WorldWideScience
1

Investigation of Vegetation Dynamics using Long-Term NormalizedDifference Vegetation Index Time-Series  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: Problem statement: The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is the most extensively used satellite-derived index of vegetation health and density. Since climate is one of the most important factors affecting vegetation condition, satellite-derived vegetation indexes have been often used to evaluate climatic and environmental changes at regional and global scale. The proposed study attempted to investigate the temporal vegetation dynamics in the whole Africa using historical...

Perez, Francesca; Boccardo, Piero; Bellone, Tamara

2009-01-01

2

Investigation of Vegetation Dynamics using Long-Term Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Time-Series  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is the most extensively used satellite-derived index of vegetation health and density. Since climate is one of the most important factors affecting vegetation condition, satellite-derived vegetation indexes have been often used to evaluate climatic and environmental changes at regional and global scale. The proposed study attempted to investigate the temporal vegetation dynamics in the whole Africa using historical ND...

Tamara Bellone; Piero Boccardo; Francesca Perez

2009-01-01

3

Comparison of Topographic Effects between the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation indices play an important role in monitoring variations in vegetation. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) proposed by the MODIS Land Discipline Group and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are both global-based vegetation indices aimed at providing consistent spatial and temporal information regarding global vegetation. However, many environmental factors such as atmospheric conditions and soil background may produce errors in these indices. The topographic effect is another very important factor, especially when the indices are used in areas of rough terrain. In this paper, we analyzed differences in the topographic effect between the EVI and the NDVI based on a non-Lambertian model and using two airborne-based images with a spatial resolution of 1.5m acquired from a mountainous area covered by a homogeneous Japanese cypress plantation. The results indicate that the soil adjustment factor "L" in the EVI makes it more sensitive to topographic conditions than is the NDVI. Based on these results, we strongly recommend that the topographic effect be removed from the EVI--as well as from other vegetation indices that similarly include a term without a band ratio format (e.g., the PVI and SAVI)--when these indices are used in conjunction with a high spatial resolution image of an area of rough terrain, where the topographic effect on the vegetarian indices having only a band ratio format (e.g., the NDVI) can usually be ignored.

Matsushita, B.; Yang, W.; Chen, J.; Onda, Y.

2007-12-01

4

Relative sensitivity of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) for vegetation and desertification monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple equation relating the Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is proposed which represents well data obtained from Nimbus 7/SMMR at 37 GHz and NOAA/AVHRR Channels 1 and 2. It is found that there is a limit which is characteristic of a particular type of cover for which both indices are equally sensitive to the variation of vegetation, and below which MPDI is more efficient than NDVI. The results provide insight into the relationship between water content and chlorophyll absorption at pixel size scales.

Becker, Francois; Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

1988-01-01

5

Investigation of Vegetation Dynamics using Long-Term Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Time-Series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is the most extensively used satellite-derived index of vegetation health and density. Since climate is one of the most important factors affecting vegetation condition, satellite-derived vegetation indexes have been often used to evaluate climatic and environmental changes at regional and global scale. The proposed study attempted to investigate the temporal vegetation dynamics in the whole Africa using historical NDVI time-series. Approach: For this aim, 15 day maximum value NDVI composites at 8 km spatial resolution produced from the NASA Global Inventory Mapping and Monitoring System (GIMMS had been used. They were derived from data collected daily by NOAA AVHRR satellites. The AVHRR NDVI GIMMS dataset was freely available and gives global coverage over an extensive time period. First of all, the selected NDVI base data had been geometrically pre-processed and organized into a historical database implemented in order to grant their spatial integration. Starting from this archive, monthly and yearly NDVI historical time-series, extended from 1982-2006, had been then developed and analysed on a pixel basis. Several routines hade been developed in IDL (Interactive Data Language programming tool with the purpose of applying suitable statistical analysis techniques to the historical information in the database in order to identify the long-term trend components of generated NDVI time-series and extract vegetation dynamics. Specific tests had been then considered in order to define the validity of results. Results: The existence of clear regional trends of NDVI, both decreasing and increasing had been showed, which helped to highlight areas subject, respectively to reduction or increase in vegetation greenness. Conclusion: As the relationship between the NDVI and vegetation productivity was well established, these estimated long-term trend components may be also, with much more caution, related to historical and ongoing land degradation or improvement processes.

Tamara Bellone

2009-01-01

6

Evaluation of vegetation cover using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil loss by water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. However, erosion can be reduced by the presence of vegetation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI makes it possible to identify the vegetative vigor of crops or natural vegetation which facilities the identification of areas with vegetation covers. This information is very important in identifying the phenomena which might be occurring in a particular area, especially those related to soil degradation by water erosion. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the canopy cover by using NDVI, checking the image accuracy using the Coverage Index (CI based on the Stocking method, in the Sub-basin of Posses, which belongs to the Cantareira System, located in the Extrema municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Landsat-5 TM images were used. The sub-basin of Posses was very altered in comparison to the surrounding areas. The NDVI technique proved to be a suitable tool to assess the uses that occur in the sub-basin of Posses, as validated by the Stocking methodology. The map derived from NDVI allowed the geographic distribution of different land uses to be observed and allowed for the identification of critical areas in relation to vegetation cover as well. This finding can be used to optimize efforts to recover and protect soil in areas with bare soil and degraded pasture, in order to reduce environmental degradation. The CI has not exceeded 40% for land use classes that occur in the majority of the sub-basin (91%, except in areas of woody vegetation.

Gabriela Camargos Lima

2013-08-01

7

Calculating the vegetation index faster  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIR versus red 'infrared percentage vegetation index', NIR/(NIR + Red), is functionally and linearly equivalent to the normalized difference vegetation index, (NIR-Red)/(NIR + Red). Advantageously, it is both computationally faster and never negative.

Crippen, Robert E.

1990-01-01

8

Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

9

Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values  

OpenAIRE

Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activ...

Thompson, Bruce C.; Gould, William R.; Dawn VanLeeuwen; Baker, Terrell T.; Smallidge, Samuel T.

2010-01-01

10

Estimating Sahelian and East African Soil Moisture Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index  

OpenAIRE

Rainfall gauge networks in Sub-Saharan Africa are inadequate for assessing Sahelian agricultural drought, hence satellite-based estimates of precipitation and vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) provide the main source of information for early warning systems. While it is common practice to translate precipitation into estimates of soil moisture, it is difficult to quantitatively compare precipitation and soil moisture estimates with variations ...

Mcnally, A.; Funk, C.; Husak, G. J.; Michaelsen, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Demarty, J.; Pellarin, T.; Young, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.; Riginos, C.; Veblen, K. E.

2013-01-01

11

Detection of nitrogen-overfertilized rice plants with leaf positional difference in hyperspectral vegetation index*  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this work was to compare the applicability of the single leaf (the uppermost leaf L1 and the third uppermost leaf L3) modified simple ratio (mSR705 index) and the leaf positional difference in the vegetation index between L1 and L3 (mSR705L1?mSR705L3) in detecting nitrogen (N)-overfertilized rice plants. A field experiment consisting of three rice genotypes and five N fertilization levels (0, 75, 180, 285, and 390 kg N/ha) was conducted at Xiaoshan, Hangzhou, Zhejiang ...

Zhou, Qi-fa; Liu, Zhan-yu; Huang, Jing-feng

2010-01-01

12

Atmospheric effects on the NDVI - Strategies for its removal. [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index  

Science.gov (United States)

The compositing technique used to derive global vegetation index (NDVI) from the NOAA AVHRR radiances reduces the residual effect of water vapor and aerosol on the NDVI. The reduction in the atmospheric effect is shown using a comprehensive measured data set for desert conditions, and a simulation for grass with continental aerosol. A statistical analaysis of the probability of occurrence of aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor measured in different climatic regimes is used for this simulation. It is concluded that for a long compositing period (e.g., 27 days), the residual aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor are usually too small to be corrected. For a 9-day compositing, the residual average aerosol effect may be about twice the correction uncertainty. For Landsat TM or Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (EOS-MODIS) data, the newly defined atmospherically resistant vegetation index (ARVI) is more promising than possible direct atmospheric correction schemes, except for heavy desert dust conditions.

Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Markham, B.; Gitelson, A.

1992-01-01

13

Determination of Leaf Area Index, Total Foliar N, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Arctic Ecosystems Dominated by Cassiope tetragona  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Leaf area index (LAI) and total foliar nitrogen (TFN) are important canopy characteristics and crucial variables needed to simulate photosynthesis and ecosystem CO2 fluxes. Although plant communities dominated by Cassiope tetragona are widespread in the Arctic, LAI and TFN for this vegetation type have not been accurately quantified. We address this knowledge gap by (i) direct measurements of LAI and TFN for C. tetragona, and (ii) determining TFN-LAI and LAI–normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) relationships for typical C. tetragona tundras in the subarctic (Sweden) and High Arctic (Greenland and Svalbard). Leaves of C. tetragona are 2–6 mm long and closely appressed to their stems forming parallelepiped shoots. We determined the LAI of C. tetragona by measuring the area of the leaves while still attached to the stem, then doubling the resulting one-sided area. TFN was determined from leaf N and biomass. The LAI-NDVI and TFN-LAI relationships showed high correlation and can be used to estimate indirectly LAI and TFN. The LAI-NDVI relationship for C. tetragona vegetation differed from a generic LAI-NDVI relationship for arctic tundra, whereas the TFN-LAI relationship did not. Overall, the LAI of C. tetragona tundra ranged from 0.4 to 1.1 m2 m–2 and TFN from 1.4 to 1.7 g N m–2.

Campioli, M; Street, LE

2009-01-01

14

Establishment of empirical relations between fuel moisture content and the normalised difference vegetation index  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The object of the present research is to establish empirical relations between the Fuel Moisture Content (FMC) and the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in pasture samples. The study area was the Carillanca Experimental Centre belonging to the Institute ofAgriculture and Livestock Resear [...] ch (Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias - INIA), Araucanía Region, Chile. The study period ran from November 2011 to January 2012, in order to determine the variation in vegetation moisture content from spring, when plant cover is most vigorous, to summer when it declines to a minimum due to the summer drought. The application of a linear adjustment model produced correlation coefficients higher than 0.6.

M, Castro; J.C, Parra; L. J, Morales; C, Salas.

2014-09-01

15

Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to characterize vegetation recovery after fire disturbance  

Science.gov (United States)

The time dynamics of SPOT-VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series are analyzed by using the statistical approach of the Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane to assess and monitor vegetation recovery after fire disturbance. Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis allows us to gain insight into the complex structure of a time series to quantify its degree of organization and order. The analysis was carried out using 10-day Maximum Value Composites of NDVI (MVC-NDVI) with a 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution. The investigation was performed on two test sites located in Galizia (North Spain) and Peloponnese (South Greece), selected for the vast fires which occurred during the summer of 2006 and 2007 and for their different vegetation covers made up mainly of low shrubland in Galizia test site and evergreen forest in Peloponnese. Time series of MVC-NDVI have been analyzed before and after the occurrence of the fire events. Results obtained for both the investigated areas clearly pointed out that the dynamics of the pixel time series before the occurrence of the fire is characterized by a larger degree of disorder and uncertainty; while the pixel time series after the occurrence of the fire are featured by a higher degree of organization and order. In particular, regarding the Peloponneso fire, such discrimination is more evident than in the Galizia fire. This suggests a clear possibility to discriminate the different post-fire behaviors and dynamics exhibited by the different vegetation covers.

Lanorte, Antonio; Lasaponara, Rosa; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano

2014-02-01

16

On the relationship between thermal emissivity and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for natural surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial variation of both the thermal emissivity (8-14 microns) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was measured for a series of natural surfaces within a savanna environment in Botswana. The measurements were performed with an emissivity-box and with a combined red and near-IR radiometer, with spectral bands corresponding to NOAA/AVHRR. It was found that thermal emissivity was highly correlated with NDVI after logarithmic transformation, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.94. This empirical relationship is of potential use for energy balance studies using thermal IR remote sensing. The relationship was used in combination with AVHRR (GAC), AVHRR (LAC), and Landsat (TM) data to demonstrate and compare the spatial variability of various spatial scales.

Van De Griend, A. A.; Owe, M.

1993-01-01

17

Avaliação da cobertura vegetal pelo índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (IVDN) / Evaluation of vegetation cover using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A perda de solo por erosão hídrica é a principal causa da degradação do solo no Brasil. No entanto, a erosão pode ser reduzida pela presença da vegetação. O cálculo do Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada (IVDN) permite avaliar o vigor vegetativo de culturas ou vegetação natural o que facil [...] ita a identificação de áreas com cobertura vegetal. Esta informação é muito importante para identificar o fenômeno que pode estar ocorrendo em uma determinada área, especialmente aqueles relacionados à degradação do solo por erosão hídrica. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o índice de cobertura vegetal por IVDN e verificar a precisão utilizando o Índice de Cobertura (IC) de Stocking, na sub-bacia das Posses, a qual pertence ao Sistema Cantareira, localizada no município de Extrema, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Para tanto, utilizou-se as imagens Landsat-5 TM. A sub-bacia das Posses mostrou-se alterada quando comparada com a área de entorno. A técnica do IVDN mostrou-se com boa acurácia para identificar os usos que ocorrem na sub-bacia das Posses, sendo validados pela metodologia de Stocking. O mapeamento pelo IVDN permitiu localizar na sub-bacia a distribuição geográfica dos diferentes usos do solo e identificar as áreas críticas em relação à cobertura vegetal, e, assim planejar esforços para recuperação e proteção do solo nas áreas desnudas e com pastagem degradada, visando diminuição dos passivos ambientais. O IC não ultrapassou 40% para a maioria dos usos que ocorrem na sub-bacia (91%), excetuando as áreas de vegetação arbórea. Abstract in english Soil loss by water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. However, erosion can be reduced by the presence of vegetation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) makes it possible to identify the vegetative vigor of crops or natural vegetation which facilities the identifi [...] cation of areas with vegetation covers. This information is very important in identifying the phenomena which might be occurring in a particular area, especially those related to soil degradation by water erosion. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the canopy cover by using NDVI, checking the image accuracy using the Coverage Index (CI) based on the Stocking method, in the Sub-basin of Posses, which belongs to the Cantareira System, located in the Extrema municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Landsat-5 TM images were used. The sub-basin of Posses was very altered in comparison to the surrounding areas. The NDVI technique proved to be a suitable tool to assess the uses that occur in the sub-basin of Posses, as validated by the Stocking methodology. The map derived from NDVI allowed the geographic distribution of different land uses to be observed and allowed for the identification of critical areas in relation to vegetation cover as well. This finding can be used to optimize efforts to recover and protect soil in areas with bare soil and degraded pasture, in order to reduce environmental degradation. The CI has not exceeded 40% for land use classes that occur in the majority of the sub-basin (91%), except in areas of woody vegetation.

Gabriela Camargos, Lima; Marx Leandro Naves, Silva; Nilton, Curi; Mayesse Aparecida da, Silva; Anna Hoffmann, Oliveira; Junior Cesar, Avanzi; Marta Eichemberger, Ummus.

2013-08-01

18

Using normalized difference vegetation index to estimate carbon fluxes from small rotationally grazed pastures  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. However, the usefulness of satellite-based images for monitoring rotationally-grazed pastures in the northeastern United States might be limited because paddock size is often smaller than the resolution limits of the satellite image. This research compared NDVI data from satellites with data obtained using a ground-based system capable of fine-scale (submeter) NDVI measurements. Gross primary productivity was measured by eddy covariance on two pastures in central Pennsylvania from 2003 to 2008. Weekly 250-m resolution satellite NDVI estimates were also obtained for each pasture from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Ground-based NDVI data were periodically collected in 2006, 2007, and 2008 from one of the two pastures. Multiple-regression and regression-tree estimates of GPP, based primarily on MODIS 7-d NDVI and on-site measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), were generally able to predict growing-season GPP to within an average of 3% of measured values. The exception was drought years when estimated and measured GPP differed from each other by 11 to 13%. Ground-based measurements improved the ability of vegetation indices to capture short-term grazing management effects on GPP. However, the eMODIS product appeared to be adequate for regional GPP estimates where total growing-season GPP across a wide area would be of greater interest than short-term management-induced changes in GPP at individual sites.

Skinner, R.H.; Wylie, B.K.; Gilmanov, T.G.

2011-01-01

19

Simulating Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Data Using Hyperion and MODIS  

Science.gov (United States)

The success of MODIS (the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) in creating unprecedented, timely, high-quality data for vegetation and other studies has created great anticipation for data from VIIRS (the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite). VIIRS will be carried onboard the joint NASA/Department of Defense/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPP (NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System) Preparatory Project). Because the VIIRS instruments will have lower spatial resolution than the current MODIS instruments 400 m versus 250 m at nadir for the channels used to generate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data, scientists need the answer to this question: how will the change in resolution affect vegetation studies? By using simulated VIIRS measurements, this question may be answered before the VIIRS instruments are deployed in space. Using simulated VIIRS products, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other operational agencies can then modify their decision support systems appropriately in preparation for receipt of actual VIIRS data. VIIRS simulations and validations will be based on the ART (Application Research Toolbox), an integrated set of algorithms and models developed in MATLAB(Registerd TradeMark) that enables users to perform a suite of simulations and statistical trade studies on remote sensing systems. Specifically, the ART provides the capability to generate simulated multispectral image products, at various scales, from high spatial hyperspectral and/or multispectral image products. The ART uses acquired ( real ) or synthetic datasets, along with sensor specifications, to create simulated datasets. For existing multispectral sensor systems, the simulated data products are used for comparison, verification, and validation of the simulated system s actual products. VIIRS simulations will be performed using Hyperion and MODIS datasets. The hyperspectral and hyperspatial properties of Hyperion data will be used to produce simulated MODIS and VIIRS products. Hyperion-derived MODIS data will be compared with near-coincident MODIS collects to validate both spectral and spatial synthesis, which will ascertain the accuracy of converting from MODIS to VIIRS. MODIS-derived VIIRS data is needed for global coverage and for the generation of time series for regional and global investigations. These types of simulations will have errors associated with aliasing for some scene types. This study will help quantify these errors and will identify cases where high-quality, MODIS-derived VIIRS data will be available.

Ross, Kenton W.; Russell, Jeffrey; Ryan, Robert E.

2006-01-01

20

Simulating Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Data Using Hyperion and MODIS  

Science.gov (United States)

The success of MODIS (the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) in creating unprecedented, timely, high-quality data for vegetation and other studies has created great anticipation for data from VIIRS (the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite). VIIRS will be carried onboard the joint NASA/Department of Defense/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPP (NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System) Preparatory Project). Because the VIIRS instruments will have lower spatial resolution than the current MODIS instruments--400 m versus 250 m--at nadir for the channels used to generate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data, scientists need the answer to this question: how will the change in resolution affect vegetation studies? By using simulated VIIRS measurements, this question may be answered before the VIIRS instruments are deployed in space. Using simulated VIIRS products, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other operational agencies can then modify their decision support systems appropriately in preparation for receipt of actual VIIRS data. VIIRS simulations and validations will be based on the ART (Application Research Toolbox), an integrated set of algorithms and models developed in MATLAB® that enables users to perform a suite of simulations and statistical trade studies on remote sensing systems. Specifically, the ART provides the capability to generate simulated multispectral image products, at various scales, from high spatial hyperspectral and/or multispectral image products. The ART uses acquired ("real") or synthetic datasets, along with sensor specifications, to create simulated datasets. For existing multispectral sensor systems, the simulated data products are used for comparison, verification, and validation of the simulated system's actual products. VIIRS simulations will be performed using Hyperion and MODIS datasets. The hyperspectral and hyperspatial properties of Hyperion data will be used to produce simulated MODIS and VIIRS products. Hyperion-derived MODIS data will be compared with near-coincident MODIS collects to validate both spectral and spatial synthesis, which will ascertain the accuracy of converting from MODIS to VIIRS. MODIS-derived VIIRS data is needed for global coverage and for the generation of time series for regional and global investigations. These types of simulations will have errors associated with aliasing for some scene types. This study will help quantify these errors and will identify cases where high quality, MODIS- derived VIIRS data will be available.

Ross, K. W.; Ryan, R. E.; Russell, J.

2006-12-01

21

Normalized difference vegetation index for the South American continent used as a climatic variability indicator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NOAA AVHRR GAC data set was used to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps for the South American Continent covering the period from August 1, 1981 to June 30, 1987. A 15-day maximum value composite procedure was used to partially eliminate the cloud contamination and atmospheric attenuation. Monthly evolution of NDVI for a dry and a wet year within the period studied was used to estimate the area covered by NDVI value less than 0.223, This value was used as an indicator of the drought area and the delineation of the Low rainfall areas in the continent. It was observed a well defined regional dependence of the drought area variability for the Northeast, Southwest and Northwest continent and also for the Amazon region. It is shown a relative estimation of the area coverage with NDVI less than 0.223 for the years 1982/83 and 1984/85. The dynamics of the drought area evolution in the continent is discussed. It is also presented a diagnosis of regional variability of the continental distribution of drought area from 1981 to 1987 for the months of May and September. This information is also used to discuss its relationship with the EL-Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the South American Precipitation patterns during this period. It is suggested that the use of NDVI image to identify the dynamics of the drought induced by low rainfall may provide us valuable information to study the large scale climatic variationriation

22

[Effects of vegetation cover and normalized difference moisture index on thermal landscape pattern: a case study of Guangzhou, South China].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using Landsat-5 TM images, the land surface temperature (LST), vegetation cover, and normalized difference moisture index (NDMI) in different areas of Guangzhou were extracted, and the effects of vegetation cover and NDMI on the land surface temperature of the City were studied, based on the landscape ecological methodologies. There existed good linear correlations among the vegetation cover, land surface temperature, and NDMI, but the correlation coefficients for any two of the three items differed obviously with different areas. If the vegetation cover in different areas of Guangzhou was improved to the same level, urban center had the best cooling effect, followed by the suburbs in the north edge of urban center. The forest parks in different areas of the City also had different cooling effect on the surrounding environment. The difference of the average temperature between the 960-1080 m buffer zone and the inner park were 4.69 degrees C in Baiyun Mountain, 1.27 degrees C in Mazaishan, and 0.41 degrees C in Liuxihe. High vegetation cover could increase the thermal landscape heterogeneity and the aggregation among different landscapes, and promote the energy exchange between the lower temperature patches and higher temperature patches, playing an important role in controlling hot island effect. NDMI and vegetation cover had the same effects on the formation of thermal landscape pattern. PMID:23285998

Wang, Gang; Guan, Dong-Sheng

2012-09-01

23

Use of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) habitat models to predict breeding birds on the San Pedro River, Arizona  

Science.gov (United States)

Successful management practices of avian populations depend on understanding relationships between birds and their habitat, especially in rare habitats, such as riparian areas of the desert Southwest. Remote-sensing technology has become popular in habitat modeling, but most of these models focus on single species, leaving their applicability to understanding broader community structure and function largely untested. We investigated the usefulness of two Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) habitat models to model avian abundance and species richness on the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona. Although NDVI was positively correlated with our bird metrics, the amount of explained variation was low. We then investigated the addition of vegetation metrics and other remote-sensing metrics to improve our models. Although both vegetation metrics and remotely sensed metrics increased the power of our models, the overall explained variation was still low, suggesting that general avian community structure may be too complex for NDVI models.

McFarland, Tiffany Marie; van Riper, Charles, III

2013-01-01

24

Models for the prediction of the cetane index of biofuels obtained from different vegetable oils using their fatty acid composition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the present work is to obtain a physical-mathematical model that establishes a relationship between the cetane index of biofuels obtained from different vegetable oils and its composition of essential fatty acid. This model is based on experimental data obtained by the authors of the present work and an experimental data reported by different extracted authors of indexed databases. The adjustment of the coefficients of the model is based on the obtaining of residual minima in the capacity of prediction of the model. Starting from these results it is established a very useful tool for the determination of such an important parameter for the fuel diesel as it is the cetane index obtained from an analysis of chemical composition and not obtained from tests in engines banks, to save time and economic resources. (author)

25

Analytical Derivation of the Vegetation Optical Depth from the Microwave Polarization Difference Index  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical solution for the canopy optical depth in an existing microwave-based land surface parameter retrieval model is presented. The optical depth is derived from the microwave polarization difference index and the dielectric constant of the soil. The original procedure used an approximation in the form of a logarithmic decay function to define this relationship, and was derived through a series of lengthy polynomials. These polynomials had to be recalculated when the scattering albedo or antenna incidence angle changes. The new procedure is computationally more efficient and accurate.

Meesters, Antoon G. C. A.; DeJeu, Richard A. M.; Owe, Manfred

2006-01-01

26

Method for Tealeaves Quality Estimation Through Measurements of Degree of Polazation, Leaf Area Index, Photosynthesis Available Radiance and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Characterization of Tealeaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Method for tealeaves quality estimation through measurements of Degree of Polarization: DP, Leaf Area Index: LAI, Photosynthesis Available Radiance: PAR and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: NDVI for characterization of tealeaves is proposed. The method allows estimations of PAR, NDVI, Grow Index: GI by using measured Degree of Polarization: DP of tealeaves. Through experiments at the tea farm areas, it is found that the proposed method is validated. Also, the method is validated through Monte Carlo Ray Tracing: MCRT simulations for discrimination between prolate and oblate shapes of tealeaves. In accordance with growing tealeaves, prolate shape of tealeaves changes their shape to oblate shape. Therefore, growing stage can be estimated with DP measurements.

Kohei Arai

2013-11-01

27

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) characteristics for urban land covers: A case study in an industrial area of Gumi, Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies for urban areas with remote sensing images often involve with NDVI and surface temperature and they are strongly related in various environmental issues. In many cases, urban studies had several difficulties in segregating land covers and defining their properties with remote sensing images because mixtures of land covers are very complex and spectrally ambiguous typically with multispectral remote sensing images. However, we attempted to retrieve and investigated pure land cover characteristics of urban areas in terms of NDVI and surface brightness temperature. We found that urban covers, especially building rooftops, had a few factors controlling NDVI values. Using 148 building structures, shadow and the blue color controlled NDVIs to be high so rooftops sometimes had high NDVI values like full vegetation. The factor controlling seemed to be caused by complex surface pattern of rooftops. Also, land cover types could be defined with three groups in terms of the NDVI vs. temperature relationship from Landsat; urban/soil, vegetation and water. Based on the groups of urban land covers, a mixing scenario could be described with three different mixing cases. Factory roofs have various geometric patterns. The marked circles and squarese indicates samples with highest to lowest normalized vegetation difference index (NDVI) values for the fooftops. The rooftop in the upper left circle is an example of the greatest NDVI value of 0.77 for the 2010 image. Number of ridges on the building surface pattern in the west-east direction affected NDVI values over rooftops in urban areas.

Bhang, K.; Lee, J.

2013-12-01

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Classifying cropping area of middle Heihe River Basin in China using multitemporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate information regarding the structure of crops is critical for the improvement and optimization of land surface models. Multitemporal remote sensing imagery is more effective to determine the crop structure than the single-temporal images because they contain phenological information. Crop structure was extracted based on time series of moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data in the middle Heihe River Basin. A time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data with a 3-day temporal resolution was composed based on daily MODIS reflectance products (MOD 09) from January to December 2011. A total of 120 scenes of composited imagery were integrated into an image data cube of NDVI time series, which was used to extract crop structure for the study area. The spectral curves of corn, wheat, rape, vegetables, and other crops are based on both in situ measurements and visual interpretation. The major crop types were classified by using the adaptive boosting (Adaboost) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. The results show that the classification accuracy of Adaboost and SVM was 86.01% and 70.28%, respectively, with Kappa coefficients of 0.8351 and 0.6438, respectively. Summarizing the classification methods used in this study effectively characterize the spatial distribution of the main crops.

Han, Huibang; Ma, Mingguo; Wang, Xufeng; Ma, Shoucun

2014-01-01

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Spatial and Temporal Variation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Rainfall in the North East Arid Zone of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the spatial and temporal variation of onset and cessation of rainfall and greenness in the North East Arid Zone of Nigeria. Onset and cessation of greenness dates were determined from mean monthly time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI using Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data for five meteorological stations in the zone for a period of nineteen years (1981-1999. Lowest growing days of six weeks were observed in Nguru (12.53°N, 10.28°E, alt.343 m, Potiskum (11.42°N, 11.02°E, alt.415 m and Maiduguri (11.51°N, 13.05°E, alt. 354 m, while Yola (12.28°N, 9.14°E, alt.174 m and Bauchi (10.17°N, 9.49°E, alt.609 m have growing days of 15 and 16 weeks respectively. Highest rate of greenness of 0.18/month was observed inMaiduguriwhile the lowest rate of green-up of 0.07/month was observed in Bauchi. Similarly, highest rate of senescence (0.08/month was observed in Bauchi while lowest rate of senescence (0.04/month was observed in Nguru.

Christiana F. Olusegun

2013-08-01

30

Evaluation of the relation between evapotranspiration and normalized difference vegetation index for downscaling the simplified surface energy balance model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model uses satellite imagery to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ETa) at 1-kilometer resolution. SSEB ETa is useful for estimating irrigation water use; however, resolution limitations restrict its use to regional scale applications. The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the downscaling potential of SSEB ETa from 1 kilometer to 250 meters by correlating ETa with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument (MODIS). Correlations were studied in three arid to semiarid irrigated landscapes of the Western United States (Escalante Valley near Enterprise, Utah; Palo Verde Valley near Blythe, California; and part of the Columbia Plateau near Quincy, Washington) during several periods from 2002 to 2008. Irrigation season ETa-NDVI correlations were lower than expected, ranging from R2 of 0.20 to 0.61 because of an eastward 2-3 kilometer shift in ETa data. The shift is due to a similar shift identified in the land-surface temperature (LST) data from the MODIS Terra satellite, which is used in the SSEB model. Further study is needed to delineate the Terra LST shift, its effect on SSEB ETa, and the relation between ETa and NDVI.

Haynes, Jonathan V.; Senay, Gabriel B.

2012-01-01

31

Test of Multi-spectral Vegetation Index for Floating and Canopy-forming Submerged Vegetation  

OpenAIRE

Remote sensing of terrestrial vegetation has been successful thanks to the unique spectral characteristics of green vegetation, low reflectance in red and high reflectance in Near-InfraRed (NIR). These spectral characteristics were used to develop vegetation indices, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the NIR absorption by water and light scattering from suspended particles reduces the practical application of such indices in aquatic vegetation studies, especial...

Philemon Kirui; Harene Natarajan; Hyun Jung Cho

2008-01-01

32

Evaluating and Quantifying the Climate-Driven Interannual Variability in Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) at Global Scales  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite observations of surface reflected solar radiation contain informationabout variability in the absorption of solar radiation by vegetation. Understanding thecauses of variability is important for models that use these data to drive land surface fluxesor for benchmarking prognostic vegetation models. Here we evaluated the interannualvariability in the new 30.5-year long global satellite-derived surface reflectance index data,Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies normalized difference vegetation index(GIMMS NDVI3g). Pearsons correlation and multiple linear stepwise regression analyseswere applied to quantify the NDVI interannual variability driven by climate anomalies, andto evaluate the effects of potential interference (snow, aerosols and clouds) on the NDVIsignal. We found ecologically plausible strong controls on NDVI variability by antecedent precipitation and current monthly temperature with distinct spatial patterns. Precipitation correlations were strongest for temperate to tropical water limited herbaceous systemswhere in some regions and seasons 40 of the NDVI variance could be explained byprecipitation anomalies. Temperature correlations were strongest in northern mid- to-high-latitudes in the spring and early summer where up to 70 of the NDVI variance was explained by temperature anomalies. We find that, in western and central North America,winter-spring precipitation determines early summer growth while more recent precipitation controls NDVI variability in late summer. In contrast, current or prior wetseason precipitation anomalies were correlated with all months of NDVI in sub-tropical herbaceous vegetation. Snow, aerosols and clouds as well as unexplained phenomena still account for part of the NDVI variance despite corrections. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that GIMMS NDVI3g represents real responses of vegetation to climate variability that are useful for global models.

Zeng, Fanwei; Collatz, George James; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Ivanoff, Alvaro

2013-01-01

33

Monitoring the recovery of Juncus roemerianus marsh burns with the normalized difference vegetation index and Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine atmospherically corrected Landsat Thematic Mapper images were used to generate mean normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) at 11 burn sites throughout a coastal Juncus roemerianus marsh in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Time-since-burn, the time lapse from the date of burn to the date of image collection, was related to variation in mean NDVI over time. Regression analysis showed that NDVI increased for about 300 to 400 days immediately after the burn, overshooting the typical mean NDVI of a nonburned marsh. For about another 500 to 600 days NDVI decreased until reaching a nearly constant NDVI of about 0.40. During the phase of increasing NDVI the ability to predict time-since-burn was within about ??60 days. Within the decreasing phase this dropped to about ??88 days. Examination of each burn site revealed some nonburn related influences on NDVI (e.g., seasonality). Normalization of burn NDVI by site-specific nonburn control NDVI eliminated most influences. However, differential responses at the site-specific level remained related to either storm impacts or secondary burning. At these sites, collateral data helped clarify the abnormal changes in NDVI. Accounting for these abnormalities, site-specific burn recovery trends could be broadly standardized into four general phases: Phase 1-preburn, Phase 2-initial recovery (increasing NDVI), Phase 3-late recovery (decreasing NDVI), and Phase 4-final coalescence (unchanging NDVI). Phase 2 tended to last about 300 to 500 days, Phase 3 an additional 500 to 600 days, and finally reaching Phase 4, 900 to 1,000 days after burn.

Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Sapkota, S.K.; Barnes, F.G.; Nelson, G.A.

2002-01-01

34

Testing gridded land precipitation data and precipitation and runoff reanalyses (1982-2010) between 45° S and 45° N with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data  

Science.gov (United States)

The realistic simulation of key components of the land-surface hydrological cycle - precipitation, runoff, evaporation and transpiration - in general circulation models of the atmosphere is crucial to assess adverse weather impacts on environment and society. Here, gridded precipitation data from observations and precipitation and runoff fields from reanalyses were tested with satellite-derived global vegetation index data for 1982-2010 and latitudes between 45° S and 45° N. Data were obtained from the Climate Research Unit (CRU), the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM; analysed for 1998-2010 only) and (precipitation and runoff) reanalyses were obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the NASA Global Modelling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). Annual land-surface precipitation was converted to annual potential vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) and was compared to mean annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data measured by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (1982-1999) and MODIS (2001-2010). The effect of spatial resolution on the agreement between NPP and NDVI was investigated as well. The CRU and TRMM derived NPP agreed most closely with the NDVI data. The GPCP data showed weaker spatial agreement, largely because of their lower spatial resolution, but similar temporal agreement. MERRA Land and ERA Interim precipitation reanalyses showed similar spatial agreement as the GPCP data and good temporal agreement in semi-arid regions of the Americas, Asia, Australia and southern Africa. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis showed the lowest spatial agreement which could only in part be explained by its lower spatial resolution. No reanalysis showed realistic interannual precipitation variations for northern tropical Africa. Inclusion of runoff in the NPP prediction resulted only in (marginally) better agreement for the MERRA Land reanalysis and worse agreement for the NCEP/NCAR and ERA Interim reanalyses.

Los, S. O.

2014-12-01

35

[Impact of moss soil crust on vegetation indexes interpretation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation indexes were the most common and the most important parameters to characterizing large-scale terrestrial ecosystems. It is vital to get precise vegetation indexes for running land surface process models and computation of NPP change, moisture and heat fluxes over surface. Biological soil crusts (BSC) are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid, polar and sub-polar regions. The spectral characteristics of dry and wet BSCs were quite different, which could produce much higher vegetation indexes value for the wet BSC than for the dry BSC as reported. But no research was reported about whether the BSC would impact on regional vegetation indexes and how much dry and wet BSC had impact on regional vegetation indexes. In the present paper, the most common vegetation index NDVI were used to analyze how the moss soil crusts (MSC) dry and wet changes affect regional NDVI values. It was showed that 100% coverage of the wet MSC have a much higher NDVI value (0.657) than the dry MSC NDVI value (0.320), with increased 0.337. Dry and wet MSC NDVI value reached significant difference between the levels of 0.000. In the study area, MSC, which had the average coverage of 12.25%, would have a great contribution to the composition of vegetation index. Linear mixed model was employed to analyze how the NDVI would change in regional scale as wet MSC become dry MSC inversion. The impact of wet moss crust than the dry moss crust in the study area can make the regional NDVI increasing by 0.04 (14.3%). Due to the MSC existence and rainfall variation in arid and semi-arid zones, it was bound to result in NDVI change instability in a short time in the region. For the wet MSC's spectral reflectance curve is similar to those of the higher plants, misinterpretation of the vegetation dynamics could be more severe due to the "maximum value composite" (MVC) technique used to compose the global vegetation maps in the study of vegetation dynamics. The researches would be useful for detecting and mapping MSC from remote sensing imagery. It also is to the advantage to employing vegetation index wisely. PMID:21595239

Fang, Shi-bo; Zhang, Xin-shi

2011-03-01

36

A Wetness Index Using Terrain-Corrected Surface Temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Derived from Standard MODIS Products: An Evaluation of Its Use in a Humid Forest-Dominated Region of Eastern Canada  

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Full Text Available In this paper we develop a method to estimate land-surface water content in amostly forest-dominated (humid and topographically-varied region of eastern Canada. Theapproach is centered on a temperature-vegetation wetness index (TVWI that uses standard 8-day MODIS-based image composites of land surface temperature (TS and surface reflectanceas primary input. In an attempt to improve estimates of TVWI in high elevation areas, terrain-induced variations in TS are removed by applying grid, digital elevation model-basedcalculations of vertical atmospheric pressure to calculations of surface potential temperature(θS. Here, θS corrects TS to the temperature value to what it would be at mean sea level (i.e.,~101.3 kPa in a neutral atmosphere. The vegetation component of the TVWI uses 8-daycomposites of surface reflectance in the calculation of normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI values. TVWI and corresponding wet and dry edges are based on an interpretation ofscatterplots generated by plotting θS as a function of NDVI. A comparison of spatially-averaged field measurements of volumetric soil water content (VSWC and TVWI for the 2003-2005 period revealed that variation with time to both was similar in magnitudes. Growing season, point mean measurements of VSWC and TVWI were 31.0% and 28.8% for 2003, 28.6% and 29.4% for 2004, and 40.0% and 38.4% for 2005, respectively. An evaluation of the long-term spatial distribution of land-surface wetness generated with the new θS-NDVI function and a process-based model of soil water content showed a strong relationship (i.e., r2 = 95.7%.

Roger M. Cox

2007-10-01

37

Série temporal de índice de vegetação sobre diferentes tipologias vegetais no Rio Grande do Sul / Time series of vegetation index for different vegetation types in Rio Grande do Sul  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com este trabalho objetivou-se identificar a dinâmica fenológica das principais tipologias vegetais do Rio Grande do Sul, para o período de 2000 a 2010, utilizando-se dados de Enhanced Vegetation Index, através da transformada de ondaleta. A identificação da fenologia em ciclos ou padrões sazonais e [...] m séries temporais de índices de vegetação, obtidos por sensores orbitais, permite a observação de anomalias e os efeitos de mudanças climáticas ou ambientais. Um perfil temporal do Enhanced Vegetation Index foi construído para o Rio Grande do Sul e retiradas amostras para quatro tipologias vegetais: campo nativo, floresta ombrófila mista, cultivo de soja e de arroz. Essas amostras foram submetidas à transformada de ondaleta, que permitiu a decomposição da série e apresentação dos dados em relação ao tempo e frequência com que os eventos fenológicos ocorreram. Os dados apresentaram regularidade na dinâmica das tipologias vegetais testadas, com ciclos anuais de maior vigor e crescimento vegetal nas estações de primavera e verão e menor no outono e inverno. Abstract in english The objective of this study was the identification of the phenology dynamics of the main types of vegetation of Rio Grande do Sul state, for the period from 2000 to 2010, using Enhanced Vegetation Index data through the wavelet transform. The identification of cycles or seasonal patterns in time ser [...] ies of vegetation indices obtained by orbital sensors allows the observation of anomalies and effects of climate and environmental change. A temporal profile of Enhanced Vegetation Index was built for the Rio Grande do Sul region, where samples of the four main plant typologies were selected: native grassland, mixed ombrophilous forest, soybean and rice crop. These samples were submitted to the wavelet transform, which allowed the decomposition of the series and presentation of data in relation to time and frequency with which the phenological events have occurred. The data showed regularity in the dynamics of vegetation types tested, with annual cycles of plant growth and higher Enhanced Vegetation Index values in spring and summer and lower Enhanced Vegetation Index values in autumn and winter.

Tatiana M., Kuplich; Andreise, Moreira; Denise C., Fontana.

1116-11-01

38

Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow awarming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

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Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index for remote quantification of biophysical characteristics of vegetation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is widely used for monitoring, analyzing, and mapping temporal and spatial distributions of physiological and biophysical characteristics of vegetation. It is well documented that the NDVI approaches saturation asymptotically under conditions of moderate-to-high aboveground biomass. While reflectance in the red region (rho(red)) exhibits a nearly flat response once the leaf area index (LAI) exceeds 2, the near infrared (NIR) reflectance (PNIR) continue to respond significantly to changes in moderate-to-high vegetation density (LAI from 2 to 6) in crops. However, this higher sensitivity of the rho(NIR) has little effect on NDVI values once the rho(NIR) exceeds 30%. In this paper a simple modification of the NDVI was proposed. The Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index, WDRVI = (a * rho(NIR-rho(red))/(a * rho(NIR) + rho(red)), where the weighting coefficient a has a value of 0.1-0.2, increases correlation with vegetation fraction by linearizing the relationship for typical wheat, soybean, and maize canopies. The sensitivity of the WDRVI to moderate-to-high LAI (between 2 and 6) was at least three times greater than that of the NDVI. By enhancing the dynamic range while using the same bands as the NDVI, the WDRVI enables a more robust characterization of crop physiological and phenological characteristics. Although this index needs further evaluation, the linear relationship with vegetation fraction and much higher sensitivity to change in LAI will be especially valuable for precision agriculture and monitoring vegetation status under conditions of moderate-to-high density. It is anticipated that the new index will complement the NDVI and other vegetation indices that are based on the red and NIR spectral bands. PMID:15022830

Gitelson, Anatoly A

2004-02-01

40

Reducing background effects in orchards through spectral vegetation index correction  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite remote sensing provides an alternative to time-consuming and labor intensive in situ measurements of biophysical variables in agricultural crops required for precision agriculture applications. In orchards, however, the spatial resolution causes mixtures of canopies and background (i.e. soil, grass and shadow), hampering the estimation of these biophysical variables. Furthermore, variable background mixtures obstruct meaningful comparisons between different orchard blocks, rows or within each row. Current correction methodologies use spectral differences between canopies and background, but struggle with a vegetated orchard floor. This background influence and the lack of a generic solution are addressed in this study. Firstly, the problem was demonstrated in a controlled environment for vegetation indices sensitive to chlorophyll content, water content and leaf area index. Afterwards, traditional background correction methods (i.e. soil-adjusted vegetation indices and signal unmixing) were compared to the proposed vegetation index correction. This correction was based on the mixing degree of each pixel (i.e. tree cover fraction) to rescale the vegetation indices accordingly and was applied to synthetic and WorldView-2 satellite imagery. Through the correction, the effect of background admixture for vegetation indices was reduced, and the estimation of biophysical variables was improved (?R2 = 0.2-0.31).

Van Beek, Jonathan; Tits, Laurent; Somers, Ben; Deckers, Tom; Janssens, Pieter; Coppin, Pol

2015-02-01

41

[Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed. PMID:25358177

Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

2014-06-01

42

A high-resolution index for vegetation extraction in IKONOS images  

OpenAIRE

In monitoring vegetation change and urban planning, the measure and the mapping of the green vegetation over the Earth play an important role. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is the most popular approach to generate vegetation maps for remote sensing imagery. Unfortunately, the NDVI generates low resolution vegetation maps. Highresolution imagery, such as IKONOS imagery, can be used to overcome this weakness leading to better classification accuracy. Hence, it is important t...

Chikr El-mezouar, Miloud; Taleb, Nasreddine; Kpalma, Kidiyo; Ronsin, Joseph

2010-01-01

43

Investigation on the Patterns of Global Vegetation Change Using a Satellite-Sensed Vegetation Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pattern of vegetation change in response to global change still remains a controversial issue. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset compiled by the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS was used for analysis. For the period 1982–2006, GIMMS-NDVI analysis indicated that monthly NDVI changes show homogenous trends in middle and high latitude areas in the northern hemisphere and within, or near, the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn; with obvious spatio-temporal heterogeneity on a global scale over the past two decades. The former areas featured increasing vegetation activity during growth seasons, and the latter areas experienced an even greater amplitude in places where precipitation is adequate. The discussion suggests that one should be cautious of using the NDVI time-series to analyze local vegetation dynamics because of its coarse resolution and uncertainties.

Ainong Li

2010-06-01

44

Global Data Sets of Vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI)3g and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR)3g Derived from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) for the Period 1981 to 2011  

OpenAIRE

Long-term global data sets of vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) are critical to monitoring global vegetation dynamics and for modeling exchanges of energy, mass and momentum between the land surface and planetary boundary layer. LAI and FPAR are also state variables in hydrological, ecological, biogeochemical and crop-yield models. The generation, evaluation and an example case study documenting the utility of 30...

