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Evaluation of vegetation cover using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil loss by water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. However, erosion can be reduced by the presence of vegetation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) makes it possible to identify the vegetative vigor of crops or natural vegetation which facilities the identification of areas with vegetation covers. This information is very important in identifying the phenomena which might be occurring in a particular area, especially those related to soil degradation by water erosion. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the canopy cover by using NDVI, checking the image accuracy using the Coverage Index (CI) based on the Stocking method, in the Sub-basin of Posses, which belongs to the Cantareira System, located in the Extrema municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Landsat-5 TM images were used. The sub-basin of Posses was very altered in comparison to the surrounding areas. The NDVI technique proved to be a suitable tool to assess the uses that occur in the sub-basin of Posses, as validated by the Stocking methodology. The map derived from NDVI allowed the geographic distribution of different land uses to be observed and allowed for the identification of critical areas in relation to vegetation cover as well. This finding can be used to optimize efforts to recover and protect soil in areas with bare soil and degraded pasture, in order to reduce environmental degradation. The CI has not exceeded 40% for land use classes that occur in the majority of the sub-basin (91%), except in areas of woody vegetation.

Gabriela Camargos Lima; Marx Leandro Naves Silva; Nilton Curi; Mayesse Aparecida da Silva; Anna Hoffmann Oliveira; Junior Cesar Avanzi; Marta Eichemberger Ummus

2013-01-01

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Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

2010-01-01

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Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

Samuel T. Smallidge; Terrell T. Baker; Dawn VanLeeuwen; William R. Gould; Bruce C. Thompson

2010-01-01

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Suitability of the normalized difference vegetation index and the adjusted transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index for spatially characterizing loggerhead shrike habitats in North American mixed prairie  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat loss has become one major cause of prairie loggerhead shrike population decline, which is associated with some important grassland biophysical features. However, our understanding of what and how biophysical variables can spatially characterize shrike habitats is poor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the suitability of two vegetation indices (VIs) for spatially characterizing shrike habitats in North American mixed prairies. Our research, conducted in Grasslands National Park of Canada, is based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the adjusted transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index (ATSAVI) as derived from both in situ measurements and SPOT imagery for three types of nesting categories at three spatial scales. Our results demonstrated that shrikes in mixed North American prairies prefer sparsely vegetated areas with a leaf area index less than 2.01 and shrub cover of around 25%. Our results also demonstrated that ATSAVI is superior to NDVI in estimating vegetation abundance and structure. Loggerhead shrikes seems to prefer habitats characterized by NDVI ranging from 0.562 to 0.616 and ATSAVI ranging from 0.319 to 0.372 with the spatial scale varying from 100 to 20 m. ATSAVI also had better performance in detecting the spatial variation of shrike habitats due to its higher sensitivity to background information.

Shen, Li; He, Yuhong; Guo, Xulin

2013-01-01

5

Higher northern latitude normalized difference vegetation index and growing season trends from 1982 to 1999.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Normalized difference vegetation index data from the polar-orbiting National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration meteorological satellites from 1982 to 1999 show significant variations in photosynthetic activity and growing season length at latitudes above 35 degrees N. Two distinct periods of increasing plant growth are apparent: 1982-1991 and 1992-1999, separated by a reduction from 1991 to 1992 associated with global cooling resulting from the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991. The average May to September normalized difference vegetation index from 45 degrees N to 75 degrees N increased by 9% from 1982 to 1991, decreased by 5% from 1991 to 1992, and increased by 8% from 1992 to 1999. Variations in the normalized difference vegetation index were associated with variations in the start of the growing season of -5.6, +3.9, and -1.7 days respectively, for the three time periods. Our results support surface temperature increases within the same period at higher northern latitudes where temperature limits plant growth.

Tucker CJ; Slayback DA; Pinzon JE; Los SO; Myneni RB; Taylor MG

2001-11-01

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Determination of Leaf Area Index, Total Foliar N, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Arctic Ecosystems Dominated by Cassiope tetragona  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Leaf area index (LAI) and total foliar nitrogen (TFN) are important canopy characteristics and crucial variables needed to simulate photosynthesis and ecosystem CO2 fluxes. Although plant communities dominated by Cassiope tetragona are widespread in the Arctic, LAI and TFN for this vegetation type have not been accurately quantified. We address this knowledge gap by (i) direct measurements of LAI and TFN for C. tetragona, and (ii) determining TFN-LAI and LAI–normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) relationships for typical C. tetragona tundras in the subarctic (Sweden) and High Arctic (Greenland and Svalbard). Leaves of C. tetragona are 2–6 mm long and closely appressed to their stems forming parallelepiped shoots. We determined the LAI of C. tetragona by measuring the area of the leaves while still attached to the stem, then doubling the resulting one-sided area. TFN was determined from leaf N and biomass. The LAI-NDVI and TFN-LAI relationships showed high correlation and can be used to estimate indirectly LAI and TFN. The LAI-NDVI relationship for C. tetragona vegetation differed from a generic LAI-NDVI relationship for arctic tundra, whereas the TFN-LAI relationship did not. Overall, the LAI of C. tetragona tundra ranged from 0.4 to 1.1 m2 m–2 and TFN from 1.4 to 1.7 g N m–2.

Campioli, M; Street, LE

2009-01-01

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The normalized difference vegetation index of small Douglas-fir canopies with varying chlorophyll concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an experiment with miniature canopies of 1-m-tall Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings, the authors modified leaf area index, light absorption capacity, and photosynthetic potential by altering the concentration of chlorophyll in foliage and by controlling the density of seedlings. They measured canopy photosynthesis and light transmission in controlled-environment chambers and then transferred seedlings to a hemispheric illumination system where they measured canopy reflectance. They found that altering the visible band used for computation of a normalized vegetation index substantially changed the correlations between the index and canopy properties. For example, the normalized index was best correlated to light absorption capacity when they used a narrow red band and least correlated when they used a narrow green band. The cause of these differences is chlorophyll. The green regions of reflectance spectra were much more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll concentration compared with the red or near-infrared regions. Increased chlorophyll concentration was also related to increased photosynthetic potential when canopies had been grown under full sunlight. However, they found no statistically significant relationship between leaf chlorophyll concentration and canopy light absorption.

Yoder, B.J.; Waring, R.H. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Forest Science)

1994-07-01

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Comparison of MODIS and AVHRR 16-day normalized difference vegetation index composite data  

Science.gov (United States)

Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data derived from visible and near-infrared data acquired by the MODIS and AVHRR sensors were compared over the same time periods and a variety of land cover classes within the conterminous USA. The relationship between the AVHRR derived NDVI values and those of future sensors is critical to continued long term monitoring of land surface properties. The results indicate that the 16-day composite values are quite similar over the 23 intervals of 2001 that were analyzed, and a linear relationship exists between the NDVI values from the two sensors. The composite AVHRR NDVI data were associated with over 90% of the variation in the MODIS NDVI values. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Gallo, K.; Ji, L.; Reed, B.; Dwyer, J.; Eidenshink, J.

2004-01-01

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Estimating Sahelian and East African soil moisture using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rainfall gauge networks in Sub-Saharan Africa are inadequate for assessing Sahelian agricultural drought, hence satellite-based estimates of precipitation and vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) provide the main source of information for early warning systems. While it is common practice to translate precipitation into estimates of soil moisture, it is difficult to quantitatively compare precipitation and soil moisture estimates with variations in NDVI. In the context of agricultural drought early warning, this study quantitatively compares rainfall, soil moisture and NDVI using a simple statistical model to translate NDVI values into estimates of soil moisture. The model was calibrated using in-situ soil moisture observations from southwest Niger, and then used to estimate root zone soil moisture across the African Sahel from 2001–2012. We then used these NDVI-soil moisture estimates (NSM) to quantify agricultural drought, and compared our results with a precipitation-based estimate of soil moisture (the Antecedent Precipitation Index, API), calibrated to the same in-situ soil moisture observations. We also used in-situ soil moisture observations in Mali and Kenya to assess performance in other water-limited locations in sub Saharan Africa. The separate estimates of soil moisture were highly correlated across the semi-arid, West and Central African Sahel, where annual rainfall exhibits a uni-modal regime. We also found that seasonal API and NDVI-soil moisture showed high rank correlation with a crop water balance model, capturing known agricultural drought years in Niger, indicating that this new estimate of soil moisture can contribute to operational drought monitoring. In-situ soil moisture observations from Kenya highlighted how the rainfall-driven API needs to be recalibrated in locations with multiple rainy seasons (e.g., Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia). Our soil moisture estimates from NDVI, on the other hand, performed well in Niger, Mali and Kenya. This suggests that the NDVI-soil moisture relationship may be more robust across rainfall regimes than the API because the relationship between NDVI and plant available water is less reliant on local characteristics (e.g., infiltration, runoff, evaporation) than the relationship between rainfall and soil moisture.

A. McNally; C. Funk; G. J. Husak; J. Michaelsen; B. Cappelaere; J. Demarty; T. Pellarin; T. P. Young; K. K. Caylor; C. Riginos; K. E. Veblen

2013-01-01

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Normalized difference vegetation index for the South American continent used as a climatic variability indicator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NOAA AVHRR GAC data set was used to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps for the South American Continent covering the period from August 1, 1981 to June 30, 1987. A 15-day maximum value composite procedure was used to partially eliminate the cloud contamination and atmospheric attenuation. Monthly evolution of NDVI for a dry and a wet year within the period studied was used to estimate the area covered by NDVI value less than 0.223, This value was used as an indicator of the drought area and the delineation of the Low rainfall areas in the continent. It was observed a well defined regional dependence of the drought area variability for the Northeast, Southwest and Northwest continent and also for the Amazon region. It is shown a relative estimation of the area coverage with NDVI less than 0.223 for the years 1982/83 and 1984/85. The dynamics of the drought area evolution in the continent is discussed. It is also presented a diagnosis of regional variability of the continental distribution of drought area from 1981 to 1987 for the months of May and September. This information is also used to discuss its relationship with the EL-Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the South American Precipitation patterns during this period. It is suggested that the use of NDVI image to identify the dynamics of the drought induced by low rainfall may provide us valuable information to study the large scale climatic variation

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Estimating Sugarcane Yield Potential Using an In-Season Determination of Normalized Difference Vegetative Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimating crop yield using remote sensing techniques has proven to be successful. However, sugarcane possesses unique characteristics; such as, a multi-year cropping cycle and plant height-limiting for midseason fertilizer application timing. Our study objective was to determine if sugarcane yield potential could be estimated using an in-season estimation of normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI). Sensor readings were taken using the GreenSeeker® handheld sensor from 2008 to 2011 in St. Gabriel and Jeanerette, LA, USA. In-season estimates of yield (INSEY) values were calculated by dividing NDVI by thermal variables. Optimum timing for estimating sugarcane yield was between 601–750 GDD. In-season estimated yield values improved the yield potential (YP) model compared to using NDVI. Generally, INSEY value showed a positive exponential relationship with yield (r2 values 0.48 and 0.42 for cane tonnage and sugar yield, respectively). When models were separated based on canopy structure there was an increase the strength of the relationship for the erectophile varieties (r2 0.53 and 0.47 for cane tonnage and sugar yield, respectively); however, the model for planophile varieties weakened slightly. Results of this study indicate using an INSEY value for predicting sugarcane yield shows potential of being a valuable management tool for sugarcane producers in Louisiana.

Josh Lofton; Brenda S. Tubana; Yumiko Kanke; Jasper Teboh; Howard Viator; Marilyn Dalen

2012-01-01

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Rural cases of equine West Nile virus encephalomyelitis and the normalized difference vegetation index.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data from an outbreak (August to October, 2002) of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalomyelitis in a population of horses located in northern Indiana was scanned for clusters in time and space. One significant (p = 0.04) cluster of case premises was detected, occurring between September 4 and 10 in the south-west part of the study area (85.70 degrees N, 45.50 degrees W). It included 10 case premises (3.67 case premises expected) within a radius of 2264 m. Image data were acquired by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor onboard a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar-orbiting satellite. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated from visible and near-infrared data of daily observations, which were composited to produce a weekly-1km(2) resolution raster image product. During the epidemic, a significant (p < 0.01) decrease (0.025 per week) in estimated NDVI was observed at all case and control premise sites. The median estimated NDVI (0.659) for case premises within the cluster identified was significantly (p < 0.01) greater than the median estimated NDVI for other case (0.571) and control (0.596) premises during the same period. The difference in median estimated NDVI for case premises within this cluster, compared to cases not included in this cluster, was greatest (5.3% and 5.1%, respectively) at 1 and 5 weeks preceding occurrence of the cluster. The NDVI may be useful for identifying foci of WNV transmission.

Ward MP; Ramsay BH; Gallo K

2005-01-01

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Models for the prediction of the cetane index of biofuels obtained from different vegetable oils using their fatty acid composition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the present work is to obtain a physical-mathematical model that establishes a relationship between the cetane index of biofuels obtained from different vegetable oils and its composition of essential fatty acid. This model is based on experimental data obtained by the authors of the present work and an experimental data reported by different extracted authors of indexed databases. The adjustment of the coefficients of the model is based on the obtaining of residual minima in the capacity of prediction of the model. Starting from these results it is established a very useful tool for the determination of such an important parameter for the fuel diesel as it is the cetane index obtained from an analysis of chemical composition and not obtained from tests in engines banks, to save time and economic resources. (author)

2011-06-10

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Preliminary comparison of landscape pattern-normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) relationships to Central Plains stream conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We explored relationships of water quality parameters with landscape pattern metrics (LPMs), land use-land cover (LULC) proportions, and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) or NDVI-derived metrics. Stream sites (271) in Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri were sampled for water quality parameters, the index of biotic integrity, and a habitat index in either 1994 or 1995. Although a combination of LPMs (interspersion and juxtaposition index, patch density, and percent forest) within Ozark Highlands watersheds explained >60% of the variation in levels of nitrite-nitrate nitrogen and conductivity, in most cases the LPMs were not significantly correlated with the stream data. Several problems using landscape pattern metrics were noted: small watersheds having only one or two patches, collinearity with LULC data, and counterintuitive or inconsistent results that resulted from basic differences in land use-land cover patterns among ecoregions or from other factors determining water quality. The amount of variation explained in water quality parameters using multiple regression models that combined LULC and LPMs was generally lower than that from NDVI or vegetation phenology metrics derived from time-series NDVI data. A comparison of LPMs and NDVI indicated that NDVI had greater promise for monitoring landscapes for stream conditions within the study area.

Griffith JA; Martinko EA; Whistler JL; Price KP

2002-05-01

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Rainfall Variability and Its Impact on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya  

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Full Text Available Agriculture in arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya is depends on seasonal characteristics of rainfall. This study seeks to distinguish components of regional climate variability, especially El Niño Southern Oscillation events and their impact on the growing season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Datasets used were: 1) rainfall (1961-2003) and 2) NDVI (1981-2003). Results indicate that climate variability is persistent in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya and continues to affect vegetation condition and consequently crop production. Correlation calculations between seasonal NDVI and rainfall shows that the October-December (OND) growing season is more reliable than March-May (MAM) season. Results show that observed biomass trends are not solely explained by rainfall variability but also changes in land cover and land use. Results show that El Niño and La Niña events in southeast Kenya vary in magnitude, both in time and space as is their impact on vegetation; and that variation in El Niño intensity is higher than during La Niña events. It is suggested that farmers should be encouraged to increase use of farm input in their agricultural enterprises during the OND season; particularly when above normal rains are forecast. The close relationship between rainfall and NDVI yield ground for improvement in the prediction of local level rainfall. Effective dissemination of this information to stakeholders will go along way to ameliorate the suffering of many households and enable government to plan ahead of a worse season. This would greatly reduce the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate related disasters by improving their management.

C. A. Shisanya; C. Recha; A. Anyamba

2011-01-01

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Effects of orbital drift on advanced very high resolution radiometer products: Normalized difference vegetation index and sea surface temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although orbits of the NOAA TIROS-N satellites are designed to be sun-synchronous, epheremis data shows that the afternoon, ascending node satellites currently cross the equator hours later than they did upon launch. This delay results in different illumination conditions for measurements made by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The effects of illumination on two standard AVHRR products--normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and sea surface temperature (SST)--are modeled here. Combining orbital data with model results, the effects of the NOAA-11 orbital drift on NDVI are quantitatively assessed for three earth targets: an equatorial Africa site (0{degree} N), the First ISLSCP field Experiment (FIFE) site (39{degree} N), and the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) site (55{degree} N). Top-of-atmosphere NDVI corrections for solar zenith angle are developed for a dense, deciduous forest. Orbital drift effects on SST are given for an equatorial site. Although results vary with season, latitude, atmosphere and time since launch, NDVI differences of up to 0.23 and SST differences of up to 0.5 K may occur due strictly to orbital drift.

Privette, J.L.; Fowler, C.; Wick, G.A.; Baldwin, D.; Emery, W.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering Sciences

1995-09-01

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Correlation of meteorological parameters and remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) in Multan  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and weather has a profound effect on the spread of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) which is transmitted by whitefly. Climate change is altering temperature and precipitation patterns, resulting in the shift of some insect/pest from small population to large population thus effecting crops yield. To find out the relationship between the weather conditions, outburst of CLCV and changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values due to the outburst of CLCV, a study was carried out for tehsil Multan. Data was acquired for the months of June, July, August and September for the year 2010. Regression analysis between CLCV and meteorological conditions as well as between CLCV and NDVI was performed. Meteorological parameters included temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloud cover, wind direction, pan evaporation and sunshine hours. NDVI values were calculated from SPOT satellite imagery (1km) using ArcMap10 and WinDisp v5.1. Correlation coefficients obtained in most of the cases were acceptable however the significance F and P-value were higher than their critical value at 95% level of significance. Therefore significant correlation was found only between CLCV and temperature and between CLCV and PAN evaporation during the month of July.

Ahmed, A.; Akhtar, A.; Khalid, B.; Shamim, A.

2013-06-01

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Comparative analysis of SPOT, Landsat, MODIS, and AVHRR normalized difference vegetation index data on the estimation of leaf area index in a mixed grassland ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

Many grassland studies have depended on or are currently depending on the Landsat series of satellite sensors for monitoring work. However, given the identified gaps in Landsat data, alternatives to Landsat imagery need to be tested in an operational environment. In this study, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values are derived from a Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image and compared to the NDVI values from a Landsat image for LAI estimation in a semi-arid heterogeneous grassland. Results indicate a high agreement between Landsat and SPOT data with R2 over 85% at all buffer levels (100, 250, and 1000 m), and a significant but lower agreement between MODIS and Landsat with R2 around 28% at 250 m buffer level to 37% at 100 m buffer level. Based on in situ measurements of LAI in 22 homogeneous sites, the relationships established between LAI and NDVI show that SPOT and Landsat could predict LAI with acceptable accuracy, but MODIS and AVHRR cannot quantify the spatial variation in LAI measurements. Data fusion or blending techniques that combine the spectral information of high spatial/low temporal resolution data with low spatial/high temporal resolution data may be considered to study semi-arid heterogeneous grasslands.

Tong, Alexander; He, Yuhong

2013-01-01

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Development of a Translation Algorithm of Vegetation Index to Minimize Differences Caused by Spectral Band-Pass Filters for the Use of Inter-Sensor VI Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Observation opportunity of land surface by optical sensors on board various satellite platforms increases with the use of multiple sensors, instead of limiting data only from a single sensor. This increases the data source of vegetation monitoring, and the availability of major input for various global circulation models. In order to achieve this purpose, however, some data translation/fusion algorithms are required. Major difficulties to be overcome for the use of data products from various sensors are the differences in pixel size and the spectral band-pass filters (narrow and broadband). This study focuses on the issue of VI translation algorithm among multiple sensors, specifically to reduce gap of NDVI values caused by the differences in band-pass filters among sensors. The objective is to develop and numerically demonstrate a VI translation algorithm with simulated NDVI values of various optical sensors (including ETM+, MODIS, AVHRR, and ALI on board recently launched EO-1 satellite) based on a set of high spectral resolution. Although the discrepancies of band-pass filters are unavoidable, sensor-dependent spectral properties of land surface features can be made a priori. Thus, some sort of minimization effort can be conducted to improve compatibility of vegetation index products. Our approach for NDVI translation is to determine a translation factor based on estimations of vegetation parameter and canopy background brightness, since translation factors depends on both optical properties of vegetation canopy and its background. Our proposed technique requires two data preparation processes. First, a customized vegetation index and soil brightness index are prepared for each sensor to produce sensor independent index values based on a set of high spectral resolution reflectance data. This data set is used as a reference model to determine a translation factor at the final stage of the algorithm. The second data process is to extract vegetation isolines and associated parameters to determine a translation factor from the reference data set. NDVI translation is then accomplished by applying those customized vegetation indices for each sensor and then estimate the translation factor based on the values of customized vegetation index and soil brightness index and the reference model. The algorithm will be explained step by step and numerically demonstrated along with the simulated data set for various sensors.

Yoshioka, H.; Huete, A. R.; Ferreira, L.; Kim, H.; Miura, T.

2001-05-01

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Evaluating and Quantifying the Climate-Driven Interannual Variability in Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) at Global Scales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Satellite observations of surface reflected solar radiation contain information about variability in the absorption of solar radiation by vegetation. Understanding the causes of variability is important for models that use these data to drive land surface fluxes or for benchmarking prognostic vegetation models. Here we evaluated the interannual variability in the new 30.5-year long global satellite-derived surface reflectance index data, Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies normalized difference vegetation index (GIMMS NDVI3g). Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear stepwise regression analyses were applied to quantify the NDVI interannual variability driven by climate anomalies, and to evaluate the effects of potential interference (snow, aerosols and clouds) on the NDVI signal. We found ecologically plausible strong controls on NDVI variability by antecedent precipitation and current monthly temperature with distinct spatial patterns. Precipitation correlations were strongest for temperate to tropical water limited herbaceous systems where in some regions and seasons > 40% of the NDVI variance could be explained by precipitation anomalies. Temperature correlations were strongest in northern mid- to high-latitudes in the spring and early summer where up to 70% of the NDVI variance was explained by temperature anomalies. We find that, in western and central North America, winter-spring precipitation determines early summer growth while more recent precipitation controls NDVI variability in late summer. In contrast, current or prior wet season precipitation anomalies were correlated with all months of NDVI in sub-tropical herbaceous vegetation. Snow, aerosols and clouds as well as unexplained phenomena still account for part of the NDVI variance despite corrections. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that GIMMS NDVI3g represents real responses of vegetation to climate variability that are useful for global models.

Fan-Wei Zeng; G. James Collatz; Jorge E. Pinzon; Alvaro Ivanoff

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Monitoring the recovery of Juncus roemerianus marsh burns with the normalized difference vegetation index and Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine atmospherically corrected Landsat Thematic Mapper images were used to generate mean normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) at 11 burn sites throughout a coastal Juncus roemerianus marsh in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Time-since-burn, the time lapse from the date of burn to the date of image collection, was related to variation in mean NDVI over time. Regression analysis showed that NDVI increased for about 300 to 400 days immediately after the burn, overshooting the typical mean NDVI of a nonburned marsh. For about another 500 to 600 days NDVI decreased until reaching a nearly constant NDVI of about 0.40. During the phase of increasing NDVI the ability to predict time-since-burn was within about ??60 days. Within the decreasing phase this dropped to about ??88 days. Examination of each burn site revealed some nonburn related influences on NDVI (e.g., seasonality). Normalization of burn NDVI by site-specific nonburn control NDVI eliminated most influences. However, differential responses at the site-specific level remained related to either storm impacts or secondary burning. At these sites, collateral data helped clarify the abnormal changes in NDVI. Accounting for these abnormalities, site-specific burn recovery trends could be broadly standardized into four general phases: Phase 1-preburn, Phase 2-initial recovery (increasing NDVI), Phase 3-late recovery (decreasing NDVI), and Phase 4-final coalescence (unchanging NDVI). Phase 2 tended to last about 300 to 500 days, Phase 3 an additional 500 to 600 days, and finally reaching Phase 4, 900 to 1,000 days after burn.

Ramsey, III, E. W.; Sapkota, S. K.; Barnes, F. G.; Nelson, G. A.

2002-01-01

22

[Impact of moss soil crust on vegetation indexes interpretation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation indexes were the most common and the most important parameters to characterizing large-scale terrestrial ecosystems. It is vital to get precise vegetation indexes for running land surface process models and computation of NPP change, moisture and heat fluxes over surface. Biological soil crusts (BSC) are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid, polar and sub-polar regions. The spectral characteristics of dry and wet BSCs were quite different, which could produce much higher vegetation indexes value for the wet BSC than for the dry BSC as reported. But no research was reported about whether the BSC would impact on regional vegetation indexes and how much dry and wet BSC had impact on regional vegetation indexes. In the present paper, the most common vegetation index NDVI were used to analyze how the moss soil crusts (MSC) dry and wet changes affect regional NDVI values. It was showed that 100% coverage of the wet MSC have a much higher NDVI value (0.657) than the dry MSC NDVI value (0.320), with increased 0.337. Dry and wet MSC NDVI value reached significant difference between the levels of 0.000. In the study area, MSC, which had the average coverage of 12.25%, would have a great contribution to the composition of vegetation index. Linear mixed model was employed to analyze how the NDVI would change in regional scale as wet MSC become dry MSC inversion. The impact of wet moss crust than the dry moss crust in the study area can make the regional NDVI increasing by 0.04 (14.3%). Due to the MSC existence and rainfall variation in arid and semi-arid zones, it was bound to result in NDVI change instability in a short time in the region. For the wet MSC's spectral reflectance curve is similar to those of the higher plants, misinterpretation of the vegetation dynamics could be more severe due to the "maximum value composite" (MVC) technique used to compose the global vegetation maps in the study of vegetation dynamics. The researches would be useful for detecting and mapping MSC from remote sensing imagery. It also is to the advantage to employing vegetation index wisely. PMID:21595239

Fang, Shi-bo; Zhang, Xin-shi

2011-03-01

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Influence of the direction of the corn sowing in its reflectance in the 550-nm band and in the green normalized difference vegetation index  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work was to study the influence of the direction of the corn sowing in its reflectance and in the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - GNDVI, seeking to supply necessary information to make possible a system of located application of nitrogen (N) in real time. The corn was sowed being used the technique of the direct planting, being administered the nutrients in agreement with the soil need and with a constant N rate of 160 kg/ha. The sowing lines were located in the North-South (NS) and East-West (EW) directions. It can be concluded that the corn sowed at EW presented smaller reflectance and GNDVI and they were less dependent of the time than the corn sowed at NS. The GNVI showed more interesting appropriate for use in real-time variable-rate application system for N fertilizer based on canopy reflectance for showing less sensitive the sowing direction.

Souza, Eduardo G.; Orlando, G. A.; Scharf, P. C.

2004-02-01

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Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index for remote quantification of biophysical characteristics of vegetation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is widely used for monitoring, analyzing, and mapping temporal and spatial distributions of physiological and biophysical characteristics of vegetation. It is well documented that the NDVI approaches saturation asymptotically under conditions of moderate-to-high aboveground biomass. While reflectance in the red region (rho(red)) exhibits a nearly flat response once the leaf area index (LAI) exceeds 2, the near infrared (NIR) reflectance (PNIR) continue to respond significantly to changes in moderate-to-high vegetation density (LAI from 2 to 6) in crops. However, this higher sensitivity of the rho(NIR) has little effect on NDVI values once the rho(NIR) exceeds 30%. In this paper a simple modification of the NDVI was proposed. The Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index, WDRVI = (a * rho(NIR-rho(red))/(a * rho(NIR) + rho(red)), where the weighting coefficient a has a value of 0.1-0.2, increases correlation with vegetation fraction by linearizing the relationship for typical wheat, soybean, and maize canopies. The sensitivity of the WDRVI to moderate-to-high LAI (between 2 and 6) was at least three times greater than that of the NDVI. By enhancing the dynamic range while using the same bands as the NDVI, the WDRVI enables a more robust characterization of crop physiological and phenological characteristics. Although this index needs further evaluation, the linear relationship with vegetation fraction and much higher sensitivity to change in LAI will be especially valuable for precision agriculture and monitoring vegetation status under conditions of moderate-to-high density. It is anticipated that the new index will complement the NDVI and other vegetation indices that are based on the red and NIR spectral bands. PMID:15022830

Gitelson, Anatoly A

2004-02-01

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How Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Trendsfrom Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Système Probatoire d’Observation de la Terre VEGETATION (SPOT VGT) Time Series Differ in Agricultural Areas: An Inner Mongolian Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Detailed information from global remote sensing has greatly advanced ourunderstanding of Earth as a system in general and of agricultural processes in particular.Vegetation monitoring with global remote sensing systems over long time periods iscritical to gain a better understanding of processes related to agricultural change over longtime periods. This specifically relates to sub-humid to semi-arid ecosystems, whereagricultural change in grazing lands can only be detected based on long time series. Byintegrating data from different sensors it is theoretically possible to construct NDVI timeseries back to the early 1980s. However, such integration is hampered by uncertainties inthe comparability between different sensor products. To be able to rely on vegetationtrends derived from integrated time series it is therefore crucial to investigate whether vegetation trends derived from NDVI and phenological parameters are consistent acrossproducts. In this paper we analyzed several indicators of vegetation change for a range ofagricultural systems in Inner Mongolia, China, and compared the results across differentsatellite archives. Specifically, we compared two of the prime NDVI archives—AVHRR Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and SPOT Vegetation (VGT)NDVI. Because a true accuracy assessment of long time series is not possible, we furthercompared SPOT VGT NDVI with NDVI from MODIS Terra as a benchmark. We foundhigh similarities in interannual trends, and also in trends of the seasonal amplitude andintegral between SPOT VGT and MODIS Terra (r > 0.9). However, we observedconsiderable disagreements in NDVI-derived trends between AVHRR GIMMS and SPOTVGT. We detected similar discrepancies for trends based on phenological parameters, suchas amplitude and integral of NDVI curves corresponding to seasonal vegetation cycles.Inconsistencies were partially related to land cover and vegetation density. Differentpre-processing schemes and the coarser spatial resolution of AVHRR GIMMS introducedfurther uncertainties. Our results corroborate findings from other studies that vegetationtrends derived from AVHRR GIMMS data not always reflect true vegetation changes. Amore thorough understanding of the factors introducing uncertainties in AVHRR GIMMStime series is needed, and we caution against using AVHRR GIMMS data in regionalstudies without applying regional sensitivity analyses. 

He Yin; Thomas Udelhoven; Rasmus Fensholt; Dirk Pflugmacher; Patrick Hostert

2012-01-01

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Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

2009-01-01

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Remote sensing (normalized difference vegetation index) classification of risk versus minimal risk habitats for human exposure to Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs in Mendocino County, California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In California, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls nymphs have been implicated as the primary bridging vectors to humans of the spirochetal bacterium causing Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi). Because the nymphs typically do not ascend emergent vegetation, risk of human exposure is minimal in grasslands, chaparral, and woodland-grass. Instead, woodlands with a ground cover dominated by leaf litter (hereinafter referred to as woodland-leaf) have emerged as a primary risk habitat for exposure to B. burgdorferi-infected nymphs. As a means of differentiating woodland-leaf habitats from others with minimal risk (e.g., chaparral, grassland, and woodland-grass), we constructed a maximum likelihood model of these habitat types within a 7,711-ha area in southeastern Mendocino County based on the normalized difference vegetation index derived from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper imagery (based on a 30 by 30-m pixel size) over four seasons. The overall accuracy of the model to discriminate woodland-leaf, woodland-grass, open grassland, and chaparral was 83.85% (Kappa coefficient of 0.78). Validation of the accuracy of the model to classify woodland-leaf yielded high values both for producer accuracy (93.33% of validated woodland-leaf pixels correctly classified by the model) and user accuracy (96.55% of model-classified validation pixels correctly categorized as woodland-leaf). Woodland-leaf habitats were found to be highly aggregated within the examined area. In conclusion, our model successfully used remotely sensed data as a predictor of habitats where humans are at risk for Lyme disease in the far-western United States.

Eisen RJ; Eisen L; Lane RS

2005-01-01

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Série temporal de índice de vegetação sobre diferentes tipologias vegetais no Rio Grande do Sul/ Time series of vegetation index for different vegetation types in Rio Grande do Sul  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com este trabalho objetivou-se identificar a dinâmica fenológica das principais tipologias vegetais do Rio Grande do Sul, para o período de 2000 a 2010, utilizando-se dados de Enhanced Vegetation Index, através da transformada de ondaleta. A identificação da fenologia em ciclos ou padrões sazonais em séries temporais de índices de vegetação, obtidos por sensores orbitais, permite a observação de anomalias e os efeitos de mudanças climáticas ou ambientais. U (more) m perfil temporal do Enhanced Vegetation Index foi construído para o Rio Grande do Sul e retiradas amostras para quatro tipologias vegetais: campo nativo, floresta ombrófila mista, cultivo de soja e de arroz. Essas amostras foram submetidas à transformada de ondaleta, que permitiu a decomposição da série e apresentação dos dados em relação ao tempo e frequência com que os eventos fenológicos ocorreram. Os dados apresentaram regularidade na dinâmica das tipologias vegetais testadas, com ciclos anuais de maior vigor e crescimento vegetal nas estações de primavera e verão e menor no outono e inverno. Abstract in english The objective of this study was the identification of the phenology dynamics of the main types of vegetation of Rio Grande do Sul state, for the period from 2000 to 2010, using Enhanced Vegetation Index data through the wavelet transform. The identification of cycles or seasonal patterns in time series of vegetation indices obtained by orbital sensors allows the observation of anomalies and effects of climate and environmental change. A temporal profile of Enhanced Vegeta (more) tion Index was built for the Rio Grande do Sul region, where samples of the four main plant typologies were selected: native grassland, mixed ombrophilous forest, soybean and rice crop. These samples were submitted to the wavelet transform, which allowed the decomposition of the series and presentation of data in relation to time and frequency with which the phenological events have occurred. The data showed regularity in the dynamics of vegetation types tested, with annual cycles of plant growth and higher Enhanced Vegetation Index values in spring and summer and lower Enhanced Vegetation Index values in autumn and winter.

Kuplich, Tatiana M.; Moreira, Andreise; Fontana, Denise C.

2013-10-01

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Designing a generalized soil-adjusted vegetation index (GESAVI)  

Science.gov (United States)

Operational monitoring of vegetative cover by remote sensing currently involves the utilization of vegetation indices (VIs), most of them being functions of the reflectance in red (R) and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. A generalized soil-adjusted vegetation index (GESAVI), theoretically based on a simple vegetation canopy model, is introduced. It is defined in terms of the soil line parameters (A and B) as: GESAVI equals (NIR-BR-A)/(R + Z), where Z is related to the red reflectance at the cross point between the soil line and vegetation isolines. Z can be considered as a soil adjustment coefficient which let this new index be considered as belonging to the SAVI family. In order to analyze the GESAVI sensitivity to soil brightness and soil color, both high resolution reflectance data from two laboratory experiments and data obtained by applying a radiosity model to simulate heterogeneous vegetation canopy scenes were used. VIs (including GESAVI, NDVI, PVI and SAVI family VIs) were computed and their correlation with LAI for the different soil backgrounds was analyzed. Results confirmed the lower sensitivity of GESAVI to soil background in most of the cases, thus becoming the most efficient index. This good index performance results from the fact that the isolines in the NIR-R plane are neither parallel to the soil line (as required by the PVI) nor convergent at the origin (as required by the NDVI) but they converge somewhere between the origin and infinity in the region of negative values of both NIR and R. This convergence point is not necessarily situated on the bisectrix, as required by other SAVI family indices.

Gilabert, M. A.; Gonzalez-Piqueras, Jose; Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Melia, J.

1998-12-01

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Mapeamento do índice de vegetação da diferença normalizada em lavoura de algodão/ Mapping of the normalized difference vegetation index in cotton field  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os dados de sensoriamento remoto em campo podem fornecer informações detalhadas sobre a variabilidade de parâmetros biofísicos ligados à produtividade em grandes áreas e apresentam potencial para o monitoramento destes parâmetros, ao longo de todo o ciclo de desenvolvimento da cultura. Este trabalho objetivou mapear a variabilidade espacial do índice de vegetação da diferença normalizada (NDVI) e seus componentes, em duas lavouras comerciais de algodão (Gossip (more) ium hirsutum L.), utilizando sensor óptico ativo, em nível terrestre. Os dados foram coletados utilizando-se sensor instalado em um pulverizador autopropelido agrícola. Um receptor GPS foi acoplado ao sensor, para a obtenção das coordenadas dos pontos de amostragem. As leituras foram realizadas em faixas espaçadas em 21,0 m, aproveitando-se as passadas do veículo no momento da pulverização de agroquímicos, e os dados submetidos à análise estatística clássica e geoestatística. Mapas de distribuição espacial das variáveis foram elaborados pela interpolação por krigagem. Observou-se maior variabilidade espacial do NDVI e da reflectância espectral da vegetação na região do infravermelho próximo (IVP) (880 nm) e do visível (590 nm) na lavoura com maior estresse fisiológico, devido ao ataque do percevejo castanho [Scaptocoris castanea (Hem.: Cydnidae)], em relação à lavoura sadia. Abstract in english The remote sensing data obtained at field level can provide detailed information about the variability of biophysical parameters related to yield over large areas, and present potential for monitoring these parameters throughout the crop development cycle. This study aimed to map the spatial variability of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and its components in two commercial cotton (Gossipium hirsutum L.) fields, by using an active optical sensor at the g (more) round level. Data were collected with the aid of an optical sensor installed in a self-propelled agricultural sprayer. A GPS receiver was connected to the sensor, in order to obtain the coordinates of the sampling points. The readings were performed in rows spaced 21.0 m apart by the sensor installed on a vehicle, during the spraying operation, and data analyzed by using the classical statistics and geostatistics. Spatial distribution maps of the variables were generated by kriging interpolation. It was observed a higher spatial variability of NDVI and spectral reflectance of vegetation in the region of near infrared (NIR) (880 nm) and visible infrared (590 nm) in the crop with higher physiological stress, due to the brown bug [Scaptocoris castanea (Hem.: Cydnidae)] attack, when compared to the healthy one.

Motomiya, Anamari Viegas de Araujo; Molin, José Paulo; Motomiya, Wagner Rogerio; Rojo Baio, Fábio Henrique

2012-03-01

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Estimating Crop Coefficients Using Remote Sensing-Based Vegetation Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crop coefficient (Kc)-based estimation of crop evapotranspiration is one of the most commonly used methods for irrigation water management. However, uncertainties of the generalized dual crop coefficient (Kc) method of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56 can contribute to crop evapotranspiration estimates that are substantially different from actual crop evapotranspiration. Similarities between the crop coefficient curve and a satellite-derived vegetation index showed potential for modeling a crop coefficient as a function of the vegetation index. Therefore, the possibility of directly estimating the crop coefficient from satellite reflectance of a crop was investigated. The Kc data used in developing the relationship with NDVI were derived from back-calculations of the FAO-56 dual crop coefficients procedure using field data obtained during 2007 from representative US cropping systems in the High Plains from AmeriFlux sites. A simple linear regression model ( ) is developed to establish a general relationship between a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from a moderate resolution satellite data (MODIS) and the crop coefficient (Kc) calculated from the flux data measured for different crops and cropping practices using AmeriFlux towers. There was a strong linear correlation between the NDVI-estimated Kc and the measured Kc with an r2 of 0.91 and 0.90, while the root-mean-square error (RMSE) for Kc in 2006 and 2007 were 0.16 and 0.19, respectively. The procedure for quantifying crop coefficients from NDVI data presented in this paper should be useful in other regions of the globe to understand regional irrigation water consumption.

Baburao Kamble; Ayse Kilic; Kenneth Hubbard

2013-01-01

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Test of multi-spectral vegetation index for floating and canopy-forming submerged vegetation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Remote sensing of terrestrial vegetation has been successful thanks to the unique spectral characteristics of green vegetation, low reflectance in red and high reflectance in Near-InfraRed (NIR). These spectral characteristics were used to develop vegetation indices, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the NIR absorption by water and light scattering from suspended particles reduces the practical application of such indices in aquatic vegetation studies, especially for the Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) that grows below water surface. We experimentally tested if NDVI can be used to depict canopies of aquatic plants in shallow waters. A 100-gallonoutdoor tank was lined with black pond liners, a black panel or SAV shoots were mounted on the bottom, and filled with water up to 0.5 m. We used a GER 1500 spectroradiometer to collect spectral data over floating waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and also over the tanks that contain SAV and black panel at varying water depths. The measured upwelling radiance was converted to % reflectance; and we integrated the hyperspectral reflectance to match the Red and NIR bands of three satellite sensors: Landsat 7 ETM, SPOT 5 HRG, and ASTER. NDVI values ranged 0.6-0.65 when the SAV canopy was at the water level, then they decreased linearly (slope of 0.013 NDVI/meter) with water depth increases in clear water. When corrected for water attenuation using the data obtained from the black panel, the NDVI values significantly increased at all depths that we tested (0.1 - 0.5 m). Our results suggest the conventional NDVI: (1) can be used to depict SAV canopies at water surface; (2) is not a good indicator for SAV that is adapted to live underwater or other aquatic plants that are submerged during flooding even at shallow waters (0.3 m); and (3) the index values can significantly improve if information on spectral reflectance attenuation caused by water volume increases is collected simultaneously through ground-truthing and integrated.

Cho HJ; Kirui P; Natarajan H

2008-12-01

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How Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Trendsfrom Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Système Probatoire d’Observation de la Terre VEGETATION (SPOT VGT) Time Series Differ in Agricultural Areas: An Inner Mongolian Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Detailed information from global remote sensing has greatly advanced ourunderstanding of Earth as a system in general and of agricultural processes in particular.Vegetation monitoring with global remote sensing systems over long time periods iscritical to gain a better understanding of processes rel...

He Yin; Thomas Udelhoven; Rasmus Fensholt; Dirk Pflugmacher; Patrick Hostert

34

Global Data Sets of Vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI)3g and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR)3g Derived from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) for the Period 1981 to 2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term global data sets of vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) are critical to monitoring global vegetation dynamics and for modeling exchanges of energy, mass and momentum between the land surface and planetary boundary layer. LAI and FPAR are also state variables in hydrological, ecological, biogeochemical and crop-yield models. The generation, evaluation and an example case study documenting the utility of 30-year long data sets of LAI and FPAR are described in this article. A neural network algorithm was first developed between the new improved third generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) and best-quality Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI and FPAR products for the overlapping period 2000–2009. The trained neural network algorithm was then used to generate corresponding LAI3g and FPAR3g data sets with the following attributes: 15-day temporal frequency, 1/12 degree spatial resolution and temporal span of July 1981 to December 2011. The quality of these data sets for scientific research in other disciplines was assessed through (a) comparisons with field measurements scaled to the spatial resolution of the data products, (b) comparisons with broadly-used existing alternate satellite data-based products, (c) comparisons to plant growth limiting climatic variables in the northern latitudes and tropical regions, and (d) correlations of dominant modes of interannual variability with large-scale circulation anomalies such as the EI Niño-Southern Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation. These assessment efforts yielded results that attested to the suitability of these data sets for research use in other disciplines. The utility of these data sets is documented by comparing the seasonal profiles of LAI3g with profiles from 18 state-of-the-art Earth System Models: the models consistently overestimated the satellite-based estimates of leaf area and simulated delayed peak seasonal values in the northern latitudes, a result that is consistent with previous evaluations of similar models with ground-based data. The LAI3g and FPAR3g data sets can be obtained freely from the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) website.

Zaichun Zhu; Jian Bi; Yaozhong Pan; Sangram Ganguly; Alessandro Anav; Liang Xu; Arindam Samanta; Shilong Piao; Ramakrishna R. Nemani; Ranga B. Myneni

2013-01-01

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Applicability of Green-Red Vegetation Index for Remote Sensing of Vegetation Phenology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We evaluated the use of the Green-Red Vegetation Index (GRVI) as a phenological indicator based on multiyear stand-level observations of spectral reflectance and phenology at several representative ecosystems in Japan. The results showed the relationships between GRVI values and the seasonal change of vegetation and ground surface with high temporal resolution. We found that GRVI has the following advantages as a phenological indicator: (1) “GRVI = 0” can be a site-independent single threshold fordetection of the early phase of leaf green-up and the middle phase of autumn coloring, and (2) GRVI can show a distinct response to subtle disturbance and the difference of ecosystem types.

Takeshi Motohka; Kenlo Nishida Nasahara; Hiroyuki Oguma; Satoshi Tsuchida

2010-01-01

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Test of Multi-spectral Vegetation Index for Floating and Canopy-forming Submerged Vegetation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Remote sensing of terrestrial vegetation has been successful thanks to the unique spectral characteristics of green vegetation, low reflectance in red and high reflectance in Near-InfraRed (NIR). These spectral characteristics were used to develop vegetation indices, including Normalized Difference ...

Hyun Jung Cho; Philemon Kirui; Harene Natarajan

37

Retrospective analysis of two northern California wild-land fires via Landsat five satellite imagery and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wild-land fires are a dynamic and destructive force in natural ecosystems. In recent decades, fire disturbances have increased concerns and awareness over significant economic loss and landscape change. The focus of this research was to study two northern California wild-land fires: Butte Humboldt Complex and Butte Lightning Complex of 2008 and assessment of vegetation recovery after the fires via ground based measurements and utilization of Landsat 5 imagery and analysis software to assess landscape change. Multi-temporal and burn severity dynamics and assessment through satellite imagery were used to visually ascertain levels of landscape change, under two temporal scales. Visual interpretation indicated noticeable levels of landscape change and relevant insight into the magnitude and impact of both wild-land fires. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) anddelta NBR (?NBR) data allowed for quantitative analysis of burn severity levels. ?NBR results indicate low severity and low re-growth for Butte Humboldt Complex “burned center” subplots. In contrast, ?NBR values for Butte Lightning Complex “burned center” subplots indicated low-moderate burn severity levels.

Bennett Sall; Michael W. Jenkins; James Pushnik

2013-01-01

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Comment on "Variations in northern vegetation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981 to 1999" by L. Zhou et al.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. In their paper, Zhou et al. [2001] analyzed advanced very high resolution radiometer-normalized difference vegetation index (AVHRR-NDVI) satellite data relative to the vegetated areas of the Northern Hemisphere for the period July 1981 to December 1999, at 8 km resolution. They conclud...

Lanfredi, M; Simoniello, T; Macchiato, M

39

Vegetation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

• Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime.

Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.

2012-01-01

40

Climate-Vegetation feedbacks at different scales  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple steady states in climate and vegetation can occur due to climate-vegetation feedbacks at both macroscale and microscale At microscale, positive feedbacks between hydrology and vegetation have large impact on vegetation distribution and spatial pattern formation. At macroscale vegetation influences the climate by modifying the radiative, momentum and hydrologic balance. If both macroscale and microscale positive feedbacks are present in one region, these feedbacks markedly influence each other and they should both be accounted for in climate change models. For analysis of macroscale feedbacks, an Earth Model of Intermediate complexity is used in which large perturbations are performed to obtain minimum and maximum stable biotic (vegetation) and abiotic (climate) states. The differences between these states are due to strong climate-vegetation feedbacks at regional or global scale, and at first glance could be interpreted as bistability, or two alternative attractors. However, the regime levels between these states consist entirely of stable points in which none of them are attracting. At local scale, differences in states can be counterintuitive because atmospheric processes play at larger scale thereby affecting spatial competition for resources. We conclude that in regions with high climate-vegetation feedbacks a regime with many stable biotic and abiotic states are possible, depending on initial conditions, which can have large influences on the resilience of the system.

Dekker, S. C.; de Boer, H. J.; Rietkerk, M.; Wassen, M. J.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Mapping potato crop height and leaf area index through vegetation indices using remote sensing in Cyprus  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper aims to model leaf area index (LAI) and crop height to spectral vegetation indices (VI), such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), and weighted difference vegetation index (WDVI). The intended purpose is to create empirical statistical models to support evapotranspiration algorithms applied under the current conditions in the island of Cyprus. Indeed, a traditionally agricultural area was selected in the Mandria Village in the Paphos District area in Cyprus, where one of the island's main exported crops, potatoes, are cultivated. A GER-1500 field spectroradiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data of the different crops for estimating the VI's. A field campaign was undertaken with spectral measurements of LAI and crop height using the Sun-Scan canopy analyzer, acquired simultaneously with the spectroradiometric measurements between March and April of 2008 and 2009. Regarding the measurements, the phenological cycle of potatoes was followed. Several regression models have been applied to relate LAI/crop height and the three indices. It was found that the best fitted vegetation index to both LAI and crop height was WDVI. When LAI was regressed against WDVI for potatoes, the determination coefficient (R2) was 0.72, while for crop height R2 reached 0.78. Two Landsat TM-5 images acquired simultaneously during the spectroradiometric and LAI and crop height measurements are used to validate the proposed regression model. From the whole analysis it was found that the modeled results are very close to real values. This fact enables the specific empirical models to be used in the future for hydrological purposes.

Papadavid, George; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Toulios, Leonidas; Michaelides, Silas

2011-01-01

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A special vegetation index for the weed detection in sensor based precision agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many technologies in precision agriculture (PA) require image analysis and image- processing with weed and background differentiations. The detection of weeds on mulched cropland is one important image-processing task for sensor based precision herbicide applications. The article introduces a special vegetation index, the Difference Index with Red Threshold (DIRT), for the weed detection on mulched croplands. Experimental investigations in weed detection on mulched areas point out that the DIRT performs better than the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The result of the evaluation with four different decision criteria indicate, that the new DIRT gives the highest reliability in weed/background differentiation on mulched areas. While using the same spectral bands (infrared and red) as the NDVI, the new DIRT is more suitable for weed detection than the other vegetation indices and requires only a small amount of additional calculation power. The new vegetation index DIRT was tested on mulched areas during automatic ratings with a special weed camera system. The test results compare the new DIRT and three other decision criteria: the difference between infrared and red intensity (Diff), the soil-adjusted quotient between infrared and red intensity (Quotient) and the NDVI. The decision criteria were compared with the definition of a worse case decision quality parameter Q, suitable for mulched croplands. Although this new index DIRT needs further testing, the index seems to be a good decision criterion for the weed detection on mulched areas and should also be useful for other image processing applications in precision agriculture. The weed detection hardware and the PC program for the weed image processing were developed with funds from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). PMID:16917726

Langner, Hans-R; Böttger, Hartmut; Schmidt, Helmut

2006-06-01

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Case Study for EOSDIS Support to MEaSUREs: the Vegetation Index and Vegetation Phenology ESDRs  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Observation System (EOS) Project (USGS-EOS) managed at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a Co-Investigator on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Cooperative Agreement (CA) #NNX08AT05A. The MEaSUREs CA entitled “Vegetation Phenology and Vegetation Index Products from Multiple Long Term Satellite Data Records” is led by Principal Investigator (PI) Dr. Kamel Didan at the University of Arizona. The goal of the MEaSUREs solicitation is to develop Earth System Data Records (ESDR) which, following evaluation by a NASA Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG), may be approved as standard NASA Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) holdings. USGS-EOS is providing services in the five-year interim to prepare the Vegetation Index and Vegetation Phenology (VIP) ESDRs for transition into the Land Processes DAAC if approved at the end of the term. Pursuing pre-approval support of ESDRs encourages their proper support, usage, and promotes community consensus for these products. USGS-EOS service to the VIP ESDRs includes distribution, user services, outreach support, and metrics reporting. During initial VIP development, USGS-EOS has prototyped a distribution system, the MEaSUREs VIP Client, based on web service functions executing on-demand reformatting, reprojection, and subsetting of native data for delivery as applications-ready products. The client is available as a beta operational access tool for the remainder of the five-year project term. A User Support Model is in place to define the levels of service available through the USGS-EOS to the MEaSUREs VIP community, for the purpose of building product knowledge, client expertise, and familiarity with the user base. USGS-EOS participates in PI-led user workshops by contributing presentation materials that facilitate the promotion, understanding, and access to the VIP ESDRs. Interactions with the user community, whether through the discovery client, distribution of products, or user services contacts, are recorded and reportable as project metrics that track the progress and success of the VIP project. These USGS-EOS activities prime the VIP ESDRs for community acceptance and favorable evaluation by the ESDSWG and provide an example of successful ESDR support.

