water has been studied. The reservoir is shown to be the source of environmental pollution due to the seepage of highly mineralized waste water through the reservoir bed and walls. Increased water mineralization in the spring two kilometers downward from the reservoir is one indication of it. Desalinization of the water should be expected in 140 years’ time. Typical chernozem formed on the area under study 40 yea...

Gabbasova, Ilyusya M.; Suleymanov, Ruslan R.

2010-01-01

373

Diversity and antibiotic resistance of aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants  

OpenAIRE

The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas ver...

Figueira, Va?nia; Vaz-moreira, Ivone; Silva, Ma?rcia; Manaia, Ce?lia M.

2011-01-01

374

Treatment of tanneries waste water by ultrasound assisted electrolysis process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The leather industry is a major producer of wastewater and solid waste containing potential water and soil contaminants. Considering the large amount and variety of chemical agents used in skin processing, the wastewaters generated by tanneries are very complex. Therefore, the development of treatment methods for these effluents is extremely necessary. In this work the electrochemical treatment of a tannery wastewater by ultrasound assisted electrochemical process, using stainless steel and lead cathode and titanium anodes was studied. Effect of ultrasound irradiation at various ultrasonic intensities 0, 40, 60 and 80% on electrochemical removal of chromium was investigated. Experiments were conducted at two pH conditions of pH 3 and 9. Significant removal of chromium was found at pH 3 and it was also noticed that by increasing ultrasonic intensities, percentage removal of chromium and sulfate also increases. The optimum removal of chromium and sulfate ions was observed at 80% ultrasonic intensity. The technique of electrolysis assisted with ultrasonic waves can be further improved and can be the future waste water treatment process for industries. (author)

375

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM WASTE WATER USING MICROBIAL FUEL CELL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs an electricity producing device using waste-water treatment, biosensor, eco-friendly and low cost management of energy production. In this study, investigation power generation from waste water compared with their pure culture, mixed culture and different medium ingredients with microorganism. Enhance the power production with different ingredients like monosaccharide’s, nitrogen source and amino acids, these sources increasing the electron shuttle in the medium. Glucose (0.98 V, beef extract (0.85 V and Leucine (0.92 V exhibited maximum power production with the anodic chamber. Different electrode was used; platinum showed that maximum electron capturing in the anodic chamber. The SEM photography clearly showed that biofilm formation of microorganism on the electrode. The output power was compared with mixed culture to pure culture and different ingredients, thus bio electric power was retained maximum 1.03 V in pure culture from Morganella morganii and 1.2 V in mixed culture.

Mannarreddy Prabu

2012-09-01

376

Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper as a preliminary country paper for the UNIDO's programe on Industrial waste water purification, which embraces eight countries from Africa, is prepared in such a way that it could serve as source materi al for the programs implementation in the country. The program's main objective being developing the most appropriate and effective means to deal with long term problems associated with generation and treatment of industrial waste water influence, every effort is made to present what ever relevant informations pertaining to the program's objective and goal. To this end, the first chapter delivers general background information about the countries natural resource and the prevailing industrial feature, while the second chapter deliberates on the results of the investigation and evaluation of the selected subsectors and factories from the industrial sector. Finally, an overview of other side factors which could possibly have effects on the project's activity is presented in the third chapter.

Mebratu, D.

1990-09-10

377

An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using isolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in isolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

1977-01-01

378

External Auditing on Absorbed Dose Using a Solid Water Phantom for Domestic Radiotherapy Facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the results of an external audit on the absorbed dose of radiotherapy beams independently performed by third parties. For this effort, we developed a method to measure the absorbed dose to water in an easy and convenient setup of solid water phantom. In 2008, 12 radiotherapy centers voluntarily participated in the external auditing program and 47 beams of X-ray and electron were independently calibrated by the third party's American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) task group (TG)-51 protocol. Even though the AAPM TG-51 protocol recommended the use of water, water as a phantom has a few disadvantages, especially in a busy clinic. Instead, we used solid water phantom due to its reproducibility and convenience in terms of setup and transport. Dose conversion factors between solid water and water were determined for photon and electron beams of various energies by using a scaling method and experimental measurements. Most of the beams (74%) were within ±2% of the deviation from the third party's protocol. However, two of 20 X-ray beams and three of 27 electron beams were out of the tolerance (±3%), including two beams with a >10% deviation. X-ray beams of higher than 6 MV had no conversion factors, while a 6 MV absorbed dose to a solid water phantom was 0.4% less than the dose to water. The electron dose conversion factors between the solid water phantom and water were determined: The higher the electron energy, the less is the conversion factor. rgy, the less is the conversion factor. The total uncertainty of the TG-51 protocol measurement using a solid water phantom was determined to be ±1.5%. The developed method was successfully applied for the external auditing program, which could be evolved into a credential program of multi-institutional clinical trials. This dosimetry saved time for measuring doses as well as decreased the uncertainty of measurement possibly resulting from the reference setup in water.

379

Domestic Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

380

Influence of waste water from oil refinery on species and biomass of microzoon in rootzone of water hyacinth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are lots of biological species in rootzone of water hyacinth, which can purify waste water from oil refinery. Rootzone of water hyacinth is an ecological subsystem. There are 20 microzoon species including 13 protozoa, 3 rotifer and 4 others. The main species are Vorticella convallaria, Rotaria rotatoria and Lepadella patella with percentages of 18.5%, 17.5% and 34.5%, respectively. The longer retention time of the waste water is in the oxidation pond, the more species and the bigger population of microzoon in rootzone of water hyacinth. The total biomass increases along with waste water flow. The maximum value of the population is 1.91 x 107 ind/m2. There is no microzoon except Englena which is an autotrophic organism in control pond. Increase of retention time of waste water is beneficial to biomass of microzoon and has no effect on the content of aerobic and facultative aerobic microbes in oxidation pond

381

TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WATER USING CERAMIC FILTER FROM NATURAL CLAY AND FLY-ASH  

OpenAIRE

The declining water quality in Sriwijaya University has been caused by the presence of heavy metal contents such as Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) in the treatment and distribution of water. A simple method is proposed in this work to minimize the heavy metal content in water by using filtration technology. This research was carried out using ceramic filter made of 77.5% natural clay, 20% fly ash, and 2.5% iron powder. The results showed an increase in the quality of raw water that is in accordance ...