Myneni, Ranga B.; Shilong Piao; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Arindam Samanta; Liang Xu; Alessandro Anav; Sangram Ganguly; Yaozhong Pan; Zaichun Zhu; Jian Bi

2013-01-01

45

STUDY ON THE VARIABILITY OF "NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX/NDVI" BY INDICATIVE KRIGING = ESTUDO DA VARIABILIDADE DO "ÍNDICE DE VEGETAÇÃO POR DIFERENÇA NORMALIZADA/NDVI" UTILIZANDO KRIGAGEM INDICATIVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to evaluate the “Normalized Difference Vegetation Index” (NDVI in an area at Baixada Santista, coastland of São Paulo State, Brazil, using the geostatistic technique of indicative kriging. The analyses were made using sensor TM images (Landsat satellite, dated from February/1989 and January/1997. The obtained NDVI maps showed vegetation loss during the analyzed period, and the probabilities map, resulting from the difference between the two periods of time, indicated a distinct contrast between loss and gains of vegetation index. Vegetation mapping and application of indicative kriging were shown as beingquite useful for monitoring and environmental management, being able to provide good results when jointly used. = Este trabalho teve por objetivo principal analisar o “índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada” (NDVI em uma área da Baixada Santista, litoral paulista,utilizando a técnica geoestatística da krigagem indicativa. As análises foram feitas em imagens do sensor TM do satélite Landsat datadas de fevereiro de 1989 e janeiro de 1997. Os mapas obtidos do NDVI mostraram perda de vegetação de um modo geral, durante o período analisado, e o mapa de probabilidades resultante da diferença entreos dois períodos indicou forte contraste entre perdas e ganhos do índice de vegetação. O mapeamento da vegetação e a aplicação da krigagem indicativa mostraram-se ferramentas de grande aplicabilidade para o monitoramento e gerenciamento ambiental e podem proporcionar bons resultados quando utilizadas de forma integrada.

Roberto Wagner Lourenço

2004-01-01

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[Soil moisture estimation model based on multiple vegetation index].  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating soil moisture conveniently and exactly is a hot issues in water resource monitoring among agriculture and forestry. Estimating soil moisture based on vegetation index has been recognized and applied widely. 8 vegetation indexes were figured out based on the hyper-spectral data measured by portable spectrometer. The higher correlation indexes among 8 vegetation indexes and surface vegetation temperature were selected by Gray Relative Analysis method (GRA). Then, these selected indexes were analyzed using Multiple Linear Regression to establish soil moisture estimation model based on multiple vegetation indexes, and the model accuracy was evaluated. The accuracy evaluation indicated that the fitting was satisfied and the significance was 0.000 (P vegetation indexes into soil water content estimating over micro scale by non-contact measuring method using portable spectrometer. The exact estimation could be an appropriate replacement for remote sensing inversion and direct measurement. The model could estimate soil moisture quickly and accurately, and provide theory and technology reference for water resource management in agriculture and forestry. PMID:25358174

Wu, Hai-long; Yu, Xin-xiao; Zhang, Zhen-ming; Zhang, Yan

2014-06-01

47

Global Data Sets of Vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI3g and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR3g Derived from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g for the Period 1981 to 2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term global data sets of vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR are critical to monitoring global vegetation dynamics and for modeling exchanges of energy, mass and momentum between the land surface and planetary boundary layer. LAI and FPAR are also state variables in hydrological, ecological, biogeochemical and crop-yield models. The generation, evaluation and an example case study documenting the utility of 30-year long data sets of LAI and FPAR are described in this article. A neural network algorithm was first developed between the new improved third generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g and best-quality Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LAI and FPAR products for the overlapping period 2000–2009. The trained neural network algorithm was then used to generate corresponding LAI3g and FPAR3g data sets with the following attributes: 15-day temporal frequency, 1/12 degree spatial resolution and temporal span of July 1981 to December 2011. The quality of these data sets for scientific research in other disciplines was assessed through (a comparisons with field measurements scaled to the spatial resolution of the data products, (b comparisons with broadly-used existing alternate satellite data-based products, (c comparisons to plant growth limiting climatic variables in the northern latitudes and tropical regions, and (d correlations of dominant modes of interannual variability with large-scale circulation anomalies such as the EI Niño-Southern Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation. These assessment efforts yielded results that attested to the suitability of these data sets for research use in other disciplines. The utility of these data sets is documented by comparing the seasonal profiles of LAI3g with profiles from 18 state-of-the-art Earth System Models: the models consistently overestimated the satellite-based estimates of leaf area and simulated delayed peak seasonal values in the northern latitudes, a result that is consistent with previous evaluations of similar models with ground-based data. The LAI3g and FPAR3g data sets can be obtained freely from the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX website.

Ranga B. Myneni

2013-02-01

48

An Assessment of Mining Activities Impact on Vegetation in Bukuru Jos Plateau State Nigeria Using Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study area has a pathetic and deplorable condition of landuse/ landcover. The vegetal cover in the area has to be removed from the activities of tin mining which consequently resulted into adverse environmental effect such as erosion. Different forms of human induced stress such as tin mining and heavy rainfall have severely degraded soils on the Jos Plateau. Such degradation problems are also caused by deforestation, inappropriate farming system, bush burning and over-grazing which are hostile to the environment. The impact of tin mining has greatly affected the natural ecology of the study area Bukuru. Micro and macro organisms and plants have been stripped off their natural habitat due to tin mining activities. This paper therefore, assesses the mining activities impact on the vegetation in Bukuru area of Jos plateau in Nigeria. Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI techniques was adopted to Maps effect of tin mining on the vegetation for the period between 1975 and 2007 using LandSat satellite data. The result of the differential vegetation index analysis reveals a decline in vegetated surfaces in 1986 ranging from 0.04 to 0.58 indicating 0.05 and continuous loss in vegetation over the study area in 2007 (vegetated surface decrease by 0.08 between 1986 and 2007. The decrease in vegetated surface is due to intensive mining and cultivation.

Musa Haruna D.

2011-11-01

49

Applicability of Green-Red Vegetation Index for Remote Sensing of Vegetation Phenology  

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Full Text Available We evaluated the use of the Green-Red Vegetation Index (GRVI as a phenological indicator based on multiyear stand-level observations of spectral reflectance and phenology at several representative ecosystems in Japan. The results showed the relationships between GRVI values and the seasonal change of vegetation and ground surface with high temporal resolution. We found that GRVI has the following advantages as a phenological indicator: (1 “GRVI = 0” can be a site-independent single threshold fordetection of the early phase of leaf green-up and the middle phase of autumn coloring, and (2 GRVI can show a distinct response to subtle disturbance and the difference of ecosystem types.

Takeshi Motohka

2010-10-01

50

A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area. PMID:25025128

Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J M; Liu, Yibo

2014-01-01

51

Test of Multi-spectral Vegetation Index for Floating and Canopy-forming Submerged Vegetation  

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Full Text Available Remote sensing of terrestrial vegetation has been successful thanks to the unique spectral characteristics of green vegetation, low reflectance in red and high reflectance in Near-InfraRed (NIR. These spectral characteristics were used to develop vegetation indices, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. However, the NIR absorption by water and light scattering from suspended particles reduces the practical application of such indices in aquatic vegetation studies, especially for the Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV that grows below water surface. We experimentally tested if NDVI can be used to depict canopies of aquatic plants in shallow waters. A 100-gallonoutdoor tank was lined with black pond liners, a black panel or SAV shoots were mounted on the bottom, and filled with water up to 0.5 m. We used a GER 1500 spectroradiometer to collect spectral data over floating waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes and also over the tanks that contain SAV and black panel at varying water depths. The measured upwelling radiance was converted to % reflectance; and we integrated the hyperspectral reflectance to match the Red and NIR bands of three satellite sensors: Landsat 7 ETM, SPOT 5 HRG, and ASTER. NDVI values ranged 0.6-0.65 when the SAV canopy was at the water level, then they decreased linearly (slope of 0.013 NDVI/meter with water depth increases in clear water. When corrected for water attenuation using the data obtained from the black panel, the NDVI values significantly increased at all depths that we tested (0.1 – 0.5 m. Our results suggest the conventional NDVI: (1 can be used to depict SAV canopies at water surface; (2 is not a good indicator for SAV that is adapted to live underwater or other aquatic plants that are submerged during flooding even at shallow waters (0.3 m; and (3 the index values can significantly improve if information on spectral reflectance attenuation caused by water volume increases is collected simultaneously through ground-truthing and integrated.

Philemon Kirui

2008-12-01

52

The difference analysis of remote sensing methods used to assess vegetation cover in semi-arid region, Northwest China  

Science.gov (United States)

While studying the vegetation degradation, Vegetation coverage percentage is often used. In the field of remote sensing, using vegetation index (NDVI, MSAVI, etc.) to descript vegetation coverage percentage is popular accepted and applied. In this paper, experiments in Aibi lake area were made in order to compare the difference between NDV, MSAVI and Vegetation coverage obtained by linear spectral unmixing. The results of the experiment indicate that vegetation coverage is more suitable for monitoring low vegetation cover dynamic change.

Yu, Rong; Kang, Qing; Zhang, Zengxiang; Zhao, Xiaoli

2005-10-01

53

Vegetation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

• Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime.

Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.

2012-01-01

54

On the terminology of the spectral vegetation index (NIR – SWIR)/(NIR + SWIR)  

Science.gov (United States)

The spectral vegetation index (?NIR – ?SWIR)/(?NIR + ?SWIR), where ?NIR and ?SWIR are the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) reflectances, respectively, has been widely used to indicate vegetation moisture condition. This index has multiple names in the literature, including infrared index (II), normalized difference infrared index (NDII), normalized difference water index (NDWI), normalized difference moisture index (NDMI), land surface water index (LSWI), and normalized burn ratio (NBR), etc. After reviewing each term’s definition, associated sensors, and channel specifications, we found that the index consists of three variants, differing only in the SWIR region (1.2–1.3 µm, 1.55–1.75 µm, or 2.05–2.45 µm). Thus, three terms are sufficient to represent these three SWIR variants; other names are redundant and therefore unnecessary. Considering the spectral representativeness, the term’s popularity, and the “rule of priority” in scientific nomenclature, NDWI, NDII, and NBR, each corresponding to the three SWIR regions, are more preferable terms.

Ji, Lel; Zhang, Li; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rover, Jennifer

2011-01-01

55

A special vegetation index for the weed detection in sensor based precision agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many technologies in precision agriculture (PA) require image analysis and image- processing with weed and background differentiations. The detection of weeds on mulched cropland is one important image-processing task for sensor based precision herbicide applications. The article introduces a special vegetation index, the Difference Index with Red Threshold (DIRT), for the weed detection on mulched croplands. Experimental investigations in weed detection on mulched areas point out that the DIRT performs better than the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The result of the evaluation with four different decision criteria indicate, that the new DIRT gives the highest reliability in weed/background differentiation on mulched areas. While using the same spectral bands (infrared and red) as the NDVI, the new DIRT is more suitable for weed detection than the other vegetation indices and requires only a small amount of additional calculation power. The new vegetation index DIRT was tested on mulched areas during automatic ratings with a special weed camera system. The test results compare the new DIRT and three other decision criteria: the difference between infrared and red intensity (Diff), the soil-adjusted quotient between infrared and red intensity (Quotient) and the NDVI. The decision criteria were compared with the definition of a worse case decision quality parameter Q, suitable for mulched croplands. Although this new index DIRT needs further testing, the index seems to be a good decision criterion for the weed detection on mulched areas and should also be useful for other image processing applications in precision agriculture. The weed detection hardware and the PC program for the weed image processing were developed with funds from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). PMID:16917726

Langner, Hans-R; Böttger, Hartmut; Schmidt, Helmut

2006-06-01

56

Validating a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model with Remotely Sensed Vegetation Index  

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Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the ability of IBIS model to capture the difference in vegetation characteristics among six major biomes in the Northeast China Transect and to calibrate the simulated LAI by IBIS, using the product of MODIS LAI (Leaf Area Index. The results showed that IBIS simulated a little lower growing season LAI over temperate evergreen conifer forest and boreal evergreen forest, while it overestimated LAI relative to MODIS in non-growing season. IBIS performed poorly on LAI over savanna, grassland and shrub land, compared with MODIS and it nearly simulated higher LAI throughout the year. Based on regression analysis, the simulating LAI by IBIS (Integrated Biosphere Simulator presented a significant linear correlation with that from MODIS over temperate evergreen conifer forest in spring and winter, boreal evergreen forest throughout the year and grassland from summer to early autumn. Therefore, it was help to adjust the model parameters over these plant functional types to calibrate the estimated LAI in a large spatial scale.

Jiaxin Jin

2013-02-01

57

[Construction of vegetation shadow index (SVI) and application effects in four remote sensing images].  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking the images of Landsat TM, ALOS AVNIR-2, CBERS-02B CCD and HJ-1 CCD as the experimental data, for increasing the differences among shaded area, bright area and water further, the present paper construed a novel vegetation index-Shaded Vegetation Index(SVI), which can not only keep the absolute differences among bright area, shaded area and water area in the near-infrared band, but also can enlarge NDVI, eliminate the possible mixes, and change the histogram "skewed" phenomenon of NDVI, so the vegetation index value is closer to normal distribution, and more in line with the filed condition; this new index was applied to the surface features of large difference of the near-infrared radiation characteristics. Verified by accuracy assessment for the bright area, shaded area and water area recognition effects with SVI, it was showed that the overall classification accuracies of these images were up to 98. 89%, 100%, 97.78% and 97.78% respectively, with the overall Kappa statistics of 0.9833, 1, 0.9667, and 0.966 7, indicating that SVI has excellent detection effects for bright area, shaded area and water area; the statistical comparison of sub-images between SVI and NDVI also illustrated the reliability and effectiveness of SVI, which can be applied in the shadow removal for remote sensing images. PMID:24611403

Xu, Zhang-Hua; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-Yong; Liu, Tao; Gong, Cong-Hong; Tang, Meng-Ya; Xie, Wan-Jun; Li, Zeng-Lu

2013-12-01

58

Assessments of multisensor vegetation index dependencies with hyperspectral and tower flux data  

Science.gov (United States)

Long term data records require the effective integration of new sensor technologies and improved algorithms to better characterize global and climate change impacts on ecosystems, while preserving the fundamental attributes of the existing data record. In this study, we investigated key determinants in the spectral translation and extension of MODIS Vegetation Index products across current sensor systems and to the NPOESS (VIIRS) era. We used simulated sensor-specific data sets derived from hyperspectral data using field spectroroadiometers and Hyperion sensors to investigate inter-sensor translation and continuity issues of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). We also investigated the use of data fusion of satellite VI time series with in-situ flux tower time series measurements of photosynthesis, and the use of data fusion with tower-based continuous measures of broadband/hemispherical VI's as possible reference data sets for the inter-calibration of satellite VI time series from different sensor systems. Preliminary comparisons are presented with actual satellite VI measurements from SPOT-VEGETATION, Terra- and Aqua-MODIS, and AVHRR sensors. We found that with a consistent atmosphere correction scheme and a generalized compositing procedure, translation of multi-sensor datasets can be achieved with certain limitations.

Huete, Alfredo R.; Miura, Tomoaki; Kim, Youngwook; Didan, Kamel; Privette, Jeffrey

2006-08-01

59

[Inversion of leaf area index during different growth stages in winter wheat].  

Science.gov (United States)

Being orientated to the low prescion of crop leaf area index (LAI) inversion using the same spectral vegetation index during different crop growth stages, the present paper analyzed the precision of LAI inversion by employing NDVI(normalized difference vegetation index). Ten vegetation indices were chosen including six broad-band vegetation indices and four narrow-band vegetation indices responding to vegetation cover to inverse LAI in different growth stages. Several conclusions were drawn according to the analysis. The determinant coefficient (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) between LAI inversion value and true value were 0.5585 and 0.3209 respectively during the whole growth duraton. The mSR (modified simple ratio index) index was appropriate to inverse of LAI during earlier growth stages (before jointing stage) in winter wheat. The R2 and RMSE between LAI inversion value and true value were 0.7287 and 0.2971 respectively. The SR (simple ratio index) index was suitable enough to inverse of LAI during medium growth stages (from joingting stagess to heading stages). The R2 and RMSE between LAI inversion value and true value were 0.6546 and 0.3061 respectively. The NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) index was proven to be fine to inverse LAI during later growth stages(from heading stage to ripening stage). The R2 and RMSE between LAI inversion value and true value were 0.6794 and 0.3164 respectively. Therefore it was indicated that the results of LAI inversion was much better inverse of winter wheat LAI choosing different vegetation indices during differen growth stages for winter wheat according to the change of vegetation cover and canopy reflectance than merely with NDVI to inverse LAI in the whole growth stages. It was concluded that the precision of LAI inversion was significantly improved with segmented models based on different vegetation indices. PMID:24369669

Zhao, Juan; Huang, Wen-jiang; Zhang, Yao-hong; Jing, Yuan-shu

2013-09-01

60

[The study of LAI estimation using a new vegetation index based on CHRIS data].  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of vegetation canopy, the correct estimation of which has been the focus in the remote sensing community. As a kind of hyperspectral and multi-angle remote sensing data with higher resolution (17 m), PROBA/CHRIS has significant application value in LAI inversion. In the present paper, the analytical two-layer canopy reflectance model (ACRM) was used to simulate a series of reflectances with different LAI values. Based on this, a new vegetation index was built and successfully applied to LAI inversion of PROBA/CHRIS image data. Our results indicated that: compared with the spectral index NDVI and multi-angle index HDS, the new index could make better use of spectrum and multi-angle messages and have a better correlation with LAI of the study area; moreover, the correlation coefficient R2 reached up to 0.734 7. And in order to obtain the figure of LAI distribution of the study area, we used the optimal fit equation between LAI and HDVI to estimate LAI, and the accuracy of the RMSE was 0.619 8. PMID:23841433

Wang, Li-Juan; Niu, Zheng; Hou, Xue-Hui; Gao, Shuai

2013-04-01

61

Estimation of Air Temperature Using Temperature-Vegetation Index (TVX Method  

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Full Text Available The determination of air temperature is important in the energy balance calculation, hydrology and meteorological studies. In this regard, the limited number of meteorological stations is one of the serious problems for air temperature determination on a large spatial scale. The remote sensing technique by covering large areas and using updated satellite images might be appropriate for estimation of this parameter. In this research, the negative correlation between land surface temperature and vegetation index (NDVI has been used for air temperature estimation through TVX method in which the inference of air temperature is based on the hypothesis that the temperature of the dense vegetation canopy is close to air temperature. For investigation the performance of TVX method, images of MODIS sensor have been applied for the Sefidrod River basin in the years 1381- 1382-1384. The spilt window technique which was developed by Price has been used for land surface temperature calculation. The mean difference between observed and estimated land surface temperature using Price algorithm was about 6.2Co. This error can affect the air temperature values. Because of using NDVI index in TVX method, this method has the sensitivity to the vegetation density, though in the parts with sparse vegetation, the value of error increases. 4 percent variation of air temperature against the 0.05 increasing of maximum NDVI indicates the high performance of TVX method for air temperature estimation in large areas.

L. Parviz

2011-07-01

62

Sensitivity of leaf chlorophyll concentration of a broad-ban vegetation index at the canopy scale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development from a field spectrometric experiment of the chlorophyll vegetation index (CVI), a broad-band 6. sensitive to leaf chlorophyll concentration at the canopy scale, and of its optimized version (OCVI) are described. A single correction factor is incorporated in the OCVI algorithm to take into account the different spectral behaviours due to crop and soil types, sensor spectral resolution and scene sun zenith angle. The sensitivity of different broad-band 6., including CVI, to leaf cholophyll concentration is compared for a wide range of soils and crops conditions and for different sun zenith angles by the analysis of a PROSPECT+SAILH syntetic dataset

63

Vegetation Index Differencing for Broad-Scale Assessment of Productivity Under Prolonged Drought and Sequential High Rainfall Conditions  

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Full Text Available Spatially-explicit depictions of plant productivity over large areas are critical to monitoring landscapes in highly heterogeneous arid ecosystems. Applying radiometric change detection techniques we sought to determine whether: (1 differences between pre- and post-growing season spectral vegetation index values effectively identify areas of significant change in vegetation; and (2 areas of significant change coincide with altered ecological states. We differenced NDVI values, standardized difference values to Z-scores to identify areas of significant increase and decrease in NDVI, and examined the ecological states associated with these areas. The vegetation index differencing method and translation of growing season NDVI to Z-scores permit examination of change over large areas and can be applied by non-experts. This method identified areas with potential for vegetation/ecological state transition and serves to guide field reconnaissance efforts that may ultimately inform land management decisions for millions of acres of federal lands.

Caitriana M. Steele

2013-01-01

64

Effects of different vegetable dust exposures1  

Science.gov (United States)

Vali?, F., and Žuškin, E. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 293-297. Effects of different vegetable dust exposures. In order to establish the rank of biological activity of vegetable dusts, five groups of non-smoking female workers exposed to similar concentrations of hemp, flax, cotton, sisal, and jute airborne dust, respectively, were compared as to the prevalence of byssinosis, chronic respiratory symptoms, and one-second expiratory volume changes over the Monday shift. The groups were selected in such a way as to differ in the distribution of age and length of exposure to the respective dust as little as possible. The prevalence of byssinosis in hemp and flax workers was approximately equal (44% and 43% respectively), in cotton workers it was considerably lower (27%), while no byssinosis was caused by either sisal or jute dust. The highest prevalence of other chronic respiratory symptoms was recorded in hemp workers (39%), followed by flax (36%) and cotton workers (27%), while in sisal (13%) and jute workers (13%) it was the lowest. Significant mean FEV1·0 reductions over the shift were recorded in all the groups of textile workers with the largest reductions in hemp workers (19%) followed by flax (11%), cotton (8%), sisal (7%), and jute workers (5%). The application of orciprenaline before the shift diminished the mean acute FEV1·0 falls over the work shift in all the groups studied. PMID:5044600

Vali?, F.; Žuškin, E.

1972-01-01

65

Analyzing Vegetation Change in an Elephant-Impacted Landscape Using the Moving Standard Deviation Index  

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Full Text Available Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for assessing impacts of livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. At broad scales, MSDI values are positively related to elephant utilization. At finer scales, using data from 257 sites along the riverfront, MSDI values show a consistent negative relationship with intensity of elephant utilization. We suggest that these differences are due to varying effects of elephants across scales. Elephant utilization of vegetation may increase heterogeneity across the landscape, but decrease it within heavily used patches, resulting in the observed MSDI pattern of divergent trends at different scales. While significant, the low explanatory power of the relationship between the MSDI and elephant utilization suggests the MSDI may have limited use for regional monitoring of elephant impacts.

Timothy J. Fullman

2014-01-01

66

Spatio-temporal patterns in vegetation start of season across the island of Ireland using the MERIS Global Vegetation Index  

Science.gov (United States)

Spring phenophases such as the beginning of leaf unfolding, measured in the Irish gardens of the International Phenological Garden (IPG) network, indicate an earlier spring occurrence hence a longer growing season. However, these measurements are limited to selected species of trees at a few point locations in the southern half of the country. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology, based on satellite remote sensing, to measure the vegetation start of season (SOS) across the whole island of Ireland on an annual basis, complementary to existing ground-based methods. The SOS metric was extracted for each year in a 7-year time series of 10-day composited, 1.2 km reduced resolution MERIS Global Vegetation Index (MGVI) data from 2003 to 2009, based on curve fitting, using the time series analysis software, TIMESAT. Spatio-temporal variability in the SOS was detected across the island on an annual basis and highlighted in a series of anomaly images showing variation from the 7-year mean SOS. The 2006 SOS was late across the island while there were strong geographical gradients to the SOS anomalies in 2009 when it occurred later in the south and earlier in the north. There was a mix of early and late anomaly values throughout the country in the other years. Qualitatively, the spatial patterns in the timing of the SOS were related to the distribution of landcover types as indicated by the CORINE Land Cover map (CLC). Three statistically separable groups of CLC classes were derived from differences in the SOS, namely agricultural and forest land cover types, peat bogs, and natural and semi-natural vegetation types. These groups demonstrated that vegetation in cultivated areas like pastures has a significantly earlier SOS than in areas of unmanaged vegetation such as peat bogs. An initial climate analysis indicated that an anomalously cold winter and spring in 2005/2006 delayed the 2006 SOS countrywide; while a cold winter followed by a mild spring in 2009 caused considerable spatial variability in the 2009 SOS across the country, ranging from later SOS in the south to early SOS in the north. This study has demonstrated the utility of 10-day MGVI composites for derivation of an SOS metric which can be used as an indicator of spatial variability in vegetation seasonality and has highlighted how SOS varies according to landcover type. The availability of longer time series in the future will allow more focused studies on the sensitivity of the SOS metric to changes in climate as well as short term weather events.

O'Connor, Brian; Dwyer, Edward; Cawkwell, Fiona; Eklundh, Lars

2012-03-01

67

A Novel Moisture Adjusted Vegetation Index (MAVI) to Reduce Background Reflectance and Topographical Effects on LAI Retrieval  

OpenAIRE

A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests s...

Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J. M.; Liu, Yibo

2014-01-01

68

Vegetation index correction to reduce background effects in orchards with high spatial resolution imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

High spatial resolution satellite imagery provides an alternative for time consuming and labor intensive in situ measurements of biophysical variables, such as chlorophyll and water content. However, despite the high spatial resolution of current satellite sensors, mixtures of canopies and backgrounds will be present, hampering the estimation of biophysical variables. Traditional correction methodologies use spectral differences between canopies and backgrounds, but fail with spectrally similar canopies and backgrounds. In this study, the lack of a generic solution to reduce background effects is tackled. Through synthetic imagery, the mixture problem was demonstrated with regards to the estimation of biophysical variables. A correction method was proposed, rescaling vegetation indices based on the canopy cover fraction. Furthermore, the proposed method was compared to traditional background correction methodologies (i.e. soil-adjusted vegetation indices and signal unmixing) for different background scenarios. The results of a soil background scenario showed the inability of soil-adjusted vegetation indices to reduce background admixture effects, while signal unmixing and the proposed method removed background influences for chlorophyll (?R2 = ~0.3; ?RMSE = ~1.6 ?g/cm2) and water (?R2 = ~0.3; ?RMSE = ~0.5 mg/cm2) related vegetation indices. For the weed background scenario, signal unmixing was unable to remove the background influences for chlorophyll content (?R2 = -0.1; ?RMSE = -0.6 ?g/cm 2 ), while the proposed correction method reduced background effects (?R2= 0.1; ?RMSE = 0.4 ?g/cm2). Overall, the proposed vegetation index correction method reduced the background influence irrespective of background type, making useful comparison between management blocks possible.

Van Beek, Jonathan; Tits, Laurent; Somers, Ben; Deckers, Tom; Janssens, Pieter; Coppin, Pol

2014-10-01

69

A near infrared vegetation index formed with airborne multispectral scanner data  

Science.gov (United States)

A near infrared vegetation index (NIVI) has been formed with the 1.24 and 1.65 micron bands on the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator. The NIVI was compared to the more traditional Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI) formed with the 0.66 and 0.83 micron bands. The PVI was found to be less susceptible to problems with rock and soil spectral variations than the VIVI.

Elvidge, Christopher D.; Rock, Barrett N.

1987-01-01

70

The Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI): A new integrated approach for monitoring drought stress in vegetation  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of new tools that provide timely, detailed-spatial-resolution drought information is essential for improving drought preparedness and response. This paper presents a new method for monitoring drought-induced vegetation stress called the Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI). VegDRI integrates traditional climate-based drought indicators and satellite-derived vegetation index metrics with other biophysical information to produce a I km map of drought conditions that can be produced in near-real time. The initial VegDRI map results for a 2002 case study conducted across seven states in the north-central United States illustrates the utility of VegDRI for improved large-area drought monitoring. Copyright ?? 2008 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

Brown, J.F.; Wardlow, B.D.; Tadesse, T.; Hayes, M.J.; Reed, B.C.

2008-01-01

71

Experimental testing of a volume index as a fast method for estimating carbon stock in the understorey vegetation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biomass of understory vegetation has an important role in several forest ecosystem processes, though it is not frequently included in forest inventory programs, which are commonly focused on the tree component. The objective of the study is to test a fast procedure for obtaining an accurate estimation of three components of the aboveground understory vegetation: herbaceous, bush, regeneration. For such a purpose a Volume Index has been calculated on the basis of the product between the percent coverage of vegetation and the average height of the three different components of understory vegetation. The index has been quantified in twenty clusters of four squared plots 1 m2 wide; clusters were located in two study areas in the northern part of Molise Region (southeastern Italy. For each plot, the dry biomass has been collected and weighted, and then transformed in carbon stock. This study presents the field protocol and the achieved results in terms of measured aboveground understorey carbon stock in six different forest and pre-forest types (the average carbon stock was 1.19 t C ha-1 and correlation between Volume Index and carbon stock (the Pearson’s correlation index was 0.8 on 309 field observations.

Chirici G

2009-05-01

72

Monitoring Thermal Status of Ecosystems with MODIS Land-Surface Temperature and Vegetation Index Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The global land-surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products retrieved from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data in 2001 were used in this study. The yearly peak values of NDVI data at 5km grids were used to define six NDVI peak zones from -0.2 to 1 in steps of 0.2, and the monthly NDVI values at each grid were sorted in decreasing order, resulting in 12 layers of NDVI images for each of the NDVI peak zones. The mean and standard deviation of daytime LSTs and day-night LST differences at the grids corresponding to the first layer of NDVI images characterize the thermal status of terrestrial ecosystems in the NDVI peak zones. For the ecosystems in the 0.8-1 NDVI peak zone, daytime LSTs distribute from 0-35 C and day-night LST differences distribute from -2 to 22 C. The daytime LSTs and day-night LST differences corresponding to the remaining layers of NDVI images show that the growth of vegetation is limited at low and high LSTs. LSTs and NDVI may be used to monitor photosynthetic activity and drought, as shown in their applications to a flood-irrigated grassland in California and an unirrigated grassland in Nevada.

Wan, Zhengming

2002-01-01

73

Estimating Riparian and Agricultural Actual Evapotranspiration by Reference Evapotranspiration and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dryland river basins frequently support both irrigated agriculture and riparian vegetation and remote sensing methods are needed to monitor water use by both crops and natural vegetation in irrigation districts. We developed an algorithm for estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS sensor on the EOS-1 Terra satellite and locally-derived measurements of reference crop ET (ETo. The algorithm was calibrated with five years of ETa data from three eddy covariance flux towers set in riparian plant associations on the upper San Pedro River, Arizona, supplemented with ETa data for alfalfa and cotton from the literature. The algorithm was based on an equation of the form ETa = ETo [a(1 ? e?bEVI ? c], where the term (1 ? e?bEVI is derived from the Beer-Lambert Law to express light absorption by a canopy, with EVI replacing leaf area index as an estimate of the density of light-absorbing units. The resulting algorithm capably predicted ETa across riparian plants and crops (r2 = 0.73. It was then tested against water balance data for five irrigation districts and flux tower data for two riparian zones for which season-long or multi-year ETa data were available. Predictions were within 10% of measured results in each case, with a non-significant (P = 0.89 difference between mean measured and modeled ETa of 5.4% over all validation sites. Validation and calibration data sets were combined to present a final predictive equation for application across crops and riparian plant associations for monitoring individual irrigation districts or for conducting global water use assessments of mixed agricultural and riparian biomes.

Russell L. Scott

2013-08-01

74

Testing Shelter Index and a Simple Wind Speed Parameter to Characterize Vegetation Control of Sand Transport Threshold and Flux  

Science.gov (United States)

Wind erosion and dust emissions occur in the Chihuahuan Desert surrounding Las Cruces NM from a range of surfaces with different types and amounts of vegetation. Understanding how vegetation modulates these processes remains a research challenge. One important aspect of research is to develop a relationship between a descriptor of the surface roughness that can be used to provide an indication of how susceptible the sediment transport system is to activation by wind. Here we present results from a study that examines the relationship between an index of shelter (distance from a point to the nearest upwind vegetation/vegetation height), as originally proposed by Okin (2008), and particle threshold expressed as a ratio of wind measured at 0.45 times the plant height divided by the wind speed at 17 m, and saltation flux (g cm-2 s-1). Saltation flux was measured using sediment traps positioned 15 cm above the surface and nearby optical gate sensors (Wenglor® model YH03PCT8)measuring saltation activity also placed at a height of 15 cm. The results are used to evaluate shelter index as a parameter to characterize the local winds as influenced by the vegetation and sediment transport conditions (threshold and transport). Wind speed, wind direction, saltation activity and point saltation flux were measured at 35 locations in defined test areas (~13,000 m2) in three vegetation communities: mature mesquite covered nebkha dunes, incipient nebkha dunes dominated by low mesquite plants, and a mature creosote bush area. Measurement positions represent the most open areas, and hence those places most susceptible to wind erosion among the vegetation elements. Shelter index was calculated for each measurement position for each approximately 10 degree wind direction bin using digital elevation models for each site acquired using terrestrial laser scanning.

Gillies, John; Nield, Joanna; Nickling, William; Furtak-Cole, Eden

2013-04-01

75

[Assessment of chlorophyll content using a new vegetation index based on multi-angular hyperspectral image data].  

Science.gov (United States)

The fast estimation of chlorophyll content is significant for understanding the crops growth, monitoring the disease and insect, and assessing the yield of crops. This study gets the hyperspectral imagery data by using a self-developed multi-angular acquisition system during the different maize growth period, the reflectance of maize canopy was extracted accurately from the hyperspectral images under different view angles in the principal plane. The hot-dark-spot index (HDS) of red waveband was calculated through the analysis of simulated values by ACRM model and measured values, then this index was used to modify the vegetation index (TCARI), thus a new vegetation index (HD-TCARI) based on the multi-angular observation was proposed. Finally, the multi-angular hyperspectral imagery data was used to validate the vegetation indexes. The result showed that HD-TCARI could effectively reduce the LAI effects on the assessment of chlorophyll content. When the chlorophyll content was greater than 30 ?g x cm(-2), the correlation (R2) between HD-TCARI and LAI was only 26.88%-28.72%. In addition, the HD-TCARI could resist the saturation of vegetation index during the assessment of high chlorophyll content. When the LAI varled from 1 to 6, the linear relation between HD-TCARI and chlorophyll content could be improved by 9% compared with TCARI. The ground validation of HD-TCARI by multi-angular hyperspectral image showed that the linear relation between HD-TCARI and chlorophyll content (R2 = 66.74%) was better than the TCARI (R2 = 39.92%), which indicated that HD-TCARI has good potentials for estimating the chlorophyll content. PMID:25358171

Liao, Qin-hong; Zhang, Dong-yan; Wang, Ji-hua; Yang, Gui-jun; Yang, Hao; Coburn, Craig; Wong, Zhijie; Wang, Da-cheng

2014-06-01

76

Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus and vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris, were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables. The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3 and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3 is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.

Teruel Bárbara

2004-01-01

77

Local Illumination Influence on Vegetation Indices and Plant Area Index (PAI Relationships  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relationships between biophysical parameters and radiometric data have been tested and evaluated by several professionals using empirical and/or physical approaches. Remote sensing data collected from airborne or orbital platforms are, of course, influenced by different factors, such as illumination/observation geometry (data collection geometry, atmospheric effects, etc., rather than by target spectral properties. Besides that, the target topographic positioning actually defines the amount of incident energy, as well as the amount of energy that is reflected toward the sensor. The sum of both data collection geometry and topographic positioning defines the so-called “local illumination”. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the influence of local illumination on empirical relationships between a biophysical variable (plant area index, PAI and two vegetation indices calculated from Resourcesat/Linear Imaging Self-Scanner sensor (LISS-3 orbital data. Local illumination was expressed by the cosine factor (Fcos and calculated from topographic and solar position data at three different dates. The study area was based on a typical Brazilian southeastern forest fragment located in the Augusto Ruschi municipal preservation park dispersed on roughhouse topography. PAI was estimated by hemispherical photographs taken under the forest canopy from sample points arbitrarily dispersed on the forest fragment. Results confirmed a stronger relationship between vegetation indices and local illumination conditions.

Flávio Jorge Ponzoni

2014-07-01

78

A method for an accurate in-flight calibration of AVHRR data for vegetation index calculation  

OpenAIRE

A significant degradation in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) responsitivity, on the NOAA satellite series, has occurred since the prelaunch calibration and with time since launch. This affects the index vegetation (NDVI), which is an important source of information for monitoring vegetation conditions on regional and global scales. Many studies have been carried out which use the Viewing Earth calibration approach in order to provide accurate calibration correction coeffi...

Asmami, Mbarek; Wald, Lucien

1992-01-01

79

Biobased polyurethanes prepared from different vegetable oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a series of biobased polyols were prepared from olive, canola, grape seed, linseed, and castor oil using a novel, solvent/catalyst-free synthetic method. The biobased triglyceride oils were first oxidized into epoxidized vegetable oils with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by ring-opening reaction with castor oil fatty acid. The molecular structures of the polyols and the resulting polyurethane were characterized. The effects of cross-linking density and the structures of polyols on the thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties of the polyurethanes were also investigated. PMID:25541678

Zhang, Chaoqun; Madbouly, Samy A; Kessler, Michael R

2015-01-21

80

Relationship between the Growing Season Maximum Enhanced Vegetation Index and Climatic Factors on the Tibetan Plateau  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Temperature and water conditions affect vegetation growth dynamics and associated spectral measures. We examined the response of the growing season maximum enhanced vegetation index (MEVI to the growing season temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure and relative humidity on the Tibetan Plateau. The responses of the MEVI to climatic factors changed with the vegetation type, which may be attributed to the finding that the background values and climatic factor changes varied with the type of vegetation. The spatially averaged MEVI over the entire plateau exhibited a non-significant decreasing trend. Approximately 5% and 12% of the vegetation area exhibited significant MEVI decreasing and increasing trends, respectively. Both vapor pressure and relative humidity significantly affected the MEVI, whereas the temperature and precipitation did not significantly correlate with the MEVI over the entire plateau. Specifically, the environmental humidity dominated the MEVI variation over the entire plateau.

Zhenxi Shen

2014-07-01

81

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REDNESS INDEX OF SOIL AND CARBON STOCK OF AERIAL BIOMASS IN CERRADO VEGETATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812362The color variety of soil is response of its physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical composition. The Munsell color system is based on an objective color evaluation in which it is possible to evaluate different color soil factors such as the presence of iron oxides, particle size, and accumulated organic material. The objective of this study was to identify the relation between the redness index (IAV of soil and the amount of carbon content present in the aerial part of Cerrado vegetation. The study was conducted in seven cities in western Bahia state, in native areas of Cerrado. The determination o soil color was made in the field, with moist soil samples, using the Munsell color chart. From the evaluation of hue, value and chroma, the redness index (IAV was calculated. The estimation of carbon stock above ground was carried out from: trunk and branches, both living and dead trees by the allometric equation developed in Cerrado areas. The redness index of soil, from the layer 0.00 to 0.20 m, has a significant and directly proportional relationship with the carbon stock of above ground biomass of Cerrado vegetation. This may be extrapolated to calculate the carbon stock (EC by the redness index (IAV of soil by the equation [EC = 0.4936 · IAV + 4.2286 (-1.5%]. The practicality of sampling of data by IAV with Munsell chart, and the reliability of data fit by results of residual error less than 5%, make that this relationship may be used for academic and corporative in carbon stocks estimation for use in forest and environmental management. The EC variation between the studied physiognomies is mainly by distinct density of tree individuals per hectare. The variation of IAV in studied areas is due to the accumulated organic matter on the soil surface, the mineral content and drainage capacity, according to inferences of literature, and this reflecting the different colors of soil in the studied phytophysiognomies.

Otacilio Antunes Santana

2013-12-01

82

Monitoring responses of Mason Pine to acid rain in China based on remote sensing vegetation index  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the 1970s, acid rain has remained in the public spotlight in both Europe and the United States and recently has emerged as an important problem in other regions such as Southeast Asia. To reveal responses of Masson Pine to acid rain during a long time series in central China, we used the interpolation dataset of acid rain and the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data to derive the monthly pH and NDVI trajectories based on acidity gradients from 1992 to 2006. Then we analyzed inter-annual and seasonal variation of vegetation growth by improved sinusoidal fitting and regression analysis. In the environment of strong acidity and moderate acidity, the growth of Masson Pine was inhibited during the study period, while the slight acidity promoted growth of Masson Pine to some extent. For the multi-year monthly changing trend of NDVI, late spring to mid autumn, the NDVI showed a decreasing trend, especially in June, while from late autumn to the following spring, the NDVI showed a rising tendency, specifically in December and March.

Jin, Jiaxin; Jiang, Hong; Hou, Chunliang; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Ying

2014-03-01

83

Remote sensing of Japanese beech forest decline using an improved Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (iTVDI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Tanzawa Mountains, which cover parts of Kanagawa, Yamanashi and Shizuoka prefectures in Japan, are known for their natural beech forests. Since the 1980s, decline of the beech forests, probably caused by air pollution, water stress and insect infestation, has become a serious problem. We estimated the natural beech forest mortality rate in the mountains by using multi-temporal 8-day composite data recorded at the MODIS instrument aboard the Terra satellite, daily air temperature data at meteorological stations (AMeDAS in 2007, and a global digital elevation model obtained from ASTER aboard the Terra satellite. For the estimation, we used a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI indicating the vegetation density, a Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI, and an improved TVDI (iTVDI indicating the differences in transpiration rates between areas of similar vegetation density. We compared the NDVI, TVDI, and iTVDI maps with an existing mortality map of beech forests in the study area to verify their accuracy. To produce iTVDI maps, we calculated maps of air temperature by using ambient air temperature and elevation data. By interpolation using an environmental lapse rate, we calibrated air temperature maps with good accuracy (RMSE = 0.49 °C. The iTVDI map could detect mortality more accurately than the NDVI and TVDI maps in both spring and summer. Use of iTVDI enabled us to detect forest decline caused by air pollution and water deficits, inducing a reduction in transpiration rates. This index should be useful for monitoring vegetation decline.

Ishimura A

2011-11-01

84

Spatiotemporal analysis of vegetation index after typhoons in the mountainous watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

An extensive land cover change was triggered by a series of typhoons, especially Typhoon Morakot in 2009 in Taiwan. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) series from multiple satellite images were applied to monitor the change processes of land cover. This study applied spatiotemporal analysis tools, including empirical orthogonal functions (EOF), and multiple variograms in analyzing space-time NDVI data, and detected the effects of large chronological disturbances in the characteristics of land cover changes. Spatiotemporal analysis delineated the temporal patterns and spatial variability of NDVI caused by these large typhoons. Results showed that mean of NDVI decreased but spatial variablity of NDVI increased after typhoons in the study area. The EOF can clarify the major component of NDVI variations and identify the core area of the NDVI changes. Various approaches showed consistent results that Typhoon Morakot significantly lowered the NDVI in land cover change process. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal analysis is an effective monitoring tool, which advocates the use of the index for the quantification of land cover change and resilience.

Chu, Hone-Jay

2014-05-01

85

Wheat Yield Forecasting for Punjab Province from Vegetation Index Time Series and Historic Crop Statistics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Policy makers, government planners and agricultural market participants in Pakistan require accurate and timely information about wheat yield and production. Punjab Province is by far the most important wheat producing region in the country. The manual collection of field data and data processing for crop forecasting by the provincial government requires significant amounts of time before official reports can be released. Several studies have shown that wheat yield can be effectively forecast using satellite remote sensing data. In this study, we developed a methodology for estimating wheat yield and area for Punjab Province from freely available Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery approximately six weeks before harvest. Wheat yield was derived by regressing reported yield values against time series of four different peak-season MODIS-derived vegetation indices. We also tested deriving wheat area from the same MODIS time series using a regression-tree approach. Among the four evaluated indices, WDRVI provided more consistent and accurate yield forecasts compared to NDVI, EVI2 and saturation-adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (SANDVI. The lowest RMSE values at the district level for forecast versus reported yield were found when using six or more years of training data. Forecast yield for the 2007/2008 to 2012/2013 growing seasons were within 0.2% and 11.5% of final reported values. Absolute deviations of wheat area and production forecasts from reported values were slightly greater compared to using the previous year's or the three- or six-year moving average values, implying that 250-m MODIS data does not provide sufficient spatial resolution for providing improved wheat area and production forecasts.

Jan Dempewolf

2014-10-01

86

Cultivar discrimination at different site elevations with remotely sensed vegetation indices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study are (i to evaluate vegetation indices sensitivity to discriminate between two different cultivars; (ii to determine the effects of site elevation and developmental stages on cultivar discrimination. The experiment was carried out for the growing season 2007/08 at “Agro di Pesche” (Central Italy, Molise region. Four experimental fields were located at different elevation ranging between 590 m to 922 m above the sea level (asl. For each field, two potato (Soluanum Tuberosum L. cultivars were used. Leaf area was collected through non-destructive measurements, and a hand-held spectroradiometer was used to measure the reflected light from the canopy of the two cultivars. Results from the ANOVA show that the ratio between MCARI (Modified Chlorophyll Absorption Ratio Index and OSAVI (Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, NDRE (Normalized Difference Red Edge and MCARI were able to discriminate among cultivars at different site elevations. NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was not able to discriminate the two cultivars because of the influence of soil reflectance and leaves distribution.

Bruno Basso

87

METHANOL TRANSESTERIFICATION OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS  

OpenAIRE

The result of the investigation on methyl esters obtained on the basis of used sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil are given in this paper. Transesterification reaction conditions that affect yield and purity of the product esters including oil quality, type and concentration of catalyst, temperature and reaction time were examined. Methanol esterification of different oils at 60 0C with 1-10 % (v/v) sodium met-oxide was studied. With appropriate percent of sodium met-oxide, temperatu...

Slavi Kunev Ivanov; Yanko Kirov Dimitrov; Petko Stoyanov Petkov; Dobromir Ivanov Jordanov

2007-01-01

88

METHANOL TRANSESTERIFICATION OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The result of the investigation on methyl esters obtained on the basis of used sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil are given in this paper. Transesterification reaction conditions that affect yield and purity of the product esters including oil quality, type and concentration of catalyst, temperature and reaction time were examined. Methanol esterification of different oils at 60 0C with 1-10 % (v/v sodium met-oxide was studied. With appropriate percent of sodium met-oxide, temperature 60 0C and 1 hour, all investigated oils were sufficiently transesterified and could be used as fuel in diesel engines.