Jenkerson, C.; Meyer, D.; Didan, K.

2009-12-01

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[The study of LAI estimation using a new vegetation index based on CHRIS data].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of vegetation canopy, the correct estimation of which has been the focus in the remote sensing community. As a kind of hyperspectral and multi-angle remote sensing data with higher resolution (17 m), PROBA/CHRIS has significant application value in LAI inversion. In the present paper, the analytical two-layer canopy reflectance model (ACRM) was used to simulate a series of reflectances with different LAI values. Based on this, a new vegetation index was built and successfully applied to LAI inversion of PROBA/CHRIS image data. Our results indicated that: compared with the spectral index NDVI and multi-angle index HDS, the new index could make better use of spectrum and multi-angle messages and have a better correlation with LAI of the study area; moreover, the correlation coefficient R2 reached up to 0.734 7. And in order to obtain the figure of LAI distribution of the study area, we used the optimal fit equation between LAI and HDVI to estimate LAI, and the accuracy of the RMSE was 0.619 8.

Wang LJ; Niu Z; Hou XH; Gao S

2013-04-01

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Influência da direção de semeadura do milho nas variáveis reflectância e índice de vegetação verde normalizado Influence of the row direction of corn on the reflectance and green normalized difference vegetation index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a influência da direção de semeadura do milho (Zea Mays L.) na sua reflectância na banda 550 nm (r550) e no Índice de Vegetação Verde da Diferença Normalizado - IVVDN, visando fornecer informações necessárias à viabilização de um sistema de aplicação localizada de nitrogênio (N) em tempo real. O sistema de semeadura utilizado foi o direto, administrando-se os nutrientes de acordo com análise do solo e com uma taxa de N de 160 kg ha-1. As linhas de semeadura foram localizadas na direção Norte-Sul e Leste-Oeste. Conclui-se que o milho semeado na direção Leste-Oeste apresentou valores para reflectância r550 e índice de vegetação IVVDN menores e menos dependente da hora do dia que o milho semeado na direção Norte-Sul. O IVVDN mostrou-se mais apropriado para uso em sistemas de aplicação de fertilizantes a taxas variáveis em tempo real utilizando-se técnicas de sensoriamento remoto, por se mostrar menos sensível á direção de semeadura.The objective of this work was to study the influence of the row direction of corn (Zea mays) on its spectral properties measured in the field, including the green normalized difference vegetation index (Green NDVI). Spectral properties of corn are known to be related to the nitrogen (N) status of the corn and may form the basis for real-time site-specific rates of N application. Row direction effects on spectral properties may be substantial before canopy closure. If so, it will be necessary to account for these effects in order to accurately predict the N need of corn from spectral measurements. Corn was planted directly, with no tillage, in North-South (NS) and East-West (EW) oriented rows. Nitrogen was applied as ammonium nitrate at a rate of 160 kg N ha-1. Reflectance was measured with spectral radiometers placed 30 cm above individual plants. Reflectance and green NDVI were bly dependent on time of day for corn in NS rows, and much less so for corn in EW rows. Reflectance and green NDVI were lower for corn in EW rows than corn in NS rows, but lack of replication makes it difficult to be certain that this was due to row direction. Green NDVI was less sensitive than reflectance to row direction and therefore may be more appropriate for use in a real-time variable-rate nitrogen application system.

Eduardo G. de Souza; Gracielle A. Orlando; Miguel A. Uribe-Opazo; Edson A. da Silva; Peter Scharf

2004-01-01

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Vegetative Growth Performance of Different Plum Rootstocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the vegetative growth performance of Damascos, Myrobalan and Desi plum (Prunus domistica L.) rootstocks propagated by hardwood cuttings at Peshawar, during 1999. Desi (Local) plum gained maximum number (176.75) of roots, root length (58.75 cm), shoot length (375.95 cm), shoot diameter (1.82 cm) and survival (73.33 ) percentage, while there was no differences in the sprouting percentage among all rootstocks.

Noor Rahman; Ghulam Nabi; Jamsher Khan; Shafqatullah

2000-01-01

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Spatio-temporal patterns in vegetation start of season across the island of Ireland using the MERIS Global Vegetation Index  

Science.gov (United States)

Spring phenophases such as the beginning of leaf unfolding, measured in the Irish gardens of the International Phenological Garden (IPG) network, indicate an earlier spring occurrence hence a longer growing season. However, these measurements are limited to selected species of trees at a few point locations in the southern half of the country. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology, based on satellite remote sensing, to measure the vegetation start of season (SOS) across the whole island of Ireland on an annual basis, complementary to existing ground-based methods.The SOS metric was extracted for each year in a 7-year time series of 10-day composited, 1.2 km reduced resolution MERIS Global Vegetation Index (MGVI) data from 2003 to 2009, based on curve fitting, using the time series analysis software, TIMESAT. Spatio-temporal variability in the SOS was detected across the island on an annual basis and highlighted in a series of anomaly images showing variation from the 7-year mean SOS. The 2006 SOS was late across the island while there were strong geographical gradients to the SOS anomalies in 2009 when it occurred later in the south and earlier in the north. There was a mix of early and late anomaly values throughout the country in the other years.Qualitatively, the spatial patterns in the timing of the SOS were related to the distribution of landcover types as indicated by the CORINE Land Cover map (CLC). Three statistically separable groups of CLC classes were derived from differences in the SOS, namely agricultural and forest land cover types, peat bogs, and natural and semi-natural vegetation types. These groups demonstrated that vegetation in cultivated areas like pastures has a significantly earlier SOS than in areas of unmanaged vegetation such as peat bogs. An initial climate analysis indicated that an anomalously cold winter and spring in 2005/2006 delayed the 2006 SOS countrywide; while a cold winter followed by a mild spring in 2009 caused considerable spatial variability in the 2009 SOS across the country, ranging from later SOS in the south to early SOS in the north.This study has demonstrated the utility of 10-day MGVI composites for derivation of an SOS metric which can be used as an indicator of spatial variability in vegetation seasonality and has highlighted how SOS varies according to landcover type. The availability of longer time series in the future will allow more focused studies on the sensitivity of the SOS metric to changes in climate as well as short term weather events.

O'Connor, Brian; Dwyer, Edward; Cawkwell, Fiona; Eklundh, Lars

2012-03-01

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Experimental testing of a volume index as a fast method for estimating carbon stock in the understorey vegetation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biomass of understory vegetation has an important role in several forest ecosystem processes, though it is not frequently included in forest inventory programs, which are commonly focused on the tree component. The objective of the study is to test a fast procedure for obtaining an accurate estimation of three components of the aboveground understory vegetation: herbaceous, bush, regeneration. For such a purpose a Volume Index has been calculated on the basis of the product between the percent coverage of vegetation and the average height of the three different components of understory vegetation. The index has been quantified in twenty clusters of four squared plots 1 m2 wide; clusters were located in two study areas in the northern part of Molise Region (southeastern Italy). For each plot, the dry biomass has been collected and weighted, and then transformed in carbon stock. This study presents the field protocol and the achieved results in terms of measured aboveground understorey carbon stock in six different forest and pre-forest types (the average carbon stock was 1.19 t C ha-1) and correlation between Volume Index and carbon stock (the Pearson’s correlation index was 0.8 on 309 field observations).

Chirici G; Oriani A; Tognetti R; Garfì V; Chiavetta U; Lasserre B; Marchetti M

2009-01-01

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Estimating riparian and agricultural evapotranspiration by reference crop evapotranspiration and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index  

Science.gov (United States)

Dryland river basins frequently support both irrigated agriculture and riparian vegetation and remote sensing methods are needed to monitor water use by both crops and natural vegetation in irrigation districts. We developed an algorithm for estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa) based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor on the EOS-1 Terra satellite and locally-derived measurements of reference crop ET (ETo). The algorithm was calibrated with five years of ETa data from three eddy covariance flux towers set in riparian plant associations on the upper San Pedro River, Arizona, supplemented with ETa data for alfalfa and cotton from the literature. The algorithm was based on an equation of the form ETa = ETo [a(1 ? e?bEVI) ? c], where the term (1 ? e?bEVI) is derived from the Beer-Lambert Law to express light absorption by a canopy, with EVI replacing leaf area index as an estimate of the density of light-absorbing units. The resulting algorithm capably predicted ETa across riparian plants and crops (r2 = 0.73). It was then tested against water balance data for five irrigation districts and flux tower data for two riparian zones for which season-long or multi-year ETa data were available. Predictions were within 10% of measured results in each case, with a non-significant (P = 0.89) difference between mean measured and modeled ETa of 5.4% over all validation sites. Validation and calibration data sets were combined to present a final predictive equation for application across crops and riparian plant associations for monitoring individual irrigation districts or for conducting global water use assessments of mixed agricultural and riparian biomes.

Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.; Nguyen, Uyen; Scott, Russell; Doody, Tania

2013-01-01

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[Evaluating the utility of MODIS vegetation index for monitoring agricultural drought].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The exclusive shortwave bands provided by MODIS sensors offer new opportunities for agricultural drought monitoring, since they are very sensitive to vegetation moisture. In the present work, we selected Songnen Plain in Northeast China as study area aiming at monitoring agricultural drought of dry farmland here. Four types of vegetation water indices and vegetation greenness indices were calculated from the 8-day composite MODIS product (MODO9A1) in vegetation growing season between 2001 and 2010, respectively. Multi-scale standardized precipitation index (SPI) derived from precipitation data of weather stations was used as reference data to estimate drought sensitivity of various vegetation indices, and a pixel-to-weather station paired correlation approach was used to calculate the Pearson correlation coefficient between vegetation index and SPIs. The result indicated that vegetation water indices established by near infrared and shortwave infrared bands outperformed vegetation greenness indices based on visible and near infrared bands. Of these indices, NDII7 performs the best with highest correlation coefficients across all SPIs. The authors' results demonstrated the potential of MODIS shortwave spectral bands in monitoring agricultural drought, and this provides new insights to future research.

Li HP; Zhang SQ; Gao ZQ; Sun Y

2013-03-01

51

Vegetation biomass, leaf area index, and NDVI patterns and relationships along two latitudinal transects in arctic tundra  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of vegetation properties along climatic gradients provide first order approximations as to how vegetation might respond to a temporally dynamic climate. Until recently, no systematic study of tundra vegetation had been conducted along bioclimatic transects that represent the full latitudinal extent of the arctic tundra biome. Since 1999, we have been collecting data on arctic tundra vegetation and soil properties along two such transects, the North American Arctic Transect (NAAT) and the Yamal Arctic Transect (YAT). The NAAT spans the arctic tundra from the Low Arctic of the North Slope of Alaska to the polar desert of Cape Isachsen on Ellef Ringnes Island in the Canadian Archipelago. The Yamal Arctic Transect located in northwest Siberia, Russia, presently ranges from the forest-tundra transition at Nadym to the High Arctic tundra on Belyy Ostrov off the north coast of the Yamal Peninsula. The summer warmth indices (SWI - sum of mean monthly temperatures greater than 0°C) range from approximately 40 °C months to 3 °C months from south to north. For largely zonal sites along these transects, we systematically collected leaf area index (LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI - PSII hand-held spectro-radiometer), and vegetation biomass (clip harvests). Site-averaged LAI ranges from 1.08 to 0 along the transects, yet can be highly variable at the landscape scale. Site-averaged NDVI ranges from 0.67 to 0.26 along the transects, and is less variable than LAI at the landscape scale. Total aboveground live biomass ranges from approximately 700 g m-2 to bioclimate subzone, total aboveground live biomass is substantially greater on the YAT compared to the NAAT. Some of this difference can be accounted for by the differences in measured non-vascular biomass. Since reindeer grazing on the Yamal Peninsula should reduce vegetation biomass to a greater extent than caribou grazing in North America, grazing differences are likely not responsible for biomass differences. However, different glacial and disturbance histories, soil substrates, and the resultant nutrient cycling processes could be hypothesized to yield these differences in vegetation biomass.

Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kelley, A. M.; Jia, G.; Ping, C.; Michaelson, G.; Leibman, M. O.; Kaarlejärvi, E.; Khomutov, A.; Kuss, P.; Moskalenko, N.; Orekhov, P.; Matyshak, G.; Forbes, B. C.; Yu, Q.

2009-12-01

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A method for an accurate in-flight calibration of AVHRR data for vegetation index calculation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A significant degradation in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) responsitivity, on the NOAA satellite series, has occurred since the prelaunch calibration and with time since launch. This affects the index vegetation (NDVI), which is an important source of information for monitorin...

Asmami, Mbarek; Wald, Lucien

53

Remote sensing of Japanese beech forest decline using an improved Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (iTVDI)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Tanzawa Mountains, which cover parts of Kanagawa, Yamanashi and Shizuoka prefectures in Japan, are known for their natural beech forests. Since the 1980s, decline of the beech forests, probably caused by air pollution, water stress and insect infestation, has become a serious problem. We estimated the natural beech forest mortality rate in the mountains by using multi-temporal 8-day composite data recorded at the MODIS instrument aboard the Terra satellite, daily air temperature data at meteorological stations (AMeDAS) in 2007, and a global digital elevation model obtained from ASTER aboard the Terra satellite. For the estimation, we used a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) indicating the vegetation density, a Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI), and an improved TVDI (iTVDI) indicating the differences in transpiration rates between areas of similar vegetation density. We compared the NDVI, TVDI, and iTVDI maps with an existing mortality map of beech forests in the study area to verify their accuracy. To produce iTVDI maps, we calculated maps of air temperature by using ambient air temperature and elevation data. By interpolation using an environmental lapse rate, we calibrated air temperature maps with good accuracy (RMSE = 0.49 °C). The iTVDI map could detect mortality more accurately than the NDVI and TVDI maps in both spring and summer. Use of iTVDI enabled us to detect forest decline caused by air pollution and water deficits, inducing a reduction in transpiration rates. This index should be useful for monitoring vegetation decline.

Ishimura A; Shimizu Y; Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran P; Omasa K

2011-01-01

54

Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus) and vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris), were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables). The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3) and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3) is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.

Teruel Bárbara; Kieckbusch Theo; Cortez Luis

2004-01-01

55

Global trends in vegetation phenology from 32-year GEOV1 leaf area index time series  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenology is a critical component in understanding ecosystem response to climate variability. Long term data records from global mapping satellite platforms are valuable tools for monitoring vegetation responses to climate change at the global scale. Phenology satellite products and trend detection from satellite time series are expected to contribute to improve our understanding of climate forcing on vegetation dynamics. The capacity of monitoring ecosystem responses to global climate change was evaluated in this study from the 32-year time series of global Leaf Area Index (LAI) which have been recently produced within the geoland2 project. The long term GEOV1 LAI products were derived from NOAA/AVHRR (1981 to 2000) and SPOT/VGT (1999 to the present) with specific emphasis on consistency and continuity. Since mid-November, GEOV1 LAI products are freely available to the scientific community at geoland2 portal (www.geoland2.eu/core-mapping-services/biopar.html). These products are distributed at a dekadal time step for the period 1981-2000 and 2000-2012 at 0.05° and 1/112°, respectively. The use of GEOV1 data covering a long time period and providing information at dense time steps are expected to increase the reliability of trend detection. In this study, GEOV1 LAI time series aggregated at 0.5° spatial resolution are used. The CACAO (Consistent Adjustment of the Climatology to Actual Observations) method (Verger et al, 2013) was applied to characterize seasonal anomalies as well as identify trends. For a given pixel, CACAO computes, for each season, the time shift and the amplitude difference between the current temporal profile and the climatology computed over the 32 years. These CACAO parameters allow quantifying shifts in the timing of seasonal phenology and inter-annual variations in magnitude as compared to the average climatology. Interannual variations in the timing of the Start of Season and End of Season, Season Length and LAI level in the peak of the growing season are analyzed. Trend analysis with robust statistical test of significance is conducted. Climate variables (precipitation, temperature, radiation) are then used to interpret the anomaly patterns detected in vegetation response.

Verger, Aleixandre; Baret, Frédéric; Weiss, Marie; Filella, Iolanda; Peñuelas, Josep

2013-04-01

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Comparison of the prevalence index and average wetland values for identification of wetland vegetation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States)); Hackney, C.T. (North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States))

1992-01-01

57

Comparison of the prevalence index and average wetland values for identification of wetland vegetation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States); Hackney, C.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)

1992-07-01

58

Methane emissions in Danish riparian wetlands : Ecosystem comparison and pursuit of vegetation indexes as predictive tools  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating the spatial and temporal variability in the fluxes. Fluxes of CH4 were monitored in 12 wetland plots over a year using static chambers, yielding a dataset with more than 800 measured fluxes of CH4. Yearly emissions of CH4 ranged from ?0.2 to 38.3 g CH4-C m?2 year?1, and significant effects of groundwater level, soil temperature (10 cm depth), peat depth, sulfate, nitrate, and soil carbon content were found. Two methods based on easily available environmental parameters to estimate yearly CH4 emissions from riparian wetlands are presented. The first uses a generalized linear model (GLM) to predict yearly CH4 emissions based on the humidity preference of vegetation (Ellenberg-F), peat depth and degree of humification of the peat (von Post index). The second method relies solely on plant species composition and uses weighted-average regression and calibration to link the vegetation assemblage to yearly CH4 emission. Both models gave reliable predictions of the yearly CH4 fluxes in riparian wetlands (modeling efficiency > 0.35). Our findings support the use of vegetation, possibly in combination with some soil parameters such as peat depth, as indicator of CH4 emission in wetlands.

Audet, Joachim; Johansen, Jan Ravn

2013-01-01

59

Fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index and waist circumference among young female students in Isfahan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Obesity is growing rapidly in our country. Nutrition is an important issue of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the association between fruit and vegetable intake with the waist circumference and the body mass index (BMI) among young female university students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 236 healthy female university students aged between 18 and 30 years old, who were selected randomly from the students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intake. Physical activity was assessed by daily recording of the physical activities. FINDINGS: The prevalence of obesity, central adiposity and overweight was 1.7, 0.9 and 8.1%, respectively. The mean value of BMI and the waist circumference was 21.54 kg/m(2) and 70.37 cm, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between the fruit and vegetable intake and body weight (r = -0.1, P = 0.03) as well as BMI (r = -0.1, P = 0.04) and also there was an inverse correlation between the fruit intake and body weight (r = -0.1, P = 0.01) and BMI (r = -0.1, P = 0.01). There was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable as well as fruit or vegetable separately with the waist circumference. CONCLUSION: There were significant correlations between fruit and also fruit and vegetable and body weight and BMI among female university students. There was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable as well as fruit or vegetable separately with waist circumference.

Ghalaeh RS; Gholi Z; Bank SS; Azadbakht L

2012-01-01

60

Fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index and waist circumference among young female students in Isfahan  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Obesity is growing rapidly in our country. Nutrition is an important issue of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the association between fruit and vegetable intake with the waist circumference and the body mass index (BMI) among young female university students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 236 healthy female university students aged between 18 and 30 years old, who were selected randomly from the students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intake. Physical activity was assessed by daily recording of the physical activities. Findings: The prevalence of obesity, central adiposity and overweight was 1.7, 0.9 and 8.1%, respectively. The mean value of BMI and the waist circumference was 21.54 kg/m2 and 70.37 cm, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between the fruit and vegetable intake and body weight (r = -0.1, P = 0.03) as well as BMI (r = -0.1, P = 0.04) and also there was an inverse correlation between the fruit intake and body weight (r = -0.1, P = 0.01) and BMI (r = -0.1, P = 0.01). There was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable as well as fruit or vegetable separately with the waist circumference. Conclusion: There were significant correlations between fruit and also fruit and vegetable and body weight and BMI among female university students. There was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable as well as fruit or vegetable separately with waist circumference.

Ghalaeh, Reihaneh Seyed; Gholi, Zahra; Bank, Sahar Saraf; Azadbakht, Leila

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Scapula kinematics differ by body mass index.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biomechanical changes due to increased arm mass in individuals with high body mass index (BMI) may lead to altered scapular motions at the shoulder joint. Scapula kinematic alterations are often associated with shoulder pain and pathology, and if present in overweight or obese individuals could impact shoulder health. The purpose of this study was to examine if scapula biomechanics differ between groups separated by BMI. Three-dimensional scapula kinematic data during arm elevation were collected on 41 subjects, and then compared between higher BMI (BMI ? 27; n = 10) and lower BMI (BMI ? 23; n = 10) individuals, both with and without holding a 1.36 kg (3 lb) weight. Data were analyzed with a mixed-model ANOVA with Group and Elevation Angle the between- and within-subject factors, respectively. The higher BMI group had significantly greater scapula upward rotation than the lower BMI group at 120° for both the unweighted and weighted tasks. Individuals with higher BMI in this study had altered scapulothoracic movement, which may be a strategy to better manage increased arm mass. With increased scapula upward rotation also reported in groups with rotator cuff tears, this study supports the potential link between high BMI, kinematics, and rotator cuff pathology. PMID:24021983

Gupta, Miti; Dashottar, Amitabh; Borstad, John D

2013-08-01

62

A comparison of two different approaches for mapping potential ozone damage to vegetation. A model study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two very different types of approaches are currently in use today for indicating risk of ozone damage to vegetation in Europe. One approach is the so-called AOTX (accumulated exposure over threshold of X ppb) index, which is based upon ozone concentrations only. The second type of approach entails an estimate of the amount of ozone entering via the stomates of vegetation, the AFstY approach (accumulated stomatal flux over threshold of Y nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). The EMEP chemical transport model is used to map these different indicators of ozone damage across Europe, for two illustrative vegetation types, wheat and beech forests. The results show that exceedences of critical levels for either type of indicator are widespread, but that the indicators give very different spatial patterns across Europe. Model simulations for year 2020 scenarios suggest reductions in risks of vegetation damage whichever indicator is used, but suggest that AOT40 is much more sensitive to emission control than AFstY values. - Model calculations of AOT40 and AFstY show very different spatial variations in the risks of ozone damage to vegetation.

Simpson, D. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: david.simpson@met.no; Ashmore, M.R. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Emberson, L. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Tuovinen, J.-P. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

2007-04-15

63

A comparison of two different approaches for mapping potential ozone damage to vegetation. A model study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two very different types of approaches are currently in use today for indicating risk of ozone damage to vegetation in Europe. One approach is the so-called AOTX (accumulated exposure over threshold of X ppb) index, which is based upon ozone concentrations only. The second type of approach entails an estimate of the amount of ozone entering via the stomates of vegetation, the AFstY approach (accumulated stomatal flux over threshold of Y nmol m-2 s-1). The EMEP chemical transport model is used to map these different indicators of ozone damage across Europe, for two illustrative vegetation types, wheat and beech forests. The results show that exceedences of critical levels for either type of indicator are widespread, but that the indicators give very different spatial patterns across Europe. Model simulations for year 2020 scenarios suggest reductions in risks of vegetation damage whichever indicator is used, but suggest that AOT40 is much more sensitive to emission control than AFstY values. - Model calculations of AOT40 and AFstY show very different spatial variations in the risks of ozone damage to vegetation.

2007-01-01

64

Inter-Comparison of ASTER and MODIS Surface Reflectance and Vegetation Index Products for Synergistic Applications to Natural Resource Monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Synergistic applications of multi-resolution satellite data have been of a great interest among user communities for the development of an improved and more effective operational monitoring system of natural resources, including vegetation and soil. In this study, we conducted an inter-comparison of two remote sensing products, namely, visible/near-infrared surface reflectances and spectral vegetation indices (VIs), from the high resolution Advanced Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) (15 m) and lower resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (250 m – 500 m) sensors onboard the Terra platform. Our analysis was aimed at understanding the degree of radiometric compatibility between the two sensors’ products due to sensor spectral bandpasses and product generation algorithms. Multiple pairs of ASTER and MODIS standard surface reflectance products were obtained at randomly-selected, globally-distributed locations, from which two types of VIs were computed: the normalized difference vegetation index and the enhanced vegetation indices with and without a blue band. Our results showed that these surface reflectance products and the derived VIs compared well between the two sensors at a global scale, but subject to systematic differences, of which magnitudes varied among scene pairs. An independent assessment of the accuracy of ASTER and MODIS standard products, in which “in-house” surface reflectances were obtained using in situ Aeronet atmospheric data for comparison, suggested that the performance of the ASTER atmospheric correction algorithm may be variable, reducing overall quality of its standard reflectance product. Atmospheric aerosols, which were not corrected for in the ASTER algorithm, were found not to impact the quality of the derived reflectances. Further investigation is needed to identify the sources of inconsistent atmospheric correction results associated with the ASTER algorithm, including additional quality assessments of the ASTER and MODIS products with other atmospheric radiative transfer codes.

Tomoaki Miura; Hiroki Yoshioka; Kayo Fujiwara; Hirokazu Yamamoto

2008-01-01

65

Assessing vegetation exposure to ozone: properties of the AOT40 index and modifications by deposition modelling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A discussion is presented on the application of micrometeorological deposition modelling principles to improve the characterisation of vegetation exposure to ozone and thus the use of critical levels as the basis of targeted emission control. The AOT40 (accumulated exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb or nl l(-1)) ozone exposure index is shown to impose a differential weighting that results in a high sensitivity, by a factor of two to 10 depending on the pollution climate, with respect to concentration. This makes it necessary to correct for systematic effects, such as the concentration profile below the measurement height, in order to justify a comparison with the biological data obtained from well-mixed exposure chambers. Available studies indicate a 50-70% lower AOT40 at the vegetation height. The resistance method for estimating the profile is extended to allow for stomatal effects that potentially bias the plant response predicted with an exposure index. This integrated profile-uptake correction refines the current approach and serves as a transitional step towards a real flux-based approach. For the latter, a new deposition parameterisation is tested against field observations.

Tuovinen JP

2000-09-01

66

Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types on Mountain Han.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the influence of broadleaf and conifer vegetation on soil microbial communities in a distinct vertical distribution belt in Northeast China. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths from four vegetation types at different altitudes, which were characterized by poplar (Populus davidiana) (1250-1300 m), poplar (P. davidiana) mixed with birch (Betula platyphylla) (1370-1550 m), birch (B. platyphylla) (1550-1720 m), and larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii) (1840-1890 m). Microbial biomass and community structure were determined using the fumigation-extraction method and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, and soil fungal community level physiological profiles (CLPP) were characterized using Biolog FF Microplates. It was found that soil properties, especially soil organic carbon and water content, contributed significantly to the variations in soil microbes. With increasing soil depth, the soil microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and fungal catabolic ability diminished; however, the ratio of fungi to bacteria increased. The fungal ratio was higher under larch forests compared to that under poplar, birch, and their mixed forests, although the soil microbial biomass was lower. The direct contribution of vegetation types to the soil microbial community variation was 12%. If the indirect contribution through soil organic carbon was included, variations in the vegetation type had substantial influences on soil microbial composition and diversity. PMID:23737003

Wang, Miao; Qu, Laiye; Ma, Keming; Yuan, Xiu

2013-06-05

67

Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types on Mountain Han.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the influence of broadleaf and conifer vegetation on soil microbial communities in a distinct vertical distribution belt in Northeast China. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths from four vegetation types at different altitudes, which were characterized by poplar (Populus davidiana) (1250-1300 m), poplar (P. davidiana) mixed with birch (Betula platyphylla) (1370-1550 m), birch (B. platyphylla) (1550-1720 m), and larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii) (1840-1890 m). Microbial biomass and community structure were determined using the fumigation-extraction method and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, and soil fungal community level physiological profiles (CLPP) were characterized using Biolog FF Microplates. It was found that soil properties, especially soil organic carbon and water content, contributed significantly to the variations in soil microbes. With increasing soil depth, the soil microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and fungal catabolic ability diminished; however, the ratio of fungi to bacteria increased. The fungal ratio was higher under larch forests compared to that under poplar, birch, and their mixed forests, although the soil microbial biomass was lower. The direct contribution of vegetation types to the soil microbial community variation was 12%. If the indirect contribution through soil organic carbon was included, variations in the vegetation type had substantial influences on soil microbial composition and diversity.

Wang M; Qu L; Ma K; Yuan X

2013-06-01

68

Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) na análise da dinâmica da vegetação da reserva biológica de Sooretama, ES Use of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) in the analysis os vegetation dynamics of the Sooretama biological reservation, ES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Técnicas de análises de séries temporais são utilizadas para caracterizar o comportamento de fenômenos naturais no domínio do tempo. Neste artigo, segundo a metodologia proposta por Box et al. (1994), 125 observações do Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) foram analisadas. Os valores modelados correspondem às variações temporais ocorridas no dossel florestal da reserva biológica de Sooretama, localizada ao Norte do Estado do Espírito Santo, no Município de Linhares. Os resultados indicaram que a metodologia foi adequada. Os resíduos do modelo ajustado são não correlacionados com distribuição normal, média zero e variância s². Com o menor valor do Critério de Informação de Akaike (AIC) -570,51, o modelo ajustado foi o Sazonal Auto-Regressivo Integrado de Médias Móveis (1,0,1)(1,0,1)12.Temporal series analysis techniques are used to characterize the behavior of natural phenomenon in time domain. In this paper, 125 Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) observations were analyzed according to the methodology proposed by Box et al.(1994). The values modeled correspond to the temporal variations that occurred in the forest canopy of the Sooretama Biological Reserve, in northern Espírito Santo, in the district of Linhares. The results indicated that such methodology was adequate. The residues of the adjusted model are not correlated with normal distribution, zero average and s² variance. At the lowest value of the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) -570. 51, the model adjusted was the Mobile Average Integrated Self-Regressive Seasonal model (1, 0, 1) (1, 0, 1)-12.

André Quintão de Almeida; Gilson Fernandes da Silva; José Eduardo Macedo Pezzopane; Carlos Alexandre Damasceno Ribeiro

2008-01-01

69

Determination index of compatible vegetable species with the lines of electric power transmission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose of designing methods to clearly identify which plant species generate electrical ground discharges in energy transmission line service corridors and thus avoid the frequent pruning of all Vegetation present in the corridors this study proposes and evaluates compatibility index of plant species with transmission lines, based on six variables: maximum height, growth form, ecological group, life zone, and abundance and frequency of each species. This index was tested in 20 plots of information was collected on all vascular plans present yielding 2147 individuals belonging to 485 species and 105 families, the most discriminating variables in the model were life zone and ecological group, based upon an analysis of principal components. This index applied to the 147 fully identified species with DBH = 2,5 cm showed that Cecropia peltata and Jacaranda copaia were the most problematic species for service lines. Furthermore, a catalogue was developed containing general information and a photographic record of some of the species considered as compatible as a reference for use during maintenance work

2004-01-01

70

Inter-Sensor Comparison of Global Imager (GLI) Vegetation Index on board ADEOS-II Satellite Using Hyperspectral Field and Airborne Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental monitoring over land surfaces has various complexities caused by highly heterogeneous surface structures with a vegetation layer, soil surfaces, and atmospheric contamination. Despite this complexity, vegetation biophysical parameters such as leaf area index (LAI) and fractional absorbed PAR (fAPAR) by vegetation must be provided with sufficient accuracy to be useful as inputs to general circulation models, where satellite remote sensing can play an important role. One common approach of satellite remote sensing is the use of a vegetation index (VI) as an intermediate variable to quantify status and amount of vegetation from radiometric measurements from a sensor. Although various VI products currently exist and/ or will soon become available, the estimation of biophysical parameters through the VI has to be compatible across various sensors to ensure continuity of global time series data records. Thus, it is important to investigate the compatibility of VI products from new sensor systems with the existing satellite sensors. A soon to be launched optical sensor on board the Japanese ADEOS-II platform, named Global Imager (GLI), is the focus of this study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the compatibility of the GLI vegetation index products (250m and 1km pixel, repeat cycle of 4 days), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) with several other satellite sensors, such as Landsat TM, TERRA-MODIS, NOAA-AVHRR, and ALI, which is on board the recently launched EO-1 satellite. In this study we focus on inter-sensor VI differences caused by the band-pass filters unique to each sensor. This is achieved by using various hyperspectral reflectance data sets acquired by a series of field measurements and airborne data collections over some EOS core sites, including semi-arid, grass, and forests. The high spectral resolution radiometric data were convoluted to simulate the reflectances of multi-spectral bands from those sensors. Compatibility of the GLI-VI products with other sensors is discussed from a spectral point of view based on the data from field and airborne radiometric measurements.

Yamamoto, H.; Yoshioka, H.; Huete, A. R.; Honda, Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Didan, K.; Ferreira, L.

2001-05-01

71

A comparison of two different approaches for mapping potential ozone damage to vegetation. A model study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two very different types of approaches are currently in use today for indicating risk of ozone damage to vegetation in Europe. One approach is the so-called AOTX (accumulated exposure over threshold of Xppb) index, which is based upon ozone concentrations only. The second type of approach entails an estimate of the amount of ozone entering via the stomates of vegetation, the AFstY approach (accumulated stomatal flux over threshold of Y nmol m(-2) s(-1)). The EMEP chemical transport model is used to map these different indicators of ozone damage across Europe, for two illustrative vegetation types, wheat and beech forests. The results show that exceedences of critical levels for either type of indicator are widespread, but that the indicators give very different spatial patterns across Europe. Model simulations for year 2020 scenarios suggest reductions in risks of vegetation damage whichever indicator is used, but suggest that AOT40 is much more sensitive to emission control than AFstY values. PMID:16762467

Simpson, D; Ashmore, M R; Emberson, L; Tuovinen, J-P

2006-06-08

72

Estimating the Maximal Light Use Efficiency for Different Vegetation through the CASA Model Combined with Time-Series Remote Sensing Data and Ground Measurements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maximal light use efficiency (LUE) is an important ecological index of a vegetation essential attribute, and a key parameter of the LUE-based model for estimating large-scale vegetation productivity by remote sensing technology. However, although currently used in different models there still exists...

Ainong Li; Jinhu Bian; Guangbin Lei; Chengquan Huang

73

Calibration of a Species-Specific Spectral Vegetation Index for Leaf Area Index (LAI) Monitoring: Example with MODIS Reflectance Time-Series on Eucalyptus Plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI) is a key characteristic of forest ecosystems. Estimations of LAI from satellite images generally rely on spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) or radiative transfer model (RTM) inversions. We have developed a new and precise method suitable for practical application, consisting of building a species-specific SVI that is best-suited to both sensor and vegetation characteristics. Such an SVI requires calibration on a large number of representative vegetation conditions. We developed a two-step approach: (1) estimation of LAI on a subset of satellite data through RTM inversion; and (2) the calibration of a vegetation index on these estimated LAI. We applied this methodology to Eucalyptus plantations which have highly variable LAI in time and space. Previous results showed that an RTM inversion of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) near-infrared and red reflectance allowed good retrieval performance (R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.41), but was computationally difficult. Here, the RTM results were used to calibrate a dedicated vegetation index (called “EucVI”) which gave similar LAI retrieval results but in a simpler way. The R2 of the regression between measured and EucVI-simulated LAI values on a validation dataset was 0.68, and the RMSE was 0.49. The additional use of stand age and day of year in the SVI equation slightly increased the performance of the index (R2 = 0.77 and RMSE = 0.41). This simple index opens the way to an easily applicable retrieval of Eucalyptus LAI from MODIS data, which could be used in an operational way.

Guerric le Maire; Claire Marsden; Yann Nouvellon; José-Luiz Stape; Flávio Jorge Ponzoni

2012-01-01

74

Do processed vegetables reduce the socio-economic differences in vegetable purchases? A study in France.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Vegetable consumption varies highly across households, based on household structure and socio-economic status, but little is known about the share of fresh vs. processed (e.g. frozen or canned) vegetables. Our aim was to compare the social and economic determinants of fresh and processed vegetable consumption. METHODS: We reviewed detailed data on vegetable purchases for at-home consumption of 2600 French households during 2007. We took into account a wide range of processed vegetables (excluding potatoes) and made a distinction between fresh vegetables, processed vegetables and baby food containing vegetables. We conducted regression analyses to predict consumption of fresh and processed vegetables in kilograms per year and unit values in euros per kilogram. RESULTS: About 60% of the vegetables bought by the sample households were fresh. Fresh vegetable consumption increased with the respondent's income, age and educational level, and with the number of adults but not with the presence of children aged <6 years. The quantity of processed vegetables purchased increased with the household size but was not dependent on age, education or household income, although the richest households spent more per kilogram on processed vegetables. Households with a child aged <6 years also purchased 10 kg of baby foods containing vegetables. CONCLUSION: We found socio-economic inequalities in the quantities of fresh vegetables, in the spending on fresh and processed vegetables but not in the quantities of processed vegetables. This suggests that monitoring the price and nutritional quality of processed vegetables and providing this information to consumers could help them identify nutritious, affordable and convenient foods.

Plessz M; Gojard S

2012-11-01

75

The Infrared Difference Dust Index: Past, Present and Future  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Infrared Difference Dust Index (IDDI) [Legrand et al, 2001] is a Meteosat-derived thermal-infrared (TIR) index dedicated to remote sensing of desert aerosol over land (based on the former Meteosat First Generation (MFG) series). The IDDI product proves to be effective in studies of dust source l...

Legrand, Michel; Chiapello, Isabelle; François, Philippe; Nakes, Mohamed T.

76

Phytomass mapping of the "seridó caatinga" vegetation by the plant area and the normalized difference vegetation indeces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytomass is a critical information for economic and environmental activities like the establishment of policies for timber resources, forest management, studies of plant nutrient cycling, CO2 sink, among other. The phytomass of a Caatinga area was obtained by an empirical method using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of Landsat images, the plant area index (PAI) and the phytomass inventory. At a first stage, linear, logarithmic and non-linear models were developed and tested. Bush and tree specimens were considered in the study, so that most of the individuals that contribute to the spectral answer detected by satellite images were included. At a second stage, the orbital parameter NDVI was used to map the PAI, which was used to map the phytomass, based on the relationship of this phytomass as a function of PAI. The residues between measurements and estimates based on NDVI varied from 0 to 84%, while the residues of total dry weight of phytomass per ha obtained by mapping and by dendrometrical equations varied from 5 to 104%, with a large trend of 166 and 448% in open Caatinga areas, due to the contribution of the herbaceous stratum to NDVI.

Costa Thomaz Corrêa e Castro da; Accioly Luciano José de Oliveira; Oliveira Maria Ap. José de; Burgos Nivaldo; Silva Flávio Hugo Barreto Batista da

2002-01-01

77

Integración del Índice de Vegetación de la Diferencia Normalizada (NDVI) y del Ciclo Fenológico de Maíz para Estimar el Rendimiento a Escala Departamental en Córdoba, Argentina/ Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Phenological Data Integration to Estimate County Yield of Corn in Córdoba, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La integración de datos radiométricos con información agroclimática puede resultar en mejores procedimientos para evaluar el estado y evolución de los cultivos. En este trabajo, datos del calendario fenológico del cultivo de maíz (Zea mays L.), estimados a partir de procedimientos de sumas térmicas, fueron integrados con registros del Indice de Vegetación de la Diferencia Normalizada (NDVI) de cobertura global del sistema Radiómetro Avanzado de Muy Alta Resoluci (more) ón de la Administración Nacional del Océano y la Atmósfera de los Estados Unidos (NOAA-AVHRR), con los siguientes objetivos: i) evaluar la relación entre el NDVI y el rendimiento de maíz en distintas etapas del ciclo del cultivo; ii) analizar la influencia de la fecha de siembra, y iii) desarrollar un modelo de pronóstico del rendimiento de maíz a escala departamental. Los valores acumulados de NDVI presentaron una asociación positiva con el rendimiento de maíz, variable de acuerdo a la etapa de desarrollo y la fecha de siembra consideradas. Durante la etapa reproductiva, el NDVI expresó una elevada asociación con el rendimiento en cualquier fecha de siembra eventual, alcanzando valores de correlación significativos (P Abstract in english Integration of satellite data with agroclimatic information can result in better procedures to evaluate the state and evolution of grain crops. In this work, phenologic calendar of corn (Zea mays L.) crop based on growing-degree days procedures was integrated with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) estimations from global coverage of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) system. The main objectives (more) were: i) to evaluate the relationship between NDVI and corn yield in different stages of crop cycle; ii) to analyze the influence of sowing date, and iii) to develop a predictive model of county (departmental) corn yield using satellite and ground data. The NDVI values accumulated in different corn phenologic stages showed a positive association with yield, and this relationship was modified in function of sowing date. The NDVI value during the reproductive stage, for any sowing date, always expressed a high association with corn yield, reaching significant correlation values (P

de la Casa, Antonio; Ovando, Gustavo

2007-12-01

78

Integración del Índice de Vegetación de la Diferencia Normalizada (NDVI) y del Ciclo Fenológico de Maíz para Estimar el Rendimiento a Escala Departamental en Córdoba, Argentina Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Phenological Data Integration to Estimate County Yield of Corn in Córdoba, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La integración de datos radiométricos con información agroclimática puede resultar en mejores procedimientos para evaluar el estado y evolución de los cultivos. En este trabajo, datos del calendario fenológico del cultivo de maíz (Zea mays L.), estimados a partir de procedimientos de sumas térmicas, fueron integrados con registros del Indice de Vegetación de la Diferencia Normalizada (NDVI) de cobertura global del sistema Radiómetro Avanzado de Muy Alta Resolución de la Administración Nacional del Océano y la Atmósfera de los Estados Unidos (NOAA-AVHRR), con los siguientes objetivos: i) evaluar la relación entre el NDVI y el rendimiento de maíz en distintas etapas del ciclo del cultivo; ii) analizar la influencia de la fecha de siembra, y iii) desarrollar un modelo de pronóstico del rendimiento de maíz a escala departamental. Los valores acumulados de NDVI presentaron una asociación positiva con el rendimiento de maíz, variable de acuerdo a la etapa de desarrollo y la fecha de siembra consideradas. Durante la etapa reproductiva, el NDVI expresó una elevada asociación con el rendimiento en cualquier fecha de siembra eventual, alcanzando valores de correlación significativos (P Integration of satellite data with agroclimatic information can result in better procedures to evaluate the state and evolution of grain crops. In this work, phenologic calendar of corn (Zea mays L.) crop based on growing-degree days procedures was integrated with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) estimations from global coverage of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) system. The main objectives were: i) to evaluate the relationship between NDVI and corn yield in different stages of crop cycle; ii) to analyze the influence of sowing date, and iii) to develop a predictive model of county (departmental) corn yield using satellite and ground data. The NDVI values accumulated in different corn phenologic stages showed a positive association with yield, and this relationship was modified in function of sowing date. The NDVI value during the reproductive stage, for any sowing date, always expressed a high association with corn yield, reaching significant correlation values (P < 0.05) in all cases, and even higher (P < 0.01) for some evaluated dates. The higher sensitivity showed by the reproductive stage confirms that it is a critical period. Starting from this information, a prediction model was obtained that explains around 80% of corn yield variability of Marcos Juárez Department in Córdoba Province, Argentina.

Antonio de la Casa; Gustavo Ovando

2007-01-01

79

Differences in the deposition of radionuclides to leafy vegetables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To quantify the variability in deposition to several species, the dry deposition of gaseous elemental radio-iodine and particulate radio-caesium on mature leafy vegetables was studied inside a deposition chamber by comparative experiments. The simultaneous exposition of endive, head lettuce, red oak leaf lettuce, curly kale, white cabbage and spinach was performed under homogeneous and controlled conditions (131 vertical stroke 2-portion, particle median, stomata opening, air humidity and temperature). Significant differences were observed for the 131 vertical stroke deposition on spring vegetables: the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times that on leaf lettuce, 4times that on endive and 9times that on head lettuce. For 134Cs, there was no significant difference between spinach and leaf lettuce, about twice the amount was deposited on both species as on endive and 3times as on head lettuce. All summer vegetables showed differences in deposition. For Iodine, the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times (6times) that on curly kale and 35times (100times) that on white cabbage in the 2 experiments. For Caesium, the deposition to curly kale was highest, about twice that on spinach and 35times (80times) that on white cabbage. The deposition was always the lowest on the closed heads of white cabbage and head lettuce. The many open stomata of spinach increased the efficiency of gaseous deposition. In addition, rough and crimpy leafs increased the particle deposition efficiency. The estimation of the deposition velocity showed that dry deposition was in average about 8times higher for 131 vertical stroke than for 134Cs. The influence of the particle size on the deposition velocity was small in the considered size range. Washing could reduce the contamination by about 10% for 131 vertical stroke and 45% for 134Cs. (orig.)

2003-01-01

80

Differences of fire activity and their underlying factors among vegetation formations in Greece  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate and weather play an important role in shaping fire activity patterns by controlling fuel productivity and fire spread, respectively. Additionally, climate is a key factor controlling primary productivity while different climate zones are expected to support different vegetation formations, that on their turn, include different fuel types. The use, therefore, of an underlying phytogeographical framework would provide more comprehensive outputs in exploring fire activity patterns at national scales, instead of using administrative units that could include various types of non-ecological divisions. Within this concept, we examined the recent fire activity of the main forest formations occurring in Greece and we explored their relationships with various weather parameters and indexes. Correlations of number of fires with weather variables, especially among the vegetation formations that summarize most of the human influence were lax, yet burned area showed significant correlations mainly with fire season precipitation totals. The precipitation related variables generally outperformed the temperature-related variables in correlating with both number of fires and burned area. Climatic indexes, which embody the combined effects of precipitation and air temperature, reflected improved correlations, but not to the extent that could allow for the promotion of their use in further modeling.

Xystrakis F; Koutsias N

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Identification of croplands of winter cereals in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, through unsupervised classification of normalized difference vegetation index images/ Identificação de áreas agrícolas cultivadas com cereais de inverno no Rio Grande do Sul por meio de classificação não supervisionada de imagens de índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor métodos para identificação de áreas agrícolas cultivadas com cereais de inverno na região norte do Rio Grande do Sul. Para isso, foi analisada a evolução do Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada (NDVI), proveniente de imagens do sensor MODIS, de abril a dezembro de 2000 a 2008. Foram elaboradas máscaras de cultivo pela subtração de imagens de mínimo NDVI (abril e maio), das de máximo NDVI (junho a outubro). Pos (more) teriormente, foi realizada a classificação não supervisionada das imagens (algoritmo Isodata), considerando as áreas pertencentes às máscaras de cultivo. As máscaras de cultivo identificaram pixels com as maiores variações de biomassa verde, associadas ou não à produção de grãos. A classificação não supervisionada gerou classes cujos perfis temporais foram condizentes com corpos d'água, pastagens e cultivos de cereais de inverno para produção de grãos e para cobertura do solo. Os perfis temporais de áreas destinadas à produção de grãos concordaram com os padrões de cultivo dos cereais de inverno na região (ciclo de desenvolvimento, manejo e épocas de semeadura). A classificação não supervisionada de áreas identificadas por máscaras de cultivo permite identificar e monitorar cultivos de cereais de inverno que se assemelham quanto à morfologia e à fenologia. Abstract in english This study aimed to propose methods to identify croplands cultivated with winter cereals in the northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Thus, temporal profiles of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS sensor, from April to December of the 2000 to 2008, were analyzed. Firstly, crop masks were elaborated by subtracting the minimum NDVI image (April to May) from the maximum NDVI image (June to October). Then, an unsupervised classification of N (more) DVI images was carried out (Isodata), considering the crop mask areas. According to the results, crop masks allowed the identification of pixels with greatest green biomass variation. This variation might be associated or not with winter cereals areas established to grain production. The unsupervised classification generated classes in which NDVI temporal profiles were associated with water bodies, pastures, winter cereals for grain production and for soil cover. Temporal NDVI profiles of the class winter cereals for grain production were in agree with crop patterns in the region (developmental stage, management standard and sowing dates). Therefore, unsupervised classification based on crop masks allows distinguishing and monitoring winter cereal crops, which were similar in terms of morphology and phenology.

Junges, Amanda H.; Fontana, Denise C.; Pinto, Daniele G.

2013-08-01

82

Performance of different vegetation indices in assessing degradation of community grazing lands in Indian arid zone  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation in arid community grazinglands shows monsoonal growth. Its matching phenology with crops makes its detection difficult during July to September. While crops are harvested during September-October, using satellite data thereafter for the natural vegetation seems most appropriate but by then it turns dry. An index capable of sensing dry vegetation was needed since conventional NDVI is sensitive to greenness of vegetation. Performance of NDVI vis-à-vis another index, PD54, based on cover was therefore compared in assessing degradation of grazinglands. The PD54 was used to isolate anthropogenic impacts from environmental induced degradation by analyzing satellite images from dry and wet seasons. Substantial absence of appreciable vegetation response indicated poor resilience and severe degradation. Five grazinglands in Shergarh tehsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan were studied following above approach. Ground radiometric observations were recorded. Satellite data of IRS 1C/1D/P6 with LISS 3 sensor for both pre and post monsoon season were acquired for three contrasting wet-dry season events. These were geometrically registered and radiometrically calibrated to calculate an index of vegetation cover PD54 as well as NDVI. PD54 is a perpendicular vegetation index based on the green and red spectral band width. The PD54 and NDVI calculated from spectro-radiometer were related to vegetation cover measured on ground in permanent plots. This confirmed that PD54 was superior index for estimating cover in arid dry grasslands. These ground vegetation trends in a good rainfall year (2001) with drought year (2002) were related with satellite data for a protected and four unprotected grazinglands. NDVI failed to detect any vegetation in protected areas supporting excellent grass cover which was succinctly brought out by PD54. Successful validation of PD54 in detecting degradation of 13 additional sites confirmed its efficacy. These findings have implication in forage availability assessments, forage forecasting, drought preparedness, pastoralism and transhumance.