NASIR SUBRIYER

2013-01-01

382

Feasibility Studies on Static Pile Co Composting of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Dairy Waste Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk processing consumes a large amount of water and generates 6–10 liters of effluent per liter of milk processed. An effluent volume is approximately four times the volume of processed milk. Since the pollutants generated by industry are great losses of production, improvements in production efficiency are recommended to reduce pollutant loads. In this research a series of experimental studies were conducted with regard to bioconversion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste along with dairy waste water at different C/N ratios. About 50 kg of shredded waste containing dairy waste water, saw dust, and organic fraction of municipal solid waste was placed in static piles of different proportions and 500 ml of effective micro-organisms was added to them. The variation in physical and chemical parameters was monitored throughout the process. Results indicate that co composting of dairy waste water with municipal solid waste produces compost that is more stable and homogenous and can be effectively used as soil conditioner.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.963

Manjula Gopinathan

2012-06-01

383

Surface Water Modeling Using an EPA Computer Code for Tritiated Waste Water Discharge from the heavy Water Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium releases from the D-Area Heavy Water Facilities to the Savannah River have been analyzed. The U.S. EPA WASP5 computer code was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the D-Area Drum Wash, Rework, and DW facilities. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at U.S. Highway 301. At the maximum tritiated waste water concentrations, the calculated tritium concentration in the Savannah River at U.S. Highway 301 due to concurrent releases from D-Area Heavy Water Facilities varies from 5.9 to 18.0 pCi/ml as a function of the operation conditions of these facilities. The calculated concentration becomes the lowest when the batch releases method for the Drum Wash Waste Tanks is adopted

384

Experimental and modeling studies on thermosiphon domestic solar water heaters with flat-plate collectors at clear nights  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate effects of water temperature in the storage tank and height difference between collector loop connections at the tank on freeze protection of flat-plate collectors at clear nights in terms of outlet water temperature of the thermosiphonic reverse flow from the collector (referred to as Tout), two sets of thermosiphon domestic solar water heaters (DSWH, in short) were constructed and tested. Experimental measurements showed that, for given water temperature in tanks, Tout in the system with a vertical cylindrical tank was slightly higher than that in the one with a horizontal cylindrical tank; Tout increased with the increase of water temperature in the tank but was lower than the ambient air temperature all night. Meanwhile, a mathematical model was developed and experimentally validated for further investigating effects of structural and performance parameters of the system on Tout at clear nights. This model allows predicting Tout and the time at the moment ice formation inside absorber of the collector begins. Results by simulations showed that the collector-tank height difference and the thermal emissivity of absorbers had significant effects on the freeze protection of collectors in terms of Tout; for the system with a collector of non-selective absorber, the expected Tout was lower than the ambient air temperature, as observed in experiments; whereas for the system with aexperiments; whereas for the system with a collector of solar selective absorber, the Tout, depending on water temperature in the storage tank, was higher than the ambient air temperature. This finding implied that, in thermosiphon DSWHs, flat-plate collectors with a non-solar-selective absorber might suffer from freezing-damage, but those with a solar selective absorber would not at clear nights with the ambient air temperature near or even lower than the freezing temperature.

385

Experimental and modeling studies on thermosiphon domestic solar water heaters with flat-plate collectors at clear nights  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To investigate effects of water temperature in the storage tank and height difference between collector loop connections at the tank on freeze protection of flat-plate collectors at clear nights in terms of outlet water temperature of the thermosiphonic reverse flow from the collector (referred to as T{sub out}), two sets of thermosiphon domestic solar water heaters (DSWH, in short) were constructed and tested. Experimental measurements showed that, for given water temperature in tanks, T{sub out} in the system with a vertical cylindrical tank was slightly higher than that in the one with a horizontal cylindrical tank; T{sub out} increased with the increase of water temperature in the tank but was lower than the ambient air temperature all night. Meanwhile, a mathematical model was developed and experimentally validated for further investigating effects of structural and performance parameters of the system on T{sub out} at clear nights. This model allows predicting T{sub out} and the time at the moment ice formation inside absorber of the collector begins. Results by simulations showed that the collector-tank height difference and the thermal emissivity of absorbers had significant effects on the freeze protection of collectors in terms of T{sub out}; for the system with a collector of non-selective absorber, the expected T{sub out} was lower than the ambient air temperature, as observed in experiments; whereas for the system with a collector of solar selective absorber, the T{sub out}, depending on water temperature in the storage tank, was higher than the ambient air temperature. This finding implied that, in thermosiphon DSWHs, flat-plate collectors with a non-solar-selective absorber might suffer from freezing-damage, but those with a solar selective absorber would not at clear nights with the ambient air temperature near or even lower than the freezing temperature. (author)

Tang, Runsheng; Cheng, Yanbin; Wu, Maogang; Li, Zhimin; Yu, Yamei [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology and Preparation for Renewable Energy Materials, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

2010-12-15

386

India. Country Case Study on Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation in the Water Sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background information for presentation given at the Annex I Expert Group Seminar in Conjunction with the OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development on 28 March 2006. The main subjects concern the situation in India with regard to Water Resources and their Use, Institutional Arrangements, Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources, Preparedness and Adaptation to Climate Change, and finally Recommendations are given

387

Zimbabwe. Country Case Study on Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation in the Water Sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background information for presentation given at the Annex I Expert Group Seminar in Conjunction with the OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development on 28 March 2006. The main subjects concern the situation in Zimbabwe with regard to Water Resources and their Use, Institutional Arrangements, Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources, Preparedness and Adaptation to Climate Change, and finally Recommendations are given