Slavi Kunev Ivanov

2007-06-01

89

A comparison of two different approaches for mapping potential ozone damage to vegetation. A model study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two very different types of approaches are currently in use today for indicating risk of ozone damage to vegetation in Europe. One approach is the so-called AOTX (accumulated exposure over threshold of X ppb) index, which is based upon ozone concentrations only. The second type of approach entails an estimate of the amount of ozone entering via the stomates of vegetation, the AFstY approach (accumulated stomatal flux over threshold of Y nmol m-2 s-1). The EMEP chemical transport model is used to map these different indicators of ozone damage across Europe, for two illustrative vegetation types, wheat and beech forests. The results show that exceedences of critical levels for either type of indicator are widespread, but that the indicators give very different spatial patterns across Europe. Model simulations for year 2020 scenarios suggest reductions in risks of vegetation damage whichever indicator is used, but suggest that AOT40 is much more sensitive to emission control than AFstY values. - Model calculations of AOT40 and AFstY show very different spatial variations in the risks of ozone damage to vegetation

90

Calibration of a Species-Specific Spectral Vegetation Index for Leaf Area Index (LAI) Monitoring: Example with MODIS Reflectance Time-Series on Eucalyptus Plantations  

OpenAIRE

The leaf area index (LAI) is a key characteristic of forest ecosystems. Estimations of LAI from satellite images generally rely on spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) or radiative transfer model (RTM) inversions. We have developed a new and precise method suitable for practical application, consisting of building a species-specific SVI that is best-suited to both sensor and vegetation characteristics. Such an SVI requires calibration on a large number of representative vegetation conditions. W...

Guerric le Maire; Claire Marsden; Yann Nouvellon; José-Luiz Stape; Flávio Jorge Ponzoni

2012-01-01

91

Comparison of the prevalence index and average wetland values for identification of wetland vegetation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States); Hackney, C.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)

1992-07-01

92

Comparison of the prevalence index and average wetland values for identification of wetland vegetation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prevalence index values (FICWD, 1989) and average wetland values for all species present were compared for three wetland gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) and adjacent natural areas. The similarities in results using these two indicator values suggest that an average wetland value may offer a simpler, less time-consuming method of evaluating the vegetation of a study site as an indication of wetness. Both PIVs and AWVs, are presented for the ROWs and the adjacent natural area at each site.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.M.; Gowdy, M.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States)); Hackney, C.T. (North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States))

1992-01-01

93

Methane emissions in Danish riparian wetlands : Ecosystem comparison and pursuit of vegetation indexes as predictive tools  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating the spatial and temporal variability in the fluxes. Fluxes of CH4 were monitored in 12 wetland plots over a year using static chambers, yielding a dataset with more than 800 measured fluxes of CH4. Yearly emissions of CH4 ranged from ?0.2 to 38.3 g CH4-C m?2 year?1, and significant effects of groundwater level, soil temperature (10 cm depth), peat depth, sulfate, nitrate, and soil carbon content were found. Two methods based on easily available environmental parameters to estimate yearly CH4 emissions from riparian wetlands are presented. The first uses a generalized linear model (GLM) to predict yearly CH4 emissions based on the humidity preference of vegetation (Ellenberg-F), peat depth and degree of humification of the peat (von Post index). The second method relies solely on plant species composition and uses weighted-average regression and calibration to link the vegetation assemblage to yearly CH4 emission. Both models gave reliable predictions of the yearly CH4 fluxes in riparian wetlands (modeling efficiency > 0.35). Our findings support the use of vegetation, possibly in combination with some soil parameters such as peat depth, as indicator of CH4 emission in wetlands.

Audet, Joachim; Johansen, Jan Ravn

2013-01-01

94

Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Arctic is experiencing disproportionate warming relative to the global average, and the Arctic ecosystems are as a result undergoing considerable changes. Continued monitoring of ecosystem productivity and phenology across temporal and spatial scales is a central part of assessing the magnitude of these changes. This study investigates the ability to use automatic digital camera images (DCIs) as proxy data for gross primary production (GPP) in a complex low Arctic wetland site. Vegetation greenness computed from DCIs was found to correlate significantly (R2 = 0.62, p < 0.001) with a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) product derived from the WorldView-2 satellite. An object-based classification based on a bi-temporal image composite was used to classify the study area into heath, copse, fen, and bedrock. Temporal evolution of vegetation greenness was evaluated and modeled with double sigmoid functions for each plant community. GPP at light saturation modeled from eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements were found to correlate significantly with vegetation greenness for all plant communities in the studied year (i.e., 2010), and the highest correlation was found between modeled fen greenness and GPP (R2 = 0.85, p < 0.001). Finally, greenness computed within modeled EC footprints were used to evaluate the influence of individual plant communities on the flux measurements. The study concludes that digital cameras may be used as a cost-effective proxy for potential GPP in remote Arctic regions.

Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus

2013-01-01

95

Assessment of RapidEye vegetation indices for estimation of leaf area index and biomass in corn and soybean crops  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf area index (LAI) and biomass are important indicators of crop development and the availability of this information during the growing season can support farmer decision making processes. This study demonstrates the applicability of RapidEye multi-spectral data for estimation of LAI and biomass of two crop types (corn and soybean) with different canopy structure, leaf structure and photosynthetic pathways. The advantages of Rapid Eye in terms of increased temporal resolution (?daily), high spatial resolution (?5 m) and enhanced spectral information (includes red-edge band) are explored as an individual sensor and as part of a multi-sensor constellation. Seven vegetation indices based on combinations of reflectance in green, red, red-edge and near infrared bands were derived from RapidEye imagery between 2011 and 2013. LAI and biomass data were collected during the same period for calibration and validation of the relationships between vegetation indices and LAI and dry above-ground biomass. Most indices showed sensitivity to LAI from emergence to 8 m2/m2. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the red-edge NDVI and the green NDVI were insensitive to crop type and had coefficients of variations (CV) ranging between 19 and 27%; and coefficients of determination ranging between 86 and 88%. The NDVI performed best for the estimation of dry leaf biomass (CV = 27% and r2 = 090) and was also insensitive to crop type. The red-edge indices did not show any significant improvement in LAI and biomass estimation over traditional multispectral indices. Cumulative vegetation indices showed strong performance for estimation of total dry above-ground biomass, especially for corn (CV ? 20%). This study demonstrated that continuous crop LAI monitoring over time and space at the field level can be achieved using a combination of RapidEye, Landsat and SPOT data and sensor-dependant best-fit functions. This approach eliminates/reduces the need for reflectance resampling, VIs inter-calibration and spatial resampling.

Kross, Angela; McNairn, Heather; Lapen, David; Sunohara, Mark; Champagne, Catherine

2015-02-01

96

Vegetation Index and Phenology ESDRs from Multiple Long Term Satellite Data Records: Toward a Sensor Independent Time Series  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in vegetation phenology depict an integrated response to change in environmental factors and provide valuable information to global change research. Typically, remote sensing of land surface phenology is based on the analysis of vegetation index time series, because of their simplicity, stability, and intrinsic resistance to noise. Most vegetation index based studies are, however, limited to using one sensor owing to the inter-sensor continuity challenges. Phenology is used for a variety of research and application topics that revolve around vegetation dynamics change in response to climate and anthropogenic factors. Consequently, the consistency and length of data records are key requirement. Meaningful change research must then merge data sources that are usually dissimilar because of differences in sensor characteristics and variable processing chains. In this NASA Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments project (NASA-MEaSUREs) we’re constructing the first Land surface phenology and vegetation index ESDRs from multiple long term satellite data records. 30+ years of AVHRR, MODIS (and eventually VIIRS) daily surface reflectance measurements will be combined into a seamless record useful for environmental and climate impact related research dealing with trends and changes from local to global scale. We developed a data fusion technique based on the homogeneous phenology cluster. This method assumes that land surface seasonality results from the response to the controls exerted by climate, soil, elevation gradient, aspect, and biological limitations. The concept of phenology cluster is very similar to the biotic life-zones used to classify ecosystems, in that regard, a phenology cluster is also a biotic zone, with similar plant species, at around the same elevation gradient, and governed by similar temperature, precipitation and radiation regimes. Inter-sensor-continuity is then modeled in each homogeneous cluster. We constructed a cluster map using elevation data, mean annual temperature and precipitation, soil maps, and a global land cover map. For each cluster we generated seasonal geometric regression models between AVHRR and MODIS daily surface reflectance. These models enable the conversion between the two records and thus the creation of a sensor independent dataset. Our initial analysis indicates an overall high degree of agreement over the full ~30 year record. However, considerable differences (30+%) existed over the tropics and high latitude regions in the vegetation index signal. A large portion of the divergence resulted from poor data quality (aerosols, clouds, etc…). Using a data reliability index technique developed for this NASA MEASURES’s project (Didan and Barreto, 2009) we eliminated most poor quality data, and after applying the cluster based geometric models the difference was reduced to less than 5%, well within current single sensor margin of error. These early results support our hypothesis that a consistent and reliable sensor independent record is achievable using our cluster based continuity method and our reliability index filtering scheme.

Didan, K.; Barreto-Munoz, A.

2009-12-01

97

Long-term vegetation monitoring for different habitats in floodplains  

OpenAIRE

A floodplain-restoration project along the Danube between Neuburg and Ingolstadt (Germany) aims to bring back water and sediment dynamic to the floodplain. The accompanied long-term monitoring has to document the changes in biodiversity related to this new dynamics. Considerations on and results of the vegetation monitoring concept are documented in this paper. In a habitat rich ecosystem like a floodplain different habitats (alluvial forest, semi-aquatic/aquatic sites) have different dema...

Lang, Petra; Schwab, Andre?; Stammel, Barbara; Ewald, Jo?rg; Kiehl, Kathrin

2014-01-01

98

Long-term vegetation monitoring for different habitats in floodplains  

OpenAIRE

A floodplain-restoration project along the Danube between Neuburg and Ingolstadt (Germany) aims to bring back water and sediment dynamic to the floodplain. The accompanied long-term monitoring has to document the changes in biodiversity related to this new dynamics. Considerations on and results of the vegetation monitoring concept are documented in this paper. In a habitat rich ecosystem like a floodplain different habitats (alluvial forest, semi-aquatic/aquatic sites) have different dema...

Lang, Petra; Schwab, Andre?; Stammel, Barbara; Ewald, Jo?rg; Kiehl, Kathrin

2013-01-01

99

Competition for water between beech seedlings and surrounding vegetation in different light and vegetation composition conditions  

OpenAIRE

- To gain a better understanding of beech growth requirements and assess the competition with the surrounding vegetation at two successional stages after agricultural land abandonment, we introduced two-year-old beech seedlings (i) in a recently abandoned meadow (one half weeded) and (ii) in an old meadow colonised by 25-year-old natural Scots pine, with one part thinned to increase light availability at ground level. Beech seedlings presented significantly different stem diameter growth rate...

Coll, Lluis; Balandier, Philippe; Picon-cochard, Catherine; Pre?vosto, Bernard; Curt, Thomas

2003-01-01

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Exposure to vegetable variety in infants weaned at different ages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of different vegetable exposure methods (variety versus single taste) over a 9 day period in two groups of infants; those introduced to solids prior to the age of 5.5 months, and those introduced after 5.5 months. Sixty parent-infant dyads were recruited in South Birmingham, UK. Infants' acceptance of a novel vegetable (pea puree) was measured after a 9 day exposure period in the infants a week after they were first introduced to solid foods. During the exposure period half of each age group was given carrot every day, and the other half was given a variety pack of courgette, parsnip and sweet potato. A baseline measurement of the infants' acceptance of a vegetable (carrot) was taken prior to the exposure period. There was no difference between the groups in consumption of the baseline vegetable (carrot). There were no main effects of exposure group or age group on consumption of pea after the exposure period. There was, however, an interaction between the age of introduction and exposure group on consumption of the new vegetable (pea). In particular, infants weaned at 6 months in the single taste group ate significantly less pea puree than those in the variety group. These findings suggest that infants, who are weaned at 6 months or later, may benefit from being weaned onto a variety of tastes rapidly to ensure adequate exposure to taste. This study constitutes some of the first evidence to suggest that there may be a sensitive period for the acceptance of tastes between the ages of 4 and 6 months. PMID:24685457

Coulthard, Helen; Harris, Gillian; Fogel, Anna

2014-07-01

101

A comparison of two different approaches for mapping potential ozone damage to vegetation. A model study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two very different types of approaches are currently in use today for indicating risk of ozone damage to vegetation in Europe. One approach is the so-called AOTX (accumulated exposure over threshold of Xppb) index, which is based upon ozone concentrations only. The second type of approach entails an estimate of the amount of ozone entering via the stomates of vegetation, the AFstY approach (accumulated stomatal flux over threshold of Y nmol m(-2) s(-1)). The EMEP chemical transport model is used to map these different indicators of ozone damage across Europe, for two illustrative vegetation types, wheat and beech forests. The results show that exceedences of critical levels for either type of indicator are widespread, but that the indicators give very different spatial patterns across Europe. Model simulations for year 2020 scenarios suggest reductions in risks of vegetation damage whichever indicator is used, but suggest that AOT40 is much more sensitive to emission control than AFstY values. PMID:16762467

Simpson, D; Ashmore, M R; Emberson, L; Tuovinen, J-P

2007-04-01

102

Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest  

Science.gov (United States)

It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Chen, X.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Rollins, M.; Ohlen, D.; Key, C.H.; Yang, L.; Huang, C.; Shi, H.

2011-01-01

103

An approach to compute the C factor for universal soil loss equation using EOS-MODIS vegetation index (VI)  

Science.gov (United States)

C factor, known as cover and management factor in USLE, is one of the most important factors since it represents the combined effects of plant, soil cover and management on erosion, whereas it also most easily changed variables by men for it itself is time-variant and the uncertainty nature. So it's vital to compute C factor properly in order to model erosion effectively. In this paper we attempt to present a new method for calculating C value using Vegetation Index (VI) derived from multi-temporal MODIS imagery, which can estimate C factor in a more scientific way. Based on the theory that C factor is strongly correlated with VI, the average annual C value is estimated by adding the VI value of three growth phases within a year with different weights. Modified Fournier Index (MFI) is employed to determine the weight of each growth phase for the vegetation growth and agricultural activities are significantly influenced by precipitation. The C values generated by the proposed method were compared with that of other method, and the results showed that the results of our method is highly correlated with the others. This study is helpful to extract C value from satellite data in a scientific and efficient way, which in turn could be used to facilitate the prediction of erosion.

Li, Hui; He, Huizhong; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Lihua

2008-12-01

104

Scales of form roughness on riverbanks with different riparian vegetation  

Science.gov (United States)

Riverbanks often include topographic irregularities that occur over a range of scales and that are produced by interactions among erosional processes, vegetation, and the geotechnical properties of the banks and floodplains. Irregularity of the bank surface can increase form drag, affecting the overall flow resistance, near-bank shear stresses, and patterns of sediment transport. Understanding how dominant scales of form roughness influence the near-bank flow structure, and thus the shear stress partitioning, is vital for the development of accurate predictive morphodynamic models. In this paper, the scales of bank roughness are examined for two meander bends of a large alluvial river with differing riparian vegetation on the Wabash River near Grayville, Illinois. Detailed measurements of bank topography were obtained using terrestrial LiDAR during low flow events and a multibeam echo sounder (MBES) during bankfull events. These measurements yielded high spatial resolution maps (~5-10 cm) that were used to analyze scales of roughness at different elevations along the banks during both subaerial and subaqueous conditions. The results of these analyses provide insight into the influence of riparian vegetation on form roughness and patterns of near-bank flow structure as documented using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP).

Konsoer, K. M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Best, J.; Langendoen, E. J.; Ursic, M.; Abad, J. D.; Garcia, M. H.

2013-12-01

105

Variação do Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada na lagoa Itapeva, litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, a partir de análise de séries temporais / Variations of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the Itapeva-RS lake, north coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from temporal series analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar os padrões de comportamento espaço-temporal dos valores do Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada (NDVI) na lagoa Itapeva-RS, por meio de imagens Landsat TM5 e ETM+7, compreendendo o período de 1985 a 2010. Para a análise do comportamento espaço-temporal fo [...] ram utilizadas classes de Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada (NDVI) e Análise por Séries Temporais (TSA) de imagens. Para validação dos padrões observados foram coletadas amostras de água em seis pontos na lagoa Itapeva para clorofila_a, Totais de Sólidos Suspensos e transparência do disco Secchi. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com os valores de NDVI. Os mapas de classes de NDVI gerados após a análise da TSA evidenciaram padrões de dinâmica espaciais e sazonais associados as variáveis ambientais atuantes, permitindo o estabelecimento de três grandes compartimentos para a lagoa Itapeva: norte, centro e sul. A análise da série temporal de imagens mostra que o aumento e o decréscimo dos valores de NDVI estão associados aos períodos de floração do fitoplâncton. Concluiu-se que a análise da Série Temporal de imagens Landsat foi satisfatória no que se refere ao comportamento espaço-temporal da variação das classes de NDVI. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to analyze the pattern spatial-temporal values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Itapeva-RS lake, using Landsat TM5 and ETM + 7 images, from 1985 through 2010. For the analysis of space-temporal behavior classes was used Normalized Difference Veg [...] etation Index (NDVI) classes and Temporal Series Analysis (TSA). To validate the observed patterns were collected water samples from six points in the Itapeva Lake for clorofila_a, Total suspended solids and Secchi disk transparency. These results were correlated with NDVI values. The NDVI classes maps generated after analysis of TSA, showed dynamic patterns of seasonal and spatial associated with environmental variables that were actuating, allowing the establishment of three distinctive surfaces in Itapeva Lake: north, center and south. The Temporal Series Analysis of images shows that the increase and decrease of NDVI values are associated with periods of phytoplankton bloom. One concluded that the Temporal Series Analysis of Landsat images was satisfactory with regard to the behavior of spatial and temporal variation of NDVI classes.

Juliane Beatriz, Lissner; Laurindo Antonio, Guasselli.

2013-08-01

106

Assessing Land Degradation and Desertification Using Vegetation Index Data: Current Frameworks and Future Directions  

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Full Text Available Land degradation and desertification has been ranked as a major environmental and social issue for the coming decades. Thus, the observation and early detection of degradation is a primary objective for a number of scientific and policy organisations, with remote sensing methods being a candidate choice for the development of monitoring systems. This paper reviews the statistical and ecological frameworks of assessing land degradation and desertification using vegetation index data. The development of multi-temporal analysis as a desertification assessment technique is reviewed, with a focus on how current practice has been shaped by controversy and dispute within the literature. The statistical techniques commonly employed are examined from both a statistical as well as ecological point of view, and recommendations are made for future research directions. The scientific requirements for degradation and desertification monitoring systems identified here are: (I the validation of methodologies in a robust and comparable manner; and (II the detection of degradation at minor intensities and magnitudes. It is also established that the multi-temporal analysis of vegetation index data can provide a sophisticated measure of ecosystem health and variation, and that, over the last 30 years, considerable progress has been made in the respective research.

Thomas P. Higginbottom

2014-10-01

107

Long-term vegetation monitoring for different habitats in floodplains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A floodplain-restoration project along the Danube between Neuburg and Ingolstadt (Germany aims to bring back water and sediment dynamic to the floodplain. The accompanied long-term monitoring has to document the changes in biodiversity related to this new dynamics. Considerations on and results of the vegetation monitoring concept are documented in this paper. In a habitat rich ecosystem like a floodplain different habitats (alluvial forest, semi-aquatic/aquatic sites have different demands on the sampling methods. Therefore, different monitoring designs (preferential, random, systematic, stratified random and transect sampling are discussed and tested for their use in different habitat types of the floodplain. A stratified random sampling is chosen for the alluvial forest stands, as it guarantees an equal distribution of the monitoring plots along the main driving factors, i.e. influence of water. The parameters distance to barrage, ecological flooding, height above thalweg and distance to the new floodplain river are used for stratifying and the plots are placed randomly into these strata, resulting in 117 permanent plots. Due to small changes at the semi-aquatic/aquatic sites a transect sampling was chosen. Further, a rough stratification (channel bed, river bank adjacent floodplain was implemented, which was only possible after the start of the restoration project. To capture the small-scale changes due to the restoration measures on the vegetation, 99 additional plots completed the transect sampling. We conclude that hetereogenous study areas need different monitoring approaches, but, later on, a joint analysis must be possible.

LANG Petra

2014-03-01

108

Use of Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) in Passive Microwave Algorithms for Soil Moisture Estimates  

Science.gov (United States)

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will provide a unique opportunity for the estimation of soil moisture by having simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements available. As with the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, the soil moisture algorithms will need to account for the contribution of vegetation to the brightness temperature. Global maps of vegetation volumetric water content (VWC) are difficult to obtain, and the SMOS mission has opted to estimate the optical depth of standing vegetation by using a relationship between the VWC and the leaf area index (LAI). LAI is estimated from optical remote sensing or through soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling. During the growing season, the VWC of agricultural crops can increase rapidly, and if cloud cover exists during an optical acquisition, the estimation of LAI may be delayed, resulting in an underestimation of the VWC and overestimation of the soil moisture. Alternatively, the radar vegetation index (RVI) has shown strong correlation and linear relationship with VWC for rice and soybeans. Using the SMAP radar to produce RVI values that are coincident to brightness temperature measurements may eliminate the need for LAI estimates. The SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was a cal/val campaign for the SMAP mission held in Manitoba, Canada, during a 6-week period in June and July, 2012. During this campaign, soil moisture measurements were obtained for 55 fields with varying soil texture and vegetation cover. Vegetation was sampled from each field weekly to determine the VWC. Soil moisture measurements were taken coincident to overpasses by an aircraft carrying the Passive and Active L-band System (PALS) instrumentation. The aircraft flew flight lines at both high and low altitudes. The low altitude flight lines provided a footprint size approximately equivalent to the size of the SMAPVEX12 field sites. Of the 55 field sites, the low altitude flight lines provided measurements for 15 fields. One field was planted in corn; three were pasture; six were soybeans; three were wheat; and two were winter wheat. The average RVI for each field was determined for each PALS overpass, with sampled radar data confined to the field dimensions. A linear interpolation was conducted between measured values of VWC to estimate a daily VWC value. A linear regression was conducted between the average VWC and the RVI, for each vegetation type. A positive linear relationship was found for all crops, with the exception of pasture. The correlation between the RVI and VWC was strong for corn and pasture, but moderate for soybeans and winter wheat; however, the correlation for corn was not significant. The developed models were utilized to provide a calculated VWC which was inputted into a modified version of the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) to determine the error associated with using a calculated VWC from the RVI versus measured VWC data. The LPRM outputs for both scenarios were compared to the PALS radiometer measurements of brightness temperature.

Rowlandson, T. L.; Berg, A. A.

2013-12-01

109

[Comparison of GIMMS and MODIS normalized vegetation index composite data for Qing-Hai-Tibet Plateau].  

Science.gov (United States)

Consistent NDVI time series are basic and prerequisite in long-term monitoring of land surface properties. Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) measurements provide the longest records of continuous global satellite measurements sensitive to live green vegetation, and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) is more recent typical with high spatial and temporal resolution. Understanding the relationship between the AVHRR-derived NDVI and MODIS NDVI is critical to continued long-term monitoring of ecological resources. NDVI time series acquired by the global inventory modeling and mapping studies (GIMMS) and Terra MODIS were compared over the same time periods from 2000 to 2006 at four scales of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (whole region, sub-region, biome and pixel) to assess the level of agreement in terms of absolute values and dynamic change by independently assessing the performance of GIMMS and MODIS NDVI and using 495 Landsat samples of 20 km x20 km covering major land cover type. High correlations existed between the two datasets at the four scales, indicating their mostly equal capability of capturing seasonal and monthly phenological variations (mostly at 0. 001 significance level). Simi- larities of the two datasets differed significantly among different vegetation types. The relative low correlation coefficients and large difference of NDVI value between the two datasets were found among dense vegetation types including broadleaf forest and needleleaf forest, yet the correlations were strong and the deviations were small in more homogeneous vegetation types, such as meadow, steppe and crop. 82% of study area was characterized by strong consistency between GIMMS and MODIS NDVI at pixel scale. In the Landsat NDVI vs. GIMMS and MODIS NDVI comparison of absolute values, the MODIS NDVI performed slightly better than GIMMS NDVI, whereas in the comparison of temporal change values, the GIMMS data set performed best. Similar with comparison results of GIMMS and MODIS NDVI, the consistency across the three datasets was clearly different among various vegetation types. In dynamic changes, differences between Landsat and MODIS NDVI were smaller than Landsat NDVI vs. GIMMS NDVI for forest, but Landsat and GIMMS NDVI agreed better for grass and crop. The results suggested that spatial patterns and dynamic trends of GIMMS NDVI were found to be in overall acceptable agreement with MODIS NDVI. It might be feasible to successfully integrate historical GIMMS and more recent MODIS NDVI to provide continuity of NDVI products. The accuracy of merging AVHRR historical data recorded with more modern MODIS NDVI data strongly depends on vegetation type, season and phenological period, and spatial scale. The integration of the two datasets for needleleaf forest, broadleaf forest, and for all vegetation types in the phenological transition periods in spring and autumn should be treated with caution. PMID:24830255

Du, Jia-Qiang; Shu, Jian-Min; Wang, Yue-Hui; Li, Ying-Chang; Zhang, Lin-Bo; Guo, Yang

2014-02-01

110

Differences in the deposition of radionuclides to leafy vegetables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To quantify the variability in deposition to several species, the dry deposition of gaseous elemental radio-iodine and particulate radio-caesium on mature leafy vegetables was studied inside a deposition chamber by comparative experiments. The simultaneous exposition of endive, head lettuce, red oak leaf lettuce, curly kale, white cabbage and spinach was performed under homogeneous and controlled conditions (131 vertical stroke 2-portion, particle median, stomata opening, air humidity and temperature). Significant differences were observed for the 131 vertical stroke deposition on spring vegetables: the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times that on leaf lettuce, 4times that on endive and 9times that on head lettuce. For 134Cs, there was no significant difference between spinach and leaf lettuce, about twice the amount was deposited on both species as on endive and 3times as on head lettuce. All summer vegetables showed differences in deposition. For Iodine, the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times (6times) that on curly kale and 35times (100times) that on white cabbage in the 2 experiments. For Caesium, the deposition to curly kale was highest, about twice that on spinach and 35times (80times) that on white cabbage. The deposition was always the lowest on the closed heads of white cabbage and head lettuce. The many open stomata of spinach increased the efficiency of gaseous deposition. In addition, rough and crimpy leafs increased the particle deposition efficiency. The estimation of the deposition velocity showed that dry deposition was in average about 8times higher for 131 vertical stroke than for 134Cs. The influence of the particle size on the deposition velocity was small in the considered size range. Washing could reduce the contamination by about 10% for 131 vertical stroke and 45% for 134Cs. (orig.)

111

Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI na análise da dinâmica da vegetação da reserva biológica de Sooretama, ES Use of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI in the analysis os vegetation dynamics of the Sooretama biological reservation, ES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Técnicas de análises de séries temporais são utilizadas para caracterizar o comportamento de fenômenos naturais no domínio do tempo. Neste artigo, segundo a metodologia proposta por Box et al. (1994, 125 observações do Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI foram analisadas. Os valores modelados correspondem às variações temporais ocorridas no dossel florestal da reserva biológica de Sooretama, localizada ao Norte do Estado do Espírito Santo, no Município de Linhares. Os resultados indicaram que a metodologia foi adequada. Os resíduos do modelo ajustado são não correlacionados com distribuição normal, média zero e variância s². Com o menor valor do Critério de Informação de Akaike (AIC -570,51, o modelo ajustado foi o Sazonal Auto-Regressivo Integrado de Médias Móveis (1,0,1(1,0,112.Temporal series analysis techniques are used to characterize the behavior of natural phenomenon in time domain. In this paper, 125 Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI observations were analyzed according to the methodology proposed by Box et al.(1994. The values modeled correspond to the temporal variations that occurred in the forest canopy of the Sooretama Biological Reserve, in northern Espírito Santo, in the district of Linhares. The results indicated that such methodology was adequate. The residues of the adjusted model are not correlated with normal distribution, zero average and s² variance. At the lowest value of the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC -570. 51, the model adjusted was the Mobile Average Integrated Self-Regressive Seasonal model (1, 0, 1 (1, 0, 1-12.

André Quintão de Almeida

2008-12-01

112

Determination index of compatible vegetable species with the lines of electric power transmission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose of designing methods to clearly identify which plant species generate electrical ground discharges in energy transmission line service corridors and thus avoid the frequent pruning of all Vegetation present in the corridors this study proposes and evaluates compatibility index of plant species with transmission lines, based on six variables: maximum height, growth form, ecological group, life zone, and abundance and frequency of each species. This index was tested in 20 plots of information was collected on all vascular plans present yielding 2147 individuals belonging to 485 species and 105 families, the most discriminating variables in the model were life zone and ecological group, based upon an analysis of principal components. This index applied to the 147 fully identified species with DBH = 2,5 cm showed that Cecropia peltata and Jacaranda copaia were the most problematic species for service lines. Furthermore, a catalogue was developed containing general information and a photographic record of some of the species considered as compatible as a reference for use during maintenance work

113

Calibration of a Species-Specific Spectral Vegetation Index for Leaf Area Index (LAI Monitoring: Example with MODIS Reflectance Time-Series on Eucalyptus Plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI is a key characteristic of forest ecosystems. Estimations of LAI from satellite images generally rely on spectral vegetation indices (SVIs or radiative transfer model (RTM inversions. We have developed a new and precise method suitable for practical application, consisting of building a species-specific SVI that is best-suited to both sensor and vegetation characteristics. Such an SVI requires calibration on a large number of representative vegetation conditions. We developed a two-step approach: (1 estimation of LAI on a subset of satellite data through RTM inversion; and (2 the calibration of a vegetation index on these estimated LAI. We applied this methodology to Eucalyptus plantations which have highly variable LAI in time and space. Previous results showed that an RTM inversion of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS near-infrared and red reflectance allowed good retrieval performance (R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.41, but was computationally difficult. Here, the RTM results were used to calibrate a dedicated vegetation index (called “EucVI” which gave similar LAI retrieval results but in a simpler way. The R2 of the regression between measured and EucVI-simulated LAI values on a validation dataset was 0.68, and the RMSE was 0.49. The additional use of stand age and day of year in the SVI equation slightly increased the performance of the index (R2 = 0.77 and RMSE = 0.41. This simple index opens the way to an easily applicable retrieval of Eucalyptus LAI from MODIS data, which could be used in an operational way.

Guerric le Maire

2012-11-01

114

GREEN AREA AND VEGETATION COVER INDEXES FOR PARRAL CITY (CHILE USING PHOTOINTERPRETATION AND GIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of the green areas is increasing since they are an important factor in the health and welfare of urban population. Therefore, in Parral city, in Central Chile, it was quantified and analyzed the availability of green areas and vegetation cover, using aerial photographs scale 1:10000 and Geographic Information Systems (GIS. In a first stage, urban street trees were quantified through a simple random sample of twenty-four units with field measurements combined with measurements on aerial photographs, from which it was obtained the surface provided. Subsequently, through the  creation of GIS layers, the surface of existing green areas and available open spaces were obtained. In addition, through supervised digital classification, the surface covered by urban forestry in private spaces was calculated. Quantity indexes show that Parral city currently has 12.72 ha of green areas, equivalent to 4.82 m2/hab, which implies a green area frequency of 0.022 m2/m2. These values could be improved, if the available open space are incorporated and thereby reach 12.06 m2 per inhabitant. In relation with availability indexes it was established that the average of accessibility to a green area is 327.2 m. Moreover, assuming a buffer of 200 m around the green areas, it was determined that there are 5160 houses with the basic service (56.4%. By incorporating the available open spaces, these values decrease significantly obtaining an average of accessibility to a green area of 213.7 m and coverage of basic service of 79.2%. Finally, it was estimated that the existing vegetation within the urban blocks (urban forest in private spaces represents an important resource 17.8 times larger than urban street trees, so it should be considered within the municipal plans and policies.

Carlos Mena

2011-09-01

115

Species Composition of Termites (Isoptera in Different Cerrado Vegetation Physiognomies  

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Full Text Available Little is known about the termite fauna of the different vegetation physiognomies in the Cerrado biome. It is suggested that the species compositions in grassland and savanna areas are closely related to each other, and quite distinct from those of forests. This study compared the species composition from five different physiognomies of Cerrado, and tested the hypothesis that the termite faunas of savannas and grasslands form a distinct group from that of forests. The study was conducted in the Parque Estadual da Serra de Jaraguá, state of Goiás, Brazil. Termites were sampled from two physiognomies of savanna, one natural grassland, one pasture, and one gallery forest. A transect with 10 parcels of 5x2 m was established in each physiognomy. The relative abundance was inferred by the number of encounters, termites were classified in feeding guilds, and the dissimilarity in the species composition between the physiognomies was calculated. A total of 219 encounters, of 42 species of two families were recorded. The most abundant feeding guilds were the humivores (98 and xylophages (55. The physiognomies with the largest number of species were rupestrian cerrado (23 species and cerrado sensu stricto (21. The physiognomies had a similar species composition (less than 55% dissimilarity, mainly the natural open areas. The hypothesis of a distinct fauna of termites in forest vegetation was refuted. The termite fauna of gallery forest is very different from that of pasture, but most species also occur in natural open areas. The impact of pasture on the diversity and composition of termites seems to be significant, but the impact is even greater on the proportion of the feeding guilds, reducing the proportion of xylophages and intermediates.

Danilo Elias Oliveira

2013-07-01

116

Identification of croplands of winter cereals in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, through unsupervised classification of normalized difference vegetation index images / Identificação de áreas agrícolas cultivadas com cereais de inverno no Rio Grande do Sul por meio de classificação não supervisionada de imagens de índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor métodos para identificação de áreas agrícolas cultivadas com cereais de inverno na região norte do Rio Grande do Sul. Para isso, foi analisada a evolução do Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada (NDVI), proveniente de imagens do sensor MODIS, de abril a d [...] ezembro de 2000 a 2008. Foram elaboradas máscaras de cultivo pela subtração de imagens de mínimo NDVI (abril e maio), das de máximo NDVI (junho a outubro). Posteriormente, foi realizada a classificação não supervisionada das imagens (algoritmo Isodata), considerando as áreas pertencentes às máscaras de cultivo. As máscaras de cultivo identificaram pixels com as maiores variações de biomassa verde, associadas ou não à produção de grãos. A classificação não supervisionada gerou classes cujos perfis temporais foram condizentes com corpos d'água, pastagens e cultivos de cereais de inverno para produção de grãos e para cobertura do solo. Os perfis temporais de áreas destinadas à produção de grãos concordaram com os padrões de cultivo dos cereais de inverno na região (ciclo de desenvolvimento, manejo e épocas de semeadura). A classificação não supervisionada de áreas identificadas por máscaras de cultivo permite identificar e monitorar cultivos de cereais de inverno que se assemelham quanto à morfologia e à fenologia. Abstract in english This study aimed to propose methods to identify croplands cultivated with winter cereals in the northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Thus, temporal profiles of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS sensor, from April to December of the 2000 to 2008, were analyzed. F [...] irstly, crop masks were elaborated by subtracting the minimum NDVI image (April to May) from the maximum NDVI image (June to October). Then, an unsupervised classification of NDVI images was carried out (Isodata), considering the crop mask areas. According to the results, crop masks allowed the identification of pixels with greatest green biomass variation. This variation might be associated or not with winter cereals areas established to grain production. The unsupervised classification generated classes in which NDVI temporal profiles were associated with water bodies, pastures, winter cereals for grain production and for soil cover. Temporal NDVI profiles of the class winter cereals for grain production were in agree with crop patterns in the region (developmental stage, management standard and sowing dates). Therefore, unsupervised classification based on crop masks allows distinguishing and monitoring winter cereal crops, which were similar in terms of morphology and phenology.

Amanda H., Junges; Denise C., Fontana; Daniele G., Pinto.

2013-08-01

117

Scaling the h-index for different scientific ISI fields  

CERN Document Server

We propose a simple way to put in a common scale the h values of researchers working in different scientific ISI fields, so that the previsible misuse of this index for inter-areas comparison might be prevented, or at least, alleviated.

Iglesias, J E; Iglesias, Juan E.; Pecharroman, Carlos

2006-01-01

118

Comparison and Intercalibration of Vegetation Indices from Different Sensors for Monitoring Above-Ground Plant Nitrogen Uptake in Winter Wheat  

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Full Text Available Various sensors have been used to obtain the canopy spectral reflectance for monitoring above-ground plant nitrogen (N uptake in winter wheat. Comparison and intercalibration of spectral reflectance and vegetation indices derived from different sensors are important for multi-sensor data fusion and utilization. In this study, the spectral reflectance and its derived vegetation indices from three ground-based sensors (ASD Field Spec Pro spectrometer, CropScan MSR 16 and GreenSeeker RT 100 in six winter wheat field experiments were compared. Then, the best sensor (ASD and its normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI (807, 736 for estimating above-ground plant N uptake were determined (R2 of 0.885 and RMSE of 1.440 g·N·m?2 for model calibration. In order to better utilize the spectral reflectance from the three sensors, intercalibration models for vegetation indices based on different sensors were developed. The results indicated that the vegetation indices from different sensors could be intercalibrated, which should promote application of data fusion and make monitoring of above-ground plant N uptake more precise and accurate.

Yan Zhu

2013-03-01

119

[A novel vegetation index (MPRI) of corn canopy by vehicle-borne dynamic prediction].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground-based remote sensing system is a significant way to understand the growth of corn and provide accurate and scientific data for precision agriculture. The vehicle-borne system is one of the most important tools for corn canopy monitoring. However, the vehicle-borne growth monitoring system cannot maintain steady operations due to the row spacing of corn. The reflectance of corn canopy, which was used to construct the model for the chlorophyll content, was disturbed by the reflectance of soil background. The background interference with the reflectance could not be removed effectively, which would result in a deviation in the growth monitoring. In order to overcome this problem, a novel vegetation index named MPRI was developed in the present paper. The tests were carried out by the vehicle-borne system on the cornfield. The sensors which configured the vehicle-borne system had 4 bands, being respectively 550, 650, 766 and 850 nm. It would obtain the spectral data while the vehicle moved along the row direction. The sampling rate was about 1 point per second. The GPS receiver obtained the location information at the same rate. MPRI was made up by the reflectance ratio of 660 and 550 nm. It was very effective to analyze the information about the reflectance of the canopy. The results of experiments showed that the MPRI of soil was the positive value and the MPRI of canopy was the negative value. So it is easier to distinguish the spectral information about soil and corn canopy by MPRI. The results indicated that: it had satisfactory forecasting accuracy for the chlorophyll content by using the MPRI on the moving monitoring. The R2 of the prediction model was about 0.72. The R2 Of the model of NDVI, which was used to represent the chlorophyll content, was only 0.24. It indicates that MPRI had good measurement results for the dynamic measurement process. It provided the novel measurement way to get the canopy reflectance spectra and the better vegetation index to construct the prediction model of the contents of chlorophyll. PMID:25358172

Li, Shu-qiang; Li, Min-zan; Sun, Hong

2014-06-01

120

Integrating temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) and regional water stress index (RWSI) for drought assessment with the aid of LANDSAT TM/ETM+ images  

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This paper presents a new drought assessment method by spatially and temporally integrating temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) with regional water stress index (RWSI) based on a synergistic approach. With the aid of LANDSAT TM/ETM data, we were able to retrieve the land-use and land-cover (LULC), vegetation indices (VIs), and land surface temperature (LST), leading to the derivation of three types of modified TVDI, including TVDI_SAVI, TVDI_ANDVI and TVDI_MSAVI, for drought assessment in a fast growing coastal area, Northern China. The categorical classification of four drought impact levels associated with the RWSI values enables us to refine the spatiotemporal relationship between the LST and the VIs. Holistic drought impact assessment between 1987 and 2000 was carried out by linking RWSI with TVDIs group wise. Research findings indicate that: (1) LST and VIs were negatively correlated in most cases of low, medium, and high vegetation cover except the case of high density vegetation cover in 2000 due to the effect of urban heat island (UHI) effect; (2) the shortage of water in 1987 was more salient than that that in 2000 based on all indices of TVDI and RWSI; and (3) TVDIs are more suitable for monitoring mild drought, normal and wet conditions when RWSI is smaller than 0.752; but they are not suitable for monitoring moderate and severe drought conditions.

Gao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Wei; Chang, Ni-Bin

2011-06-01

121

Effect of riparian vegetation on diatom assemblages in headwater streams under different land uses.  

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Differences in the structure of diatom assemblages in headwaters with contrasting shading conditions and different land use in the buffer zone and upper catchment were studied in order to evaluate the influence of the lack of riparian vegetation on the biofilm. The objective was to ascertain whether a riparian buffer can mitigate the negative influence of human induced disturbance and pollution on diatom assemblages in headwaters. Four streams were selected in order to maximize the differences in the land cover and minimize other environmental gradients. Multivariate statistics, different comparative and permutation tests and correlations were applied to compare the diatom assemblages, the Specific Polluosensitivity Index (IPS) and the diatom ecological guilds (low profile, high profile and motile) among the sites studied and to evaluate their responses to disturbances. The analysis showed that low profile diatoms typically dominated in forested headwaters with limited resources, whilst assemblages at impacted sites showed a wider range of growth forms. In unimpacted streams, the diatom assemblages were influenced by temperature, pH, conductivity and calcium, as usually reported for oligotrophic streams with high natural disturbance due to fast current and shading. In both shaded and unshaded impacted streams, the importance of nutrients and land use disturbance, especially urbanization, prevailed. This trend was also reflected by the IPS index that showed consistently lower values at impacted sites, correlating most significantly with nutrients. The diatom species composition as well as diatom guilds at impacted sites were similar, regardless of the presence or absence of riparian vegetation, and were significantly influenced by seasonal changes. Our results indicate that diatoms react sensitively to alterations of the water environment in headwaters, induced by anthropogenic activities, and these impacts are not buffered by an intact riparian zone. Diatoms closely reflected land use practices in the upper catchment regardless of the buffer zone status. PMID:23820576

Hlúbiková, Daša; Novais, Maria Helena; Dohet, Alain; Hoffmann, Lucien; Ector, Luc

2014-03-15

122

Use of thermal and vegetation index data from earth observing satellites to evaluate the risk of schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

A geographic information system (GIS) was constructed using maps of regional agroclimatic features, vegetation indices and earth surface temperature data from environmental satellites, together with Schistosoma mansoni prevalence records from 270 municipalities including snail host distributions in Bahia, Brazil to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of infection and to identify environmental factors that influence the distribution of schistosomiasis. In an initial analysis, population density and duration (months) of the annual dry period were shown to be important determinants of disease. In cooperation with the National Institute of Spatial Research in Brazil (INPE), day and night imagery data covering the state of Bahia were selected at approximately bimonthly intervals in 1994 (six day-night pairs) from the data archives of the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-11 satellite. A composite mosaic of these images was created to produce maps of: (1) average values between 0 and +1 of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); and (2) average diurnal temperature differences (dT) on a scale of values between 0 and 15 degrees C. For each municipality, NDVI and dT were calculated for a 3x3 pixel (9 km(2) area) grid and analyzed for relationships to prevalence of schistosomiasis. Results showed a statistically significant relationship of prevalence to dT (rho=-0.218) and NDVI (rho=0.384) at the 95% level of confidence by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results support use of NDVI, dT, dry period climatic stress factors and human population density for development of a GIS environmental risk assessment model for schistosomiasis in Brazil. PMID:11378144

Bavia, M E; Malone, J B; Hale, L; Dantas, A; Marroni, L; Reis, R

2001-04-27

123

Empirical Regression Models for Estimating Multiyear Leaf Area Index of Rice from Several Vegetation Indices at the Field Scale  

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Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is among the most important variables for monitoring crop growth and estimating grain yield. Previous reports have shown that LAI derived from remote sensing data can be effectively applied in crop growth simulation models for improving the accuracy of grain yield estimation. Therefore, precise estimation of LAI from remote sensing data is expected to be useful for global monitoring of crop growth. In this study, as a preliminary step toward application at the regional and global scale, the suitability of several vegetation indices for estimating multi-year LAI were validated against field survey data. In particular, the performance of a vegetation index known as time-series index of plant structure (TIPS, which was developed by the authors, was evaluated by comparison with other well-known vegetation indices. The estimated equation derived from the relationship between TIPS and LAI was more accurate at estimating LAI than were equations derived from other vegetation indices. Although further research is required to demonstrate the effectiveness of TIPS, this study indicates that TIPS has the potential to provide accurate estimates for multi-year LAI at the field scale.

Masayasu Maki

2014-05-01

124

A simple interpretation of the surface temperature/vegetation index space for assessment of surface moisture status  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A simplified land surface dryness index (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index, TVDI) based on an empirical parameterisation of the relationship between surface temperature (T-s) and vegetation index (NDVI) is suggested. The index is related to soil moisture and, in comparison to existing interpretations of the T-s/NDVI space, the index is conceptually and computationally straightforward. It is based on satellite derived information only, and the potential for operational application of the index is therefore large. The spatial pattern and temporal evolution in TVDI has been analysed using 37 NOAA-AVHRR images from 1990 covering part of the Ferlo region of northern, semiarid Senegal in West Africa. The spatial pattern in TVDI has been compared with simulations of soil moisture from a distributed hydrological model based on the MIKE SHE code. The spatial variation in TVDI reflects the variation in moisture on a finer scale than can be derived from the hydrological model in this case. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

Sandholt, Inge; Rasmussen, Kjeld

2002-01-01

125

Soil moisture status estimation over Three Gorges area with Landsat TM data based on temperature vegetation dryness index  

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Soil moisture is the important indicator of climate, hydrology, ecology, agriculture and other parameters of the land surface and atmospheric interface. Soil moisture plays an important role on the water and energy exchange at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Remote sensing can provide information on large area quickly and easily, so it is significant to do research on how to monitor soil moisture by remote sensing. This paper presents a method to assess soil moisture status using Landsat TM data over Three Gorges area in China based on TVDI. The potential of Temperature- Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) from Landsat TM data in assessing soil moisture was investigated in this region. After retrieving land surface temperature and vegetation index a TVDI model based on the features of Ts-NDVI space is established. And finally, soil moisture status is estimated according to TVDI. It shows that TVDI has the advantages of stability and high accuracy to estimating the soil moisture status.