Kumar, Suresh; Bastin, Gary; Friedel, Margaret; Narain, Pratap; Saha, D. K.; Ahuja, U. R.; Mathur, B. K.

2006-12-01

83

Study of atmospheric and bidirectional effects on surface reflectance and vegetation index time series: Application to NOAA AVHRR and preparation for future space missions. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the investigation, namely to characterize the atmospheric and directional effects on surface reflectance and vegetation index using the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISLCSP) Field Experiment (FIFE) data set, develop new algorithms to obtain better Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) indices, and define possible improvements for future satellite missions, were addressed in three separate, yet complementary studies. First, it was shown, from theoretical calculations, that visible and near infrared reflectances combined linearly at optimum (one or two) viewing angles relate linearly to the fraction of photosynthetically available radiation absorbed by plants, f[sub par], can be used independently of the type of foliage and substrate, eliminate the effects of sub-pixel spatial heterogeneity, and improve the accuracy of the f[sub par] estimates when compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI. Second, it was demonstrated that NDVI, even though it is not a linear combination of radiances or reflectances, can be spatially integrated without significant loss of information from scales of 300 to 1000 m. Third, AVHRR visible and near-infrared reflectances over the FIFE site, separating temporal and bidirectional components and determining the model parameters through an original iterative scheme was successfully modeled. It appears that NDVI generated from the top-of-atmosphere reflectances normalized by the bidirectional effects (as determined in the scheme) is a better vegetation index than maximum NDVI. Details about the three studies are presented.

Frouin, R.

1993-06-01

84

[Markov process of vegetation cover change in arid area of northwest China based on FVC index].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on the fractional vegetation cover (FVC) data of 1982-2000 NOAA/AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) images, the whole arid area of Northwest China was divided into three sub-areas, and then, the vegetation cover in each sub-area was classified by altitude. Furthermore, the Markov process of vegetation cover change was analyzed and tested through calculating the limit probability of any two years and the continuous and interval mean transition matrixes of vegetation cover change with 8 km x 8 km spatial resolution. By this method, the Markov process of vegetation cover change and its indicative significance were approached. The results showed that the vegetation cover change in the study area was controlled by some random processes and affected by long-term stable driving factors, and the transitional change of vegetation cover was a multiple Markov process. Therefore, only using two term image data, no matter they were successive or intervallic, Markov process could not accurately estimate the trend of vegetation cover change. As for the arid area of Northwest China, more than 10 years successive data could basically reflect all the factors affecting regional vegetation cover change, and using long term average transition matrix data could reliably simulate and predict the vegetation cover change. Vegetation cover change was a long term dynamic balance. Once the balance was broken down, it should be a long time process to establish a new balance.

Wang Z; Chang SL; Shi QD; Ma K; Liang FC

2010-05-01

85

Use of thermal and vegetation index data from earth observing satellites to evaluate the risk of schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A geographic information system (GIS) was constructed using maps of regional agroclimatic features, vegetation indices and earth surface temperature data from environmental satellites, together with Schistosoma mansoni prevalence records from 270 municipalities including snail host distributions in Bahia, Brazil to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of infection and to identify environmental factors that influence the distribution of schistosomiasis. In an initial analysis, population density and duration (months) of the annual dry period were shown to be important determinants of disease. In cooperation with the National Institute of Spatial Research in Brazil (INPE), day and night imagery data covering the state of Bahia were selected at approximately bimonthly intervals in 1994 (six day-night pairs) from the data archives of the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-11 satellite. A composite mosaic of these images was created to produce maps of: (1) average values between 0 and +1 of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); and (2) average diurnal temperature differences (dT) on a scale of values between 0 and 15 degrees C. For each municipality, NDVI and dT were calculated for a 3x3 pixel (9 km(2) area) grid and analyzed for relationships to prevalence of schistosomiasis. Results showed a statistically significant relationship of prevalence to dT (rho=-0.218) and NDVI (rho=0.384) at the 95% level of confidence by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results support use of NDVI, dT, dry period climatic stress factors and human population density for development of a GIS environmental risk assessment model for schistosomiasis in Brazil.

Bavia ME; Malone JB; Hale L; Dantas A; Marroni L; Reis R

2001-04-01

86

Characteristics of methane emission from different vegetations on a wetland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methane flux was observed on a floating mat of temperate sphagnum bog, Mizorogaike, Japan, during the period April to October in 1993, to investigate the factors controlling CH{sub 4} emission, especially differences in vegetation and variation of water level. Comparing the CH{sub 4} flux among reed dominant site, marsh trefoil dominant site and sphagnum dominant site, the largest CH{sub 4} flux was observed at the marsh trefoil site and the smallest flux was at the sphagnum site, reflecting the difference in decomposability of organic matter. At the marsh trefoil site, lowering of the water table below the surface during summer caused an increase of surface soil temperature due to direct exposure to solar radiation. Consequently, it caused a low Eh and enhanced methane production which was supported by the supply of organic matter with high decomposition rate derived from marsh trefoil. At the reed site, CH{sub 4} flux increased in late summer. Such a delayed CH{sub 4} emission at the reed site was possibly caused by decomposition of roots growing during the summer and delay of soil temperature increase due to water logging. Average CH{sub 4} fluxes for seven months were 450, 290, and 70 mgC/m{sup 2}/day for the marsh trefoil, reed and sphagnum sites respectively. Sphagnum can only grow in oligotrophic water, and its domination suppresses growth of other plants because of low concentration or low availability of nutrients. However, sphagnum can be easily replaced by other wetland plants, if the water in a sphagnum bog becomes rich in nutrients due to water pollution or change in the water circulation in the area. Such a vegetation change from a sphagnum dominant bog to a fen dominated by other wetland plants can accelerate CH{sub 4} emission to the atmosphere. 36 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

Sugimoto, Atsuko; Fujita, Noboru [Kyoto Univ., Otsu (Japan). Center for Ecological Research

1997-09-01

87

Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd exhibited by different vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is an important approach to use the Cd-contaminated soils properly by growing low accumulator or excluder plants for Cd to produce safe foods. To find the suitable vegetable species for growing in Cd-contaminated soils, in the present study the variations in the Cd accumulation for twenty eight vegetable species and several cultivars of five common vegetables (cowpea, kidney pea, bitter gourd, cucumber and squash) were investigated in two soil Cd levels (1 and 2 mg/kg Cd). Experimental results showed that highly significant differences in Cd concentration were evident among 28 vegetables. For example, spinach Cd concentrations were 110-fold and 175-fold higher than that of sweet pea under the 1 and 2 mg/kg Cd exposures, respectively. For Cd accumulation, the order of vegetable species was: leafy vegetables > solanaceous vegetables > kale vegetables > root vegetables > allimus > melon vegetables > legumes. Distinctive differences were also identified when comparing different cultivars of the five common vegetables with an average range of 0.003-0.094 mg/kg Cd. Our results indicated that a large genotypic variation existed among vegetable species or cultivars when subjected to Cd exposure. Therefore, it is important and feasible to elect/breed vegetable species/cultivars with low accumulation of Cd, especially in mildly Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:21179965

Yang, Junxing; Guo, Haitao; Ma, Yibing; Wang, Liqun; Wei, Dongpu; Hua, Luo

2010-01-01

88

Comparing forest measurements from tree rings and a space-based index of vegetation activity in Siberia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different methods have been developed for measuring carbon stocks and fluxes in the northern high latitudes, ranging from intensively measured small plots to space-based methods that use reflectance data to drive production efficiency models. The field of dendroecology has used samples of tree growth from radial increments to quantify long-term variability in ecosystem productivity, but these have very limited spatial domains. Since the cambium material in tree cores is itself a product of photosynthesis in the canopy, it would be ideal to link these two approaches. We examine the associations between the normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and tree growth using 19 pairs of tree-ring widths (TRW) and maximum latewood density (MXD) across much of Siberia. We find consistent correlations between NDVI and both measures of tree growth and no systematic difference between MXD and TRW. At the regional level we note strong correspondence between the first principal component of tree growth and NDVI for MXD and TRW in a temperature-limited bioregion, indicating that canopy reflectance and cambial production are broadly linked. Using a network of 21 TRW chronologies from south of Lake Baikal, we find a similarly strong regional correspondence with NDVI in a markedly drier region. We show that tree growth is dominated by variation at decadal and multidecadal time periods, which the satellite record is incapable of recording given its relatively short record. (letter)

2013-01-01

89

Combining vegetation index and model inversion methods for theextraction of key vegetation biophysical parameters using Terra and Aqua MODIS reflectance data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Accurate estimates of vegetation biophysical variables are valuable as input to models describing the exchange of carbon dioxide and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere and important for a wide range of applications related to vegetation monitoring, weather prediction, and climate change. The present study explores the benefits of combining vegetation index and physically based approaches for the spatial and temporal mapping of green leaf area index (LAI), total chlorophyll content (TCab), and total vegetation water content (VWC). A numerical optimization method was employed for the inversion of a canopy reflectance model using Terra and Aqua MODIS multi-spectral, multi-temporal, and multi-angle reflectance observations to aid the determination of vegetation-specific physiological and structural canopy parameters. Land cover and site-specific inversion modeling was applied to a restricted number of pixels to build multiple species- and environmentally dependent formulations relating the three biophysical properties of interest to a number of selected simpler spectral vegetation indices (VI). While inversions generally are computationally slow, the coupling with the simple and computationally efficient VI approach makes the combined retrieval scheme for LAI, TCab, and VWC suitable for large-scale mapping operations. In order to facilitate application of the canopy reflectance model to heterogeneous forested areas, a simple correction scheme was elaborated, which was found to improve forest LAI predictions significantly and also provided more realistic values of leaf chlorophyll contents. The inversion scheme was designed to enable biophysical parameter retrievals for land cover classes characterized by contrasting canopy architectures, leaf inclination angles, and leaf biochemical constituents without utilizing calibration measurements. Preliminary LAI validation results for the Island of Zealand, Denmark (57°N, 12°E) provided confidence in the approach with root mean square (RMS) deviations between estimates and in-situ measurements of 0.62, 0.46, and 0.63 for barley, wheat, and deciduous forest sites, respectively. Despite the independence on site-specific in-situ measurements, the RMS deviations of the automated approach are in the same range as those established in other studies employing field-based empirical calibration. Being completely automated and image-based and independent on extensive and impractical surface measurements, the retrieval scheme has potential for operational use and can quite easily be implemented for other regions. More validation studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of the approach for other environments and species compositions.

Houborg, Rasmus MØller; SØgaard, Henrik

2007-01-01

90

[Physico-chemical characteristics of different types of vegetable fats and oils used in the manufacture of candies].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The quality of three vegetable fats (cocoa butter and two commercial fats) and three roasted nut oils (almond, hazelnut and peanut) used as raw material in the chocolate products manufacturing was studied. The hydroperoxide content, oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were determined and its health repercussion by atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes. Two commercial fats and cocoa butter showed higher oxidative stability, atherogenic and thrombogenic properties than oils because of its different fatty acid profiles. Peroxide value was a low reliability parameter of raw material shelf live. Rancimat presented a good correlation with the unsaturation index of different fats and oils, it was a better index than peroxide value. In the chocolate products manufacturing it would be advisable a good raw material selection and formulation in order to get a balance between technological properties, organoleptic qualities and the influence on the health. Those raw material with less primary oxidation and higher oxidative stability were also those of higher atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes.

Saavedra MI; López-Jiménez JA; Pérez-Llamas F; Zamora S

1997-09-01

91

Comparison and Intercalibration of Vegetation Indices from Different Sensors for Monitoring Above-Ground Plant Nitrogen Uptake in Winter Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various sensors have been used to obtain the canopy spectral reflectance for monitoring above-ground plant nitrogen (N) uptake in winter wheat. Comparison and intercalibration of spectral reflectance and vegetation indices derived from different sensors are important for multi-sensor data fusion and utilization. In this study, the spectral reflectance and its derived vegetation indices from three ground-based sensors (ASD Field Spec Pro spectrometer, CropScan MSR 16 and GreenSeeker RT 100) in six winter wheat field experiments were compared. Then, the best sensor (ASD) and its normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI (807, 736)) for estimating above-ground plant N uptake were determined (R2 of 0.885 and RMSE of 1.440 g·N·m?2 for model calibration). In order to better utilize the spectral reflectance from the three sensors, intercalibration models for vegetation indices based on different sensors were developed. The results indicated that the vegetation indices from different sensors could be intercalibrated, which should promote application of data fusion and make monitoring of above-ground plant N uptake more precise and accurate.

Xinfeng Yao; Xia Yao; Wenqing Jia; Yongchao Tian; Jun Ni; Weixing Cao; Yan Zhu

2013-01-01

92

The contribution of sedimentation to aerosol deposition to vegetation with a large leaf area index  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technical report:Enhanced turbulent mixing of the air among foliage causes increased sedimentation of aerosol particles of 30 m in diameter and less to lower leaves of the vegetative canopy. A physical model of deposition by sedimentation is developed to show how deposition varies with wind speed. Studies indicate that for wet vegetation in high wind speeds, impaction is a major cause of deposition; but for dry vegetation in moderate wind speeds, deposition occurs mainly by increased sedimentation to lower leaves. (1 graph, 17 references)

Legg, B.J.; Price, R.I.

1980-01-01

93

Effect of three different nitrogen fertilizers on several vegetable crops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Applications of three different sources of N fertilizers (urea, compost from slaughter house and chicken manure compost) on vegetable crops (tomato, okra and spinach) were conducted in the green house of Research Institute for Food Crop Biotechnology, Bogor from August of 1999 to April of 2000. Treatments consisted of: (i) without fertilizer, (ii) 5 g N/pot of urea, (iii) 10 g N/pot of slaughter house compost, (iv) 10 g N/pot of chicken manure compost, (v) 5 g N/pot of urea + 10 g N/pot of slaughter house compost, and (vi) 5 g N/pot of urea + 10 g N/pot of chicken manure compost. Completely Randomized Design with 3 replicates was used in the experiments. In the first experiment, tomatoes were planted in the first season, following by okra in the second season. In the second experiment, spinach was planted for 6 times. Urea and compost were applied only once at the beginning of the experiment. Results of the experiments showed that for the first experiment

WIDIATI HADI ADIL; NOVIANTI SUNARLIM; IKA ROOSTIKA

2006-01-01

94

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF ALIEN SPECIES INVASIVENESS: AN AID TO ASSESSING RIPARIAN VEGETATION CONDITION  

Science.gov (United States)

Many riparian areas are invaded by alien plant species that negatively affect native species composition, community dynamics and ecosystem properties. We sampled vegetation along reaches of 31 low order streams in eastern Oregon, and characterized species assemblages at patch an...

95

Plasma Electrophoresis and Phagocytic Index Screening of Some Indigenous Vegetables Subjected to Preclinical Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 50 % of methanolic extract Colocasia esculenta, Moringa oliefera, Luffa cylindrica, and Hibiscus esculentus were subjected to immunomodulatory activity in Swiss albino mice either sex. Mice were treated with five days of dosing of Colocasia esculenta 50 mg/kg bw, Colocasia esculenta 100 mg/kg bw, Moringa oliefera 200mg/kg bw, Moringa oleifera 400 mg/kg bw, Luffa cylindrica 100 mg/kg bw, Luffa cylindrica 200 mg/kg bw, Hibiscus esculentus 100 mg/kg bw, and Hibiscus esculentus 200 mg/kg bw. Cyclosporine (2.5 mg/kg) used as a standard reference drug for 5 days. Investigation of immunomodulator activity of these 50 % of methanolic extract of drugs to parentage of yeast digestion form 24 hours the peritoneal fluid culture and electrophoretic plasma protein band albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma respectively from blood plasma were observed using parameters phagocytosis and plasma electrophoresis. Also investigated the ulcerogenic effect or any toxic effect of plant extract by histopathology study of crypt, villi and goblet cells with reference to standard drug cyclosporine. As regards these parameters, Hibiscus esculentus 100 and 200 mg/ kg bw dose, Moringa oleifera 200 and 400 mg/ kg bw dose and Luffa cylindrica 200mg/kg bw elicited a moderately significant increase in the % of yeast digestion (P < 0.001) respectively and Luffa cylindrica 100mg/kg bw significant increase in the % of yeast digestion (P < 0.01). Hibiscus esculentus showed significant dose dependent increase and Moringa oleifera decrease phagocytic activity of macrophages. Hibiscus esculentus 200 mg/ kg bw dose and Moringa oleifera 200 significantly increased (P < 0.01) the Gamma globulin.However, our present study revealed and signatured for their immunomodulator enhancing property. As in Asian subcontinent daily there vegetables are cooked and served with know and unknown of its potential function against different diseases. If there vegetables properly ruled out for their pharmacological aspect then it may add diamond in the crown of dietician which has been bother every day today life but over looked exponetentially.Keywords:- Colocasia esculenta, Moringa oliefera, Luffa cylindrica, and Hibiscus esculentus

Vikas Sharma; N Ganesh

2011-01-01

96

Indexed  

CERN Multimedia

Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

Hagy, Jessica

2008-01-01

97

Estimation of Cholesterol Level in Different Brands of Vegetable Oils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis of twenty one assorted brands of vegetable oils in Lagos Metropolis Nigeria, reveals varying levels of cholesterol content. Cholesterol was found to be present in most of the oil brands sampled using three standard methods. Cholesterol was detected in seventeen of the vegetable oil brands with concentration of less than 1 mg/ml while seven of the oil brands had cholesterol concentrations ranging between 1-4 mg/ml. Low iodine values were obtained in four of the vegetable oil brands and three of them had high acid values. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the presence of cholesterol at varying concentrations in all the oil brands and gave the lowest detectable cholesterol values in all the oil brands. The Laser brand made from rapeseed had the highest cholesterol concentration of 3.2 mg/ml while Grand brand made from groundnuts had the least concentration (0.12 mg/ml) of cholesterol using HPLC analysis. Leibermann-Burchard method showed that Gino brand from palm kernel had the least concentration of cholesterol (3.86 mg/ml ±0.032) and the highest concentration of 3.996 mg/ml ±0.0404 was obtained in Sesame seed oil brand. This report is important in view of health implications of cholesterol in our diets. Consequently, we have been able to show that there is no cholesterol free oil in the market as shown on the vegetable oil brand labels. Therefore, companies producing and marketing vegetable oils are enjoined to desist from misleading the public by labeling their products as “cholesterol free”. They should indicate the amount of cholesterol present in the vegetable oil, no matter how small the quantity may be.

J. Okpuzor; V.I. Okochi; H.A. Ogbunugafor; S. Ogbonnia; T. Fagbayi; C. Obidiegwu

2009-01-01

98

Vegetation dynamics during different abandoned year spans in the land of the Loess Plateau of China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this semi-arid area, many studies focused on the two-phase vegetation pattern were carried out to explore a changing vegetation trajectory on degraded land. However, this study conducted an analysis of a two-phase vegetation pattern and explored the successional vegetation trajectories in a positive succession without disturbance. In this work, 60 randomly distributed plots (1?×?1 m) were invested on four abandoned land areas (4-, 12-, 22-, and 50-year abandoned land) to determine attributes of vegetation, and soil physical and nutritional properties. It was found that vegetation distribution development went from homogeneous on 4-year abandoned land to heterogeneous on 50-year abandoned land, with a positive succession. Meanwhile, there was a significant difference in soil physical and nutritional properties for the inside and outside of vegetation patches. Vegetation patches can supply better soil physical and nutritional properties for vegetation than bare patches along the abandoned time. Vegetation diversity changes without a regular trend which may be due to the effect of environment and interspecies competition. This work picked up the slack for vegetation patterns succession research and provided a quantitative analysis approach.

Hou J; Fu B

2013-09-01

99

Estimation Of The Carbon Exchange At Different Northern Peatlands Using Modis Vegetation Indices  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite remote sensing has the potential for extracting information related to the phenology of carbon exchange at regional and global extents. A good relationship between remote sensing-derived phenology and eddy covariance (EC) flux tower-derived phenology is important for the extrapolation of the carbon exchange phenology over large regions. Yet, these relationships remain largely unexplored for northern hemisphere peatlands. In this study, we evaluate the potential of MODIS-derived vegetation indices for the estimation of the carbon exchange and phenology for two peatlands in Canada. MODIS vegetation indices, including the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the simple ratio (SR) were compared with EC flux derived gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) time series from an ombrotrophic bog and a treed fen in Canada, between 2002 and 2006. Several phenological metrics including the start of the growing season (SGS), the annual peak photosynthetic activity, the carbon uptake period (CUP), the spring increase and the autumn decrease rate and the area under the time-series curve (small integral and large integral) were extracted from these datasets using the TIMESAT software. Our preliminary results show that: 1. the NDVI-derived spring increase rate, the SR-derived SGS date, and the SR-derived small integral are related to the EC tower-derived GEP (r2 =0.81, r2 =0.90, r2 =0.86, respectively); 2. The SR-derived spring increase rate, the SR-derived SGS date, and the SR-derived small integral are related to the EC tower- derived annual NEE (r2 =0.88, r2 =0.98, r2 =0.86, respectively); 3. The SR index is more linearly related to the EC-tower derived GEP and NEE than the NDVI and shows potential for the estimation of daily carbon exchange measures; 4. Different pixel resolutions (250 m vs. 1000 m) do not significantly affect the SR- NEE and SR-GEP relationships. Future work will use these findings to map carbon exchange and phenology for peatlands across Canada. Additionally, the principal drivers behind the spatio-temporal variability in the carbon dynamics at these sites will be explored.

Kross, A.; Fernandes, R.; Seaquist, J.; Roulet, N.

2009-05-01

100

Diseño de índices espectrales de la vegetación usando curvas iso-suelo/ Design of spectral vegetation indexes using iso-soil curves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El diseño de índices espectrales de la vegetación (IV) basados en las líneas iso-índice de área foliar (misma cantidad de vegetación y propiedades ópticas diferentes de los suelos debajo de la vegetación) en el ancho de banda del rojo (R) e infrarrojo cercano (IRC) del espectro electromagnético, resulta complejo por el patrón expo-lineal con cambio de pendiente, entre los parámetros que definen estas líneas. Una alternativa de diseño es considerar los patron (more) es de las curvas iso-suelo (mismo suelo y cantidad variable de vegetación), usando el IRC como banda de saturación más lenta posible. El índice IVIS (IV basado en las curvas iso-suelo) introducido permite este tipo de aproximación, al usar una transformación del espacio de R para hacerlo coincidir con la línea del suelo y una estructura matemática similar a índices uni-banda espectral. La validación de IVIS usando simulaciones radiativas y de experimentos con cultivos generó resultados aceptables, particularmente con una óptica de minimización del efecto del suelo en escala píxel por píxel. La transformación de IVIS permite la parametrización de la curva de crecimiento en formato lineal, simple de implementar en términos algorítmicos. Abstract in english The design of spectral vegetation indexes (VI) based on the lines iso-leaf area index (same amount of vegetation and different optical properties of the soils under the vegetation) in two bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, the red (R) and near-infrared (NIR), is complicated because of the expolinear pattern with change of slope, among the parameters that define these lines. An alternative design is to consider the patterns of iso-soil curves (same soil, and varying am (more) ounts of vegetation), using the NIR as a saturation band as slow as possible. The introduced index ISVI (VI based on the iso-soil curves) allows this type of approach, by using a transformation of the space of R to make it coincide with the soil line and a mathematical structure similar to uni-band spectral indexes. ISVI validation using radiative simulations and crop experiments produced acceptable results, particularly with a perspective of minimizing the soil effect at píxel by píxel scale. The transformation of the ISVI allows parameterization of the growth curve in a linear format, simple to implement in algorithmic terms.

Paz-Pellat, Fernando; Reyes, Marisol; Mediano, Edgardo

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

RICH with multiple aerogel layers of different refractive index  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A proximity focusing ring imaging Cherenkov detector with multiple aerogel radiator layers is studied. In situations where limited space is available and a compact RICH detector is required, the use of a nonhomogeneous, multiple refractive index radiator offers a possibility for improving the resolution. Experimental investigations of the relevant parameters, i.e. single photon Cherenkov angle uncertainty and number of detected photons per ring, are presented for different aerogel radiator configurations. The results are promising and appear to satisfy the requirements for the forthcoming upgrade of the particle identification system of the Belle detector.

Korpar, S. [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor (Slovenia) and Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: samo.korpar@ijs.si; Adachi, I. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Fratina, S. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fukushima, T. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Gorisek, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Iijima, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kawai, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Konishi, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kozakai, Y. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Krizan, P. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Matsumoto, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan); Mazuka, Y. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Nishida, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Ogawa, S. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Ohtake, S. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Pestotnik, R. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Saitoh, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Seki, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan); Stanovnik, A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sumiyoshi, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Unno, Y. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Yamamoto, S. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

2005-11-11

102

Efficient retrieval of vegetation leaf area index and canopy clumping factor from satellite data to support pollutant deposition assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canopy leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of the vegetation controlling pollutant uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy clumping factor from satellite data using observed Simple Ratios (SR) of near-infrared to red reflectance. The method employs numerical inversion of a physics-based analytical canopy radiative transfer model that simulates the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The algorithm is independent of ecosystem type. The method is applied to 1-km resolution AVHRR satellite images to retrieve a geo-referenced data set of monthly LAI values for the conterminous USA. Satellite-based LAI estimates are compared against independent ground LAI measurements over a range of ecosystem types. Verification results suggest that the new algorithm represents a viable approach to LAI retrieval at continental scale, and can facilitate spatially explicit studies of regional pollutant deposition and trace gas exchange. - The paper presents a physics-based algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy-clumping factor from satellite data to assist research of pollutant deposition and trace-gas exchange. The method is employed to derive a monthly LAI dataset for the conterminous USA and verified at a continental scale

2006-01-01

103

Efficient retrieval of vegetation leaf area index and canopy clumping factor from satellite data to support pollutant deposition assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canopy leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of the vegetation controlling pollutant uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy clumping factor from satellite data using observed Simple Ratios (SR) of near-infrared to red reflectance. The method employs numerical inversion of a physics-based analytical canopy radiative transfer model that simulates the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The algorithm is independent of ecosystem type. The method is applied to 1-km resolution AVHRR satellite images to retrieve a geo-referenced data set of monthly LAI values for the conterminous USA. Satellite-based LAI estimates are compared against independent ground LAI measurements over a range of ecosystem types. Verification results suggest that the new algorithm represents a viable approach to LAI retrieval at continental scale, and can facilitate spatially explicit studies of regional pollutant deposition and trace gas exchange. - The paper presents a physics-based algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy-clumping factor from satellite data to assist research of pollutant deposition and trace-gas exchange. The method is employed to derive a monthly LAI dataset for the conterminous USA and verified at a continental scale.

Nikolov, Ned [Natural Resource Research Center, 2150 Centre Avenue, Building A, Room 368, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (United States)]. E-mail: nnikolov@fs.fed.us; Zeller, Karl [USDA FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, 240 W. Prospect Road, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (United States)]. E-mail: kzeller@fs.fed.us

2006-06-15

104

Differences in the dry deposition of gaseous elemental I-131 to several leafy vegetable species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The height of the dry deposition of gaseous elemental {sup 131}I to leafy vegetable is quite uncertain because of the different habit, surface texture and leaf uptake of the different plant species. There is no comparative data on the deposition to various species, but leafy vegetables are taken as reference plants for the estimation of the height of contamination of vegetable foods after a nuclear accident. Therefore new chamber experiments were performed to determine under homogeneous and controlled conditions the dry deposition of gaseous elemental {sup 131}I on mature leafy vegetable. The simultaneous exposition of endive, head lettuce, red oak leaf lettuce and spinach (spring leafy vegetable) rsp. curly kale, white cabbage and spinach (summer leafy vegetable) was arranged. The sample collective of each species was such large that for the expected variation of the results a statistically firm analysis was possible. Significant differences were observed for the {sup 131}I deposition on spring vegetable: the deposition on spinach was roughly 3 times that on leaf lettuce, 4 times that on endive and 9 times that on head lettuce. All summer vegetables showed differences in deposition. For Iodine, the deposition on spinach was roughly 3 times (6 times) that on curly kale and 35 times (100 times) that on white cabbage in the 2 experiments. Washing by deionised water could reduce the contamination only by about 10% for {sup 131}I. (author)

Shinonaga, T.; Heuberger, H.; Tschiersch, J. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg, Germany, IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf (Austria)

2004-07-01

105

Differences between Sand and Gravel Bars of Streams in Patterns of Vegetation Succession  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyzed the factors driving succession and the structure, and dynamics of vegetation on sandand gravel bars in order to clarify the differences in vegetation succession in rivers with different river bed substrates.Woody plant communities (dominated by Salix), perennial herb communities (dominated by Miscanthus),and annual plant communities (dominated by Persicaria) appeared in that order from upstream to downstreamon the sandbar. The results of DCA ordination based on vegetation data reflected a successional trend. Thisresult suggests that sandbars grow in a downstream direction. Various vegetation types different in successionalstage, such as grassland, young stands of Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora), two-layered stands of young andmature pines, and mature pine stands also occurred on gravel bars, but the vegetation in earlier successionalstage was established upstream, which is the opposite to the direction found on sandbars. Those resultsdemonstrate that the dynamics of the bed load itself could be a factor affecting vegetation succession in rivers.In fact, sands suspended by running water were transported downstream over the vegetated area of sand barand thereby created new areas of sandbar on the downstream end of the sandbar. Meanwhile, gravel, whichis heavy and thereby is shifted by strong water currents, accumulated on the upstream end of the vegetatedarea, and thus created new areas of gravel bar in that direction. These results showed that allogenic processesdrive vegetation succession on sand and gravel bars in streams and rivers.

Lee, Chang-Seok; Yong-Chan Cho; Hyun-Cheol Shin; Sung-Ae Park

2009-01-01

106

Modeling of global change phenomena with GIS using the global change data base; 2: Prototype synthesis of the AVHRR-based vegetation index from terrestrial data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents a case history using existing GISs to recreate the AVHRR-based vegetation index using data derived from in situ study on the Earth's surface. The example explores the relationship between the global vegetation index and ecosystems, soils, and precipitation, and defects in the present ability to describe these features. The degree of success of the model shows that GIS and the global change data base can be effective modeling tools, especially when functions are added to enhance the modeling capabilities of GIS. One function, INDEX, developed for this case history, is a simple utility that models a single data set as a function of another data set. A second function THEMCOIN, takes two input categorical data sets, such as vegetation and soils maps, and computes the mean and standard deviation of a third input data set of numerical values, such as elevation, precipitation, or vegetation index computed from AVHRR data. THEMCOIN outputs a table of these empirical relationships. It also optionally models the numerical data set based on correlations with the categorical data sets. Both of these functions facilitate environmental modeling in GIS. The models begin to approximate vegetation index as a function of ecosystem, precipitation, and soils. Statistical output from the models extends the understanding of relationships between environmental parameters.

Hastings, D.A. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). National Geophysical Data Center); Di, L. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in the Environmental Sciences)

1994-07-01

107

Colletotrichum lindemuthianum exhibits different patterns of nuclear division at different stages in its vegetative life cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Live-cell imaging with fluorescent protein labeling is providing major new insights into nuclear dynamics in filamentous fungi. With this approach we provide a detailed report of nuclear organization and behavior during mitosis in the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Nuclear division and nuclear migration were analyzed in ungerminated conidia, conidial germlings and the mature colony. Ungerminated conidia were uninucleate and completion of mitosis was found not to be essential for germ tube formation, conidial anastomosis tube (CAT) formation or fusion. Nuclei in fused conidial germlings exhibited asynchronous mitoses, and nuclear migration through fused CATs occurred after the nuclei had divided. Different patterns of nuclear division were found in vegetative hyphae of the mature colony. Synchronous, parasynchronous and asynchronous patterns of mitosis were observed in apical hyphal compartments at the colony border, while only synchronous and asynchronous mitoses occurred in subapical hyphal compartments. These findings have revealed unexpected diversity in the patterns of mitosis in different cells of C. lindemuthianum. PMID:23709477

Ishikawa, Francine H; Souza, Elaine A; Read, Nick D; Roca, M Gabriela

2013-05-24

108

Colletotrichum lindemuthianum exhibits different patterns of nuclear division at different stages in its vegetative life cycle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Live-cell imaging with fluorescent protein labeling is providing major new insights into nuclear dynamics in filamentous fungi. With this approach we provide a detailed report of nuclear organization and behavior during mitosis in the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Nuclear division and nuclear migration were analyzed in ungerminated conidia, conidial germlings and the mature colony. Ungerminated conidia were uninucleate and completion of mitosis was found not to be essential for germ tube formation, conidial anastomosis tube (CAT) formation or fusion. Nuclei in fused conidial germlings exhibited asynchronous mitoses, and nuclear migration through fused CATs occurred after the nuclei had divided. Different patterns of nuclear division were found in vegetative hyphae of the mature colony. Synchronous, parasynchronous and asynchronous patterns of mitosis were observed in apical hyphal compartments at the colony border, while only synchronous and asynchronous mitoses occurred in subapical hyphal compartments. These findings have revealed unexpected diversity in the patterns of mitosis in different cells of C. lindemuthianum.

Ishikawa FH; Souza EA; Read ND; Roca MG

2013-07-01

109

Evaluating the influence of different vegetation biomes on the global climate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The participation of different vegetation types within the physical climate system is investigated using a coupled atmosphere-biosphere model, CCM3-IBIS. We analyze the effects that six different vegetation biomes (tropical, boreal, and temperate forests, savanna, grassland and steppe, and shrubland/tundra) have on the climate through their role in modulating the biophysical exchanges of energy, water, and momentum between the land-surface and the atmosphere. Using CCM3-IBIS we completely remove the vegetation cover of a particular biome and compare it to a control simulation where the biome is present, thereby isolating the climatic effects of each biome. Results from the tropical and boreal forest removal simulations are in agreement with previous studies while the other simulations provide new evidence as to their contribution in forcing the climate. Removal of the temperate forest vegetation exhibits behavior characteristic of both the tropical and boreal simulations with cooling during winter and spring due to an increase in the surface albedo and warming during the summer caused by a reduction in latent cooling. Removal of the savanna vegetation exhibits behavior much like the tropical forest simulation while removal of the grassland and steppe vegetation has the largest effect over the central United States with warming and drying of the atmosphere in summer. The largest climatic effect of shrubland and tundra vegetation removal occurs in DJF in Australia and central Siberia and is due to reduced latent cooling and enhanced cold air advection, respectively. Our results show that removal of the boreal forest yields the largest temperature signal globally when either including or excluding the areas of forest removal. Globally, precipitation is most affected by removal of the savanna vegetation when including the areas of vegetation removal, while removal of the tropical forest most influences the global precipitation excluding the areas of vegetation removal. (orig.)

Snyder, P.K.; Foley, J.A. [Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE), 1710, University Avenue Madison, WI 53726 (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Delire, C. [Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE), 1710, University Avenue Madison, WI 53726 (United States)

2004-09-01

110

Reestablishment of wetland vegetation on gas pipeline rights-of-way in six different wetland ecosystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vegetational surveys were carried out to compare reestablished vegetation on pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) with that in adjacent natural ecosystems undisturbed by pipeline installation. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the ROW approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. In four ecosystems, the vegetation on the ROW was limited to a herbaceous layer by ROW maintenance; thus, the ROWs often involved a complex of species quite different from that found in the adjacent ecosystems.

Zimmerman, R.E. Shem, L.; Wilkey, P.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll. Palos Heights, IL (United States)); Hackney, C. (North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)); Gowdy, M. (Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States))

1992-05-01

111

Territorial Differences of Human Development Index in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The measuring of human capital, human development from both a quantitative and a qualitative point of view is difficult, the problem being further complicated if we consider regional and territorial approaches as well. At an international level, the Human Development Index is usually used for measuring and comparing these issues. This index addresses the most complex level of development of a region through the aggregation of the three indices from demographic (life expectancy at birth), social (education level) and the economic sphere (GDP per capita) with which we can have a much more complex picture about living standards of the population as well as the development level of a country. Because the applicability of this index has caused serious debates since its introduction, this study also focuses on selecting the right indicators for measuring human development.

IBOLYA KURKÓ

2011-01-01

112

Differences between h-index measures from different bibliographic sources and search engines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE To analyze the use of the h-index as a measure of the bibliometric impact of Brazilian researchers' scientific publications. METHODS The scientific production of Brazilian CNPq 1-A researchers in the areas of public health, immunology and medicine were compared. The mean h-index of the groups of researchers in each area were estimated and nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test and multiple comparisons Behrens-Fisher test were used to compare the differences. RESULTS The h-index means were higher in the area of Immunology than in Public Health and Medicine when the Web of Science base was used. However, this difference disappears when the comparison is made using Scopus or Google Scholar. CONCLUSIONS The emergence of Google Scholar brings a new level to discussions on the measure of the bibliometric impact of scientific publications. Areas with strong professional components, in which knowledge is produced and must also be published in the native language, vis-a-vis its dissemination to the international community, necessarily have a standard of scientific publications and citations different from areas exclusively or predominantly academic and they are best captured by Google Scholar.

Barreto ML; Aragão E; Sousa LE; Santana TM; Barata RB

2013-06-01

113

Índice de vegetação do sensor MODIS na estimativa da produtividade agrícola da cana-de-açúcar/ Vegetation index from MODIS sensor to estimate sugarcane yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A participação da cultura da cana-de-açúcar no fornecimento de matéria prima para produção de açúcar e também de álcool, como fonte alternativa de energia, tem sido relevante para o crescimento econômico do Brasil. Consequentemente, a disponibilidade de informações precisas sobre a produção agrícola dessa cultura é importante para auxiliar no planejamento e na tomada de decisões em toda a cadeia produtiva. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estimar (more) a produtividade agrícola de talhões de cana-de-açúcar para as safras 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, a partir de um modelo agronômico ajustado com dados orbitais. A inovação deste modelo consiste no uso do índice de área foliar (IAF) estimado a partir do produto índice de vegetação NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) do sensor MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) a bordo do satélite Terra da NASA (National Aeronautics Space Administration). O modelo agronômico explicou 31% e 25% da variação da produtividade observada entre talhões nos anos safra 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, respectivamente, o que se deve fundamentalmente ao uso das imagens NDVI do MODIS. O resultado do modelo pode ser usado para auxiliar e aprimorar a previsão da estimativa da produtividade feita in loco. Abstract in english The contribution of sugarcane crop to provide raw material to produce sugar and also alcohol as an alternative energy source has been relevant to the economic growth of Brazil. Therefore, the availability of precise agricultural production information about this crop is important for planning and decision-making in the entire productive chain. The present work has the objective to estimate sugarcane yield in crop fields during the crop years 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, based (more) on an agronomic model fit with orbital data. The innovation of this model consists in the use of the leaf area index (LAI) estimated from the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) produced by the MODIS sensor (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on board of the Terra satellite from NASA (National Aeronautics Space Administration). The agronomic model explained 31% and 25% of the yield variability among crop fields for the crop years 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, respectively, which is mainly attributed to use of NDVI images from MODIS. The model output should be useful to improve the precision of the crop yield estimation forecast performed in loco.

Picoli, Michelle Cristina Araujo; Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; Rizzi, Rodrigo; Giarolla, Angélica

2009-09-01

114

Evaluating and predicting the oxidative stability of vegetable oils with different fatty acid compositions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research was to evaluate the oxidative stabilities and qualities of different vegetable oils (almond, blend 1-8, camellia, corn, palm, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, soybean, sunflower, and zanthoxylum oil) based on peroxide value (PV), vitamin E content, free fatty acid, and fatty acid composition. The vegetable oils with different initial fatty acid compositions were studied under accelerated oxidation condition. It showed that PV and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) changed significantly during 21 d accelerated oxidation storage. Based on the changes of PV and fatty acid composition during the oxidation process, mathematical models were hypothesized and the models were simulated by Matlab to generate the proposed equations. These equations were established on the basis of the different PUFA contents as 10% to 28%, 28% to 46%, and 46% to 64%, respectively. The simulated models were proven to be validated and valuable for assessing the degree of oxidation and predicting the shelf life of vegetable oils. PMID:23527564

Li, Hongyan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Tang, Liang; Hu, Jiang-ning; Deng, Ze-yuan

2013-03-25

115

Evaluating and predicting the oxidative stability of vegetable oils with different fatty acid compositions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this research was to evaluate the oxidative stabilities and qualities of different vegetable oils (almond, blend 1-8, camellia, corn, palm, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, soybean, sunflower, and zanthoxylum oil) based on peroxide value (PV), vitamin E content, free fatty acid, and fatty acid composition. The vegetable oils with different initial fatty acid compositions were studied under accelerated oxidation condition. It showed that PV and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) changed significantly during 21 d accelerated oxidation storage. Based on the changes of PV and fatty acid composition during the oxidation process, mathematical models were hypothesized and the models were simulated by Matlab to generate the proposed equations. These equations were established on the basis of the different PUFA contents as 10% to 28%, 28% to 46%, and 46% to 64%, respectively. The simulated models were proven to be validated and valuable for assessing the degree of oxidation and predicting the shelf life of vegetable oils.

Li H; Fan YW; Li J; Tang L; Hu JN; Deng ZY

2013-04-01

116

Antioxidant Contents (Vitamin C) of Raw and Blanched Different Fresh Vegetable Samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the antioxidant contents and the effect of different blanching times (5 min, 10 min, 15 min and 20 min) on antioxidant contents of three different selected fresh vegetables. Three different types of vegeta- ble were used namely Amaranthus specie locally known as spinach, namely “tete”, (Celosia argentea), soko, (Solonum nodifiorum) and odu, (Telfeira occidentalis) were analyzed for their antioxidant contents. The analysis revealed that raw vegetables have the highest amount of antioxidant contents. Telferia occidentalis had the highest antioxidant content followed by Solonum nodifiorum. It was observed that blanching time had an adverse effect on the antioxidant contents of the blanched vegetables. The antioxidant contents of tete, soko and odu were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after blanching.

Oluwafunmilayo O. Olayinka; Ajibola M. Kareem; Isaac B. Ariyo; Stephen K. Omotugba; Adedayo O. Oyebanji

2012-01-01

117

Estimating evapotranspiration using remote sensing: A hybrid approach between MODIS derived enhanced vegetation index, Bowen ratio system, and ground based micro-meteorological data  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated water loss by evapotranspiration (ET) from the Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID) and the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (CNWR) in southern California bordering the Colorado River collaborating with the United States Bureau of Reclamation (U.S.B.R.). We developed an empirical model to estimate ET for the entire PVID using satellite derived MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and ground based measurements of solar radiation and vapor pressure. We compared our predictions with U.S.B.R. estimates through statistical cross validation and showed they agree with an error less than 8%. We tested the same model for an alfalfa field inside PVID to check its applicability at a smaller spatial scale. We showed that the same model developed for PVID is the best model for estimating ET for the alfalfa field. We collected data from three Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) towers installed in the invasive saltcedar (Tamarix spp) dominated riparian zone in the CNWR and a fourth tower in the alfalfa field in PVID. The riparian sites were selected according to different densities of vegetation. We collected data from these sites at various intervals during the period between June 2006 to November 2008. We reduced the errors associated with the Bowen ratio data using statistical procedures taking into account occasional instrument failures and problems inherent in the BREB method. Our results were consistent with vegetation density and estimates from MODIS EVI images. To estimate ET for larger patches of mixed vegetation we modified the crop coefficient equation and represented it in terms of EVI. Using this approach, we scaled the alfalfa field data to the entire PVID and compared the results with U.S.B.R. (2001-2007) estimates. We predicted ET well within the acceptable range established in the literature. We empirically developed ET models for the riparian tower sites to provide accurate point scale ET estimation and scaled for the entire riparian region in CNWR with our modified crop coefficient approach. We investigated the assumptions upon which the Bowen ratio equation is developed. In the presence of turbulence some of the assumptions may not be valid, and the final data may require correction factors.

Chatterjee, Sumantra

118

SPECIES COMPOSITION OF WEED VEGETATION IN DIFFERENT APPLE GROWING TECHNOLOGIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in the period 2001-2003 in an orchard of the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, created in the spring of 1996 on leached cinnamonic forest soil. The weed populations under four different farming technologies of growing of apple cultivar Florina were investigated. It was established, that the apple growing technologies influence the weed association composition. The highest weed diversity was found in the organic technology - 16 weed species were found. In the application of resource economical and integrated technologies, the development of 13-14 weed species was established. The smallest weed diversity was observed in the conventional technology - eight species, which was due to the twofold herbicide application.

Venera TASSEVA

2005-01-01

119

Contribution of different vegetable types to exogenous nitrate and nitrite exposure  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports the levels of nitrate and nitrite of 34 vegetable samples, including different varieties of cabbage, lettuce, spinaches, parsley and turnips, collected in several locations of an intensive agricultural area (Modivas, Vila do Conde, northern Portugal). Nitrate levels ranged between 54 and 2440mg [formula removed] kg?¹, while nitrite levels ranged between 1.1 and 57mg [formula removed] kg?¹. The maximum residue levels established for nitrate in spinach and lettuce samples were not exceeded. Nitrate and nitrite levels reported in the literature for the same type of samples are reviewed, as well as the contribution of vegetables to nitrate and nitrite dietary exposure of populations.

Correia Manuela; Barroso Ângela; Barroso MFátima; Soares Débora; Oliveira MBPP; Delerue-Matos Cristina

2010-06-01

120

Alternative diesel fuel study on four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use, the fuel blends have engine characteristics similar to the baseline diesel fuel. Fuel blends also display less smoke emissions than diesel fuel.

Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)

1997-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

Internalisation of Microbes in Vegetables: Microbial Load of Ghanaian Vegetables and the Relationship with Different Water Sources of Irrigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of pathogens in the internal parts of vegetables is usually associated with irrigation water or contaminated soil and could pose risk to consumers as the internalised pathogens are unaffected by external washing. This study was carried out to assess the rate of internalisation of microbes in common Ghanaian vegetables. Standard microbiological methods were employed in microbial enumeration of vegetables collected at the market and farm levels, as well as irrigation water and soil samples. The overall mean counts of vegetables were 4.0x103 cfu g-1; 8.1x102 cfu g-1; 2.0x102 cfu g-1; 3.5x102 cfu g-1 for total bacteria, coliform counts, faecal coliform counts and yeast counts, respectively. The rate of internalisation of coliforms in vegetables irrigated with stream/well water was 2.7 times higher than those irrigated with pipe water. The mean coliform counts (4.7x107 cfu g-1) and faecal coliform counts (1.8x106 cfu g-1) of soil samples were similar to those of stream water suggesting both sources exerted similar contamination rates on the vegetables. Generally, there were no significant variations between the rates of internalisation of microbes at the market and farm levels at p<05, indicating that internalisation of microbes in the vegetables mainly occurred at the farm level. The study has shown that microbial contamination of vegetables in Ghana is not limited to the external surface, but internal vegetable parts could harbour high microbial loads and pose risk to consumers. Safety practices associated with the commodity should therefore not be limited to external washing only. There is the additional need of heating vegetables to eliminate microbes both externally and internally before consumption.

Eric S. Donkor; R. Lanyo; Boniface B. Kayang; Jonathan Quaye; Dominic A. Edoh

2010-01-01

122

The Effect of SCENAR-therapy on Dynamics of Clinic and Endoscopic Vegetative Indexes in Young Children and Preschool Children with Gastroduodenal Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the dynamics of clinical and endoscopic indexes of gastric and duodenal mucus, as well as vegetative regulation after complex therapy of gastrointestinal pathology including SCENAR-therapy in young children and preschool children.Materials and methods. 44 children aged 2—5 years with chronic duodenitis and gastroduodenitis were examined. Half of them had traditional treatment, while the therapy of others included SCENAR-therapy.Conclusion. SCENAR-therapy included into complex therapy of duodenites and gastroduodenites in young children and preschool children is marked by evident positive clinical dynamics and improvement of vegetative nervous system indexes enhancing adaptive possibilities of the body.

?.?. Zhukova; ?.I. Shabunina; N.V. Avdeeva; N.V. Lyutov; N.N. Kulik; O.V. Syresina

2011-01-01

123

Environmental quality evaluation. Indexing tools to evaluate environmental quality from biological data, floristic and vegetational data in Ponte Galeria (Rome, Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work the study of indexing tools to evaluate environmental quality from biological data has been performed using a certain number of floristic and vegetational indices near Macchia Grande of Ponte Galeria (Rome, Italy). The indices have been applied on the basis of the data coming from a phyto sociological study of the area. Multivariate statistics methodologies have been utilized to obtain a synthetic evaluation of the indices.

1998-01-01

124

Species composition and community structure at different vegetation successional stages in Puding, Guizhou Province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims Information on the species composition and community structure of vegetation at different successional stages is useful for understanding successional mechanisms and for selecting species for vegetation recovery. Our objective is to describe the dynamics of species composition and community structure during vegetation succession in a karst area of China.Methods We collected plant community data from 33 plots in different successional stages at an ecological research station in Puding, Guizhou and statistically analyzed the data.Important findings We recorded 365 plant species belonging to 218 genera and 89 families. Included were 31 species of ferns belonging to 23 genera and 14 families and 334 species of seed plants belonging to 195 genera and 75 families. No gymnosperm species was recorded. The dominant families included Rosaceae, Compositae, Poaceae, Liliaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Labiatae, Cyperaceae, Lauraceae, Vitaceae and Polypodiaceae. We found five successional stages (fern caused by fire disturbance, thin shrub-grassland, shrub, forest-shrub transition and forest communities). During the successional process, species richness increased and community structure tended to become more complex. The shrub and forest-shrub transition communities were not stratified, but the forest community was. From shrub to forest, the proportion of individuals with small diameters gradually decreased. The total, tree and liana density of woody plant taller than 1.3 m first increased and then decreased. Shrub density gradually decreased. Methods of vegetation restoration in karst areas are included.