388

Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of access to safe water remains a significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries. There has been little research into the health effects of frequently carrying containers of water. The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health effects of the task. Methods Mixed methods of data collection from six were used to explore water carrying performed by people in six rural villages of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and through observation and measurement. Linear regression modelling were used to identify significant correlations between potential risk factors and rating of perceived exertion (RPE or self reported pain. Independent t-tests were used to compare the mean values of potential risk factors and RPE between sub-groups reporting pain and those not reporting pain. Results Water carrying was mainly performed by women or children carrying containers on their head (mean container weight 19.5 kg over a mean distance of 337 m. The prevalence of spinal (neck or back pain was 69% and back pain was 38%. Of participants who carried water by head loading, the distance walked by those who reported spinal pain was significantly less than those who did not (173 m 95%CI 2-343; p = 0.048. For head loaders reporting head or neck pain compared to those who did not, the differences in weight of water carried (4.6 kg 95%CI -9.7-0.5; p = 0.069 and RPE (2.5 95%CI -5.1-0.1; p = 0.051 were borderline statistically significant. For head loaders, RPE was significantly correlated with container weight (r = 0.52; p = 0.011 and incline (r = 0.459; p = 0.018 Conclusions Typical water carrying methods impose physical loading with potential to produce musculoskeletal disorders and related disability. This exploratory study is limited by a small sample size and future research should aim to better understand the type and strength of association between water carrying and health, particularly musculoskeletal disorders. However, these preliminary findings suggest that efforts should be directed toward eliminating the need for water carrying, or where it must continue, identifying and reducing risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and physical injury.

Geere Jo-Anne L

2010-08-01

389

21st colloquium on waste water management - Special issues: industrial waste water, WRRL/trace materials, waste water and energy, abundant (waste) water; 21. Kolloquium zur Abwasserwirtschaft - Themenschwerpunkte Abwaesser aus Gewerbe und Industrie, WRRL/Spurenstoffe, Abwasser und Energie, viel (Ab)Wasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proceedings of the 21st colloquium on waste water management includes 20 contributions on the following topics: industrial waste water treatment using electroflotation; pretreatment of cosmetic industry waste water; waste water management planning and mitigation program according EG-WRRL; drug agents in the aquatic environment; perfluorinated tensides in waste water and sewage sludge; diffuse loading of rain water by organic materials and open questions on rainwater management; implementation of trace elements elimination in sewage plants; heat recycling from sewer; boundary conditions for an ecologically water course compatible cooling water usage; sewage sludge disintegration using thermo-pressure hydrolysis; sludge gas processing using bio-natural gas; consequences of the aggravated maximum permissible formaldehyde value for the sewage gas power generation; off-shore storage and extended mixed water cleaning; rainwater drainage in settlement areas by roadside ditches; the future of decentralized rainwater management; comparative evaluation of disintegration processes; oil-containing waste water processing using membrane technology; floodwater protection for drainage systems; energy retrieving from waste water in buildings.

Gulyas, Holger; Otterpohl, Ralf (eds.)

2009-07-01

390

Domestic policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in the water sector. Part 1. Annex 1 countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adaptation to climate change needs to be integrated into policy development. This paper examines domestic policy frameworks in the water sector and analyses how adaptation could be incorporated into these frameworks. Global climate change will have a significant impact on water resources in all countries. Consequently, a key challenge that countries face is how to govern and manage their water resources in the conditions of changing climate. What should be done, when and by whom, is a function of the rate of climate change, but also of the existing water policy frameworks of each country. This study examines current water policy frameworks in four countries (Canada, Finland, United Kingdom and United States). It reviews the existing legal frameworks, institutional arrangements, key players and water planning mechanisms. One objective was to determine to what extent adaptation to climate change is beginning to be incorporated into water policy frameworks and whether there are some lessons that can be drawn from current experiences. The study concludes that a certain degree of adjustment to climate variability and extreme weather events is inherent to the water sector. However, adaptation to long-term climate change is generally not a significant factor in the management of water resources in the four countries, although some initiatives are being undertaken in several countries to build climate change into decision making. All four countries have water policy frameworkfour countries have water policy frameworks, which to different extents, can help them adapt to climate change. These water policy frameworks, which differ in each country, can be enhanced to promote adaptation to climate change. They generally include the following elements: A system of laws (legal frameworks) that stipulate rights and responsibilities of different levels of government and private entities. These may include, for example, a system of water rights and abstraction permits; A variety of national, regional and sub-national institutions that are responsible for developing policies and overseeing their implementation; A set of policies that guide the implementation of national, state and provincial laws; Clearly defined roles for the key players, including government ministries, departments, water suppliers, regulators and other local authorities; Physical water infrastructure, that is dams, levees, reservoirs and sewerage systems that are capable of managing the flow and distribution of water; A set of water management plans (long-term strategic plans, drought plans and flood plans) with flexibility to anticipate and respond to climate changes; and a system to share current and projected climatic information. For the most part, national governments will have to determine how current policy frameworks should be modified in order to prepare for climate change. However, there is little doubt that broadening the exchange of information will be a crucial element, if countries are to be prepared to properly manage their water resources

391

Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

Ferner, Kathleen M.

1994-01-01

392

Amendment of the administrative skeleton provision for minimum requirements to be met by waste water discharged into bodies of water. Administrative skeleton provision on waste water of 25 November, 1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This provision applies to waste water to be discharged into bodies of water and whose pollution load stems mainly from the sectors indicated in appendices. Without prejudice to stricter requirements governing the execution of the Water Resources Act, the requirements to be met by the discharge of waste water, as indicated in appendices, are defined in accordance with section 7a, subsection 1, number 3 of the Water Resources Act. - The maximum concentrations indicated in appendices, for instance for waste water from brown coal briquetting plant, black coal treatment plant, petroleum refineries and flue gas scrubbers at combustion plant, relate to waste water in the discharge pipe of the waste water treatment plant. Contrary to technical rules that may apply in each instance, these concentrations must not be attained by dilution or mixing. (orig.)

393

Application of an Integrated Heat Recovery Technology for Domestic Hot Water Supply System and Air Conditioning  

OpenAIRE

This study is to design an integrated heat recovery and air conditioner system and to investigate the feasibility and the potential performance of this system in changing conditions. Different season conditions and operating modes are studied based on the items of one hotel. In winter, heat recovered from wastewater is used on water heating and air condition and the surplus energy of air conditioner system is used on hot water system in summer. Dynamic energy ...