Xu, Lina; Niu, Ruiqing; Li, Jiong; Dong, Yanfang

2011-12-01

126

Combining vegetation index and model inversion methods for theextraction of key vegetation biophysical parameters using Terra and Aqua MODIS reflectance data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Accurate estimates of vegetation biophysical variables are valuable as input to models describing the exchange of carbon dioxide and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere and important for a wide range of applications related to vegetation monitoring, weather prediction, and climate change. The present study explores the benefits of combining vegetation index and physically based approaches for the spatial and temporal mapping of green leaf area index (LAI), total chlorophyll content (TCab), and total vegetation water content (VWC). A numerical optimization method was employed for the inversion of a canopy reflectance model using Terra and Aqua MODIS multi-spectral, multi-temporal, and multi-angle reflectance observations to aid the determination of vegetation-specific physiological and structural canopy parameters. Land cover and site-specific inversion modeling was applied to a restricted number of pixels to build multiple species- and environmentally dependent formulations relating the three biophysical properties of interest to a number of selected simpler spectral vegetation indices (VI). While inversions generally are computationally slow, the coupling with the simple and computationally efficient VI approach makes the combined retrieval scheme for LAI, TCab, and VWC suitable for large-scale mapping operations. In order to facilitate application of the canopy reflectance model to heterogeneous forested areas, a simple correction scheme was elaborated, which was found to improve forest LAI predictions significantly and also provided more realistic values of leaf chlorophyll contents. The inversion scheme was designed to enable biophysical parameter retrievals for land cover classes characterized by contrasting canopy architectures, leaf inclination angles, and leaf biochemical constituents without utilizing calibration measurements. Preliminary LAI validation results for the Island of Zealand, Denmark (57°N, 12°E) provided confidence in the approach with root mean square (RMS) deviations between estimates and in-situ measurements of 0.62, 0.46, and 0.63 for barley, wheat, and deciduous forest sites, respectively. Despite the independence on site-specific in-situ measurements, the RMS deviations of the automated approach are in the same range as those established in other studies employing field-based empirical calibration. Being completely automated and image-based and independent on extensive and impractical surface measurements, the retrieval scheme has potential for operational use and can quite easily be implemented for other regions. More validation studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of the approach for other environments and species compositions.

Houborg, Rasmus MØller; SØgaard, Henrik

2007-01-01

127

Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Body Mass Index in a Large Sample of Middle-Aged Australian Men and Women  

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Full Text Available Dietary guidelines around the world recommend increased intakes of fruits and non-starchy vegetables for the prevention of chronic diseases and possibly obesity. This study aimed to describe the association between body mass index (BMI and habitual fruit and vegetable consumption in a large sample of 246,995 Australian adults aged 45 + year who had been recruited for the “45 and Up” cohort study. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed using validated short questions, while weight and height were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was used, by sex, to assess the association between fruit and vegetable intake and BMI. Compared to the referent normal weight category (BMI 18.5 to 24.9, the odds ratio (OR of being in the highest vegetable intake quartile was 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.04–1.14 for overweight women (BMI 25.0–29.9 and 1.18 (95% CI 1.12–1.24 for obese women. The association was in the opposite direction for fruit for overweight (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.80–0.90 and obese women (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.69–0.80. Obese and overweight women had higher odds of being in the highest intake quartile for combined fruit and vegetable intake, and were more likely to meet the “2 and 5” target or to have five or more serves of fruit and vegetables per day. In contrast, overweight men were less likely to be in high intake quartiles and less likely to meet recommended target of 5 per day, but there was no consistent relationship between obesity and fruit and vegetable intake. Underweight women and underweight men were less likely to be in the highest intake quartiles or to meet the recommended targets. These data suggest that improving adherence to dietary targets for fruit and vegetables may be a dietary strategy to overcome overweight among men, but that overweight and obese women are already adhering to these targets. The association between fruit and vegetable intake and underweight in adults suggests that improving fruit and vegetables intakes are important for the overall dietary patterns of people in this group.

Karen Charlton

2014-06-01

128

Bioclimatic and vegetation mapping of a topographically complex oceanic island applying different interpolation techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Different spatial interpolation techniques have been applied to construct objective bioclimatic maps of La Palma, Canary Islands. Interpolation of climatic data on this topographically complex island with strong elevation and climatic gradients represents a challenge. Furthermore, meteorological stations are not evenly distributed over the island, with few stations at high elevations. We carried out spatial interpolations of the compensated thermicity index (Itc) and the annual ombrothermic Index (Io), in order to obtain appropriate bioclimatic maps by using automatic interpolation procedures, and to establish their relation to potential vegetation units for constructing a climatophilous potential natural vegetation map (CPNV). For this purpose, we used five interpolation techniques implemented in a GIS: inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), ordinary cokriging (OCK), multiple linear regression (MLR) and MLR followed by ordinary kriging of the regression residuals. Two topographic variables (elevation and aspect), derived from a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), were included in OCK and MLR. The accuracy of the interpolation techniques was examined by the results of the error statistics of test data derived from comparison of the predicted and measured values. Best results for both bioclimatic indices were obtained with the MLR method with interpolation of the residuals showing the highest R 2 of the regression between observed and predicted values and lowest values of root mean square errors. MLR with correction of interpolated residuals is an attractive interpolation method for bioclimatic mapping on this oceanic island since it permits one to fully account for easily available geographic information but also takes into account local variation of climatic data.

Garzón-Machado, Víctor; Otto, Rüdiger; del Arco Aguilar, Marcelino José

2014-07-01

129

Bioclimatic and vegetation mapping of a topographically complex oceanic island applying different interpolation techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different spatial interpolation techniques have been applied to construct objective bioclimatic maps of La Palma, Canary Islands. Interpolation of climatic data on this topographically complex island with strong elevation and climatic gradients represents a challenge. Furthermore, meteorological stations are not evenly distributed over the island, with few stations at high elevations. We carried out spatial interpolations of the compensated thermicity index (Itc) and the annual ombrothermic Index (Io), in order to obtain appropriate bioclimatic maps by using automatic interpolation procedures, and to establish their relation to potential vegetation units for constructing a climatophilous potential natural vegetation map (CPNV). For this purpose, we used five interpolation techniques implemented in a GIS: inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), ordinary cokriging (OCK), multiple linear regression (MLR) and MLR followed by ordinary kriging of the regression residuals. Two topographic variables (elevation and aspect), derived from a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), were included in OCK and MLR. The accuracy of the interpolation techniques was examined by the results of the error statistics of test data derived from comparison of the predicted and measured values. Best results for both bioclimatic indices were obtained with the MLR method with interpolation of the residuals showing the highest R2 of the regression between observed and predicted values and lowest values of root mean square errors. MLR with correction of interpolated residuals is an attractive interpolation method for bioclimatic mapping on this oceanic island since it permits one to fully account for easily available geographic information but also takes into account local variation of climatic data. PMID:23686111

Garzón-Machado, Víctor; Otto, Rüdiger; del Arco Aguilar, Marcelino José

2014-07-01

130

Accuracy of the Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index using MODIS under water-limited vs. energy-limited evapotranspiration conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water deficit indices based on the spatial relationship between surface temperature (Ts) and NDVI, known as triangle approaches, are widely used for drought monitoring. However, their application has been recently questioned when the main factor limiting evapotranspiration is energy. Even though water is the main control in dryland ecosystems, these can also undergo periods of energy and temperature limitation. In this paper we aimed to: (i) evaluate the TVDI (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index) to estimate water deficits (e.g. ratio between actual and potential evapotranspiration), and heat surface fluxes using MODIS data; and (ii) provide insights about the factors most affecting the accuracy of results. Factors considered included the type of climatic control on evapotranspiration, ?E, (i.e. water-limited vs. energy-limited), the quality of Tair estimates, the heterogeneity of land cover types and climatic variables in the region, or the algorithm to extract hydrological boundaries from the images. The TVDI was compared with eddy covariance (EC) data from two shrublands with different climatic controls for ?E in South Spain. Evaluations showed that it could be used to estimate the water deficit when water was the main limiting factor (R=0.81-0.88; Mean Average Error, MAE=0.16-0.17) but not in energy-limited situations (R

Garcia, Monica; Ferna?ndez, N.

2014-01-01

131

Evaluation of Digital Hemispherical Photography and Plant Canopy Analyzer for Measuring Vegetation Area Index of Orange Orchards  

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Full Text Available This study presents the results of an evaluation of two indirect methods (Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA and hemispherical photographs for measuring Vegetation Area Index (VAI of two orange orchards, differing by their ground fraction cover (fc. The evaluation is based on reference data obtained by destructive measurements on limited samples, which allow to calibrate and validate an exponential relationship between the diameter of branches and associated areas of leaves (R2 = 0.99. The obtained results show that the two indirect methods underestimate the reference values of VAI. For the PCA device, the best estimates of VAI are obtained using the five rings for high fc (fc = 0.7 and using only four rings for low fc (fc = 0.3. For both case, the hemispherical photographs give accurate estimates of VAI: the relative errors are about 11 and 14% for high and low fc, respectively. Alternatively, a simple method consisting of calculating VAI as the weighted average of the maximum (VAImax, below the tree and minimum (VAImin, at the center of four trees values using fc as a weighting factor, was successfully tested (R2 = 0.90. For both indirect methods, the tree volumes are well estimated with comparison to the values calculated assuming an ellipsoidal form.

S. Khabba

2009-01-01

132

The relationship between surface temperature and a spectral vegetation index of a tallgrass prairie - Effects of burning and other landscape controls  

Science.gov (United States)

Site-to-site variability in the relation between remotely-sensed surface temperatures (Ts) and the normalized difference spectral vegetation index (NDVI) of a tallgrass prairie was investigated. The primary objective was to determine whether the proportion of burnt/unburnt area within a sub-scene affected the Ts-NDVI regression slope (SL). Regression analyses confirmed that burn treatments, particularly on steep slopes, were responsible for most of the observed variability in SL while soil moisture content and the forested areas also had a significant effect on SL.

Hope, A. S.; Mcdowell, T. P.

1992-01-01

133

Properties of starch from potatoes differing in glycemic index.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potatoes are a popular source of dietary carbohydrate worldwide and are generally considered to be a high glycemic index (GI) food. Potato starch characteristics play a key role in determining their rate of digestion and resulting glycemic response. Starches isolated from seven potato cultivars with different GI values, including a low GI cultivar (Carisma), were examined for relative crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylopectin chain length, and thermal and pasting properties. Starch from the Carisma cultivar was more thermally stable and more resistant to gelatinization, with significantly higher (p starch pasting properties may be useful indicators for preliminary identification of potato cultivars that are digested slowly and have a lower GI. PMID:25124366

Lin Ek, Kai; Wang, Shujun; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Copeland, Les

2014-10-01

134

Value of Using Different Vegetative Indices to Quantify Agricultural Crop Characteristics at Different Growth Stages under Varying Management Practices  

OpenAIRE

The paper investigates the value of using distinct vegetation indices to quantify and characterize agricultural crop characteristics at different growth stages. Research was conducted on four crops (corn, soybean, wheat, and canola) over eight years grown under different tillage practices and nitrogen management practices that varied rate and timing. Six different vegetation indices were found most useful, depending on crop phenology and management practices: (a) simple ratio for biomass, (b)...

Prueger, John H.; Hatfield, Jerry L.

2010-01-01

135

Plasma Electrophoresis and Phagocytic Index Screening of Some Indigenous Vegetables Subjected to Preclinical Models  

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Full Text Available

50 % of methanolic extract Colocasia esculenta, Moringa oliefera, Luffa cylindrica, and Hibiscus esculentus were subjected to immunomodulatory activity in Swiss albino mice either sex. Mice were treated with five days of dosing of Colocasia esculenta 50 mg/kg bw, Colocasia esculenta 100 mg/kg bw, Moringa oliefera 200mg/kg bw, Moringa oleifera 400 mg/kg bw, Luffa cylindrica 100 mg/kg bw, Luffa cylindrica 200 mg/kg bw, Hibiscus esculentus 100 mg/kg bw, and Hibiscus esculentus 200 mg/kg bw. Cyclosporine (2.5 mg/kg used as a standard reference drug for 5 days. Investigation of immunomodulator activity of these 50 % of methanolic extract of drugs to parentage of yeast digestion form 24 hours the peritoneal fluid culture and electrophoretic plasma protein band albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma respectively from blood plasma were observed using parameters phagocytosis and plasma electrophoresis. Also investigated the ulcerogenic effect or any toxic effect of plant extract by histopathology study of crypt, villi and goblet cells with reference to standard drug cyclosporine. As regards these parameters, Hibiscus esculentus 100 and 200 mg/ kg bw dose, Moringa oleifera 200 and 400 mg/ kg bw dose and Luffa cylindrica 200mg/kg bw elicited a moderately significant increase in the % of yeast digestion (P < 0.001 respectively and Luffa cylindrica 100mg/kg bw significant increase in the % of yeast digestion (P < 0.01. Hibiscus esculentus showed significant dose dependent increase and Moringa oleifera decrease phagocytic activity of macrophages. Hibiscus esculentus 200 mg/ kg bw dose and Moringa oleifera 200 significantly increased (P < 0.01 the Gamma globulin.However, our present study revealed and signatured for their immunomodulator enhancing property. As in Asian subcontinent daily there vegetables are cooked and served with know and unknown of its potential function against different diseases. If there vegetables properly ruled out for their pharmacological aspect then it may add diamond in the crown of dietician which has been bother every day today life but over looked exponetentially.

Keywords:- Colocasia esculenta, Moringa oliefera, Luffa cylindrica, and Hibiscus esculentus

Vikas Sharma

2011-04-01

136

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF ALIEN SPECIES INVASIVENESS: AN AID TO ASSESSING RIPARIAN VEGETATION CONDITION  

Science.gov (United States)

Many riparian areas are invaded by alien plant species that negatively affect native species composition, community dynamics and ecosystem properties. We sampled vegetation along reaches of 31 low order streams in eastern Oregon, and characterized species assemblages at patch an...

137

Comparative analysis of different uni- and multi-variate methods for estimation of vegetation water content using hyper-spectral measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessment of vegetation water content is critical for monitoring vegetation condition, detecting plant water stress, assessing the risk of forest fires and evaluating water status for irrigation. The main objective of this study was to investigate the performance of various mono- and multi-variate statistical methods for estimating vegetation water content (VWC) from hyper-spectral data. Hyper-spectral data is influenced by multi-collinearity because of a large number of (independent) spectral bands being modeled by a small number of (dependent) biophysical variables. Therefore, some full spectrum methods that are known to be suitable for analyzing multi-collinear data set were chosen. Canopy spectral reflectance was obtained with a GER 3700 spectro-radiometer (400-2400 nm) in a laboratory setting and VWC was measured by calculating wet/dry weight difference per unit of ground area (g/m2) of each plant canopy (n = 95). Three multivariate statistical methods were applied to estimate VWC: (1) partial least square regression, (2) artificial neural network and (3) principal component regression. They were selected to minimize the problem related to multi-collinearity. For comparison, uni-variate techniques including narrow band ratio water index (RWI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), second soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI2) and transferred soil adjusted vegetation index (TSAVI) were applied. For each type of vegetation index, all two-band combinations were evaluated to determine the best band combination. Validation of the methods was based on the cross validation procedure and using three statistical indicators: R2, RMSE and relative RMSE. The cross-validated results identified PLSR as the regression model providing the most accurate estimates of VWC among the various methods. The result revealed that this model is highly recommended for use with multi-collinear datasets (RCV2=0.94, RRMSECV = 0.23). Principal component regression exhibited the lowest accuracy among the multivariate models (RCV2=0.78, RRMSECV = 0.41).

Mirzaie, M.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Shakiba, A.; Matkan, A. A.; Atzberger, C.; Skidmore, A.

2014-02-01

138

Differences between Sand and Gravel Bars of Streams in Patterns of Vegetation Succession  

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Full Text Available We analyzed the factors driving succession and the structure, and dynamics of vegetation on sandand gravel bars in order to clarify the differences in vegetation succession in rivers with different river bed substrates.Woody plant communities (dominated by Salix, perennial herb communities (dominated by Miscanthus,and annual plant communities (dominated by Persicaria appeared in that order from upstream to downstreamon the sandbar. The results of DCA ordination based on vegetation data reflected a successional trend. Thisresult suggests that sandbars grow in a downstream direction. Various vegetation types different in successionalstage, such as grassland, young stands of Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora, two-layered stands of young andmature pines, and mature pine stands also occurred on gravel bars, but the vegetation in earlier successionalstage was established upstream, which is the opposite to the direction found on sandbars. Those resultsdemonstrate that the dynamics of the bed load itself could be a factor affecting vegetation succession in rivers.In fact, sands suspended by running water were transported downstream over the vegetated area of sand barand thereby created new areas of sandbar on the downstream end of the sandbar. Meanwhile, gravel, whichis heavy and thereby is shifted by strong water currents, accumulated on the upstream end of the vegetatedarea, and thus created new areas of gravel bar in that direction. These results showed that allogenic processesdrive vegetation succession on sand and gravel bars in streams and rivers.

Lee, Chang-Seok

2009-02-01

139

Diseño de índices espectrales de la vegetación usando curvas iso-suelo / Design of spectral vegetation indexes using iso-soil curves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El diseño de índices espectrales de la vegetación (IV) basados en las líneas iso-índice de área foliar (misma cantidad de vegetación y propiedades ópticas diferentes de los suelos debajo de la vegetación) en el ancho de banda del rojo (R) e infrarrojo cercano (IRC) del espectro electromagnético, res [...] ulta complejo por el patrón expo-lineal con cambio de pendiente, entre los parámetros que definen estas líneas. Una alternativa de diseño es considerar los patrones de las curvas iso-suelo (mismo suelo y cantidad variable de vegetación), usando el IRC como banda de saturación más lenta posible. El índice IVIS (IV basado en las curvas iso-suelo) introducido permite este tipo de aproximación, al usar una transformación del espacio de R para hacerlo coincidir con la línea del suelo y una estructura matemática similar a índices uni-banda espectral. La validación de IVIS usando simulaciones radiativas y de experimentos con cultivos generó resultados aceptables, particularmente con una óptica de minimización del efecto del suelo en escala píxel por píxel. La transformación de IVIS permite la parametrización de la curva de crecimiento en formato lineal, simple de implementar en términos algorítmicos. Abstract in english The design of spectral vegetation indexes (VI) based on the lines iso-leaf area index (same amount of vegetation and different optical properties of the soils under the vegetation) in two bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, the red (R) and near-infrared (NIR), is complicated because of the expoli [...] near pattern with change of slope, among the parameters that define these lines. An alternative design is to consider the patterns of iso-soil curves (same soil, and varying amounts of vegetation), using the NIR as a saturation band as slow as possible. The introduced index ISVI (VI based on the iso-soil curves) allows this type of approach, by using a transformation of the space of R to make it coincide with the soil line and a mathematical structure similar to uni-band spectral indexes. ISVI validation using radiative simulations and crop experiments produced acceptable results, particularly with a perspective of minimizing the soil effect at píxel by píxel scale. The transformation of the ISVI allows parameterization of the growth curve in a linear format, simple to implement in algorithmic terms.

Fernando, Paz-Pellat; Marisol, Reyes; Edgardo, Mediano.

2011-02-01

140

Experiments of hydraulics mechanics through different arrangement of submerged bending vegetation  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory experiments are used to explore the effect of different arrangement of submerged bending vegetation in the fixed bed on flow field around vegetation and area downstream. The two simulated bending vegetation were composed of pipe curved to 90 degree for stems and P.P.C films for blades. The two bending vegetation were arranged in alignment and paralleled with flow direction. The test arrangement was distinguished by different overlap rate of vegetation. Overlap rate of vegetation were defined that percentage of blades of bending vegetation overlap the other one. Overlap rate is greater than zero and it means that vegetation overlap the other one. On the other hand, overlap rate is smaller than zero and it means that two plants were separated in percentage of total length of vegetation The experiments were carried out 10 test in forms of overlap rate of vegetation (50%, 25%, 0%,-25%,-50%) by blades of 20cm and 25cm.Velocity and turbulence intensity around the vegetation (u, v, w and urms, vrms, wrms) were acquired by Ultrasound Velocity Profiler (UVP). Furthermore, to elaborate variation of the flow field, the swinging motion of vegetation was recorded by digital camera. Three arrangement types (overlapped, continuous and isolated) were concluded from the 10 tests. In case of isolated vegetation, it could be observed that there was a better effect on slowing flow velocity in x direction in case of the tests with -25% overlap rate due to a discontinuous shear layer between two plants which induced wake interference. It also showed that turbulence intensity was significant between two plants. Two plants disturbed rarely each other in the tests of isolated vegetation with -50% overlap rate .Flow was disturbed by swinging of blades only and returned to stable quickly. In 25% and 50% tests, two plants were overlapped and their behavior was similar to a longer blades plant. Its blades swinging were not obvious result as low effect on slowing velocity in x direction. It means that the characteristic of overlapped vegetation is good for stabilizing the flow field. The research helped to realize influence between two plants on flow field in order to apply river system management strategies.

Chen, Ye-Hong; Chen, Su Chun

2014-05-01

141

[Accuracy comparison of BJ-1, HJ and Landsat data in the retrieval of grassland vegetation coverage, leaf area index and above ground bomass].  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestic satellites BJ-1, HJ and the most widely used satellite Landsat were selected to systematically compare their abilities and differences on the estimation of the biophysical parameters of grassland in sandstorm source region in Beijing and Tianjin, with the combination of field-measured fractional coverage, leaf area index and aboveground biomass data. The result shows: (1) In terms of the surface reflectance, HJ-1B and Landsat have a higher correlation with biophysical parameters in red band, compared with BJ-1, while BJ-1's near infra-red band was obviously superior to HJ-1B and Landsat, (2) with respect to the vegetation indices, Landsat performed best, HJ-1B was the second, and BJ-1 was the worst, (3) compared with vegetation indices, multiple regression model can raise the estimation accuracy, BJ-1 based model improved significantly, while Landsat and HJ-1B based models were less obvious. Among them, the highest accuracy was acquired for leaf area index estimation through the BJ-1 based model (R2 = 0.61, RMSEP = 0.15). In general, domestic satellites have their own unique features, which remain a huge potential to be further tapped. PMID:24409740

Wang, Hong-Yan; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Zhi-Hai

2013-10-01

142

Analysis of Leaf Area Index and Fraction of PAR Absorbed by Vegetation Products from the Terra MODIS Sensor: 2000-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of two years of Collection 3 and five years of Collection 4 Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) data sets is presented in this article with the goal of understanding product quality with respect to version (Collection 3 versus 4), algorithm (main versus backup), snow (snow-free versus snow on the ground), and cloud (cloud-free versus cloudy) conditions. Retrievals from the main radiative transfer algorithm increased from 55% in Collection 3 to 67% in Collection 4 due to algorithm refinements and improved inputs. Anomalously high LAI/FPAR values observed in Collection 3 product in some vegetation types were corrected in Collection 4. The problem of reflectance saturation and too few main algorithm retrievals in broadleaf forests persisted in Collection 4. The spurious seasonality in needleleaf LAI/FPAR fields was traced to fewer reliable input data and retrievals during the boreal winter period. About 97% of the snow covered pixels were processed by the backup Normalized Difference Vegetation Index-based algorithm. Similarly, a majority of retrievals under cloudy conditions were obtained from the backup algorithm. For these reasons, the users are advised to consult the quality flags accompanying the LAI and FPAR product.

Yang, Wenze; Huang, Dong; Tan, Bin; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Myneni, Ranga B.

2006-01-01

143

Efficient retrieval of vegetation leaf area index and canopy clumping factor from satellite data to support pollutant deposition assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canopy leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of the vegetation controlling pollutant uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy clumping factor from satellite data using observed Simple Ratios (SR) of near-infrared to red reflectance. The method employs numerical inversion of a physics-based analytical canopy radiative transfer model that simulates the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The algorithm is independent of ecosystem type. The method is applied to 1-km resolution AVHRR satellite images to retrieve a geo-referenced data set of monthly LAI values for the conterminous USA. Satellite-based LAI estimates are compared against independent ground LAI measurements over a range of ecosystem types. Verification results suggest that the new algorithm represents a viable approach to LAI retrieval at continental scale, and can facilitate spatially explicit studies of regional pollutant deposition and trace gas exchange. - The paper presents a physics-based algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy-clumping factor from satellite data to assist research of pollutant deposition and trace-gas exchange. The method is employed to derive a monthly LAI dataset for the conterminous USA and verified at a continental scale

144

Reestablishment of wetland vegetation on gas pipeline rights-of-way in six different wetland ecosystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vegetational surveys were carried out to compare reestablished vegetation on pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) with that in adjacent natural ecosystems undisturbed by pipeline installation. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the ROW approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. In four ecosystems, the vegetation on the ROW was limited to a herbaceous layer by ROW maintenance; thus, the ROWs often involved a complex of species quite different from that found in the adjacent ecosystems.

Zimmerman, R.E. Shem, L.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll. Palos Heights, IL (United States); Hackney, C. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States); Gowdy, M. [Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-05-01

145

Integración del Índice de Vegetación de la Diferencia Normalizada (NDVI) y del Ciclo Fenológico de Maíz para Estimar el Rendimiento a Escala Departamental en Córdoba, Argentina / Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Phenological Data Integration to Estimate County Yield of Corn in Córdoba, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La integración de datos radiométricos con información agroclimática puede resultar en mejores procedimientos para evaluar el estado y evolución de los cultivos. En este trabajo, datos del calendario fenológico del cultivo de maíz (Zea mays L.), estimados a partir de procedimientos de sumas térmicas, [...] fueron integrados con registros del Indice de Vegetación de la Diferencia Normalizada (NDVI) de cobertura global del sistema Radiómetro Avanzado de Muy Alta Resolución de la Administración Nacional del Océano y la Atmósfera de los Estados Unidos (NOAA-AVHRR), con los siguientes objetivos: i) evaluar la relación entre el NDVI y el rendimiento de maíz en distintas etapas del ciclo del cultivo; ii) analizar la influencia de la fecha de siembra, y iii) desarrollar un modelo de pronóstico del rendimiento de maíz a escala departamental. Los valores acumulados de NDVI presentaron una asociación positiva con el rendimiento de maíz, variable de acuerdo a la etapa de desarrollo y la fecha de siembra consideradas. Durante la etapa reproductiva, el NDVI expresó una elevada asociación con el rendimiento en cualquier fecha de siembra eventual, alcanzando valores de correlación significativos (P Abstract in english Integration of satellite data with agroclimatic information can result in better procedures to evaluate the state and evolution of grain crops. In this work, phenologic calendar of corn (Zea mays L.) crop based on growing-degree days procedures was integrated with Normalized Difference Vegetation In [...] dex (NDVI) estimations from global coverage of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) system. The main objectives were: i) to evaluate the relationship between NDVI and corn yield in different stages of crop cycle; ii) to analyze the influence of sowing date, and iii) to develop a predictive model of county (departmental) corn yield using satellite and ground data. The NDVI values accumulated in different corn phenologic stages showed a positive association with yield, and this relationship was modified in function of sowing date. The NDVI value during the reproductive stage, for any sowing date, always expressed a high association with corn yield, reaching significant correlation values (P

Antonio, de la Casa; Gustavo, Ovando.

2007-12-01

146

Evaluation of CMIP5 earth system models in reproducing leaf area index and vegetation cover over the Tibetan Plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

The abilities of 12 earth system models (ESMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to reproduce satellite-derived vegetation biological variables over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were examined. The results show that most of the models tend to overestimate the observed leaf area index (LAI) and vegetation carbon above the ground, with the possible reasons being overestimation of photosynthesis and precipitation. The model simulations show a consistent increasing trend with observed LAI over most of the TP during the reference period of 1986-2005, while they fail to reproduce the downward trend around the headstream of the Yellow River shown in the observation due to their coarse resolutions. Three of the models: CCSM4, CESM1-BGC, and NorESM1-ME, which share the same vegetation model, show some common strengths and weaknesses in their simulations according to our analysis. The model ensemble indicates a reasonable spatial distribution but overestimated land coverage, with a significant decreasing trend (-1.48% per decade) for tree coverage and a slight increasing trend (0.58% per decade) for bare ground during the period 1950-2005. No significant sign of variation is found for grass. To quantify the relative performance of the models in representing the observed mean state, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability, a model ranking method was performed with respect to simulated LAI. INMCM4, bcc-csm-1.1m, MPI-ESM-LR, IPSL CM5A-LR, HadGEM2-ES, and CCSM4 were ranked as the best six models in reproducing vegetation dynamics among the 12 models.

Bao, Yan; Gao, Yanhong; Lü, Shihua; Wang, Qingxia; Zhang, Shaobo; Xu, Jianwei; Li, Ruiqing; Li, Suosuo; Ma, Di; Meng, Xianhong; Chen, Hao; Chang, Yan

2014-12-01

147

Response of different crop and vegetable cultivars to UV-B-irradiance: preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiments which are reported here were performed in continuation of the work of ESSER (1979, 1980) who conducted field experiments aimed at investigating the influence of increased UV-B-radiation on crop and vegetable plants of various species. In contrast to these investigations the work of this third phase concentrates on cultivar-specific differences between selected crop and vegetable cultivars. (orig./AJ)

148

A New Equation for Deriving Vegetation Phenophase from Time Series of Leaf Area Index (LAI Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurately modeling the land surface phenology based on satellite data is very important to the study of vegetation ecological dynamics and the related ecosystem process. In this study, we developed a Sigmoid curve (S-curve function by integrating an asymmetric Gaussian function and a logistic function to fit the leaf area index (LAI curve. We applied the resulting asymptotic lines and the curvature extrema to derive the vegetation phenophases of germination, green-up, maturity, senescence, defoliation and dormancy. The new proposed S-curve function has been tested in a specific area (Shangdong Province, China, characterized by a specific pattern in leaf area index (LAI time course due to the dominant presence of crops. The function has not yet received any global testing. The identified phenophases were validated against measurement stations in Shandong Province. (i From the site-scale comparison, we find that the detected phenophases using the S-curve (SC algorithm are more consistent with the observations than using the logistic (LC algorithm and the asymmetric Gaussian (AG algorithm, especially for the germination and dormancy. The phenological recognition rates (PRRs of the SC algorithm are obviously higher than those of two other algorithms. The S-curve function fits the LAI curve much better than the logistic function and asymmetric Gaussian function; (ii The retrieval results of the SC algorithm are reliable and in close proximity to the green-up observed data whether using the AVHRR LAI or the improved MODIS LAI. Three inversion algorithms shows the retrieval results based on AVHRR LAI are all later than based on improved MODIS LAI. The bias statistics reveal that the retrieval results based on the AVHRR LAI datasets are more reasonable than based on the improved MODIS LAI datasets. Overall, the S-curve algorithm has the advantage of deriving vegetation phenophases across time and space as compared to the LC algorithm and the AG algorithm. With the SC algorithm, the vegetation phenophases can be extracted more effectively.

Mingliang Che

2014-06-01

149

SPECIES COMPOSITION OF WEED VEGETATION IN DIFFERENT APPLE GROWING TECHNOLOGIES  

OpenAIRE

The investigation was carried out in the period 2001-2003 in an orchard of the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, created in the spring of 1996 on leached cinnamonic forest soil. The weed populations under four different farming technologies of growing of apple cultivar Florina were investigated. It was established, that the apple growing technologies influence the weed association composition. The highest weed diversity was found in the organic technology - 16 weed species were ...

Tasseva, Venera

2005-01-01

150

Modifying SEBAL Model Based on the Trapezoidal Relationship between Land Surface Temperature and Vegetation Index for Actual Evapotranspiration Estimation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL is widely used to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ETa. One major limitation of the SEBAL model is the subjectiveness in selecting extreme cold/hot pixels. In the present study, the SEBAL model is modified by determining the extreme cold/hot status, based on the theoretical trapezoidal relationship between land surface temperature (Ts and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, which is established for each pixel. In this way, the dependence of SEBAL model on the existence of extreme cold/hot status and the subjectiveness in selecting cold/hot pixels with SEBAL model are eliminated. The performance of the classical SEBAL model and the modified version, T-SEBAL, are compared for estimating ETa for a semi-arid catchment, and the result showed that the accuracy of ETa estimation is improved by the T-SEBAL model compared with the classical SEBAL model.

Xiao-Gang Wang

2014-06-01

151

A Method for Application of Classification Tree Models to Map Aquatic Vegetation Using Remotely Sensed Images from Different Sensors and Dates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In previous attempts to identify aquatic vegetation from remotely-sensed images using classification trees (CT, the images used to apply CT models to different times or locations necessarily originated from the same satellite sensor as that from which the original images used in model development came, greatly limiting the application of CT. We have developed an effective normalization method to improve the robustness of CT models when applied to images originating from different sensors and dates. A total of 965 ground-truth samples of aquatic vegetation types were obtained in 2009 and 2010 in Taihu Lake, China. Using relevant spectral indices (SI as classifiers, we manually developed a stable CT model structure and then applied a standard CT algorithm to obtain quantitative (optimal thresholds from 2009 ground-truth data and images from Landsat7-ETM+, HJ-1B-CCD, Landsat5-TM and ALOS-AVNIR-2 sensors. Optimal CT thresholds produced average classification accuracies of 78.1%, 84.7% and 74.0% for emergent vegetation, floating-leaf vegetation and submerged vegetation, respectively. However, the optimal CT thresholds for different sensor images differed from each other, with an average relative variation (RV of 6.40%. We developed and evaluated three new approaches to normalizing the images. The best-performing method (Method of 0.1% index scaling normalized the SI images using tailored percentages of extreme pixel values. Using the images normalized by Method of 0.1% index scaling, CT models for a particular sensor in which thresholds were replaced by those from the models developed for images originating from other sensors provided average classification accuracies of 76.0%, 82.8% and 68.9% for emergent vegetation, floating-leaf vegetation and submerged vegetation, respectively. Applying the CT models developed for normalized 2009 images to 2010 images resulted in high classification (78.0%–93.3% and overall (92.0%–93.1% accuracies. Our results suggest that Method of 0.1% index scaling provides a feasible way to apply CT models directly to images from sensors or time periods that differ from those of the images used to develop the original models.

Ying Cai

2012-09-01

152

Application of MODIS Normalized Differential Vegetation Index for Local Land Use Indicators of Impervious Surface Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Data derived from satellite measurements offer tremendous potential to contribute to environmental indicators broadly, and land cover/use indicators specifically, given satellite data's consistent, repetitive nature with broad spatial and temporal coverage. This study focuses on the translation of satellite data into meaningful measures that fit within the frame of environmental indicators used by policymakers, resources managers, and the general public. The study area encompasses the Greater Cincinnati Area (6,898 km2), a mid-sized city seeking to address sustainability in the context of urban change and growth. At the center of the study area is downtown Cincinnati in Hamilton County, with suburban areas extending into parts of the seven surrounding counties. Hamilton County staff are particularly interested in tracking impervious surface areas (ISAs) and forest cover as both have been shown to impact nearby water quality. The purpose of this study is to provide Hamilton County and other planning organizations with near real-time information on ISAs and forest cover through a simple, inexpensive methodology that leverages publicly available satellite data products. We obtained 250m resolution Normalized Differential Vegetation Indices (NDVI) data files derived from NASA MODIS (MOD13Q1) for 16-day periods in June/July of 2001-2006. NDVI is calculated based on transformations of the red (620-670 nm), near- infrared (841-876 nm), and blue (459-479 nm) bands designed to enhance the vegetation signal and allow for comparison in terrestrial photosynthetic activity. We examined multiple thresholds of NDVI to act as a surrogate for ISAs (low NDVI) and forest cover (high NDVI). We also calculated changes in NDVI throughout the study period and correlated large decreases in NDVI to known large developments. While this method has potential, further study is needed to ground truth the results, a process that is currently underway. In addition, calculation of NDVI with higher-resolution LANDSAT or ASTER data may improve the results.

Zell, E.; Weber, S.; Zewatsky, J.; Engel-Cox, J.

2007-12-01

153

Antioxidant Contents (Vitamin C of Raw and Blanched Different Fresh Vegetable Samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the antioxidant contents and the effect of different blanching times (5 min, 10 min, 15 min and 20 min on antioxidant contents of three different selected fresh vegetables. Three different types of vegeta- ble were used namely Amaranthus specie locally known as spinach, namely “tete”, (Celosia argentea, soko, (Solonum nodifiorum and odu, (Telfeira occidentalis were analyzed for their antioxidant contents. The analysis revealed that raw vegetables have the highest amount of antioxidant contents. Telferia occidentalis had the highest antioxidant content followed by Solonum nodifiorum. It was observed that blanching time had an adverse effect on the antioxidant contents of the blanched vegetables. The antioxidant contents of tete, soko and odu were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 after blanching.

Isaac B. Ariyo

2012-01-01

154

SPECIES COMPOSITION OF WEED VEGETATION IN DIFFERENT APPLE GROWING TECHNOLOGIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in the period 2001-2003 in an orchard of the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, created in the spring of 1996 on leached cinnamonic forest soil. The weed populations under four different farming technologies of growing of apple cultivar Florina were investigated. It was established, that the apple growing technologies influence the weed association composition. The highest weed diversity was found in the organic technology - 16 weed species were found. In the application of resource economical and integrated technologies, the development of 13-14 weed species was established. The smallest weed diversity was observed in the conventional technology - eight species, which was due to the twofold herbicide application.

Venera TASSEVA

2005-08-01

155

Comparative study of trace element levels in some local vegetable varieties and irrigation waters from different locations in Ilorin, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The level of heavy metals in two varieties of vegetables harvested during the dry and wet seasons from seven different locations in Ilorin, Nigeria, were determined. The correlation between the level of metals in the vegetables and the irrigation water was also studied. Vegetables harvested during the dry season were found to contain higher level of toxic metals. Low water quality, accumulation of particulate after rainless period and nearness of some vegetable gardens to major and well trave...

Dosumu, O. O.; Salami, N.; Adekola, F. A.

2003-01-01

156

Modeling the effects of vegetation on methane oxidation and emissions through soil landfill final covers across different climates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant roots are reported to enhance the aeration of soil by creating secondary macropores which improve the diffusion of oxygen into soil as well as the supply of methane to bacteria. Therefore, methane oxidation can be improved considerably by the soil structuring processes of vegetation, along with the increase of organic biomass in the soil associated with plant roots. This study consisted of using a numerical model that combines flow of water and heat with gas transport and oxidation in soils, to simulate methane emission and oxidation through simulated vegetated and non-vegetated landfill covers under different climatic conditions. Different simulations were performed using different methane loading flux (5-200gm(-2)d(-1)) as the bottom boundary. The lowest modeled surface emissions were always obtained with vegetated soil covers for all simulated climates. The largest differences in simulated surface emissions between the vegetated and non-vegetated scenarios occur during the growing season. Higher average yearly percent oxidation was obtained in simulations with vegetated soil covers as compared to non-vegetated scenario. The modeled effects of vegetation on methane surface emissions and percent oxidation were attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) increase in methane oxidation associated with the change of the physical properties of the upper vegetative layer and (2) increase in organic matter associated with vegetated soil layers. Finally, correlations between percent oxidation and methane loading into simulated vegetated and non-vegetated covers were proposed to allow decision makers to compare vegetated versus non-vegetated soil landfill covers. These results were obtained using a modeling study with several simplifying assumptions that do not capture the complexities of vegetated soils under field conditions. PMID:25475118

Abichou, Tarek; Kormi, Tarek; Yuan, Lei; Johnson, Terry; Francisco, Escobar

2015-02-01

157

[Comparison and analysis of hyperspectral remote sensing identifiable models for different vegetation under waterlogging stress].  

Science.gov (United States)

With the global climate warming, flooding disasters frequently occurred and its influence scope constantly increased in China. The objective of the present paper was to study the leaf spectral features of vegetation (maize and beetroot) under waterlogging stress and design a hyperspectral remote sensing model to monitor the flooding disasters through a field simulated experiment. The experiment was carried out in the Sutton Bonington Campus of University of Nottingham (52.8 degrees N, 1. 2 degrees W) from May to August in 2008, and samples were collected one time every week and spectra were measured in the laboratory. The result showed that the reflectance of the maize and beetroot decreased in the 550 and 800-1 300 nm region, and the reflectance slightly increased in the 680 nm region. This paper chose NDVI, SIPI, PRI, SRPI, GNDVI and R800 * R550/R680 to identify the vegetation under waterlogging stress, respectively. The result suggested that the SIPI and R800 * R550/R680 was sensitive for maize under waterlogging stress, and then SIPI and PRI and R800 * R550/R680 was sensitive for beetroot under waterlogging stress. In order to seek the best identifiable model, the normalized distances between means of control and stressed vegetation indices were calculated and analyzed, the result indicated that the distance of R800 * R550/R680 is more than that of indices' in the early stress stage, illustrated that the index identifiable ability for waterlogging stress is better than other indices, then the index has the strong sensitivity and stability. Therefore, the index R800 * R550/R680 could be used to quickly extract flooding disaster area by using hyperspectral remote sensing, and would provide information support for disaster relief decisions. PMID:24555391

Jiang, Jin-Bao; Steven, Michael D; He, Ru-Yan; Cai, Qing-Kong

2013-11-01

158

Why are there different versions of the Oswestry Disability Index?  

OpenAIRE

This article updates readers on the current state of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the impact of unvalidated versions. The ODI is now licensed to the Mapi Research Trust in order to preserve a standard version in English and in validated translations. A proposed threshold of "normality" is potentially helpful as an outcome for both audit and research. There is an application of the sex section as a quality measure in Germany. The ODI is an important international shared resource for...

Fairbank, Jc

2014-01-01

159

Different index contrast silica-on-silicon waveguides by PECVD  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ge-doped silica-on-silicon waveguides with index steps of 0.01 and 0.02 were fabricated by a combination of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) and reactive ion etching (RIE) techniques, and their characteristics, including propagation loss, coupling loss with standard singlemode fibres, minimal bend radius, and birefringence, were investigated. The waveguides have good propagation properties and small birefringence, compared to using flame hydrolysis deposition (FHD).

Ou, Haiyan

2003-01-01

160

Internalisation of Microbes in Vegetables: Microbial Load of Ghanaian Vegetables and the Relationship with Different Water Sources of Irrigation  

OpenAIRE

The occurrence of pathogens in the internal parts of vegetables is usually associated with irrigation water or contaminated soil and could pose risk to consumers as the internalised pathogens are unaffected by external washing. This study was carried out to assess the rate of internalisation of microbes in common Ghanaian vegetables. Standard microbiological methods were employed in microbial enumeration of vegetables collected at the market and farm levels, as well as irrigation water and so...

Jonathan Quaye; Kayang, Boniface B.; Lanyo, R.; Donkor, Eric S.; Edoh, Dominic A.

2010-01-01

161

[Effects of different vegetation restoration patterns on the diversity of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes in Hulunbeier sandy land, Inner Mongolia of North China].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and sequence analysis, this paper studied the nifH gene diversity and community structure of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes in Hulunbeier sandy land of Inner Mongolia under four years management of five vegetation restoration modes, i. e., mixed-planting of Agropyron cristatum, Hedysarum fruticosum, Caragana korshinskii, and Elymus nutans (ACHE) and of Agropyron cristatum and Hedysarum fruticosum (AC), and mono-planting of Caragana korshinskii (UC), Agropyron cristatum (UA), and Hedysarum fruticosum (UH), taking the bare land as the control (CK). There existed significant differences in the community composition of nitrogen-fixing microbes among the five vegetation restoration patterns. The Shannon index of the nifH gene was the highest under ACHE, followed by under AC, UC, UA, and UH, and the lowest in CK. Except that UH and CK had less difference in the Shannon index, the other four vegetation restoration modes had a significantly higher Shannon index than CK (P < 0.05). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under UA, UH, and UC were mainly of cyanobacteria, but the soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under AC and ACHE changed obviously, mainly of proteobacteria, and also of cyanobacteria. The canonical correlation analysis showed that the soil total phosphorus, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen contents under the five vegetation restoration modes had significant effects on the nitrogen-fixing microbial communities, and there existed significant correlations among the soil total phosphorus, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen. It was suggested that the variations of the community composition of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under the five vegetation restoration modes were resulted from the interactive and combined effects of the soil physical and chemical factors. PMID:24066552

Li, Gang; Wang, Li-Juan; Li, Yu-Jie; Qiao, Jiang; Zhang, Hai-Fang; Song, Xiao-Long; Yang, Dian-Lin

2013-06-01

162

Differences in sediment organic matter composition and PAH weathering between non-vegetated and recently vegetated fuel oiled sediments.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation in contaminated field sediments after only 2 years of plant growth. We collected sediments from vegetated and non-vegetated areas at the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC), an industrialized area with historic petroleum contamination of soils and sediments. PAH concentrations, PAH weathering indices, and organic matter composition in sediments colonized by Phragmites, cattails, or willow trees were compared to the same indices for non-vegetated sediments. We hypothesized that bulk sediment and humin fractions with measurable increases in plant organic matter content would show measurable changes to PAH attenuation as indicated by more weathered PAH diagnostic ratios or reduced PAH concentrations. Carbon-normalized PAH concentrations were lower in vegetated bulk sediments but higher in vegetated humin fractions relative to non-vegetated sediment fractions. Total organic carbon content was not indicative of more weathered N3/P2 ratios or reduced PAH concentrations in vegetated sediment fractions. More weathered N3/P2 ratios were observed with increased modern carbon (plant carbon) content of vegetated sediment fractions. Phragmites sediments contained more modern carbon (plant carbon) and more weathered PAH ratios [C3-naphthalenes and C2-phenanthrenes (N3/P2)] than willow, cattail, and non-vegetated sediments. PMID:19260227

Gregory, Samuel T; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

2008-01-01

163

Theory of Planned Behavior Explains Gender Difference in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption  

OpenAIRE

A gender difference in fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) is widely documented, but not well understood. Using data from the National Cancer Institute’s Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey, we assessed the extent to which gender differences in FVI are attributable to gender differences in constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Females reported more favorable attitudes and greater perceived behavior control regarding FVI than males, and these beliefs mediated the observed gender ...