LIU Yu-Guo; LIU Chang-Cheng; WEI Ya-Fen; LIU Yong-Gang; GUO Ke

2011-01-01

125

Effects of vegetation differences in relocated Utah prairie dog release sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Utah prairie dogs have been extirpated in 90% of their historical range. Because most of the population occurs on private land, this threatened species is continually in conflict with land-owners due to burrowing. The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources has been relocating Utah prairie dogs from private to public land since the 1970s, but relocations have been largely unsuccessful due to high mortality. Utah prairie dogs were relocated in 2010 and 2011 from the golf course in Cedar City, Utah to two prepared sites near Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah. Vegetation transects were established at each site to determine if there was a correlation between site vegetation composition and structure, and Utah prairie dog survival at relocation sites. The vegetation at the two sites was significantly different. One site had significantly less grass cover, more invasive plant cover, and rockier soils. The sites also had different soil structures and long-term Utah prairie dog retention rates. Newly established burrows were clustered rather than randomly distributed. Utah prairie dogs appeared to avoid placing burrows in areas with tall vegetation and rocky soils. More research is needed to determine how site selection determines longterm retention and colonization of a relocation site.

Rachel Curtis; Shandra Nicole Frey

2013-01-01

126

Effects of refractive index solutions on the color of different luting cements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of refractive index solutions on the color of different luting cements at different periods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen disc-shaped specimens were prepared for three different universal shade luting cements. All specimens were divided into two groups and a phthalate ester and glycerol refractive index solution was applied to the specimens at different periods. Color differences (?E*) were calculated for before and after 5, 15, 60 min and 24 h periods of applying refractive index solutions. Data were analyzed with multiple analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (? = 0.05). RESULTS: Periods and periods-cement interaction were statistically significant (p ? 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean ?E values of refractive index solutions and cement groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Refractive index solutions affected the color of luting cements.

Ceylan G; Dede DÖ; Külünk S; Ongöz Dede F

2013-01-01

127

Psychosocial work dimensions, personality, and body mass index: sex differences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The association between psychosocial work dimensions (i.e. demand and control) and obesity has been found to be inconclusive, indicating that individual differences factors might also contribute to explain the variability in BMI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The interaction between work dimensions and personality variables in a group of male and female workers (N = 506), and its associations with BMI were analyzed with a cross-sectional study with self-report data. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the BMI levels from work and individual differences variables and their interactions for males and females. RESULTS: The main effects of personality variables were not significant, physical workload interacted with neuroticism for males, whereas control interacted with activity for females. CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial work dimensions and personality traits were related to BMI for men and women. These outcomes reinforce the notion that different models might account for the explanatory mechanisms of BMI in regard to sex.

Blanch A; Aluja A

2013-09-01

128

Estimating the Maximal Light Use Efficiency for Different Vegetation through the CASA Model Combined with Time-Series Remote Sensing Data and Ground Measurements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maximal light use efficiency (LUE) is an important ecological index of a vegetation essential attribute, and a key parameter of the LUE-based model for estimating large-scale vegetation productivity by remote sensing technology. However, although currently used in different models there still exists extensive controversy. This paper takes the Zoige Plateau in China as a case area to develop a new approach for estimating the maximal LUEs for different vegetation. Based on an existing land cover map and MODIS NDVI product, the linear unmixing method with a moving window was adopted to estimate the time-series NDVI for different end members in a MODIS NDVI pixel; then Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO) was applied to search for the optimization of LUE retrievals through the CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) model combined with time-series NDVI and ground measurements. The derived maximal LUEs present significant differences among various vegetation types. These are 0.669 gC·MJ?1, 0.450 gC·MJ?1 and 0.126 gC·MJ?1 for the xerophilous grasslands with high, moderate and low vegetation fraction respectively, 0.192 gC·MJ?1 for the hygrophilous grasslands, and 0.125 gC·MJ?1 for the helobious grasslands. The field validation shows that the estimated net primary productivity (NPP) by the derived maximal LUE is closely related to the ground references, with R2 of 0.8698 and root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 59.37 gC·m?2·a?1. This indicates that the default set in the CASA model is not suitable for NPP estimation for the regional mountain area. The derived maximal LUEs can significantly improve the capability of NPP mapping, and open up the perspective for long-term monitoring of vegetation ecological health and ecosystem productivity by combining the LUE-based model with remote sensing observations.

Ainong Li; Jinhu Bian; Guangbin Lei; Chengquan Huang

2012-01-01

129

Index  

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Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ISSN: 2255-2863) is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence, and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.

Antonio Juan Sánchez

2013-01-01

130

Description of psychophysiological indexes of students of different sporting specializations  

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Full Text Available Information of the psychophysiological testing of students of technical institute of higher of different sporting specializations is considered. In research took part 159 students of specialization football, sambo, volleyball, basketball, aerobics, boxing, heavy athletics. The psychophysiological testing is given by possibility to choose the proper sporting specialization students for the best realization of the personality qualities. Positive attitude of students is marked toward employments on physical education. The increase of self-appraisal and improvement of health of students is also marked.

Barybina L.N.; Kozina Zh.L.

2010-01-01

131

Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ) is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

Antonio Juan Sánchez

2013-01-01

132

Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ) is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society. We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ

2013-01-01

133

Contents of minerals in green leafy vegetables cultivated in soil fortified with different chemical fertilizers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Content of selected minerals in spinach (Spinacea oleracea) and ambat chuka (Rumex vesicarius) cultivated in soil fortified with different chemical fertilizers was determined in a pot experiment. Addition of NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) fertilizer along with micronutrients, iron and zinc, enhanced the concentration of zinc, iron and magnesium in selected green leafy vegetables markedly (p < 0.05), while the concentration of copper was not altered significantly (p > 0.05). Potassium content in the green leafy vegetables was not affected (p > 0.05) by the addition of chemical fertilizers to soil. Spinach and ambat chuka differed remarkably in their mineral contents. Contents of potassium, zinc and copper were significantly high in spinach, while the contents of magnesium and iron were markedly high in ambat chuka (p < 0.05).

Reddy NS; Bhatt G

2001-01-01

134

Contents of minerals in green leafy vegetables cultivated in soil fortified with different chemical fertilizers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Content of selected minerals in spinach (Spinacea oleracea) and ambat chuka (Rumex vesicarius) cultivated in soil fortified with different chemical fertilizers was determined in a pot experiment. Addition of NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) fertilizer along with micronutrients, iron and zinc, enhanced the concentration of zinc, iron and magnesium in selected green leafy vegetables markedly (p 0.05). Potassium content in the green leafy vegetables was not affected (p > 0.05) by the addition of chemical fertilizers to soil. Spinach and ambat chuka differed remarkably in their mineral contents. Contents of potassium, zinc and copper were significantly high in spinach, while the contents of magnesium and iron were markedly high in ambat chuka (p < 0.05). PMID:11213164

Reddy, N S; Bhatt, G

2001-01-01

135

Recovery of a soil under different vegetation one year after a high intensity wildfire  

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Full Text Available Studies on soil recovery in fragile ecosystems following high intensity wildfires are scarce. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the impact of a high intensity wildfire in an ecosystem under different vegetation (shrubland and pinewood) located at Vilardevós (Galicia, NW Spain) and highly susceptible to suffer soil erosion due to the steep relief and high erositivity of the rainfall. Soil samples were collected from the A horizon (0-5 cm) 1 year after the fire and soil quality was evaluated by analysis of several physical, chemical and biochemical properties measured in the fraction chemical properties > physical properties. The data also showed that the fire impact was different depending on the soil vegetation considered (shrubland and pinewood). Moreover, the data confirmed the slow soil recovery in this fragile ecosystem and, therefore, the need of adopting post-fire stabilisation and rehabilitation treatments in order to minimize the post-fire erosion and soil degradation.

A. Martín; C. López-Fando; A. Barreiro; A. Lombao; T. Carballas; L. Iglesias; F. Díaz-Fierros; M. Díaz-Raviña

2013-01-01

136

Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Content of Vitamin C in Some Vegetables  

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Full Text Available Background and objective: Vitamin C is considered as the indicator of process severity, because of its high sensitivity to heat. There is an inverse relationship between vitamin C retention and the process severity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different common cooking methods on process severity and decrease amount of vitamin C in some vegetables.Materials and methods: In this study, potatoes were tested as boiled (with peel, without peel, sliced), shallow and deep fried, and cooking under pressure (with peel, without peel, sliced).Onions were tested as boiled (whole and sliced) and microwave (whole and sliced). Leafy vegetables: Leek, leaf of beet, parsley, coriander, common dill and the mixed of them were tested as boiled fried. All tests performed as triplicate and the contents of vitamin C retention were determined by colorimetric method according to the instruction number 5609 of the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran and were compared to the contents of vitamin C in raw vegetables. Results:The highest decrease of vitamin C was observed in boiled, sliced (without peel) and shallow fried potatoes and onions. In leafy vegetables highest loss of vitamin C was observed from boiled fried. The loss of vitamin C in potatoes and onions by using microwave were small and their vitamin C contents were similar to raw vegetables.Conclusion:The maximum retention of vitamin C in potatoes and onions are obtained by microwave method, with peel and whole, respectively. Sci Med J 2011; 10(1):97-106

Veissi M; Mohammadi V

2011-01-01

137

Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330 Mha and the actual area of forest ecosystems at 875 Mha. Arable lands were estimated to be 211 Mha. The area of the tundra biome was estimated at 261 Mha. The areas of the forest-tundra/dwarf forest, taiga, mixed-deciduous forest and forest-steppe biomes were estimated t 153, 882, 196, and 144 Mha, respectively. The areas of desert-semidesert biome and arable land with irrigated land and meadows, were estimated at 126 and 237 Mha, respectively. Vegetation and landcover types were associated with the Bazilevich database of phytomass and NPP for vegetation in the FSU. The phytomass in the FSU was estimated at 97.1 Gt C, with 86.8 in forest vegetation, 9.7 in natural non-forest and 0.6 Gt C in arable lands. The NPP was estimated at 8.6 Gt C/yr, with 3.2, 4.8, and 0.6 Gt C/yr of forest, natural non-forest, and arable ecosystems, respectively. The phytomass estimates for forests were greater than previous assessments which considered the age-class distribution of forest stands in the FSU. The NPP of natural ecosystems estimated in this study was 23% greater than previous estimates which used thematic maps to identify ecosystems. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-01

138

Comparative study of trace element levels in some local vegetable varieties and irrigation waters from different locations in Ilorin, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The level of heavy metals in two varieties of vegetables harvested during the dry and wet seasons from seven different locations in Ilorin, Nigeria, were determined. The correlation between the level of metals in the vegetables and the irrigation water was also studied. Vegetables harvested during the dry season were found to contain higher level of toxic metals. Low water quality, accumulation of particulate after rainless period and nearness of some vegetable gardens to major and well travelled roads appeared to be the major contributory factors. Amaranthus hybridus seemed to have higher metal accumulation capacity compared to Corchorus olitorius mannii.

O.O. Dosumu; N. Salami; F.A. Adekola

2003-01-01

139

Relação do padrão sazonal da vegetação com a precipitação na região de cerrado da Amazônia Legal, usando índices espectrais de vegetação Relationship between vegetation seasonal pattern and precipitation in the cerrado region by spectral vegetation indexes  

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Full Text Available A precipitação é um dos principais fatores que determina a dinâmica sazonal da vegetação na região de savanas tropicais, como é o caso do cerrado brasileiro. Neste trabalho foram analisadas as relações da precipitação sazonal, com o comportamento sazonal das classes de uso e cobertura da terra (UCT), principalmente as fisionomias de cerrado do Estado de Tocantins. Foi analisada a dinâmica sazonal do cerrado, incluindo áreas florestadas e não florestadas, a partir da análise de imagens do MODIS/TERRA IV (Índices de Vegetação) de janeiro a dezembro de 2004, bem como dados diários de precipitação de 2004 e uma série de precipitação diária do período de 1969 a 2005. Os resultados da análise de precipitação mostram que a área de estudo apresentou uma alta sazonalidade, com estação seca de maio a setembro. As análises dos IV mostram que a dinâmica sazonal das formações de cerrado é similar àquela das áreas convertidas para outros usos. O padrão sazonal das classes de UCT segue os padrões da precipitação, cujos menores valores foram registrados no mês de agosto de 2004, mês este que apresentou os menores valores dos IV. Diferentemente das demais classes de UCT, a formação florestal não se ajustou ao padrão de precipitação, apresentando valores de IV similares ao longo do ano com leve decréscimo no mês de setembro de 2004.Precipitation is one of the main factors that determine the seasonal dynamics of the vegetation in tropical savanna areas, as the Brazilian cerrado. In this work the relationship of the seasonal precipitation with the seasonal behavior of the land use and land cover (LULC) types, mainly savannah physiognomies of the Tocantins State, was investigated. We analyzed the savanna seasonal dynamics, including forest and converted areas, with MODIS/TERRA VI (vegetation indexes) satellite measurements from January to December 2004 and daily precipitation of 2004 and daily precipitation series from 1969 to 2005. The results of the precipitation analysis show that the study areas exhibited a high seasonality with a dry season from May to September. The analysis of the VI showed that the seasonal dynamic of the savanna formations and the converted areas were similar. The seasonal pattern of these LULC types follows the precipitation pattern, when the lowest VI values were recorded in August of 2004. Differently of these LULC types, forest formations do not fitted to the precipitation pattern, this LULC type keep similar VI values along year with light decrease in September of 2004.

Jorge Alberto Bustamante Becerra; Yosio Edemar Shimabukuro; Regina Célia dos Santos Alvalá

2009-01-01

140

Diversity of Halophyte Desert Vegetation of the Different Saline Habitats in the Valley of Oued Righ, Low Sahara Basin, Algeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the floristic composition and diversity of the different habitat types in the saline areas of the valley of Oued Righ, locating in the low Sahara basin of Algeria. Three distinct saline habitats were examined: saline soil habitats, subsaline soil habitats, and waterlogged habitats. A total of 67 stands along the study area were investigated using the quadrat method, and different vegetation parameters, such as cover, frequency, density, and Importance Value Index (IVI), were recorded. Differences of species diversity and richness between saline habitats were also compared. A total of 38 plant species belonging to 29 genera and 13 families were identified from the three studied habitats. Chenopodiaceae was the predominant family. The majority of the species were of Saharo-Arabian distribution. Chemaephytes had the highest contribution to the life forms spectra. Species composition in the different habitat types showed differences in species richness. Subsaline soil habitats were the most diverse, followed by saline soil habitats. Waterlogged habitats had the lowest diversity. The floristic composition and the dominant species of each habitat were presented. The potential role of the halophyte species was discussed. These findings may lead to a better understanding of the functions, requirements, and sensitivities of these ecosystems.

Halis Youcef; Benhaddya Mohammed Lamine; Bensaha Hocine; Mayouf Rabah; Lahcini Ali; Belhamra Mohamed

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

On the calculation of the topographic wetness index: evaluation of different methods based on field observations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The topographic wetness index (TWI, ln(a/tan?)), which combines local upslope contributing area and slope, is commonly used to quantify topographic control on hydrological processes. Methods of computing this index differ primarily in the way the upslope contributing area is calculated. In this stud...

Sørensen, Rasmus; Zinko, Ursula; Seibert, Jan

142

The Effectiveness of Web Search Engines to Index New Sites from Different Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

|Introduction: Investigates how effectively Web search engines index new sites from different countries. The primary interest is whether new sites are indexed equally or whether search engines are biased towards certain countries. If major search engines show biased coverage it can be considered a significant economic and political problem because…

Pirkola, Ari

2009-01-01

143

Diseño de un índice espectral de la vegetación desde una perspectiva conjunta de los patrones exponenciales y lineales del crecimiento/ Design of a spectral vegetation index under the joint perspective of exponential and linear growth patterns  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se analizan diferentes experimentos con mediciones de reflectancia para revisar los patrones de las primeras dos constantes de los modelos de interacciones radiativas en el espacio del rojo (R) e infrarrojo cercano (IRC), concluyéndose de la evidencia experimental que el modelo de interacciones de orden uno es suficiente para este fin. En segundo lugar se desarrolla el algoritmo del índice espectral IV_CIMAS y se aplica a experimentos de cultivos, conclu (more) yéndose que este índice sólo tiene una relativa mejoría en relación con el índice NDVIcp, y que ambos describen bien la fase expo-lineal de la etapa vegetativa de la vegetación. La fase reproductiva no es modelada en forma adecuada por ninguno de los índices espectrales. Finalmente, se revisan los modelos de la geometría sol-sensor propuestos, y se concluye que éstos tienen buenos ajustes experimentales, permitiendo estandarizar esta geometría. La modelación de los patrones asociados a las constantes de las curvas espectrales de igual vegetación es muy difícil de realizar por las propiedades de los espacios usados. El problema del diseño de índices de vegetación es todavía un problema abierto. Abstract in english This study analyzes different experiments with reflectance measurements to review the patterns of the first two constants of the models of radiative interaction in the red (R) and near infrared (NIR) space. From experimental evidence, it is concluded that the first order model of interactions is sufficient for this aim. Secondly, the algorithm of the spectral index IV_CIMAS is developed and applied to crop experiments, concluding that this index is only a relative improve (more) ment over the NDVIcp index and that the expo-linear phase of the vegetative growth stage of the vegetation are well-described by both. The reproductive phase is not adequately modeled by either of the spectral indexes. Finally, the models of sun-sensor geometry proposed are reviewed, and it is concluded that these have good experimental fit, allowing this geometry to be standardized. Modeling of the associated patterns to the spectral curve constants of equal vegetation is very difficult to do because of properties of the spaces used. The problem of designing vegetation indexes is still open.

Romero-Sánchez, Enrique; Paz-Pellat, Fernando; Palacios-Vélez, Enrique; Bolaños-González, Martín; Valdez-Lazalde, René; Aldrete, Arnulfo

2009-05-01

144

Removal of residual pesticide, fenitrothion, in vegetables by using ozone microbubbles generated by different methods  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of ozone microbubbles (OMB) generated by different methods on removal of residual fenitrothion (FT) in three kinds of vegetables were examined. FT-infiltrated lettuce, cherry tomatoes and strawberries were immersed in solutions containing OMB generated by using a microbubble generator of a decompression-type or a gas-water circulating-type combined with an ozone generator at an initial OMB concentration of 2.0ppm for 0, 5 or 10min. Residual FT in each vegetable was removed more efficiently by the OMB treatments with the decompression type than with the gas-water circulation type, showing that the pesticide-removing effect of OMB varies with the method of OMB generation.

Ikeura H; Kobayashi F; Tamaki M

2011-04-01

145

Complex Genetic Effects on Early Vegetative Development Shape Resource Allocation Differences Between Arabidopsis lyrata Populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Costs of reproduction due to resource allocation trade-offs have long been recognized as key forces in life history evolution, but little is known about their functional or genetic basis. Arabidopsis lyrata, a perennial relative of the annual model plant A. thaliana with a wide climatic distribution, has populations that are strongly diverged in resource allocation. In this study, we evaluated the genetic and functional basis for variation in resource allocation in a reciprocal transplant experiment, using four A. lyrata populations and F2 progeny from a cross between North Carolina (USA) and Norway parents, which had the most divergent resource allocation patterns. Local alleles at quantitative trait loci (QTL) at a North Carolina field site increased reproductive output while reducing vegetative growth. These QTL had little overlap with flowering date QTL. Structural equation models incorporating QTL genotypes and traits indicated that resource allocation differences result primarily from QTL effects on early vegetative growth patterns, with cascading effects on later vegetative and reproductive development. At a Norway field site, North Carolina alleles at some of the same QTL regions reduced survival and reproductive output components, but these effects were not associated with resource allocation trade-offs in the Norway environment. Our results indicate that resource allocation in perennial plants may involve important adaptive mechanisms largely independent of flowering time. Moreover, the contributions of resource allocation QTL to local adaptation appear to result from their effects on developmental timing and its interaction with environmental constraints, and not from simple models of reproductive costs.

Remington DL; Leinonen PH; Leppälä J; Savolainen O

2013-08-01

146

Effects of neighboring vascular plants on the abundance of bryophytes in different vegetation types  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the climate change, vegetation of tundra ecosystems is predicted to shift toward shrub and tree dominance, and this change may influence bryophytes. To estimate how changes in growing environment and the dominance of vascular plants influence bryophyte abundance, we compared the relationship of occurrence of bryophytes among other plant types in a five-year experiment of warming (T), fertilization (F) and T + F in two vegetation types, heath and meadow, in a subarctic-alpine ecosystem. We compared individual leaf area among shrub species to confirm that deciduous shrubs might cause severe shading effect. Effects of neighboring functional types on the performance of Hylocomium splendens was also analyzed.Results show that F and T + F treatments significantly influenced bryophyte abundance negatively. Under natural conditions, bryophytes in the heath site were negatively related to the abundance of shrubs and lichens and the relationship between lichens and bryophytes strengthened after the experimental period. After five years of experimental treatments in the meadow, a positive abundance relationship emerged between bryophytes and deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs and forbs. This relationship was not found in the heath site. Our study therefore shows that the abundance relationships between bryophytes and plants in two vegetation types within the same area can be different. Deciduous shrubs had larger leaf area than evergreen shrubs but did not show any shading effect on H. splendens.

Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Kudo, Gaku; Alatalo, Juha M.; Molau, Ulf

2012-07-01

147

Economic Study on Winter Vegetables Produced by Different Categories of Farms  

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Full Text Available The study was designed to assess the comparative profitability of selected winter vegetables like potato, cauliflower and tomato. To achieve this objective, total of 75 farmers, 25 producing potato, 25 producing cauliflower and 25 producing tomato were selected. For this purpose, Cobb-douglas production function model was used. Per hectare total cost of production of potato, cauliflower and tomato were 51396.79, 64406.06 and 61663.87 TK., respectively and the corresponding gross incomes were 99401.44, 119165.12 and 93442.24 TK., respectively. The estimated net return of producing potato, cauliflower and tomato were 48004.65, 54759.06 and 31778.37 TK., respectively. For producing the three alternate winter vegetables net return was the highest for cauliflower followed by potato and tomato. It was also found that there was a large variation of yield in producing these winter vegetables among different categories of farms. In the case producing potato and cauliflower, per hectare yield was the highest for small farms followed by medium and large farms. On the other hand in the case of tomato per hectare yield was the highest (48164.50 kg) for large farms followed by medium (47444.10 kg) and small farms (46143.00 kg). It is concluded that production of cauliflower is more profitable than that of others.

M.S. Sultana; F. Kabir; M.S. Islam; M.M. Rashid; A.I. Akon

2005-01-01

148

Vegetation differences and diagenetic changes between two Bulgarian lignite deposits - Insights from coal petrology and biomarker composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, we review the petrographic composition and biomarker assemblage of two adjacent basins in western Bulgaria, i.e. Beli Breg and Staniantsi basins. Both contain lignite formed during late Miocene (c. 6 Ma). Despite similar tectonic settings and depositional environments, the lignite seams possess different petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics, reflecting differences in the peat forming palaeo-communities and fades variations. The peat-forming vegetation in Bell Breg Basin was dominated by decay resistant coniferous plants, as indicated by abundant fossil wood remains, very good tissue preservation and a biomarker assemblage dominated by diterpenoids. In contrast, Staniantsi lignite is poor in fossil wood and contains a significant amount of triterpenoid biomarkers, suggesting the predominance of angiosperm plants in the swamp. The results of the biomarker analyses are consistent with palaeobotanical and palynological data from the literature. The lignite seams in both basins formed under frequently changing Eh conditions, as indicated by the severe degradation of the non-gymnosperm tissues, the low gelification index values and the variations in pristane/phytane ratio, probably as a result of seasonal drying of the swamps and changes of the ground water table. Hopanoid contents in Bell Breg lignite are very low and are consistent with the abundance of decay-resistant vegetation. In contrast, bacterial activity was obviously higher in the Staniantsi swamp, however, resulting only in slightly enhanced gelification of plant tissues. The geochemical data suggest that the diagenetic changes of the organic matter were mainly governed by thermal degradation, rather than bacterial activity.

Zdravkov, A.; Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Kortenski, J.; Gratzer, R. [University of Mining & Geology St Ivan Rilski, Sofia (Bulgaria)

2011-03-15

149

A Vegetation Index to Estimate Terrestrial Gross Primary Production Capacity for the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate (GCOM-C)/Second-Generation Global Imager (SGLI) Satellite Sensor  

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Full Text Available To estimate global gross primary production (GPP), which is an important parameter for studies of vegetation productivity and the carbon cycle, satellite data are useful. In 2014, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) plans to launch the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate (GCOM-C) satellite carrying the second-generation global imager (SGLI). The data obtained will be used to estimate global GPP. The rate of photosynthesis depends on photosynthesis reduction and photosynthetic capacity, which is the maximum photosynthetic velocity at light saturation under adequate environmental conditions. Photosynthesis reduction is influenced by weather conditions, and photosynthetic capacity is influenced by chlorophyll and RuBisCo content. To develop the GPP estimation algorithm, we focus on photosynthetic capacity because chlorophyll content can be detected by optical sensors. We hypothesized that the maximum rate of low-stress GPP (called “GPP capacity”) is mainly dependent on the chlorophyll content that can be detected by a vegetation index (VI). The objective of this study was to select an appropriate VI with which to estimate global GPP capacity with the GCOM-C/SGLI. We analyzed reflectance data to select the VI that has the best linear correlation with chlorophyll content at the leaf scale and with GPP capacity at canopy and satellite scales. At the satellite scale, flux data of seven dominant plant functional types and reflectance data obtained by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used because SGLI data were not available. The results indicated that the green chlorophyll index, CIgreen(?NIR/?green-1), had a strong linear correlation with chlorophyll content at the leaf scale (R2 = 0.87, p < 0.001) and with GPP capacity at the canopy (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001) and satellite scales (R2 = 0.72, p < 0.01). Therefore, CIgreen is a robust and suitable vegetation index for estimating global GPP capacity.

Juthasinee Thanyapraneedkul; Kanako Muramatsu; Motomasa Daigo; Shinobu Furumi; Noriko Soyama; Kenlo Nishida Nasahara; Hiroyuki Muraoka; Hibiki M. Noda; Shin Nagai; Takahisa Maeda; Masayoshi Mano; Yasuko Mizoguchi

2012-01-01

150

Exploration of Loggerhead Shrike Habitats in Grassland National Park of Canada Based on in Situ Measurements and Satellite-Derived Adjusted Transformed Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (ATSAVI)  

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Full Text Available The population of loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus excubutirudes) in Grassland National Park of Canada (GNPC) has undergone a severe decline due to habitat loss and limitation. Shrike habitat availability is highly impacted by the biophysical characteristics of grassland landscapes. This study was conducted in the west block of GNPC. The overall purpose was to extract important biophysical and topographical variables from both SPOT satellite imagery and in situ measurements. Statistical analysis including Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), measuring Coefficient Variation (CV), and regression analysis were applied to these variables obtained from both imagery and in situ measurement. Vegetation spatial variation and heterogeneity among active, inactive and control nesting sites at 20 m × 20 m, 60 m × 60 m and 100 m × 100 m scales were investigated. Results indicated that shrikes prefer to nest in open areas with scattered shrubs, particularly thick or thorny species of smaller size, to discourage mammalian predators. The most important topographical characteristic is that active sites are located far away from roads at higher elevation. Vegetation index was identified as a good indicator of vegetation characteristics for shrike habitats due to its significant relation to most relevant biophysical factors. Spatial variation analysis showed that at all spatial scales, active sites have the lowest vegetation abundance and the highest heterogeneity among the three types of nesting sites. For all shrike habitat types, vegetation abundance decreases with increasing spatial scales while habitat heterogeneity increases with increasing spatial scales. This research also indicated that suitable shrike habitat for GNPC can be mapped using a logistical model with ATSAVI and dead material in shrub canopy as the independent variables.

Li Shen; Yuhong He; Xulin Guo

2013-01-01

151

H-Index of Astrophysicists at Raman Research Institute: Performance of Different Calculators  

Science.gov (United States)

H-index, a single number proposed by J. E. Hirsch in 2005 has gained popularity as an index number to measure the research performance of individuals, institutions, universities, etc. There are many calculators to derive the h-in dex number, such as Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, etc. However, h-index can be calculated manually, provided we have access to a complete list of publications of a scientist and the number of citations received by them. It is observed that h-index for a given scientist at a ny given point of time differs from one calculator to the other. Here is an attempt to calculate the H-index of scientists of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Group at Raman Research Institute using Google Scholar Free calculator, Web of Science Paid calculator and The SAO/NASA As trophysics Data System manual calculation and comparison of the results. Application of this h- index phenomenon to the research output of RRI scientists in a group is done while keeping in mi nd Hirsch's systematic in vestigation to predict the position of a scientist using h-index in physics. It is believed that the higher the academic age of a scientist, the higher will be the h-index. An attempt is made to find whether this assumption is true with respect to the sample studied by including the superannuated scientists from Astronomy and Astrophysics Group at Raman Research Institute under the purview of this study.

Meera, B. M.; Manjunath, M.

2012-08-01

152

An Empirical Algorithm for Estimating Agricultural and Riparian Evapotranspiration Using MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index and Ground Measurements of ET. I. Description of Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We used the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS to scale evapotranspiration (ETactual) over agricultural and riparian areas along the Lower Colorado River in the southwestern US. Ground measurements of ETactual by alfalfa, saltcedar, cottonwood and arrowweed were expressed as fraction of potential (reference crop) ETo (EToF) then regressed against EVI scaled between bare soil (0) and full vegetation cover (1.0) (EVI*). EVI* values were calculated based on maximum and minimum EVI values from a large set of riparian values in a previous study. A satisfactory relationship was found between crop and riparian plant EToF and EVI*, with an error or uncertainty of about 20% in the mean estimate (mean ETactual = 6.2 mm d?1, RMSE = 1.2 mm d?1). The equation for ETactual was: ETactual = 1.22 × ETo-BC × EVI*, where ETo-BC is the Blaney Criddle formula for ETo. This single algorithm applies to all the vegetation types in the study, and offers an alternative to ETactual estimates that use crop coefficients set by expert opinion, by using an algorithm based on the actual state of the canopy as determined by time-series satellite images.

Pamela L. Nagler; Kiyomi Morino; R. Scott Murray; John Osterberg; Edward P. Glenn

2009-01-01

153

Sensitivity study of land biosphere CO2 exchange through an atmospheric tracer transport model using satellite-derived vegetation index data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We develop a simple, globally uniform model of CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere by coupling the model with a three-dimensional atmospheric tracer transport model using observed winds, and checking results against observed concentrations of CO2 at various monitoring sites. CO2 fluxes are derived from observed greenness using satellite-derived Global Vegetation Index data, combined with observations of temperature, radiation, and precipitation. We explore a range of CO2 flux formulations together with some modifications of the modelled atmospheric transport. We find that while some formulations can be excluded, it cannot be decided whether or not to make CO2 uptake and release dependent on water stress. It appears that the seasonality of net CO2 fluxes in the tropics, which would be expected to be driven by water availability, is small and is therefore not visible in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2. The latter is dominated largely by northern temperate and boreal vegetation, where seasonality is mostly temperature determined. We find some evidence that there is still considerable CO2 release from soils during northern-hemisphere winter. An exponential air temperature dependence of soil release with a Q10 of 1.5 is found to be most appropriate, with no cutoff at low freezing temperatures. This result is independent of the year from which observed winds were taken. This is remarkable insofar as year-to-year changes in modelled CO2 concentrations caused by changes in the wind data clearly outweigh those caused by year-to-year variability in the climate and vegetation index data. (orig.).

1994-01-01

154

[Characteristics of soil microelements contents in the rhizospheres of different vegetation in hilly-gully region of Loess Plateau].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To explore the rhizosphere effect of the microelements in the soils under different vegetation types in Loess Plateau, this paper analyzed the organic C, total N, Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn contents in the rhizosphere soil and bulk soil of six vegetation types in hilly-gully region of Loess Plateau. Among the six vegetation types, Caragana korshinskii, Heteropappus altaicus, and Artemisia capillaries had higher organic C and total N contents in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. With the exception of C. korshinskii and H. rhamnoides, all the six vegetation types had a significantly lower pH in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. The six vegetation types had a lower available Mn content in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil, and the C. korshinskii, Astragalus adsurgen, and Panicum virgatum had a significantly higher available Cu content in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. The six vegetation types except A. adsurgens had a slightly higher available Fe content in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil, and A. adsurgens, P. virgatum, H. altaicus, and A. capillaries had a significant accumulation of available Zn in rhizosphere soil. There existed significant positive correlations between the rhizosphere soil and bulk soil of the six vegetation types in the relationships between the organic C and total N contents and the available Mn and Zn contents and between the contents of available Mn and Zn. In rhizosphere soil, available Mn and Zn contents were significantly negative- ly correlated with pH value. Due to the differences in root growth characteristics, rhizosphere pH value, and microbial structure composition, the microelements contents in the rhizosphere soil of the six vegetation types differed, with the contents of Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn being higher in the rhizosphere soil of H. altaicus than in that of the other vegetation types.

Zhang C; Liu GB; Xue S; Zhang CS

2012-03-01

155

Interpersonal Reactivity Index: Analysis of Invariance and Gender Differences in Spanish Youths  

Science.gov (United States)

|Empathy is understood as a multidimensional construct involving both cognitive and emotional factors for which, traditionally, gender differences have been reported. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis in Catalog Sel Documents Psychol 10:1-19, 1980) is an instrument made up of four subscales, each measuring a different dimension of the…

Holgado Tello, Francisco Pablo; Delgado Egido, Begona; Carrasco Ortiz, Miguel A.; Del Barrio Gandara, M. V.

2013-01-01

156

Modelling of the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes for different orientations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, estimated data of the UV Index on vertical planes are presented for the latitude of Valencia, Spain. For that purpose, the UVER values have been generated on vertical planes by means of four different geometrical models a) isotropic, b) Perez, c) Gueymard, d) Muneer, based on values of the global horizontal UVER and the diffuse horizontal UVER, measured experimentally. The UVER values, obtained by any model, overestimate the experimental values for all orientations, with the exception of the Perez model for the East plane. The results show statistical values of the MAD parameter (Mean Absolute Deviation) between 10% and 25%, the Perez model being the one that obtained a lower MAD for all levels. As for the statistic RMSD parameter (Root Mean Square Deviation), the results show values between 17% and 32%, and again the Perez model provides the best results in all vertical planes. The difference between the estimated UV Index and the experimental UV Index, for vertical and 40° tilted planes, was also calculated. 40° is an angle close to the latitude of Burjassot, Valencia, (39.5°), which, according to various studies, is the optimum angle to capture maximum radiation on tilted planes. We conclude that the models provide a good estimate of the UV Index, as they coincide or differ in one unit compared to the experimental values in 99% of cases, and this is valid for all orientations. Finally, we examined the relation between the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes, both the experimental and estimated by the Perez model, and the experimental UV Index on a horizontal plane at 12 GMT. Based on the results, we can conclude that it is possible to estimate with a good approximation the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes in different directions on the basis of the experimental horizontal UVI value, thus justifying the interest of this study.

Serrano D; Marín MJ; Utrillas MP; Tena F; Martínez-Lozano JA

2012-02-01

157

Modelling of the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes for different orientations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, estimated data of the UV Index on vertical planes are presented for the latitude of Valencia, Spain. For that purpose, the UVER values have been generated on vertical planes by means of four different geometrical models a) isotropic, b) Perez, c) Gueymard, d) Muneer, based on values of the global horizontal UVER and the diffuse horizontal UVER, measured experimentally. The UVER values, obtained by any model, overestimate the experimental values for all orientations, with the exception of the Perez model for the East plane. The results show statistical values of the MAD parameter (Mean Absolute Deviation) between 10% and 25%, the Perez model being the one that obtained a lower MAD for all levels. As for the statistic RMSD parameter (Root Mean Square Deviation), the results show values between 17% and 32%, and again the Perez model provides the best results in all vertical planes. The difference between the estimated UV Index and the experimental UV Index, for vertical and 40° tilted planes, was also calculated. 40° is an angle close to the latitude of Burjassot, Valencia, (39.5°), which, according to various studies, is the optimum angle to capture maximum radiation on tilted planes. We conclude that the models provide a good estimate of the UV Index, as they coincide or differ in one unit compared to the experimental values in 99% of cases, and this is valid for all orientations. Finally, we examined the relation between the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes, both the experimental and estimated by the Perez model, and the experimental UV Index on a horizontal plane at 12 GMT. Based on the results, we can conclude that it is possible to estimate with a good approximation the UV Index on vertical and 40° tilted planes in different directions on the basis of the experimental horizontal UVI value, thus justifying the interest of this study. PMID:22193984

Serrano, D; Marín, M J; Utrillas, M P; Tena, F; Martínez-Lozano, J A

2011-12-22

158

Growth and photosynthetic capacity in two woody species of cerrado vegetation under different radiation availability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seedlings of two woody species of cerrado vegetation, Copaifera langsdorffii and Eriotheca gracilipes, were studied under three different radiation availability (100, 80 and 30% transmittance). Full solar radiation brought about more biomass, higher total leaf area, higher maximal photosynthesis per crown on area or on mass bases and higher photosynthetic capacity on area bases. Only the photosynthetic capacity values on leaf mass bases were higher in both species under low radiation availability (80 and 30% transmittance). The differences of accumulated biomass appeared more clearly after 4 months of sowing but the root/shoot dry biomass ratio and height were maintained constant for both species independently of the available radiation. Cultivated under full solar radiation both species will be able to cover more suitable the two processes during seedling's phase: growth and defense.

Ronquim Carlos Cesar; Prado Carlos Henrique B. de A.; Paula Nádia Figueiredo de

2003-01-01

159

Profitability and morphological characters of inter-cropping of different vegetables in tea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A field experiment was conducted at National Tea Research Institute, Shinkiari, Mansehra, during 2006-07 to find out the most productive and profitable tea-based intercropping system with different vegetable crops. The vegetables included were brinjal solanum melongena , chilies Capsicum annum, okra Ahle moselous, potato Solanum tuberosum, spinach Spinacia oleracea, garlic Allium sativum, onion Allium cepa, peas Pisum sativum and tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, as intercrop combination in newly planted tea. Intercropping of peas showed up poorest among all other treatments, in net income of Rs. 4,800.0, whereas intercrops significantly affected no. of branches, leaves, fresh and dry weight/plant of tea crop respectively. Considering the net return and total expenditure incurred on raising of intercrops, the highest net profit of Rs. 6,669.0/acre was obtained from potato, followed by garlic at Rs. 6,200.0. All treatments combination is more or less similar in net return, except T/sub 5/. Yield and yield-attributes in all treatments were significantly affected. Whereas branches and fresh weight remained significant among each other except sole tea crop. Agronomic data showed that the cropping days were also varies from 45 to 150 days in all treatments. Therefore it might be more economically viable than sole tea crop, upto complete bush formation. (author)

160

Evaluation of the physical properties of a latosol under different vegetation covers in Alegre (ES)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable soil use is becoming increasingly relevant given the increase of anthropic activities. In order to evaluate changes in soil bulk density, soil particles density, soil macroporosity, soil microporosity and soil total porosity, a Red-Yellow Latossol after one year cultivation of two legumes species and spontaneous vegetation, soil samples were collected at two depths (0.0 to 20.0 cm and 20.0 to 40.0 cm). Soil bulk density (Ds) was determined by measuring the ring volume. Soil particles density (Dp) were determined by the method of volumetric flask. The determination of macro and microporosity was made by the use of porous plate Richards extractor. Results showed that the interaction between the different vegetation covers and the depth was not significant for any measured soil physical attribute. The canopy significantly influenced the values of microporosity, however did not affected any other studied physical attribute. The soil depth of 0-20 cm showed higher macroporosity than the depth of 20-40 cm and is inversely proportional to the microporosity.Key-words: soil porosity; soil bulk density; soil aggregates; legumes.

Leonardo Nazário Silva dos Santos; Renato Ribeiro Passos; Luís Carlos Mendes Cardoso; Carlos Lacy Santos; Roberto Avelino Cecílio

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

The vegetative development of Sinningia leucotricha Hoehne (Moore) under different levels of shading  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A rainha-do-abismo (Sinningia leucotricha Hoehne (Moore) é uma planta nativa do Estado do Paraná, se destaca pela beleza de suas folhas de aspecto prateado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de sombreamento no desenvolvimento de plantas de rainha-do-abismo. Para o experimento foram utilizadas como material vegetativo raízes tuberosas com 2,3 ± 0,3 cm de diâmetro. O cultivo foi realizado em vasos plásticos e areia grossa com (more) o substrato, que foram acondicionados em viveiros protegidos com tela de polipropileno de coloração preta, nas seguintes porcentagens: 0% (a pleno sol) 50%, 60% e 70%. Viveiros protegidos com 60% ou 70% de sombreamento foram os que proporcionaram maior desenvolvimento vegetativo de rainha-do-abismo. O cultivo desta espécie a pleno sol não é recomendado. Abstract in english This work aimed at the assessment of the influence of different levels of shading in the development of (Sinningia leucotricha Hoehne (Moore). Tuberous roots of 2.3 ± 0.3 cm in diameter were used as vegetative material. The cultivation was performed in plastic vases and gross sand as substrate, and conditioned in sheltered nurseries protected by black polypropylene nets in the followings percentages: 0% (under full sunlight), 50, 60, and 70%. Sheltered nurseries with 60 (more) or 70% of shading presented the highest vegetative development for Brazilian edelweiss. The cultivation of this species under full sunlight is not recommended.

Unemoto, Lilian Keiko; Faria, Ricardo Tadeu de; Assis, Adriane Marinho de; Destro, Deonisio

2010-02-01

162

Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spec...

F. J. LaFontaine J. L. Case J. R. Bell S. V. Kumar

2012-01-01

163

Formative research on HAPA model determinants for fruit and vegetable intake: target beliefs for audiences at different stages of change.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Theoretically driven health communications are needed to promote fruit and vegetable intake among people at different stages of change. The Health Action Process Approach, a clearly specified model and good predictor of fruit and vegetable intake, was used as a framework to guide a formative research for the development of health messages targeting individuals at either a non-intentional or intentional stage of change. A mixed-method approach was used, combining eight focus groups (n = 45) and a questionnaire (n = 390). Target beliefs for people at both stages were identified under five theoretical constructs (risk perception, outcome expectancies, action planning, coping planning and self-efficacy). Highlighting health problems due to low fruit and vegetable consumption, health benefits, weight reduction and pleasure and enhancing self-efficacy to increase fruit and vegetable intake are the main guidelines for designing messages to non-intenders. For intenders, messages should reassure them of their ability to maintain adequate fruit and vegetable consumption, outline specific plans for increased consumption, identify barriers such as preparation, forgetting or being tired and unwilling to eat fruits and vegetables and suggest strategies to overcome them, such as presenting some practical examples on how to include fruits and vegetables when eating out.

Godinho CA; Alvarez MJ; Lima ML

2013-07-01

164

[Identification of snail habitats in the Poyang Lake region, based on the application of indices on joint normalized difference vegetation and water].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: With Landsat TM remote sensing images, snail habitats in Poyang Lake region were identified, using two indices: the modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). METHODS: Two Remote sensing images of both wet and drought seasons in Poyang Lake region were obtained. MNDWI and NDVI were extracted from the images respectively, to present the regions of "water in summer and land in winter" and the coverage of vegetation. By overlaying those two regions, the areas of potential snail habitats were drawn. Finally, sensitivities and specificities of the recommended methods were assessed and compared to that of the traditional methods for the sake of extracting the areas of snail habitats. RESULTS: The threshold values of MNDWI for the wet and drought seasons were 0.34 and 0.58, respectively and the threshold value for NDVI of the drought season was 0.02. Sensitivity and specificity of our method were 95% and 100%, respectively, higher than the conventional approach (se. = 75%, sp. = 100%). CONCLUSION: Joint application of MNDWI and NDVI seemed a better method to detect the snail habitats and could be used for the quantitative and automatic surveillance program on snails.

Wang ZL; Zhu R; Zhang ZJ; Yao BD; Zhang LJ; Gao J; Jiang QW

2012-08-01

165

The role of vegetated areas on fish assemblage of the Paraná River floodplain: effects of different hydrological conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the changes in composition and abundance of fish assemblages in seven vegetated floodplain wetlands with different connectivity across different hydrologic conditions: after a prolonged connection of the floodplain with the main channel, during receding water, and after a prolonged isolation. We also investigated the size and abundance of large-sized migratory species found in these wetlands and the food resources exploited by the dominant fish. Fishes were captured by diurnal seining (8.0 m x 1.50 m, 5 mm mesh) along macrophyte banks. Despite the high total number of species registered (100), sample species richness varied between 7 and 31, depending on the sampling site and the sampling date. Cluster analysis indicated low similarity between sites during both the isolation and the prolonged connection. Species turnover decreased from high water (? = 40.33) to low water (? = 33.83), with the minimum value of beta diversity index obtained during the isolation of the floodplain wetlands (? = 26.83). Our results indicated that different dominant populations of fish occur in different hydrological conditions, even though high water and isolation phases occur in the same season of different years. The ordination (NMDS) indicated the importance of hydrologic conditions in structuring fish assemblages in the studied floodplain. Small-sized characids, typically associated with macrophytes, dominated the fish assemblages, whereas the younger stages of large sized migratory species were found in low abundance. The maximum standard length of the fish captured was 28 cm and for large migratory fish, standard length varied between 1.6 and 25.0 cm. The dominant fish used several food resources, but littoral macrophytes-associated organisms had a high frequency of occurrence in the three hydrologic conditions. The high species richness of fish in the small, vegetated lakes was related to the high spatial heterogeneity during different hydrological conditions. Disturbances in the hydrological pulses could reduce the biodiversity by modifying the connectivity of the floodplain with the river channel. Conservation of these vegetated wetlands requires maintenance of actual width range of connectivity that provide diverse habitat along the time.Neste artigo analisamos as mudanças na composição e abundância das assembléias de peixes de sete áreas úmidas de planície de inundação com vegetação e com diferentes conectividades e em diferentes condições hidrológicas: depois de uma conexão prolongada da planície de inundação com o canal principal, durante o recuo das águas e após um isolamento prolongado. Nós também investigamos o tamanho e abundância das espécies migratórias de grande tamanho encontradas nestas áreas úmidas e os recursos alimentares explorados pelas espécies dominantes. Os peixes foram capturados com rede durante o dia (8.0 m x 1.50 m, malha de 5 mm) nos bancos de macrófitas. Apesar do alto número de espécies registradas (100), a riqueza de espécies nas amostras variou entre 7 e 31, de acordo com o local e data de coleta. A análise de cluster indicou uma baixa similaridade entre os locais tanto durante o período de isolamento como no de conexão prolongada. A substituição de espécies decresceu do período de cheia (? = 40.33) a vazante (? = 33.83), com o valor mínimo de índice de diversidade beta obtido durante o isolamento das áreas úmidas da planície de inundação (? = 26.83). Os resultados indicaram que diferentes populações dominantes de peixes ocorrem em condições hidrológicas diferentes, mesmo quando fases de cheia e de isolamento ocorreram na mesma estação em anos diferentes. A ordenação (NMDS) indicou a importância das condições hidrológicas na estruturação das assembléias de peixes na planície de inundação estudada. Caracídeos de pequeno tamanho, tipicamente associados à macrófitas, dominaram a assembléia de peixes, enquanto que indivíduos jovens de espécies de maior porte e mi

Juan José Neiff; Alicia Poi de Neiff; Marta B. Canón Verón

2009-01-01

166

Ultraviolet index and racial differences in prostate cancer incidence and mortality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that low levels of vitamin D may be associated with prostate cancer, and darker skin reduces the body's ability to generate vitamin D from sunshine. The impact of sunshine on racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality is unknown. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database, the authors calculated age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rates among black and white men aged ?45 years by race and county between 2000 and 2009 (N?=?906,381 men). Similarly, county-level prostate cancer mortality rates were calculated from the National Vital Statistics System (N?=?288,874). These data were linked with the average monthly solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation index by county and data regarding health, wellness, and demographics. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess whether increases in the UV index (in deciles) moderated the association between black race and the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. RESULTS: Compared with counties in the lowest UV index decile, prostate cancer incidence rates for white and black men were lower in counties with a higher UV index (all Ps???.0.051). Incidence rates were higher for black men versus white men, but the difference by race was less for counties in the fourth to fifth UV index deciles versus those in the first decile (Ps???0.02). Mortality rates also were found to decrease with increasing UV index for white men (Ps???0.003), but increase for black men, and an unexplained increase in racial differences in mortality rates was observed with an increasing UV index. CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in the incidence of prostate cancer were larger in some areas with less sunshine. Additional research should confirm the findings of the current study and assess whether optimizing vitamin D levels among black men can reduce disparities. Cancer 2013 © 2013 American Cancer Society.

Taksler GB; Cutler DM; Giovannucci E; Smith MR; Keating NL

2013-06-01

167

Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: A pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; M Ferrer, Tiago; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

2013-08-27

168

Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: A pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated.

Torres EA; Cerqueira GS; M Ferrer T; Quintella CM; Raboni M; Torretta V; Urbini G

2013-08-01

169

[Effects of different sampling modes on the results of vegetation ordination analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationships between plant and environment are an important topic in community ecology. To study these relationships, quadrate is often used to sample vegetation and environmental data, and ordination techniques are used to analyze the data. However, the size and shape of quadrate considerably affect the ordination results. To understand this effect remains a research item for various vegetation and environmental data settings. This paper studied the effects of different sampling quadrate (size and shape) on the results obtained from three common ordination techniques (CA, DCA and CCA). We did this by sampling the same transect in forest form map six times, using six different quadrates (0.5 km x 0.5 km, 0.5 km x 2 km, 2 km x 0.5 km, 1 km x 1 km, 1 km x 4 km, 2 km x 2 km). The results showed that large rectangle quadrate could capture greater percent variance of species data and more information about rare and unique species than small square quadrate. All sizes and shapes of quadrate used in this study had little effect on the dominant species. The captured soil information was sensitive both to the size and to the shape of quadrate, and the information of slope, longitude and latitude was sensitive to the change of quadrate size. Slope position, altitude, temperature and precipitation were sensitive to the change of quadrate shape. Large quadrate reduced the importance of altitude, temperature and precipitation while increased the importance of exposure, but these environmental factors appeared to be important in small quadrate sampling. PMID:17147157

Leng, Wenfang; He, Hongshi; Li, Xiuzhen; Yuanman, Hu

2006-09-01

170

[Effects of different sampling modes on the results of vegetation ordination analysis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationships between plant and environment are an important topic in community ecology. To study these relationships, quadrate is often used to sample vegetation and environmental data, and ordination techniques are used to analyze the data. However, the size and shape of quadrate considerably affect the ordination results. To understand this effect remains a research item for various vegetation and environmental data settings. This paper studied the effects of different sampling quadrate (size and shape) on the results obtained from three common ordination techniques (CA, DCA and CCA). We did this by sampling the same transect in forest form map six times, using six different quadrates (0.5 km x 0.5 km, 0.5 km x 2 km, 2 km x 0.5 km, 1 km x 1 km, 1 km x 4 km, 2 km x 2 km). The results showed that large rectangle quadrate could capture greater percent variance of species data and more information about rare and unique species than small square quadrate. All sizes and shapes of quadrate used in this study had little effect on the dominant species. The captured soil information was sensitive both to the size and to the shape of quadrate, and the information of slope, longitude and latitude was sensitive to the change of quadrate size. Slope position, altitude, temperature and precipitation were sensitive to the change of quadrate shape. Large quadrate reduced the importance of altitude, temperature and precipitation while increased the importance of exposure, but these environmental factors appeared to be important in small quadrate sampling.