Chen Yan; Zhang Yufeng

2013-01-01

394

REVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE WASTE WATER TREATMENT OPTION FOR URBAN SANITATION FACILITIES IN DEVELOPING COUTRIES, CASE STUDY: UPPER BHIMA BASIN, INDIA  

OpenAIRE

Generation and accumulation of domestic waste from fast growing human settlements is becoming a major environment and health problem in developing country like India. The problem is becoming very acute in urban areas. Appropriate management of these wastes is very important for a positive improvement in the quality of life in cities. With unprecedented growth of cities, the present waste management facilities have been found to be very haphazard and inadequate. Conventional methodologies like...

Mapuskar, S. V.; Raval, P. M.; SAMEER SHASTRI

2010-01-01

395

Isotope Technique (14C, 131I for Safety Analysis of Domestic Solid Waste Disposal Site in Jakarta, Indonesia- A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bekasi is one of city around Jakarta which has been developed for the last 10 years. In the south of Bekasi placed sanitary landfill area for domestic solid waste of Jakarta Metropolitan as a Disposal Site. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the location of Bantar Gebang Bekasi solid waste disposal site for safety analysis. The geohydrologycal parameters are determined by using isotopes techniques (14C, 131I to study the shallow groundwater characteristics of the site. From the results of 14C the direction of groundwater movement is found to be from South to the North and turned to North West of Jakarta at Jakarta Center. From radiotracer method (131I the direction of shallow groundwater in the rainy is observed to be from the disposal site to the surrounding area and the Ciketing canal which flows to the North. For the dry season from the disposal site to the surrounding area. The results from environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry analysis indicate that the pollutants from the site have given an impact to the surrounding area of disposal site which was shown by migration of nitrate. It is recommended that the decision maker should give high priority to the geology, geohydrology and environmental pollution studies for consideration of disposal site for the safety of sanitary landfill.

Syafalni Syafalni

2010-02-01

396

Governing Peri-Urban Waste Water Used by Farmers: Implications for Design and Management  

OpenAIRE

Worldwide, population is increasingly centralized in metropolitan areas. This has an impact on water systems and complex metropolitan watersheds emerge. Flows of varying water quality are generated and distributed among different users who develop new opportunities and coping mechanisms for dealing with marginal quality waters. In developing countries waste water management often fails to cope with the increasing number and volumes of flows. Financial and institutional limitations force waste...

Grendelman, E. R.; Huibers, F. P.

2010-01-01

397

State waste discharge permit application: 400 Area secondary cooling water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by the Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered in to Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges

398

Process for treatment of waste waters from special laundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A washing agent was developed for use in laundries where effluents are treated by evaporation. The agent is based on a mixture of non-ionogenic and chelating detergents according to a Czechoslovak patent. The content of softeners is reduced. The agent does not contain fillers which are useless and only increase the volume of solidified liquid waste. The agent is marketed as ALFA-DEO. The comparison was made with the previously used laundry and decontamination agents. The sorption-precipitation and precipitation processes are described and the results of semi-pilot and pilot plant experiments are given. These experiments revealed that efficiency of both processes is approximately equal. In both cases 90 to 95% of initially present radionuclides and all phosphates were removed whereas the content of detergents in the treated water corresponded to 1 to 3 mg laurylsulfonate per liter. Under specific dosing conditions ALPHA-DEO can also be used in laundries where wastes are treated by precipitation. (J.B.). 1 tab

399

Possible uses of sewage sludge from the urban waste water treatment plant Murska Sobota  

OpenAIRE

This diploma thesis examines the current situation of sewage sludge management at the waste-water treatment plant in Murska Sobota. The export of sewage sludge to neighbour countries was found to be an unsuitable solution at the given knowledge in this field. Sewage sludge from the municipal waste-water treatment plant in Murska Sobota is not waste but has energetic potential, among others. Analyses were performed, following procedures which are regulated by the current legislation. These ana...

Bernjak, Andreja

2013-01-01

400

Design and operational parameters of transportable supercritical water oxidation waste destruction unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is the destruction of hazardous waste by oxidation in the presence of water at temperatures and pressures above its critical point. A 1 gal/h SCWO waste destruction unit (WDU) has been designed, built, and operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This unit is transportable and is intended to demonstrate the SCWO technology on wastes at Department of Energy sites. This report describes the design of the WDU and the preliminary testing phase leading to demonstration

401

Thirty years of domestic solar hot water systems use in Greece. Energy and environmental benefits. Future perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effort to reduce the dependence on imported crude oil in Greece, after the oil crises in the '70s, has resulted, among others, in a total installed area of 3.57 million m{sup 2} solar collectors in 2007, making Greece one of the pioneers in the use of domestic solar hot water system (DSHWS) worldwide. In the present work, the contribution of DSHWS to the reduction of conventional energy and greenhouse gases and other air pollutant emissions in Greece from its early years in mid '70s up to now is assessed. DSHWS market penetration, solar system technological changes and development and demographic changes in association with the climatic conditions in all regions of the country have been taken into account in order to calculate energy conservation and emissions reduction. The results show that the conserved energy ranges from 21.27 GW h{sub el} (0.1% of the domestic sector energy use) in 1978 to 1513 GW h{sub el} (2.4%) in 2007, resulting in an abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions, which for the year 2000 was 1.67 Mt, exceeding by 76% the objectives of the Greek Program of 'Climatic Change', which indicated savings of 0.95 Mt CO{sub 2} for 2000. Moreover DSHWS maximum technical potential is assessed to be about three times the current installed area, showing that they can play an important role in energy end environmental policy of the country. (author)

Tsilingiridis, G.; Martinopoulos, G. [Process Equipment Design Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.C. 541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece)

2010-02-15

402

FORUM ON INNOVATIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL. Third, Dallas, Texas, June 11-13, 1991 - TECHNICAL PAPERS  

Science.gov (United States)

On June 11 -13,1991, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Technology Innovation Office and Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory hosted an international conference in Dallas, TX, to exchange solutions to hazardous waste treatment problems. This conference, the Third Forum...