Emanuel, Amber S.; Mccully, Scout N.; Gallagher, Kristel M.; Updegraff, John A.

2012-01-01

164

Evaluation of Extraction Methods for the Analysis of Carotenoids for Different Vegetable Matrix  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, different solvents were used to achieve the maximum extractibility of total carotenoids. The extracted total carotenoids were estimated using UV- visible spectrophotometer. Carotenoids from vegetable matrix can be used as a food colorant, food additive, cosmetics, antioxidants and nutraceuticals.

Stancuta Scrob

2013-11-01

165

Carbon and nitrogen in soil and vegetation at sites differing in successional age  

OpenAIRE

We studied vegetation and soil development during primary succession in an inland drift sand area in the Netherlands. We compared five sites at which primary succession had started at different moments in the past, respectively 0, 10, 43 and 121 years ago, and a site at which succession had not yet started. In the three younger sites the vegetation was herbaceous, whereas in the two older sites a pine forest had formed. Forest formation was accompanied by the development of an FH-layer in the...

Kovel, C. G. F.; Mierlo, A. J. E. M.; Wilms, Y. J. O.; Berendse, F.

2000-01-01

166

Índice de vegetação do sensor MODIS na estimativa da produtividade agrícola da cana-de-açúcar / Vegetation index from MODIS sensor to estimate sugarcane yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A participação da cultura da cana-de-açúcar no fornecimento de matéria prima para produção de açúcar e também de álcool, como fonte alternativa de energia, tem sido relevante para o crescimento econômico do Brasil. Consequentemente, a disponibilidade de informações precisas sobre a produção agrícola [...] dessa cultura é importante para auxiliar no planejamento e na tomada de decisões em toda a cadeia produtiva. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a produtividade agrícola de talhões de cana-de-açúcar para as safras 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, a partir de um modelo agronômico ajustado com dados orbitais. A inovação deste modelo consiste no uso do índice de área foliar (IAF) estimado a partir do produto índice de vegetação NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) do sensor MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) a bordo do satélite Terra da NASA (National Aeronautics Space Administration). O modelo agronômico explicou 31% e 25% da variação da produtividade observada entre talhões nos anos safra 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, respectivamente, o que se deve fundamentalmente ao uso das imagens NDVI do MODIS. O resultado do modelo pode ser usado para auxiliar e aprimorar a previsão da estimativa da produtividade feita in loco. Abstract in english The contribution of sugarcane crop to provide raw material to produce sugar and also alcohol as an alternative energy source has been relevant to the economic growth of Brazil. Therefore, the availability of precise agricultural production information about this crop is important for planning and de [...] cision-making in the entire productive chain. The present work has the objective to estimate sugarcane yield in crop fields during the crop years 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, based on an agronomic model fit with orbital data. The innovation of this model consists in the use of the leaf area index (LAI) estimated from the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) produced by the MODIS sensor (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on board of the Terra satellite from NASA (National Aeronautics Space Administration). The agronomic model explained 31% and 25% of the yield variability among crop fields for the crop years 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, respectively, which is mainly attributed to use of NDVI images from MODIS. The model output should be useful to improve the precision of the crop yield estimation forecast performed in loco.

Michelle Cristina Araujo, Picoli; Bernardo Friedrich Theodor, Rudorff; Rodrigo, Rizzi; Angélica, Giarolla.

2009-09-01

167

Different Indexing Strategies for Multilingual Web Retrieval: Experiments with the EuroGOV Corpus  

OpenAIRE

Experiments with a multi-lingual web collection are presented. The EuroGOV corpus is the first multi-lingual web corpus for retrieval evaluation. We show how indexes based on words and n-grams are developed for different document parts. Different indexes were based on the full document content, partial content and the title. The best results were achieved for a title only index based on words.

Niels, Jensen; Thomas, Mandl

2006-01-01

168

Cultivar discrimination at different site elevations with remotely sensed vegetation indices  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate vegetation indices sensitivity to discriminate between two different cultivars; (ii) to determine the effects of site elevation and developmental stages on cultivar discrimination. The experiment was carried out for the growing season 2007/08 at “Agro di Pesche” (Central Italy, Molise region). Four experimental fields were located at different elevation ranging between 590 m to 922 m above the sea level (asl). For each field...

Bruno Basso; Davide Cammarano; Giovanni Cafiero; Stefano Marino; Arturo Alvino

2011-01-01

169

Winter Soil Respiration from Different Vegetation Patches in the Yellow River Delta, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation type and density exhibited a considerable patchy distribution at very local scales in the Yellow River Delta, due to the spatial variation of soil salinity and water scarcity. We proposed that soil respiration is affected by the spatial variations in vegetation type and soil chemical properties and tested this hypothesis in three different vegetation patches ( Phragmites australis, Suaeda heteroptera and bare soil) in winter (from November 2010 to April 2011). At diurnal scale, soil respiration all displayed single-peak curves and asymmetric patterns in the three vegetation patches; At seasonal scale, soil respiration all declined steadily until February, and then increased to a peak in next April. But, the magnitude of soil respiration showed significant differences among the three sites. Mean soil respiration rates in winter were 0.60, 0.45 and 0.17 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 for the Phragmites australis, Suaeda heteroptera and bare soil, respectively. The combined effect of soil temperature and soil moisture accounted for 58-68 % of the seasonal variation of winter soil respiration. The mean soil respiration revealed positive and linear correlations with total N, total N and SOC storages at 0-20 cm depth, and plant biomass among the three sites. We conclude that the patchy distribution of plant biomass and soil chemical properties (total C, total N and SOC) may affect decomposition rate of soil organic matter in winter, thereby leading to spatial variations in soil respiration.

Han, Guangxuan; Yu, Junbao; Li, Huabing; Yang, Liqiong; Wang, Guangmei; Mao, Peili; Gao, Yongjun

2012-07-01

170

Estimating the Maximal Light Use Efficiency for Different Vegetation through the CASA Model Combined with Time-Series Remote Sensing Data and Ground Measurements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maximal light use efficiency (LUE is an important ecological index of a vegetation essential attribute, and a key parameter of the LUE-based model for estimating large-scale vegetation productivity by remote sensing technology. However, although currently used in different models there still exists extensive controversy. This paper takes the Zoige Plateau in China as a case area to develop a new approach for estimating the maximal LUEs for different vegetation. Based on an existing land cover map and MODIS NDVI product, the linear unmixing method with a moving window was adopted to estimate the time-series NDVI for different end members in a MODIS NDVI pixel; then Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO was applied to search for the optimization of LUE retrievals through the CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach model combined with time-series NDVI and ground measurements. The derived maximal LUEs present significant differences among various vegetation types. These are 0.669 gC·MJ?1, 0.450 gC·MJ?1 and 0.126 gC·MJ?1 for the xerophilous grasslands with high, moderate and low vegetation fraction respectively, 0.192 gC·MJ?1 for the hygrophilous grasslands, and 0.125 gC·MJ?1 for the helobious grasslands. The field validation shows that the estimated net primary productivity (NPP by the derived maximal LUE is closely related to the ground references, with R2 of 0.8698 and root-mean-square error (RMSE of 59.37 gC·m?2·a?1. This indicates that the default set in the CASA model is not suitable for NPP estimation for the regional mountain area. The derived maximal LUEs can significantly improve the capability of NPP mapping, and open up the perspective for long-term monitoring of vegetation ecological health and ecosystem productivity by combining the LUE-based model with remote sensing observations.

Ainong Li

2012-12-01

171

Recovery of a soil under different vegetation one year after a high intensity wildfire  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on soil recovery in fragile ecosystems following high intensity wildfires are scarce. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the impact of a high intensity wildfire in an ecosystem under different vegetation (shrubland and pinewood located at Vilardevós (Galicia, NW Spain and highly susceptible to suffer soil erosion due to the steep relief and high erositivity of the rainfall. Soil samples were collected from the A horizon (0-5 cm 1 year after the fire and soil quality was evaluated by analysis of several physical, chemical and biochemical properties measured in the fraction chemical properties > physical properties. The data also showed that the fire impact was different depending on the soil vegetation considered (shrubland and pinewood. Moreover, the data confirmed the slow soil recovery in this fragile ecosystem and, therefore, the need of adopting post-fire stabilisation and rehabilitation treatments in order to minimize the post-fire erosion and soil degradation.

A. Martín

2013-05-01

172

Secondary metabolites in different species of Brassica vegetables grown in greenhouse.  

OpenAIRE

In Galicia (northwestern Spain), different Brassica species are used as leaf vegetable products for human and also for animal consumption. Kales (Brassica oleracea acephala group), cabbages (B. oleracea capitata group), leaf rape (B. napus pabularia group), and turnip tops and turnip greens (B. rapa rapa group) are the most important Brassica crops in this region. At the Misión Biológica de Galicia (CSIC, Spain), a collection of local varieties of these species is kept in a Germplasm Bank. ...

Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Lema Ma?rquez, Margarita; Cartea Gonza?lez, Mari?a Elena

2011-01-01

173

Effects of different media on vegetative growth of two Lilium cultivars in soilless culture  

OpenAIRE

Strong, tall and healthy stems, as well as green background by means of leaves, are very important characters in marketing of cut flowers including Lily (Lilium). Also, in order to reuse the bulbs for next crop production, they should have enough stored materials and perimeter. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of different media on some vegetative characters of two Lillium cultivars in greenhouse conditions and determine the most suitable medium. The experiment was bas...

Khaligy, A.; Tabatabaei, S. J.; Alizadeh Ajirlou, S.; Nikrazm, R.

2011-01-01

174

Application of an innovative technique for histological and histochemical study of different vegetal tissues  

OpenAIRE

A new original "cryostabilization" technique was applied to different animal tissues and organs. In this study, we apply this technique also to vegetal tissues (ripening and ripe fleshy fruits, buds and embryos). The proposed method preserves good tissue morphology and intracellular substances, and avoids loss of epicuticular waxes; moreover it maintains in situ some enzymatic activities. Being some samples very difficult to handle the original protocol had to be modified process. The correct...

Dore, Bruno Emilio

2009-01-01

175

Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater  

OpenAIRE

Wastewaters from leather processing are very complex and lead to water pollution if discharged untreated, especially due to its high organic loading. In this study the survival of different plant species in subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands receiving tannery wastewater was investigated. Five pilot units were vegetated with Canna indica, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Stenotaphrum secundatum and Iris pseudacorus, and a sixth unit was left as an unvegetated control. The...

Calheiros, Cristina S. C.; Rangel, Anto?nio O. S. S.; Castro, Paula M. L.

2007-01-01

176

The vegetative development of Sinningia leucotricha Hoehne (Moore) under different levels of shading  

OpenAIRE

This work aimed at the assessment of the influence of different levels of shading in the development of (Sinningia leucotricha Hoehne (Moore). Tuberous roots of 2.3 ± 0.3 cm in diameter were used as vegetative material. The cultivation was performed in plastic vases and gross sand as substrate, and conditioned in sheltered nurseries protected by black polypropylene nets in the followings percentages: 0% (under full sunlight), 50, 60, and 70%. Sheltered nurseries with 60 or 70% of shading pre...

Lilian Keiko Unemoto; Ricardo Tadeu Faria; Adriane Marinho de Assis; Deonisio Destro

2010-01-01

177

Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Content of Vitamin C in Some Vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objective: Vitamin C is considered as the indicator of process severity, because of its high sensitivity to heat. There is an inverse relationship between vitamin C retention and the process severity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different common cooking methods on process severity and decrease amount of vitamin C in some vegetables.Materials and methods: In this study, potatoes were tested as boiled (with peel, without peel, sliced, shallow and deep fried, and cooking under pressure (with peel, without peel, sliced.Onions were tested as boiled (whole and sliced and microwave (whole and sliced. Leafy vegetables: Leek, leaf of beet, parsley, coriander, common dill and the mixed of them were tested as boiled fried. All tests performed as triplicate and the contents of vitamin C retention were determined by colorimetric method according to the instruction number 5609 of the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran and were compared to the contents of vitamin C in raw vegetables. Results:The highest decrease of vitamin C was observed in boiled, sliced (without peel and shallow fried potatoes and onions. In leafy vegetables highest loss of vitamin C was observed from boiled fried. The loss of vitamin C in potatoes and onions by using microwave were small and their vitamin C contents were similar to raw vegetables.Conclusion:The maximum retention of vitamin C in potatoes and onions are obtained by microwave method, with peel and whole, respectively. Sci Med J 2011; 10(1:97-106

Mohammadi V

2011-03-01

178

The Effectiveness of Web Search Engines to Index New Sites from Different Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Investigates how effectively Web search engines index new sites from different countries. The primary interest is whether new sites are indexed equally or whether search engines are biased towards certain countries. If major search engines show biased coverage it can be considered a significant economic and political problem because…

Pirkola, Ari

2009-01-01

179

Application of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer vegetation index to study atmosphere-biosphere exchange of CO2  

Science.gov (United States)

Normalized difference vegetation indices derived from radiances measured by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer were used to prescribe the phasing of terrestrial photosynthesis. The satellite data were combined with field data on soil respiration and a global map of net primary productivity to obtain the seasonal exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. The monthly fluxes of CO2 thus obtained were employed as source/sink functions in a global three-dimensional atmospheric tracer transport model to simulate the annual oscillations of CO2 in the atmosphere. The results demonstrate that satellite data of high spatial and temporal resolution can be used to provide quantitative information about seasonal and longer-term variations of photosynthetic activity on a global scale.

Fung, I. Y.; Tucker, C. J.; Prentice, K. C.

1987-01-01

180

Evaluation of the data of vegetable covering using fraction images and multitemporal vegetation index, derived of orbital data of moderate resolution of the sensor MODIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective was to evaluate the data obtained by sensor MODIS onboard the EOS terra satellite land cover units. The study area is the republic of Colombia in South America. The methodology consisted of analyzing the multitemporal (vegetation, soil and shade-water) fraction images and vegetation indices (NDVI) apply the lineal spectral mixture model to products derived from derived images by sensor MODIS data obtained in years 2001 and 2003. The mosaics of the original and the transformed vegetation (soil and shade-water) bands were generated for the whole study area using SPRING 4. 0 software, developed by INPE then these mosaics were segmented, classified, mapped, and edited to obtain a moderate resolution land cover map. The results derived from MODIS analysis were compared with Landsat ETM+ data acquire for a single test site. The results of the project showed the usefulness of MODIS images for large-scale land cover mapping and monitoring studies

181

Environmental quality evaluation. Indexing tools to evaluate environmental quality from biological data, floristic and vegetational data in Ponte Galeria (Rome, Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work the study of indexing tools to evaluate environmental quality from biological data has been performed using a certain number of floristic and vegetational indices near Macchia Grande of Ponte Galeria (Rome, Italy). The indices have been applied on the basis of the data coming from a phyto sociological study of the area. Multivariate statistics methodologies have been utilized to obtain a synthetic evaluation of the indices

182

Cholesterol levels and nutritional composition of commercial layers eggs fed diets with different vegetable oils  

OpenAIRE

This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the supplementation of different vegetable oils at different levels to the diet of commercial layers on egg cholesterol levels and nutritional composition (proteins, total solids, lipids, and ashes) for 112 days. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments (T1 - control; T2 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil; T3 - inclusion of 2.5% canola oil; T4 - inclusion of 2.5% soybean oil; T5 - inclus...

Abg, Faitarone; Ea, Garcia; Roc?a, R. O.; Ricardo, H. A.; Andrade, E. N.; Peli?cia, K.; Vercese, F.

2013-01-01

183

Economic Study on Winter Vegetables Produced by Different Categories of Farms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was designed to assess the comparative profitability of selected winter vegetables like potato, cauliflower and tomato. To achieve this objective, total of 75 farmers, 25 producing potato, 25 producing cauliflower and 25 producing tomato were selected. For this purpose, Cobb-douglas production function model was used. Per hectare total cost of production of potato, cauliflower and tomato were 51396.79, 64406.06 and 61663.87 TK., respectively and the corresponding gross incomes were 99401.44, 119165.12 and 93442.24 TK., respectively. The estimated net return of producing potato, cauliflower and tomato were 48004.65, 54759.06 and 31778.37 TK., respectively. For producing the three alternate winter vegetables net return was the highest for cauliflower followed by potato and tomato. It was also found that there was a large variation of yield in producing these winter vegetables among different categories of farms. In the case producing potato and cauliflower, per hectare yield was the highest for small farms followed by medium and large farms. On the other hand in the case of tomato per hectare yield was the highest (48164.50 kg for large farms followed by medium (47444.10 kg and small farms (46143.00 kg. It is concluded that production of cauliflower is more profitable than that of others.

M.S. Sultana

2005-01-01

184

Effects of neighboring vascular plants on the abundance of bryophytes in different vegetation types  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the climate change, vegetation of tundra ecosystems is predicted to shift toward shrub and tree dominance, and this change may influence bryophytes. To estimate how changes in growing environment and the dominance of vascular plants influence bryophyte abundance, we compared the relationship of occurrence of bryophytes among other plant types in a five-year experiment of warming (T), fertilization (F) and T + F in two vegetation types, heath and meadow, in a subarctic-alpine ecosystem. We compared individual leaf area among shrub species to confirm that deciduous shrubs might cause severe shading effect. Effects of neighboring functional types on the performance of Hylocomium splendens was also analyzed. Results show that F and T + F treatments significantly influenced bryophyte abundance negatively. Under natural conditions, bryophytes in the heath site were negatively related to the abundance of shrubs and lichens and the relationship between lichens and bryophytes strengthened after the experimental period. After five years of experimental treatments in the meadow, a positive abundance relationship emerged between bryophytes and deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs and forbs. This relationship was not found in the heath site. Our study therefore shows that the abundance relationships between bryophytes and plants in two vegetation types within the same area can be different. Deciduous shrubs had larger leaf area than evergreen shrubs but did not show any shading effect on H. splendens.

Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Kudo, Gaku; Alatalo, Juha M.; Molau, Ulf

2012-07-01

185

A Preliminary Study on Genetic Variation of Arsenic Concentration in 32 Different Genotypes of Leafy Vegetable  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are a food crop with higher protein and are also important source of minerals which are essential for good health. Due to the large consumption, it is necessary to decrease the arsenic (As concentration in leafy vegetable to avoid the potential risk to human health. The current study is aimed at assessing arsenic (As accumulation ability and identification of cultivars with less As concentration that could be grown in As contaminated farmland for food safety. A set of thirty two leafy vegetable cultivars from 5 species were compared in hydroponics for 2 weeks having moderate level of 0- control and 6 mg As L-1. At harvest, plants were sampled and analyzed for As concentration. Significant genotypic variations were observed in the shoots As concentration, translocation and bioaccumulation factors revealing more than 8 and 25 times cultivar differences in shoot As concentration, and in translocation factors respectively. This result revealed that As concentration in shoot was in part governed by the greater ability of root-shoot translocation. Cultivar Sijibaiye (SJBY had the lowest shoot As concentration while the highest was detected in Dayekongxincai (DYKXC. The average As concentration in roots were found to be ten to twenty times higher than those observed in shoots, indicating that there is restricted transport of As from the root system to the shoot of cultivars. Therefore, it has been suggested that there is possibility to lower the As concentration in leafy vegetables by selecting and breeding cultivars with less As concentration that can be safely grown in contaminated soils with the slight and moderate levels of As for safe consumption.

Mathieu Nsenga Kumwimba

2014-04-01

186

Bandwidth optimization for filter-based fatigue index in different inter-electrode distances.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the bandwidth of the filter-based fatigue index was determined by the comparison of optimized cut-off frequencies in different inter-electrode distances. Sixty-one subjects participated in isometric knee extension, isotonic ankle dorsiflexion, and isotonic elbow extension exercises. Electromyography (EMG) signals were obtained from right rectus femoris, triceps brachii, and tibialis anterior muscles during exercises. The filter-based fatigue index was compared with mean root-mean-square values, median frequency, Dimitrov spectral index, and Gonzalez-Izal wavelet index. Optimized cut-off frequencies of the high-pass filter for three different exercises and three different inter-electrode distances were about 350 Hz. Results from this study support that around 350 Hz high-pass filter could be useful to determine cut-off frequency for fatigue prediction in general purposes. PMID:25227085

Kim, Jungyoon; Son, Jongsang; Kim, Youngho

2014-01-01

187

Resting-state EEG study of comatose patients: a connectivity and frequency analysis to find differences between vegetative and minimally conscious states.  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to look for differences in the power spectra and in EEG connectivity measures between patients in the vegetative state (VS/UWS) and patients in the minimally conscious state (MCS). The EEG of 31 patients was recorded and analyzed. Power spectra were obtained using modern multitaper methods. Three connectivity measures (coherence, the imaginary part of coherency and the phase lag index) were computed. Of the 31 patients, 21 were diagnosed as MCS and 10 as VS/UWS using...

Lehembre, Remy; Bruno, Marie-aure?lie; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Chatelle, Camille; Cologan, Victor; Leclercq, Yves; Soddu, Andrea; Macq, Benoit; Laureys, Steven; Noirhomme, Quentin

2012-01-01

188

Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS in the red spectral range  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new method for the satellite remote sensing of different types of vegetation and ocean colour is presented. In contrast to existing algorithms relying on the strong change of the reflectivity in the red and near infrared spectral region, our method analyses weak narrow-band (few nm reflectance structures (i.e. "fingerprint" structures of vegetation in the red spectral range. It is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS, which is usually applied for the analysis of atmospheric trace gas absorptions. Since the spectra of atmospheric absorption and vegetation reflectance are simultaneously included in the analysis, the effects of atmospheric absorptions are automatically corrected (in contrast to other algorithms. The inclusion of the vegetation spectra also significantly improves the results of the trace gas retrieval. The global maps of the results illustrate the seasonal cycles of different vegetation types. In addition to the vegetation distribution on land, they also show patterns of biological activity in the oceans. Our results indicate that improved sets of vegetation spectra might lead to more accurate and more specific identification of vegetation type in the future.

T. Wagner

2007-01-01

189

H-Index of Astrophysicists at Raman Research Institute: Performance of Different Calculators  

Science.gov (United States)

H-index, a single number proposed by J. E. Hirsch in 2005 has gained popularity as an index number to measure the research performance of individuals, institutions, universities, etc. There are many calculators to derive the h-in dex number, such as Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, etc. However, h-index can be calculated manually, provided we have access to a complete list of publications of a scientist and the number of citations received by them. It is observed that h-index for a given scientist at a ny given point of time differs from one calculator to the other. Here is an attempt to calculate the H-index of scientists of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Group at Raman Research Institute using Google Scholar Free calculator, Web of Science Paid calculator and The SAO/NASA As trophysics Data System manual calculation and comparison of the results. Application of this h- index phenomenon to the research output of RRI scientists in a group is done while keeping in mi nd Hirsch's systematic in vestigation to predict the position of a scientist using h-index in physics. It is believed that the higher the academic age of a scientist, the higher will be the h-index. An attempt is made to find whether this assumption is true with respect to the sample studied by including the superannuated scientists from Astronomy and Astrophysics Group at Raman Research Institute under the purview of this study.

Meera, B. M.; Manjunath, M.

2012-08-01

190

Diseño de un índice espectral de la vegetación desde una perspectiva conjunta de los patrones exponenciales y lineales del crecimiento / Design of a spectral vegetation index under the joint perspective of exponential and linear growth patterns  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se analizan diferentes experimentos con mediciones de reflectancia para revisar los patrones de las primeras dos constantes de los modelos de interacciones radiativas en el espacio del rojo (R) e infrarrojo cercano (IRC), concluyéndose de la evidencia experimental que el modelo de in [...] teracciones de orden uno es suficiente para este fin. En segundo lugar se desarrolla el algoritmo del índice espectral IV_CIMAS y se aplica a experimentos de cultivos, concluyéndose que este índice sólo tiene una relativa mejoría en relación con el índice NDVIcp, y que ambos describen bien la fase expo-lineal de la etapa vegetativa de la vegetación. La fase reproductiva no es modelada en forma adecuada por ninguno de los índices espectrales. Finalmente, se revisan los modelos de la geometría sol-sensor propuestos, y se concluye que éstos tienen buenos ajustes experimentales, permitiendo estandarizar esta geometría. La modelación de los patrones asociados a las constantes de las curvas espectrales de igual vegetación es muy difícil de realizar por las propiedades de los espacios usados. El problema del diseño de índices de vegetación es todavía un problema abierto. Abstract in english This study analyzes different experiments with reflectance measurements to review the patterns of the first two constants of the models of radiative interaction in the red (R) and near infrared (NIR) space. From experimental evidence, it is concluded that the first order model of interactions is suf [...] ficient for this aim. Secondly, the algorithm of the spectral index IV_CIMAS is developed and applied to crop experiments, concluding that this index is only a relative improvement over the NDVIcp index and that the expo-linear phase of the vegetative growth stage of the vegetation are well-described by both. The reproductive phase is not adequately modeled by either of the spectral indexes. Finally, the models of sun-sensor geometry proposed are reviewed, and it is concluded that these have good experimental fit, allowing this geometry to be standardized. Modeling of the associated patterns to the spectral curve constants of equal vegetation is very difficult to do because of properties of the spaces used. The problem of designing vegetation indexes is still open.

Enrique, Romero-Sánchez; Fernando, Paz-Pellat; Enrique, Palacios-Vélez; Martín, Bolaños-González; René, Valdez-Lazalde; Arnulfo, Aldrete.

2009-05-01

191

The impacts of bandwidths on the estimation of leaf chlorophyll concentration using normalized difference vegetation indices  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work is to estimate leaf chlorophyll concentration with 6 different normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs) under 4 bandwidths (1, 5, 10 and 20 nm). A popular leaf radiative transfer model(i.e. PROSPECT) was used to simulate the leaf reflectance spectra from 400-800nm under varying chlorophyll concentrations. Then 6 combinations of bands sensitive to chlorophyll concentrations were chosen for the calculation of their NDVIs. Simulated spectral response functions were applied to calculate the synthesis reflectance spectra at the intervals of 5, 10 and 20 nm respectively, and then corresponding NDVIs were calculated. The change of correlation coefficients between the NDVIs and the leaf chlorophyll concentrations were examined. Results showed that some NDVIs had a good performance with increasing bandwidth, whereas response of different NDVIs to the 4 bandwidths were different generally. Our results suggested that the improvement of spectral resolution was not necessary for some NDVIs to estimate leaf chlorophyll.

Ma, Mingliang; Shi, Runhe; Liu, Pudong; Wang, Hong; Gao, Wei

2014-10-01

192

Relação do padrão sazonal da vegetação com a precipitação na região de cerrado da Amazônia Legal, usando índices espectrais de vegetação / Relationship between vegetation seasonal pattern and precipitation in the cerrado region by spectral vegetation indexes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A precipitação é um dos principais fatores que determina a dinâmica sazonal da vegetação na região de savanas tropicais, como é o caso do cerrado brasileiro. Neste trabalho foram analisadas as relações da precipitação sazonal, com o comportamento sazonal das classes de uso e cobertura da terra (UCT) [...] , principalmente as fisionomias de cerrado do Estado de Tocantins. Foi analisada a dinâmica sazonal do cerrado, incluindo áreas florestadas e não florestadas, a partir da análise de imagens do MODIS/TERRA IV (Índices de Vegetação) de janeiro a dezembro de 2004, bem como dados diários de precipitação de 2004 e uma série de precipitação diária do período de 1969 a 2005. Os resultados da análise de precipitação mostram que a área de estudo apresentou uma alta sazonalidade, com estação seca de maio a setembro. As análises dos IV mostram que a dinâmica sazonal das formações de cerrado é similar àquela das áreas convertidas para outros usos. O padrão sazonal das classes de UCT segue os padrões da precipitação, cujos menores valores foram registrados no mês de agosto de 2004, mês este que apresentou os menores valores dos IV. Diferentemente das demais classes de UCT, a formação florestal não se ajustou ao padrão de precipitação, apresentando valores de IV similares ao longo do ano com leve decréscimo no mês de setembro de 2004. Abstract in english Precipitation is one of the main factors that determine the seasonal dynamics of the vegetation in tropical savanna areas, as the Brazilian cerrado. In this work the relationship of the seasonal precipitation with the seasonal behavior of the land use and land cover (LULC) types, mainly savannah phy [...] siognomies of the Tocantins State, was investigated. We analyzed the savanna seasonal dynamics, including forest and converted areas, with MODIS/TERRA VI (vegetation indexes) satellite measurements from January to December 2004 and daily precipitation of 2004 and daily precipitation series from 1969 to 2005. The results of the precipitation analysis show that the study areas exhibited a high seasonality with a dry season from May to September. The analysis of the VI showed that the seasonal dynamic of the savanna formations and the converted areas were similar. The seasonal pattern of these LULC types follows the precipitation pattern, when the lowest VI values were recorded in August of 2004. Differently of these LULC types, forest formations do not fitted to the precipitation pattern, this LULC type keep similar VI values along year with light decrease in September of 2004.

Jorge Alberto Bustamante, Becerra; Yosio Edemar, Shimabukuro; Regina Célia dos Santos, Alvalá.

2009-06-01

193

Sexual differences in microhabitat selection of breeding little bustards Tetrax tetrax: Ecological segregation based on vegetation structure  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined sexual differences in patterns of vegetation structure selection in the sexually dimorphic little bustard. Differences in vegetation structure between male, female and non-used locations during reproduction were examined and used to build a presence/absence model for each sex. Ten variables were measured in each location, extracting two PCA factors (PC1: a visibility-shelter gradient; PC2: a gradient in food availability) used as response variables in GLM explanatory models. Both factors significantly differed between female, male and control locations. Neither study site nor phenology was significant. Logistic regression was used to model male and female presence/absence. Female presence was positively associated to cover of ground by vegetation litter, as well as overall vegetation cover, and negatively to vegetation density over 30 cm above ground. Male presence was positively related to litter cover and short vegetation and negatively to vegetation density over 30 cm above ground. Models showed good global performance and robustness. Female microhabitat selection and distribution seems to be related to the balance between shelter and visibility for surveillance. Male microhabitat selection would be related mainly to the need of conspicuousness for courtship. Accessibility to food resources seems to be equally important for both sexes. Differences suggest ecological sexual segregation resulting from different ecological constraints. These are the first detailed results on vegetation structure selection in both male and female little bustards, and are useful in designing management measures addressing vegetation structure irrespective of landscape composition. Similar microhabitat approaches can be applied to manage the habitat of many declining farmland birds.

Morales, M. B.; Traba, J.; Carriles, E.; Delgado, M. P.; de la Morena, E. L. García

2008-11-01

194

Active layer thermal regime at different vegetation covers at Lions Rump, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change impacts the biotic and abiotic components of polar ecosystems, affecting the stability of permafrost, active layer thickness, vegetation, and soil. This paper describes the active layer thermal regimes of two adjacent shallow boreholes, under the same soil but with two different vegetations. The study is location in Lions Rump, at King George Island, Maritime Antarctic, one of the most sensitive regions to climate change, located near the climatic limit of Antarctic permafrost. Both sites are a Turbic Cambic Cryosol formed on andesitic basalt, one under moss vegetation (Andreaea gainii, at 85 m a.s.l.) and another under lichen (Usnea sp., at 86 m a.s.l.), located 10 m apart. Ground temperature at same depths (10, 30 and 80 cm), water content at 80 cm depth and air temperature were recorded hourly between March 2009 and February 2011. The two sites showed significant differences in mean annual ground temperature for all depths. The lichen site showed a higher soil temperature amplitude compared to the moss site, with ground surface (10 cm) showing the highest daily temperature in January 2011 (7.3 °C) and the lowest daily temperature in August (- 16.5 °C). The soil temperature at the lichen site closely followed the air temperature trend. The moss site showed a higher water content at the bottommost layer, consistent with the water-saturated, low landscape position. The observed thermal buffering effect under mosses is primarily associated with higher moisture onsite, but a longer duration of the snowpack (not monitored) may also have influenced the results. Active layer thickness was approximately 150 cm at low-lying moss site, and 120 cm at well-drained lichen site. This allows to classify these soils as Cryosols (WRB) or Gelisols (Soil Taxonomy), with evident turbic features.

Almeida, Ivan C. C.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Fernandes, Raphael B. A.; Pereira, Thiago T. C.; Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Pereira, Antônio Batista

2014-11-01

195

Features of development speed - power capabilities with different anthropometric indexes for boys 10 - 11 years.  

OpenAIRE

The aspects of development speed - power capabilities for the boys of middle school ages are considered. 88 boys of sixth classes of basic medical group took part in research (age 10 - 11???). Facilities of development of the indicated capabilities on gymnastic shells with the use of own weight body were exercises. Experimental groups were completed taking into account a difference between the indexes of growth and weight after the index of Brok. Distinctive features of development speed -...

Kamaev O.I.; Proskurov E.M.

2012-01-01

196

Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ISSN: 2255-2863 is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence, and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.

Antonio Juan Sánchez

2013-07-01

197

Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ISSN: 2255-2863 is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence, and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.

Antonio Juan Sánchez

2012-09-01

198

Woody and grassy vegetation development in different landscape elements of the Curonian spit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The species of woody and grassy establish on seashore sands and wastes. These plants are adapted for less favorable existence conditions some of them growing in littoral habitats of excessive moisture and salinity. Other tolerates infertile and dry sand. The purpose of the study have been analyzed the dispersion vegetation in different relief elements of the coastal protective dune look for a relation between woody and grassy plant species to foresee the tendencies of further seashore landscape development. It has been established that in locations with intensive flow of visitors a net of trodden paths is formed where the plants cover is disappearing very fast as there are suitable conditions for the springtime and autumn winds to erode the coastal protective dune of the seashore of the Curonian spit. The trodden path in a couple of years turn into 2 – 3 m. vides sand drifting corridors, but the lies of the holiday makers become there 4 – 5 m. wide pit and hollow. After these formations have interconnected they shape deflations of different size. The drifting sand carried by the prevailing western direction winds swamp the beyond coastal dune plains and the outskirts of the forest and sandy meadows. The statistical analysis of projection cover of plant shows that during the last 27 years (from 1982 the conditions for vegetation survival on the Curonian spit seashore sand dunes are gradually deteriorating.

Algimantas Me?islovas Olšausaks

2009-12-01

199

Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

Antonio Juan Sánchez

2013-08-01

200

Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society. We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ

2013-05-01

201

Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ

2012-07-01

202

Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

Antonio Juan Sánchez

2013-11-01

203

Evaluation of MODIS vegetation indices for detecting deforestation in Amazonia  

OpenAIRE

Vegetation indices (NDVI and EVI) obtained from MODIS products (250 m and 500m, surface reflectance) were evaluated in relation to the possibility of detecting and monitoring deforestation areas in Amazonia. A new vegetation index, the DNRG (Normalized Difference between Red and Green spectral bands), was proposed with the same objective. The radiometric quality of the multi-date MODIS products was evaluated to verify the possibility of using vegetation index to generate deforestation maps. T...

Yosio Edemir Shimabukuro; Antonio Roberto Formaggio; Antonio Henrique Correia; Valdete Duarte

2007-01-01

204

Interpersonal Reactivity Index: Analysis of Invariance and Gender Differences in Spanish Youths  

Science.gov (United States)

Empathy is understood as a multidimensional construct involving both cognitive and emotional factors for which, traditionally, gender differences have been reported. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis in Catalog Sel Documents Psychol 10:1-19, 1980) is an instrument made up of four subscales, each measuring a different dimension of the…

Holgado Tello, Francisco Pablo; Delgado Egido, Begona; Carrasco Ortiz, Miguel A.; Del Barrio Gandara, M. V.

2013-01-01

205

Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM v1.0  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have large impacts on carbon–water–energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in the new Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM to explore the importance of vegetation structure and vegetation adaptation to water stress on equilibrium biomass states. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximize biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the water use efficiency and leaf area index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, a negative feedback mechanism in the vegetation–soil water system is found as the vegetation also tries to minimize its cover to optimize the surrounding bare ground area from which water can be extracted, thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation. Under larger precipitation, a positive feedback mechanism is found in which vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large leaf area index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a "survival" state to a "growing" state.

Z. Yin

2014-05-01

206

Profitability and morphological characters of inter-cropping of different vegetables in tea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted at National Tea Research Institute, Shinkiari, Mansehra, during 2006-07 to find out the most productive and profitable tea-based intercropping system with different vegetable crops. The vegetables included were brinjal solanum melongena , chilies Capsicum annum, okra Ahle moselous, potato Solanum tuberosum, spinach Spinacia oleracea, garlic Allium sativum, onion Allium cepa, peas Pisum sativum and tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, as intercrop combination in newly planted tea. Intercropping of peas showed up poorest among all other treatments, in net income of Rs. 4,800.0, whereas intercrops significantly affected no. of branches, leaves, fresh and dry weight/plant of tea crop respectively. Considering the net return and total expenditure incurred on raising of intercrops, the highest net profit of Rs. 6,669.0/acre was obtained from potato, followed by garlic at Rs. 6,200.0. All treatments combination is more or less similar in net return, except T/sub 5/. Yield and yield-attributes in all treatments were significantly affected. Whereas branches and fresh weight remained significant among each other except sole tea crop. Agronomic data showed that the cropping days were also varies from 45 to 150 days in all treatments. Therefore it might be more economically viable than sole tea crop, upto complete bush formation. (author)

207

The vegetative development of Sinningia leucotricha Hoehne (Moore under different levels of shading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed at the assessment of the influence of different levels of shading in the development of (Sinningia leucotricha Hoehne (Moore. Tuberous roots of 2.3 ± 0.3 cm in diameter were used as vegetative material. The cultivation was performed in plastic vases and gross sand as substrate, and conditioned in sheltered nurseries protected by black polypropylene nets in the followings percentages: 0% (under full sunlight, 50, 60, and 70%. Sheltered nurseries with 60 or 70% of shading presented the highest vegetative development for Brazilian edelweiss. The cultivation of this species under full sunlight is not recommended.A rainha-do-abismo (Sinningia leucotricha Hoehne (Moore é uma planta nativa do Estado do Paraná, se destaca pela beleza de suas folhas de aspecto prateado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de sombreamento no desenvolvimento de plantas de rainha-do-abismo. Para o experimento foram utilizadas como material vegetativo raízes tuberosas com 2,3 ± 0,3 cm de diâmetro. O cultivo foi realizado em vasos plásticos e areia grossa como substrato, que foram acondicionados em viveiros protegidos com tela de polipropileno de coloração preta, nas seguintes porcentagens: 0% (a pleno sol 50%, 60% e 70%. Viveiros protegidos com 60% ou 70% de sombreamento foram os que proporcionaram maior desenvolvimento vegetativo de rainha-do-abismo. O cultivo desta espécie a pleno sol não é recomendado.

Lilian Keiko Unemoto

2010-02-01

208

The vegetative development of Sinningia leucotricha Hoehne (Moore) under different levels of shading  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A rainha-do-abismo (Sinningia leucotricha Hoehne (Moore) é uma planta nativa do Estado do Paraná, se destaca pela beleza de suas folhas de aspecto prateado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de sombreamento no desenvolvimento de plantas de rainha-do-abismo. P [...] ara o experimento foram utilizadas como material vegetativo raízes tuberosas com 2,3 ± 0,3 cm de diâmetro. O cultivo foi realizado em vasos plásticos e areia grossa como substrato, que foram acondicionados em viveiros protegidos com tela de polipropileno de coloração preta, nas seguintes porcentagens: 0% (a pleno sol) 50%, 60% e 70%. Viveiros protegidos com 60% ou 70% de sombreamento foram os que proporcionaram maior desenvolvimento vegetativo de rainha-do-abismo. O cultivo desta espécie a pleno sol não é recomendado. Abstract in english This work aimed at the assessment of the influence of different levels of shading in the development of (Sinningia leucotricha Hoehne (Moore). Tuberous roots of 2.3 ± 0.3 cm in diameter were used as vegetative material. The cultivation was performed in plastic vases and gross sand as substrate, and [...] conditioned in sheltered nurseries protected by black polypropylene nets in the followings percentages: 0% (under full sunlight), 50, 60, and 70%. Sheltered nurseries with 60 or 70% of shading presented the highest vegetative development for Brazilian edelweiss. The cultivation of this species under full sunlight is not recommended.

Lilian Keiko, Unemoto; Ricardo Tadeu de, Faria; Adriane Marinho de, Assis; Deonisio, Destro.

2010-02-01

209

Characteristics of Photosynthetic Behaviors and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Different Vegetable Species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the variability in the various physiological characteristics of seven popular commercial vegetable seedlings such as cabbage, spinach, Chinese cabbage, eggplant cucumber, tomato and Chinese radish. The photosynthetic rate (Pn was higher in cabbage seedlings followed by eggplant seedlings. Chinese cabbage and cabbage seedlings showed higher stomatal conductance (CS than other vegetables studied. Cucumber seedlings had higher respiration rate followed by tomato, egg plant and Chinese radish. In the case of internal CO2 concentration, all the species studied differ significantly. Chinese cabbage seedlings exhibited the highest transpiration rate (Tr and Chinese radish had the lowest. There was little decrease in photochemical efficiency of PS II i.e., Fv/Fm value of chlorophyll fluorescence in all species, however cabbage and spinach seedling had the highest Fv/Fm value followed by cucumber, tomato and eggplant seedlings. Among all the physiological parameters, Pn was highly correlated with Fv/Fm value. The results may be useful in formulating efficient selection and breeding programs in improving desired quality characteristics of plant species.

Sharmin Khan

2006-01-01

210

The Influence of Different Vegetable Oils on Some ?-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Broiler Chickens Breast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the vegetable oils added to the combined fodder can significantly modify the fatty acids profile in broiler food, through its redirection even the fatty acids profile of carcasses can be modified through enrichment in certain fatty acids and obtaining functional foods. Therefore an experiment was conduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder in which 2% of different fat sources have been incorporated (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linseed oil. After the 42 days growth period, the fatty acids profile, % of fatty acids in 100 g product (EPA, DPA, DHA, ? SFA, ? MUFA, ? PUFA of the chicken from the experimental groups, were determined. Fatty acids were determined using gascromatography. The data obtained after statistic processing and interpretation have highlighted the fact that, concerning the fatty acids profile in the chickens breast, we can observe variations of the determined fatty acids content, what shows us that they can be influenced through dietary factors, but there quantity being determined by the participation % of the energy sources (vegetable oils, but also by the fatty acids content of the participating raw materials.

Drago?-Sorin Fota

2011-05-01

211

A Vegetation Index to Estimate Terrestrial Gross Primary Production Capacity for the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate (GCOM-C/Second-Generation Global Imager (SGLI Satellite Sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To estimate global gross primary production (GPP, which is an important parameter for studies of vegetation productivity and the carbon cycle, satellite data are useful. In 2014, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA plans to launch the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate (GCOM-C satellite carrying the second-generation global imager (SGLI. The data obtained will be used to estimate global GPP. The rate of photosynthesis depends on photosynthesis reduction and photosynthetic capacity, which is the maximum photosynthetic velocity at light saturation under adequate environmental conditions. Photosynthesis reduction is influenced by weather conditions, and photosynthetic capacity is influenced by chlorophyll and RuBisCo content. To develop the GPP estimation algorithm, we focus on photosynthetic capacity because chlorophyll content can be detected by optical sensors. We hypothesized that the maximum rate of low-stress GPP (called “GPP capacity” is mainly dependent on the chlorophyll content that can be detected by a vegetation index (VI. The objective of this study was to select an appropriate VI with which to estimate global GPP capacity with the GCOM-C/SGLI. We analyzed reflectance data to select the VI that has the best linear correlation with chlorophyll content at the leaf scale and with GPP capacity at canopy and satellite scales. At the satellite scale, flux data of seven dominant plant functional types and reflectance data obtained by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS were used because SGLI data were not available. The results indicated that the green chlorophyll index, CIgreen(?NIR/?green-1, had a strong linear correlation with chlorophyll content at the leaf scale (R2 = 0.87, p < 0.001 and with GPP capacity at the canopy (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001 and satellite scales (R2 = 0.72, p < 0.01. Therefore, CIgreen is a robust and suitable vegetation index for estimating global GPP capacity.

Juthasinee Thanyapraneedkul

2012-11-01

212

Vegetation structure and composition across different land use in a semi-arid savanna of southern Zimbabwe  

OpenAIRE

We compared the structure and composition of vegetation communities across different land uses in the northern Gonarezhou National Park and adjacent areas, southeast Zimbabwe. Vegetation data were collected from 60 sample plots using a stratified random sampling technique from April to May 2012. Stratification was by land use, and sample plots in all three strata occurred on predominantly siallitic soils. Our results show that the communal area had higher woody plant species diversity (H' = 2...

Zisadza-gandiwa, P.; Mango, L.; Gandiwa, E.; Goza, D.; Parakasingwa, C.; Chinoitezvi, E.; Shimbani, J.; Muvengwi, J.