Leng W; He H; Li X; Yuanman H

2006-09-01

171

Features of development speed - power capabilities with different anthropometric indexes for boys 10 - 11 years.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aspects of development speed - power capabilities for the boys of middle school ages are considered. 88 boys of sixth classes of basic medical group took part in research (age 10 - 11???). Facilities of development of the indicated capabilities on gymnastic shells with the use of own weight body were exercises. Experimental groups were completed taking into account a difference between the indexes of growth and weight after the index of Brok. Distinctive features of development speed - power capabilities between children appeared in support on the squared beams and in climb on a rope on speed.

Kamaev O.I.; Proskurov E.M.

2012-01-01

172

Limitaciones en la estimación de variables biofísicas en cultivos usando índices de vegetación espectrales: efecto de la densidad del follaje/ Limitations in the estimation of biophysical variables in crops using spectral vegetation indexes: foliage density effect  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En cultivos con una densidad alta del follaje, se produce la saturación rápida de la banda del rojo y la reducción de las variaciones en las pendientes de las curvas de igual vegetación (iso-IAF), en las que están basados muchos índices de vegetación (IV). Por ello, es importante el desarrollo de índices alternativos que no presenten problemas de saturación y sean fácilmente parametrizados con información de campo. Con este fin se evalúan los patrones temporal (more) es (modelo expo-lineal como referencia) de índices espectrales basados en las pendientes de las líneas iso-IAF, así como los de variables biofísicas: biomasa aérea (Bm), cobertura aérea (fv) y altura (h) de dos cultivos con diferente densidad del follaje, alta (sorgo) y media (algodón). Al aplicar un modelo expo-lineal se espera que presenten un patrón bilineal siempre que exista coincidencia de las variables en las fases de inicio y final. En general, las fases exponencial y lineal de la Bm no coinciden con las de fv y h, mostrando diferencias entre las características estructurales y de distribución espacial de la vegetación (fv y h) y la función fotosintética (follaje y biomasa). El cultivo de densidad media presenta patrones bilineales bien caracterizados; en cambio, el de alta densidad muestra una rápida saturación en la fase exponencial de la Bm. Para reducir el problema de saturación, se exploró el uso de la constante aditiva a0 como alternativa de los índices basados en la pendiente. La relación entre la constante aditiva y Bm presentó patrones de tipo expo-lineal doble con problemas en la definición de sus transiciones; las relaciones con la variable fv fueron bilineales, tanto para el cultivo de densidad media como para el de densidad alta, permitiendo una parametrización fácil en campo de los índices de vegetación (uso de fv); con la altura la relación fue lineal-exponencial. Abstract in english High density foliage crops produce the rapid saturation of the red band and reduction of variations in curve slopes of the same vegetation (iso-LAI), on which many vegetation indexes (VI) are based. For this reason, it is important to develop alternative indexes that do not become saturated and that are easily parameterized with information from the field. To this end, temporal patterns of spectral indexes (expo-linear model as reference) were evaluated based on the slope (more) s of the iso-LAI lines, as well as the biophysical variables aerial biomass (Bm), aerial cover (fv) and height (h) of two crops with different foliage density: high (sorghum) and medium (cotton). When an expo-linear model is applied, it is expected that it would have a bi-linear pattern, as long as the variables coincide in their initial and end phases. In general, the Bm exponential and linear phases do not coincide with those of fv and h; this shows that there are differences among the structural characteristics, those of spatial vegetation distribution (fv and h), and photosynthetic function (foliage and biomass). The medium density crop exhibited well-characterized bilinear patterns. In contrast, the high density crop saturated rapidly in the exponential phase of Bm. To reduce the problem of saturation, the use of the additive constant a0 was explored as an alternative to the indexes based on slope. The relationship between the additive constant and Bm exhibited patterns of the double expo-linear type with problems in the definition of its transitions; the relationship with the variable fv were bi-linear, both for the medium density crop and for the high density crop, thus facilitating parameterization the vegetation indexes (use of fv) in the field; with height, the relationship was linear-exponential.

Odi-Lara, Magali; Paz-Pellat, Fernando; López-Urrea, Ramón; González-Piqueras, José

2010-11-01

173

Scintillation index for two Gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths in weak atmospheric turbulence  

CERN Document Server

We study propagation of two lowest order Gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths in weak atmospheric turbulence. Using the Rytov approximation and assuming a slow detector we calculate the longitudinal and radial components of the scintillation index for a typical free space laser communication setup. We find the optimal configuration of the two laser beams with respect to the longitudinal scintillation index. We show that the value of the longitudinal scintillation for the optimal two-beam configuration is smaller by more than 50% compared with the value for a single lowest order Gaussian beam with the same total power. Furthermore, the radial scintillation for the optimal two-beam system is smaller by 35%-40% compared with the radial scintillation in the single beam case. Further insight into the reduction of intensity fluctuations is gained by analyzing the self- and cross-intensity contributions to the scintillation index.

Peleg, A; Peleg, Avner; Moloney, Jerome V.

2006-01-01

174

Scintillation index for two Gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths in weak atmospheric turbulence.  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the propagation of the two lowest-order Gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths in weak atmospheric turbulence. Using the Rytov approximation and assuming a slow detector, we calculate the longitudinal and radial components of the scintillation index for a typical free-space laser communication setup. We find the optimal configuration of the two laser beams with respect to the longitudinal scintillation index. We show that the value of the longitudinal scintillation for the optimal two-beam configuration is smaller by more than 50% compared with the value for a single lowest-order Gaussian beam with the same total power. Furthermore, the radial scintillation for the optimal two-beam system is smaller by 35%-40% compared with the radial scintillation in the single-beam case. Further insight into the reduction of intensity fluctuations is gained by analyzing the self- and cross-intensity contributions to the scintillation index. PMID:17106466

Peleg, Avner; Moloney, Jerome V

2006-12-01

175

Scintillation index for two Gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths in weak atmospheric turbulence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We study the propagation of the two lowest-order Gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths in weak atmospheric turbulence. Using the Rytov approximation and assuming a slow detector, we calculate the longitudinal and radial components of the scintillation index for a typical free-space laser communication setup. We find the optimal configuration of the two laser beams with respect to the longitudinal scintillation index. We show that the value of the longitudinal scintillation for the optimal two-beam configuration is smaller by more than 50% compared with the value for a single lowest-order Gaussian beam with the same total power. Furthermore, the radial scintillation for the optimal two-beam system is smaller by 35%-40% compared with the radial scintillation in the single-beam case. Further insight into the reduction of intensity fluctuations is gained by analyzing the self- and cross-intensity contributions to the scintillation index.

Peleg A; Moloney JV

2006-12-01

176

Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM v1.0)  

Science.gov (United States)

A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have large impacts on carbon-water-energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in a new carbon-water-energy coupled model to explore the importance of vegetation structure and vegetation adaptation to water stress on equilibrium biomass states. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximizes biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the Water Use Efficiency and Leaf Area Index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, an important negative feedback mechanism is found as the vegetation also tries to minimize its cover to optimize the surrounding bare ground area from which water can be extracted, thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation. Under larger precipitation, a positive feedback mechanism is found in which vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large Leaf Area Index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a "survival" state to a "growing" state.

Yin, Z.; Dekker, S. C.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Dijkstra, H. A.

2013-09-01

177

Chlorophyll index, photochemical reflectance index and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of rice leaves supplied with different N levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapid and non-destructive diagnosis of plant N status is highly required in order to optimise N fertilizer management and use-efficiency. Additionally to handheld devices for measurements of chlorophyll indices (e.g., SPAD meter) parameters of canopy reflectance via remote sensing approaches are intensively investigated and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) appears to be a reliable indicator for changes of the epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle pigments. In order to assess the suitability of a handheld PRI as an additional tool for N diagnosis, rice plants were grown in a nutrient solution experiment with seven N-supply levels (0.18-5.71 mM) and CI (SPAD) and PRI values and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters measured 20 and 28 days after onset of treatments. N-supply had effects on both CI (SPAD) and PRI values with a more reliable differentiation between levels. Maximum quantum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), actual efficiency of PSII photochemistry (?(PSII)) and regulated non-photochemical quenching (?(NPQ)) did not differ significantly between N levels. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and fast- relaxing NPQ (NPQ(F)) were significantly affected by N-supply. NPQ and NPQ(F), but not the slow-relaxing component (NPQ(S)), were correlated with CI (SPAD) and PRI values. This finding which has not been reported for N-supply effects so far is indirect evidence that low N-supply induced xanthophyll cycle activity and that PRI values are able to indicate this at least in plants subject to severe N deficiency.

Shrestha S; Brueck H; Asch F

2012-08-01

178

Chlorophyll index, photochemical reflectance index and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of rice leaves supplied with different N levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid and non-destructive diagnosis of plant N status is highly required in order to optimise N fertilizer management and use-efficiency. Additionally to handheld devices for measurements of chlorophyll indices (e.g., SPAD meter) parameters of canopy reflectance via remote sensing approaches are intensively investigated and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) appears to be a reliable indicator for changes of the epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle pigments. In order to assess the suitability of a handheld PRI as an additional tool for N diagnosis, rice plants were grown in a nutrient solution experiment with seven N-supply levels (0.18-5.71 mM) and CI (SPAD) and PRI values and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters measured 20 and 28 days after onset of treatments. N-supply had effects on both CI (SPAD) and PRI values with a more reliable differentiation between levels. Maximum quantum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), actual efficiency of PSII photochemistry (?(PSII)) and regulated non-photochemical quenching (?(NPQ)) did not differ significantly between N levels. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and fast- relaxing NPQ (NPQ(F)) were significantly affected by N-supply. NPQ and NPQ(F), but not the slow-relaxing component (NPQ(S)), were correlated with CI (SPAD) and PRI values. This finding which has not been reported for N-supply effects so far is indirect evidence that low N-supply induced xanthophyll cycle activity and that PRI values are able to indicate this at least in plants subject to severe N deficiency. PMID:22617629

Shrestha, Suchit; Brueck, Holger; Asch, Folkard

2012-05-03

179

Analysing the influence of different street vegetation on traffic-induced particle dispersion using microscale simulations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urban vegetation can be viewed as compensation to the environmental drawbacks of urbanisation. However, its ecosystem function is not well-known and, for urban planning, vegetation is mainly considered as an element of urban design. This article argues that planning practice needs to re-examine the impact of vegetation cover in the urban fabric given our evaluation of vegetation's effects on air quality, including the dispersion of traffic-induced particles at street level. Using the three-dimensional microclimate model ENVI-met®, we evaluate these effects regarding the height-to-width ratio of streets flanked by buildings and the vertical and horizontal density of street vegetation. Our results reveal vegetation's effect on particle dispersion through its influence on street ventilation. In general, vegetation was found to reduce wind speed, causing inhibition of canyon ventilation and, consequently, an increase in particle concentrations. Vegetation was also found to reduce wind speed at crown-height and to disrupt the flow field in close vicinity to the canopy. With increasing height-to-width ratio of street canyons, wind speed reduction increases and the disturbance of the flow impacts across a canyon's entire width. We also found that the effect is more pronounced in configurations with poor ventilation, such as the low wind speed, perpendicular inflow direction, and in deep canyons cases.

Wania A; Bruse M; Blond N; Weber C

2012-02-01

180

Differences in fruit and vegetable intake among Hispanic subgroups in California: results from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To compare total fruit and vegetable intake in cup equivalents and its individual components among Hispanic subgroups in California. METHODS: Data are from the adult portion of the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Hispanic/Latino subjects (n=7,954) were grouped into six subcategories (Mexican, Central American, Caribbean, Spanish American, South American, and >1 group). Total fruit and vegetable intake in cup equivalents was estimated from frequency responses about seven food categories. Both t test and chi(2) test were used to assess differences in sociodemographic characteristics across Hispanic subgroups. Multivariate linear regressions using SUDAAN software (Survey Data Analysis, version 9.0.1, 2005, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC) were conducted to obtain means of total fruit and vegetable intake in cup equivalents and its components by Hispanic subgroups controlling for confounders. RESULTS: Hispanic subgroups did not differ in their intake of total fruit and vegetable intake in cup equivalents (mean 3.4 c and 2.9 c for men and women, respectively). Small but significant differences (P<0.01) were found across Hispanic subgroups in individual fruit and vegetable components (green salad [women only], cooked dried beans and nonfried white potatoes) after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and acculturation confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Fruit and vegetable intake by Hispanic respondents did not meet the national recommendation, although their reported intake is higher compared to other race/ethnicity groups. The public health message remains the same: Increase fruit and vegetable intake. Examination of intake for subgroups of Hispanics may enhance the utility of dietary information for surveillance, program and message design, and intervention and evaluation.

Colón-Ramos U; Thompson FE; Yaroch AL; Moser RP; McNeel TS; Dodd KW; Atienza AA; Sugerman SB; Nebeling L

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

Responses to two weight-loss programs based on approximating the diet to the ideal: differences associated with increased cereal or vegetable consumption.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fight against excess weight and obesity is a health priority. The aim of this study was to analyze the anthropometric changes induced by two weight control programs based on approximating the diet to the theoretical ideal (increasing the consumption of foods with the largest differences between the recommended and observed intakes: cereals and vegetables--for which a minimum of 6 and 3 servings/day are recommended, respectively). The study subjects were 57 Spanish women with a body-mass index (BMI) of 24-35 kg/m2, all of whom were randomly assigned to one of two slightly hypocaloric diets for a six-week period: diet V, in which the consumption of greens and vegetables was increased, or diet C, in which the consumption of cereals was increased. Dietetic and anthropometric data were collected at the start of the study and again at two and six weeks. The dietary intervention approximated the subjects' energy provision from proteins, fats, and carbohydrates to those recommended. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) improved with both diets. Reductions in body weight, BMI, and the amount of body fat (kg) were also achieved with both diets. Weight loss was 1.56 +/- 0.93 kg and 1.02 +/- 0.55 kg at two weeks with diet C and V respectively, and 2.8 +/- 1.4 kg and 2.0 +/- 1.3 kg at six weeks (p < 0.05). Approximating the diet to the theoretical ideal by increasing the consumption of vegetables or cereals may therefore be of use in weight control. In terms of weight loss and the improvement of the diet quality (energy profile and HEI), diet C was significantly more effective than diet V.

Ortega RM; Rodríguez-Rodríguez E; Aparicio A; Marín-Arias LI; López-Sobaler AM

2006-11-01

182

Responses to two weight-loss programs based on approximating the diet to the ideal: differences associated with increased cereal or vegetable consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fight against excess weight and obesity is a health priority. The aim of this study was to analyze the anthropometric changes induced by two weight control programs based on approximating the diet to the theoretical ideal (increasing the consumption of foods with the largest differences between the recommended and observed intakes: cereals and vegetables--for which a minimum of 6 and 3 servings/day are recommended, respectively). The study subjects were 57 Spanish women with a body-mass index (BMI) of 24-35 kg/m2, all of whom were randomly assigned to one of two slightly hypocaloric diets for a six-week period: diet V, in which the consumption of greens and vegetables was increased, or diet C, in which the consumption of cereals was increased. Dietetic and anthropometric data were collected at the start of the study and again at two and six weeks. The dietary intervention approximated the subjects' energy provision from proteins, fats, and carbohydrates to those recommended. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) improved with both diets. Reductions in body weight, BMI, and the amount of body fat (kg) were also achieved with both diets. Weight loss was 1.56 +/- 0.93 kg and 1.02 +/- 0.55 kg at two weeks with diet C and V respectively, and 2.8 +/- 1.4 kg and 2.0 +/- 1.3 kg at six weeks (p < 0.05). Approximating the diet to the theoretical ideal by increasing the consumption of vegetables or cereals may therefore be of use in weight control. In terms of weight loss and the improvement of the diet quality (energy profile and HEI), diet C was significantly more effective than diet V. PMID:17607956

Ortega, Rosa M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Marín-Arias, Lilliam I; López-Sobaler, Ana M

2006-11-01

183

Association between different measurements of blood pressure variability by ABP monitoring and ankle-brachial index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure (BP) variability has been associated with cardiovascular outcomes, but there is no consensus about the more effective method to measure it by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We evaluated the association between three different methods to estimate BP variability by ABPM and the ankle brachial index (ABI). Methods and Results In a cross-sectional study of patients with hypertension, BP variability was estimated by the time rate index (the first derivative of SBP over time), standard deviation (SD) of 24-hour SBP; and coefficient of variability of 24-hour SBP. ABI was measured with a doppler probe. The sample included 425 patients with a mean age of 57 ± 12 years, being 69.2% women, 26.1% current smokers and 22.1% diabetics. Abnormal ABI (? 0.90 or ? 1.40) was present in 58 patients. The time rate index was 0.516 ± 0.146 mmHg/min in patients with abnormal ABI versus 0.476 ± 0.124 mmHg/min in patients with normal ABI (P = 0.007). In a logistic regression model the time rate index was associated with ABI, regardless of age (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.1- 42.1; P = 0.04). In a multiple linear regression model, adjusting for age, SBP and diabetes, the time rate index was strongly associated with ABI (P Conclusion Time rate index is a sensible method to measure BP variability by ABPM. Its performance for risk stratification of patients with hypertension should be explored in longitudinal studies.

Wittke Estefânia; Fuchs Sandra C; Fuchs Flávio D; Moreira Leila B; Ferlin Elton; Cichelero Fábio T; Moreira Carolina M; Neyeloff Jeruza; Moreira Marina B; Gus Miguel

2010-01-01

184

An enhanced vegetation index time series for the Amazon based on combined gap-filling approaches and quality datasets  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation indices from MODIS data are subject to residual atmospheric noise, affecting processes requiring data continuity and analyses. This work reconstructed a time series of MODIS EVI mosaics for the Amazon using a novel combination of curve-fitting and spatiotemporal gap-filling. TIMESAT was used for initial curve fitting and gap filling, using a Double Logistic method and MODIS Usefulness values as weights. Pixels with large temporal gaps were handled by a spatiotemporal gap filling approach. The method scans Julian Days before and after the image being gap filled, searching for a good quality pixel (Pg) at the location of the pixel to be replaced. If Pg is found, a window is defined around it and a search for good quality pixels (Px) with spectral characteristics similar to Pg is performed. Window size increases during processing and pixel similarity uses Euclidean distance based on MOD13A2 reflectances. A good quality EVI value for the image being gap filled and at the location analogous to the minimum distance Px replaces the low quality pixel. Results from the spatiotemporal gap filling were then used in TIMESAT for smoothing. An evaluation strategy of the spatiotemporal approach involved flagging 5,000 randomly selected good-quality pixels as low-quality, running the algorithm and regressing the results with the original EVI values (R2= 0.62). The combined strategy was able to find replacement pixels and reduce spikes for images with high cloud cover and was used to rebuild a time series of EVI over the Amazon region for the period 2000-2010.

Bernardes, Sergio

2010-10-01

185

Mercury concentration in vegetables of Pakistan irrigated by different water sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mercury levels were determined in twenty samples of each vegetable i.e., Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Carrot (Daucus cariota), Capsicum (Capsicum fistulosus), Sweet pea (Lathyrus Odoratus), Potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Cabbage (Brassica oleracea), with a special reference of source of water of irrigation, i.e., tube well water, canal water and municipal sewage water. All the samples of vegetables were collected during the year 2006, 2007 and 2008 from the five districts of Pakistan viz Lahore, Kasur, Multan, Bahawalpur and R.Y. Khan. Statistical analysis such as Test of significance and multiple comparison were applied on the data obtained. The results showed that the concentration of Mercury in vegetables irrigated by canal water, sewage water and tube well water was in the range of 3.1-88.9 ppb and 9.0-130.6 ppb. It can be concluded from this study that the uptake of mercury by vegetables collected from above five districts of Pakistan was in the following order. Leafy vegetables > Root vegetables > seedy vegetables. (author)

2011-01-01

186

Índice de seleção e estimativa de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos para características relacionadas com a produção de milho-verde/ Index of selection and estimation of genetic and phenotypical parameters for traits related with the production of vegetable corn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O Brasil é um dos maiores produtores de milho do mundo e possui grande potencial para a produção de milho verde. Além de agregar valor ao produto, a comercialização de milho verde cresceu muito nos últimos anos. Há escassez de informações sobre a avaliação e a obtenção de cultivares destinadas à produção de milho-verde e também sobre estudos genéticos das características envolvidas nessa produção. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estimar parâmetros gen (more) éticos e fenotípicos, a correlação genética, classificar e identificar híbridos de milho verde promissores ao mercado consumidor e avaliar a eficiência dos pesos econômicos atribuídos. Os resultados determinaram que a seleção terá sucesso, para as diferentes características de milho-verde, pois, a herdabilidade foi de alta magnitude para as características avaliadas. A avaliação da produtividade de espigas empalhadas (PEE) é suficiente para definir quais os híbridos apresentam o melhor desempenho para a produtividade de espigas comerciais (PEC), diâmetro (DIAM) e comprimento de espigas (COMP). Isso indica que as características PEC, DIAM e COMP podem ser descartadas da avaliação em programas de melhoramento de milho-verde. Os híbridos HS48, HS27, HS24, HS25, HS12 e HS45 acumularam um maior número de características desejadas em um único genótipo, com base no índice de seleção baseado na soma de postos, sendo os mais promissores para a produção de milho-verde. Os pesos econômicos utilizados foram capazes de distinguir e identificar os híbridos mais promissores para a produção de milho- verde e podem ser utilizados como critério de seleção em programas de melhoramento de milho-verde. Abstract in english Brazil is one of the largest producers of corn of the world and it possesses great potential for vegetable corn production. Besides adding value to the product, the commercialization of vegetable corn increased in the last years. There is shortage of information about the evaluation and the acquisition of genotypes destined to the production of vegetable corn and also on genetic studies of the traits involved in this production. The objective of this work was to estimate (more) the genetic and phenotypic parameters, and the genetic correlation, and to classify and identify hybrids of promising vegetable corn to the consumer market and to evaluate the efficiency of the attributed economical weights. The results determined that the selection will succeed, for the different traits of vegetable corn, because the heritability was of high magnitude to the appraised traits. Evaluation of husked ears yield (PEE) was enough to define which hybrid presents better commercial ear productivity, diameter and corn ear length. This indicates that those traits could be discarded in the selection process of genotypes of breeding programs for vegetable corn production. The hybrids HS48, HS27, HS24, HS25 and HS12 accumulated the largest number of desirable traits in a single genotype based on the sum of rank index. The used economical weights were efficient to distinguish and identify the most promising hybrid for vegetable corn production and they can be used as a selection criterion in programs of breeding of vegetable corn.

Rodrigues, Fabricio; Von Pinho, Renzo Garcia; Albuquerque, Carlos Juliano Brant; Von Pinho, Édila Vilela Resende

2011-04-01

187

Índice de seleção e estimativa de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos para características relacionadas com a produção de milho-verde Index of selection and estimation of genetic and phenotypical parameters for traits related with the production of vegetable corn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos maiores produtores de milho do mundo e possui grande potencial para a produção de milho verde. Além de agregar valor ao produto, a comercialização de milho verde cresceu muito nos últimos anos. Há escassez de informações sobre a avaliação e a obtenção de cultivares destinadas à produção de milho-verde e também sobre estudos genéticos das características envolvidas nessa produção. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos, a correlação genética, classificar e identificar híbridos de milho verde promissores ao mercado consumidor e avaliar a eficiência dos pesos econômicos atribuídos. Os resultados determinaram que a seleção terá sucesso, para as diferentes características de milho-verde, pois, a herdabilidade foi de alta magnitude para as características avaliadas. A avaliação da produtividade de espigas empalhadas (PEE) é suficiente para definir quais os híbridos apresentam o melhor desempenho para a produtividade de espigas comerciais (PEC), diâmetro (DIAM) e comprimento de espigas (COMP). Isso indica que as características PEC, DIAM e COMP podem ser descartadas da avaliação em programas de melhoramento de milho-verde. Os híbridos HS48, HS27, HS24, HS25, HS12 e HS45 acumularam um maior número de características desejadas em um único genótipo, com base no índice de seleção baseado na soma de postos, sendo os mais promissores para a produção de milho-verde. Os pesos econômicos utilizados foram capazes de distinguir e identificar os híbridos mais promissores para a produção de milho- verde e podem ser utilizados como critério de seleção em programas de melhoramento de milho-verde.Brazil is one of the largest producers of corn of the world and it possesses great potential for vegetable corn production. Besides adding value to the product, the commercialization of vegetable corn increased in the last years. There is shortage of information about the evaluation and the acquisition of genotypes destined to the production of vegetable corn and also on genetic studies of the traits involved in this production. The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters, and the genetic correlation, and to classify and identify hybrids of promising vegetable corn to the consumer market and to evaluate the efficiency of the attributed economical weights. The results determined that the selection will succeed, for the different traits of vegetable corn, because the heritability was of high magnitude to the appraised traits. Evaluation of husked ears yield (PEE) was enough to define which hybrid presents better commercial ear productivity, diameter and corn ear length. This indicates that those traits could be discarded in the selection process of genotypes of breeding programs for vegetable corn production. The hybrids HS48, HS27, HS24, HS25 and HS12 accumulated the largest number of desirable traits in a single genotype based on the sum of rank index. The used economical weights were efficient to distinguish and identify the most promising hybrid for vegetable corn production and they can be used as a selection criterion in programs of breeding of vegetable corn.

Fabricio Rodrigues; Renzo Garcia Von Pinho; Carlos Juliano Brant Albuquerque; Édila Vilela Resende Von Pinho

2011-01-01

188

Characterization of Corn Nitrogen Status with a Greenness Index under Different Availability of Sulfur  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several methodologies measure leaf greenness intensity and relate it to crop N status. There is no evidence, however, of the utility of this variable to detect N deficiencies in corn (Zea mays L.) under S deficiency. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of two indexes based on leaf greenness intensity to detect N deficiencies in corn under different levels of S. Two experiments at Balcarce, Argentina (Bce I and Bce II), and one at 9 de Julio, Argentina (9dJ), were conducted during the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 seasons with different levels of N and S. Weekly measurements of greenness index (GI) were performed, and whole-plant samples were taken at four developmental stages to determine crop N and S accumulation. No N x S interaction was found in any measured variable. Nitrogen increased dry matter N and S accumulation, grain yield, and GI. Sulfur fertilization resulted in increased S accumulation in all experiments, and grain yield at Bce II and 9dJ. This nutrient also increased GI during several crop stages in all experiments. A nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI) was related to its relative yield (R2: 0.67, 0.63, 0.43, 0.67 for stages V5-V8, V9-V11, V13-V14, and V15-V18, respectively) under different S levels. On the other hand, a new index called relative greenness index (RGI), proposed for situations that could present S deficiencies, was also related to its relative yield (R2: 0.67, 0.81, 0.63, 0.82 for stages V5-V8, V9-V11, V13-V14, and V15-V18, respectively) under different S levels. The regression lines of both indexes were coincident for all sample dates. It was concluded that crop N status can be characterized under different levels of S through the NSI. Future research, however, should test these results under a wider range of S levels.

Pagani Agustín; Echeverría HernánE; Andrade FernandoH; Sainz Rozas HernánR

2009-03-01

189

Socio-economic differences in adolescents' breakfast eating, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity in Ghana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated the association between adolescents' socio-economic status (SES) and health behaviours in developing countries. Socio-economic differences in breakfast eating, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity were investigated among Ghanaian adolescents. DESIGN: A school-based survey of 12-18-year-olds (n 1195, response rate 89·7 %) was conducted in 2008. Logistic regression analyses were applied to study the associations between breakfast eating, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity, and SES. SETTING: Southern Ghana, West Africa. SUBJECTS: School pupils aged 12-18 years. RESULTS: Of all adolescents, 31 % took breakfast less than 4 d/week, over half (56 %) and 48 %, respectively, rarely ate fruits and vegetables. Younger adolescents (12-15-year-olds) consumed fruits and vegetables frequently compared with older ones (16-18-year-olds). Boys were more likely to participate in physical activity than girls. The probability of frequent breakfast eating was higher in adolescents from more affluent backgrounds than in those from less affluent ones. Compared with those whose mothers were illiterate, both tertiary and primary maternal educational attainment increased the probability of frequent fruit intake. Similarly, tertiary educational attainment increased the likelihood of frequent vegetable intake. Compared with those with unemployed mothers, mothers' low employment grade was related to higher probability of frequent fruit intake. High school performance was associated with frequent fruit intake, whereas high or medium school performance increased the likelihood of vegetable intake compared with low school performance. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are needed to improve breakfast intake, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity in order to prevent degenerative diseases among Ghanaian adolescents.

Doku D; Koivusilta L; Raisamo S; Rimpelä A

2013-05-01

190

Summary of the especies of Spanish vegetation sensitive to different pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detail literature review of the sensitivity of the species of Spanish vegetation to various pollutants was made. An impact scale was created to describe the qualitative degree of sensitivity to which each specie is affected by major atmospheric pollutants: very sensitive, sensitive, intermediate sensitive and resistent. This type of study, combined with studies of emission, concentration and dispersion of air pollution, is of great interest to evaluate the environmental impact to the vegetation community. (author) 45 refs.

1987-01-01

191

The influence of different planting seasons of six leaf vegetables on residue of five pesticides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the influence of different planting seasons on the dissipation of pesticides, field experiments of thiophanate methyl, metalaxyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin on six crops including pakchoi, rape, crown daisy, amaranth, spinach and lettuce were designed and conducted. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometer with multiple reaction monitoring was used to simultaneously determine thiophanate methyl and its metabolite carbendazim, metalaxyl, fluazifop-P-butyl in various samples, gas chromatograph with Electron Capture Detector was used to detect chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of thiophanate methyl, carbendazim, metalaxyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin were in the range of 0.001-0.01 mg kg-1 for all samples and the average recoveries of all pesticides ranged from 60.1-119.1% at 0.01 mg kg-1 and 0.1 mg kg-1 spiked levels. The relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1.1% to 13.9%. All maximal concentrations of six pesticides in six leaf vegetables at autumn were higher than that at summer in Beijing. For most pesticides half-lives at autumn were longer than that at summer. The results showed that the initial concentration, maximal concentration and half-lives of pesticides were influenced not only by environment factors like light, heat, moisture, rainy climate but also by plant matrix.

Fan S; Deng K; Yu C; Zhao P; Bai A; Li Y; Pan C; Li X

2013-08-01

192

Effects of different media on vegetative growth of two Lilium cultivars in soilless culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strong, tall and healthy stems, as well as green background by means of leaves, are very important characters in marketing of cut flowers including Lily (Lilium). Also, in order to reuse the bulbs for next crop production, they should have enough stored materials and perimeter. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of different media on some vegetative characters of two Lillium cultivars in greenhouse conditions and determine the most suitable medium. The experiment was based on randomized complete design with two cultivars namely Bernini (Oriental) and Cebdazzle (Asiatic) and 4 replicates. Ten treatments of the experiment were organic and mineral media including cocopeat, sand, vermiculite, perlite and mixture of each two media at equal volumes (50: 50). All the pots were fertigated daily by 250 ml of Hoagland half strength solution. Means were compared by Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. The results showed superiority of cocopeat over other media in terms of plant chlorophyll content, fresh and dry weight of leaves and stem, leaf area, height, stem diameter, number of leaves, and bulb perimeter in both cultivars. Root length of both cultivars reached the highest using the mixture of perlite and cocopeat. The performance of Cebdazzle cv. against Bernini cv. regarding fresh and dry weight of leaves, leaf area, stem diameter, number of leaves, stem dry weight and root length were better in all the media. While, mean chlorophyll content and fresh weight of stems in Bernini was significantly higher than Cebdazzle.

R. Nikrazm; S. Alizadeh Ajirlou; A. Khaligy; S. J. Tabatabaei

2011-01-01

193

COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory conditions, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared by using methanol in the presence of 1.85% hydrochloric acid at 100 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 3 h. The analyses of biodiesel were carried out by gas chroma¬tography and thin layer chromatography. Also, biodiesel productivities (%) were determined on basis of the ratio of ester to oil content (w/w). The biodiesel productivities for all oils were found to be about 80% and about 90% at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. Also, the results showed that the yield of biodiesel depended on temperature for some oils, including canola, sunflower, safflower oils, but it was not found significant differences among all of the oil types on biodiesel productivities.

AYTEN SAGIROGLU; ?EBNEM SELEN ISBILIR; HAKKI MEVLUT OZCAN; HATICE PALUZAR; NESLIHAN M. TOPRAKKIRAN

2011-01-01

194

A COMPARISON OF THE SALINITY REGIME ALONG THE TEXAS COAST WITH TERRESTRIAL VEGETATION GREENNESS AND WATER USE IN THE GALVESTON BAY WATERSHED USING REMOTING SENSING  

Science.gov (United States)

Variability in vegetation greenness was determined for the Galveston Bay watershed using biweekly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (A VHRR) flown on NOAA satellites. NDVI variability was compared with reg...

195

Effects of adding bentonite to different substrates on vegetative growth and yield of snap beans (Phaseulus vulgaris L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study the effects of adding a superabsorbent (bentonite) to different substrates on the vegetative growth and yield of snap beans, two randomized complete block design experiments with 4 replications were conducted at Greenhouse of Isfahan University of Technology. In the first experiment, 9 treatments including rice hull, saw dust, sand and their combinations, with 10 and 20% superabsorbent (v/v) were used. The results showed that the highest stem length, number of nodes and leaves, shoot fresh weight and pod number were observed using rice hull (90%)+superabsorbent (10%). The lowest vegetative growth was related to treatments containing sand and superabsorbent. Increasing superabsorbent from 10 to 20% reduced vegetative growth parameters in most cases. Based on the results of the first experiment, sand treatment was deleted and in the second experiment rice hull, saw dust, perlite and their combinations with 5 and 10% superabsorbent were used. The results showed that the highest plant height, number of nodes and leaves, plant dry weight, branch number and yield were obtained in perlite (95%)+superabsorbent (5%) and pure perlite. Adding 5 and 10% superabsorbent to rice hull and saw dust caused a significant increase in the vegetative growth. This increase was higher for 10% superabsorbent compared to 5% superabsorbent. Finally, the results showed that adding 10% superabsorbent to rice hull and saw dust increased vegetative growth and yield, while it decreased the loss of nutrient solution.

P. Aghdak; M. Mobli; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; F. Shakeri

2010-01-01

196

Toxicity of Trace Elements in Different Vegetables Grown on Potentially Contaminated Sites of the Korangi Industrial Area, Karachi Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents toxicity of trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb) in different vegetables grown on potentially contaminated sites of the Korangi Industrial Area, Karachi (Sindh) Pakistan. A total of 40 effluent irrigated and 4 tubewell irrigated considered as background samples were co...

Midrar-ul-Haq; Riaz A. Khattak; Haji Khan Puno; M. Saleem Saif; Kazi Suleman Memon; Nabi Bux Sial

197

Development and testing of an index of biotic integrity based on submersed and floating vegetation and its application to assess reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands area, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We developed and tested a plant-based index of biological integrity (IBI) and used it to evaluate the existing reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands mining region. Reclamation plans call for >15,000 ha of wetlands to be constructed, but currently, only about 25 wetlands are of suitable age for evaluation. Reclamation wetlands are typically of the shallow open water type and range from fresh to sub-saline. Tailings-contaminated wetlands in particular may have problems with hydrocarbon- and salt-related toxicity. From 60 initial candidate metrics in the submersed aquatic and floating vegetation communities, we selected five to quantify biological integrity. The IBI included two diversity-based metrics: the species richness of floating vegetation and the percent of total richness contributed by Potamogeton spp. It also included three relative abundance-based metrics: that of Ceratophyllum demersum, of floating leafed species and of alkali-tolerant species. We evaluated the contribution of nonlinear metrics to IBI performance but concluded that the correlation between IBI scores and wetland condition was not improved. The method used to score metrics had an influence on the IBI sensitivity. We conclude that continuous scoring relative to the distribution of values found in reference sites was superior. This scoring approach provided good sensitivity and resolution and was grounded in reference condition theory. Based on these IBI scores, both tailings-contaminated and tailings-free reclamation wetlands have significantly lower average biological integrity than reference wetlands (ANOVA: F(2,59) = 34.7, p = 0.000000000107).

Rooney RC; Bayley SE

2012-01-01

198

Effects of different protein and glycemic index diets on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary glycemic index (GI) and protein affects postprandial insulin responses and consequently 24 h glucose metabolism and therefore substrate partitioning. This study investigated the mechanistic effects of different protein and GI diets on 24 h profiles of metabolic markers and substrate partitioning. After 3 days of diet and physical activity standardization, 10 healthy male subjects (BMI: 22.5 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) stayed in a respiration chamber 4 times for 36 h each time to measure substrate partitioning. All subjects randomly received four isoenergetic diets: a normal (15En%) dairy protein and low GI (<40 units) (NDP-LGI) diet; a high (25En%) dairy protein and low GI (HDP-LGI) diet; a normal vegetable protein and low GI (NVP-LGI) diet; or a normal dairy protein and high GI (>60 units) (NDP-HGI) diet. During the day, blood was sampled at fixed time points for the measurement of metabolic markers and satiety hormones. The HDP-LGI diet increased 24 h protein oxidation and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) compared with the NDP-LGI diet (p < 0.002). No significant differences in 24 h carbohydrate and fat oxidation (day and night) were found between all intervention diets. Net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) of 24 h plasma glucose decreased in the HDP-LGI diet compared with the NDP-LGI diet (p < 0.01), but no effect was observed on insulin levels. No difference in appetite profiles were observed between all intervention diets. The lower 24 h glycemic profile as a result of a high dairy protein diet did not lead to changes in 24 h substrate partitioning in lean healthy subjects with a normal insulin sensitivity.

Munsters MJ; Geraedts MC; Saris WH

2013-11-01

199

Evaluation of Effluent Quality Used for Irrigation of Vegetable Production in Different Districts of Potowar, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted in different districts of Potowar region to evaluate the quality of sewage for irrigation purposes and heavy metal contents in sewage water. Sewage samples were collected from 25 sewage irrigated farms around Rawalpindi, Attock and Abotabad districts. Electrical conductivity of the samples ranged from 0.55-2.36 dS m-1. Sixty percent of the samples did not pose salinity hazard while forty percent were marginally fit for irrigation. Sodium adsorption ratio ranged from 0.24 to 4.36 showing that all the samples were low in Na contents. RSC varied from 0.0-8.1 mmol L-1 in the sewage samples under study; 59% of the samples had -1 of RSC showing that sewage represented by these samples had no risk of NaHCO3 hazard when applied to soils. Chloride contents in the samples were in the range of 0.5 to 4.7 mmol L-1 and were within safe limits. Zn and Pb contents in the sewage of various locations were found within safe limits (-1, respectively) while Cu, Cd, Ni and Cr concentrations were found to exceed the maximum permissible limits. The effluent of areas under investigation are mixture of both domestic and industrial wastewater, high levels of HCO3- from washing soaps and detergents and excess of heavy metals from different industrial sources were present in the effluent. Therefore, sewage irrigation may cause deterioration of soil quality by causing salinity and introducing excessive contents of HCO3- in soils and poses health hazards by increasing heavy metal contents in vegetables and crops.

Tahir Hussain Chattha; Mateen ul Hassan Khan; Muhammad Imran Latif

2005-01-01

200

Growth and photosynthetic capacity in two woody species of cerrado vegetation under different radiation availability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seedlings of two woody species of cerrado vegetation, Copaifera langsdorffii and Eriotheca gracilipes, were studied under three different radiation availability (100, 80 and 30% transmittance). Full solar radiation brought about more biomass, higher total leaf area, higher maximal photosynthesis per crown on area or on mass bases and higher photosynthetic capacity on area bases. Only the photosynthetic capacity values on leaf mass bases were higher in both species under low radiation availability (80 and 30% transmittance). The differences of accumulated biomass appeared more clearly after 4 months of sowing but the root/shoot dry biomass ratio and height were maintained constant for both species independently of the available radiation. Cultivated under full solar radiation both species will be able to cover more suitable the two processes during seedling's phase: growth and defense.Duas espécies de cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii e Eriotheca gracilipes) foram cultivadas sob três diferentes condições de radiação (100, 80 e 30% de transmitância). A radiação solar plena proporcionou as condições mais favoráveis para o desenvolvimento das espécies: maior acúmulo de biomassa total, maior área foliar total, maior fotossíntese potencial por copa expressa em área ou em massa e maior capacidade fotossintética expressa em área foliar. Somente os valores de capacidade fotossintética expressa em massa foram maiores sob baixa radiação (80 e 30% de transmitância) para ambas as espécies. As diferenças de biomassa acumulada apareceram mais claramente após os 4 meses de plantio, mas a relação massa seca raiz/parte aérea e a altura foram mantidas independentes da radiação disponível para ambas as espécies. Sob 100% de transmitância estas espécies apresentaram um balanço de carbono mais positivo e condições mais favoráveis para suprir as duas principais demandas neste estágio do ciclo de vida da planta: o crescimento e a defesa.

Carlos Cesar Ronquim; Carlos Henrique B. de A. Prado; Nádia Figueiredo de Paula

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Growth and photosynthetic capacity in two woody species of cerrado vegetation under different radiation availability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Duas espécies de cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii e Eriotheca gracilipes) foram cultivadas sob três diferentes condições de radiação (100, 80 e 30% de transmitância). A radiação solar plena proporcionou as condições mais favoráveis para o desenvolvimento das espécies: maior acúmulo de biomassa total, maior área foliar total, maior fotossíntese potencial por copa expressa em área ou em massa e maior capacidade fotossintética expressa em área foliar. Somen (more) te os valores de capacidade fotossintética expressa em massa foram maiores sob baixa radiação (80 e 30% de transmitância) para ambas as espécies. As diferenças de biomassa acumulada apareceram mais claramente após os 4 meses de plantio, mas a relação massa seca raiz/parte aérea e a altura foram mantidas independentes da radiação disponível para ambas as espécies. Sob 100% de transmitância estas espécies apresentaram um balanço de carbono mais positivo e condições mais favoráveis para suprir as duas principais demandas neste estágio do ciclo de vida da planta: o crescimento e a defesa. Abstract in english Seedlings of two woody species of cerrado vegetation, Copaifera langsdorffii and Eriotheca gracilipes, were studied under three different radiation availability (100, 80 and 30% transmittance). Full solar radiation brought about more biomass, higher total leaf area, higher maximal photosynthesis per crown on area or on mass bases and higher photosynthetic capacity on area bases. Only the photosynthetic capacity values on leaf mass bases were higher in both species under l (more) ow radiation availability (80 and 30% transmittance). The differences of accumulated biomass appeared more clearly after 4 months of sowing but the root/shoot dry biomass ratio and height were maintained constant for both species independently of the available radiation. Cultivated under full solar radiation both species will be able to cover more suitable the two processes during seedling's phase: growth and defense.

Ronquim, Carlos Cesar; Prado, Carlos Henrique B. de A.; Paula, Nádia Figueiredo de

2003-03-01

202

Correlação espacial do índice de vegetação (NDVI) de imagem Landsat/ETM+ com atributos do solo/ Spatial correlation of the vegetation index (NDVI) of a Landsat/ETM+ images with soil attributes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As tecnologias de agricultura de precisão, como o uso da variabilidade espacial dos atributos do solo, vêm sendo muito estudadas para a cultura de cana-de-açúcar. Dentre essas tecnologias se destaca o uso de índices de vegetação derivados de produtos de sensoriamento remoto, como poderosas ferramentas indicadoras do desenvolvimento da vegetação. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, analisar a variabilidade espacial dos teores de argila, fósforo e o pH de um Latossolo Ver (more) melho-amarelo em área com produção de cana-de-açúcar e correlacioná-los com o índice espectral de vegetação (NDVI). Foram estudados, a partir de uma malha georreferenciada, os atributos do solo (argila, fósforo e pH) e gerados mapas de variabilidade espacial. Para esses mesmos locais calculou-se o NDVI possibilitando, além do mapeamento deste índice, a avaliação da correlação espacial entre este e as demais propriedades em estudo. A argila e o teor de fósforo apresentaram correlação espacial positiva com o NDVI enquanto nenhuma correlação espacial foi observada com o pH. A imagem do sensor ETM+ do satélite Landsat 5 utilizada neste estudo em relação ao NDVI, apresentou boa aplicação para observar a variabilidade espacial dos atributos estudados. Abstract in english The precision agriculture technologies such as the spatial variability of soil attributes have been widely studied mostly with sugarcane. Among these technologies have been recently highlighted the use of the vegetation index derived from remote sensing products, such as powerful tools indicating the development of vegetation. This study aimed to analyze the spatial variability of clay content, pH and phosphorus in an Oxisol in an area with sugarcane production, and corre (more) late with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The georeferenced grid was created for the soil properties (clay, phosphorus and pH) and generated the maps of spatial variability. For these same sites were calculated the NDVI, in addition to mapping of this ratio, the evaluation of the spatial correlation between this and other studied properties. The clay and phosphorus content showed positive spatial correlation with the NDVI, while no spatial correlation was observed between NDVI and pH. The satellite images from the sensor ETM + Landsat were used to correlate to NDVI to observe the spatial variability of the studied attributes.

Zanzarini, Fabricio V.; Pissarra, Teresa C. T.; Brandão, Flavia J. C.; Teixeira, Daniel D. B.

2013-06-01

203

LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGES DETECTION OF UNDERSTORY VEGETATION IN THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO BASIN IKONOS AND LANDSAT ETM+ SATELLITE DATA  

Science.gov (United States)

The advent of remotely sensed data from satellite platforms has enabled the research community to examine vegetative spatial distributions over regional and global scales. This assessment of ecosystem condition through the synoptic monitoring of terrestrial vegetation extent, bio...

204

VEGETABLE MEAT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vegetable meat is a high nutritional vegetable food, which uses gluten proteins, minerals, vitamins and food fibres of cereals and legumes. Vegetable meat is obtained by mixing a percentage of gluten with a percentage of one or more cereal flowers, or with a percentage of one or more legume flowers, or with a percentage of one or more cereal and legume flowers together. This mixture is seasoned with natural spices according to the taste required and then kneaded and worked with water or vegetable broth and afterwards boiled. By changing the various percentages of the components and the different kinds of flowers, various types of vegetable meat are obtained: steak, stew, mince, hamburger, sausage, pizzaiola, mortadella, ham, bresaola, guanciale, etc. It has a cylindrical shape with rounded ends.

ANZALONE Beniamino

205

Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nature-based tourism in protected areas has increased and diversified dramatically during the last decades. Different recreational activities have a range of impacts on natural environments. This paper reports results from a comparison of the impacts of hiking, cross-country skiing and horse riding on trail characteristics and vegetation in northern Finland. Widths and depths of existing trails, and vegetation on trails and in the neighbouring forests were monitored in two research sites during 2001 and 2002. Trail characteristics and vegetation were clearly related to the recreational activity, research site and forest type. Horse trails were as deep as hiking trails, even though the annual number of users was 150-fold higher on the hiking trails. Simultaneously, cross-country skiing had the least effect on trails due to the protective snow cover during winter. Hiking trail plots had little or no vegetation cover, horse riding trail plots had lower vegetation cover than forest plots, while skiing had no impact on total vegetation cover. On the other hand, on horse riding trails there were more forbs and grasses, many of which did not grow naturally in the forest. These species that were limited to riding trails may change the structure of adjacent plant communities in the long run. Therefore, the type of activities undertaken and the sensitivity of habitats to these activities should be a major consideration in the planning and management of nature-based tourism. Establishment of artificial structures, such as stairs, duckboards and trail cover, or complete closure of the site, may be the only way to protect the most sensitive or deteriorated sites.

Törn A; Tolvanen A; Norokorpi Y; Tervo R; Siikamäki P

2009-03-01

206

Identification and representability of processes controlling unsaturated flow in vegetated soils at differing temporal scales  

Science.gov (United States)

A model describing unsaturated flow in vegetated soil has been developed, coupling plant feedback mechanisms with a finite-difference implementation of Richards' equation. While care has been taken to relate all parameters and processes to physically realistic analogies, moderate uncertainty in a range of parameters is unavoidable due to the need for characterisation of pedo-transfer functions and the complexity of plant water processes. Confidence in model effectiveness has been addressed through simulations of lysimeter experiments undertaken at Imperial College. A highly comprehensive data set consists of measurements on eight lysimeters divided into two sets of four, with the two sets containing different soil types. The water table was maintained at 65 cm below the soil surface, and all possessed a mature crop of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) by the start of the experiment. Measurements of soil hydrological status and onsite meteorological data were taken about every quarter of an hour for a period of close to a year, providing detailed information on events within the lysimeters, and the impact of various meteorological conditions over the year. Diurnal variation and seasonal responses are particularly clear. An application of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to the model, using this detailed data set, has been undertaken. In the performance of the optimisation process, good quality of model definition at both diurnal and seasonal scales is treated as particularly important, as is the effect of measurement error on parameterisation at these different scales. Since we are correcting parameter estimates in the presence of measurement error, it is important to have an understanding of the distortions produced on the outputs by noise. Therefore, a Bayesian framework is used to facilitate the treatment of both measurement and parametric errors, and to allow the inclusion of subjective probability without losing mathematical rigour. Metropolis Hastings Monte-Carlo methods are used to approximate the posterior distribution for parameters of interest. Due to the complicated topology of the posterior probability, a range of different heuristic algorithms, including simulated annealing, has been investigated in order to aid the search for hard to find modes in which the posterior achieves substantial local maxima. Examination of such maxima aids in addressing questions of parameter and overall model identifiability.

Butler, A. P.; Jackson, B. M.

2003-04-01

207

Individual Differences in Base Rate Neglect: A Fuzzy Processing Preference Index.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is known about individual differences in integrating numeric base-rates and qualitative text in making probability judgments. Fuzzy-Trace Theory predicts a preference for fuzzy processing. We conducted six studies to develop the FPPI, a reliable and valid instrument assessing individual differences in this fuzzy processing preference. It consists of 19 probability estimation items plus 4 "M-Scale" items that distinguish simple pattern matching from "base rate respect." Cronbach's Alpha was consistently above 0.90. Validity is suggested by significant correlations between FPPI scores and three other measurers: "Rule Based" Process Dissociation Procedure scores; the number of conjunction fallacies in joint probability estimation; and logic index scores on syllogistic reasoning. Replicating norms collected in a university study with a web-based study produced negligible differences in FPPI scores, indicating robustness. The predicted relationships between individual differences in base rate respect and both conjunction fallacies and syllogistic reasoning were partially replicated in two web-based studies.