403

Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with different system configurations and control strategies were simulated and analysed in the study. A comparison with a standard solar thermal system was also presented based on the annual solar fraction. The simulation results indicate that the retrofitting configuration achieving the highest annual performance consists of a system where the existing tank is used as storage for the solar heat and a smaller tank with a heater is added in series to make sure that the required outlet temperature can be met. An external heat exchanger is used between the collector circuit and the existing tank. For this retrofitted system an annual solar fraction of 50.5% was achieved. A conventional solar thermal system using a standard solar tank achieves a comparable performance for the same total storage volume, collector area and reference conditions.

Björn Karlsson

2012-10-01

404

The use of charcoal from agriculture waste in the speciation of iodine from well and river waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentrations of iodine in fresh waters are known to be within the range of 0.5 to 35 ng x ml-1, much lower than in oceanic waters. The iodine concentrations, particularly that of 129I which is significant from the radiation safety aspect, in public drinking waters have to be specified in order to verify the required level before distribution for domestic use. A modified version of an established method was used in the adsorption of iodine, iodate, total inorganic iodine and charcoal-adsorbable iodine using activated carbon prepared from oil palm kernel wastes. A thorough investigation of the physical properties of the activated carbon was carried out to determine its viability as an adsorbent for volatile species such as iodine. The iodine species were preconcentrated from water samples collected from wells in villages and from water intake points along rivers. The quantitative analysis of the species adsorbed was done by irradiating the activated charcoal loaded with the respective species in a neutron flux of 5.1 x 1012 n x cm-2 x s-1 from a TRIGA Mk.II nuclear reactor. Recovery experiments using spiked samples was done to provide quality assurance controls. (author)

405

Decontamination of radioactive process waste water by adsorbing colloid flotation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adsorbing colloid flotation was tested to remove 144Ce, 60Co, 65Zn, and 89Sr from radioactive process waste water. Potassium oleate was used as the collector, and Fe(III) hydroxide, Al(III) hydroxide or Co(II) hydroxide as the coprecipitant. Under optimal conditions, removals exceeding 99% could be achieved for 65Zn with any of the tested coprecipitants, for 144Ce with Fe(III) and Co(II) hydroxides and for 60Co with only Co(II) hydroxide. For 89Sr removals of 90% could be achieved only with Fe(III) hydroxide. The adsorbing colloid flotation process was compared with both chemical precipitation and ion exchange. Advantages of adsorbing colloid flotation are discussed. (author)

406

Degradation of methyl orange waste water by electrochemical oxidation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation of methyl orange (MO) waste water was conducted by electrochemical oxidation method with PbO2/Ti electrode as anode. PbO2/Ti electrode was fabricated by electrochemical deposition of PbO2 on Ti foil. The micrograph and crystal structure of PbO2 show that uniform coating of PbO2 on titanium foil was obtained and the dominant crystal structure was ?-PbO2. Degradation experiments of MO solution indicate that the degradation rate increased with cell voltage and solution conductivity. In addition, air aeration also improved the degradation of MO solution; but an increase in cell voltage or input energy decreased the energy efficiency of MO removal. The energy efficiency reached over 0.1mg kJ?1 under a cell voltage lower than 15V, and the removal rate could reach 90%.

407

Implementing domestic tradable permits: recent developments and future challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents the proceedings of an OECD workshop on domestic tradeable permits (TPs) held in September 2001 in Paris. It provides an analysis on recent developments in the use of domestic TP in new areas including climate change, renewable energy, transport, solid waste management, and water resources management. It highlights issues regarding the use of TPs in policy mixes, reviews key elements of ex post evaluations of earlier TP schemes, identifies key challenges in the design and use of TP systems, and attempts to link the past lessons to further research needs. 20 figs., 21 tabs.

NONE

2002-08-01

408

The treatment of waste water containing PVA by ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of an effective method for treating the waste water containing PVA by the irradiation with ionizing radiation was studied. Particularly, the oxidative decomposition and the degeneration of organic substances in waste water were studied. The radiation dose required for the oxidative decomposition and the irradiation conditions were determined. Further, the effects of adding hydrogen peroxide for improving the decomposition efficiency were determined. The chemical oxygen demand by potassium bichromate (COD-Cr) was measured in conformance to the standard method of testing sewerage. Total organic carbon (TOC) was measured by total carbon after the CO2 in sample solutions had been replaced by oxygen bubbling at pH 2 - 3 for five minutes. Sample solutions were prepared by diluting the aqueous solution containing 8 g/l of PVA having the degree of polymerization of 500. The dose rate was measured by the Fricke dosimeter with a Co-60 gamma-ray source. The experiments revealed that 1) the decomposition of PVA was induced by OH radicals, and the reaction velocity constant was determined. 2) The irradiation of PVA aqueous solution under the condition of saturated oxygen reduced the COD-Cr and TOC of the solution. 3) COD-Cr was reduced by 70 - 80 ppm with the radiation dose of 1.0 x 106R, if the COD-Cr of solutions is over 100 ppm. 4) The irradiated PVA aqueous solution absorbed ultraviolet ray; and 5) G(-TOC) value increased by the addition o G(-TOC) value increased by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. (Iwakiri, K.)

409

Experimental Investigation of a Natural Circulation Solar Domestic Water Heater Performance under Standard Consumption Rate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper reports experimental studies on the performance of a natural circulation solar water heater considering the weather condition of a city in north of Iran. The tests are done on clear and partly cloudy days. The variations of storage tank temperature due to consumption from the tank, daily consumption influence on the solar water heater efficiency, and on the input temperature of the collector are studied and the delivered daily useful energy has been obtained. The results show that by withdrawing from storage tank, the system as well as its collector efficiency will increase. Considering the value of the coefficient FRUL and ??, which are obtained experimentally as 6.03 and 0.83 respectively, average. monthly total load that is covered by this solar water heating system is estimated.

Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Taherian, H.