2013-01-01

213

Comparison and Intercalibration of Vegetation Indices from Different Sensors for Monitoring Above-Ground Plant Nitrogen Uptake in Winter Wheat  

OpenAIRE

Various sensors have been used to obtain the canopy spectral reflectance for monitoring above-ground plant nitrogen (N) uptake in winter wheat. Comparison and intercalibration of spectral reflectance and vegetation indices derived from different sensors are important for multi-sensor data fusion and utilization. In this study, the spectral reflectance and its derived vegetation indices from three ground-based sensors (ASD Field Spec Pro spectrometer, CropScan MSR 16 and GreenSeeker RT 100) in...

Yan Zhu; Weixing Cao; Jun Ni; Xinfeng Yao; Xia Yao; Wenqing Jia; Yongchao Tian

2013-01-01

214

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal compon...

Rosana de Cássia de Souza Schneider; Adilson Ben da Costa; Luciano Marder; Marco Flôres Ferrão; Daniela Mueller

2013-01-01

215

Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in the red spectral range  

OpenAIRE

A new method for the satellite remote sensing of different types of vegetation and ocean colour is presented. In contrast to existing algorithms relying on the strong change of the reflectivity in the red and near infrared spectral region, our method analyses weak narrow-band (few nm) reflectance structures (i.e. "fingerprint" structures) of vegetation in the red spectral range. It is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), which is usually applied for the anal...

Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Deutschmann, T.; Grzegorski, M.; Platt, U.

2007-01-01

216

A comparative study on the polyphenolic content, antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of different solvent extracts of Brassica oleracea vegetables  

OpenAIRE

Brassica vegetables are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates. Investigation was undertaken to optimise the best solvents among 60% ethanol, acetone and methanol for the extraction of polyphenols from Brassica vegetables. Furthermore, different properties such as antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity were also investigated. Results showed that a 60% methanolic extract showed the highest total phenolic content which was 23.6, 20.4 and 18.7 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE...

Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Abu-ghannam, Nissreen; Gupta, Shilpi

2011-01-01

217

Formative research on HAPA model determinants for fruit and vegetable intake: Target beliefs for audiences at different stages of change  

OpenAIRE

Theoretically-driven health communications are needed to promote fruit and vegetable intake among people at different stages of change. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA), a clearly specified model and good predictor of fruit and vegetable intake, was used as a framework to guide a formative research for the development of health messages targeting individuals at either a non-intentional or intentional stage of change. A mix-method approach was used, combining eight focus groups (n = 4...

Godinho, Cristina A.; Alvarez, Maria Joa?o; Lima, Maria Lui?sa

2013-01-01

218

The environmental vegetation index: A tool potentially useful for arid land management. [Texas and Mexico, plant growth stress due to water deficits  

Science.gov (United States)

The NOAA-6 AVHRR data sets acquired over South Texas and Mexico during the spring of 1980 and after Hurricane Allen passed inland are analyzed. These data were processed to produce the Gray-McCrary Index (GMI's) for each pixel location over the selected area, which area contained rangeland and cropland, both irrigated and nonirrigated. The variations in the GMI's appear to reflect well the availability of water for vegetation. The GMI area maps are shown to delineate and to aid in defining the duration of drought; suggesting the possibility that time changes over a selected area could be useful for irrigation management.

Gray, T. I., Jr.; Mccrary, D. G. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

219

Exploration of Loggerhead Shrike Habitats in Grassland National Park of Canada Based on in Situ Measurements and Satellite-Derived Adjusted Transformed Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (ATSAVI  

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Full Text Available The population of loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus excubutirudes in Grassland National Park of Canada (GNPC has undergone a severe decline due to habitat loss and limitation. Shrike habitat availability is highly impacted by the biophysical characteristics of grassland landscapes. This study was conducted in the west block of GNPC. The overall purpose was to extract important biophysical and topographical variables from both SPOT satellite imagery and in situ measurements. Statistical analysis including Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, measuring Coefficient Variation (CV, and regression analysis were applied to these variables obtained from both imagery and in situ measurement. Vegetation spatial variation and heterogeneity among active, inactive and control nesting sites at 20 m × 20 m, 60 m × 60 m and 100 m × 100 m scales were investigated. Results indicated that shrikes prefer to nest in open areas with scattered shrubs, particularly thick or thorny species of smaller size, to discourage mammalian predators. The most important topographical characteristic is that active sites are located far away from roads at higher elevation. Vegetation index was identified as a good indicator of vegetation characteristics for shrike habitats due to its significant relation to most relevant biophysical factors. Spatial variation analysis showed that at all spatial scales, active sites have the lowest vegetation abundance and the highest heterogeneity among the three types of nesting sites. For all shrike habitat types, vegetation abundance decreases with increasing spatial scales while habitat heterogeneity increases with increasing spatial scales. This research also indicated that suitable shrike habitat for GNPC can be mapped using a logistical model with ATSAVI and dead material in shrub canopy as the independent variables.

Li Shen

2013-01-01

220

Students' Physical Function Index Measurement and Evaluation in Different Sports Option Course  

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Full Text Available Using experiment method and test method, we measure and evaluate three kinds of students' physical function indexes in sports options course, aims to test the different levels of physical functions in different sports options courses, which will prove the scientific factor in school organizational way of practice. The results show that ball, aerobics class and climbing option course have significant differences in promoting students' physical function.

Lina Sun

2012-12-01

221

Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg?1 with a median value of 1.70 mg kg?1, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film. -- Highlights: •Phthalate esters in soils from suburban intensive vegetable production systems were investigated. •Phthalate levels and risks of the vegetable soils with different plastic film use modes were examined. •Sources of phthalate esters in vegetable production soils were analyzed. -- PAE contamination of intensively managed vegetable soils varied widely depending on the mode of use of plastic film in different production systems

222

Low perfusion index affects the difference in glucose level between capillary and venous blood  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim In emergency cases, finger stick testing is primarily used to check the blood glucose value of patients since it takes longer to obtain the venous value. In critical patients, under conditions that cause an increase in metabolic state and level of stress, there occurs considerable difference in glucose levels between capillary and venous measurements. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of capillary and venous glucose values, according to the perfusion index level obtained with the Masimo Radical-7® device, in critical patients aged 18 years and over. Method We conducted this prospective and observational study in the emergency department of the Eskisehir Osmangazi University hospital between November 3, 2008 and February 2, 2009. Results The blood glucose of 300 critical patients was checked by finger stick in the emergency unit. The participants with normal vital signs had perfusion index between 0 and 5; the results obtained by the two methods were more consistent for perfusion index values of 6 and over. The results were most consistent in aged participants with normal vital sign findings and low perfusion index and in young patients with high perfusion index. In the cases where at least one of the vital signs was abnormal, the glucose values obtained by the two methods were more consistent when the perfusion index was 6 or over. In this group, independently from the perfusion index value, the consistency was higher in younger patients compared with aged patients. Conclusion In the emergency department, perfusion index value measured by Masimo Radical-7 and capillary blood glucose levels can serve in blood sugar management in critically ill patients. PMID:25429227

Acar, Nurdan; Ozcelik, Hamit; Cevik, Arif Alper; Ozakin, Engin; Yorulmaz, Goknur; Kebapci, Nur; Bilge, Ugur; Bilgin, Muzaffer

2014-01-01

223

The variation of components in the radiation balance over different fynbos vegetation types  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary aim of this research is to test whether fynbos vegetation has a high reflection coefficient, and the secondary aim is to consider the vegetation at the sites where the radiation measurements were carried out in order to determine whether similar vegetation structural types have similar radiation regimes. In order to do this six sites were selected in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve. At each site the radiation fluxes were measured for three days during the late summer, giving a total of eighteen days of observation. In addition to the radiation measurements structural data was collected for the vegetation at each site so that comparisons between the radiation fluxes and vegetation could be made. Floristic data was also collected, to typify the vegetation at each site. It has been found that fynbos vegetation, as represented by this study, has an unusually low reflection coefficient which varies from 0,08 -0,13. These values are below those recorded in the literature for other heathland vegetation. On the basis of a numerical classification of the vegetation structural data, it has been found that there is no clear relationship between the vegetation and the various components of the radiation balance

224

Cholesterol levels and nutritional composition of commercial layers eggs fed diets with different vegetable oils  

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Full Text Available This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the supplementation of different vegetable oils at different levels to the diet of commercial layers on egg cholesterol levels and nutritional composition (proteins, total solids, lipids, and ashes for 112 days. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments (T1 - control; T2 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil; T3 - inclusion of 2.5% canola oil; T4 - inclusion of 2.5% soybean oil; T5 - inclusion of 5% rapeseed oil; T6 - inclusion of 5% canola oil; T7 - inclusion of 5% soybean oil; T8 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil + 2.5% soybean oil; T9 - inclusion 2.5% canola oil + 2.5% soybean oil; T10 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil + 2.5% canola oil of six replicates of eight birds each, totaling 480 birds. Yolk cholesterol levels and nutritional composition were determined on days 20, 60 and 112 days of the experimental period. Data obtained during the experimental period were submitted to analysis of variance. Egg yolks produced by layer fed oils presented lower cholesterol levels after 20 days of inclusion in the experimental diets. On days 60 and 112, cholesterol levels were higher. It was concluded that supplementing layer diets with vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids does not change the nutritional composition of egg yolks. The supply of diets containing oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids does not reduce yolk cholesterol content.

ABG Faitarone

2013-03-01

225

Cholesterol levels and nutritional composition of commercial layers eggs fed diets with different vegetable oils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the supplementation of different vegetable oils at different levels to the diet of commercial layers on egg cholesterol levels and nutritional composition (proteins, total solids, lipids, and ashes) for 112 days. Birds were distributed according to [...] a completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments (T1 - control; T2 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil; T3 - inclusion of 2.5% canola oil; T4 - inclusion of 2.5% soybean oil; T5 - inclusion of 5% rapeseed oil; T6 - inclusion of 5% canola oil; T7 - inclusion of 5% soybean oil; T8 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil + 2.5% soybean oil; T9 - inclusion 2.5% canola oil + 2.5% soybean oil; T10 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil + 2.5% canola oil) of six replicates of eight birds each, totaling 480 birds. Yolk cholesterol levels and nutritional composition were determined on days 20, 60 and 112 days of the experimental period. Data obtained during the experimental period were submitted to analysis of variance. Egg yolks produced by layer fed oils presented lower cholesterol levels after 20 days of inclusion in the experimental diets. On days 60 and 112, cholesterol levels were higher. It was concluded that supplementing layer diets with vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids does not change the nutritional composition of egg yolks. The supply of diets containing oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids does not reduce yolk cholesterol content.

ABG, Faitarone; EA, Garcia; R de O, Roça; H de A, Ricardo; E N de, Andrade; K, Pelícia; F, Vercese.

2013-03-01

226

Analyzing the vegetation response under different treatments after wildfires in NE Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The socio-economic changes that occurred in the last decades have contributed to an increase in forest fires (Shakesby, 2011). There was found a change in the fire regimes in terms of frequency, size, seasonality, recurrence as well as fire intensity and severity (Keeley, 2009), which resulted in severe effects on soils, water and vegetation (Guénon et al., 2013). Fire affects soil properties directly by the heat impact (Aznar et al., 2013), and the ash cover (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and the reduction of the plant cover (Neary et al., 1999). The lack of vegetation and the heating promotes changes in the soil organic matter content (González-Pérez et al., 2004), on the structural stability (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011), on the hydrophobic response (Bodí et al., 2012), and on the infiltration capacity (Cerdà, 1998a). This is why the vegetation cover and the litter are key factors on soil erosion after forest fires (Prats et al., 2013). Besides, the ash plays an important paper in the soil protection after the forest fire and after the first storms and winds (León et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this experiment is to asses the vegetation response after a forest fire and the impact of vegetation recovery on soil erosion. The experiment consisted in a sampling of a linear transect of 10 m with samples each 2 m, under different slope position and aspect. To measure the soil erosion rates we used rainfall simulation experiments (León et al., 2013). The experiments were carried in Castejón (UTM 30T, X671106, Y4644584) in a forest burned in 2008, in the Zuera Mountains, both located in the north of Zaragoza province (NE Spain). The soils on limestone parent material are Rendzic Phaeozem (IUSS, 2007) and the texture of Ah horizons of soils developed on limestone is sandy-loam (Badía et al., 2013). The result shows fast and successful vegetation regeneration in the north-facing slopes, and a delayed recovery on the south-facing slopes. The soil erosion control treatments shown a very efficient response when Chipped branches covered the soil. References Aznar, J.M., González-Pérez, J.A., Badía, D., Martí, C. 2013. At what depth are the properties of a Gypseous forest topsoil affected by burning?. Land Degradation and Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2258 Badía, D., Martí, C., Aznar, J.M., León, J. 2013. Influence of slope and parent rock on soil genesis and classification in semiarid mountainous environments. Geoderma 193-194: 13-21, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.10.020. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A., and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012. Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soil. Geoderma, 191: 14-23. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. The influence of aspect and vegetation on seasonal changes in erosion under rainfall simulation on a clay soil in Spain. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 78, 321-330. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and ersion in the inmediate post-fire period. Catena 74, 256-263. González-Pérez, J.A., González-Vila, F.J., Almendros, G., Knicker, H. 2004. The effect of fire on soil organic matter - a review. Enviroment International, 30: 855-870. Guénon, R., Vennetier, M., Dupuy, N., Roussos, S., Pailler, A., Gros, R. 2013. Trends in recovery of Mediterranean soil chemical properties and microbial activities after infrequent and frequent wildfires. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 115-128, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.1109. Keeley, J.E. 2009. Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: a brief review and suggests usage. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 18: 116-126. León, J., Bodí, M.B., Cerdà, A., Badía, D., 2013. The contrasted response of ash to wetting: The effects of ash type, thickness and rainfall events. Geoderma 209-210, 143-152. Mataix

León, Javier; Cerdà, Artemi; Badía, David; Echeverría, Maite; Martí, Clara

2014-05-01

227

Large Differences in Terrestrial Vegetation Production Derived from Satellite-Based Light Use Efficiency Models  

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Full Text Available Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP is the largest global CO2 flux and determines other ecosystem carbon cycle variables. Light use efficiency (LUE models may have the most potential to adequately address the spatial and temporal dynamics of GPP, but recent studies have shown large model differences in GPP simulations. In this study, we investigated the GPP differences in the spatial and temporal patterns derived from seven widely used LUE models at the global scale. The result shows that the global annual GPP estimates over the period 2000–2010 varied from 95.10 to 139.71 Pg C?yr?1 among models. The spatial and temporal variation of global GPP differs substantially between models, due to different model structures and dominant environmental drivers. In almost all models, water availability dominates the interannual variability of GPP over large vegetated areas. Solar radiation and air temperature are not the primary controlling factors for interannual variability of global GPP estimates for most models. The disagreement among the current LUE models highlights the need for further model improvement to quantify the global carbon cycle.

Wenwen Cai

2014-09-01

228

Effect of Vegetable Mixed Curry on Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load of Soy Flour Incorporated Traditional Sri Lankan Breakfast Foods in Healthy Adults  

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Full Text Available Traditional Sri Lankan breakfast foods such as pittu, rotti, wandu, hopper and thosai made with 75% rice flour (Bg 352 and 25% soy flour (Pb 1 mixture were tested for their Glycaemic Index (GI and Glycaemic Load (GL. Pittu, rotti, wandu, hopper and thosai showed low GI values of 35.5, 36.0, 43.0, 45.2 and 47.3, respectively. The GL of pittu, rotti, wandu, hopper and thosai were 5.4, 7.5, 5.4, 6.6 and 6.7, respectively and could be considered as low. The GI of foods diminished when incorporated in composite meals. A vegetable mixed curry was prepared mixing Solanum melongena (eggplant, Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato, Cucurbita maxima (pumpkins and Ipomoea aquatica (Kankun/water spinach in order to study meal GI and meal GL. The amount of fat, protein and available carbohydrate in the vegetable mixed curry were 9.2, 4.3 and 6.6 g/100 g dry weight, respectively. The GI of pittu meal, rotti meal, wandu meal, hopper meal and thosai meal were 30.2, 31.2, 36.5, 38.3 and 43.8, respectively. Pittu meal, rotti meal, wandu meal, hopper meal and thosai meal showed GL values of 3.9, 5.0, 4.1, 4.9 and 6.0, respectively. Addition of vegetable mixed curry showed considerable reduction of GI and GL of all test meals.

M.P.M.S.H. Perera

2014-01-01

229

Effects of different protein and glycemic index diets on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary glycemic index (GI) and protein affects postprandial insulin responses and consequently 24 h glucose metabolism and therefore substrate partitioning. This study investigated the mechanistic effects of different protein and GI diets on 24 h profiles of metabolic markers and substrate partitioning. After 3 days of diet and physical activity standardization, 10 healthy male subjects (BMI: 22.5 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) stayed in a respiration chamber 4 times for 36 h each time to measure substrate partitioning. All subjects randomly received four isoenergetic diets: a normal (15En%) dairy protein and low GI (LGI) diet; a high (25En%) dairy protein and low GI (HDP-LGI) diet; a normal vegetable protein and low GI (NVP-LGI) diet; or a normal dairy protein and high GI (>60 units) (NDP-HGI) diet. During the day, blood was sampled at fixed time points for the measurement of metabolic markers and satiety hormones. The HDP-LGI diet increased 24 h protein oxidation and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) compared with the NDP-LGI diet (p LGI diet compared with the NDP-LGI diet (p < 0.01), but no effect was observed on insulin levels. No difference in appetite profiles were observed between all intervention diets. The lower 24 h glycemic profile as a result of a high dairy protein diet did not lead to changes in 24 h substrate partitioning in lean healthy subjects with a normal insulin sensitivity. PMID:24053517

Munsters, Marjet J; Geraedts, Maartje C; Saris, Wim H

2013-11-01

230

Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data  

OpenAIRE

A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of...

Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C.; Trigo, R.

2010-01-01

231

Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based ewline on spot/vegetation data  

OpenAIRE

A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies t...

Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

2010-01-01

232

STUDY OF SACRAL INDEX: COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT REGIONAL POPULATIONS OF INDIA AND ABROAD  

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Full Text Available Identification of sex by human skeletal remains is a critical problem and is very important in anthropological and medico legal works. Bones often survive the process of decay and therefore provide the major evidence of human age and sex after death. Over the years different authors had carried various types of measurements on human sacra of different races and regions. The present study carried out 81 sacra of unknown sex contains 45 male and 36 female sacra identified by physical characteristics. They were collected from Telangana and Andhra Pradesh region. India may be divided into four regions like North part, South part, West part, and East part for different study purpose on local population. In the present study mean sacral index in males is 104.08 and females are 115.72. The male mean sacral index value of present study is more than the values of Eastern part, north part, other worker of Southern part of India and western part except in Western part in Western Rajasthan population. The female mean sacral index value of present study is higher than the observation of Eastern part, other workers of Southern part of India, Varanasi and Jammu of north part of India and Saurashtra region of western region of India. Observations of the workers from remaining areas of Western part of India and Agra region of North India is higher than the present study. The studies on Indian population suggest that mean sacral index in females is higher than that of males.

Poornima Janipati

2014-10-01

233

Sensitivity study of land biosphere CO2 exchange through an atmospheric tracer transport model using satellite-derived vegetation index data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We develop a simple, globally uniform model of CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere by coupling the model with a three-dimensional atmospheric tracer transport model using observed winds, and checking results against observed concentrations of CO2 at various monitoring sites. CO2 fluxes are derived from observed greenness using satellite-derived Global Vegetation Index data, combined with observations of temperature, radiation, and precipitation. We explore a range of CO2 flux formulations together with some modifications of the modelled atmospheric transport. We find that while some formulations can be excluded, it cannot be decided whether or not to make CO2 uptake and release dependent on water stress. It appears that the seasonality of net CO2 fluxes in the tropics, which would be expected to be driven by water availability, is small and is therefore not visible in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2. The latter is dominated largely by northern temperate and boreal vegetation, where seasonality is mostly temperature determined. We find some evidence that there is still considerable CO2 release from soils during northern-hemisphere winter. An exponential air temperature dependence of soil release with a Q10 of 1.5 is found to be most appropriate, with no cutoff at low freezing temperatures. This result is independent of the year from which observed winds were taken. This is remarkable insofar as year-to-year changes in modelled CO2 concentrations caused by changes in the wind data clearly outweigh those caused by year-to-year variability in the climate and vegetation index data. (orig.)

234

Difference in the lubrication efficiency of bovine and vegetable-derived magnesium stearate during tabletting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate and compare the functionality of bovine fatty acids-derived (MgSt-B) and vegetable fatty acids-derived (MgSt-V) magnesium stearate powders when used for the lubrication of granules prepared by high-shear (HSG) and fluid bed (FBG) wet granulation methods. The work included evaluation of tablet compression and ejection forces during tabletting and dissolution testing of the compressed tablets. Granules prepared by both granulation methods required significantly lower ejection force (p MgSt-V powder as compared to those lubricated with the MgSt-B powder. Granules prepared by the HSG method and lubricated with the MgSt-V powder also required significantly lower compression force (p MgSt-B powder. The dissolution profiles were not affected by these differences and were the same for tablets prepared by same granulation method and lubricated with either magnesium stearate powder. The results indicate significant differences (p MgSt-B and the MgSt-V powders and emphasize the importance of functionality testing of the MgSt powders to understand the impact of these differences. PMID:19390976

Gupta, Abhay; Hamad, Mazen L; Tawakkul, Mobin; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

2009-01-01

235

ADAPTABILITY OF STUDENTS WITH DIFFERENT INDIVIDUAL AND TYPOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF VEGETATIVE FUNCTIONS REGULATION  

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Full Text Available In the last decade the health of young people inUkraineas well as in many other countries of the world significantly deteriorated according to the results of screening tests. Because of this the main task of prophylactic medicine is development and introduction of new methods of early diagnostics of diseases. The aim of the work to assess the peculiarities of adaptation of students with different types of vegetative regulation.Material and methods: 415 second year students ofLuganskStateMedicalUniversitywere tested. The mechanisms of physiological functions of the body regulation were assessed by registration of cardiac rhythm variability (CRV. Analysis of CRV was performed by three methods: statistical, geometrical, and spectral analysis. The express method proposed by Shlyk, N.I. (2009 was later used to determine the prevailing type of vegetative regulation. To assess adaptability the method of R.M. Baevskij (1979 was used.Results: In the result of investigation 4 types of functional states of regulatory systems were determined: I type – 295 (71 % of tested, II – in 14 (3 %, III – in 96 (23 % and IV – only in 10 (2%. I type of functional state of regulatory systems in the wakeful state at rest was characterized by moderate prevalence of central regulation of heart rhythm (MPCR, decreased activity of autonomic regulation. It was noticed that some of the parameters of CRV (like R-R, SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50 which characterize autonomic regulation, were statistically lowere (??0.01 compared to type III, and some (like AMo and SI higher, in both female and male students. Summarized spectrum capacity and components of its wave structure (HF, LF, VLF which characterize central regulation were statistically significantly lower (??0.01 for the I type of regulation compared to the III one which is characterized by moderate prevalence of autonomic regulation of the heart rhythm. In female students with type I autonomic regulation compared to male students such CRV parameters as R-R and A?o were statistically significantly lower (??0.05, while the parameters of total potency (TP and high frequency waves (HF were higher (??0.05, which could point to more centralized heart rhythm regulation in male compared to female. The evaluation of regulatory systems overstress allowed to determine the state of adaptation and risk of overstress or breakdown in students with different types of autonomic regulation.Conclusions: Thus, evaluation of adaptation state in students with different types of autonomic regulation allows to characterize the current functional state and uncover the risk of disease development.

Tatiana Tananakina

2014-04-01

236

Optical coherence tomography imaging of microfluidic pattern with different refractive index contrast  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology is analogous to ultrasound imaging, except that OCT employs light instead of sound. The non-invasive imaging method works by projecting light on test target and detecting the backscattering from the underlying layers. As the OCT technology is based on optical interference, the internal structural features and inhomogeneities induced by different refractive index contrast could be detected and displayed in the form of a gray scale or false color image. In this paper, a typical microfluidic device was produced and measured by a spectral domain OCT instrument. The internal dimensions of the lab-on-chip device were determined using the OCT imaging technology and were in agreement with results obtained with conventional confocal microscope. In order to study the effect of different refractive index contrast on OCT imaging, fluid with various refractive indexes was injected into the microfluidic channel respectively, and the acquired OCT images of the internal microfluidic channel were compared. The results demonstrate that optical coherence tomography could be used as a new metrology tool to determine the internal channel dimensions of lab-on-chip devices. Furthermore, the experiment results reveal the relations between the refractive index contrast and OCT image quality.

Hu, Zhixiong; Hao, Bingtao; Liu, Wenli; Hong, Baoyu

2014-11-01

237

Incorporating different vegetable oils into an aqueous dispersion of hybrid organic nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different vegetable oils including soy oil, high-oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, castor oil (CO), rapeseed oil, and hydrogenated CO were added to the imidization reaction of poly(styrene–maleic anhydride) or SMA, with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous medium. The oils favorably reduce viscosity during ammonolysis of the anhydride moieties and increase the maximum solid content of the dispersed imidized SMA to at least 50 wt%, compared to a maximum of 35 wt% for pure imidized SMA. The viscosity of imidized SMA with polyunsaturated oils was generally larger than for monosaturated oils, but it was highest for COs due to high contents of hydroxyl groups. Depending on the oil reactivity, homogeneous or core–shell nanoparticles with 20–60 nm diameters formed. The interactions of oil and organic phase were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, indicating qualitative variances between different oils, the fraction imidized SMA and remaining fraction of ammonolyzed SMA without leakage of oil upon diluting the dispersion and precipitation at low pH. A quantitative analysis with calculation of imide contents, amounts of reacted oil and chemical interactions was made by Fourier-transform-Raman spectroscopy suggesting that most interactions take place around the unsaturated oil moieties and ammonolyzed anhydride.

238

Incorporating different vegetable oils into an aqueous dispersion of hybrid organic nanoparticles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different vegetable oils including soy oil, high-oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, castor oil (CO), rapeseed oil, and hydrogenated CO were added to the imidization reaction of poly(styrene-maleic anhydride) or SMA, with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous medium. The oils favorably reduce viscosity during ammonolysis of the anhydride moieties and increase the maximum solid content of the dispersed imidized SMA to at least 50 wt%, compared to a maximum of 35 wt% for pure imidized SMA. The viscosity of imidized SMA with polyunsaturated oils was generally larger than for monosaturated oils, but it was highest for COs due to high contents of hydroxyl groups. Depending on the oil reactivity, homogeneous or core-shell nanoparticles with 20-60 nm diameters formed. The interactions of oil and organic phase were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, indicating qualitative variances between different oils, the fraction imidized SMA and remaining fraction of ammonolyzed SMA without leakage of oil upon diluting the dispersion and precipitation at low pH. A quantitative analysis with calculation of imide contents, amounts of reacted oil and chemical interactions was made by Fourier-transform-Raman spectroscopy suggesting that most interactions take place around the unsaturated oil moieties and ammonolyzed anhydride.

Samyn, Pieter, E-mail: Pieter.Samyn@fobawi.uni-freiburg.de [Albert-Luedwigs-University Freiburg, Institute for Forest Utilization (Germany); Schoukens, Gustaaf [Ghent University, Department of Textiles (Belgium); Stanssens, Dirk; Vonck, Leo; Van den Abbeele, Henk [Topchim N.V. (Belgium)

2012-08-15

239

Chlorophyll index, photochemical reflectance index and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of rice leaves supplied with different N levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid and non-destructive diagnosis of plant N status is highly required in order to optimise N fertilizer management and use-efficiency. Additionally to handheld devices for measurements of chlorophyll indices (e.g., SPAD meter) parameters of canopy reflectance via remote sensing approaches are intensively investigated and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) appears to be a reliable indicator for changes of the epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle pigments. In order to assess the suitability of a handheld PRI as an additional tool for N diagnosis, rice plants were grown in a nutrient solution experiment with seven N-supply levels (0.18-5.71 mM) and CI (SPAD) and PRI values and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters measured 20 and 28 days after onset of treatments. N-supply had effects on both CI (SPAD) and PRI values with a more reliable differentiation between levels. Maximum quantum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), actual efficiency of PSII photochemistry (?(PSII)) and regulated non-photochemical quenching (?(NPQ)) did not differ significantly between N levels. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and fast- relaxing NPQ (NPQ(F)) were significantly affected by N-supply. NPQ and NPQ(F), but not the slow-relaxing component (NPQ(S)), were correlated with CI (SPAD) and PRI values. This finding which has not been reported for N-supply effects so far is indirect evidence that low N-supply induced xanthophyll cycle activity and that PRI values are able to indicate this at least in plants subject to severe N deficiency. PMID:22617629

Shrestha, Suchit; Brueck, Holger; Asch, Folkard

2012-08-01

240

Mercury concentration in vegetables of Pakistan irrigated by different water sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mercury levels were determined in twenty samples of each vegetable i.e., Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Carrot (Daucus cariota), Capsicum (Capsicum fistulosus), Sweet pea (Lathyrus Odoratus), Potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Cabbage (Brassica oleracea), with a special reference of source of water of irrigation, i.e., tube well water, canal water and municipal sewage water. All the samples of vegetables were collected during the year 2006, 2007 and 2008 from the five districts of Pakistan viz Lahore, Kasur, Multan, Bahawalpur and R.Y. Khan. Statistical analysis such as Test of significance and multiple comparison were applied on the data obtained. The results showed that the concentration of Mercury in vegetables irrigated by canal water, sewage water and tube well water was in the range of 3.1-88.9 ppb and 9.0-130.6 ppb. It can be concluded from this study that the uptake of mercury by vegetables collected from above five districts of Pakistan was in the following order. Leafy vegetables > Root vegetables > seedy vegetables. (author)

241

Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM v1.0  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have large impacts on carbon-water-energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in a new carbon-water-energy coupled model to explore the importance of vegetation structure and vegetation adaptation to water stress on equilibrium biomass states. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximizes biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the Water Use Efficiency and Leaf Area Index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, an important negative feedback mechanism is found as the vegetation also tries to minimize its cover to optimize the surrounding bare ground area from which water can be extracted, thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation. Under larger precipitation, a positive feedback mechanism is found in which vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large Leaf Area Index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a "survival" state to a "growing" state.

Z. Yin

2013-09-01

242

Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arctic is experiencing disproportionate warming relative to the global average, and the Arctic ecosystems are as a result undergoing considerable changes. Continued monitoring of ecosystem productivity and phenology across temporal and spatial scales is a central part of assessing the magnitude of these changes. This study investigates the ability to use automatic digital camera images (DCIs) as proxy data for gross primary production (GPP) in a complex low Arctic wetland site. Vegetation greenness computed from DCIs was found to correlate significantly (R2 = 0.62, p digital cameras may be used as a cost-effective proxy for potential GPP in remote Arctic regions.

Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger Ulf; Tamstorf, Mikkel Peter

2013-12-01

243

Composition, peat-forming vegetation and kerogen paraffinicity of Cenozoic coals: Relationship to variations in the petroleum generation potential (Hydrogen Index)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coals with similar thermal maturity and from the same deposit normally show a considerable range in petroleum generation potential as measured by the Hydrogen Index (HI). This variation may partly be related to variations in plant input to the precursor mires and organic matter preservation. It is widely accepted that some Cenozoic coals and coaly sediments have the potential to generate oil, which is related to the coal's paraffinicity. Coal paraffinicity is not readily reflected in the bulk HI. In this paper, the relationships between measured HI and coal composition, coal kerogen paraffinicity and floral input have been investigated in detail for three sets of coals from Colombia/Venezuela, Indonesia, and Vietnam. The samples in each coal set are largely of iso-rank. The petroleum generation potential was determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Reflected light microscopy was used to analyse the organic matter (maceral) composition and the thermal maturity was determined by vitrinite reflectance (VR) measurements. The botanical affinity of pollen and spores was analysed by palynology. Coal kerogen paraffinicity was determined by ruthenium tetroxide-catalysed oxidation (RTCO) followed by chain length analysis and quantification (mg/g TOC) of the liberated aliphatic chains. The coals are dominated by huminite, in particular detrohuminite. Only the Vietnamese coals are rich in microscopically visible liptinite. The pollen and spores suggest that the coals were derived principally from complex angiosperm mire vegetations, with subordinate proportions of ferns that generally grew in a subtropical to tropical climate. Measured HI values vary considerably, but for the majority of the coals the values lie between approximately 200 mg HC/g TOC and 300 mg HC/g TOC. Aliphatics yielding monocarboxylic acids dominate in the coal kerogen, whereas aliphatics yielding dicarboxylic acids are secondary. However, the dicarboxylic acids show that cross-linking long-chain aliphatics are present in the kerogen structure. All studied coals are paraffinic with C{sub 19-35} aliphatic chains in the kerogen, and the aliphatics in the range C{sub 25-35} show that the coals may have the potential to generate waxy crude oil. The Indonesian coals are richest in long-chain aliphatics and are thus potentially most oil-prone. Multivariate statistical analysis shows that for the present three sample sets variations in HI are positively correlated to different combinations of the C{sub 10+} aliphatic chains in the kerogen and the amount of detrohuminite + liptodetrinite and liptinite. Furthermore, part of the HI can be attributed to hydrogen in compounds with less than 10 carbon atoms, which is the lowest alkyl detected by RTCO analysis, thus representing a potential for generation of gas and light liquid hydrocarbons. The measured HI is therefore not always a good indicator for humic coal's potential to source waxy oil. Vegetational influence (palynology) on the variation of HI cannot be shown within the investigated span of variance and for the present coals. However, it is likely that some of the range in measured HI values is caused by floral vairiations not revealed by the palynological analysis and to variations in the preservation of the organic matter. (author)

Petersen, H.I.; Lindstroem, S.; Nytoft, H.P.; Rosenberg, P. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oester Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

2009-04-01

244

A STUDY ON VARIATION IN BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF DIFFERENT TREE SPECIES WITH TOLERANCE AND PERFORMANCE INDEX  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the variation between biochemical characteristics and air pollution tolerance index (APTI of 6 different plant species. The results of the present study indicate that APTI was significantly correlated with total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, leaf pH for all species and are the most significant and determining factors on which the tolerance depends. The order of tolerance index of plant species is as follows Saraca indica (13.71, Azadirachta indica (12.98, Shorea robusta (12.64, Eucalyptus sp. (12.61, Ficus religiosa (12.61 and Tectona grandis (13.33. According to anticipated performance index (API all species were tolerant i.e. Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, Saraca indica, Tectona grandis (75%, Shorea robusta and Tectona grandis (68%. The present study suggests that evaluation of plant tolerance and performance index might be very useful in the selection of appropriate species which can be expected to perform well for the development of green environment.

MEHA BORA

2014-03-01

245

Measurement of individual differences in intake of green and yellow vegetables and carotenoids in young unmarried subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a dietary survey for 3 weekdays of young unmarried subjects [workers and students, 159 males and 160 females, ages 18-19y (17.2%), 20-24 y (56.2%), 25-29 y (18.6%), 30-34 y (6.7%) and 35 y- (1.3%)] was performed. We evaluated the intake of green and yellow vegetables in this survey and determined the carotenoids (beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein+zeaxanthin) in 15 kinds of green and yellow vegetables frequently consumed. The carotenoid intake of each subject was calculated from the intake of these vegetables and the amount of carotenoid. Moreover, we studied the intake of protein, fat, and dietary fiber, and investigated its relationship to the intake of vegetables. The mean green and yellow vegetable intake/d in all subjects was 60.5 +/- 58.7 g, much lower than the recommended level [120 g/d, (Health Japan 21 by Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare)]. The intake of green and yellow vegetables was greater in females than males, and in workers than students. In all subjects, the mean total carotenoid intake/d was 2852.8 +/- 2354.3 microg. In the total intake of carotenoids, there was no difference between males and females; however, the intake was greater in workers than in students. The intake of beta-carotene and a-carotene was greater in males than females. However, the intake of beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein+zeaxanthin was greater in females than males. The group with the low green and yellow vegetable intake had not only a low carotenoid intake, but also a low intake of protein, fat, and dietary fiber. Therefore, it was suggested that carotenoid absorption may be affected by a low intake of protein, fat, and dietary fiber. PMID:17874824

Hosotani, Keisuke; Kitagawa, Masahiro

2007-06-01

246

Effects of different media on vegetative growth of two Lilium cultivars in soilless culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strong, tall and healthy stems, as well as green background by means of leaves, are very important characters in marketing of cut flowers including Lily (Lilium. Also, in order to reuse the bulbs for next crop production, they should have enough stored materials and perimeter. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of different media on some vegetative characters of two Lillium cultivars in greenhouse conditions and determine the most suitable medium. The experiment was based on randomized complete design with two cultivars namely Bernini (Oriental and Cebdazzle (Asiatic and 4 replicates. Ten treatments of the experiment were organic and mineral media including cocopeat, sand, vermiculite, perlite and mixture of each two media at equal volumes (50: 50. All the pots were fertigated daily by 250 ml of Hoagland half strength solution. Means were compared by Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. The results showed superiority of cocopeat over other media in terms of plant chlorophyll content, fresh and dry weight of leaves and stem, leaf area, height, stem diameter, number of leaves, and bulb perimeter in both cultivars. Root length of both cultivars reached the highest using the mixture of perlite and cocopeat. The performance of Cebdazzle cv. against Bernini cv. regarding fresh and dry weight of leaves, leaf area, stem diameter, number of leaves, stem dry weight and root length were better in all the media. While, mean chlorophyll content and fresh weight of stems in Bernini was significantly higher than Cebdazzle.

A. Khaligy

2011-07-01

247

Essential and non-essential elements in natural vegetation in southern Norway: Contribution from different sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of essential and non-essential elements in five widespread species of natural boreal vegetation were studied with respect to seasonal variation and contribution from different sources. The plant species included in the study were Betula pubescens, Sorbus aucuparia, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum, Calluna vulgaris and Deschampsia flexuosa. Concentrations of elements essential to plants remained essentially constant or decreased slightly throughout the growing season. Concentrations of most non-essential elements increased or tended to increase on a dry mass basis from June to July as well as from July to September. The increasing trend for these elements was observed for all species except C. vulgaris. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the material indicated a common source for many of the non-essential elements; Sc, Ti, V, Ga, As, Y, Sb, lanthanides, Pb, Bi, and U, i.e. both elements presumably of geogenic origin and elements associated with trans-boundary air pollution. Uptake by plant roots appeared to be the main source of nutrient elements as well as some non-essential elements. PMID:25268568

Nordløkken, Marit; Berg, Torunn; Flaten, Trond Peder; Steinnes, Eiliv

2015-01-01

248

COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS  

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Full Text Available Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory conditions, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were prepared by using methanol in the presence of 1.85% hydrochloric acid at 100 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 3 h. The analyses of biodiesel were carried out by gas chroma¬tography and thin layer chromatography. Also, biodiesel productivities (% were determined on basis of the ratio of ester to oil content (w/w. The biodiesel productivities for all oils were found to be about 80% and about 90% at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. Also, the results showed that the yield of biodiesel depended on temperature for some oils, including canola, sunflower, safflower oils, but it was not found significant differences among all of the oil types on biodiesel productivities.

AYTEN SAGIROGLU

2011-03-01

249

A COMPARISON OF THE SALINITY REGIME ALONG THE TEXAS COAST WITH TERRESTRIAL VEGETATION GREENNESS AND WATER USE IN THE GALVESTON BAY WATERSHED USING REMOTING SENSING  

Science.gov (United States)

Variability in vegetation greenness was determined for the Galveston Bay watershed using biweekly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (A VHRR) flown on NOAA satellites. NDVI variability was compared with reg...

250

Characteristics of Photosynthetic Behaviors and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Different Vegetable Species  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the variability in the various physiological characteristics of seven popular commercial vegetable seedlings such as cabbage, spinach, Chinese cabbage, eggplant cucumber, tomato and Chinese radish. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) was higher in cabbage seedlings followed by eggplant seedlings. Chinese cabbage and cabbage seedlings showed higher stomatal conductance (CS) than other vegetables studied. Cucumber seedlings had higher respiration rate followed by tomato, egg pl...

Sharmin Khan; Yuichi Yoshida; Shahidul Islam

2006-01-01

251

Summary of the especies of Spanish vegetation sensitive to different pollutants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detail literature review of the sensitivity of the species of Spanish vegetation to various pollutants was made. An impact scale was created to describe the qualitative degree of sensitivity to which each specie is affected by major atmospheric pollutants: very sensitive, sensitive, intermediate sensitive and resistent. This type of study, combined with studies of emission, concentration and dispersion of air pollution, is of great interest to evaluate the environmental impact to the vegetation community. (author) 45 refs

252

Influence of Paclobutrazol and Ethephon on Vegetative Growth of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Plants at Different Spacing  

OpenAIRE

To ascertain the growth retarding potential of Paclobutrazol (PBZ) and Ethephon on guava plants at different spacing viz 6?2 m, 6?3 m, 6?4 m and 6?5 m; both were applied at 500 ppm, 1000 ppm as a foliar spray. Investigation revealed that all treatments influence the vegetative growth of plants compared to untreated plants at all spacing levels. However, paclobutrazol considerably restrict the overall vegetative growth of trees. Stock and scion girth was found to be increased with ethe...

Brar, Jaswinder Singh

2010-01-01

253

Transfer of radiocesium to four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by organic amendment under different field conditions in Fukushima Prefecture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by cattle manure-based compost amendment was investigated. Komatsuna, mustard, radish and turnip were cultivated in three different (137)Cs-contaminated fields at Nihonmatsu City in Fukushima Prefecture from June to August 2012. Results revealed that organic compost amendments stimulated plant biomass production and tended to induce higher (137)Cs concentration in the cruciferous vegetables in most cases. Among the studied sites, Takanishi soil possessing low exchangeable potassium (0.10 cmolc kg(-1)) was associated with an increased concentration of (137)Cs in plants. Radiocesium transfer factor (TF) values of the vegetables ranged from 0.025 to 0.119. The increase in (137)Cs TFs was dependent on larger plant biomass production, high organic matter content, and high sand content in the studied soils. Average (137)Cs TF values for all study sites and compost treatments were higher in Komatsuna (0.072) and radish (0.059), which exhibited a higher biomass production compared to mustard and turnip. The transferability of (137)Cs to vegetables from soils was in the order Komatsuna > radish > mustard > turnip. The highest (137)Cs TF value (0.071) of all vegetables was recorded for a field where the soil had high organic matter content and a high clay proportion of 470 g kg(-1) consisting of Al-vermiculite clay mineral. PMID:25483355

Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

2015-02-01

254

Effects of adding bentonite to different substrates on vegetative growth and yield of snap beans (Phaseulus vulgaris L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study the effects of adding a superabsorbent (bentonite to different substrates on the vegetative growth and yield of snap beans, two randomized complete block design experiments with 4 replications were conducted at Greenhouse of Isfahan University of Technology. In the first experiment, 9 treatments including rice hull, saw dust, sand and their combinations, with 10 and 20% superabsorbent (v/v were used. The results showed that the highest stem length, number of nodes and leaves, shoot fresh weight and pod number were observed using rice hull (90%+superabsorbent (10%. The lowest vegetative growth was related to treatments containing sand and superabsorbent. Increasing superabsorbent from 10 to 20% reduced vegetative growth parameters in most cases. Based on the results of the first experiment, sand treatment was deleted and in the second experiment rice hull, saw dust, perlite and their combinations with 5 and 10% superabsorbent were used. The results showed that the highest plant height, number of nodes and leaves, plant dry weight, branch number and yield were obtained in perlite (95%+superabsorbent (5% and pure perlite. Adding 5 and 10% superabsorbent to rice hull and saw dust caused a significant increase in the vegetative growth. This increase was higher for 10% superabsorbent compared to 5% superabsorbent. Finally, the results showed that adding 10% superabsorbent to rice hull and saw dust increased vegetative growth and yield, while it decreased the loss of nutrient solution.

P. Aghdak

2010-12-01

255

Empirical Regression Models for Estimating Multiyear Leaf Area Index of Rice from Several Vegetation Indices at the Field Scale  

OpenAIRE

Leaf area index (LAI) is among the most important variables for monitoring crop growth and estimating grain yield. Previous reports have shown that LAI derived from remote sensing data can be effectively applied in crop growth simulation models for improving the accuracy of grain yield estimation. Therefore, precise estimation of LAI from remote sensing data is expected to be useful for global monitoring of crop growth. In this study, as a preliminary step toward application at the regional...

Masayasu Maki; Koki Homma

2014-01-01

256

Association of Intrarenal Resistive Index with Different Stages of Diabetic Nephropathy  

OpenAIRE

Background/Objective: Intrarenal resistive index"n(RI) is used commonly for evaluation and prediction"nof renal diseases, but its use is little explored in the"nprediction of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We used"nDoppler analysis to determine whether intrarenal RI"nis related to different stages of diabetic nephropathy."nPatients and Methods: Fifty-seven diabetic patients"nin three equal groups of different stages of DN (stage"n1,2,3) and 19 nondiabetics ...