Wolfe CR; Fisher CR

2013-06-01

208

Vegetative compatibility and heterokaryon formation between different isolates of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum by using the nit mutant system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causative agent of bean anthracnose, is one of the most common pathogens leading to expressive damage to plants beyond presenting noticeable variability. The knowledge on vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) is of particular interest in asexual fungi as they subdivide the population in groups that can exchange genetic information via heterokaryosis and the parasexual cycle. Among the techniques used in studies about vegetative compatibility groups, the obtainment of nit mutants is apparent. This paper is aimed at obtaining heterokaryons between different isolates of C. lindemuthianum, grouping them in VCGs and evaluating their genetic variability by using the nit mutants system. Nit mutants were obtained from 20 single spore isolates. The mutants were phenotypically classified and paired for complementation and formation of heterokaryons so as to group them in VCGs. Seventeen mutants from the different phenotypic-rates were recovered: nit1, nit2, nit3 and nitM. At the same time, 10 mutants were selected for pairing and division of the anastomosis groups. Nine heterokaryons were obtained and the isolates were divided into 9 vegetative compatibility groups. In the combinations for the formation of anastomosis, 31 compatible combinations and 24 incompatible combinations were observed. It was concluded that the methodology used to select nit mutants in C. lindemuthianum made it possible to determine the vegetative compatibility groups and that such a technique was adequate to prove genetic variability.

Camila Rodrigues de Carvalho; Maria Cristina Mendes-Costa

2011-01-01

209

Vegetative compatibility and heterokaryon formation between different isolates of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum by using the nit mutant system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causative agent of bean anthracnose, is one of the most common pathogens leading to expressive damage to plants beyond presenting noticeable variability. The knowledge on vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) is of particular interest in asexual fungi as they subdivide the population in groups that can exchange genetic information via heterokaryosis and the parasexual cycle. Among the techniques used in studies about vegetative compatib (more) ility groups, the obtainment of nit mutants is apparent. This paper is aimed at obtaining heterokaryons between different isolates of C. lindemuthianum, grouping them in VCGs and evaluating their genetic variability by using the nit mutants system. Nit mutants were obtained from 20 single spore isolates. The mutants were phenotypically classified and paired for complementation and formation of heterokaryons so as to group them in VCGs. Seventeen mutants from the different phenotypic-rates were recovered: nit1, nit2, nit3 and nitM. At the same time, 10 mutants were selected for pairing and division of the anastomosis groups. Nine heterokaryons were obtained and the isolates were divided into 9 vegetative compatibility groups. In the combinations for the formation of anastomosis, 31 compatible combinations and 24 incompatible combinations were observed. It was concluded that the methodology used to select nit mutants in C. lindemuthianum made it possible to determine the vegetative compatibility groups and that such a technique was adequate to prove genetic variability.

Carvalho, Camila Rodrigues de; Mendes-Costa, Maria Cristina

2011-03-01

210

Índices de vegetação simulados de diferentes sensores na estimativa das variáveis biofísicas do feijoeiro/ Vegetation indices simulated from different sensors for the estimation of biophysical variables of common bean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os índices de vegetação e bandas do vermelho e do infravermelho próximo, gerados a partir dos sensores HRVIR, ETM+ e Modis, nas estimativas de índice de área foliar e produtividade da cultura do feijoeiro. O experimento foi realizado em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro lâminas de irrigação (179,5, 256,5, 357,5 e 406,2 mm), três doses de N (0,0, 80,0 e 160,0 kg ha-1) e quatro repetições. As medidas de (more) reflectância foram obtidas com o Spetron SE-590, no estádio R6 da cultura, nas 48 parcelas. Foram testados: a razão simples, o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada, índice de vegetação ajustado ao solo e índice de vegetação realçado. Os índices de vegetação foram eficientes na estimativa do índice de área foliar (IAF) e da produtividade da cultura do feijoeiro. Os índices de vegetação e a banda do infravermelho apresentam o mesmo potencial na estimativa do IAF, quando se considera a resolução espectral dos sensores Modis, ETM+ e HRVIR. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetation indices and red and infrared bands of the HRVIR, ETM+ and Modis sensors, in the estimations of leaf area index and grain yield of common bean. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, with split plots and four irrigation levels (179.5, 256.5, 357.5, and 406.2 mm), three N rates (0.0, 80.0 and 160.0 kg ha-1), and four replicates. The reflectance measurements were obtained through the Spectron SE- (more) 590, at R6 stage, on 48 plots. Simple ratio, normalized difference vegetation index, soil-adjusted vegetation index, and enhanced vegetation index were tested. The vegetation indices were efficient to estimate the leaf area index (LAI) and grain yield. The vegetation indices and infrared band show the same potential to estimate LAI, when considering the spectral resolution of Modis, ETM+ and HRVIR.

Monteiro, Priscylla Ferraz Câmara; Angulo Filho, Rubens; Xavier, Alexandre Cândido; Monteiro, Rodrigo Otávio Câmara

2013-04-01

211

Swift and heavy ion implanted chalcogenide laser glass waveguides and their different refractive index distributions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Planar waveguides have been fabricated in Nd- or Ho-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide laser glasses by 60 MeV Ar or 20 MeV N ion implantation. The refractive index profiles were reconstructed based on the results of prism coupling. The Ar implanted waveguides exhibit an approximate steplike distribution, while the N implanted ones show a ''well + barrier'' type. This difference can be attributed to the much lower dose of Ar ions. After annealing, the N implanted waveguides can support two modes at 1539 nm and have low propagation loss, which makes them candidates for novel waveguide lasers.

Qiu Feng; Narusawa, Tadashi; Zheng Jie

2011-02-10

212

Vegetative Growth of the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis Cultivated in Different Light-Path Lengths  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growth of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis in vegetative stage is one of the most important parts in the whole cultivation process. The aim of the study was to show the growth characteristics of the alga under 100 and 170 ?mol photon m-2 s-1 light intensities i...

Tolga Goksan; Ilknur Ak

213

Infauna from Zostera marina L. meadows in Norway. Differences in vegetated and unvegetated areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To investigate the importance of benthic vegetation for shallow infaunal assemblages, macroinvertebrates were sampled in Zostera marina meadows and in adjacent bare sand at three sites in the Skagerrak region and one in the Western part of Norway. A total of 3777 individuals were encountered, repres...

Fredriksen, S.; De Backer, A.; Boström, C.; Christie, H.C.

214

Spontaneous vegetation succession at different central European mining sites: a comparison across seres.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) ordination to compare seven successional seres running in stone quarries, coal mining spoil heaps, sand and gravel pits, and extracted peatlands in the Czech Republic in central Europe. In total, we obtained 1,187 vegetation samples containing 705 species. These represent various successional stages aged from 1 to 100 years. The successional seres studied were more similar in their species composition in the initial stages, in which synathropic species prevailed, than in later successional stages. This vegetation differentiation was determined especially by local moisture conditions. In most cases, succession led to a woodland, which usually established after approximately 20 years. In very dry or wet places, by contrast, where woody species were limited, often highly valuable, open vegetation developed. Except in the peatlands, the total number of species and the number of target species increased during succession. Participation of invasive aliens was mostly unimportant. Spontaneous vegetation succession generally appears to be an ecologically suitable and cheap way of ecosystem restoration of heavily disturbed sites. It should, therefore, be preferred over technical reclamation. PMID:23436061

Prach, Karel; Lencová, Kamila; Rehounková, Klára; Dvo?áková, Helena; Jírová, Alena; Konvalinková, Petra; Mudrák, Ond?ej; Novák, Jan; Trnková, Romana

2013-02-23

215

Spontaneous vegetation succession at different central European mining sites: a comparison across seres.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We performed detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) ordination to compare seven successional seres running in stone quarries, coal mining spoil heaps, sand and gravel pits, and extracted peatlands in the Czech Republic in central Europe. In total, we obtained 1,187 vegetation samples containing 705 species. These represent various successional stages aged from 1 to 100 years. The successional seres studied were more similar in their species composition in the initial stages, in which synathropic species prevailed, than in later successional stages. This vegetation differentiation was determined especially by local moisture conditions. In most cases, succession led to a woodland, which usually established after approximately 20 years. In very dry or wet places, by contrast, where woody species were limited, often highly valuable, open vegetation developed. Except in the peatlands, the total number of species and the number of target species increased during succession. Participation of invasive aliens was mostly unimportant. Spontaneous vegetation succession generally appears to be an ecologically suitable and cheap way of ecosystem restoration of heavily disturbed sites. It should, therefore, be preferred over technical reclamation.

Prach K; Lencová K; Rehounková K; Dvo?áková H; Jírová A; Konvalinková P; Mudrák O; Novák J; Trnková R

2013-11-01

216

Oxidative changes during ice storage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed different ratios of marine and vegetable feed ingredients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently fish meal and oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of feeding regime on composition of rainbow trout fillets, as well as on lipid and protein oxidation during storage on ice. Rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in their levels of marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Fish fillets were characterised by measurement of fatty acid and amino acid composition, primary and secondary lipid oxidation products, astaxanthin and tocopherol content. Protein oxidation was assessed by measuring protein carbonyl content, oxidised amino acids, sulfhydryl groups and immuno-blotting against carbonyl groups. Feeding regimes significantly influenced fatty acid composition. Replacement of fish oil with vegetable oil reduced formation of primary oxidation products, but the effect on secondary oxidation products differed between different types of volatiles. The differences in protein and amino acid composition were not significant, and there were no clear effects of diets on protein oxidation, but data indicated that compounds present in the marine ingredients might have had an effect on protein oxidation.

Timm-Heinrich M; Eymard S; Baron CP; Nielsen HH; Jacobsen C

2013-02-01

217

Oxidative changes during ice storage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed different ratios of marine and vegetable feed ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently fish meal and oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of feeding regime on composition of rainbow trout fillets, as well as on lipid and protein oxidation during storage on ice. Rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in their levels of marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Fish fillets were characterised by measurement of fatty acid and amino acid composition, primary and secondary lipid oxidation products, astaxanthin and tocopherol content. Protein oxidation was assessed by measuring protein carbonyl content, oxidised amino acids, sulfhydryl groups and immuno-blotting against carbonyl groups. Feeding regimes significantly influenced fatty acid composition. Replacement of fish oil with vegetable oil reduced formation of primary oxidation products, but the effect on secondary oxidation products differed between different types of volatiles. The differences in protein and amino acid composition were not significant, and there were no clear effects of diets on protein oxidation, but data indicated that compounds present in the marine ingredients might have had an effect on protein oxidation. PMID:23194517

Timm-Heinrich, Maike; Eymard, Sylvie; Baron, Caroline P; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Jacobsen, Charlotte

2012-09-16

218

Oxidative changes during ice storage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed different ratios of marine and vegetable feed ingredients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recently fish meal and oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of feeding regime on composition of rainbow trout fillets, as well as on lipid and protein oxidation during storage on ice. Rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in their levels of marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Fish fillets were characterised by measurement of fatty acid and amino acid composition, primary and secondary lipid oxidation products, astaxanthin and tocopherol content. Protein oxidation was assessed by measuring protein carbonyl content, oxidised amino acids, sulfhydryl groups and immuno-blotting against carbonyl groups. Feeding regimes significantly influenced fatty acid composition. Replacement of fish oil with vegetable oil reduced formation of primary oxidation products, but the effect on secondary oxidation products differed between different types of volatiles. The differences in protein and amino acid composition were not significant, and there were no clear effects of diets on protein oxidation, but data indicated that compounds present in the marine ingredients might have had an effect on protein oxidation.

Timm Heinrich, Maike; Eymard, Sylvie

2013-01-01

219

Species diversity of communities based on different vegetation organizational scales in China’s Malan forest region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims Patterns of species diversity are closely related to vegetation organizational scales. Our aims were to analyze the relationship between species diversity and vegetation organizational scales and discuss its internal mechanism, which may help us better understand the general law of species diversity.Methods We investigated 208 10 m × 10 m representative quadrats in the Malan forest region on China’s Loess Plateau. Each plot had five 2 m × 2 m subplots for shrubs and five 1 m × 1 m subplots for herbs. We recorded height and diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees and height and cover of shrubs and herbs. We determined communities and their relationships with Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Based on species richness, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity indices, the relationship between species diversity and vegetation organizational scales was analyzed using the additive partition approach.Important findings For the four components constituting regional diversity (?1, ?1, ?2 and ?3) ? no matter if diversity was measured as species richness, Shannon-Wiener or Simpson indices ? within-association diversity always contributed the most to regional diversity in tree, shrub and herb layers (except species richness in the herb layer), indicating that it was the most appropriate scale for measuring species diversity. The proportion of Shannon-Wiener diversity at the vegetation type, formation or association scales was higher than the proportion measured by Simpson diversity, which resulted from the distribution pattern of rare species on each scale. Differences among the orders of ? diversity components were observed in scales of between-vegetation type, between-formation and between-association, which were mainly correlated with tree, shrub and herb layers’ species composition and distribution in the region, as well as environmental heterogeneity among different scales.

WEI Li-Ping; WANG Xiao-An; WANG Shi-Xiong; ZHU Zhi-Hong; GUO Hua; SUN Jia-Nan; HAO Jiang-Bo

2011-01-01

220

Organochlorine pesticide residues in different Indian cereals, pulses, spices, vegetables, fruits, milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 244 samples of cereals (wheat flour, rice, and maize), pulses (arhar, moong, gram, lentil, and black gram), spices (turmeric, chili, coriander, and black pepper), vegetables (potato, onion, spinach, cabbage, brinjal, and tomato), fruits (mango, guava, apple, and grape), milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils (vegetable, mustard, groundnut, and sesame) collected from different cities of Northern Province (Utter Pradesh) were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography for the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues. Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) were detected in about 85% of the total samples of cereals, spices, milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils analyzed in the present study. However, the residue levels were either very small (less than 0.06 ppm) or not detected at all in pulses, vegetables, and fruits as compared with very high concentrations in wheat flour (4.42 and 0.12 ppm), butter (1.19 and 4.85 ppm), mustard oil (1.26 and 2.42 ppm), Deshi ghee (1.10 and 3.84 ppm), vegetable oil (1.02 and 0.59 ppm), groundnut oil (0.51 and 1.49 ppm), and chili (0.48 and 1.92 ppm). The levels of HCH and DDT residues detected in rice, maize, turmeric, corlander, black pepper, and all the vegetables and fruits were also lower than those found in wheat flour, oil, and fat samples analyzed in the present study. These findings suggest that a restricted and controlled use of such persistent pesticides may be useful for decreasing their contamination levels in different food items. PMID:1698760

Kaphalia, B S; Takroo, R; Mehrotra, S; Nigam, U; Seth, T D

 
 
 
 
221

Organochlorine pesticide residues in different Indian cereals, pulses, spices, vegetables, fruits, milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 244 samples of cereals (wheat flour, rice, and maize), pulses (arhar, moong, gram, lentil, and black gram), spices (turmeric, chili, coriander, and black pepper), vegetables (potato, onion, spinach, cabbage, brinjal, and tomato), fruits (mango, guava, apple, and grape), milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils (vegetable, mustard, groundnut, and sesame) collected from different cities of Northern Province (Utter Pradesh) were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography for the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues. Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) were detected in about 85% of the total samples of cereals, spices, milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils analyzed in the present study. However, the residue levels were either very small (less than 0.06 ppm) or not detected at all in pulses, vegetables, and fruits as compared with very high concentrations in wheat flour (4.42 and 0.12 ppm), butter (1.19 and 4.85 ppm), mustard oil (1.26 and 2.42 ppm), Deshi ghee (1.10 and 3.84 ppm), vegetable oil (1.02 and 0.59 ppm), groundnut oil (0.51 and 1.49 ppm), and chili (0.48 and 1.92 ppm). The levels of HCH and DDT residues detected in rice, maize, turmeric, corlander, black pepper, and all the vegetables and fruits were also lower than those found in wheat flour, oil, and fat samples analyzed in the present study. These findings suggest that a restricted and controlled use of such persistent pesticides may be useful for decreasing their contamination levels in different food items.

Kaphalia BS; Takroo R; Mehrotra S; Nigam U; Seth TD

1990-07-01

222

Health Status of Birds Fed Diets Containing Three Differently Processed Discarded Vegetable-bovine Blood-rumen Content Mixtures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding three differently processed mixtures on health status of broilers. A total of 1080 day-old Marshal broilers were fed; discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P1), discarded vegetable-ensiled bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P2) and discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) at three levels of inclusion (0, 3 and 6%). Data on blood parameters was taken and were subjected to 3x3 factorial arrangements in a completely randomized design. Birds fed P1 had least values (p<0.05) of serum glucose, total protein, globulin, uric acid and creatinine at starter phase. Birds fed diets containing 3 and 6% level of inclusion recorded the highest (p<0.05) Packed cell volume, Haemoglobin, White blood cell and Red blood cell values. However, those fed at 0% level of inclusion recorded the highest albumin value. At finisher phase, birds fed P2 and P3 had the highest glucose, uric acid and creatinine values. 6% level of inclusion significantly (p<0.05) increased the total protein and albumin values. Therefore, for enhanced performance and without comprising the health condition of birds; broiler chickens could be fed diets containing discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) up to 6% level of inclusion.

D.A. Ekunseitan; O.O. Balogun; O.M. Sogunle; A.O. Yusuf; A.A. Ayoola; L.T. Egbeyale; O.A. Adeyemi; I.B. Allison; A.I. Iyanda

2013-01-01

223

Vegetational Succession on Different Age Series Sponge Iron Solid Waste Dumps with Respect to Top Soil Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetation composition of different age series sponge iron solid w aste dumps was analyzed with respect to the impact of top soil application on vegetation succession. Study revealed that freshly laid dump, without top soil cover was devoid of any vegetation. However, 1, 3 and 5 year old dumps were colonized by grasses, sedges, forbs and shrubs. Tree species could be recorded in 3 and 5 year old dumps, but were absent in 1 year old dump. In all the dumps, species belonging to forbs showed the highest percentage contribution to species composition which was followed by grasses. Common occurrence of certain plant species in all the dumps indicated their greater adaptability to the adverse condition of waste material. IVI of herbaceous plants gradually decreased with dump age which was replaced by occupation of shrub and tree species in older dump. Among the families, Poaceae dominated in all the dumps. Species richness and diversity showed increasing trend, where as dominance showed decreasing trend with increasing dump age. Patch with top soil cover always showed highest species richness, follow ed by mixed patch and lowest by the patch only with waste material. The study revealed that top soil acted as seed bank and its application on sponge iron solid waste dump positively contributed towards species richness and vegetation growth.

B. Kullu; N. Behera

2011-01-01

224

Heavy Metals Levels in Soil and Vegetables in Different Growing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current project deals with an issue of actuality and scientific/technical necessity and aims to assess the factors contributing to the vulnerability of ecological systems and therefore endangering/compromising food safety. The goals of this ongoing study are to address the main risk factors on ecological system with particular regards to fresh growing vegetables and to establish technical monitoring system(s) with a view to increase food safety. Herein, the authors present the research results obtained in 2011 in SIECOLEG Project regarding the assessment of some heavy metals (mainly lead, cadmium, cooper, and manganese) of 80 samples soils and 25 samples vegetables from some ecological system. The concentrations of heavy metals were measured by Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS Schimadzu 6300) - with graphite furnace atomizer and autosampler. In soil: lead and cadmium concentrations ranged from 4.51 to 6.58 mg/kg and from 0.14 to 0.4 mg/kg, respectively. Cooper and manganese concentrations ranged from 20.73 to 6.58 mg/kg and from 218.1 to 298.3 mg/kg, respectively. In vegetables (tomatoes, cucumber, peppers, eggplant, cabbage): lead concentrations ranged from 0.0 (tomatoes) to 4.35 mg/kg (cabbage); cooper concentrations ranged from 0.2 mg/kg (cucumber) to 0.80 mg/kg (eggplant); manganese concentrations ranged from 0.0 mg/kg (tomatoes) to 0.60 mg/kg (eggplant). Cadmium was not detected in any of analysed vegetable samples. Under these circumstances, the project intends to demonstrate the extent of this vulnerability and to elaborate measures for controlling and diminishing the effects of the involved factors in order to increase food safety and security for ecological fresh vegetables

Hura C.; Munteanu N.; Stoleru V.

2013-01-01

225

On the calculation of the topographic wetness index: evaluation of different methods based on field observations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The topographic wetness index (TWI, ln(a/tan?)), which combines local upslope contributing area and slope, is commonly used to quantify topographic control on hydrological processes. Methods of computing this index differ primarily in the way the upslope contributing area is calculated. In this study we compared a number of calculation methods for TWI and evaluated them in terms of their correlation with the following measured variables: vascular plant species richness, soil pH, groundwater level, soil moisture, and a constructed wetness degree. The TWI was calculated by varying six parameters affecting the distribution of accumulated area among downslope cells and by varying the way the slope was calculated. All possible combinations of these parameters were calculated for two separate boreal forest sites in northern Sweden. We did not find a calculation method that performed best for all measured variables; rather the best methods seemed to be variable and site specific. However, we were able to identify some general characteristics of the best methods for different groups of measured variables. The results provide guiding principles for choosing the best method for estimating species richness, soil pH, groundwater level, and soil moisture by the TWI derived from digital elevation models.

R. Sørensen; U. Zinko; J. Seibert

2006-01-01

226

Reliability of the adhesive remnant index score system with different magnifications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores show no differences when examined under different magnifications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 80 upper human premolars. Stainless steel brackets were bonded to the specimens with Transbond XT light cure adhesive and Transbond Plus Self Etch Primer (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif, USA). The brackets were debonded 24 hours after bonding with a universal testing machine (LLOYD Instruments, Segensworth, Fareham, England) at a cross head speed of 2.00 mm/min. The adhesive remnant was evaluated after debonding with the naked eye and under 10x and 20x magnification (Mag) using the 4-point scale described by Artun and Bergland. RESULTS: ARI scores were significantly different at different magnifications (P = .018). Scores were not significantly different when evaluated with the naked eye and under 10x Mag (P = .102). Scores were significantly different under 20x Mag and with the naked eye (P = .014); under 20x Mag, score 0 decreased from 12 to 6 and score 2 increased from 14 to 20 and also under 20x Mag and under 10x Mag (P = .046); the under 20x Mag score 1 decreased from 40 to 38 and score 3 increased from 14 to 16. CONCLUSION: ARI scores were significantly different under 20x Mag, where score 0 decreased and score 2 increased compared with the naked eye, while score 1 decreased and score 3 increased compared with 10x Mag.

Montasser MA; Drummond JL

2009-07-01

227

Numerical Modelling of the Topographic Wetness Index: An Analysis at Different Scales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A variety of landscape properties have been modeled successfully using topographic indices such as topographic wetness index (TWI), defined as ln(a/tan?), where a is the specific upslope area and ? is the surface slope. In this study, 25 m spatial resolution from digital elevation models (DEM) data were used to investigate the scale-dependency of TWI values when converting DEMs to 50 and 100 m. To investigate the impact of different spatial resolution, the two lower resolution DEMs were interpolated to the original 25 m grid size. In addition, to compare different flow-direction algorithms, a second objective was to evaluate differences in spatial patterns. Thus the values of TWI were compared in two different ways: 1) distribution functions and their statistics; and 2) cell by cell comparison of DEMs with the same spatial resolution but different flow- directions. As in previous TWI studies, the computed specific upstream is smaller, on average, at higher resolution. TWI variation decreased with increasing grid size. A cell by cell comparison of the TWI values of the 50 and 100 m DEMs showed a low correlation with the TWI based on the 25 m DEM. The results showed significant differences between different flow-diretction algorithms computed for DEMs with 25, 50 and 100 m spatial resolution.

Anderson Luis Ruhoff; Nilza Maria Reis Castro; Alfonso Risso

2011-01-01

228

Effect of Different Levels of NaCl and KCl on Growth and Some Biological Indexes of Wheat Plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of different levels (0, 15, 30 and 60 mM) of NaCl and KCl salt on seedling growth and some biological indexes of wheat. Shoot height, stem diameter, leaves number of plant, fresh weight of shoot and dry matter weight index were investigated. The r...

Sevinc Adiloglu; Aydin Adiloglu; Mine Ozkil

229

Effect of Different Sowing Dates on Seed Index, Lint and Ginning Out-turn of Various Cotton Varieties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sowing dates on seed index, lint index and ginning out-turn of three cotton varieties. The study revealed that the sowing dates produced significant difference in above parameters. The sowing on 10th May produced heavier seed inde...

F. C. Oad; G. H. Jamro; J. K. Biswas

230

Subtle proteome differences identified between post-dormant vegetative and floral peach buds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proper development of deciduous tree species, including peach, is accomplished through an annual growth cycle. Freezing avoidance during winter is necessary for tree survival and is achieved by the enclosure of meristems in floral and vegetative buds. To elucidate the role of developmentally regulated protein networks in bud break, proteins of the two bud-types were extracted and analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Of the 1107 protein spots that were picked, 475 were identified and annotated assembling the peach bud proteome reference map. The majority of these proteins are involved in stress-response, detoxification, defense, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. The protein profiles of both bud-types bear high similarity, whereas only 11 proteins were differentially expressed. These proteins were mainly involved in carbon-nitrogen homeostasis/metabolism and certain developmental processes to sustain rapid growth of the newly emerging organs. Among these are enzymes that differentially regulate the levels of H(2)O(2) between floral and vegetative buds, potentially promoting sequential bud-break. Distinct Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase (NDPK) variants in floral and vegetative buds were detected suggesting the potential role of NDPKs in H(2)O(2)-mediated signaling for post-dormant bud break. This study provides data towards a better understanding of dormancy release and bud break.

Prassinos C; Rigas S; Kizis D; Vlahou A; Hatzopoulos P

2011-05-01

231

Scintillation index for N Gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths in weak atmospheric turbulence  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the scintillation index of N partially overlapping lowest order Gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths in weak atmospheric turbulence. Assuming a Von Karman turbulence spectrum and slow detector response and using the Rytov approximation we calculate the longitudinal and radial components of the scintillation index for typical free-space laser communication setups. We find the initial beam separation that minimizes the longitudinal scintillation and corresponds to the optimal beam configuration. Further reduction of the longitudinal scintillation is obtained by optimizing with respect to both initial beam separation and initial spot size. The longitudinal scintillation of the optimal N-beam configurations is inversely proportional to N, resulting in a 92% reduction for a 9-beam system compared with the single beam value. The existence of the minimum of longitudinal scintillation is not very sensitive to the form of the turbulence spectrum. Moreover, the radial scintillation values for the optimal N-beam configurations are found to be significantly smaller than the corresponding single beam values, and this reduction effect also grows with increasing N.

Peleg, A.; Moloney, J. V.

2007-03-01

232

Evaluation of environmental impact produced by different economic activities with the global pollution index.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The paper analyses the environment pollution state in different case studies of economic activities (i.e. co-generation electric and thermal power production, iron profile manufacturing, cement processing, waste landfilling, and wood furniture manufacturing), evaluating mainly the environmental cumulative impacts (e.g. cumulative impact against the health of the environment and different life forms). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The status of the environment (air, water resources, soil, and noise) is analysed with respect to discharges such as gaseous discharges in the air, final effluents discharged in natural receiving basins or sewerage system, and discharges onto the soil together with the principal pollutants expressed by different environmental indicators corresponding to each specific productive activity. The alternative methodology of global pollution index (I (GP)*) for quantification of environmental impacts is applied. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Environmental data analysis permits the identification of potential impact, prediction of significant impact, and evaluation of cumulative impact on a commensurate scale by evaluation scores (ES(i)) for discharge quality, and global effect to the environment pollution state by calculation of the global pollution index (I (GP)*). CONCLUSIONS: The I (GP)* values for each productive unit (i.e. 1.664-2.414) correspond to an 'environment modified by industrial/economic activity within admissible limits, having potential of generating discomfort effects'. The evaluation results are significant in view of future development of each productive unit and sustain the economic production in terms of environment protection with respect to a preventive environment protection scheme and continuous measures of pollution control.

Zaharia C

2012-07-01

233

Vegetable meat  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vegetable meat is a high nutritional vegetable food, which uses gluten proteins, minerals, vitamins and food fibres of cereals and legumes. Vegetable meat is obtained by mixing a percentage of gluten with a percentage of one or more cereal flowers, or with a percentage of one or more legume flowers, or with a percentage of one or more cereal and legume flowers together. This mixture is seasoned with natural spices according to the taste required and then kneaded and worked with water or vegetable broth and afterwards boiled. By changing the various percentages of the components and the different kinds of flowers, various types of vgetble meat are obtained: steak, stew, mince, hamburger, sausage, pizzaiola, mortadella, ham, bresaola, guanciale, etc. .... It has a cylindrical shape with rounded ends.

Anzalone Beniamino

234

Influence of Paclobutrazol and Ethephon on Vegetative Growth of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Plants at Different Spacing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To ascertain the growth retarding potential of Paclobutrazol (PBZ) and Ethephon on guava plants at different spacing viz 6?2 m, 6?3 m, 6?4 m and 6?5 m; both were applied at 500 ppm, 1000 ppm as a foliar spray. Investigation revealed that all treatments influence the vegetative growth of plants compared to untreated plants at all spacing levels. However, paclobutrazol considerably restrict the overall vegetative growth of trees. Stock and scion girth was found to be increased with ethephon treatments. The tree height and E-W tree spread was found to increased with increasing plant density. Similarly, trunk girth in terms of stock and scion girth was also increased with increase in plant spacing. Although, the PBZ 500 ppm markedly restrict the plant growth but it may be further investigated for managing the guava tree canopies under high density planting systems, taking the fruit quality and economic aspects into consideration.

Jaswinder Singh BRAR

2010-01-01

235

Study on the united control effects of chlorpyrifos+cypermethrin to Spdoptera exigua (Hubnet)on different vegetable species  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results of field plot trial indicated? 20% Chlorpyrifos+cypermethrin EC provided a satisfaction control effect against Spdoptera exigua (Hübnet) in different vegetable fields. In cowpea field, the control effect were 74.06%-91.84% in the third day with the dilution times of 1000-600 spraying in the period of egg hatching days, and it dropped in the seventh day. In Chinese cabbage field, it also gave the best control effect in the third day, which reached 67.58%-92.97%. This product provided a satisfaction control effect against Spodoptera litura(Fabricius)and Pieris rapae, and security to tested vegetable species. It can be used to control Spdoptera exigua (Hubnet) in the field with the dilution times of 600-800.

Long Liping; Tang Wenwei; Ling Yan

2005-01-01

236

Features of psychological indexes in the sportsmen of weight sport at different weather terms.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Psychological indexes are considered namely: the students of group of body-conditioning and sportsmen of weight sport have a will-power and perception of sentinel intervals. In research took part 20 students of group of body-conditioning, 16 sportsmen of weight sport of 3th digit and 16 sportsmen of 2th digit, men by the age 18-22 years. Researches conducted 1th and 3th type of weather. It is set that a will-power sportsmen of weight sport depends on a sporting digit and changes at the different types of weather. The change of weather influences on the processes of perception of time. At the 3th type of weather, in comparing to the 1th type, there is an acceleration of account of time in all inspected groups.

Kulthickiy Z.I.

2011-01-01

237

Evaluation of Eucalyptus clones in different places seeking to the production of vegetal charcoal Avaliação de clones de Eucalyptus em diferentes locais visando à produção de carvão vegetal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aim to evaluate the wood and charcoal quality of three Eucalyptus clones planted at different places and to verify the existent functional relations between the basic density and the depth of penetration of the Pilodyn pin. Three Eucalyptus clones were evaluated and four trees were sample for each clone and place. It was determined the depth of penetration of a Pilodyn pin at 1.30 m of height of the soil (DBH), average basic density (DBm), the basic density at DBH, the calorific value, lignin, total extractive, ashes and holocellulose contents and elemental chemical analysis (C, H, N and O). The wood was carbonized and the charcoal produced was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. In the evaluation of the wood characteristics a completely randomized design disposed in a factorial scheme 3 x 2 was used. A linear model was adjusted between DBm and the depth of penetration of the Pilodyn pin. It was possible to conclude that the clones present potential to be used for energy. The charcoal produced may be used in siderurgy. The linear model adjusted between DBm and the penetration of the Pilodyn pin was satisfactory.doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.319Os objetivos desse trabalho foram avaliar a qualidade da madeira e do carvão vegetal de três clones de Eucalyptus plantados em diferentes locais e verificar a relação funcional existente entre a densidade básica e a profundidade de penetração do pino do Pilodyn. Foram avaliados três clones de Eucalyptus e amostradas quatro árvores por clone em cada local. Determinou-se a profundidade de penetração de um pino de aço do Pilodyn a 1,30 m de altura do solo (DAP), a densidade básica média (DBm), a densidade básica no DAP, o poder calorífico superior e os teores de lignina, extrativos totais, cinzas, holocelulose e a análise química elementar (C, H, N e O). A madeira foi carbonizada e o carvão produzido foi avaliado quantitativamente e qualitativamente. Na avaliação das características da madeira, utilizou-se um DIC em um esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Foi ajustado um modelo linear entre a DBm e a profundidade de penetração do pino do Pilodyn. Foi possível concluir que os clones apresentaram potencial para o uso energético. O carvão vegetal produzido pode ser utilizado na siderurgia. O modelo linear ajustado entre a DBm e a penetração do pino do Pilodyn mostrou-se satisfatório.doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.319

Thiago Andrade Neves; Thiago de Paula Protásio; Allan Motta Couto; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Vinícius Oliveira Silva; Carlos Magno Melo Vieira

2011-01-01

238

Análise espacial de atributos do solo e cobertura vegetal em diferentes condições de pastagem/ Spatial analysis of soil attributes and cover vegetation under different grazing conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As áreas destinadas à pecuária têm-se expandido sobre áreas de vegetação nativa promovendo transformações na qualidade do solo. O objetivo foi avaliar os atributos de um Neossolo Quartzarênico sob diferentes coberturas vegetais para saber se a degradação do pasto representa a degradação do solo. As áreas avaliadas foram: floresta nativa; capoeira; pastagem sem controle de lotação animal; pastagem em pousio; pastagem com invasoras; pastagem degradada com s (more) olo descoberto e invasoras, pastagem degradada com invasoras e espécies arbóreas e pastagem com baixa produção de forragem. Todas as pastagens eram formadas pela gramínea Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. Realizaram-se 128 amostras de solo nas profundidades de 0-5 e 5-10 cm, dentro de cada área de manejo considerada como parcela experimental e a cobertura do solo foi quantificada. Foram mensuradas propriedades químicas e físicas do solo. Os dados foram submetidos a estudo geoestatístico. Foram constatados aumento na resistência mecânica à penetração e diminuição nos teores de matéria orgânica nas áreas mais degradadas. Pasto degradado não representa necessariamente solo degradado enquanto solo degradado está relacionado a pastagem degrada. Abstract in english The areas for livestock raising have expanded into areas of native vegetation, promoting changes in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attributes of a Entisol under different vegetation covers to whether the pasture degradation represents soil degradation. The areas evaluated were: native forest, shrub, uncontrolled grazing animal stocking, grazing in fallow pasture with weeds; degraded pasture with bare soil and weeds, degraded pasture with wee (more) ds and tree species and grassland with low forage production. All pastures were formed by Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. Hundred and twenty eight soil samples were collected in 0-5 and 5-10 cm, within each management area, considered as an experimental plot and soil cover was quantified. The chemical and physical properties of the soil were measured. Data were subjected to geoestatistical study. Increase in penetration resistance and decrease in the levels of organic matter were observed in the most degraded areas. Degraded pasture is not necessarily degraded land while degraded soil is related to grazing degrades.

Neves Neto, Durval N.; Santos, Antonio C. dos; Santos, Perlon M.; Melo, Jonahtan C.; Santos, Josemara S.

2013-09-01

239

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples.

Daniela Mueller; Marco Flôres Ferrão; Luciano Marder; Adilson Ben da Costa; Rosana de Cássia de Souza Schneider

2013-01-01

240

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and multivariate analysis for identification of different vegetable oils used in biodiesel production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources--canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans--were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples.

Mueller D; Ferrão MF; Marder L; da Costa AB; Schneider Rde C

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Vegetative and reproductive evaluation of hot peppers under different plastic mulches in poly/plastic tunnel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since the beginning of civilization, the man has developed technologies to increase the efficiency of food production. The use of plastic mulch in commercial vegetable production is one of these traditional techniques that have been used for centuries. Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of plastic mulch on growth and yield of two hot pepper hybrids, viz. Sky Red and Maha in poly/plastic tunnel. The treatments were black plastic mulch, clear plastic mulch and bare soil as control. Both hot pepper hybrids mulched with black plastic showed significantly better vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area etc) and fruit yield. Clear plastic mulch significantly increased soil temperature and reduced the number of days to first flower than black plastic mulch and bare soil. However, fruit yield was higher by 39.56 and 36.49% respectively in both hybrids when they were grown on black and clear plastic mulch as compared to bare soil. Overall results indicated that the use of plastic mulch is an ideal option to maximize hot pepper productivity as well as to extend their production season in poly/plastic tunnels. (author)

2009-01-01

242

A systematic review of socio-economic differences in food habits in Europe: consumption of fruit and vegetables  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To evaluate the differences in the consumption of fruit and vegetables between groups with different socio-economic status (SES) in the adult population of European countries. Design: A systematic review of published and unpublished surveys of food habits conducted between 1985 and 1999 in 15 European countries. Educational level and occupational status were used as indicators of SES. a pooled estimate of the mean difference between the highest and the lowest level of education and occupation was calculated separately for men and women, using DerSimonian and Laird's random effects model. Setting: The inclusion criteria of studies were: use of a validated method for assessing intake at the individual level; selection of a nationwide sample or a representative sample of a region; and providing the mean and standard deviation of overall fruit and vegetable consumption for each level of education or occupation, and separately for men and women. Subjects: Participants in the individual surveys had to be adults (18 - 85 y). Results: Eleven studies from seven countries met the criteria for being included in the meta-analysis. A higher SES was associated with a greater consumption of both fruit and vegetables. The pooled estimate of the difference in the intake of fruit was 24.3 g/person/day (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.0-34.7) between men in the highest level of education and those in the lowest level of education. Similarly, this difference was 33.6g/person/day for women (95% CI 22.5-44.8). The differences regarding vegetables were 17.0g/person/day (95% CI 8.6-25.5) for men and 13.4g/person/day (95% CI 7.1-19.7) for women. The results were in the same direction when occupation instead of education was used as an indicator of SES. Conclusions: Although we cannot exclude over-reporting of intake by those with highest SES, it is unlikely that this potential bias could fully explain the differences we have found. Our results suggest that an unhealthier nutrition pattern may exist among adults belonging to lower socio-economic levels in Europe.

Irala-Estevez, J. De; Groth, Margit Velsing

2000-01-01

243

THE EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME IN DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE ON NATIVE CHICKEN EGG HAUGH UNIT AND YOLK INDEX  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three hundred sixty native chicken eggs was test on the effect of storage time in different temperature on haugh unit and yolk index. The aim of this research is to get the effect of storage time in different temperatures : 300 – 32oC (RH 54%), 280 – 290 C (RH 58%) and 150 – 180 C (RH 80%); on native chicken eggs haugh unit and yolk index. This experiment used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) on three different temperatures (30-320C, 28-290C and 15­180C) and each treatment was repeated six times. Results indicated that the lowest temperature (15-180C) has the highest haugh unit (89.96) and yolk index (0.45); and when the temperature raised (28-290C and 30-320C) the haugh unit and yolk index was lower (72.80 and 0.29; 73.15 and 0.30 respectively).

Hendronoto Arnoldus W. Lengkey; Tuti Widjastuti; Sjafril Darana

2012-01-01

244

Feed intake and activity level of two broiler genotypes foraging different types of vegetation in the finishing period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was performed with 2 broiler genotypes (slow and medium growth) restricted in supplementary feed and foraging 2 different mixed vegetations (grass/clover or chicory) to identify possible benefits of herbage on nutrition during the finishing period (80 to 113 d of age). Three hundred birds were included in a 2 × 2 factorial design with groups of 25 birds replicated 3 times. The use of outdoor areas, performance, and forage intake were investigated. To identify possible differences in foraging activity, the use of the range was monitored one day per week at 4 different times of the day. Feed intake from foraging was estimated by killing 4 birds per plot (2 males and 2 females) in the morning and in the evening on 3 d during the experiment and measuring crop content. Vegetation type did not influence broiler use of the free-range area, feed intake, or performance. Differences in the use of the range area, activity level, and feed content in the crops were observed in relation to genotype, sex, age of broilers, and also the time of day. Foraging activity was positively correlated with age. Medium-growth broilers spent more time inside and closer to the broiler houses during the day with increased foraging activity during evenings, in contrast to the slow-growing broilers that showed a more uniform activity during the day. Based on the measurement of crop content it was estimated that the slow-growing genotype had a daily intake of 5 to 8 g of forage per day, whereas the medium-growing genotype had an intake of 9 g for females and 20 g for males. In conclusion, limitation of supplemented protein feed in the finishing period may be acceptable for broilers that have access to highly nutritious vegetation.

de Almeida GF; Hinrichsen LK; Horsted K; Thamsborg SM; Hermansen JE

2012-09-01

245

Monitoring Vegetation Phenological Cycles in Two Different Semi-Arid Environmental Settings Using a Ground-Based NDVI System: A Potential Approach to Improve Satellite Data Interpretation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In semi-arid environmental settings with sparse canopy covers, obtaining remotely sensed information on soil and vegetative growth characteristics at finer spatial and temporal scales than most satellite platforms is crucial for validating and interpreting satellite data sets. In this study, we used a ground-based NDVI system to provide continuous time series analysis of individual shrub species and soil surface characteristics in two different semi-arid environmental settings located in the Great Basin (NV, USA). The NDVI system was a dual channel SKR-1800 radiometer that simultaneously measured incident solar radiation and upward reflectance in two broadband red and near-infrared channels comparable to Landsat-5 TM band 3 and band 4, respectively. The two study sites identified as Spring Valley 1 site (SV1) and Snake Valley 1 site (SNK1) were chosen for having different species composition, soil texture and percent canopy cover. NDVI time-series of greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus) from the SV1 site allowed for clear distinction between the main phenological stages of the entire growing season during the period from January to November, 2007. NDVI time series values were significantly different between sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus) at SV1 as well as between the two bare soil types at the two sites. Greasewood NDVI from the SNK1 site produced significant correlations with chlorophyll index (r = 0.97), leaf area index (r = 0.98) and leaf xylem water potential (r = 0.93). Whereas greasewood NDVI from the SV1 site produced lower correlations (r = 0.89, r = 0.73), or non significant correlations (r = 0.32) with the same parameters, respectively. Total percent cover was estimated at 17.5% for SV1 and at 63% for SNK1. Results from this study indicated the potential capabilities of using this ground-based NDVI system to extract spatial and temporal details of soil and vegetation optical properties not possible with satellite derived NDVI.

Malika Baghzouz; Dale A. Devitt; Lynn F. Fenstermaker; Michael H. Young

2010-01-01

246

Vegetable Variety Is a Key to Improved Diet Quality in Low-Income Women in California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary prevention education interventions, including those sponsored by the US Department of Agriculture for low-income families, encourage and support increases in vegetable intake. Promoting vegetable variety as a focal point for behavior change may be a useful strategy to increase vegetable consumption. A simple vegetable variety evaluation tool might be useful to replace the time-intensive 24-hour dietary recall. The purpose of our study was to determine whether vegetable variety is associated with vegetable consumption and diet quality among US Department of Agriculture program participants. Variety of vegetable intake and measures of total vegetable intake, diet quality, and diet cost were evaluated. Low-income, female participants (N=112) aged 20 to 55 years with body mass index 17.7 to 68.5 who were the primary food purchasers/preparers for their households were recruited from four California counties representing rural, urban, and suburban areas. Energy density and Healthy Eating Index-2005 were used to assess diet quality. Vegetable variety was based on number of different vegetables consumed per week using a food frequency questionnaire, and three groups were identified as: low variety, ?5 different vegetables per week; moderate variety, 6 to 9 vegetables per week; and high variety, ?10 vegetables per week. Compared with the low-variety group, participants in the high-variety group ate a greater quantity of vegetables per day (P<0.001); their diets had a higher Healthy Eating Index score (P<0.001) and lower energy density (P<0.001); and costs of their daily diet and vegetable use were higher (P<0.001). Thus, greater vegetable variety was related to better overall diet quality, a larger quantity of vegetables consumed, and increased diet cost.

Keim NL; Forester SM; Lyly M; Aaron GJ; Townsend MS

2013-10-01

247

Vegetative and reproductive development of different avocado selections Co60 irradiated  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Data of vegetative and reproductive behavior were registered of 2 cultivars and 5 selections avocado trees which survived 2.0 krad irradiation dosage these trees are in their third year of development. Decreases in graft height were found this decrease were more evident in selections C 137 PLS and C 39 PMe (10 and 15%, respectively), and in cultivar Colin V-33 (40%) irradiated trees of the same selections presented and increase of 100% in flower density and fruit set. Selection Colin V-101 and cv. Fuerte did not present flowering so neither fruit set. We also detected a modification in fructification normal habit of selections Colinmex and C 175 PLS since fruit arises from main stem. (Author)

1993-01-01

248

Vegetation differentiation and soil effect at different slope locations—a case study of Stipa breviflora grassland in Inner Mongolia, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims Spatial pattern of vegetation is determined by a variety of environmental factors on different scales. The influence of landform on vegetation pattern is receiving growing attention. This study examined the influence of slope location on vegetation pattern in Inner Mongolia grassland to provide a scientific basis for vegetation classification, vegetation mapping, rational utilization and ecosystem restoration and reconstruction.Methods In each of three typical sites in Stipa breviflora grassland, we established three parallel line transects of unequal length and placed 0.5 m × 0.5 m herb plots at 2-m intervals along each line. Vegetation and soil were surveyed for each plot. Cluster analysis, binomial test, significant difference test, canonical correspondence analysis and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze the influence of slope location on vegetation pattern andsoil effects.Important findings Vegetation types were clearly differentiated between upper and lower slopes, with a climatic climax community on the upper slope and a terrain community on the lower slope. Slope locations affected the species distribution pattern along the slope, mainly in species composition and some dominant species. The productivity of the lower slope is higher than that of the higher slope, and two different functional areas had formed. The character of the surface soil (especially 0–5 cm) was largest difference between upper and lower slope. Various geomorphic processes resulted in great habitat heterogeneity in a very small region. It provides an important mechanism for formation and maintenance of biological diversity at the local scale. Mechanical composition difference of surface soil (especially 0–5 cm) affected vegetation pattern, and soil moisture affected the productivity difference along the slope.

ZHANG Qing; NIU Jian-Ming; Alexander BUYANTUYEV; HAN Fang; DONG Jian-Jun; ZHANG Yan-Nan; KANG Sarula; YANG Yan

2011-01-01

249

Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system Parâmetros de resfriamento de frutas e hortaliças de diferentes dimensões em um sitema com água fria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus) and vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris), were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables). The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3) and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3) is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.O resfriamento com água gelada pode ser uma técnica adequada para frutas e hortaliças frescas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo obter o tempo de resfriamento de frutas e hortaliças de dimensões diferentes, e apresentar índices práticos que possam ser usados para estimar o tempo de resfriamento de produtos com características semelhantes. Frutas (melão-Cucumis melo, manga-Mangifera indica, goiaba-Psidium guajava, laranja-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, ameixa-Prunus domestica, limão-Citrus limon e acerola-Malpighia glabra) e hortaliças (pepino-Cucumis sativus, cenoura-Daucus carota e vagem-Phaseolus vulgaris), foram resfriadas num sistema por imersão em água à 1°C. O volume das frutas oscilou de 1150,35 cm³ a 8,18 cm³ e das hortaliças entre 438,4 cm³ a 13,06 cm³. O tempo de resfriamento variou proporcionalmente com o volume dos frutos, de 8,5 min até 124 min (frutas) e de 1,5 min até 55 min (hortaliças). Foi calculado o índice relacionando volume e tempo de resfriamento das frutas (1,03 min cm-3 a 0,107 min cm-3) e hortaliças (0,06 min cm-3 a 0,12 min cm-3), que pode ser usado para a estimativa do tempo de resfriamento de frutas e hortaliças com dimensões semelhantes.

Bárbara Teruel; Theo Kieckbusch; Luis Cortez

2004-01-01

250

THE PECULIARITIES OF MORPHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONAL CELL ERYTHRON STATUS OF PERIPHERAL LEVEL TAKING INTO ACCOUNT VEGETATIVE HOMEOSTASIS AT TEENAGERS FROM REGIONS WITH DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL BALANCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results ofexamination of 267 teenagers who live in various ecological biogeochemical regions are indicated in the work. Vegetative regulation differences of cardiac function and the peculiarities oferythrocytic background have been determined

T.P. Bondar; Yu.l. Polovko; E.V. Vereshchak; O.I. Zaparozhtseva; T.V. Karchinskaja; L.D. Tsaturjan

2008-01-01

251

Effects of different dietary cation-anion balance and cellulase on blood biochemical indexes in sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five sheep with average live weight of 38 kg were selected and fitted with permanent ruminal fistulae for the study of the influence of DCAB and cellulase on blood biochemical indexes in sheep. With the design of 5 x 5 Latin square, the goats were undergone four groups of treatments. As sheep in control group were only fed with basic feed, other treatments were fed with basic feed and additives. Those additives were: treatment 1 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary), treatment 2 with DCAB1 (20 mEq/100g DM), treatment 3 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary) and DCAB1 (20 mEq/100g DM) and treatment 4 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary) and DCAB2 (40 mEq/100 g DM). The results show that different DCAB and cellulase had no apparent influence on the concentrations of T3 and T4 (P>0.05), but they had significant influence on the concentration of insulin (P0.05). The study indicated that addition of 0.2% cellulase to dietary while adjusting DCAB to 0.2-40 mEq/100 g DM respectively did not destroy tissues and organs of sheep. (authors)

2007-01-01

252

The validity of the risk index for comparing the accident risk associated with different work schedules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although it is known that there is an association between working hours and occupational accidents, there are only few tools which allow for an assessment of the risk associated with different working time arrangements, none of them validated yet by independent samples. Promising tools like the risk index (RI), assessed via the fatigue and risk index calculator, thus need to be validated. Since analyses on the validity of the RI based on individual data found only moderate associations between the RI and the actual accident risk, the question arises, whether a validation based on grouped data yields more promising results. Thus, the validity of the RI was re-examined, using aggregated data, i.e. pooling several individuals into groups of respondents according to their RI-score and performing calculations on the group level in order to control for individual and random variation. The study sample (n=337) was derived from an Internet survey on working hours and health, which contained information on working hours over four weeks and on the occurrence of an occupational accident during the last 12 months. Two models of aggregation were used: a distribution based and a criterion based classification, resulting in four RI groups each. Accident rates for each group were calculated and compared via ?(2)-analyses and fitting trends to the data. Results show, for both models of aggregation, that the accident rate increased exponentially with an increasing RI. Risk was 3.7 times (distribution based aggregation) and 6.5 times (criterion based aggregation) higher in the highest compared to the lowest RI-groups. The exponential trend explained 92% (distribution based aggregation) and 98% (criterion based aggregation) of the variance, respectively. Analyses for homogeneous subgroups (e.g., service sector, and workers with high workload) showed similar trends. Thus the analyses based on aggregated data indicated a considerable and consistently higher validity of the RI than the earlier analyses based on individual data, irrespective of the model of aggregation. These results are quite promising although further analyses based on larger samples are needed to confirm these findings and in order to further develop the RI or similar indices.