2012-01-01

410

In-situ parameter estimation for solar domestic hot water heating systems components. Final report, June 1995--May 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three different solar domestic hot water systems are being tested at the Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory; an unpressurized drain-back system with a load side heat exchanger, an integral collector storage system, and an ultra low flow natural convection heat exchanger system. The systems are fully instrumented to yield data appropriate for in-depth analyses of performance. The level of detail allows the observation of the performance of the total system and the performance of the individual components. This report evaluates the systems based on in-situ experimental data and compares the performances with simulated performances. The verification of the simulations aids in the rating procedure. The whole system performance measurements are also used to analyze the performance of individual components of a solar hot water system and to develop improved component models. The data are analyzed extensively and the parameters needed to characterize the systems fully are developed. Also resulting from this indepth analysis are suggested design improvements wither to the systems or the system components.

Smith, T.R.

1997-03-01

411

Genetic diversity in the prion protein gene (PRNP) of domestic cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been an accumulation of information on frequencies of insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms within the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) and on the number of octapeptide repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of bovine PRNP related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility. We investigated the frequencies of 23-bp indel polymorphism in the promoter region (23indel) and 12-bp indel polymorphism in intron 1 region (12indel), octapeptide repeat polymorphisms and SNPs in the bovine PRNP of cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. The frequency of the deletion allele in the 23indel site was significantly low in cattle of Indonesia and Thailand and water buffaloes. The deletion allele frequency in the 12indel site was significantly low in all of the cattle and buffaloes categorized in each subgroup. In both indel sites, the deletion allele has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to classical BSE. In some Indonesian local cattle breeds, the frequency of the allele with 5 octapeptide repeats was significantly high despite the fact that the allele with 6 octapeptide repeats has been reported to be most frequent in many breeds of cattle. Four SNPs observed in Indonesian local cattle have not been reported for domestic cattle. This study provided information on PRNP of livestock in these Southeast Asian countries. PMID:24705506

Uchida, Leo; Heriyanto, Agus; Thongchai, Chalermchaikit; Hanh, Tran Thi; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishihara, Kanako; Tamura, Yutaka; Muramatsu, Yasukazu

2014-07-01

412

Measurements of physical-chemical characteristics of dairy plant waste waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characteristics of waste waters of the dairy industry are specific and differ essentially from waste waters of other branches of the food industry. The complexity of production in dairy plants with several units for different products render the problem of waste waters of this industry particularly complex. Waste waters of the AD Imlek dairy plant were sampled and their chemical characteristics were determined at different seasons of the year and at different times of the day in the years 2001 and 2007. The obtained concentrations were compared with the maximum permitted concentrations listed under the Regulations on technical and sanitary conditions for releasing waste waters into the City Sewers of the City of Belgrade.

Stefanovi? Dragoslav

2008-01-01

413

Process for fabricating products resistant to leaching for fixation of harmful water containing wastes and cement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for fabricating products resistent to leaching by water and brine for fixation of harmful water containing wastes and cement, with or without additions (fixation matrix), is described. The water containing wastes are concentrated by evaporation and mixed with the fixation matrix. Evaporation and mixing are performed simultaneously at temperatures of 100 degrees C to 180 degrees C, comprising a) the content of the waste in the end product lying between 20 and 50 wt. % and in case of polluted ion exchangers as wastes between 26 and 50 wt. % related to the dry weight of waste, and b) the water content in the end product corresponding to a water-to-cement ratio of 0.2 to 0.45. 1 fig., 4 tabs

414

Potencial de recuperación de residuos sólidos domésticos dispuestos en un relleno sanitario / Potential Recovery of Domestic Solid Waste Disposed of in A Landfill  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Conocer las cantidades y tipos de residuos sólidos domésticos (RSD) que son depositados en el relleno sanitario, brinda la posibilidad de proponer opciones sustentables para su aprovechamiento. Los residuos de cualquier localidad manejados de forma apropiada se pueden convertir en insumos de algún o [...] tro proceso. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar los componentes de los RSD susceptibles de ser reciclados, depositados en el relleno sanitario de la ciudad de Ensenada (Baja California, México), para ser valorizados en el mercado de los reciclables. En promedio se podrían comercializar semanalmente 643.67 toneladas de residuos alimenticios para composta, 389.45 toneladas de papel y cartón, 217.55 toneladas de plástico, 78.81 toneladas de vidrio, 37.20 toneladas de metales y 8.11 toneladas de aluminio. Se obtendría en total un aproximado de MXP $911,224.18 (USD $ 71,693.48) por la comercialización de los principales reciclables. Abstract in english Knowing the amount and type of Domestic Solid Waste (DSW) that is deposited in the land fill gives us the possibility to consider options in how to make sustainable use of it. Waste from any location, if properly handled, can be turned into the raw material for other processes. The aim of this study [...] was to quantify the components of the DSW likely to be recycled, deposited in the landfill in the city of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, so that they could be valued on the market as recyclables. The average weekly market could be 643.67 tons of food waste for composting, 389.45 tons of paper and cardboard, 217.55 tons of plastic, 78.81 tons of glass, 32.20 tons of metal and 8.11 tons of aluminum. This should result in a total of approximately MXP $ 911,224.18 (USD $ 71693.48) for the marketing of major recyclables.

Quetzalli, Aguilar-Virgen; Carolina, Armijo-de Vega; Paul, Taboada-González; Xochitl M., Aguilar.