Maryam Moradi; Mehri Sirous; Mohamad Hossein Mohseni

2011-01-01

257

Energy partitioning and environmental influence factors in different vegetation types in the GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental influences upon energy balance in areas of different vegetation types (i.e., forest at Kog-Ma in Thailand and at Yakutsk in Russia, grassland at Amdo in Chinese Tibet and at Arvaikheer in Mongolia, and mixed farmland at Tak in Thailand) in the GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment were investigated. The sites we investigated are geographically and climatologically different; and consequently had quite large variations in temperature ( T), water vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil moisture (SM), and precipitation (PPT). During May-October, the net radiation flux ( R n) (in W·m-2) was 406.21 at Tak, 365.57 at Kog-Ma, 390.97 at Amdo, 316.65 at Arvaikheer, and 287.10 at Yakutsk. During the growing period, the R n partitioned into latent heat flux ( ?E/ R n) was greater than that partitioned into sensible heat flux ( H/ R n) at Tak and at Kog-Ma. In contrast, ?E/ R n was lower than H/ R n at Arvaikheer, H/ R n was less than ?E/ R n between DOY 149 and DOY 270 at Amdo, and between DOY 165 and DOY 235 at Yakutsk. The R n partitioned into ground heat flux was generally less than 0.15. The short-wave albedo was 0.12, 0.18, and 0.20 at the forest, mixed land, and grass sites, respectively. At an hourly scale, energy partitions had no correlation with environmental factors, based on average summer halfhourly values. At a seasonal scale energy partitions were linearly correlated (usually p<0.05) with T, VPD, and SM. The ?E/ R n increased with increases in SM, T, and VPD at forest areas. At mixed farmlands, ?E/ R n generally had positive correlations with SM, T, and VPD, but was restrained at extremely high values of VPD and T. At grasslands, ?E/ R n was enhanced with increases of SM and T, but was decreased with VPD.

Liu, Fengshan; Tao, Fulu; Li, Shenggong; Zhang, Shuai; Xiao, Dengpan; Wang, Meng

2014-12-01

258

Evaluation of Effluent Quality Used for Irrigation of Vegetable Production in Different Districts of Potowar, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted in different districts of Potowar region to evaluate the quality of sewage for irrigation purposes and heavy metal contents in sewage water. Sewage samples were collected from 25 sewage irrigated farms around Rawalpindi, Attock and Abotabad districts. Electrical conductivity of the samples ranged from 0.55-2.36 dS m-1. Sixty percent of the samples did not pose salinity hazard while forty percent were marginally fit for irrigation. Sodium adsorption ratio ranged from 0.24 to 4.36 showing that all the samples were low in Na contents. RSC varied from 0.0-8.1 mmol L-1 in the sewage samples under study; 59% of the samples had < 2.0 mmol L-1 of RSC showing that sewage represented by these samples had no risk of NaHCO3 hazard when applied to soils. Chloride contents in the samples were in the range of 0.5 to 4.7 mmol L-1 and were within safe limits. Zn and Pb contents in the sewage of various locations were found within safe limits (< 2.0 and 5.0 mg L-1, respectively while Cu, Cd, Ni and Cr concentrations were found to exceed the maximum permissible limits. The effluent of areas under investigation are mixture of both domestic and industrial wastewater, high levels of HCO3- from washing soaps and detergents and excess of heavy metals from different industrial sources were present in the effluent. Therefore, sewage irrigation may cause deterioration of soil quality by causing salinity and introducing excessive contents of HCO3- in soils and poses health hazards by increasing heavy metal contents in vegetables and crops.

Tahir Hussain Chattha

2005-01-01

259

Caracterización del efecto de estrés usando índices espectrales de la vegetación para la estimación de variables relacionadas con la biomasa del área / Characterization of stress effect using spectral vegetation indexes for the estimate of variables related to aerial biomass  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El uso de índices espectrales o IV de la vegetación, basados en las líneas iso-IAF en el espacio espectral del rojo (R) e infrarrojo cercano (IRC), plantea relaciones diferentes en las etapas vegetativas y de senescencia con variables biofísicas como la biomasa aérea o Bm, el índice de área foliar o [...] IAF o la cobertura aérea de la vegetación o fv. Con el índice FVIS basado en las líneas iso-suelo del espacio R-IRC, los patrones temporales pueden identificarse mediante un modelo expo-lineal y exponencial. Así, las pendientes para la etapa vegetativa y de senescencia pueden usarse para cuantificar el nivel de estrés utilizando el concepto de equivalencia ambiental. Este esquema de caracterización fue analizado con mediciones radiométricas y de fv en cultivos de fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), garbanzo (Cicer arietinum L.), cártamo (Carthamus tinctorius, L.), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench) y trigo (Triticum spec. L.), del Valle del Yaqui, estado de Sonora, México. Los resultados obtenidos soportan la aproximación de caracterización planteada para el nivel de estrés. Abstract in english The use of spectral indexes or vegetation VI, based on iso-LAI lines in the spectral space of red (R) and near infrared (NIR), presents different relations in vegetative and senescence periods with biophysical variables such as aerial biomass or Bm, the index of foliar area or LAI, or aerial vegetat [...] ion cover or fv. With the ISVI index based on iso-soil lines of the R-NIR space, the temporal patterns may be identified by an expo-linear and exponential model. Thus, the slopes for the vegetative phase and for senescence can be used to quantify the stress level utilizing the concept of environmental equivalence. This scheme of characterization was analyzed with radiometric and fv measurements in crops of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum. L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench), and wheat (Triticum spec. L.) of the Valle del Yaqui, State of Sonora, México. The obtained results support the approximation of the characterization proposed for the stress level.

Marisol, Reyes; Fernando, Paz; Marcos, Casiano; Fermín, Pascual; M. Isabel, Marín; Enrique, Rubiños.

2011-03-01

260

THE INFLUENCE OF NAPHTHALENE ACETIC ACID (NAA IN ROOTING OF THE DIFFERENT VEGETATIVE CUTTINGS OF THUYA OCCIDENTALIS “EMERAUD”  

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Full Text Available Thuya occidentalis “Emeraud” (Thuya ssp, is one of the most used evergreen ornamental plants for decoration of parks and gardens with very slow growth. They form few seeds with relatively low germination. This is the cause of the continuous efforts to find efficient ways of vegetative propagation, which influence the increase of the coefficient of thuya’s propagation. The paper presents the influence of the naphthalene acetic acid (NAA 4000 ppm in the rooting of one year vegetative cuttings of Thuya occidentalis “Emeraud”, with and without biennial wood. The experiment was carried out during three consecutive years, 2008-2010, in the flower’s greenhouse of the Experimental Centre of the Department of Horticulture at Agricultural University of Tirana. The one year vegetative cuttings were prepared as simple cuttings (cuttings without bark or biennial wood and cuttings with the scion (cuttings with bark or biennial wood. Vegetative cuttings of thuya were sown in the perlite band. Control for the final rooted seedlings and/or rooting percentage was carried out 60 days after sowing of the vegetative cuttings in the perlite band. There was calculated the rooting percentage of the vegetative cuttings treated and untreated with NAA 4000 ppm. The results show that the average rooting percentage of the simple untreated cuttings was 20%, while the average rooting percentage of the untreated cuttings with a scion was 45%. Total rooting percentage of the untreated cuttings was 32.5%. So, cuttings with a scion (the cuttings with bark and biennial wood, have a higher rooting percentage even when they are not treated with NAA. There were observed significant differences of the results in the case of treating cuttings with the rooting hormone NAA, 4000 ppm. These differences consisted in increasing the rooting ability and the rooting percentage of the cuttings. The average rooting percentage of the simple untreated cuttings with NAA was 51%, while the mean percentage of the cuttings with a scion treated with NAA was 80%. The total rooting percentage of the untreated cuttings was 65.5%. The use of the rooting hormone NAA, 4000 ppm, for the treatment of the one year vegetative cuttings of thuya was followed by the significant increases the rooting percentage in total from 32.5% to 65.5%. The three-year-results showed that the use of the rooting hormone NAA, 4000 ppm, does affect significantly in the increase of the rooting percentage of the vegetative cuttings, up to 30%, as well as in doubling the quantity of the seedling produced for each planting season, which was confirmed by ANOVA.

Esmeralda Sherko

2011-12-01

261

Evaluating the Effect of Different Wheat Rust Disease Symptoms on Vegetation Indices Using Hyperspectral Measurements  

OpenAIRE

Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVIs) have been widely used to indirectly detect plant diseases. The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of different disease symptoms on SVIs and introduce suitable SVIs to detect rust disease. Wheat leaf rust is one of the prevalent diseases and has different symptoms including yellow, orange, dark brown, and dry areas. The reflectance spectrum data for healthy and infected leaves were collected using a spectroradiometer in the 450 to 1000 nm range. T...

Davoud Ashourloo; Mohammad Reza Mobasheri; Alfredo Huete

2014-01-01

262

Índices de vegetação simulados de diferentes sensores na estimativa das variáveis biofísicas do feijoeiro / Vegetation indices simulated from different sensors for the estimation of biophysical variables of common bean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os índices de vegetação e bandas do vermelho e do infravermelho próximo, gerados a partir dos sensores HRVIR, ETM+ e Modis, nas estimativas de índice de área foliar e produtividade da cultura do feijoeiro. O experimento foi realizado em blocos ao acaso, com parc [...] elas subdivididas, com quatro lâminas de irrigação (179,5, 256,5, 357,5 e 406,2 mm), três doses de N (0,0, 80,0 e 160,0 kg ha-1) e quatro repetições. As medidas de reflectância foram obtidas com o Spetron SE-590, no estádio R6 da cultura, nas 48 parcelas. Foram testados: a razão simples, o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada, índice de vegetação ajustado ao solo e índice de vegetação realçado. Os índices de vegetação foram eficientes na estimativa do índice de área foliar (IAF) e da produtividade da cultura do feijoeiro. Os índices de vegetação e a banda do infravermelho apresentam o mesmo potencial na estimativa do IAF, quando se considera a resolução espectral dos sensores Modis, ETM+ e HRVIR. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetation indices and red and infrared bands of the HRVIR, ETM+ and Modis sensors, in the estimations of leaf area index and grain yield of common bean. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, with split plots and four irrigation l [...] evels (179.5, 256.5, 357.5, and 406.2 mm), three N rates (0.0, 80.0 and 160.0 kg ha-1), and four replicates. The reflectance measurements were obtained through the Spectron SE-590, at R6 stage, on 48 plots. Simple ratio, normalized difference vegetation index, soil-adjusted vegetation index, and enhanced vegetation index were tested. The vegetation indices were efficient to estimate the leaf area index (LAI) and grain yield. The vegetation indices and infrared band show the same potential to estimate LAI, when considering the spectral resolution of Modis, ETM+ and HRVIR.

Priscylla Ferraz Câmara, Monteiro; Rubens, Angulo Filho; Alexandre Cândido, Xavier; Rodrigo Otávio Câmara, Monteiro.

2013-04-01

263

Deriving land surface parameters from three different vegetated sites with the ELBARA 1.4-GHz passive microwave radiometer  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology was recently developed to estimate the land surface parameters soil moisture, soil temperature and vegetation optical depth on a global scale by using passive microwave remote sensing. This methodology is general, in a way that it does not require any field observations of soil moisture or canopy biophysical properties for calibration purposes, and can be used with microwave observations at different wavelengths. However, several algorithms in this approach are somewhat empirical, and the vegetation component in this methodology is still difficult to understand and interpret. A follow up field experiment was planned for April 2003 to address some of these issues. The experiment was conducted at a controlled meteorological field site in Wageningen (The Netherlands). Three different plots, a bare soil, a soil with short grass (reference site), and a site with growing grass vegetation were selected. Several hydro-meteorological parameters were monitored extensively at each site, including the radiobrightness temperatures from the ELBARA 1.4 GHz passive microwave radiometer. This paper gives a description of this field experiment and will demonstrate several effects of vegetation on the radiobrightness temperature.

De Jeu, Richard A. M.; Holmes, Thomas; Owe, Manfred

2004-02-01

264

The relationship between phytomass, NDVI and vegetation communities on Svalbard  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have shown a close relationship between vegetation fertility and different vegetation indices extracted from satellite data. The vegetation fertility in Arctic is at overall scales highly related to temperature. At lower scales surface material, snow cover, hydrology and anthropogenic effects (geese, reindeer) are determinant in constituting the different vegetation communities. The extent and occurrence of different vegetation communities are expressed in vegetation maps. On Svalbard a vegetation map covering the entire archipelago has recently been developed. The map is differentiated into 18 map units showing large areas of non- and sparsely vegetated ground. The most favorable vegetation is seen as productive marshes and moss tundra communities in the lowland. Various mathematical combinations of spectral channels in satellite images have been applied as sensitive indicators of the presence and condition of green vegetation. Today the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is mostly used to display this information. NDVI is an indicator of the density of chlorophyll in leaf tissue calculated from the red and near infrared bands: NDVI = (NIR - RED)/(NIR + RED). NDVI gives values between -1 and +1 where vegetated areas in general yield high positive values, while non-vegetated ground is found on the negative side.

Johansen, Bernt; Tømmervik, Hans

2014-04-01

265

Índice de seleção e estimativa de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos para características relacionadas com a produção de milho-verde / Index of selection and estimation of genetic and phenotypical parameters for traits related with the production of vegetable corn  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Brasil é um dos maiores produtores de milho do mundo e possui grande potencial para a produção de milho verde. Além de agregar valor ao produto, a comercialização de milho verde cresceu muito nos últimos anos. Há escassez de informações sobre a avaliação e a obtenção de cultivares destinadas à pro [...] dução de milho-verde e também sobre estudos genéticos das características envolvidas nessa produção. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos, a correlação genética, classificar e identificar híbridos de milho verde promissores ao mercado consumidor e avaliar a eficiência dos pesos econômicos atribuídos. Os resultados determinaram que a seleção terá sucesso, para as diferentes características de milho-verde, pois, a herdabilidade foi de alta magnitude para as características avaliadas. A avaliação da produtividade de espigas empalhadas (PEE) é suficiente para definir quais os híbridos apresentam o melhor desempenho para a produtividade de espigas comerciais (PEC), diâmetro (DIAM) e comprimento de espigas (COMP). Isso indica que as características PEC, DIAM e COMP podem ser descartadas da avaliação em programas de melhoramento de milho-verde. Os híbridos HS48, HS27, HS24, HS25, HS12 e HS45 acumularam um maior número de características desejadas em um único genótipo, com base no índice de seleção baseado na soma de postos, sendo os mais promissores para a produção de milho-verde. Os pesos econômicos utilizados foram capazes de distinguir e identificar os híbridos mais promissores para a produção de milho- verde e podem ser utilizados como critério de seleção em programas de melhoramento de milho-verde. Abstract in english Brazil is one of the largest producers of corn of the world and it possesses great potential for vegetable corn production. Besides adding value to the product, the commercialization of vegetable corn increased in the last years. There is shortage of information about the evaluation and the acquisit [...] ion of genotypes destined to the production of vegetable corn and also on genetic studies of the traits involved in this production. The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters, and the genetic correlation, and to classify and identify hybrids of promising vegetable corn to the consumer market and to evaluate the efficiency of the attributed economical weights. The results determined that the selection will succeed, for the different traits of vegetable corn, because the heritability was of high magnitude to the appraised traits. Evaluation of husked ears yield (PEE) was enough to define which hybrid presents better commercial ear productivity, diameter and corn ear length. This indicates that those traits could be discarded in the selection process of genotypes of breeding programs for vegetable corn production. The hybrids HS48, HS27, HS24, HS25 and HS12 accumulated the largest number of desirable traits in a single genotype based on the sum of rank index. The used economical weights were efficient to distinguish and identify the most promising hybrid for vegetable corn production and they can be used as a selection criterion in programs of breeding of vegetable corn.

Fabricio, Rodrigues; Renzo Garcia, Von Pinho; Carlos Juliano Brant, Albuquerque; Édila Vilela Resende, Von Pinho.

2011-04-01

266

Índice de seleção e estimativa de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos para características relacionadas com a produção de milho-verde Index of selection and estimation of genetic and phenotypical parameters for traits related with the production of vegetable corn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos maiores produtores de milho do mundo e possui grande potencial para a produção de milho verde. Além de agregar valor ao produto, a comercialização de milho verde cresceu muito nos últimos anos. Há escassez de informações sobre a avaliação e a obtenção de cultivares destinadas à produção de milho-verde e também sobre estudos genéticos das características envolvidas nessa produção. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos, a correlação genética, classificar e identificar híbridos de milho verde promissores ao mercado consumidor e avaliar a eficiência dos pesos econômicos atribuídos. Os resultados determinaram que a seleção terá sucesso, para as diferentes características de milho-verde, pois, a herdabilidade foi de alta magnitude para as características avaliadas. A avaliação da produtividade de espigas empalhadas (PEE é suficiente para definir quais os híbridos apresentam o melhor desempenho para a produtividade de espigas comerciais (PEC, diâmetro (DIAM e comprimento de espigas (COMP. Isso indica que as características PEC, DIAM e COMP podem ser descartadas da avaliação em programas de melhoramento de milho-verde. Os híbridos HS48, HS27, HS24, HS25, HS12 e HS45 acumularam um maior número de características desejadas em um único genótipo, com base no índice de seleção baseado na soma de postos, sendo os mais promissores para a produção de milho-verde. Os pesos econômicos utilizados foram capazes de distinguir e identificar os híbridos mais promissores para a produção de milho- verde e podem ser utilizados como critério de seleção em programas de melhoramento de milho-verde.Brazil is one of the largest producers of corn of the world and it possesses great potential for vegetable corn production. Besides adding value to the product, the commercialization of vegetable corn increased in the last years. There is shortage of information about the evaluation and the acquisition of genotypes destined to the production of vegetable corn and also on genetic studies of the traits involved in this production. The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters, and the genetic correlation, and to classify and identify hybrids of promising vegetable corn to the consumer market and to evaluate the efficiency of the attributed economical weights. The results determined that the selection will succeed, for the different traits of vegetable corn, because the heritability was of high magnitude to the appraised traits. Evaluation of husked ears yield (PEE was enough to define which hybrid presents better commercial ear productivity, diameter and corn ear length. This indicates that those traits could be discarded in the selection process of genotypes of breeding programs for vegetable corn production. The hybrids HS48, HS27, HS24, HS25 and HS12 accumulated the largest number of desirable traits in a single genotype based on the sum of rank index. The used economical weights were efficient to distinguish and identify the most promising hybrid for vegetable corn production and they can be used as a selection criterion in programs of breeding of vegetable corn.

Fabricio Rodrigues

2011-04-01

267

Bacteriological quality of vegetables from organic and conventional production in different areas of Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foods grown in organic production systems have been described as representing an increased risk to public health compared with foods from conventional production. Leafy vegetables (spinach, romaine lettuce, and green sesame leaves) grown in organic and conventional systems were collected from various areas in Korea and examined using standard culture methods to compare the microbiological quality of the produce grown in the two agricultural systems. The 354 samples of these leafy vegetables were analyzed for levels of indicator bacteria (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the prevalence of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. Aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected in all vegetable types, but nonpathogenic E. coli was below the limit of detection in all samples. B. cereus was the most prevalent pathogen, found on 7 (11.1%) of the 63 organic spinach samples. The prevalence of S. aureus was highest in organic sesame leaves; it was found on 5 (8.0%) of the 63 samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was highest on organic romaine lettuce and spinach; it was found in 4 (6.4%) of 63 samples of each type of vegetable. E. coli O157:H7 found on only 1 (1.58%) of 55 conventional spinach samples. These results suggest that farming type at most only slightly affects the hygienic quality of leafy vegetables, and no effect was found for sample collection area. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the conventional or organic leafy vegetables. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic produce poses a substantially greater risk of pathogen contamination than does conventional produce. PMID:25198606

Tango, Charles Nkufi; Choi, Na-Jung; Chung, Myung-Sub; Oh, Deog Hwan

2014-08-01

268

Can individual cognitions, self-regulation and environmental variables explain educational differences in vegetable consumption? a cross-sectional study among Dutch adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundEducational differences in health-related behaviors, where low- and moderate-educated individuals have poorer outcomes than high-educated individuals, are persistent. The reasons for these differences remain poorly understood. This study explored whether individual cognitions, self-regulation and environmental-level factors may explain educational differences in vegetable consumption.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,342 Dutch adults, of whom 54.5% were low/moderate-educated. Individuals completed an online questionnaire, assessing education, vegetable consumption, demographics, individual cognitions (attitude towards consuming 200 grams of vegetables a day, self-efficacy, subjective norm, intention, perception of vegetables as being expensive), self-regulation (general self-regulation, vegetable-specific action- and coping planning) and environmental-level factors (perception of availability of vegetables in the supermarket and availability of vegetables at home). The joint-significance test was used to determine significant mediation effects.ResultsLow/moderate-educated individuals consumed less vegetables (M¿=¿151.2) than high-educated individuals (M¿=¿168.1, ß¿=¿¿0.15, P¿<¿.001). Attitude and availability of vegetables at home were found to partially mediate the association between education and vegetable consumption (percentage mediated effect: 24.46%).DiscussionSince attitude and availability of vegetables at home partially explain the difference in vegetable consumption between low/moderate- and high-educated individuals, these variables may be good target points for interventions to promote vegetable consumption among low/moderate-educated individuals. PMID:25480542

Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; Oenema, Anke

2014-12-01

269

Bacterial diversity in the saliva of patients with different oral hygiene indexes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a diversidade bacteriana da saliva de pacientes com diferentes índices de higiene bucal através da construção de duas bibliotecas do gene 16S rRNA. Cada biblioteca foi composta por amostras de saliva de pacientes com índice de biofilme dental de Silness-Löe [...] diferenciado, sendo a primeira (A) com índice de 1,0 a 3,0 (denominada de alto índice) e a segunda (B), entre 0 a 0,5 (denominada de baixo índice). O DNA da saliva foi extraído e o gene 16S rRNA foi amplificado, clonado e sequenciado. As sequências obtidas foram comparadas com aquelas armazenadas no GenBank do NCBI e RDP. A saliva de pacientes com alto índice de biofilme dental apresentou cinco gêneros conhecidos: Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella e Peptostreptococcus e 33,3% de bactérias não-cultivadas, agrupados em 23 unidades taxonômicas operacionais (UTOs). A saliva de pacientes com baixo índice de biofilme dental, foi diferente significativamente da primeira (p=0,000) e foi composta de 42 UTOs, distribuídas em 11 gêneros conhecidos: Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella, Oribacterium, Haemophilus, Escherichia, Neisseria, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Actinomyces, além de 24,87% de bactérias não-cultivadas. Pode-se concluir que existe maior diversidade bacteriana na saliva de pacientes com baixo índice de biofilme dental em relação a pacientes com alto índice de biofilme dental Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the bacterial diversity in the saliva of patients with different oral hygiene indexes using of two 16S rRNA gene libraries. Each library was composed of samples from patients with different averages of the differentiated Silness-Löe biofilm index: t [...] he first library (A) with an index between 1.0 and 3.0 (considered a high index) and the second library (B) between 0 and 0.5 (considered a low index). Saliva DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and cloned. The obtained sequences were compared with those stored at NCBI and RDP GenBank. The saliva of patients with high index presented five known genera - Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella and Peptostreptococcus - and 33.3% of nonculturable bacteria grouped into 23 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The saliva of patients with low index differed significantly from the first library (p=0.000) and was composed of 42 OTUs distributed into 11 known genera - Streptococcus, Granulicatella, Gemella, Veillonella, Oribacterium, Haemophilus, Escherichia, Neisseria, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Actinomyces - including 24.87% of nonculturable bacteria. It was possible to conclude that there is greater bacterial diversity in the saliva of patients with low dental plaque in relation to patients with high dental plaque.

Juliana Vianna, Pereira; Luciana, Leomil; Fabíola, Rodrigues-Albuquerque; José Odair, Pereira; Spartaco, Astolfi-Filho.

270

Yield Characteristics of Moringa oleifera Across Different Ecologies in Nigeria as an Index of Its Adaptation to Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pod and yield characteristics of Moringa oleifera plants grown in Ibadan (Rainforest vegetation, Nsukka (Forest-derived savannah vegetation and Jos (arid derived savannah vegetation were evaluated from 2007- 2009 to assess adaptability of the plant to climate change threats. The rainfall and temperature distribution in the three locations varied over the years. The Moringa oleifera plants grown at Ibadan had the greatest pod and seed yield followed by those at Nsukka and Jos in that order. The annual pod and seed production capacities of the plants differed significantly (p < 0.05 in the different locations. The overall annual pod and seed production per location, including yield characteristics, did not differ significantly throughout the years of study. Moringa oleifera was therefore found to be a suitable crop adaptable to various environmental and climatic changes in Nigeria.

Ndubuaku U. M.

2013-11-01

271

The Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised (MIPS-R) in Portugal: Gender Differences  

OpenAIRE

This study aims to determine whether males and females differ in the personality styles mesured with the Portuguese version of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised, MIPS-R (Millon, 2004). The MIPS-R is a 180-item, True/False inventory designed to measure personality styles of normally functioning adults between the ages of 18 and 65+. It is a theory-based inventory, grounded in biosocial and evolutionary theory, and comprises 12 pairs of scales organized into three main areas: Motiv...

Pires, Rute; Fagulha, Teresa; Silva, Danilo R.

2007-01-01

272

Swift and heavy ion implanted chalcogenide laser glass waveguides and their different refractive index distributions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Planar waveguides have been fabricated in Nd- or Ho-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide laser glasses by 60?MeV Ar or 20?MeV N ion implantation. The refractive index profiles were reconstructed based on the results of prism coupling. The Ar implanted waveguides exhibit an approximate steplike distribution, while the N implanted ones show a "well + barrier" type. This difference can be attributed to the much lower dose of Ar ions. After annealing, the N implanted waveguides can support two modes at 1539?nm and have low propagation loss, which makes them candidates for novel waveguide lasers. PMID:21343996

Qiu, Feng; Narusawa, Tadashi; Zheng, Jie

2011-02-10

273

Swift and heavy ion implanted chalcogenide laser glass waveguides and their different refractive index distributions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Planar waveguides have been fabricated in Nd- or Ho-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide laser glasses by 60 MeV Ar or 20 MeV N ion implantation. The refractive index profiles were reconstructed based on the results of prism coupling. The Ar implanted waveguides exhibit an approximate steplike distribution, while the N implanted ones show a ''well + barrier'' type. This difference can be attributed to the much lower dose of Ar ions. After annealing, the N implanted waveguides can support two modes at 1539 nm and have low propagation loss, which makes them candidates for novel waveguide lasers.

Qiu Feng; Narusawa, Tadashi; Zheng Jie

2011-02-10

274

Swift and heavy ion implanted chalcogenide laser glass waveguides and their different refractive index distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planar waveguides have been fabricated in Nd- or Ho-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide laser glasses by 60 MeV Ar or 20 MeV N ion implantation. The refractive index profiles were reconstructed based on the results of prism coupling. The Ar implanted waveguides exhibit an approximate steplike distribution, while the N implanted ones show a ''well + barrier'' type. This difference can be attributed to the much lower dose of Ar ions. After annealing, the N implanted waveguides can support two modes at 1539 nm and have low propagation loss, which makes them candidates for novel waveguide lasers.

275

The values of ED50 and therapeutic indexes of different radioprotector groups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioprotective agents were shown to be divided in 3 groups: (1) cystamine, AET, cystaphos, gammaphos, and thiogammaphos with ED50 (the dose that gave a half of the maximal protective effect) of 103-101,6 ?mol/kg and therapeutic index K LD50/ED50 = 100-101,6; (2) 5-methoxythyptamine, phenylephrine, serotonine, and norepinephrine with ED50 101-100 ?mol/kg and K = 101,8-102,6; (3) clonidine and isoprenaline with ED50 = 10-0,5-10-0,8 ?mol/kg and K = 103-104. Possible causes of these differences and advantages of low ED50 and high K were discussed

276

An enhanced vegetation index time series for the Amazon based on combined gap-filling approaches and quality datasets  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation indices from MODIS data are subject to residual atmospheric noise, affecting processes requiring data continuity and analyses. This work reconstructed a time series of MODIS EVI mosaics for the Amazon using a novel combination of curve-fitting and spatiotemporal gap-filling. TIMESAT was used for initial curve fitting and gap filling, using a Double Logistic method and MODIS Usefulness values as weights. Pixels with large temporal gaps were handled by a spatiotemporal gap filling approach. The method scans Julian Days before and after the image being gap filled, searching for a good quality pixel (Pg) at the location of the pixel to be replaced. If Pg is found, a window is defined around it and a search for good quality pixels (Px) with spectral characteristics similar to Pg is performed. Window size increases during processing and pixel similarity uses Euclidean distance based on MOD13A2 reflectances. A good quality EVI value for the image being gap filled and at the location analogous to the minimum distance Px replaces the low quality pixel. Results from the spatiotemporal gap filling were then used in TIMESAT for smoothing. An evaluation strategy of the spatiotemporal approach involved flagging 5,000 randomly selected good-quality pixels as low-quality, running the algorithm and regressing the results with the original EVI values (R2= 0.62). The combined strategy was able to find replacement pixels and reduce spikes for images with high cloud cover and was used to rebuild a time series of EVI over the Amazon region for the period 2000-2010.

Bernardes, Sergio

2010-10-01

277

COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS  

OpenAIRE

Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory...

AYTEN SAGIROGLU; ?EBNEM SELEN ISBILIR; HAKKI MEVLUT OZCAN; HATICE PALUZAR; Toprakkiran, Neslihan M.

2011-01-01

278

Spontaneous vegetation succession at different central European mining sites: a comparison across seres.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) ordination to compare seven successional seres running in stone quarries, coal mining spoil heaps, sand and gravel pits, and extracted peatlands in the Czech Republic in central Europe. In total, we obtained 1,187 vegetation samples containing 705 species. These represent various successional stages aged from 1 to 100 years. The successional seres studied were more similar in their species composition in the initial stages, in which synathropic species prevailed, than in later successional stages. This vegetation differentiation was determined especially by local moisture conditions. In most cases, succession led to a woodland, which usually established after approximately 20 years. In very dry or wet places, by contrast, where woody species were limited, often highly valuable, open vegetation developed. Except in the peatlands, the total number of species and the number of target species increased during succession. Participation of invasive aliens was mostly unimportant. Spontaneous vegetation succession generally appears to be an ecologically suitable and cheap way of ecosystem restoration of heavily disturbed sites. It should, therefore, be preferred over technical reclamation. PMID:23436061

Prach, Karel; Lencová, Kamila; Rehounková, Klára; Dvo?áková, Helena; Jírová, Alena; Konvalinková, Petra; Mudrák, Ond?ej; Novák, Jan; Trnková, Romana

2013-11-01

279

Arboreal Ant Assemblages Respond Differently to Food Source and Vegetation Physiognomies: a Study in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze assemblages of arboreal ants in different vegetation physiognomies within the Tropical Moist Forest (Atlantic Rain Forest domain. The study was carried out at the Michelin Ecological Reserve, State of Bahia, Northeast of Brazil. We used sardine (protein resource and honey (carbohydrate resource baits to collect ants foraging in three vegetation types: (1 preserved native forest, (2 forest in regeneration (capoeira with many invasive plants and (3 a mixed agroystem of rubber and cocoa tree plantation. We recorded 69 ant species attracted to the baits, 21 of them exclusive to honey bait and 25 exclusive to the sardine baits. The vegetation physiognomies preserved forest and rubber/cacao agrosystem showed higher species richness in relation to the forest in regeneration (capoeira, suggesting that rubber tree plantations can be a good matrix for the maintenance of some ant species typical of the forest matrix. The type of resource used is important for the structuring of the arboreal ant assemblages. The ants that were attracted to protein resources showed a guild composition that is more differentiated between vegetation types that of ants attracted to glucose resources.

Janete Jane Resende

2013-07-01

280

Heavy Metals Levels in Soil and Vegetables in Different Growing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current project deals with an issue of actuality and scientific/technical necessity and aims to assess the factors contributing to the vulnerability of ecological systems and therefore endangering/compromising food safety. The goals of this ongoing study are to address the main risk factors on ecological system with particular regards to fresh growing vegetables and to establish technical monitoring system(s with a view to increase food safety. Herein, the authors present the research results obtained in 2011 in SIECOLEG Project regarding the assessment of some heavy metals (mainly lead, cadmium, cooper, and manganese of 80 samples soils and 25 samples vegetables from some ecological system. The concentrations of heavy metals were measured by Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS Schimadzu 6300 - with graphite furnace atomizer and autosampler. In soil: lead and cadmium concentrations ranged from 4.51 to 6.58 mg/kg and from 0.14 to 0.4 mg/kg, respectively. Cooper and manganese concentrations ranged from 20.73 to 6.58 mg/kg and from 218.1 to 298.3 mg/kg, respectively. In vegetables (tomatoes, cucumber, peppers, eggplant, cabbage: lead concentrations ranged from 0.0 (tomatoes to 4.35 mg/kg (cabbage; cooper concentrations ranged from 0.2 mg/kg (cucumber to 0.80 mg/kg (eggplant; manganese concentrations ranged from 0.0 mg/kg (tomatoes to 0.60 mg/kg (eggplant. Cadmium was not detected in any of analysed vegetable samples. Under these circumstances, the project intends to demonstrate the extent of this vulnerability and to elaborate measures for controlling and diminishing the effects of the involved factors in order to increase food safety and security for ecological fresh vegetables

Hura C.

2013-04-01

281

The effects of different irrigation levels on vegetative growth of young dwarf cherry trees in a sub-humid climate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the effects of different irrigation treatments on evapotranspiration and vegetative growth parameters such as plant height, trunk cross-sectional area, volume of trees and branch cross-sectional area of 'Z-900'/Gisela-5 young dwarf cherry trees were investigated in a sub-humid climate during 2001-2002. Four irrigation treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4) were applied based on different percentages of Class A Pan evaporation (50%, 75%, 100% and 125%). Seasonal crop evapotranspiration (ETc) values at applied irrigation water levels varied from 327 to 656 mm and from 354 to 733 mm for 2001 and 2002, respectively. While the difference between water levels was 25%, the difference in evapotranspiration for water levels was found to be 21-30%. Maximum average values of vegetative growth parameters area were obtained in T4 treatment in each experimental year. Although the amount of irrigation water for treatments increased, values of vegetative growth parameters didn't indicate a proportional change. (author)

282

Effects of experimental protocol on global vegetation model accuracy: a comparison of simulated and observed vegetation patterns for Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Prognostic vegetation models have been widely used to study the interactions between environmental change and biological systems. This study examines the sensitivity of vegetation model simulations to: (i) the selection of input climatologies representing different time periods and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, (ii) the choice of observed vegetation data for evaluating the model results, and (iii) the methods used to compare simulated and observed vegetation. We use vegetation simulated for Asia by the equilibrium vegetation model BIOME4 as a typical example of vegetation model output. BIOME4 was run using 19 different climatologies and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Kappa statistic, Fuzzy Kappa statistic and a newly developed map-comparison method, the Nomad index, were used to quantify the agreement between the biomes simulated under each scenario and the observed vegetation from three different global land- and tree-cover data sets: the global Potential Natural Vegetation data set (PNV), the Global Land Cover Characteristics data set (GLCC), and the Global Land Cover Facility data set (GLCF). The results indicate that the 30-year mean climatology (and its associated atmospheric CO2 concentration) for the time period immediately preceding the collection date of the observed vegetation data produce the most accurate vegetation simulations when compared with all three observed vegetation data sets. The study also indicates that the BIOME4-simulated vegetation for Asia more closely matches the PNV data than the other two observed vegetation data sets. Given the same observed data, the accuracy assessments of the BIOME4 simulations made using the Kappa, Fuzzy Kappa and Nomad index map-comparison methods agree well when the compared vegetation types consist of a large number of spatially continuous grid cells. The results of this analysis can assist model users in designing experimental protocols for simulating vegetation.

Tang, Guoping; Shafer, Sarah L.; Barlein, Patrick J.; Holman, Justin O.

2009-01-01

283

On the calculation of the topographic wetness index: evaluation of different methods based on field observations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The topographic wetness index (TWI, ln(a/tan?, which combines local upslope contributing area and slope, is commonly used to quantify topographic control on hydrological processes. Methods of computing this index differ primarily in the way the upslope contributing area is calculated. In this study we compared a number of calculation methods for TWI and evaluated them in terms of their correlation with the following measured variables: vascular plant species richness, soil pH, groundwater level, soil moisture, and a constructed wetness degree. The TWI was calculated by varying six parameters affecting the distribution of accumulated area among downslope cells and by varying the way the slope was calculated. All possible combinations of these parameters were calculated for two separate boreal forest sites in northern Sweden. We did not find a calculation method that performed best for all measured variables; rather the best methods seemed to be variable and site specific. However, we were able to identify some general characteristics of the best methods for different groups of measured variables. The results provide guiding principles for choosing the best method for estimating species richness, soil pH, groundwater level, and soil moisture by the TWI derived from digital elevation models.

R. Sørensen

2006-01-01

284

Effects of different vegetation zones on CH4 and N2O emissions in coastal wetlands: a model case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The coastal wetland ecosystems are important in the global carbon and nitrogen cycle and global climate change. For higher fragility of coastal wetlands induced by human activities, the roles of coastal wetland ecosystems in CH4 and N2O emissions are becoming more important. This study used a DNDC model to simulate current and future CH4 and N2O emissions of coastal wetlands in four sites along the latitude in China. The simulation results showed that different vegetation zones, including bare beach, Spartina beach, and Phragmites beach, produced different emissions of CH4 and N2O in the same latitude region. Correlation analysis indicated that vegetation types, water level, temperature, and soil organic carbon content are the main factors affecting emissions of CH4 and N2O in coastal wetlands. PMID:24892044

Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Lixin; Bao, Shumei; Liu, Huamin; Yu, Junbao; Wang, Yu; Shao, Hongbo; Ouyang, Yan; An, Shuqing

2014-01-01

285

EMG parameters and EEG ? Index change at fatigue period during different types of muscle contraction  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to measure and analyze the characteristics in change of EMG and EEG parameters at muscle fatigue period in participants with different exercise capacity. Twenty participants took part in the tests. They were divided into two groups, Group A (constant exerciser) and Group B (seldom-exerciser). MVC dynamic and 1/3 isometric exercises were performed; EMG and EEG signals were recorded synchronously during different type of muscle contraction. Results indicated that values of MVC, RMS and IEMG in Group A were greater than Group B, but isometric exercise time was shorter than the time of dynamic exercise although its intensity was light. Turning point of IEMG and ? Index occurred synchronously during constant muscle contraction of isometric or dynamic exercise. It is concluded that IEMG turning point may be an indication to justify muscle fatigue. Synchronization of EEG and EMG reflects its common characteristics on its bio-electric change.

Zhang, Li; Zhou, Bin; Song, Gaoqing

2011-03-01

286

Herbage Yield and Quality of Two Vegetative Parts of Indigofera at Different Times of First Regrowth Defoliation  

OpenAIRE

A field experiment using Indigofera sp. was conducted at the Farm Research Station of Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Darmaga Campus, during 2008-2009. The objectives of this study were to identify the effect of defoliation time on herbage dry-matter production, protein, fiber contents, and in vitro digestibility of different vegetative parts of Indigofera sp. Block randomized design comprising three levels of defoliation time at first regrowth after pruning (38, 68...

Abdullah, L.; Suharlina

2010-01-01

287

Effects of adding bentonite to different substrates on vegetative growth and yield of snap beans (Phaseulus vulgaris L.)  

OpenAIRE

To study the effects of adding a superabsorbent (bentonite) to different substrates on the vegetative growth and yield of snap beans, two randomized complete block design experiments with 4 replications were conducted at Greenhouse of Isfahan University of Technology. In the first experiment, 9 treatments including rice hull, saw dust, sand and their combinations, with 10 and 20% superabsorbent (v/v) were used. The results showed that the highest stem length, number of nodes and leaves, shoot...

Aghdak, P.; Mobli, M.; Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H.; Shakeri, F.

2010-01-01

288

Occurrence of potentially toxigenic mould species in fresh salads of different kinds of ready-for-use vegetables  

OpenAIRE

In the mycological survey of fresh salads of different vegetables, the collected samples were tested for total counts of moulds with special attention paid to the presence of potentially toxigenic species. The survey also included the isolation and the identification of species, as well as the evaluation of mycotoxin biosynthesis ability of potential producers of ochratoxin A (OA) and sterigmatocystin (STC). Mould counts ranged from 10.0 to 4.7x102 cfu g-1. The most common moulds found ...

Koci?-Tanackov Sun?ica D.; Dimi? Gordana R.; Levi? Jelena T.; Pejin Dušanka J.; Pejin Jelena D.; Jaji? Igor M.

2010-01-01

289

Development and testing of an index of biotic integrity based on submersed and floating vegetation and its application to assess reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands area, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed and tested a plant-based index of biological integrity (IBI) and used it to evaluate the existing reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands mining region. Reclamation plans call for >15,000 ha of wetlands to be constructed, but currently, only about 25 wetlands are of suitable age for evaluation. Reclamation wetlands are typically of the shallow open water type and range from fresh to sub-saline. Tailings-contaminated wetlands in particular may have problems with hydrocarbon- and salt-related toxicity. From 60 initial candidate metrics in the submersed aquatic and floating vegetation communities, we selected five to quantify biological integrity. The IBI included two diversity-based metrics: the species richness of floating vegetation and the percent of total richness contributed by Potamogeton spp. It also included three relative abundance-based metrics: that of Ceratophyllum demersum, of floating leafed species and of alkali-tolerant species. We evaluated the contribution of nonlinear metrics to IBI performance but concluded that the correlation between IBI scores and wetland condition was not improved. The method used to score metrics had an influence on the IBI sensitivity. We conclude that continuous scoring relative to the distribution of values found in reference sites was superior. This scoring approach provided good sensitivity and resolution and was grounded in reference condition theory. Based on these IBI scores, both tailings-contaminated and tailings-free reclamation wetlands have significantly lower average biological integrity than reference wetlands (ANOVA: F(2,59) = 34.7, p = 0.000000000107). PMID:21484300

Rooney, Rebecca C; Bayley, Suzanne E

2012-01-01

290

Study of Heavy Metal Accumulation in Sewage Irrigated Vegetables in Different Regions of Agra District, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination of soil resulting from sewage irrigation is a cause of serious concern due to the potential health impacts of consuming contaminated products. In this study an assessment made of the impact of sewage irrigation on heavy metal contamination of Spinach, Cabbage, Beetroot, Reddish, Okra, Tomato, and Cucumber is widely cultivated and consumed in urban India, particularly by the poor. A field study was conducted at seven major sites that were irrigated by either treated, (Dhandupura or untreated wastewater in the suburban areas of Agra, India. Samples of irrigation water, soil, and the edible portion of all the vegetables were collected monthly during the winter seasons and were analyzed for Fe, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Heavy metals in irrigation water were below the internationally recom- mended (WHO maximum permissible limits set for agricultural use for all heavy metals except Cd at all the sites. Similarly, the mean heavy metal concentrations in soil were below the Indian standards for all heavy metals, but the maximum value of Cd recorded during January was higher than the standard. However, in the edible portion of spinach, the Cd concentration was higher than the permissible limits of the Indian standard during summer, whereas Pb concentrations were higher in winter seasons. Results of correlation analysis were computed to assess the relationship between individual heavy metal concentration in the vegetable samples. The study concludes that the use of treated and untreated wastewater for irrigation has increased the contamination of Cd, Pb in edible portion of vegetables causing potential health risk in the long term from this practice. The study also points to the fact that adherence to standards for heavy metal contamination of soil and irrigation water does not ensure safe food. Fe was measured abundant in soil whereas Pb and Cd were found more in untreated sites as compared to treated site. Correlation, paired T-test and ANOVA were also carried out for pre post harvested soil and vegetables.

Fazal Masih Prasad

2013-03-01

291

Economic Study on Winter Vegetables Produced by Different Categories of Farms  

OpenAIRE

The study was designed to assess the comparative profitability of selected winter vegetables like potato, cauliflower and tomato. To achieve this objective, total of 75 farmers, 25 producing potato, 25 producing cauliflower and 25 producing tomato were selected. For this purpose, Cobb-douglas production function model was used. Per hectare total cost of production of potato, cauliflower and tomato were 51396.79, 64406.06 and 61663.87 TK., respectively and the corresponding gross incomes were ...

Sultana, M. S.; Kabir, F.; Islam, M. S.; Rashid, M. M.; Akon, A. I.

2005-01-01

292

Difference in the Lubrication Efficiency of Bovine and Vegetable-Derived Magnesium Stearate During Tabletting  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this work was to evaluate and compare the functionality of bovine fatty acids-derived (MgSt-B) and vegetable fatty acids-derived (MgSt-V) magnesium stearate powders when used for the lubrication of granules prepared by high-shear (HSG) and fluid bed (FBG) wet granulation methods. The work included evaluation of tablet compression and ejection forces during tabletting and dissolution testing of the compressed tablets. Granules prepared by both granulation methods required signif...

Gupta, Abhay; Hamad, Mazen L.; Tawakkul, Mobin; Sayeed, Vilayat A.; Khan, Mansoor A.

2009-01-01

293

Heavy Metals Levels in Soil and Vegetables in Different Growing Systems  

OpenAIRE

The current project deals with an issue of actuality and scientific/technical necessity and aims to assess the factors contributing to the vulnerability of ecological systems and therefore endangering/compromising food safety. The goals of this ongoing study are to address the main risk factors on ecological system with particular regards to fresh growing vegetables and to establish technical monitoring system(s) with a view to increase food safety. Herein, the authors present the research re...

Hura C.; Munteanu N.; Stoleru V.

2013-01-01

294

Using vegetation indices for soil-moisture retrievals from passive microwave radiometry  

OpenAIRE

Surface soil moisture and the nature of the overlying vegetation both influence microwave emission from land surfaces significantly. One widely discussed but underused method for allowing for the effect of vegetation on soil-moisture retrievals from microwave observations is to use remotely sensed vegetation indices. This paper explores the potential for using the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in soil-moisture retrievals from L-band (1.4 GHz) aircraft data gathered during the ...

Burke, E. J.; Shuttleworth, W. J.; French, A. N.