Greubel J; Nachreiner F

2013-01-01

253

Land Surface Temperature Retrieval by Using ATCOR3_T and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Methods in Penang Island  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Many studies have been devoted to establish the methodology for retrieval of LST from single channel algorithm by utilizing Landsat satellite images. However, this method required many atmospheric parameters to retrieve LST. Thus, it is very difficult to acquire the complete information for atmospheric parameters. Approach: While for ATCOR3_T, this method can be used to retrieve LST without any historical atmospheric parameters like transmittance and mean-atmospheric temperature. In this study, the retrieval of LST value from ATCOR3_T method was compared with the NDVI method, in order to calculate the average percentage of error. Results: The obtained result showed that the LST value retrieved from ATCOR3_T can be used to generate the LST map in equatorial region, such as Penang Island. The average percentage of error for 40 points of LST gives the percentage of 5.13%. Conclusion/Recommendations: Both of these methods can be used to estimate LST value in the study area. In addition, the retrieval of LST value from multi-temporal satellite images is useful to study urban heat island effects in Penang Island for future study.

K. C. Tan; H. S. Lim; M. Z. MatJafri; K. Abdullah

2010-01-01

254

Vegetation against dune mobility  

CERN Multimedia

Vegetation is the most common and most reliable stabilizer of loose soil or sand. This ancient technique is for the first time cast into a set of equations of motion describing the competition between aeolian sand transport and vegetation growth. Our set of equations is then applied to study quantitatively the transition between barchans and parabolic dunes driven by the dimensionless fixation index $\\theta$ which is the ratio between dune characteristic erosion rate and vegetation growth velocity. We find a fixation index $\\theta_c$ below which the dunes are stabilized characterized by scaling laws.

Duran, O; Duran, Orencio; Herrmann, Hans J.

2006-01-01

255

Ambulatory arterial stiffness index in type 1 diabetes mellitus : any different during pregnancy?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To analyze the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) and pulse pressure (PP) during pregnancy and 3 months after delivery in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and compare it to healthy pregnant controls.

Lauszus, Finn F; Fuglsang, Jens

2013-01-01

256

Vegetative Growth of the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis Cultivated in Different Light-Path Lengths  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis in vegetative stage is one of the most important parts in the whole cultivation process. The aim of the study was to show the growth characteristics of the alga under 100 and 170 ?mol photon m-2 s-1 light intensities in the longer Light Path (LP) lengths (17.5, 23.0 and 27.5 cm) than the ones usually used. Maximum cell numbers increased from 15.7, 11.5 and 10.1 x 104 cells mL-1 in 100 ?mol light to 17.9, 12.9 and 11.1 x 104 cells mL-1 under 170 ?mol light for 17.5, 23.0 and 27.5 cm LP lengths, respectively. The cell concentration per liter volume increased as in the pattern of cell count. The Chl/Car ratio in the whole groups, a very useful indicator to evaluate the stress on the cells, increased by the shift of light from 100 to 170 ?mol. The close correlation between cell number and absorbance value at 680 nm (p Haematococcus pluvialis by the higher light intensities than 200 ?mol photon m-2 s-1 using mutual shading effect.

Tolga Goksan; Ilknur Ak

2006-01-01

257

[Variability of vegetation growth season in different latitudinal zones of North China: a monitoring by NOAA NDVI and MSAVI].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, North China was latitudinally divided into five zones, i.e., 32 degrees - 36 degrees N (Zone I), 36 degrees - 40 degrees N (Zone II), 40 degrees - 44 degrees N (Zone III), 44 degrees - 48 degrees N (Zone IV) and 48 degrees - 52 degrees N (Zone V), and the NOAA/ AVHRR NDVI and MSAVI time-series images from 1982 to 1999 were smoothed with Savitzky-Golay filter algorithm. Based on the EOF analysis, the principal components of NDVI and MSAVI for the vegetations in different latitudinal zones of North China were extracted, the annual beginning and ending dates and the length of growth season in 1982 - 1999 were estimated, and the related parameters were linearly fitted, aimed to analyze the variability of vegetation growth season. The results showed that the beginning date of the growth season in different zones tended to be advanced, while the ending date tended to be postponed with increasing latitude. The length of the growth season was also prolonged, with the prolonging time exceeded 10 days.

Wang H; Li X; Han R; Ge Y

2006-12-01

258

Toxicity of Trace Elements in Different Vegetables Grown on Potentially Contaminated Sites of the Korangi Industrial Area, Karachi Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents toxicity of trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb) in different vegetables grown on potentially contaminated sites of the Korangi Industrial Area, Karachi (Sindh) Pakistan. A total of 40 effluent irrigated and 4 tubewell irrigated considered as background samples were collected and analyzed for trace elements concentration. The maximum concentrations of trace elements absorbed by different vegetables grown on effluent irrigated soils were 78.8, 103.25, 638.8, 973.3, 7.4, 22.5, 88.0 and 64.0 mg kg-1 for Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb, respectively. However, the background plant samples showed the maximum concentrations of 32.4, 19.5, 172.5, 111.8, 1.8, 4.2, 14.8 and 12.4 mg kg-1 for the above respective elements. The values observed in this study were also compared with the toxic and excessive levels. The comparison showed that 100, 13, 18, 50, 93 and 50% of samples contained toxic or excessive levels of Cu, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb, respectively. The concentration of trace elements in effluents irrigated plants were higher than those in tubewell irrigated plants and also higher than those generally reported in the literature.

Midrar-ul-Haq; Riaz A. Khattak; Haji Khan Puno; M. Saleem Saif; Kazi Suleman Memon; Nabi Bux Sial

2005-01-01

259

Animal and vegetal pole cells of early Xenopus embryos respond differently to maternal dorsal determinants: implications for the patterning of the organiser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The maternal dorsal determinants required for the specification of the dorsal territories of Xenopus early gastrulae are located at the vegetal pole of unfertilised eggs and are moved towards the prospective dorsal region of the fertilised egg during cortical rotation. While the molecular identity of the determinants is unknown, there are dorsal factors in the vegetal cortical cytoplasm (VCC). Here, we show that the VCC factors, when injected into animal cells activate the zygotic genes Siamois and Xnr3, suggesting that they act along the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathways. In addition, Siamois and Xnr3 are activated and at the vegetal pole of UV-irradiated embryos, indicating that these two genes are targets of the VCC factors in all embyronic cells. However, the consequences of their activation in cells that occupy different positions along the animal-vegetal axis differ. Dorsal vegetal cells of normal embryos or VCC-treated injected animal cells are able to dorsalise ventral mesoderm in conjugate experiments but UV-treated vegetal caps do not have this property. We propose that the regionalisation of the organiser during gastrulation proceeds from the differential interpretation along the animal-vegetal axis of the activation of the VCC/{beta}-catenin/Siamois pathway. (author).

Darras, Sebastien; Lemaire, Patrick [CNRS-Universite de la Mediterranee, Lab. de Genetique et Physiologie du Developpement, Marseille, 13 (France); Marikawa, Yusuke; Elinson, R.P. [Toronto Univ., Zoology Dept., Toronto, ON (Canada)

1997-12-31

260

The hydrological responses of different land cover types in a re-vegetation catchment area of the Loess Plateau, China  

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Full Text Available The impact of re-vegetation on soil moisture dynamics was investigated by comparing five land cover types. Soil moisture and temperature variations under grass (Andropogon), subshrub (Artemisia scoparia), shrub (Spiraea pubescens), tree (Robinia pseudoacacia), and crop (Zea mays) vegetation were monitored in an experiment performed during the growing season of 2011. There were more than 10 soil moisture pulses during the period of data collection, and the surface soil moisture of all of the land cover types showed an increasing trend. Corn cover was associated with consistently higher soil moisture readings than the other surfaces. Grass and subshrubs showed an intermediate moisture level, with that of grass being slightly higher than that of subshrub most of the time. Shrubs and trees were characterized by lower soil moisture readings, with the shrub levels consistently being slightly higher than those of the trees. With the exception of the corn land cover type, the average soil temperature showed the same regime as the average moisture content, but exhibiting a downward trend throughout the observation period. Three typical decreasing periods were chosen to compare the differences in water losses. In periods of both relatively lower and higher water soil moisture contents, subshrubs lost the largest amount of water. The daily water loss associated with corn was most variable. The tree and shrub sites presented an intermediate level, with that of tree being slightly higher compared to shrub; the daily water loss trends of these two land cover types were similar and were more stable than those of the other types. The amount of water loss related to the grass land cover type is determined by the initial moisture content. Soil under subshrubs acquired and retained soil moisture resources more efficiently than the other cover types, representing an adaptive vegetation type in this area.

S. Wang; B. J. Fu; G. Y. Gao; J. Zhou

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Relationships between forest structure and vegetation indices in Atlantic Rainforest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The alliance between remote sensing techniques and biophysical indicators can be valuable to studies on diagnosis and monitoring, especially in threatened habitats, such as the Atlantic Rainforest. This approach may improve monitoring through diagnosing forest fragments instead of quantifying only forest area reduction. This paper aims to evaluate relationships between forest structure and vegetation indices in Atlantic Rainforest fragments, in southeastern Brazil. Two Landsat 7 ETM+ images acquired in humid and dry seasons were used, and measurements of forest structure in nine forest fragments and in a continuous forest area in the Guapiaçú River Basin, in Rio de Janeiro State were taken. Three vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), moisture vegetation index using Landsat's band 5 (MVI5) and moisture vegetation index using Landsat's band 7 (MVI7)) were correlated with measurements of forest structure (frequency of multiple-stemmed trees, density of trees, mean and range of tree diameter, mean and range of tree height and average of basal area). Models describing the relationships between forest structure and vegetation indices using linear regression analysis were also developed. MVI5 and MVI7 showed the best performances in dense humid forests, whereas NDVI seems to be a good indicator of green biomass in deciduous and dry forests. Moreover, the saturation matter in vegetation indices and the transferability of relationships between biophysical characteristics and vegetation indices to other sites and times were discussed.

Freitas SR; Mello MCS; Cruz CBM

2005-10-01

262

Satellite detection of dust using the IR imagery of Meteosat: 1. Infrared difference dust index  

Science.gov (United States)

The Infrared Difference Dust Index (IDDI) is a satellite dust product designed for climatological applications, designed specifically for dust remote sensing in arid regions such as the Sahel and Sahara. It is based on the atmospheric response to dust, extracted from midday Meteosat-IR imagery, and takes advantage of the impact of dust aerosols on the thermal infra-red radiance outgoing to space. Simulations show a quasi-linear relationship between satellite response to dust and shortwave optical depth, with a sensitivity depending on particle size distribution and radiative surface properties. Comparison of measured satellite response with photometric optical depth agrees with the simulations. Water vapor significantly affects the satellite signal for cases of large columnar amounts and oceanic air masses advected inland. Hence apart from possible coastal effects, the water vapor effect can be neglected in the Sahelian-Saharan zone north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, coinciding with the major regions of African dust emission and transport. The construction of the IDDI involves the processing of reference images, theoretically representing the outgoing radiance obtaining under clear-sky conditions. Errors may arise from (1) dust remaining in the reference images and (2) seasonal shifts of the reference level; however, the latter error will be offset by averaging used in climatological processing. An error budget is presented for the station of Gao. A statistical comparison of IDDI data with visibility measured at synoptic stations results in (1) a validation of the product, and (2) a climatologically relevant visibility-IDDI relation, valid for the arid regions of northern Africa. The latter relation is consistent with both simulations and photometric measurements. IDDI maps over Africa compare successfully with optical depth over adjacent ocean regions derived from Meteosat-VIS imagery. The observed continuity of dust plumes across the African coast demonstrates the consistency between both products.

Legrand, M.; Plana-Fattori, A.; N'doumé, C.

2001-08-01

263

Differences in nutrition status by body mass index in patients with peripheral artery disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is most prevalent in the elderly and associated with increased cardio vascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Treatment focuses on improving functional capacity and reducing CVD risk factors. To date, little is understood about dietary habits and weight in this patient population. Nutritional and weight recommendations are based on heart health, and little is known about the unique needs of elderly PAD patients with multiple comorbidities. This prospective study compared 1) the dietary intake of nonobese PAD patients in comparison with those who were obese and; 2) dietary intake of those patients with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) based on age, gender and BMI. Nutritional intake was assessed with the Block 98 Food Frequency Questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated in accordance with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) guidelines.The study population was divided into obese (BMI ? 30) and nonobese (NO) groups. Comparisons between groups were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables and the Chi-square test for ordinal variables. All tests were two-tailed and P < 0.05 was considered significant. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cut-point method was used to compare nutritional variables with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). The study population included 189 NO (BMI < 30) and 111 obese (BMI > 30) individuals. Obese participants reported greater intake of foods containing cholesterol and trans-fatty acids and more frequent intake of B vitamins in comparison with the NO BMI group. Additionally, the nutrient intake of all participants by age, gender and BMI was lower than the EAR for magnesium, folate, and Vitamin E. These results suggest that the nutritional intake of PAD patients differs based on gender and BMI. Additionally, EAR was lower for specific nutrients than recommended. Further investigation is needed to examine the association between nutritional intake and nutrition-related deficits.

Oka RK; Alley HF

2012-09-01

264

Agronomic characteristics associated with vegetation index measured by active sensors of the canopy in soybeanCaracterísticas agronômicas associadas com índices de vegetação medidos por sensores ativos de dossel na cultura da soja  

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Full Text Available Soybean has always stood out for its economic importance in the national agricultural scenario with an increase in its cultivation throughout the Brazilian territory. With the increasing use of precision agriculture (PA) is of paramount importance to understand the variability of agronomic variables. Currently, spectral sensors in the ground-level have been used to establish relationships between spectral response and crop growth parameters. This is possible through the reading of vegetation indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index using the green band (GNDVI). This study was conducted between October to 2008 and April to 2009, in Ponta Grossa – PR, with the objective of evaluating the spectral response of soybean through GNDVI and its correlation with some agronomic variables, such as: productivity of grain, productivity of dry mass, plant density and plant height. GNDVI readings were taken on six phenological stages using Crop Circle active optical sensor. Regression analyzes were used to determine which agronomic variables established relationship with the GNDVI. The GNDVI in soybean established significant correlations only with grain and MS productivity in EF V9. Thus, to establish the correlation of GNDVI with these variables it is recommended that the readings are carried out in this EF.A soja sempre se destacou pela sua importância econômica no cenário agrícola nacional tendo sido observado aumento do seu cultivo em todo o território brasileiro. Com o uso crescente da agricultura de precisão (AP) é de suma importância entender a variabilidade das variáveis agronômicas. Atualmente, sensores espectrais em nível terrestre vêm sendo utilizados para estabelecer relações entre as respostas espectrais e parâmetros de crescimento da cultura. Isso é possível por meio da leitura dos índices de vegetação, como o Índice de Vegetação da Diferença Normalizada utilizando a banda verde (GNDVI). Este estudo foi conduzido entre outubro de 2008 e abril de 2009, em Ponta Grossa – PR, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta espectral da cultura da soja por meio do GNDVI e sua correlação com algumas variáveis agronômicas, como: produtividade de grãos, produtividade de massa seca, densidade de plantas e altura de plantas. Leituras do GNDVI foram realizadas em seis estádios fenológicos (EF) utilizando o sensor óptico ativo Crop Circle. Análises de regressão foram utilizadas para determinar quais variáveis agronômicas estabeleciam relação com o GNDVI. O GNDVI na cultura da soja estabeleceu correlações significativas apenas com a produtividade de grãos e a produtividade de MS no EF V9. Assim, para se estabelecer a correlação do GNDVI com essas variáveis recomenda-se que as leituras sejam realizadas nesse EF.

Edson Cristiano Groff; Marcos Rafael Nanni; Fabrício Pinheiro Povh; Everson Cezar

2013-01-01

265

Phytomass mapping of the "seridó caatinga" vegetation by the plant area and the normalized difference vegetation indeces Mapeamento da fitomassa da caatinga do seridó pelos índices de área de planta e de vegetação da diferença normalizada  

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Full Text Available Phytomass is a critical information for economic and environmental activities like the establishment of policies for timber resources, forest management, studies of plant nutrient cycling, CO2 sink, among other. The phytomass of a Caatinga area was obtained by an empirical method using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of Landsat images, the plant area index (PAI) and the phytomass inventory. At a first stage, linear, logarithmic and non-linear models were developed and tested. Bush and tree specimens were considered in the study, so that most of the individuals that contribute to the spectral answer detected by satellite images were included. At a second stage, the orbital parameter NDVI was used to map the PAI, which was used to map the phytomass, based on the relationship of this phytomass as a function of PAI. The residues between measurements and estimates based on NDVI varied from 0 to 84%, while the residues of total dry weight of phytomass per ha obtained by mapping and by dendrometrical equations varied from 5 to 104%, with a large trend of 166 and 448% in open Caatinga areas, due to the contribution of the herbaceous stratum to NDVI.A fitomassa, principalmente arbórea, é informação necessária em atividades econômicas e ambientais, como políticas de uso do recurso madeireiro, manejo florestal, estudos de ciclagem de nutrientes, absorção de CO2, entre outros. A finalidade deste estudo foi a verificação de um método empírico para o mapeamento da fitomassa da Caatinga do Seridó, integrando-se um inventário de fitomassa, o índice de área de planta (IAP) e o índice de vegetação da diferença normalizada (NDVI), por meio de imagens Landsat TM. Na primeira etapa foram desenvolvidos e testados modelos lineares, logarítmicos e não lineares. A abordagem de tamanho foi arbustiva e arbórea, incluindo-se a maior parte dos indivíduos que contribuem na resposta espectral mensurada por imagens de satélite. Em uma segunda etapa utilizamos o parâmetro orbital, NDVI, para o mapeamento do IAP, que por sua vez, foi utilizado para mapear a fitomassa. Os desvios entre mensurações de IAP e estimativas a partir do NDVI, variaram de 0 a 84%, enquanto que os desvios entre Peso Seco Total de Fitomassa por ha obtidos pelo mapeamento e por equações dendrométricas, variaram de 5 a 104%, com grandes tendências de 166 e 448% para áreas de caatinga aberta, provocada pela contribuição do estrato herbáceo no NDVI.

Thomaz Corrêa e Castro da Costa; Luciano José de Oliveira Accioly; Maria Ap. José de Oliveira; Nivaldo Burgos; Flávio Hugo Barreto Batista da Silva

2002-01-01

266

Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh. METHODS: The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with "Finney Programme". RESULTS: All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains (zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6-21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 µg/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 µg/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents.

Ullah MO; Haque M; Urmi KF; Zulfiker AH; Anita ES; Begum M; Hamid K; Uddin SJ

2013-01-01

267

Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 1.70 mg kg(-1), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film. PMID:23792387

Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

2013-06-19

268

CROP YIELD OF CONILON COFFEE PLANTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF VEGETATIVE VIGOR AND RUST SEVERITY  

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Full Text Available Os programas de melhoramento genético têm buscado disponibilizar cultivares resistentes à ferrugem, visto que o controle genético constitui o método mais econômico e eficiente no manejo dessa doença. Este trabalho objetivou estudar a relação entre a severidade da ferrugem, o vigor vegetativo e a capacidade produtiva de plantas de café conilon. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental de Bananal do Norte (INCAPER), localizada em Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, no sul do Estado do Espírito Santo. Foram avaliadas as produtividades de 20 combinações entre 4 níveis de vigor vegetativo e 5 níveis de severidade da ferrugem. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com 4 repetições e 5 plantas por parcela experimental. Verificou-se a formação de cinco grupos de médias homogêneas para as combinações e ajustou-se as médias a um modelo de superfície de resposta. As combinações entre os níveis de vigor vegetativo e severidade da ferrugem influenciaram a produtividade do cafeeiro conilon nas condições avaliadas. O fator vigor vegetativo foi mais limitante que o fator severidade da ferrugem na determinação da produtividade de plantas de café conilon.The breeding programs have sought to provide rust-resistant cultivars, since the genetic control is the most economical and efficient method of management of this plant disease. This study investigated the relationship between the rust severity, vigor and crop yield capacity of conilon coffee plants. The experiment was conducted in the Experimental Farm of Bananal do Norte (INCAPER), located in Cachoeito de Itapemirim, in the southern state of Espírito Santo. The crop yield was evaluated in 20 combinations of 4 levels of vigor and 5 levels of rust severity. The experimental design used was in randomized blocks, with four replications and 5 plants per plot. There was the formation of five groups of homogeneous means for the combinations and the means was adjusted to a response surface model. The combinations between the levels of vigor and rust severity influenced the crop yield of conilon coffee in the evaluated conditions. The vegetative vigor factor was the more limiting than the rust severity in determining the coffee plants yield.

Wagner Nunes Rodrigues; Romário Gava Ferrão; Maria Amélia Gava Ferrão; Aymbiré Francisco Almeida da Fonseca; Rodolfo Ferreira de Mendonça; Lima Deleon Martins; Marcelo Antonio Tomaz

2012-01-01

269

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radometer (ASTER) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) Products from Global Earth Observation (GEO) Grid: An Assessment Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for Synergistic Applications  

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Full Text Available We assessed the compatibility of three Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radometer (ASTER) based Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) products generated in the GEO Grid system to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) EVI. The three products were two forms of the two-band EVI with ASTER red and NIR bands but without a blue band and the original, three-band EVI computed with ASTER red and NIR, and MODIS blue reflectances. Our assessment results showed good compatibilities of all the three ASTER EVI products with MODIS EVI, suggesting potential for synergistic applications of multi-resolution EVI.

Hirokazu Yamamoto; Tomoaki Miura; Satoshi Tsuchida

2012-01-01

270

Impact of differences in glucose tolerance on the prevalence of a negative insulinogenic index.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of a negative insulinogenic index (change in plasma insulin/change in plasma glucose from 0 to 30 min) from an oral glucose tolerance test according to glucose tolerance category. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the San Antonio Heart Study (n=2494), Japanese American Community Diabetes Study (JACDS; n=594) and Genetics of NIDDM Study (n=1519) were examined. Glucose tolerance was defined by ADA criteria. RESULTS: In the combined cohort, the prevalence of a negative insulinogenic index was significantly higher in diabetes 20/616 (3.2%) compared to normal glucose tolerance 43/2667 (1.6%) (p<0.05). Longitudinally, in the JACDS cohort, the prevalence did not change from baseline (3/594; 0.5%) to 5 (4/505; 0.7%) and 10 years (8/426; 1.9%) (p=0.9) and no subject had a repeat negative insulinogenic index. CONCLUSIONS: A negative insulinogenic index occurs at a low prevalence across glucose tolerance categories although more often in diabetes, but without recurrence over time.

Faulenbach MV; Wright LA; Lorenzo C; Utzschneider KM; Goedecke JH; Fujimoto WY; Boyko EJ; McNeely MJ; Leonetti DL; Haffner SM; Kahn SE

2013-03-01

271

Regional Differences as Barriers to Body Mass Index Screening Described by Ohio School Nurses  

Science.gov (United States)

|Background: Body mass index (BMI) screening is advocated by the National Association of School Nurses (NASN). Research identifying barriers to BMI screening in public elementary school settings has been sparse. The purpose of the study was to identify barriers and facilitating factors of BMI screening practices among Ohio school nurses working in…

Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

2011-01-01

272

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

2012-12-01

273

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens

2012-01-01

274

Timing of Peak Blood Glucose after Breakfast Meals of Different Glycemic Index in Women with Gestational Diabetes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to determine the peak timing of postprandial blood glucose level (PBGL) of two breakfasts with different glycemic index (GI) in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Ten women with diet-controlled GDM who were between 30 and 32 weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. They consu...

Jimmy Chun Yu Louie; Tania P. Markovic; Glynis P. Ross; Deborah Foote; Jennie C. Brand-Miller

275

Determination of surface tension, optical rotativity and refractive index of polymer polyvinyl alcohol PVA, in various solvents at different concentrations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface tension, Optical Rotativity and Refractive Index of Polymer PVA ( w=1,25,000) in various solvents like distilled water, NaOH, KOH and Urea at different concentrations are measured, which enable us to know the interaction of the polymer molecules in these solvents.

Sarojini Panda; Gouranga Chandra Mohanty; Gourisankar Roy; Kiranmayee Sahoo

2011-01-01

276

VEGETATION REDISTRIBUTION: A POSSIBLE BIOSPHERE SOURCE OF CO2 DURING CLIMATIC CHANGE  

Science.gov (United States)

A new biogeographic model, MAPSS, predicts changes in vegetation leaf area index (LAI), site water balance and runoff, as well as changes in Biome boundaries. otential scenarios of equilibrium vegetation redistribution under 2 X CO2 climate from five different General Circulation...

277

The Oslo Health Study: a Dietary Index estimating high intake of soft drinks and low intake of fruits and vegetables was positively associated with components of the metabolic syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A previous finding that soft drink intake is associated with increased serum triglycerides and decreased high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, both components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), raises the question of whether other aspects of an unhealthy diet might be associated with MetS. Main MetS requirements are central obesity and 2 of the following: increased triglycerides, low HDL, increased systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood glucose. Of the 18 770 participants in the Oslo Health Study, there were 13 170 respondents (5997 men and 7173 women) with data on MetS factors (except fasting glucose) and on the components used to determine the Dietary Index score (calculated as the intake estimate of soft drinks divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables). MetSRisk was calculated as the sum of arbitrarily weighted factors positively associated with MetS divided by HDL cholesterol. Using regression analyses, the association of the Dietary Index with MetSRisk, with the number of MetS requirements present, and with the complete MetS was studied. In young, middle-aged, and senior men and women, there was, in general, a positive association (p < 0.001) between the Dietary Index and the MetS estimates, which persisted in regression models adjusted for sex, age, time since the last meal, intake of cheese, intake of fatty fish, intake of coffee, intake of alcohol, smoking, physical activity, education, and birthplace. Thus, an index reflecting a high intake of soft drinks and a low intake of fruit and vegetables was positively and independently associated with aspects of MetS.

Høstmark AT

2010-12-01

278

GPS phase difference variation statistics: A comparison between phase scintillation index and proxy indices  

Science.gov (United States)

Scintillated GPS phase observations are traditionally characterized by the phase scintillation index, derived from specialized GPS receivers usually tracking at 50 Hz. Geodetic quality GPS receivers, on the other hand, are normally tracking at frequencies up to 1 Hz. However, availability of continuously operating geodetic receivers both in time and geographical location are superior to scintillation receiver's coverage in many parts of the world. This motivates scintillation studies using regional and global geodetic GPS networks. Previous studies have shown the usefulness of GPS estimated total electron content variations for detecting ionospheric irregularities. In this paper, collocated geodetic and scintillation receivers are employed to compare proxy indices derived from geodetic receivers with the phase scintillation index during quiet and moderately disturbed ionospheric conditions. Sensitivity of the phase scintillation indices at high latitude stations to geomagnetic activity is discussed. Global mapping of ionospheric disturbances using proxy indices from real-time 1 Hz GPS stations are also presented.

Ghoddousi-Fard, Reza; Prikryl, Paul; Lahaye, François

2013-10-01

279

Differences in motor and cognitive abilities of children depending on their body mass index and subcutaneous adipose tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to analyze differences in motor and cognitive abilities of children depending on their value in quantitative indicators of Body Mass Index (BMI) and subcutaneous fatty tissue. The study sample consisted of overall 910 boys and girls, aged 11 to 14, all from elementary schools in Vojvodina (Serbia). Six anthropometric, eight motor and one cognitive variable were analyzed to identify quantitative and qualitative differences in motor and cognitive functioning of children. Children were divided into three groups within gender based on their body mass index calculated and subcutaneous fatty tissue measured. The results obtained from the study indicate the existence of differences in motor and only partly in intellectual abilities between groups of subjects. The greatest differences between the clusters were found in the level of coordination of the entire body, and the static strength of arms and shoulders.

Drid P; Vujkov S; Jaksi? D; Trivi? T; Marinkovi? D; Bala G

2013-05-01

280

Differences in motor and cognitive abilities of children depending on their body mass index and subcutaneous adipose tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to analyze differences in motor and cognitive abilities of children depending on their value in quantitative indicators of Body Mass Index (BMI) and subcutaneous fatty tissue. The study sample consisted of overall 910 boys and girls, aged 11 to 14, all from elementary schools in Vojvodina (Serbia). Six anthropometric, eight motor and one cognitive variable were analyzed to identify quantitative and qualitative differences in motor and cognitive functioning of children. Children were divided into three groups within gender based on their body mass index calculated and subcutaneous fatty tissue measured. The results obtained from the study indicate the existence of differences in motor and only partly in intellectual abilities between groups of subjects. The greatest differences between the clusters were found in the level of coordination of the entire body, and the static strength of arms and shoulders. PMID:23914505

Drid, Patrik; Vujkov, Sandra; Jaksi?, Damjan; Trivi?, Tatjana; Marinkovi?, Dragan; Bala, Gustav

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Experimental investigation of different solar dryers suitable for fruit and vegetable drying  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research paper presents an experimental investigation of three different types of solar dryer based on the principle of natural as well as forced convection. Efforts have also been made to select the most appropriate design to be used on a household, farm or industrial scale. (Author)

Sharma, V.K.; Colangelo, A.; Spagna, G. [ENEA, Trisaia (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia

1995-08-01

282

The Regularities of Mutagenic Action of gamma-Radiation on Vegetative Bacillus subtilis Cells with Different Repair Genotype  

CERN Document Server

The regularities of induction of his^-\\to his^+ mutations in vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells with different repair capacity after gamma-irradiation have been studied. The wild type cells, polA1, recE4, recA, recP, add5, recH were used in experiments. It was shown that radiation-induced mutagenesis is determined by a repair genotype of cells. The blocking of different reparation genes is reflected on mutagenesis ratio by the various ways. A frequency of induction mutations in polA strain is higher than in wild type cells and it is characterized by the linearly-quadratic dose curve. The different rec^- strains that belong to various epistatic groups reveal an unequal mutation induction. The add5 and recP strains are characterized by the high-level induction mutations in contrast with the wild type cells. The mutagenesis in recE and recH strains, on the contrary, sharply reduces. The different influence of rec genes inhering to various epistatic groups on mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis cells probably reflec...

Boreyko, A V; Krasavin, E A

2000-01-01

283

Differences in soil fungal communities between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) dominated forests are related to soil and understory vegetation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fungi are important members of soil microbial communities with a crucial role in biogeochemical processes. Although soil fungi are known to be highly diverse, little is known about factors influencing variations in their diversity and community structure among forests dominated by the same tree species but spread over different regions and under different managements. We analyzed the soil fungal diversity and community composition of managed and unmanaged European beech dominated forests located in three German regions, the Schwäbische Alb in Southwestern, the Hainich-Dün in Central and the Schorfheide Chorin in the Northeastern Germany, using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Multiple sequence quality filtering followed by sequence data normalization revealed 1655 fungal operational taxonomic units. Further analysis based on 722 abundant fungal OTUs revealed the phylum Basidiomycota to be dominant (54%) and its community to comprise 71.4% of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Fungal community structure differed significantly (p?0.001) among the three regions and was characterized by non-random fungal OTUs co-occurrence. Soil parameters, herbaceous understory vegetation, and litter cover affected fungal community structure. However, within each study region we found no difference in fungal community structure between management types. Our results also showed region specific significant correlation patterns between the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungal genera. This suggests that soil fungal communities are region-specific but nevertheless composed of functionally diverse and complementary taxa.

Wubet T; Christ S; Schöning I; Boch S; Gawlich M; Schnabel B; Fischer M; Buscot F

2012-01-01

284

Differences in soil fungal communities between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) dominated forests are related to soil and understory vegetation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi are important members of soil microbial communities with a crucial role in biogeochemical processes. Although soil fungi are known to be highly diverse, little is known about factors influencing variations in their diversity and community structure among forests dominated by the same tree species but spread over different regions and under different managements. We analyzed the soil fungal diversity and community composition of managed and unmanaged European beech dominated forests located in three German regions, the Schwäbische Alb in Southwestern, the Hainich-Dün in Central and the Schorfheide Chorin in the Northeastern Germany, using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Multiple sequence quality filtering followed by sequence data normalization revealed 1655 fungal operational taxonomic units. Further analysis based on 722 abundant fungal OTUs revealed the phylum Basidiomycota to be dominant (54%) and its community to comprise 71.4% of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Fungal community structure differed significantly (p?0.001) among the three regions and was characterized by non-random fungal OTUs co-occurrence. Soil parameters, herbaceous understory vegetation, and litter cover affected fungal community structure. However, within each study region we found no difference in fungal community structure between management types. Our results also showed region specific significant correlation patterns between the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungal genera. This suggests that soil fungal communities are region-specific but nevertheless composed of functionally diverse and complementary taxa. PMID:23094057

Wubet, Tesfaye; Christ, Sabina; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Gawlich, Melanie; Schnabel, Beatrix; Fischer, Markus; Buscot, François

2012-10-18

285

Lactic acid fermentation in vegetable juices supplemented with different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work is concerned with the conditions for lactic acid fermentation in a mixture of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L) juice and carrot (Daucus carota L) juice and different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748.Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using the higher content of brewer’s yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 has shown better growth and lactic acid production than L. acidophilus NCDO 1748.

Rakin Marica B.; Baras Josip K.; Vukašinovi? Maja S.

2005-01-01

286

Evaluation of the Uptake and Accumulation of Metals by Some Commonly Irrigated Vegetables in Soils Treated with Different Concentrations of these Metals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The uptake of some trace elements namely, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead by some vegetables commonly irrigated were studied under glasshouse conditions. Experiments were conducted in plastic pots using some selected vegetables, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and pepper (Capsicum annum) grown on sandy loam soils treated with different concentrations of these metals. The treatments investigated include zero application (control), 10, 50 and 100 ?g dm-3 metal applications. In general, each plant showed similar growth responses and tolerance but different metal uptake patterns in the same metal contaminated media for eight weeks. The enrichment factor of each metal in the different parts of the vegetables was highly varied. However, the fruits of pepper were more enriched with these metals than the okra fruits. Despite the concentration of metals used, the plants were still capable of controlling the metal uptake, no matter the concentration of metal solution applied to the soil.

M. Haliru; V.O. Ajibola; E.B. Agbaji

2009-01-01

287

Effects of different vegetation on temperature in an urban building environment. Micro-scale numerical experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A three-dimensional micro-scale model is used to study the effects of various greenery on temperature in a built-up environment. Green design elements like roofs and facades, lawns in courtyards and single trees are studied individually as well as in various combinations. Measures for comparison are temperatures at 2 m height and mean temperatures for the urban atmosphere up to the building height. Different types of greenery can reduce local temperatures up to 15 K during specific daytime hours. However, this extraordinary effect is restricted to a short time and especially to the direct surroundings, while an impact over larger distances is small. Roof and facade greenery have hardly any influence on temperature at the 2 m level but reduce daytime heating of the urban atmosphere to a minor degree, while the relevance of trees is more or less limited to the shadow effect. A significant decrease in urban temperatures can be achieved only with a large number of very different individual green elements. The largest effect on the urban atmosphere was simulated for a change in albedo resulting in a temperature decrease of some degrees around noon. (orig.)

Gross, Guenter [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimatologie

2012-08-15

288

Implications of different income diversification indexes: the case of rural China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates rural income diversification measures. Applying rural household survey data in China, we utilize OLS and quantile regression to compare the effects from various ruraldiversification measures on household income. Our results indicate the high importance of using a two-dimensional rather than a one-dimensional measure of diversification in empirical analyses, at least in the rural China case. Among the two-dimensional indexes, the strong consistency of the quantile patterns between income and diversification, and the plausibility of changes in these relationships, suggest that any one of the diversification measures isacceptable in the relevant studies.

Jianmei Zhao; Peter J. Barry

2013-01-01

289

Differences in fruit and vegetable intake among Hispanic subgroups in California - Results from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To compare total fruit and vegetable intake in cup equivalents (FVC) and its individual components among Hispanic subgroups in California. Methods Data are from the adult portion of the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Hispanic/Latino subjects (n = 7954) were grouped into six subcategories (Mexican, Central American, Caribbean, Spanish American, South American, > 1 group). FVC was estimated from frequency responses about seven food categories. T-test and chi-squares were estimated to assess differences in sociodemographic characteristics across Hispanic subgroups. Multivariate linear regressions using SUDAAN were conducted to obtain means of FVC and its components by Hispanic subgroups controlling for confounders. Results Hispanic subgroups did not differ in their intake of total FVC (mean cups = 3.4 and 2.9 for men and women, respectively). Small but significant differences (pwhite potatoes) after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and acculturation confounders. Conclusion Hispanic FVC intake did not meet the national recommendation, although their reported intake is higher compared to other race/ethnicity groups. The public health message remains the same: to increase FVC. Examination of intake for subgroups of Hispanics may enhance the utility of dietary information for surveillance, program and message design, and intervention and evaluation.

Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus; Moser, Richard P.; McNeel, Timothy S.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Atienza, Audie A.; Sugerman, Sharon B.; Nebeling, Linda

2009-01-01

290

Soil microfungi in two post-mining chronosequences with different vegetation types  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil microfungi were studied in the Sokolov (Czech Republic) post-mining dumps afforested with Alnus glutinosa and in the Lusatian (Germany) post-mining dumps afforested with Pinus sylvestris or P. nigra. Microfungi were isolated using the soil dilution plate method. Soil microfungi communities of two chronosequences were compared by species composition, frequency of species occurrence, and colony forming units of fungi (CFU-counts). Differences in species occurrence were determined. More species of entomopathogenic microfungi were found from the Sokolov post-mining area in comparison with the Cottbus post-mining area. Absidia glauca, A. cylindrospora, Penicillium glabrum, and P. janthinellum were the most frequently isolated species from the Cottbus post-mining area, while A. glauca, Geomyces pannorum, and Trichoderma koningii predominated at the Sokolov post-mining area.

Novakova, A. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Inst. Soil Biology

2001-07-01

291

Clinical relevance of different muscle strength indexes and functional impairment in women aged 75 years and older.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Muscle mass index has long been used as a useful index to evaluate the risks of developing functional impairments. However, there is evidence that other indexes (particularly muscle strength-based indexes) may be more relevant. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the association between different indexes of muscle mass or strength with self-reported and measured functional performance to determine which index would be clinically relevant to detect individuals at risk of functional impairments. METHODS: Data are from 1,462 women aged 75 years and older recruited in the Toulouse EPIDémiologie de l'OStéoporose cohort. Body composition (assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), handgrip, and knee extension strength were assessed. Physical function was measured using the chair stand test as well as the usual and fast gait speed tests. Participants were also asked if they experienced any difficulty at performing functional tasks. RESULTS: Results showed that knee extension strength relative to body weight was the strongest correlate of physical function measures (.30 < r < .40). Women in the lowest quartile of knee extension strength relative to body weight were 5.9-, 24.7-, 12.1-, and 20.9-fold, respectively, more likely to present impairments at self-reported activities, chair stand test, and usual and fast gait speed compared with women in the highest quartile, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Knee extension strength relative to body weight appears to be well associated with self-reported difficulties and functional impairments. A threshold between 2.78 and 2.86 (knee extension strength [kPa]/body weight [kg]), determined using receiver operating characteristics curves analysis, may be a potential cut point to discriminate women presenting higher functional impairments.

Barbat-Artigas S; Rolland Y; Cesari M; Abellan van Kan G; Vellas B; Aubertin-Leheudre M

2013-07-01

292

Using the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) within a Geographic Information System to Detect Swimming Pools for Mosquito Abatement: A Practical Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases affect millions of people worldwide. In the United States, since 1999, West Nile Virus (WNV) has infected 36,801 people and has caused the deaths of 1,580. In California, since 2002, nearly 3,600 people have been infected with WNV with an additional 124 fatalities. Analyses of remotely- and spatially-based data have proven to facilitate the study of mosquito-borne diseases, including WNV. This study proposes an efficient procedure to identify swimming pools that may serve as potential mosquito habitat. The procedure derives the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) from high resolution, multi-spectral imagery to detect the presence of surface water, and then incorporates vector-based data layers within a GIS to identify residential land parcels with detectable water. This study compared the parcels identified as having water (535) with parcels known to have swimming pools (682) resulting in an accuracy of 78.4%. Nineteen of the 147 land parcels with swimming pools had backyards with enough vegetation to obscure the presence of a swimming pool from the satellite. The remaining 128 parcels lacked enough surface water for the NDWI to indicate them as actually having surface water. It is likely then that swimming pools, associated with such parcels, may have enough water in them to provide adequate habitat for mosquitoes, and so field inspection by mosquito abatement personnel would be justified.

Stuart K. McFeeters

2013-01-01

293

The Structural Difference of Shanghai Stock Index before and after 2008: A Copula Based Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The year 2008 witnessed the greatest joint stock reform and financial crisis in Chinese history. After these two cases, significant changes have taken place in investors’ behaviors worldwide, along with which is the occurrence of structure change in stock market. In this paper, we employ copula model to simulate the joint distribution between Shanghai Stock Index (SSE) and Chinese Shanghai Index 300 (CSI 300), to find out structure change in Chinese stock market before and after 2008. From results of empirical studies, we get conclusions that the main nature of Chinese stocks market is symmetric, in both marginal and joint distributions. Via the changes of Copula types, upper and lower tail coefficients and Kendall coefficients, we can measure the structure change in Chinese stock market, and get further conclusion about investors’ behaviors change. Before 2008, there is an equal power in quitting market and longing, while diversified investors adjusted their expectation uniformly after this year. Testing results show that the general dependence structure of CSI 300 and SSE is highly dependent and symmetric in most cases. From the distribution of upper and lower tail coefficients, we can draw the conclusion that stratified investors are mainly focused on two tasks, after this year, to close the position on stocks with high correlated stocks market and to maintain market value of stocks.

Chuan Wu; Ke Huang; Xue Tian; Weikang Geng; H. J. Cai

2012-01-01

294

Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092-1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed HF diet-induced body and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight gain, resulting in significantly reduced serum leptin and resistin levels and increased adiponectin levels. We questioned how WAT is modulated and characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycemic index-mediated effects using whole genome microarrays. This showed that the LGI diet mainly exerts its beneficial effects via substrate metabolism, especially fatty acid metabolism. In addition, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton remodeling showed reduced expression, in line with lower WAT mass. An important transcription factor showing enhanced expression is PPAR-?. Furthermore, serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were all significantly reduced by LGI diet, and simultaneously muscle insulin sensitivity was significantly increased as analyzed by protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation. Cumulatively, even though these mice were fed an HF diet, the LGI diet induced significantly favorable changes in metabolism in WAT. These effects suggest a partial overlap with pharmacological approaches by thiazolidinediones to treat insulin resistance and statins for hypercholesterolemia. It is therefore tempting to speculate that such a dietary approach might beneficially support pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance or hypercholesterolemia in humans.

van Schothorst EM; Bunschoten A; Verlinde E; Schrauwen P; Keijer J

2011-08-01

295

Exposition index calculation from different points in a gamma sterilization plant radiation room  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation fields produced by a JS-6500 rectangular irradiator source were evaluated. Knowledge of the values of these fields is necessary in irradiation and health physics processes. Techniques for evaluating the dose rates from puntual, linear and plane sources were applied and computer programs for the three sources designed. Fricke, cupric-ferrous and red acrilic dosimetric systems were used, to verify the eight points located along the interior walls of the irradiation room, around the source with 936, 987 Ci of Co-60 (1st-March 1980). When considering the distance between the source and each point of interest the calculated exposition indexes obtained were practically the same for the three source types and were up to 35% greater than the experimental values; in contrast when absorption and buildup of the source were taken in to account, the experimental values were higher than the calculated ones by up to 16%, this in estimating the produced exposition index for a rectangular source at least there two parameters should be included. (author).

1983-01-01

296

Heavy-ion effects on yeast: survival and recovery in vegetative cells of different sensitivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wild-type haploid and diploid and radiosensitive haploid yeast strains were exposed to beams of Ar, Kr, Xe, Pb, and U ions of different energies (0.3 MeV/u less than or equal to E/m less than or equal to 8.5 MeV/u) obtained from the UNILAC, Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany. The LET/sub infinity/ ranged from 2000 to 14,000 keV/..mu..m. The colony-forming ability after immediate plating and after recovery from potentially lethal damage was investigated. The effective inactivation cross sections, calculated from the terminal slopes of the survival curves, were found to increase with Z/sup 2//sub eff//..beta../sup 2/ at constant ..beta.. and to increase with ..beta.. at constant Z/sup 2//sub eff//..beta../sup 2/. Effects of the central and peripheral regions of the particle tracks could be considered separately. For very heavy particles delayed plating recovery was found to increase with increasing particle speed.

Schopfer, F. (Univ. of Giessen, West Germany); Schneider, E.; Rase, S.; Kiefer, J.

1982-10-01

297

Regional Climate Simulations with COSMO-CLM for West Africa using different soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer module's (SVAT's)  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate predictions on decadal timescales constitute a new field of research, closing the gap between short-term and seasonal weather predictions and long-term climate projections. Therefore, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF) has recently funded the research program MiKlip (Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen), which aims to create a model system that can provide reliable decadal climate forecasts. Recent studies have suggested that one region with high potential decadal predictability is West Africa. Therefore, the DEPARTURE project (DEcadal Prediction of African Rainfall and ATlantic HURricanE Activity) was established within the MiKlip program to assess the feasibility and the potential added value of regional decadal climate predictions for West Africa. To quantify the potential decadal climate predictability, a multi-model approach with the three different regional climate models REMO, WRF and COSMO-CLM (CCLM) will be realized. The presented research will contribute to DEPARTURE by performing hindcast ensemble simulations with CCLM, based on SST-driven global MPI-ESM-LR simulations. Thereby, one focus is on the dynamic soil-vegetation-climate interaction on decadal timescales. Recent studies indicate that there are significant feedbacks between the land-surface and the atmosphere, which might influence the decadal climate variability substantially. To investigate this connection, three different SVAT's (TERRA_ML, Community Land Model (CLM), and VEG3D) will be coupled with the CCLM. Thus, sensitive model parameters shall be identified, whereby the understanding of important processes might be improved. As a first step, the influence of the model domain on the CCLM results was examined. For this purpose, recent CCLM results from simulations for the official CORDEX domain were compared with CCLM results achieved by using an extended DEPARTURE model domain to about 60°W. This sensitivity analysis was performed with a horizontal resolution of 0.44°. Thereby, the analysis showed that the domain size doesn't affect the quality of the simulation results significantly. The impact of different SVAT's on the model performance is supposed to be higher. To investigate this assumption, TERRA_ML, the standard SVAT implemented in CCLM, is replaced by VEG3D using the OASIS3-MCT coupling software. Compared to TERRA_ML, VEG3D includes an explicit vegetation layer, inducing higher correlations with observations as it has been shown in previous studies. The results of both model configurations are analysed and presented for the DEPARTURE model domain.

Breil, Marcus; Panitz, Hans-Jürgen

2013-04-01

298

Vegetation-atmosphere-soil nutrient feedbacks in the Amazon for different deforestation scenarios  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent decades, large areas of the Amazon forest have been deforested and the rainforest's future may be dependent on climate and soil nutrient feedbacks associated with deforestation. This is a two-way biosphere-atmosphere interaction problem: the response of the regional climate system to the land cover varies with the forest growth, which, in turn, depends on climate and nutrient stress. Nutrient stress also varies with forest age, being most severe for young forests and declining as forests mature. Here we use a coupled climate-biosphere model to investigate how these feedbacks interact to control the secondary forest recovery after different deforestation scenarios, looking for a threshold of deforestation that could cause dangerous interference on the Amazon recovery. Results show that the reduction in rainfall is proportional to the amount of deforestation and is more drastic when the deforested area is higher than 40% of the original forest extent. In addition, this simulated precipitation reduction alone is not sufficient to prevent the rainforest regrowth. However, when the precipitation reduction is associated with a soil nutrient stress, a savannization process may start over southern Amazonia (northern Mato Grosso state), no matter how much is deforested. In this region, a large precipitation reduction in the transition from the dry to the rainy season and an increase in the dry season duration are favorable to the savanna maintenance on nutrient-limited simulations. These results may be a valuable tool for prioritizing forest conservation in this region, which presently has the highest clearing rate in Amazonia.

Senna, MôNica Carneiro Alves; Costa, Marcos Heil; Pires, Gabrielle Ferreira

2009-02-01

299

Blood and milk immune and inflammatory profiles in periparturient dairy cows showing a different liver activity index.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports the results of a study that aimed to assess whether liver functionality defined by liver activity index (LAI) is associated with inflammatory and immune parameters in blood and milk. LAI is an index including the average blood levels of albumin, lipoproteins and retinol-binding protein measured three times in the first month of lactation (at 5, 15 and 30 days in milk). The aim was to assess the relationship of this index with blood and udder immune and inflammatory status as a means of identifying as early as possible cows at risk of disease. The research was carried out using 10 multiparous Italian-Friesian dairy cows of average genetic merit. Cows were retrospectively ranked in three groups according the LAI level. Blood samplings were performed at different intervals before and after calving; quarter milk samples were taken only after calving with the same schedule as blood samples. Leucocytes, oxidative burst, blood lysozyme and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) curves showed large overlapping among the three LAI group curves during the follow-up period. Four blood (complement, sialic acid, haptoglobin and reactive oxygen metabolites) and three milk (somatic cell count, lysozyme and NAGase) parameters showed larger and more consistent differences among LAI groups. Complement showed higher values and sialic acid showed lower values in high LAI group when compared with the other two LAI groups. Two other markers of inflammatory status (haptoglobin and reactive oxygen metabolites) showed the lowest values in high LAI cows. A consistent and significant reduction of milk NAGase and milk lysozyme in high LAI group was observed. The results suggest that cows with the highest liver functionality index have also the highest levels of some immune markers and the lowest levels for inflammatory markers at blood (already before calving) and mammary levels. Finally, cows with low LAI index, being more susceptible to metabolic and infectious diseases, should be carefully monitored to identify as early as possible the development of a disease.