2010-11-01

415

MELODIE, Radiological Assessment of Nuclear Waste Migration in Ground Water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: MELODIE assesses radiological consequences associated with a nuclear waste repository in a deep geological formation. MELODIE consists of three parts: MELO for deterministic evaluation; PREP and SPOP for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis: MELO is a modular deterministic code composed mainly of a geosphere model adopted from METIS, developed at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris; and of the ABRICOT biosphere model, developed at CEA/IPSN. - The geosphere model is a 2D finite element code which first solves the groundwater flow equation (considered as a steady state), and then in a second step the transport (advection-diffusion-dispersion) equation for each radionuclide. The geosphere is taken into account as an equivalent porous medium with explicit description of the main fractures. The retardation of the radionuclides is modeled through the Kd concept, and nuclear decay chains are processed inside this model. The boundary conditions represent: - for the groundwater flow calculation, the hydraulic head or the groundwater flow rate; - for the transport calculation, the activity released by the repository itself to the geosphere (using, for low soluble radionuclides, the solubility limit concept). Three cases may be taken into account for computing the value of this boundary condition: consequence of the degradation of the matrix (vitrified waste,...); uniform release during a given period of time; wastelease during a given period of time; waste already degraded at the initial time. - The biosphere model converts the activity released at the water outlets to the corresponding individual dose through intake, inhalation, or external irradiation from the use of contaminated water in the main food chains. This model is compartmental and takes into account farming and dietetic considerations. - PREP provides samples using the Latin Hypercube techniques for the distribution functions of the input variables, such as permeability, solubility limit value for radionuclides, retardation factors, etc. - SPOP performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses on the output of the MELO simulation runs. PREP and SPOP have been developed at the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities. 2 - Method of solution: The equation systems are discretized by the method of Galerkin using elements of four, three and two nodes. The algebraic equations are solved by the direct Gauss algorithm. The time discretization is made by the Crank-Nicholson method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Groundwater flow is considered at a steady state and in a saturated medium. Thermal effects are not taken into account

416

Application of the fish egg test in power plant waste waters; Anwendung des Fischeitests bei Kraftwerksabwaessern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recirculation of cooling water and of FGD process water (FGD - Flue Gas Desulphurisation) as well as the evaporation of process water in fossil-fired power plants causes an enrichment of different salts in discharged waters. The fish toxicity of FGD waste water has been determined by the chloride-profile in past. The research project was initiated to originate a data base to ensure the exact characterisation of the discharged water of coal-fired power plants. The project had to clarify if the fish test and the fish-egg-test adduce similar results to ensure the comparability while testing waste water originating from coal-fired power plants. (orig.)

Meinelt, T. [Leibniz-Inst. fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei, Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V., Berlin (Germany); Weiss, R. [Hygiene-Inst. des Ruhrgebiets, Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene und Umweltmedizin, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Dreischer, H.D. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany); Peters, F. [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany)

2005-07-01

417

Mineralogy of Galvanic Corrosion By-products in Domestic Drinking Water Pipes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the results of a visual and mineralogical characterization of scales developed over long time periods at galvanically coupled lead-brass and lead-copper pipe joints from several different drinking water distribution systems. The long-term exposure aspect of t...

418

Skimming the surface : Alberta company markets a portable waste water treatment system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calgary-based Tangent Environmental Technologies Ltd. has developed a portable on-site waste water treatment system for oil and gas producers. It allows for the re-use and disposal of surface waste water on-site without contaminating the environment. The Cascade Waste Water System is not designed to handle straight drilling mud, but can process waste water that contains a measure of drilling mud and particulates. It separates hydrocarbons and organics from surface water in a staged filtration process. It also removes detergents, naturally occurring radioactive materials as well as solids such as sulphates, phosphates, chlorides and trace metals such as calcium, sodium and magnesium. The system can achieve 99.8 per cent efficiency, processing up to 110 cubic metres of water per day. Although the filtered water is clean enough to put into municipal sewers, operators will either re-use the water in rig operations or dispose 34 to 37 cubic metres of water a day through atomization. Local temperature and humidity may influence the efficiency of the process. The water recycling and disposal solution is based on proven technologies from such sectors as drilling/production waste management, oil spill recovery, mining and the process industry. It was concluded that the Cascade waste water system provides excellent results with a reduction in cost. 1 ref., 2 figs.

Mahony, J.

2009-04-15

419

Instrumentation and methods evaluations for shallow land burial of waste materials: water erosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The erosion of geologic materials by water at shallow-land hazardous waste disposal sites can compromise waste containment. Erosion of protective soil from these sites may enhance waste transport to the biosphere through water, air, and biologic pathways. The purpose of this study was to review current methods of evaluating soil erosion and to recommend methods for use at shallow-land, hazardous waste burial sites. The basic principles of erosion control are: minimize raindrop impact on the soil surface; minimize runoff quantity; minimize runoff velocity; and maximize the soil's resistance to erosion. Generally soil erosion can be controlled when these principles are successfully applied at waste disposal sites. However, these erosion control practices may jeopardize waste containment. Typical erosion control practices may enhance waste transport by increasing subsurface moisture movement and biologic uptake of hazardous wastes. A two part monitoring program is recommended for US Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous waste disposal sites. The monitoring programs and associated measurement methods are designed to provide baseline data permitting analysis and prediction of long term erosion hazards at disposal sites. These two monitoring programs are: (1) site reconnaissance and tracking; and (2) site instrumentation. Some potential waste transport problems arising from erosion control practices are identified. This report summarizes current literature regarding water erizes current literature regarding water erosion prediction and control

420

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Deep Geological Repository: A Domestic and Global Blueprint for Safe Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste - 12081  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the end of 2011, the world's first used/spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is projected to open in 2020, followed by two more in 2025. The related pre-opening periods will be at least 40 years, as it also would be if USA's candidate HLW-repository is resurrected by 2013. If abandoned, a new HLW-repository site would be needed. On 26 March 1999, USA began disposing long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological repository in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The related pre-opening period was less than 30 years. WIPP has since been re-certified twice. It thus stands to reason the WIPP repository is the global proof of principle for safe deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also stands to reason that the lessons learned since 1971 at the WIPP site provide a unique, continually-updated, blueprint for how the pre-opening period for a new HLW repository could be shortened both in the USA and abroad. (authors)

421

Treatment of waste water from flue gas cleaning; Behandlung von Abwasser der Rauchgasreinigung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Strict limits must be adhered to for treating waste water incurred during flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). One and two-stage precipitation processes have proven themselves in FGD waste water treatment. Metals can be removed with the MetClean {sup registered} process. Another option is evaporation. Waste water ZLD systems (Zero Liquid Discharge) recover, via a falling film evaporator with subsequent crystallisation, more than 98 % of the water and produce, aside from the condensate, only solid material that can be disposed of in landfill. A further development, named ZLD CoLD trademark, significantly reduces the investment and operating costs of this solution. (orig.)