Trevisi E; Zecconi A; Bertoni G; Piccinini R

2010-08-01

300

Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10-3 to 25 . 10-3) mol . kg-1. The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

BODY COMPOSITION AND BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION IN ADULTS WITH DIFFERENT BODY MASS INDEX  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine body composition and body fat distribution in 176 adults divided according to body mass index in 4 groups: normal-weight, overweight, obese and excess obese. Absolute and relative muscle (MM), osseous (OM) and peripheral fat mass (PFM) were calculated by anthropometric method of Mateigka. Total fat mass (TFM) was calculated by subtracting lean body mass from total body mass (TBM). Mean OM, MM and PFM were lowest in the 1st and highest in the 4th group in both genders. Females had significantly higher values for all fat components. In adults obesity is a result of increase in absolute OM and MM and highest increase of PFM and TFM. The higher TFM is a result of increasing in visceral fat mass and higher percent of increase in PFM.

Elizabeta Sivevska-Smilevska; Lidija Todorovska; Vujica Zivkovic; Nikola Jankulovski; Slobodan Nikolic; Vesela Malevska-Ivanovska; Ljudmila Efremovska; Jasmina Pluncevic-Gligorovska

2012-01-01

302

Increasing terrestrial vegetation activity in China, 1982-1999.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Variations in vegetation activity during the past 18 years in China were investigated using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the 3rd generation time series dataset of NOAA-AVHRR from 1982 to 1999. In order to eliminate the effects of non-vegetation factors, we characterized areas with NDVI < 0.1 as "sparsely vegetated areas" and areas with NDVI > or = 0.1 as "vegetated areas". The results showed that increasing NDVI trends were evident, to varying extents, in almost all regions in China in the 18 years, indicating that vegetation activity has been rising in recent years in these regions. Compared to the early 1980s, the vegetated area increased by 3.5% by the late 1990s, while the sparsely vegetated area declined by 18.1% in the same period. The national total mean annual NDVI increased by 7.4% during the study period. Extended growing seasons and increased plant growth rates accounted for the bulk of these increases, while increases in temperature and summer rainfall, and strengthening agricultural activity were also likely important factors. NDVI changes in China exhibited relatively large spatial heterogeneity; the eastern coastal regions experienced declining or indiscernibly rising trends, while agricultural regions and western China experienced marked increases. Such a pattern was due primarily to urbanization, agricultural activity, regional climate characteristics, and different vegetation responses to regional climate changes.

Fang J; Piao S; He J; Ma W

2004-06-01

303

Índice de cobertura vegetal pela cultura do milho no período de chuvas intensas no sul de Minas Gerais/ Plant cover index in the period of intensive rainfall for corn crop at south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A cobertura vegetal é a defesa natural do solo contra a erosão hídrica. Nos modelos de estimativas de perdas de solo, o efeito da cobertura vegetal na interceptação da energia cinética da chuva é a variável chave na modelagem do processo erosivo. Assim sendo, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência da cobertura vegetal, proporcionada pela cultura do milho, e suas relações com os atributos fitotécnicos desta cultura para alguns híbridos. O estudo foi realizado no ca (more) mpo demonstrativo de híbridos de milho da Universidade Federal de Lavras, localizada no município de Lavras, MG. Para determinação da cobertura vegetal utilizou-se um aparato que consiste em uma estrutura horizontal, contendo orifícios para visualização dos pontos com cobertura e sem cobertura vegetal, sendo as leituras feitas de forma aleatória e transversalmente às linhas da cultura. Os atributos fitotécnicos avaliados foram altura da planta, estande, matéria seca e produção de grãos. Diante dos resultados pode-se concluir que o maior índice de cobertura vegetal foi observado para os híbridos de milho P 30F33, P 30F90, P 3021, STRIKE, FORT, VALENT, UFLA 2001, UFLA 2004, CO 32, D 8480, D 8420 DKB 333B, DKB 440, evidenciando boa qualidade como planta protetora do solo. No período de maior ocorrência de chuvas, na região sul de Minas Gerais, a cultura do milho pode minimizar o efeito do processo erosivo. A produção de matéria seca relacionou-se bem com o índice de cobertura vegetal, podendo ser um indicativo quanto à proteção do solo. Abstract in english The plant cover is a natural protection of soil against water erosion. In estimative models of soil loss, the effect of plant cover in the interception of rainfall kinetic energy is the key variable in the modeling of the erosive process. Thus, the aim of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of the plant cover provided by the corn crop and their relations with the phytotechnical attributes of this crop for its respective hybrids. This study was conducted in the corn hy (more) brids demonstrative field at the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In order to evaluate the plant cover a display was used that included a horizontal structure, containing holes for viewing the points with and without plant cover, the being readings performed at random and transversally to the crop lines. The phytotechnical attributes evaluated were plant height, stand, dry matter and grain production. It can be concluded that the higher plant cover index was observed for corn hybrids P 30F33, P 30F90, P 3021, STRIKE, FORT, VALENT, UFLA 2001, UFLA 2004, CO 32, D 8480, D 8420 DKB 333B, and DKB 440, proving good quality as a protective soil plant. In the period of larger occurrence of rainfall in the south of Minas Gerais state, the corn crop can minimize the effect of the erosive process. The production of dry matter was well correlated with the plant cover index, and can be used as evidence of soil protection.

Souza, Fabiana Silva de; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Curi, Nilton; Avanzi, Junior Cesar; Von Pinho, Renzo Garcia; Lima, Gabriela Camargos

2010-04-01

304

Índice de cobertura vegetal pela cultura do milho no período de chuvas intensas no sul de Minas Gerais Plant cover index in the period of intensive rainfall for corn crop at south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cobertura vegetal é a defesa natural do solo contra a erosão hídrica. Nos modelos de estimativas de perdas de solo, o efeito da cobertura vegetal na interceptação da energia cinética da chuva é a variável chave na modelagem do processo erosivo. Assim sendo, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência da cobertura vegetal, proporcionada pela cultura do milho, e suas relações com os atributos fitotécnicos desta cultura para alguns híbridos. O estudo foi realizado no campo demonstrativo de híbridos de milho da Universidade Federal de Lavras, localizada no município de Lavras, MG. Para determinação da cobertura vegetal utilizou-se um aparato que consiste em uma estrutura horizontal, contendo orifícios para visualização dos pontos com cobertura e sem cobertura vegetal, sendo as leituras feitas de forma aleatória e transversalmente às linhas da cultura. Os atributos fitotécnicos avaliados foram altura da planta, estande, matéria seca e produção de grãos. Diante dos resultados pode-se concluir que o maior índice de cobertura vegetal foi observado para os híbridos de milho P 30F33, P 30F90, P 3021, STRIKE, FORT, VALENT, UFLA 2001, UFLA 2004, CO 32, D 8480, D 8420 DKB 333B, DKB 440, evidenciando boa qualidade como planta protetora do solo. No período de maior ocorrência de chuvas, na região sul de Minas Gerais, a cultura do milho pode minimizar o efeito do processo erosivo. A produção de matéria seca relacionou-se bem com o índice de cobertura vegetal, podendo ser um indicativo quanto à proteção do solo.The plant cover is a natural protection of soil against water erosion. In estimative models of soil loss, the effect of plant cover in the interception of rainfall kinetic energy is the key variable in the modeling of the erosive process. Thus, the aim of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of the plant cover provided by the corn crop and their relations with the phytotechnical attributes of this crop for its respective hybrids. This study was conducted in the corn hybrids demonstrative field at the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In order to evaluate the plant cover a display was used that included a horizontal structure, containing holes for viewing the points with and without plant cover, the being readings performed at random and transversally to the crop lines. The phytotechnical attributes evaluated were plant height, stand, dry matter and grain production. It can be concluded that the higher plant cover index was observed for corn hybrids P 30F33, P 30F90, P 3021, STRIKE, FORT, VALENT, UFLA 2001, UFLA 2004, CO 32, D 8480, D 8420 DKB 333B, and DKB 440, proving good quality as a protective soil plant. In the period of larger occurrence of rainfall in the south of Minas Gerais state, the corn crop can minimize the effect of the erosive process. The production of dry matter was well correlated with the plant cover index, and can be used as evidence of soil protection.

Fabiana Silva de Souza; Marx Leandro Naves Silva; Nilton Curi; Junior Cesar Avanzi; Renzo Garcia Von Pinho; Gabriela Camargos Lima

2010-01-01

305

Evaluation of different parameters affecting the liquid scintillation spectrometry measurement of gross alpha and beta index in water samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid scintillation spectrometry is a fast competitive technique for the simultaneous evaluation of gross alpha and beta indexes. However, the implementation of this technique should not be considered as straightforward, and the pre-concentration methods to decrease the detection limit together with quenching and alpha, and beta crossover corrections should be carefully chosen according to the needs of the laboratory. Both aspects are being approached in this work as to find an easy and robust method for alpha/beta measurement in water samples, taking into account the quenching and alpha/beta crossover interferences effects. Results showed that most of the pre-concentration methods increased the quenching in the measurement, although HNO(3) 0.05 M points to be the best solution for pre-concentration and re-dissolution of the sample as converges into low quenching and maximum recovery. Subsequently, in the measurement of water samples with different conductivities, the analysis of the raw counts to obtain gross alpha and beta indexes was carried out using different approaches to implement quenching and interference corrections. If quenching and salt content in the sample are relatively low, interference and quenching-efficiency corrections do not improve the accuracy of the results within the usual precision assumed for a result of gross alpha and beta index (25%). Special attention must be paid when corrections are applied to high quenched or saline samples and when alpha and beta activities values are different in several orders of magnitude. PMID:21600777

Palomo, M; Villa, M; Casacuberta, N; Peñalver, A; Borrull, F; Aguilar, C

2011-05-05

306

Soil moisture effect on bacterial and fungal community in Beilu River (Tibetan Plateau) permafrost soils with different vegetation types.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study investigated the effects of environmental variables on the bacterial and fungal communities of the Beilu River (on the Tibetan Plateau) permafrost soils with different vegetation types. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microbial communities were sampled from meadow, steppe and desert steppe permafrost soils during May, June, August and November, and they were analysed by both pyrosequencing and the use of Biolog EcoPlates. The dominant bacterial and fungal phyla in meadow and steppe soils were Proteobacteria and Ascomycota, whereas Actinobacteria and Basidiomycota predominated in desert steppe soils. The bacterial communities in meadow soils degraded amines and amino acids very rapidly, while polymers were degraded rapidly by steppe communities. The RDA patterns showed that the microbial communities differed greatly between meadow, steppe and desert steppe, and they were related to variations in the soil moisture, C/N ratio and pH. A UniFrac analysis detected clear differences between the desert steppe bacterial community and others, and seasonal shifts were observed. The fungal UniFrac patterns differed significantly between meadow and steppe soils. There were significant correlations between the bacterial diversity (H') and soil moisture (r = 0.506) and C/N (r = 0.527). The fungal diversity (Hf') was significantly correlated with the soil pH (r = 0.541). CONCLUSION: The soil moisture, C/N ratio and pH were important determinants of the microbial community structure in Beilu River permafrost soils. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: These results may provide a useful baseline for predicting the variation in microbial communities in response to climate changes.

Zhang XF; Zhao L; Xu SJ Jr; Liu YZ; Liu HY; Cheng GD

2013-04-01

307

Vegetable oil basestocks for lubricants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of vegetable biodegradable basestocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for biolubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed. (Author).

Garces, R.; Martinez-Force, E.; Salas, J.

2011-07-01

308

Avaliação do ruído através do SPBI (Statistical Pass-By Index) em diferentes pavimentos Noise evaluation using the SPBI (Statistical Pass-By Index) for different pavements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O transporte rodoviário causa grande impacto no meio ambiente, tanto pelo grande consumo de energia quanto pela infra-estrutura física necessária a sua operação. A emissão de gases e os ruídos causados pelo tráfego causam danos irreversíveis ao meio ambiente e têm sido alvo de inúmeros estudos e pesquisas. Sabe-se que o atrito pneu/pavimento e as propriedades acústicas dos revestimentos influenciam de sobremaneira a geração e a propagação do ruído. Essa pesquisa tem como objetivo avaliar o ruído causado pelo tráfego de veículos em quatro diferentes pavimentos implantados em diferentes rodovias através do SPBI (Statistical Pass-By Index). A metodologia adotada seguiu as prescrições da norma ISO 11819-1, a qual determina que um decibelímetro seja instalado na lateral da via para medir o ruído máximo causado pela passagem de um veículo. O revestimento em CBUQ foi o pavimento cujas maiores medidas foram observadas (86,84dBA) seguido do CCP (83,28dBA), do TSD (83,26dBA) do MICRO (81,14dBA) e da CPA (81,03dBA). Os resultados indicam que a escolha adequada do revestimento pode atenuar de maneira expressiva o ruído causado pelo tráfego rodoviário.Highway transportation causes immense environmental impacts, as much by the enormous use of energy as for the physical infrastructure necessary for its operation. The gas emission and traffic noise cause irreversible damages to the environment and this has been the objective of a lot of studies and researches. It is known that the contact between tire and pavement surface and the acoustic properties of the coverings influence the noise’s generation and propagation. This research aims to evaluate the noise caused by the traffic of vehicles in four different pavements through SPBI (Statistical Pass-By Index). The methodology followed the prescriptions of the norm ISO 11819-1; the decibelimeter is installed in the road side and it records the maximum noise caused by each vehicle. HMA presents higher noise measurement (86,84dBA) followed by PCC (83,28dBA), ST (83,26dBA) MICRO (81,14dBA) and PC (81,03dBA). The results indicate that correct pavement selection can reduce, in an expressive way, the noise caused by road traffic.

Luciano Pivoto Specht; Sérgio C. Callai; Oleg A. Khatchatourian; Raquel Kohler

2009-01-01

309

Avaliação do ruído através do SPBI (Statistical Pass-By Index) em diferentes pavimentos/ Noise evaluation using the SPBI (Statistical Pass-By Index) for different pavements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O transporte rodoviário causa grande impacto no meio ambiente, tanto pelo grande consumo de energia quanto pela infra-estrutura física necessária a sua operação. A emissão de gases e os ruídos causados pelo tráfego causam danos irreversíveis ao meio ambiente e têm sido alvo de inúmeros estudos e pesquisas. Sabe-se que o atrito pneu/pavimento e as propriedades acústicas dos revestimentos influenciam de sobremaneira a geração e a propagação do ruído. Essa p (more) esquisa tem como objetivo avaliar o ruído causado pelo tráfego de veículos em quatro diferentes pavimentos implantados em diferentes rodovias através do SPBI (Statistical Pass-By Index). A metodologia adotada seguiu as prescrições da norma ISO 11819-1, a qual determina que um decibelímetro seja instalado na lateral da via para medir o ruído máximo causado pela passagem de um veículo. O revestimento em CBUQ foi o pavimento cujas maiores medidas foram observadas (86,84dBA) seguido do CCP (83,28dBA), do TSD (83,26dBA) do MICRO (81,14dBA) e da CPA (81,03dBA). Os resultados indicam que a escolha adequada do revestimento pode atenuar de maneira expressiva o ruído causado pelo tráfego rodoviário. Abstract in english Highway transportation causes immense environmental impacts, as much by the enormous use of energy as for the physical infrastructure necessary for its operation. The gas emission and traffic noise cause irreversible damages to the environment and this has been the objective of a lot of studies and researches. It is known that the contact between tire and pavement surface and the acoustic properties of the coverings influence the noise?s generation and propagation. This (more) research aims to evaluate the noise caused by the traffic of vehicles in four different pavements through SPBI (Statistical Pass-By Index). The methodology followed the prescriptions of the norm ISO 11819-1; the decibelimeter is installed in the road side and it records the maximum noise caused by each vehicle. HMA presents higher noise measurement (86,84dBA) followed by PCC (83,28dBA), ST (83,26dBA) MICRO (81,14dBA) and PC (81,03dBA). The results indicate that correct pavement selection can reduce, in an expressive way, the noise caused by road traffic.

Specht, Luciano Pivoto; Callai, Sérgio C.; Khatchatourian, Oleg A.; Kohler, Raquel

2009-12-01

310

Assessment of metal availability to vegetation (Betula pendula) in Pb-Zn ore concentrate residues with different features  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, characterisation of several ore concentrate remains from an abandoned Pb-Zn mining factory was performed determining chemical and physical properties such as pH, organic carbon content, particle size distribution, total heavy metal content (Pb, Zn, Cu, As and Cd) as well as mineralogical composition which showed, in most cases, the oxidization of the parent ore material (mostly galena: PbS and sphalerite: ZnS) to more mobile fractions as anglesite (PbSO4) and goslarite (ZnSO4). Moreover, two operational defined extraction procedures commonly used in soil and sediment studies (first and second steps of BCR procedure and DTPA extraction protocol) were applied in the different mining wastes in order to study Pb and Zn mobility and likely bioavailability to Betula pendula growing on the same mining spoils, which presents lead and zinc contents in leaves over ten times background values. - Physicochemical characteristics and mineralogy of mining tailings determine metal availability to vegetation in abandoned mining sites

2007-01-01

311

Influence of different cultivation methods on carbohydrate and lipid compositions and digestibility of energy of fruits and vegetables.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Environmental as well as cultivation factors may greatly influence the chemical composition of plants. The main factors affecting the chemical composition of foodstuff are level and type of fertilizer (conventional and organic cultivation systems), location or soil type, and year of harvest. Organic foods are defined as products that are produced under controlled cultivation conditions characterized by the absence of synthetic fertilisers and very restricted use of pesticides. Very limited information is available regarding the impact of organic cultivation systems on the composition of carbohydrates and fatty acids of fruits and vegetables. The objective was to investigate the influence of organic and conventional cultivation systems on the carbohydrate and fatty acid composition and digestibility of the energy of apple, carrot, kale, pea, potato, and rape seed oil. RESULTS: Carbohydrate and lignin values ranged from 584 g kg?¹ dry matter in kale to 910 g kg?¹ DM in potato, but with significant differences in the proportion of sugars, starch, non-starch polysaccharides, and lignin between the foodstuffs. Triacylglycerol was the major lipid class in pea, with 82% of total fatty acids, as opposed to apple, with only 35% of fatty acids of the ether extract. The most important factor influencing the digestibility of energy, and consequently faecal bulking, was the content of dietary fibre. CONCLUSION: The cultivation system had minor impact on the carbohydrate and lipid composition in the investigated foodstuffs or on the digestibility of energy when assessed in the rat model. Faecal bulking was related to dietary fibre in a linear fashion.

Jørgensen H; Knudsen KE; Lauridsen C

2012-11-01

312

Feeding Style Differences in Food Parenting Practices Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Children from Low-Income Families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. DESIGN: Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nominal group technique. Parents completed information on food parenting practices and feeding styles. Three dietary recalls were collected on each child. SETTING: Parents completed measures in Head Start centers and/or over the telephone. PARTICIPANTS: 667 parents of preschool-aged children participated. OUTCOMES: Food parenting practices and F & V intake. ANALYSIS: Mean differences in the food parenting practices across the 4 feeding styles were established through multivariate general linear modeling using MANOVA. Moderated multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the moderating role of feeding style on food parenting practices and child F & V intake. RESULTS: The indulgent feeding style moderated the relationship between food parenting practices and child F & V intake. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This study indicates that parents' feeding styles have a moderating effect on the relationship between the food parenting practices and children's F & V intake. This finding can facilitate the development of interventions aimed at reducing childhood overweight.

Papaioannou MA; Cross MB; Power TG; Liu Y; Qu H; Shewchuk RM; Hughes SO

2013-07-01

313

Chemistry of soil solutions under different kinds of vegetation in the vicinity of a thermal power station.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of atmospheric deposition on the chemical characteristics of soil solutions in a small catchment area in NW Spain was studied. The soils, developed from slates, were sampled from seven sites supporting different forms of vegetation (deciduous and pine forest and heath). Soil solutions were extracted, by the column displacement method, from soil samples collected monthly from March 1992 until November 1993. The solutions were acidic with a low content of basic cations. The most common ions in all horizons were Cl(-) and Na(+), due to marine influence. In the surface horizons (0-10 cm), relatively high concentrations of SO(2-)4 (150-380 micromol litre(-1)) and Zn (approximately 2 micromol litre(-1)) were obtained, with good correlation between the two ions. These results, along with the prevalence of inorganic forms of Al (50-90% of total Al), were related to the effects of acidic deposition in the catchment area. The more rapid breakdown of litter in the soils under deciduous forest explains the greater ionic concentrations obtained in these solutions. PMID:15093106

Fernández-Sanjurjo, M J; Alvarez, E; Vega, V F; García-Rodeja, E

1998-01-01

314

Chemistry of soil solutions under different kinds of vegetation in the vicinity of a thermal power station.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of atmospheric deposition on the chemical characteristics of soil solutions in a small catchment area in NW Spain was studied. The soils, developed from slates, were sampled from seven sites supporting different forms of vegetation (deciduous and pine forest and heath). Soil solutions were extracted, by the column displacement method, from soil samples collected monthly from March 1992 until November 1993. The solutions were acidic with a low content of basic cations. The most common ions in all horizons were Cl(-) and Na(+), due to marine influence. In the surface horizons (0-10 cm), relatively high concentrations of SO(2-)4 (150-380 micromol litre(-1)) and Zn (approximately 2 micromol litre(-1)) were obtained, with good correlation between the two ions. These results, along with the prevalence of inorganic forms of Al (50-90% of total Al), were related to the effects of acidic deposition in the catchment area. The more rapid breakdown of litter in the soils under deciduous forest explains the greater ionic concentrations obtained in these solutions.

Fernández-Sanjurjo MJ; Alvarez E; Vega VF; García-Rodeja E

1998-01-01

315

Appraisal of heavy metal concentration in selected vegetables exposed to different degrees of pollution in Agra, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The accumulation of air-borne heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables in the chosen areas of the city of Agra, India was investigated. Agra, with a population of 1.7 million, is a medium-sized Indian city where leafy green vegetables are received generally from the surrounding areas of about 50 km radius. Vegetables Basella alba (spinch, locally called palak), Trigonella foenumgraecum (fenugreek, locally called methi), and Coriandrum sativum (coriander, locally called dhania) from the various sites of Agra, India were tested for Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy in washed and unwashed vegetable. The results obtained from this analysis revealed higher concentrations of toxic elements in unwashed samples than the washed samples. Among unwashed samples it was found that concentration of heavy metals is more in areas of busy traffic or industry density. The levels of lead in all samples were found above the maximum permissible limit recommended by PFA for metals in vegetables. The study concludes that transportation and storage systems during marketing play a significant role in determining the contamination and deposition of heavy metal on vegetable surfaces specially of the leafy variety.

Kumar S

2013-03-01

316

Evaluation of Different Score Index for Predicting Prognosis in Gamma Knife Radiosurgical Treatment for Brain Metastasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the utility of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) and Score Index for Radiosurgery (SIR) stratification systems in predicting survival in patients with brain metastasis treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Methods and Materials: A total of 185 patients were included in the study. Patients were stratified according to RPA and SIR classes. The RPA and SIR classes, age, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), and systemic disease were correlated with survival. Results: Five patients were lost to follow-up. Median survival in patients in RPA Class 1 (30 patients) was 17 months; in Class 2 (140 patients), 10 months; and in Class 3 (10 patients), 3 months. Median survival in patients in SIR Class 1 (30 patients) was 3 months; in Class 2 (135 patients), 8 months; and in Class 3 (15 patients), 20 months. In univariate testing, age younger than 65 years (p = 0.0004), KPS higher than 70 (p = 0.0001), RPA class (p = 0.0078), SIR class (p = 0.0002), and control of the primary tumor (p = 0.02) were significantly associated with improved outcome. In multivariate analysis, KPS (p

2009-07-01

317

Lymphocytic nucleolar index in combined application of phosphororganic substances and different radiation factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sex mature male rats were treated as follows: 1) daily during four months with phosphororganic substances (POS) containing preparation ''Agria 1050'' with a 1/40 LD/sub 50/ dose; 2) acute irradiated with X rays on three levels - 50 mGy, 250 mGy and 500 mGy; 3) intratracheally with Ce/sup 144/ with activities of 37 kBg/animal and 370 kBg/animal alone or in combination with POS. The nucleolar index (NI) of the lymphocytes was determined in the first and second week after treatment. It was found that NI showed insignificant increase after treatment with POS. When applied separately X-ray irradiation increased NI, the effect being independent on the dose rates. High doses of Ce/sup 144/ induced a significant increase of NI after the second week. Combined application of POS and irradiation factor caused more significant changes in NI-values. The results obtained are regarded as an early and sensitive criterion for the changes in reproductive activity of lymphoid organs or cells of the whole lymph system.

Kilyovska, M.; Nechev, Kh.; Vankova, P.; Bakardzhiev, G.; Tsvetkov, P.; Shopova, V. (Meditsinski Fakultet, Pleven (Bulgaria). Katedra Mediko-Sanitarna Zashtita)

1982-01-01

318

Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10{sup -3} to 25 . 10{sup -3}) mol . kg{sup -1}. The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs.

Iqbal, Muhammad Javed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.com; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

2009-02-15

319

Educational attainment and differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middle-aged adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimat...

Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang; Kim, Mi Kyung

320

Adaptación de una nueva hortaliza (Cucurbita pepo var. vegetable spaghetti) a diferentes condiciones de cultivo/ Adaptation of a new vegetable (Curcurbita pepo var. vegetable spaghetti) to different growing conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El cultivo de zapallo spaghetti constituye una nueva alternativa productiva que ha despertado el interés de los consumidores argentinos por sus virtudes. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de investigar la influencia de la densidad y fecha de siembra en el cultivo de zapallo spaghetti. El mismo se llevó a cabo en la Chacra Experimental de la Facultad de Agronomía, sobre la Ruta Nacional Núm. 3 km 305, en el Partido de Azul, en un suelo argiudol típico. La superficie (more) total del mismo fue de 5,952 m². Cada parcela tenía una superficie de 88 m² y estaba constituida por cuatro surcos distanciados a 2 m entre sí y 11 m de largo, habiéndose evaluado los dos surcos centrales. Se trabajó con dos fechas de siembra: 10 y 24 de noviembre y con cuatro densidades: 0.25; 0.5; 0.75 y 1 m entre pl. 20,000; 15,000; 10,000 y 5,000 planta·ha-1. La siembra se realizó manualmente. Se fertilizó en banda en presiembra y se efectuó control químico preventivo de malezas con Naptalam en la línea de siembra y con Trifluralina incorporada con motocultivador en los entresurcos. Se analizaron los datos obtenidos bajo un modelo de parcelas divididas. Para la variable peso total de producción no se detectaron diferencias significativas para ninguno de los efectos e interacciones consideradas. Para la variable peso promedio de producción se detectaron diferencias significativas para los efectos densidad y fecha. Con las densidades de cultivo 2 y 3 se lograron la mayor cantidad de calibres intermedios (2 y 3), más adecuados a las exigencias del mercado. Abstract in english Spaghetti squash is an alternative crop with qualities that have aroused interest among Argentinean consumers. The objective of this experiment was to study the influence of sowing date and density in Cucurbita pepo var. vegetable spaghetti. The study was conducted in the experimental unit of the Facultad de Agronomia in Azul, Argentina, in a typical argiudol soil on a total area of 5,952 m². Each plot had an area of 88 m² and comprised four 11 m rows, 2 m apart. The tw (more) o middle rows were evaluated. There were two sowing dates (November 10th and 24th) and four sowing densities (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 m between plants, that is, 20 000, 15 000, 10 000 and 5000 pl·ha-1). Band fertilization as well as preventive chemical weed-control with Naptalan, on sowing line and Trifluralina between rows with a cultivator, took place at presowing. Data were analyzed under a model of divided plots, in which the main plot was biostimulants and the sub-plots density and sowing date. The interactions between main factors were also considered. No significant differences were detected for total crop weight among the effects of interaction between sowing density and date. With crop densities two and three, more medium (two and three caliber) fruits (1.05 and 1.44 kg) were obtained. These calibers are suitable for marketing.

Castagnino, A. M; Sastre Vázquez, P.; Díaz, K. E.; Menet, A.; Sasale, S.; Navarro Dujmovich, M.

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal wetlands.

Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

2010-01-15

322

Hazardous impact and translocation of vanadium (V) species from soil to different vegetables and grasses grown in the vicinity of thermal power plant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The distribution of vanadium (V) species in soil (test soil), vegetables and grasses, collected from the vicinity of a thermal power plant has been studied. For comparison purpose soil (control soil), same vegetable and grass samples were collected from agricultural land devoid of any industrial area. A simple and efficient ultrasonic assisted extraction method has been developed for the extraction of V(5+) species from soil, vegetable and grass samples using Na(2)CO(3) in the range of 0.1-0.5 mol/L. For comparison purpose same sub samples were also extracted by conventional heating method. The total and V species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using different modifiers. The validity of V(5+) and V(4+) determination had been confirmed by the spike recovery and total amount of V by the analysis of CRM 1570 (spinach leave) and sub samples of agricultural soil. The concentration of total V was found in the range of 90-215 and 11.4-42.3 ?g/g in test and control soil samples, respectively. The contents of V(5+) and total V in vegetables and grasses grown around the thermal power plant were found in the range of 2.9-5.25 and 8.74-14.9 ?g/g, respectively, which were significantly higher than those values obtained from vegetables and fodders grown in non exposed agricultural site (P<0.01). Statistical evaluations indicate that the sum of concentrations of V(5+) and V(4+) species was not significantly different from total concentration of V in same sub samples of vegetable, grass and soil of both origins, at 95% level of confidence.

Khan S; Kazi TG; Kolachi NF; Baig JA; Afridi HI; Shah AQ; Kumar S; Shah F

2011-06-01

323

An Empirical Algorithm for Estimating Agricultural and Riparian Evapotranspiration Using MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index and Ground Measurements of ET. II. Application to the Lower Colorado River, U.S.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large quantities of water are consumed by irrigated crops and riparian vegetation in western U.S. irrigation districts. Remote sensing methods for estimating evaporative water losses by soil and vegetation (evapotranspiration, ET) over wide river stretches are needed to allocate water for agricultural and environmental needs. We used the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite to scale ET over agricultural and riparian areas along the Lower Colorado River in the southwestern U.S., using a linear regression equation between ET of riparian plants and alfalfa measured on the ground, and meteorological and remote sensing data, with an error or uncertainty of about 20%. The algorithm was applied to irrigation districts and riparian areas from Lake Mead to the U.S./Mexico border. The results for agricultural crops were similar to results produced by crop coefficients developed for the irrigation districts along the river. However, riparian ET was only half as great as crop coefficient estimates set by expert opinion, equal to about 40% of reference crop evapotranspiration. Based on reported acreages in 2007, agricultural crops (146,473 ha) consumed 2.2 × 109 m3 yr?1 of water. All riparian shrubs and trees (47,014 ha) consumed 3.8 × 108 m3 yr?1, of which saltcedar, the dominant riparian shrub (25,044 ha), consumed 1.8 × 108 m3 yr?1, about 1% of the annual flow of the river. This method could supplement existing protocols for estimating ET by providing an estimate based on the actual state of the canopy as determined by frequent-return satellite data.

R. Scott Murray; Pamela L. Nagler; Kiyomi Morino; Edward P. Glenn

2009-01-01

324

Comparative analysis of indexes of physical preparedness of footballers of professional commands of different level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with results of the research of physical preparedness of professional teams of footballers of different level. The pedagogical testing program of the physical skills level includes control exercised recommended by the scientific-methodical committee of Ukrainian Federation of Football. The article presents indices of physical preparedness of footballers of different playing roles of the top league teams of Ukrainian championship and first league of Ukrainian team championship. Differences of physical preparedness structure of goalkeepers, defenders, halfbacks and forwards are revealed.

Shalenko V.V.; Pertsukhov A.A.

2010-01-01

325

Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system/ Parâmetros de resfriamento de frutas e hortaliças de diferentes dimensões em um sitema com água fria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O resfriamento com água gelada pode ser uma técnica adequada para frutas e hortaliças frescas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo obter o tempo de resfriamento de frutas e hortaliças de dimensões diferentes, e apresentar índices práticos que possam ser usados para estimar o tempo de resfriamento de produtos com características semelhantes. Frutas (melão-Cucumis melo, manga-Mangifera indica, goiaba-Psidium guajava, laranja-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, ameixa-Prunus domes (more) tica, limão-Citrus limon e acerola-Malpighia glabra) e hortaliças (pepino-Cucumis sativus, cenoura-Daucus carota e vagem-Phaseolus vulgaris), foram resfriadas num sistema por imersão em água à 1°C. O volume das frutas oscilou de 1150,35 cm³ a 8,18 cm³ e das hortaliças entre 438,4 cm³ a 13,06 cm³. O tempo de resfriamento variou proporcionalmente com o volume dos frutos, de 8,5 min até 124 min (frutas) e de 1,5 min até 55 min (hortaliças). Foi calculado o índice relacionando volume e tempo de resfriamento das frutas (1,03 min cm-3 a 0,107 min cm-3) e hortaliças (0,06 min cm-3 a 0,12 min cm-3), que pode ser usado para a estimativa do tempo de resfriamento de frutas e hortaliças com dimensões semelhantes. Abstract in english The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus) and (more) vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris), were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables). The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3) and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3) is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.

Teruel, Bárbara; Kieckbusch, Theo; Cortez, Luis

2004-12-01

326

Analyzing Vegetation Phenology in the Context of Climate Variability in Burkina Faso: Preliminary Results  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation cover in semi-arid Burkina Faso is characterized by high annual and interannual variability, which can be attributed to rainfall patterns and is also impacted by human activities such as extraction of woody vegetation, cultivation and grazing. The year-to-year timing, intensity, and duration of the growing season have important implications for the economy, which is dominated by the agricultural sector. The choice of the study site was inspired by results from an earlier study of vegetation dynamics and climate variability in the Sahel. It includes the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso, which stands out due to a satellite- observed greening trend and evidence of increased vegetation density on the ground, as well as its surroundings, which do not show such a trend. The aim of this study is to better characterize vegetation types and their seasonal variability that might have contributed to the observed trends in vegetation greenness. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the years 2000 to 2006 were analyzed using TIMESAT, an algorithm that can extract phenological metrics from time series of remotely sensed vegetation index and other data types. The resulting metrics were used to (1) classify the study region into different vegetation types and to (2) assess short term trends and variation in different aspects of the phenological cycle. For the years 2003 - 2006, the observed spatial patterns of vegetation phenology were analyzed in conjunction with Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH) satellite precipitation estimates, and seasonal metrics extracted from them. Preliminary results show that the inclusion of phenological metrics provides a sharper distinction of different vegetation types in land cover classifications. Differential responses of various phenological metrics to various precipitation metrics are expected. The findings could improve our understanding of rainfall-vegetation relationships in this semi-arid environment and help disentangle rainfall from other driving forces of vegetation dynamics.

Herrmann, S. M.

2007-12-01

327

Age Differences in Strategic Planning as Indexed by the Tower of London  

Science.gov (United States)

|The present study examined age differences in performance on the Tower of London, a measure of strategic planning, in a diverse sample of 890 individuals between the ages of 10 and 30. Although mature performance was attained by age 17 on relatively easy problems, performance on the hardest problems showed improvements into the early 20s.…

Albert, Dustin; Steinberg, Laurence

2011-01-01

328

White vegetables: glycemia and satiety.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this review is to discuss the effect of white vegetable consumption on glycemia, satiety, and food intake. White vegetables is a term used to refer to vegetables that are white or near white in color and include potatoes, cauliflowers, turnips, onions, parsnips, white corn, kohlrabi, and mushrooms (technically fungi but generally considered a vegetable). They vary greatly in their contribution to the energy and nutrient content of the diet and glycemia and satiety. As with other foods, the glycemic effect of many white vegetables has been measured. The results illustrate that interpretation of the semiquantitative comparative ratings of white vegetables as derived by the glycemic index must be context dependent. As illustrated by using the potato as an example, the glycemic index of white vegetables can be misleading if not interpreted in the context of the overall contribution that the white vegetable makes to the carbohydrate and nutrient composition of the diet and their functionality in satiety and metabolic control within usual meals. It is concluded that application of the glycemic index in isolation to judge the role of white vegetables in the diet and, specifically in the case of potato as consumed in ad libitum meals, has led to premature and possibly counterproductive dietary guidance.

Anderson GH; Soeandy CD; Smith CE

2013-05-01

329

Physical Properties of Tall Vegetation for Resistance to Flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physical properties of vegetation have a considerable effect on the resistance to flow for both water in vegetation zone of rivers and air in forest canopies. For tall vegetation, these properties include leaf density, shape and the general flexibility of tree species. To estimate the resistance coefficients (i.e., coefficient of drag, the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor, f, or Manning’s n value) of flow inside tall and flexible vegetation, an index is required to account for the effects of vegetation type and properties. In this study, an index is proposed to characterize physical properties of tree species. The index is derived based on the resonance frequency of the first mode of vibration of the trees and a fundamental relationship for the homogeneous beams. The estimated indexes for four species of coniferous trees were used in a mathematical model for estimation of the friction factor (f) and were able to account for the differences due to the leaf density, shape and rigidity of the tree species.

M. Fathi-Moghadam

2007-01-01

330

Occurrence of potentially toxigenic mould species in fresh salads of different kinds of ready-for-use vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the mycological survey of fresh salads of different vegetables, the collected samples were tested for total counts of moulds with special attention paid to the presence of potentially toxigenic species. The survey also included the isolation and the identification of species, as well as the evaluation of mycotoxin biosynthesis ability of potential producers of ochratoxin A (OA) and sterigmatocystin (STC). Mould counts ranged from 10.0 to 4.7x102 cfu g-1. The most common moulds found in fresh salads were Cladosporium (42.89%), Penicillium (25.78%), Aspergillus (14.67%) and Alternaria (6.89%). C. cladosporioides (40.44%), followed by A. niger (10.22%), P. aurantiogriseum (7.55%), A. alternata (6.89%) and Fusarium spp. (3.11%) were the most dominating species. Other species were represented with 2.22% (Eurotium spp.), 1.56% (Botrytis spp.), 0.67% (Phoma spp.), 0.44% (Geotrichum spp., Mucor spp., Phialophora spp.) and 0.22% (Emericella spp., Paecilomyces spp., Trichoderma spp., Xeromyces spp.). Twenty-two of 41 identified mould species were potentially toxigenic, which accounted for 46.18% of the total isolated population. The most frequent were the potential producers of ochratoxin A (17.77%). Potential producers of moniliformin were isolated in 3.11% of samples, while producers of fumonisin and STC were found in 2.67% and 2.44% of samples, respectively. The tested isolates of OA producers did not demonstrate the ability to biosynthetise this mycotoxins, but two out of five isolates of A. versicolor were found to biosynthesise STC in doses of 109.2 ng mL-1 and 56.3 ng mL-1. The obtained results indicate that such products may threaten human health, considering that isolated species were potentially toxigenic, while isolates of A. versicolor also biosynthesised STS.

Koci?-Tanackov Sun?ica D.; Dimi? Gordana R.; Levi? Jelena T.; Pejin Dušanka J.; Pejin Jelena D.; Jaji? Igor M.

2010-01-01

331

Influence of different cultivation methods on carbohydrate and lipid compositions and digestibility of energy of fruits and vegetables  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Environmental as well as cultivation factors may greatly influence the chemical composition of plants. The main factors affecting the chemical composition of foodstuff are level and type of fertilizer (conventional and organic cultivation systems), location or soil type, and year of harvest. Organic foods are defined as products that are produced under controlled cultivation conditions characterized by the absence of synthetic fertilisers and very restricted use of pesticides. Very limited information is available regarding the impact of organic cultivation systems on the composition of carbohydrates and fatty acids of fruits and vegetables. The objective was to investigate the influence of organic and conventional cultivation systems on the carbohydrate and fatty acid composition and digestibility of the energy of apple, carrot, kale, pea, potato, and rape seed oil. RESULTS: Carbohydrate and lignin values ranged from 584 g kgGêÆ1 dry matter in kale to 910 g kgGêÆ1 DM in potato, but with significant differences in the proportion of sugars, starch, non-starch polysaccharides, and lignin between the foodstuffs. Triacylglycerol was the major lipid class in pea, with 82% of total fatty acids, as opposed to apple, with only 35% of fatty acids of the ether extract. The most important factor influencing the digestibility of energy, and consequently faecal bulking, was the content of dietary fibre. CONCLUSION: The cultivation system had minor impact on the carbohydrate and lipid composition in the investigated foodstuffs or on the digestibility of energy when assessed in the rat model. Faecal bulking was related to dietary fibre in a linear fashion.

JØrgensen, Henry; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

2012-01-01

332

Influence of different cultivation methods on carbohydrate and lipid compositions and digestibility of energy of fruits and vegetables  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Environmental as well as cultivation factors may greatly influence the chemical composition of plants. The main factors affecting the chemical composition of foodstuff are level and type of fertilizer (conventional and organic cultivation systems), location or soil type, and year of harvest. Organic foods are defined as products that are produced under controlled cultivation conditions characterized by the absence of synthetic fertilisers and very restricted use of pesticides. Very limited information is available regarding the impact of organic cultivation systems on the composition of carbohydrates and fatty acids of fruits and vegetables. The objective was to investigate the influence of organic and conventional cultivation systems on the carbohydrate and fatty acid composition and digestibility of the energy of apple, carrot, kale, pea, potato, and rape seed oil. RESULTS: Carbohydrate and lignin values ranged from 584 g kg?1 dry matter in kale to 910 g kg?1 DM in potato, but with significant differences in the proportion of sugars, starch, non?starch polysaccharides, and lignin between the foodstuffs. Triacylglycerol was the major lipid class in pea, with 82% of total fatty acids, as opposed to apple, with only 35% of fatty acids of the ether extract. The most important factor influencing the digestibility of energy, and consequently faecal bulking, was the content of dietary fibre. CONCLUSION: The cultivation system had minor impact on the carbohydrate and lipid composition in the investigated foodstuffs or on the digestibility of energy when assessed in the rat model. Faecal bulking was related to dietary fibre in a linear fashion.

Jørgensen H; Bach Knudsen KE; Lauridsen C

2012-11-01

333

Evaluation of different parameters affecting the liquid scintillation spectrometry measurement of gross alpha and beta index in water samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid scintillation spectrometry is a fast competitive technique for the simultaneous evaluation of gross alpha and beta indexes. However, the implementation of this technique should not be considered as straightforward, and the pre-concentration methods to decrease the detection limit together with quenching and alpha, and beta crossover corrections should be carefully chosen according to the needs of the laboratory. Both aspects are being approached in this work as to find an easy and robust method for alpha/beta measurement in water samples, taking into account the quenching and alpha/beta crossover interferences effects. Results showed that most of the pre-concentration methods increased the quenching in the measurement, although HNO{sub 3} 0.05 M points to be the best solution for pre-concentration and re-dissolution of the sample as converges into low quenching and maximum recovery. Subsequently, in the measurement of water samples with different conductivities, the analysis of the raw counts to obtain gross alpha and beta indexes was carried out using different approaches to implement quenching and interference corrections. If quenching and salt content in the sample are relatively low, interference and quenching-efficiency corrections do not improve the accuracy of the results within the usual precision assumed for a result of gross alpha and beta index (25%). Special attention must be paid when corrections are applied to high quenched or saline samples and when alpha and beta activities values are different in several orders of magnitude. - Highlights: > Developed method for simultaneously quantifying gross alpha and gross beta indexes based on LSC was as accurate and precise as the results obtained from methods based on gas proportional counting and ZnS alpha counting. > Alpha/beta crossover and/or quenching corrections were applied and the results obtained did not improve accuracy within 25% dispersion, a widespread acceptance limit for gross alpha and beta counting. > Interferences corrections should not be neglected if alpha and beta count rates differ in one order of magnitude or more. > Limitation of the technique lies on high quenched samples; procedure was no longer reliable due to the interrelated influence of quenching on the counting efficiency and also on alpha and beta interferences.

Palomo, M. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Villa, M. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion. Servicio Radioisotopos. Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Casacuberta, N. [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals-Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. Spain (Spain); Penalver, A.; Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Aguilar, C., E-mail: carme.aguilar@urv.cat [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain)

2011-09-15

334

Evaluation of different parameters affecting the liquid scintillation spectrometry measurement of gross alpha and beta index in water samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid scintillation spectrometry is a fast competitive technique for the simultaneous evaluation of gross alpha and beta indexes. However, the implementation of this technique should not be considered as straightforward, and the pre-concentration methods to decrease the detection limit together with quenching and alpha, and beta crossover corrections should be carefully chosen according to the needs of the laboratory. Both aspects are being approached in this work as to find an easy and robust method for alpha/beta measurement in water samples, taking into account the quenching and alpha/beta crossover interferences effects. Results showed that most of the pre-concentration methods increased the quenching in the measurement, although HNO3 0.05 M points to be the best solution for pre-concentration and re-dissolution of the sample as converges into low quenching and maximum recovery. Subsequently, in the measurement of water samples with different conductivities, the analysis of the raw counts to obtain gross alpha and beta indexes was carried out using different approaches to implement quenching and interference corrections. If quenching and salt content in the sample are relatively low, interference and quenching-efficiency corrections do not improve the accuracy of the results within the usual precision assumed for a result of gross alpha and beta index (25%). Special attention must be paid when corrections are applied to high quenched or saline samples and when alpha and beta activities values are different in several orders of magnitude. - Highlights: ? Developed method for simultaneously quantifying gross alpha and gross beta indexes based on LSC was as accurate and precise as the results obtained from methods based on gas proportional counting and ZnS alpha counting. ? Alpha/beta crossover and/or quenching corrections were applied and the results obtained did not improve accuracy within 25% dispersion, a widespread acceptance limit for gross alpha and beta counting. ? Interferences corrections should not be neglected if alpha and beta count rates differ in one order of magnitude or more. ? Limitation of the technique lies on high quenched samples; procedure was no longer reliable due to the interrelated influence of quenching on the counting efficiency and also on alpha and beta interferences.

2011-01-01

335

Absorption of some mineral salts by root system of different woody species and accumulation over a whole vegetative cycle (1963)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration power of plant tissues and the translocation speed of mineral salts are considerably varying with the absorbed salt, the botanical species, the considered tissue and the part of the vegetative cycle. In Grenoble, with Picea excelsa, the 'true dormancy' is short (half-november, end of december). It is accompanied by a pre-dormancy period (October, half-november) and a post dormancy period (January, february, march). In vegetative period, Picea excelsa leaves are less concentrating mineral salt than Acer campestris leaves (coefficient 2 for calcium - 3 for phosphates) and Populus nigra leaves (coefficient 3 for calcium, coefficient 5 for phosphates). (author)

1963-01-01

336

Analysis of vegetation distribution in relation to surface morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

The scaling relationship between curvature, and local slope of a given point on the landscape and its drainage area reveal information about the dominant erosion processes over geomorphic time scales. Vegetation is known to influence erosion rates and landslide initiation, and also it is influenced by such processes and climatic regimes. Understanding the influence of vegetation dynamics on landscape organization is a fundamental challenge in the Earth Science field. In this study we considered two headwater catchments with vegetation mostly characterized by grass species (high altitude grassland), but also shrubs (mainly Alnus viridis), and high forest (mainly Picea abies) are common. We analyzed then the statistics related to vegetation distribution and different morphological patterns. High resolution LiDAR data served as the basis upon which derive Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) and mathematical attributes of landscape morphology including slope gradient, drainage area, aspect, surface curvature, topographic wetness index, slope - area and curvature - area loglog diagrams. The results reveal distinct differences in the curvature-area and slope-area relationships of each vegetation type. For a given drainage area, mean landscape slope is generally found to increase with woody vegetation. Profound landsliding signature is detected in areas interested by Alnus viridis distribution, thus underlining the relation between such pioneer species with slope instability. This preliminary analysis suggested that, when high resolution topography is available, is possible to better characterize the vegetation distribution based on surface morphology thus providing a useful tool for better understanding the processes and the role of vegetation in the landscape evolution.

Savio, Francesca; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Tarolli, Paolo; Rulli, Cristina

2013-04-01

337

Physical Fitness, Physical Activity and Sedentary Activities of 7 to 11 Year Old Boys with Different Body Mass Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in physical fitness, physical activity, and sedentary activities among 7- to 11- year- old boys with varying body mass index in Ardabil, Iran.Methods: The sample consisted of 766 boys who participated in eight weight bearing (1 mile walk/run, sit ups, standing long jump, vertical jump, shuttle run 4 × 10 m, 30-meter sprint, pull ups, pushups) and four non-weight-bearing physical fitness tests (flamingo balance, handgrip, sit and reach, finger reaction time). Physical activity and sedentary activities were assessed by questionnaires. Body mass index (BMI) was computed to classify participants into normal weight, underweight, overweight, and obese groups.Results: The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 10.7%, 14.1% and 4.2% respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) decreased progressively as the BMI increased and differences among the all body mass index categories were significant (P<0.01). Obese subjects performed worse in all weight bearing fitness tests than normal weight subjects (P<0.01). Moreover, overweight subjects performed worse in one mile, pushups and pull ups than normal weight subjects (P<0.01). Underweight subjects had significantly lower Pushups than normal weight subjects (P<0.01). Obese subjects had significantly higher sedentary activities and lower physical activity than other counterparts (P<0.01).Conclusions: This study showed that weight bearing physical fitness, cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity progressively decreased as the BMI increased and adversely sedentary activities increased as the BMI increased.

Samad Esmaeilzadeh; Karim Ebadollahzadeh

2012-01-01

338

Physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary activities of 7 to 11 year old boys with different body mass indexes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in physical fitness, physical activity, and sedentary activities among 7 to 11 year old boys with varying body mass index in Ardabil, Iran. METHODS: The sample consisted of 766 boys who participated in eight weight bearing (1 mile walk/run, sit ups, standing long jump, vertical jump, shuttle run 4 × 10 m, 30-meter sprint, pull ups, pushups) and four non-weight-bearing physi