Ogiermann, Klaus; Meyerhoff, Thomas [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Celle (Germany); Hagen, Klaus [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Bayreuth (Germany); Basabe, Juan Luis [HPD Process Engineering S.A., Bilbao (Spain); Vendrup, Michael [Krueger A/S, Soeborg (Denmark)

2012-11-01

422

Sensitivity analysis of the waste composition and water content parameters on the biogas production models on solid waste landfills  

Science.gov (United States)

Landfills are commonly used as the final deposit of urban solid waste. Despite the waste is previously processed on a treatment plant, the final amount of organic matter which reaches the landfill is large however. The biodegradation of this organic matter forms a mixture of greenhouse gases (essentially Methane and Carbon-Dioxide as well as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide). From the environmental point of view, solid waste landfills are therefore considered to be one of the main greenhouse gas sources. Different mathematical models are usually applied to predict the amount of biogas produced on real landfills. The waste chemical composition and the availability of water in the solid waste appear to be the main parameters of these models. Results obtained when performing a sensitivity analysis over the biogas production model parameters under real conditions are shown. The importance of a proper characterizacion of the waste as well as the necessity of improving the understanding of the behaviour and development of the water on the unsaturated mass of waste are emphasized.

Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco; Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena

2014-05-01

423

System design package for SIMS Prototype System 4, solar heating and domestic hot water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air type solar energy collection techniques. The system consists of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit containing solar collctors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with inforation sufficient to assemble a similar system. The prepackage solar unit has been installed at the Mississippi Power and Light Company, Training Facilities, Clinton, Mississippi.

1978-11-01

424

Physicochemical and microbiological quality of water from a pilot domestic rainwater harvesting facility in Ireland.  

OpenAIRE

DTC Research Group, Dublin Institute of Technology personnel were commissioned in 2005 by the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government in Ireland to assess the feasibility of utilising harvested rainwater to replace treated mains water, for non-potable uses. A pilot project was set up. The project involved the design, installation, commissioning and monitoring of rainwater harvesting facilities in a rural housing development. A monitoring program was carried out to examine the...

O Hogain, Sean; Mccarton, Liam; Mcintyre, Niamh; Pender, Jenny; Reid, Anna

2011-01-01

425

Lipid profiling of some authotrophic microalgae grown on waste water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Microalgae can be a new source of lipids for the aquaculture industry. Moreover, their potential as natural sources of antioxidants has gained recent attention. About 40 species of microalgae are used in aquaculture worldwide. A full characterization of lipid components is critical for selecting the most suitable microalgae and downstream processing for food and feed production. The present study is part of a big project funded by GUDP (green development and demonstration program of ministry of agriculture and fisheries of Denmark) which aims at developing new processing technologies, so that microalgae-biomass can be used as an alternative valuable resource in fish feed. In this work, 10 fresh water and marine microalgae from Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Haematococcus, Nannochloropsis, Nannochloropsis and Dunialiella species grown in waste water in Kalundborg micro algal facility were harvested by membrane microfiltration and analyzed for fatty acid (GC), triacylglycerol (HPLC), sterol (GC) and tochol (HPLC) composition and also for amounts of phospholipids . Lipid composition in micro algae varied strongly between species.

Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte

426

Low- and medium-level aqueous radioactive waste immobilization with water-extendible polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of water-extendible polymers as an alternative to cement for the immobilization of aqueous radioactive wastes is detailed. The process involves formation of a water-in-oil emulsion between the aqueous waste and the organic polymer and solidification of the emulsion by addition of suitable peroxide catalyst/promoter combinations. Emulsion quality is critical to the attainment of satisfactory waste forms. High speed, high shear agitation is needed to obtain the aqueous phase droplet size and dispersion needed to give stable emulsions. The pH of the aqueous waste should be adjusted to between 7 and 9 to facilitate emulsion formation. It is also suggested that the aqueous waste: polymer ratio should not exceed 1.5:1 by volume. As incorrect waste condition, unsuitable mixing or improper cure agents can cause a process malfunction, small-scale trials with all wastes are recommended to determine special requirements before commencing production runs. Immobilized wastes should be smooth, hard monolith forms with high compressive strengths and good freeze/thaw and water resistance. If fully exposed to air the waste form will slowly lose water by evaporation. This feature may dictate the use of plastic or lined containers to prevent corrosion if any water condensation occurs in the ullage space above the waste form. Wastes immobilized with water-extendible polymer are considered to have acceptable leaching resistance and waste type appears to have little effect on leachype appears to have little effect on leach rate. Over a one-year test period cumulative percentage activity released was about 1%. (author)

427

Comparison between secondary and tertiary treatment of waste waters effluents and their developments in irrigation applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Tunisia, the reuse of the treated waste water effluent for agricultural production, constitute a new source of irrigation water. In fact, it allows promoting the use of these waters and the fertilizing matters that they contain. This application also to safeguard the resources in water that are limited, especially in the arid and semi arid regions. (Author)

428

Production and distribution of domestic hot water in selected Danish apartment buildings and institutions. Analysis of consumption, energy efficiency and the significance for energy design requirements of buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Circulation system heat losses were 23–70% in apartment buildings. ? The use of additional heat meters in large buildings is recommended. ? The demand for domestic hot water, space heating and ventilation should be obtained. ? Domestic hot water will constitute a major part of future energy demand of dwellings. - Abstract: The goal of this work has been to document the efficiency of domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems and to propose more energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions for DHW systems based on analyses of existing conditions. In the article, measurements from 13 apartment buildings and two institutions are presented, i.e. consumption of DHW, heat loss from circulation lines and efficiency of the DHW system. The heat load and the cooling of the district heating water for DHW are documented as well. Possibilities for improving the DHW system include new types of circulation pipes, which have the potential of a 40% reduction of heat losses. In addition to the reduction of heat losses inside the building, a low return temperature from the hot water system will have a large impact on the heat losses from the district heating network when the building is being heated by district heating. It is likely that the production and distribution of DHW in buildings will constitute a dominant share of both the present, and in particular, the future energy design requirements of buildings. The results of this project could influence not only future buildings, but also existing buildings when renovation of installations take place

429

The Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Wetland Soil Irrigated by Pulp Waste Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The distribution characteristics of eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the pulp waste water and in seashore wetland soil irrigated by