2001-01-01

295

Exploring field vegetation reflectance as an indicator of soil contamination in river floodplains  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the relation between vegetation reflectance and elevated concentrations of the metals Ni, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb in river floodplain soils. High-resolution vegetation reflectance spectra in the visible to near-infrared (400–1350 nm) were obtained using a field radiometer. The relations were evaluated using simple linear regression in combination with two spectral vegetation indices: the Difference Vegetation Index (DVI) and the Red-Edge Position (REP). In addition, a mult...

Kooistra, L.; Salas, E. A. L.; Clevers, J. G. P. W.; Wehrens, R.; Leuven, R. S. E. W.; Nienhuis, P. H.; Buydens, L. M. C.

2004-01-01

296

Influence of Paclobutrazol and Ethephon on Vegetative Growth of Guava (Psidium guajava L. Plants at Different Spacing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To ascertain the growth retarding potential of Paclobutrazol (PBZ and Ethephon on guava plants at different spacing viz 6?2 m, 6?3 m, 6?4 m and 6?5 m; both were applied at 500 ppm, 1000 ppm as a foliar spray. Investigation revealed that all treatments influence the vegetative growth of plants compared to untreated plants at all spacing levels. However, paclobutrazol considerably restrict the overall vegetative growth of trees. Stock and scion girth was found to be increased with ethephon treatments. The tree height and E-W tree spread was found to increased with increasing plant density. Similarly, trunk girth in terms of stock and scion girth was also increased with increase in plant spacing. Although, the PBZ 500 ppm markedly restrict the plant growth but it may be further investigated for managing the guava tree canopies under high density planting systems, taking the fruit quality and economic aspects into consideration.

Jaswinder Singh BRAR

2010-09-01

297

Differences in Drainage Network Incision and Expansion Associated with Aspect-Related Variability in Soil Water Storage and Vegetation  

Science.gov (United States)

Aspect-related variability in soil water storage, vegetation type and density, and snow melt dynamics appears to dramatically influence drainage incision and expansion. The semi-arid Dry Creek watershed contains two ~1.2 km wide west-draining valleys with side slopes comprised of broad north and south-facing land surfaces into which lower-order catchments have been incised. North-facing land surfaces exhibit thicker, finer-grained soils with more organic soil carbon that support coniferous forest. South-facing land surfaces have thinner, coarser-grained soils with less organic carbon that support sagebrush-steppe vegetation. The drainages and landforms associated with these surfaces contrast starkly. North-facing catchments (n=10) exhibit lower-order (single channel), steeper, shallowly incised, less dense drainages, that have a linear form in both profile and map view, with linear ridges between. They resemble debris chutes in scree dominated areas. Whereas, south-facing drainages (n=11), are higher order (dendritic), gentler, more deeply incised, and concave-up in profile, with undulous ridgelines between. The association of differences in drainage form with differences in soil properties and vegetation suggests that the greater soil water storage capacity of northern aspects, in conjunction with greater vegetative stabilization, inhibits fluvial and mass-wasting related erosion, as northern aspects are less likely to reach a saturated state, and limits the incision and expansion of north-facing catchments. Soils and vegetation affect the ability to reach a saturated state by altering the pedon-scale water-balance. Soil thickness affects the volume of the soil water reservoir. Soil texture and organic carbon affect the amount of water a given volume of soil retains. Thicker, finer-grained soils require more precipitation to satisfy their storage demands before reaching a saturated state. Coniferous forest may also increase storage as interception and increase transpiration losses, further reducing water inputs to soils and limiting drainage development on northern aspects. South-facing land surfaces are also greater in length, despite similar vertical relief, suggesting that differences in drainage expansion have caused ridgeline and/or basal streams to migrate, lengthening south-facing land surfaces and shortening north-facing land surfaces. This would induce a positive feedback, as larger south-facing catchments with lower storage capacities capture and route more water through their outlets than the smaller north-facing catchments, further exacerbating differences in drainage incision and expansion.

Poulos, M. J.; Pierce, J. L.; Benner, S. G.; McNamara, J. P.; Flores, A. N.

2012-12-01

298

Chemical Composition, Fatty Acids Content and Glycemic Index of Two Different Types of Omani Halwa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study evaluated the chemical composition, fatty acids contents and Glycemic Index (GI of two different types (white and black of Omani halwa. Representative samples of Omani halwa were collected from the local market. The proximate composition and energy contents of white and black halwa did not vary significantly (p<0.05. The percentage moisture, crude protein, total fat, ash, crude fiber and Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE in white and black halwa were 11.8 and 12.1; 0.28 and 0.44; 13.8 and 12.4; 0.01 and 0.02; 0.15 and 0.05 and 74.0 and 75.0, respectively. The energy values in white and black halwa were 421.3 and 413.4 kcal/100 g, respectively. No significant (p<0.05 differences were observed in the total fatty acids, Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA, Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA content in both types of Omani halwa. The SFA were present in highest concentration. The proportionate percentages of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in white and black halwa were 64.57, 65.47, 31.28, 30.79, 4.11 and 3.74%, respectively. The average GI and GL values for white and black halwa also did not vary (p<0.05 and were 54.8 and 52.0 and 14 and 13.4, respectively. Although the glycemic index values of Omani halwa fall in low GI category (<55, it should be consumed with caution because of its high fat, in particular of SFA and high sugar contents.

Amanat Ali

2013-01-01

299

“The Potential Pozzolanic Activity of Different Ceramic Waste Powder as Cement Mortar Component (Strength Activity Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under the strong contemporary demand for modern and environmental friendly materials, natural pozzolan can be proved to be such material and several researchers have focused their research efforts in using it as a partial substitute in the manufacture of concrete and mortar. Pozzolans are divided into two categories, namely the natural and the artificial, as metakaoline and silica fume (SF. In recent years, the industry has shifted to using natural pozzolans because of their lower cost and accessibility. A pozzolan is a siliceous material that can be used as an inexpensive Substitute for cement in mortar mixtures. The objective of this experimental study was to examine the possibility of reusing ceramic materials waste from ceramic industry as partial cement replacement in mortar and concrete. The different types of ceramic waste were finely ground to specific sizes (0–45 lm, 45–75 lm and 75–150 lm from different industries and its pozzolanic activity was determined. The compressive strength activity index at 7, 28 days and accelerated curing was determined in mortars produced with each finely grounded waste ceramics and different percentages of partial cement replacement. As per Indian standard mortar bar tests on 70.6*70.6*70.6 mm3 size mortar specimens were performed and results concluded with comparison to nominal mix specimen. own text.

Jay Patel

2014-03-01

300

Monitoring Vegetation Phenological Cycles in Two Different Semi-Arid Environmental Settings Using a Ground-Based NDVI System: A Potential Approach to Improve Satellite Data Interpretation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In semi-arid environmental settings with sparse canopy covers, obtaining remotely sensed information on soil and vegetative growth characteristics at finer spatial and temporal scales than most satellite platforms is crucial for validating and interpreting satellite data sets. In this study, we used a ground-based NDVI system to provide continuous time series analysis of individual shrub species and soil surface characteristics in two different semi-arid environmental settings located in the Great Basin (NV, USA. The NDVI system was a dual channel SKR-1800 radiometer that simultaneously measured incident solar radiation and upward reflectance in two broadband red and near-infrared channels comparable to Landsat-5 TM band 3 and band 4, respectively. The two study sites identified as Spring Valley 1 site (SV1 and Snake Valley 1 site (SNK1 were chosen for having different species composition, soil texture and percent canopy cover. NDVI time-series of greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus from the SV1 site allowed for clear distinction between the main phenological stages of the entire growing season during the period from January to November, 2007. NDVI time series values were significantly different between sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata and rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus at SV1 as well as between the two bare soil types at the two sites. Greasewood NDVI from the SNK1 site produced significant correlations with chlorophyll index (r = 0.97, leaf area index (r = 0.98 and leaf xylem water potential (r = 0.93. Whereas greasewood NDVI from the SV1 site produced lower correlations (r = 0.89, r = 0.73, or non significant correlations (r = 0.32 with the same parameters, respectively. Total percent cover was estimated at 17.5% for SV1 and at 63% for SNK1. Results from this study indicated the potential capabilities of using this ground-based NDVI system to extract spatial and temporal details of soil and vegetation optical properties not possible with satellite derived NDVI.

Malika Baghzouz

2010-04-01

301

Comparing Different Approaches for Mapping Urban Vegetation Cover from Landsat ETM+ Data: A Case Study on Brussels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban growth and its related environmental problems call for sustainable urban management policies to safeguard the quality of urban environments. Vegetation plays an important part in this as it provides ecological, social, health and economic benefits to a city’s inhabitants. Remotely sensed data are of great value to monitor urban green and despite the clear advantages of contemporary high resolution images, the benefits of medium resolution data should not be discarded. The objective of this research was to estimate fractional vegetation cover from a Landsat ETM+ image with sub-pixel classification, and to compare accuracies obtained with multiple stepwise regression analysis, linear spectral unmixing and multi-layer perceptrons (MLP at the level of meaningful urban spatial entities. Despite the small, but nevertheless statistically significant differences at pixel level between the alternative approaches, the spatial pattern of vegetation cover and estimation errors is clearly distinctive at neighbourhood level. At this spatially aggregated level, a simple regression model appears to attain sufficient accuracy. For mapping at a spatially more detailed level, the MLP seems to be the most appropriate choice. Brightness normalisation only appeared to affect the linear models, especially the linear spectral unmixing.

Frank Canters

2008-06-01

302

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR. For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, interval principal component analysis (iPCA and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples.

Rosana de Cássia de Souza Schneider

2013-03-01

303

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and multivariate analysis for identification of different vegetable oils used in biodiesel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources--canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans--were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples. PMID:23539030

Mueller, Daniela; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; Schneider, Rosana de Cássia de Souza

2013-01-01

304

Vegetative and reproductive evaluation of hot peppers under different plastic mulches in poly/plastic tunnel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the beginning of civilization, the man has developed technologies to increase the efficiency of food production. The use of plastic mulch in commercial vegetable production is one of these traditional techniques that have been used for centuries. Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of plastic mulch on growth and yield of two hot pepper hybrids, viz. Sky Red and Maha in poly/plastic tunnel. The treatments were black plastic mulch, clear plastic mulch and bare soil as control. Both hot pepper hybrids mulched with black plastic showed significantly better vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area etc) and fruit yield. Clear plastic mulch significantly increased soil temperature and reduced the number of days to first flower than black plastic mulch and bare soil. However, fruit yield was higher by 39.56 and 36.49% respectively in both hybrids when they were grown on black and clear plastic mulch as compared to bare soil. Overall results indicated that the use of plastic mulch is an ideal option to maximize hot pepper productivity as well as to extend their production season in poly/plastic tunnels. (author)

305

Age and gender differences in disabling foot pain using different definitions of the manchester foot pain and disability index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI has been used to determine the prevalence of disabling foot pain in several studies, however there is some debate as to which case definition is most appropriate. The objective of this study was to explore age and gender differences in the proportion of people with disabling foot pain using three different case definitions of the MFPDI and for each individual MFPDI item. Methods A random sample of 223 participants aged 27 to 90 years (88 males and 135 females from the North West Adelaide Health Study, who reported having pain, aching or stiffness in either of their feet on most days in the last month, completed the MFPDI by telephone interview. The proportion of people with disabling foot pain was determined using three definitions: (i Definition A-at least one of the 17 items documented on at least some days in the last month; (ii Definition B-at least one of the 17 items documented on most/every day(s in the last month, and; (iii Definition C-at least one of the ten functional limitation items documented on most/every day(s in the last month. Cross-tabulations and chi-squared statistics were used to explore differences in responses to the MFPDI items according to age and gender. Results The proportion of people with disabling foot pain according to each definition was as follows: Definition A (100%, Definition B (95.1% and Definition C (77.6%. Definition C was most sensitive to age and gender differences. Exploration of individual MFPDI items indicated that age significantly affected both the pain intensity and functional limitation items, with younger people more likely to report their foot pain being worse in the morning, and older people more likely to report functional limitations. Although gender did not influence responses to the personal appearance items, women were more likely report functional limitations than men. Conclusions Definition C of the MFPDI is more sensitive to age and gender differences in the proportion of people with disabling foot pain, and would therefore seem to be the most appropriate case definition to use in epidemiological studies involving a broad age range of participants.

Taylor Anne W

2011-10-01

306

Caracterização da fauna edáfica em diferentes coberturas vegetais na região norte Fluminense / Characterization of soil fauna in different vegetation covers in the northern Fluminense region (RJ)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O sistema solo-serapilheira é o habitat natural para grande variedade de organismos, que diferem em tamanho e metabolismo, responsáveis por inúmeras funções. O monitoramento dos grupos de fauna no sistema solo-serapilheira permite não só uma inferência sobre a funcionalidade destes organismos, mas t [...] ambém uma indicação simples da complexidade ecológica dessas comunidades. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a distribuição da fauna edáfica nos compartimentos solo e serapilheira em duas épocas do ano e em cinco diferentes coberturas vegetais (eucalipto, floresta não preservada, floresta preservada, capoeira, pasto) no Norte Fluminense. As coberturas de floresta natural, especialmente das florestas preservadas e não preservadas, mostraram, de maneira geral, valores de densidade e riqueza de fauna superiores aos de eucalipto e pasto, tanto no solo quanto na serapilheira, nas duas épocas de coleta. Em geral, não houve preferência dos grupos de fauna pelos compartimentos solo e serapilheira. A densidade de fauna, riqueza de espécies, índice de Shannon e índice de Pielou também variaram conforme a época de coleta, sendo, no verão, estabelecidas maiores diferenças entre as diferentes coberturas vegetais estudadas do que no inverno. O índice de Pielou foi a variável mais estável e, portanto, mais apropriada para o estudo da dissimilaridade entre as coberturas vegetais em termos de distribuição dos grupos de fauna. Abstract in english The soil-litter system is a natural habitat for a great variety of organisms that differ in size and metabolism and are responsible for numerous functions. The study of groups of organism in the soil-litter system allows not only to make inferences on the functionality of these organisms, but also i [...] s a simple indication of the ecological complexity in these communities. Our study aimed at characterizing the distribution of groups of organism in soil and litter compartments in two seasons of the year (wet summer and dry winter) under five different vegetation covers (eucalyptus, non-preserved forest, preserved forest, regenerating forest ('capoeira'), and pasture) in the northern Fluminense region (RJ, Brazil). Both soil and litter under the natural forest covers, in particular the preserved and non- preserved forest, generally showed higher organism density and abundance values than eucalyptus and pasture for in both collecting seasons. In general, there was no preference of organism groups for soil or litter. The organisms density and abundance, Shannon's index and Pielou's index also varied according to the season of the year and the differences among vegetation covers were more distinct in the summer than in the winter season. The Pielou's index was the most stable variable and, therefore, the most appropriate to study the dissimilarities among the vegetation covers in terms of distribution of groups of organisms.

Maria Kellen da S., Moço; Emanuela Forestieri da, Gama-Rodrigues; Antonio Carlos da, Gama-Rodrigues; Maria Elizabeth F., Correia.

2005-07-01

307

Feed intake and activity level of two broiler genotypes foraging different types of vegetation in the finishing period  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A study was performed with 2 broiler genotypes (slow and medium growth) restricted in supplementary feed and foraging 2 different mixed vegetations (grass/clover or chicory) to identify possible benefits of herbage on nutrition during the finishing period (80 to 113 d of age). Three hundred birds were included in a 2 × 2 factorial design with groups of 25 birds replicated 3 times. The use of outdoor areas, performance, and forage intake were investigated. To identify possible differences in foraging activity, the use of the range was monitored one day per week at 4 different times of the day. Feed intake from foraging was estimated by killing 4 birds per plot (2 males and 2 females) in the morning and in the evening on 3 d during the experiment and measuring crop content. Vegetation type did not influence broiler use of the free-range area, feed intake, or performance. Differences in the use of the range area, activity level, and feed content in the crops were observed in relation to genotype, sex, age of broilers, and also the time of day. Foraging activity was positively correlated with age. Medium-growth broilers spent more time inside and closer to the broiler houses during the day with increased foraging activity during evenings, in contrast to the slow-growing broilers that showed a more uniform activity during the day. Based on the measurement of crop content it was estimated that the slow-growing genotype had a daily intake of 5 to 8 g of forage per day, whereas the medium-growing genotype had an intake of 9 g for females and 20 g for males. In conclusion, limitation of supplemented protein feed in the finishing period may be acceptable for broilers that have access to highly nutritious vegetation.

Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

2012-01-01

308

Análise espacial de atributos do solo e cobertura vegetal em diferentes condições de pastagem / Spatial analysis of soil attributes and cover vegetation under different grazing conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As áreas destinadas à pecuária têm-se expandido sobre áreas de vegetação nativa promovendo transformações na qualidade do solo. O objetivo foi avaliar os atributos de um Neossolo Quartzarênico sob diferentes coberturas vegetais para saber se a degradação do pasto representa a degradação do solo. As [...] áreas avaliadas foram: floresta nativa; capoeira; pastagem sem controle de lotação animal; pastagem em pousio; pastagem com invasoras; pastagem degradada com solo descoberto e invasoras, pastagem degradada com invasoras e espécies arbóreas e pastagem com baixa produção de forragem. Todas as pastagens eram formadas pela gramínea Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. Realizaram-se 128 amostras de solo nas profundidades de 0-5 e 5-10 cm, dentro de cada área de manejo considerada como parcela experimental e a cobertura do solo foi quantificada. Foram mensuradas propriedades químicas e físicas do solo. Os dados foram submetidos a estudo geoestatístico. Foram constatados aumento na resistência mecânica à penetração e diminuição nos teores de matéria orgânica nas áreas mais degradadas. Pasto degradado não representa necessariamente solo degradado enquanto solo degradado está relacionado a pastagem degrada. Abstract in english The areas for livestock raising have expanded into areas of native vegetation, promoting changes in soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attributes of a Entisol under different vegetation covers to whether the pasture degradation represents soil degradation. The areas evalua [...] ted were: native forest, shrub, uncontrolled grazing animal stocking, grazing in fallow pasture with weeds; degraded pasture with bare soil and weeds, degraded pasture with weeds and tree species and grassland with low forage production. All pastures were formed by Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. Hundred and twenty eight soil samples were collected in 0-5 and 5-10 cm, within each management area, considered as an experimental plot and soil cover was quantified. The chemical and physical properties of the soil were measured. Data were subjected to geoestatistical study. Increase in penetration resistance and decrease in the levels of organic matter were observed in the most degraded areas. Degraded pasture is not necessarily degraded land while degraded soil is related to grazing degrades.

Durval N., Neves Neto; Antonio C. dos, Santos; Perlon M., Santos; Jonahtan C., Melo; Josemara S., Santos.

2013-09-01

309

Effect of Different Vegetable Oils (Red Palm Olein, Palm Olein, Corn Oil and Coconut Oil on Lipid Profile in Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of different vegetable oils [red palm olein (RPO, palm olein (PO, corn oil (CO and coconut oil (COC] on lipid profile in rat. Sixty six Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into eleven groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with 15% concentrations of RPO, PO, CO and COC for 4 and 8 weeks. Rats in control group were given normal rat pellet only while in treated groups 15% of additional vegetable oils were given. The results at 4 weeks showed a decline in Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C values at RPO and PO groups whereas in CO and COC groups the LDL-C were increased compared to the control group. The High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C values increased in RPO and PO groups whereas it was declined in CO and COC groups compared to the control group. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference (P ? 0.05 in HDL-C of rats treated with vegetable oils compared to the control group. However, the LDL-C in RPO and PO was significantly decreased (P ? 0.05 in the LDL-C and there was no significant difference (P?0.05 for CO and COC groups compared to the control groups. The mean value of the LDL-C after 8 weeks in the control group, RPO, PO, CO, and COC groups were 66.1 mg/dl, 31.9 mg/dl, 41.1 mg/dl, 50.41 mg/dl and 54.31 mg/dl respectively. There was significant decreased (P ? 0.05 in the total cholesterol (TC in RPO group for 4 weeks compared to the control group while the TC in PO, CO and COC were within the normal range. The results of TC in all treated rats for 8 weeks were within the normal range. There was no significant difference in TC of rats treated with vegetable oils compared to the control group. Triglycerides (TG in all treated rats for 4 weeks were within the normal range whereas the TG in RPO, PO and CO groups for 8 weeks were significant increase (P ? 0.05 compared to the control group but there was no significant difference between the control group and COC group.

Aminah Abdullah

2011-06-01

310

New hyperspectral difference water index for the extraction of urban water bodies by the use of airborne hyperspectral images  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracting surface land-cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic tasks is to identify and map surface water boundaries. Spectral water indexes have been successfully used in the extraction of water bodies in multispectral images. However, directly applying a water index method to hyperspectral images disregards the abundant spectral information and involves difficulty in selecting appropriate spectral bands. It is also a challenge for a spectral water index to distinguish water from shadowed regions. The purpose of this study is therefore to develop an index that is suitable for water extraction by the use of hyperspectral images, and with the capability to mitigate the effects of shadow and low-albedo surfaces, especially in urban areas. Thus, we introduce a new hyperspectral difference water index (HDWI) to improve the water classification accuracy in areas that include shadow over water, shadow over other ground surfaces, and low-albedo ground surfaces. We tested the new method using PHI-2, HyMAP, and ROSIS hyperspectral images of Shanghai, Munich, and Pavia. The performance of the water index was compared with the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the Mahalanobis distance classifier (MDC). With all three test images, the accuracy of HDWI was significantly higher than that of NDWI and MDC. Therefore, HDWI can be used for extracting water with a high degree of accuracy, especially in urban areas, where shadow caused by high buildings is an important source of classification error.

Xie, Huan; Luo, Xin; Xu, Xiong; Tong, Xiaohua; Jin, Yanmin; Pan, Haiyan; Zhou, Bingzhong

2014-01-01

311

Kinetics of soil enzyme activities under different ecosystems: An index of soil quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Soil microbial activity plays an important role in regulating biotransformation, nutrient cycling and hence the microbiological processes are at the center of many ecological functions. The kinetic parameters (Vmax and KmMichaelis constant) of different enzymes (amylase, invertase, protease, urease, [...] and dehydrogenase) were determined in order to assess the metabolic response of soil. The maximum reaction velocity (Vmax) represents a maximum rate of activity when all enzymes are saturated, which markedly increased in forest soil as compared to fresh mine spoil due to the gradual accumulation of soil organic matter. Smaller Km value was estimated in forest soil (FS) as compared to fresh mine spoil (FMS), suggesting the greater affinity of soil enzymes for substrate in FS. The catalytic efficiency (Vmax /Km) reflects an impression on microbial community composition with a change in soil enzymes. These enzyme characters (activities and kinetic parameters) have greater significance as early and sensitive indicators of the changes in soil properties induced by different management systems. These parameters (Vmax and Km) can be useful markers to assess changes in microbial activity of soil, since they represent quantity and affinity of enzymes respectively. The metabolic index (dehydrogenase activity/organic carbon (OC)) was found to be correlated with Vmax of dehydrogenase (r = 0.953; p

Monty, Kujur; Amiya, Kumar Patel.

2014-03-01

312

Effect of Different Levels of NaCl and KCl on Growth and Some Biological Indexes of Wheat Plant  

OpenAIRE

In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of different levels (0, 15, 30 and 60 mM) of NaCl and KCl salt on seedling growth and some biological indexes of wheat. Shoot height, stem diameter, leaves number of plant, fresh weight of shoot and dry matter weight index were investigated. The results showed that biological index of wheat decreased with increasing salt in comparison to control. The adverse affect of NaCl on wheat plant was obtained higher than that of KCl. This should car...

Sevinc Adiloglu; Aydin Adiloglu; Mine Ozkil

2007-01-01

313

Desempenho reprodutivo de coelhas alimentadas com ração contendo diferentes fontes de óleo vegetal = Reproductive performance of rabbit does fed with rations containing different sources of vegetable oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 120 matrizes de coelhas durante dois ciclos reprodutivos. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 4 tratamentos (ração sem óleo e ração com 3% de óleo de canola, de óleo de milho ou de óleo de soja e 30 repetições. Foram coletados os dados de peso vivo das coelhas em cada cobrição, no parto, aos 21 e aos 35 dias de lactação e de consumo durante a gestação, os primeiros 21 dias de lactação e durante o período total de lactação (35 dias. Também foram obtidos os dados referentes ao peso vivo e ao número de láparos ao nascimento, aos 21 e aos 35 dias. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos quanto aos parâmetros de desempenho das coelhas no primeiro ciclo reprodutivo. No entanto os dados referentes ao segundo ciclo demonstraram maior peso vivo (P0,05 pela utilização das rações.One hundred and twenty rabbit does, were evaluated during two productive cycles. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with four treatments (oil-free rations and 3% canola oil, corn oil or soybean oil rations and 30 replications. While data of live weight of rabbit does were collected in each breeding, on birth, on the 21st and the 35th days of lactation, those on feed intake were recorded during gestation, onthe first 21 days of lactation and during the total period of lactation (35 days. Data on the litters live weight and number on birth, on the 21st and the 35th days, were also obtained. There were no differences (p>0.05 among treatments with regard to performance parameters of rabbit does on the first reproductive cycle. However, data concerning the second cycle demonstrated a better live weight (p0.05 by rations containing different sources of vegetable oil fed during the two reproductive cycles.

Márcia Aparecida Andreazzi

2006-07-01

314

Nitrogen fixation in seedlings of sabia and leucena grown in the caatinga soils under different vegetation covers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency differences of populations forming bacteria in legume nodules (BNL) in areas under different vegetation cover in semi-arid Pernambuco state, Brazil, using the methodology of the natural abundance of 15N to estimate the amount of N fixed symbiotically. The highest levels of nitrogen was found in plants of leucena, and the sabia had levels that did not differ from reference species. The analysis by the technique of 15N showed that in all areas the leucena and the sabia showed signs of 15N different of the average signal of the control plants. The largest nitrogen accumulation was observed for leucena in the Caatinga and Capoeira. The sabia got greater accumulation of N from the Caatinga. The areas of Capoeira and Caatinga has showed the native populations of rhizobia with greater ability to fix nitrogen for the leucena

315

Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage  

OpenAIRE

Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S): 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20), and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of ...

Torres, R.; Salam, M.; P Rez, P.; Goicoechea, E.; Ortiz, J.; Romero, N.; Urra, C.; Dobarganes, M. C.; Robert, P.; Masson, L.

2002-01-01

316

Differences between bispectral index and spectral entropy during xenon anaesthesia: a comparison with propofol anaesthesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We enrolled 114 patients, aged 65-83 years, undergoing elective surgery (duration > 2h) into a randomised, controlled study to evaluate the performance of bispectral index and spectral entropy for monitoring depth of xenon versus propofol anaesthesia. In the propofol group, bispectral index and state entropy values were comparable. In the xenon group, bispectral index values resembled those in the propofol group, but spectral entropy levels were significantly lower. Mean arterial blood pressure was higher and heart rate was lower in the xenon group than in the propofol group. Bispectral index and spectral entropy considerably diverged during xenon but not during propofol anaesthesia. We therefore conclude that these measures are not interchangeable for the assessment of depth of hypnosis and that bispectral index is likely to reflect actual depth of anaesthesia more precisely compared with spectral entropy. PMID:20412149

Höcker, J; Raitschew, B; Meybohm, P; Broch, O; Stapelfeldt, C; Gruenewald, M; Cavus, E; Steinfath, M; Bein, B

2010-06-01

317

Genetic Diversity of Isolates of Glomus mosseae from Different Geographic Areas Detected by Vegetative Compatibility Testing and Biochemical and Molecular Analysis  

OpenAIRE

We detected, for the first time, the occurrence of vegetative incompatibility between different isolates of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species Glomus mosseae. Vegetative compatibility tests performed on germlings belonging to the same isolate showed that six geographically different isolates were capable of self-anastomosing, and that the percentage of hyphal contacts leading to fusions ranged from 60 to 85%. Successful anastomoses were characterized by complete fusion of hyphal walls,...

Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana; Strani, Patrizia; Agnolucci, Monica; Rinaudo, Valeria; Avio, Luciano

2003-01-01

318

Effects of different dietary cation-anion balance and cellulase on blood biochemical indexes in sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five sheep with average live weight of 38 kg were selected and fitted with permanent ruminal fistulae for the study of the influence of DCAB and cellulase on blood biochemical indexes in sheep. With the design of 5 x 5 Latin square, the goats were undergone four groups of treatments. As sheep in control group were only fed with basic feed, other treatments were fed with basic feed and additives. Those additives were: treatment 1 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary), treatment 2 with DCAB1 (20 mEq/100g DM), treatment 3 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary) and DCAB1 (20 mEq/100g DM) and treatment 4 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary) and DCAB2 (40 mEq/100 g DM). The results show that different DCAB and cellulase had no apparent influence on the concentrations of T3 and T4 (P>0.05), but they had significant influence on the concentration of insulin (P0.05). The study indicated that addition of 0.2% cellulase to dietary while adjusting DCAB to 0.2-40 mEq/100 g DM respectively did not destroy tissues and organs of sheep. (authors)

319

Physical Explanation on Designing Three Axes as Different Resolution Indexes from GRACE Satellite-Borne Accelerometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The GRACE Earth's gravitational field complete up to degree and order 120 is recovered based on the same and different three-axis resolution indexes from satellite-borne accelerometer using the improved energy conservation principle. The results show that designing XA1(2) as low-sensitivity axis (3 × 10?9m/s2) of accelerometer and designing YA1(2) and ZA1(2) as high-sensitivity axes (3 × 10?10 m/s2) are reasonable. The physical reason why the resolution of XA1(2) is one order of magnitude lower than YA1(2) and ZA1(2) is that non-conservative forces acting on GRACE satellites are mainly decomposed into YA1(2) and ZA1(2) in the orbital plane. Since XA1(2) is not orthogonal accurately to orbital plane during the development of accelerometer, the measurement of XA1(2) can not be thrown off entirely, but be reduced properly

320

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radometer (ASTER) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) Products from Global Earth Observation (GEO) Grid: An Assessment Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for Synergistic Applications  

OpenAIRE

We assessed the compatibility of three Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radometer (ASTER) based Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) products generated in the GEO Grid system to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) EVI. The three products were two forms of the two-band EVI with ASTER red and NIR bands but without a blue band and the original, three-band EVI computed with ASTER red and NIR, and MODIS blue reflectances. Our assessment results showed good compatibi...

Satoshi Tsuchida; Tomoaki Miura; Hirokazu Yamamoto

2012-01-01

321

Design and Development of a Spectral Library for Different Vegetation and Landcover Types for Arctic, Antarctic and Chihuahua Desert Ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

All objects on the Earth's surface absorb and reflect portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Depending on the composition of the material, every material has its characteristic spectral profile. The characteristic spectral profile for vegetation is often used to study how vegetation patterns at large spatial scales affect ecosystem structure and function. Analysis of spectroscopic data from the laboratory, and from various other platforms like aircraft or spacecraft, requires a knowledge base that consists of different characteristic spectral profiles for known different materials. This study reports on establishment of an online and searchable spectral library for a range of plant species and landcover types in the Arctic, Anatarctic and Chihuahuan desert ecosystems. Field data were collected from Arctic Alaska, the Antarctic Peninsula and the Chihuahuan desert in the visible to near infrared (IR) range using a handheld portable spectrometer. The data have been archived in a database created using postgre sql with have been made publicly available on a plone web-interface. This poster describes the data collected in more detail and offers instruction to users who wish to make use of this free online resource.

Matharasi, K.; Goswami, S.; Gamon, J.; Vargas, S.; Marin, R.; Lin, D.; Tweedie, C. E.

2008-12-01

322

Ambulatory arterial stiffness index in type 1 diabetes mellitus : any different during pregnancy?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To analyze the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) and pulse pressure (PP) during pregnancy and 3 months after delivery in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and compare it to healthy pregnant controls.

Lauszus, Finn F; Fuglsang, Jens

2013-01-01

323

Animal and vegetal pole cells of early Xenopus embryos respond differently to maternal dorsal determinants: implications for the patterning of the organiser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The maternal dorsal determinants required for the specification of the dorsal territories of Xenopus early gastrulae are located at the vegetal pole of unfertilised eggs and are moved towards the prospective dorsal region of the fertilised egg during cortical rotation. While the molecular identity of the determinants is unknown, there are dorsal factors in the vegetal cortical cytoplasm (VCC). Here, we show that the VCC factors, when injected into animal cells activate the zygotic genes Siamois and Xnr3, suggesting that they act along the Wnt/?-catenin pathways. In addition, Siamois and Xnr3 are activated and at the vegetal pole of UV-irradiated embryos, indicating that these two genes are targets of the VCC factors in all embyronic cells. However, the consequences of their activation in cells that occupy different positions along the animal-vegetal axis differ. Dorsal vegetal cells of normal embryos or VCC-treated injected animal cells are able to dorsalise ventral mesoderm in conjugate experiments but UV-treated vegetal caps do not have this property. We propose that the regionalisation of the organiser during gastrulation proceeds from the differential interpretation along the animal-vegetal axis of the activation of the VCC/?-catenin/Siamois pathway. (author)

324

Fractional vegetation cover estimation from Proba/CHRIS data: Methods, analysis of angular effects and application to the land surface emissivity retrieval  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, two different methods for fractional vegetation cover (FVC) retrieval from CHRIS (Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) data based on vegetation indices have been analyzed. The first method uses NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) values, as suggested, among others, by Carlson and Ripley (1997) and Gutman and Ignatov (1998), and the second method uses VARI (Variable Atmospherically Resistant Index) values as suggested by Gitelson et al. (2002). In addition, a ...

Jime?nez-mun?oz, Jc; Sobrino, Ja; Guanter, L.; Moreno, J.; Plaza, A.; Matfaez, P.

2005-01-01

325

Monitoring and mapping global vegetation cover using data from meteorological satellites  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of coarse resolution meteorological satellite data for monitoring and mapping of vegetation for global, continental and regional scales is outlined. In the NOAA products used the effects of cloud cover are reduced by the generation of temporal composites of images of the normalized difference vegetation index. Different land cover types are shown to have characteristic spectral phenological curves. Such data have the disadvantage of effectively increasing the apparent areal extent of small areas of green vegetation.

Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.; Holben, B.; Tucker, C. J.

1984-01-01

326

Mapping agroecological zones and time lag in vegetation growth by means of Fourier analysis of time series of NDVI images  

Science.gov (United States)

Examples are presented of applications of a fast Fourier transform algorithm to analyze time series of images of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values. The results obtained for a case study on Zambia indicated that differences in vegetation development among map units of an existing agroclimatic map were not significant, while reliable differences were observed among the map units obtained using the Fourier analysis.

Menenti, M.; Azzali, S.; Verhoef, W.; Van Swol, R.

1993-01-01

327

Land Surface Temperature Retrieval by Using ATCOR3_T and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Methods in Penang Island  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Many studies have been devoted to establish the methodology for retrieval of LST from single channel algorithm by utilizing Landsat satellite images. However, this method required many atmospheric parameters to retrieve LST. Thus, it is very difficult to acquire the complete information for atmospheric parameters. Approach: While for ATCOR3_T, this method can be used to retrieve LST without any historical atmospheric parameters like transmittance and mean-atmo...

Tan, K. C.; Lim, H. S.; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.

2010-01-01

328

Simulation of the interaction between the atmosphere, vegetation and the Earth's surface in different parameterisation concepts; Simulation der Wechselwirkung zwischen Atmosphaere, Vegetation und Erdoberflaeche bei Verwendung unterschiedlicher Parametrisierungsansaetze  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the present study was to compare two soil vegetation models based on entirely different concepts, namely the ''VEG3D'' model of the Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research of Karlsruhe University and the TERRA model of the German weather service. VEG3D comprises a multilayer soil model which calculates prognostic equations for soil heat and water flows and a vegetation layer in which the vegetation is represented by a single large leaf, in accordance with Deardorff's reference leaf concept (1976). TERRA is a two-layer soil model which calculates soil temperatures by means of the ''Extended Force Restore Method''. TERRA takes account of the vegetation by allowing the properties of the soil surface to change like a vegetation-bearing surface does. [German] Es war das Ziel dieser Arbeit, zwei Bodenvegetationsmodelle mit voellig unterschiedlichen Konzeptionen miteinander zu vergleichen. Bei diesen Modellen handelt es sich um das 'VEG3D' des Instituts fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung der Universitaet Karlsruhe und um das 'TERRA' des Deutschen Wetterdienstes. Das VEG3D beinhaltet ein mehrschichtiges Bodenmodell, in dem die prognostischen Gleichungen fuer Bodenwaerme- und Bodenwasserstroeme berechnet werden, sowie eine Bestandsschicht, in der die Vegetation nach dem Referenzblatt-Konzept von Deardorff (1976) durch ein einzelnes, grosses Blatt dargestellt wird. Das TERRA ist ein zweischichtiges Bodenmodell, welches die Bodentemperaturen ueber die 'Extended-Force-Restore Methode' berechnet. Vegetation wird in TERRA beruecksichtigt, in dem die Eigenschaften der Bodenoberflaeche so veraendert werden, dass sie sich verhaelt wie eine bewachsene Oberflaeche. (orig.)

Grabe, F.

2002-01-01

329

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens

2012-01-01

330

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

2012-12-01

331

Determination of surface tension, optical rotativity and refractive index of polymer polyvinyl alcohol PVA, in various solvents at different concentrations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface tension, Optical Rotativity and Refractive Index of Polymer PVA ( w=1,25,000 in various solvents like distilled water, NaOH, KOH and Urea at different concentrations are measured, which enable us to know the interaction of the polymer molecules in these solvents.

Sarojini Panda

2011-12-01

332

[Impacts of different alkaline soil on canopy spectral characteristics of overlying vegetation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between alkalinity and pH of the soil, reflectance spectra and red-edge parameters of the sunflower canopy in different growth periods under different alkalinity soil were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the spectral reflectance of the sunflower canopy in different stage under different alkalinity soil is the same as the spectral reflectance characters of the other greenery canopy. Along with the advancement of the sunflower growth period, sunflower canopy spectral reflectance increases gradually at different stages, the spectral reflectance is higher at flowering stage than 7-leaf stage and budding stage, and there exists a high reflection peak at 809nm at flowering period. At the same time, the spectral reflectance is affected by salinity-alkalinity stress at different stages, in the near infrared shortwave band, the spectral reflectance of the sunflower canopy in different stage increases with the decreases in soil alkalinity. When the derivatives are applied to determine the wavelength of the red-edge, there is a shift phenomenon of the red edge. The red edges were at 702-720 nm during every growth period of the sunflower. The "blue shift" phenomenon is also emerged for red edge position and red edge sloped with the increase in the soil alkalinity. Conversely, at the same growth periods, the red edge positions and red edge slope move to longer wave bands with the decrease in soil alkalinity. There is a "red shift" phenomenon before flowering period and "blue shift" phenomenon after flowering period for the red edge position and red edge slope of canopy spectrum at the same soil alkalinity. Respectively. The red edges at different growth stages of the sunflower show very significant positive correlation and quadratic polynomial to alkalinity and pH of the soil. Therefore, we thought used the red edge features of greenery could indicate the soil alkalization degree, it providing scientific basis for monitoring soil alkalization degree by remote sensing. PMID:25208412

Jia, Ke-Li; Zhang, Jun-Hua

2014-03-01

333

Evaluation of the Cervical Vertebrae Maturation Index in Lateral Cephalograms Taken in Different Head Positions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a inclinação da cabeça para cima ou para baixo interfere na determinação do estágio de crescimento por meio do Índice de maturação das vértebras cervicais (IMVC), verificando a acurácia deste método de diagnóstico, quando as radiografias são tomadas com erros. [...] Quarenta e nove pacientes, 26 do gênero feminino e 23 do masculino, entre 9 e 15 anos de idade, foram submetidos a 3 telerradiografias em norma lateral: posição natural de cabeça (PNC), cabeça inclinada 15° para cima (PNC-alta), e 15° para baixo (PNC-baixa). Três examinadores avaliaram o IMVC nas 147 telerradiografias. A concordância entre os examinadores foi alta na avaliação das telerradiografias obtidas em PNC. O teste Kappa revelou concordância moderada a substancial entre PNC e PNC-alta e entre PNC e PNC-baixa. Houve concordância significante entre PNC-alta e PNC-baixa. Pode-se concluir que a avaliação do IMVC em telerradiografias obtidas em PNC difere em comparação com as radiografias tomadas com inclinações. Tanto PNC-alta quanto PNC-baixa demonstraram maior discordância na interpretação entre os examinadores, uma vez que o método de avaliação não foi preconizado para telerradiografias com erros de posicionamento. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate if upward or downward head inclination might interfere with determination of the growth stage, using cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI), in order to verify the accuracy of such diagnosis when radiographs are taken with errors. Forty-nine patients, 26 fem [...] ales and 23 males, aged 9 to 15 years, were submitted to 3 lateral cephalograms: normal (NHP), with 15° upward head inclination (NHP-Up), and with 15° downward head inclination (NHP-Down). Three examiners evaluated the CVMI on the 147 cephalograms. The agreement among examiners was higher in the evaluation of cephalograms taken in NHP. The weighted Kappa test revealed moderate to substantial agreement between NHP and NHP-Up and between NHP and NHP-Down. There was greater agreement between NHP-Up and NHP-Down. It may be concluded that the evaluation of the CVMI on cephalograms in NHP is different as compared with radiographs taken with inclinations. Both NHP-Up and NHP-Down exhibited greater disagreement in the interpretation among examiners, since the evaluation method was not designed for cephalograms with positioning errors.

Fernando Cesar, Torres; Marcos Shinao, Yamazaki; Renata Pilli, Joias; Luiz Renato, Paranhos; Sigmar de Mello, Rode; Danilo Furquim, Siqueira; Acacio, Fuziy.

2013-09-01

334

Regional Differences as Barriers to Body Mass Index Screening Described by Ohio School Nurses  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Body mass index (BMI) screening is advocated by the National Association of School Nurses (NASN). Research identifying barriers to BMI screening in public elementary school settings has been sparse. The purpose of the study was to identify barriers and facilitating factors of BMI screening practices among Ohio school nurses working in…

Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

2011-01-01

335

A Comparison of the Environmental Impact of Different AOPs: Risk Indexes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, environmental impact associated with pollution treatment is a matter of great concern. A method is proposed for evaluating environmental risk associated with Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs applied to wastewater treatment. The method is based on the type of pollution (wastewater, solids, air or soil and on materials and energy consumption. An Environmental Risk Index (E, constructed from numerical criteria provided, is presented for environmental comparison of processes and/or operations. The Operation Environmental Risk Index (EOi for each of the unit operations involved in the process and the Aspects Environmental Risk Index (EAj for process conditions were also estimated. Relative indexes were calculated to evaluate the risk of each operation (E/NOP or aspect (E/NAS involved in the process, and the percentage of the maximum achievable for each operation and aspect was found. A practical application of the method is presented for two AOPs: photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis with suspended TiO2 in Solarbox. The results report the environmental risks associated with each process, so that AOPs tested and the operations involved with them can be compared.

Jaime Giménez

2014-12-01

336

Impersonality of the Connectivity Index and Recomposition of Topological Indices According to Different Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The connectivity index χ can be regarded as the sum of bond contributions. Inthis article, boiling point (bp-oriented contributions for each kind of bond are obtainedby decomposing the connectivity indices into ten connectivity character bases and thendoing a linear regression between bps and the bases. From the comparison of bp-orientedcontributions with the contributions assigned by χ, it can be found that they are verysimilar in percentage, i.e. the relative importance of each particular kind of bond is nearlythe same in the two forms of combinations (one is obtained from the regression withboiling point, and the other is decided by the constructor of the χ index. This coincidenceshows an impersonality of χ on bond weighting and may provide us another interpretationof the efficiency of the connectivity index on many quantitative structure–activity/property relationship (QSAR or QSPR results. However, we also found that χ’sweighting formula may not be appropriate for some other properties. In fact, there is nouniversal weighting formula appropriate for all properties/activities. Recomposition ofsome topological indices by adjusting the weights upon character bases according todifferent properties/activities is suggested. This idea of recomposition is applied to thefirst Zagreb group index M1 and a large improvement has been achieved.

Yi-Zeng Liang

2004-12-01

337

Response of vegetation to the 2003 European drought was mitigated by height  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects on climate of land-cover change, predominantly from the conversion of forests to crops or grassland, are reasonably well understood for low and high latitudes but are largely unknown for temperate latitudes. The main reason for this gap in our knowledge is that there are compensating effects on the energy and water balance that are related to changes in land-surface albedo, soil evaporation and plant transpiration. We analyse how vegetation height affected the response of vegetation during the 2003 European drought using precipitation data, temperature data, normalized difference vegetation index data and a new vegetation height data set obtained from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). At the height of the 2003 drought we find for tall vegetation a significantly smaller decrease in vegetation index and a smaller diurnal temperature (DTR) range, indicating less water stress and drought impacts on tall vegetation. Over Germany for example, 98% of significant correlations showed a smaller anomaly in vegetation index anomaly with greater height, and 95% of significant correlations showed a smaller DTR with greater vegetation height. Over France the equivalent percentages were 94 and 88%, respectively. Vegetation height is likely associated with greater rooting depth, canopy heat capacity or both. Our results suggest that land-surface models can be improved by better estimates of vegetation height and associated with this a more realistic response to drought.

Bevan, S. L.; Los, S. O.; North, P. R. J.

2014-06-01

338

Flow characteristics in different densities of submerged flexible vegetation from an open-channel flume study of artificial plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of submerged flexible vegetation on flow structure (e.g. flow velocity, Reynolds shear stress, turbulence intensity and Manning coefficient) was experimentally studied with a 3D Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) in an open-channel flume. The results from flow observations over artificial plants (designed to simulate natural vegetation) showed that flow structure was affected markedly by the presence of submerged flexible vegetation. The study provides understanding of flow patterns, variation in velocity profile and turbulence structures that are affected by plant stem density. The study also reveals how the flow patterns return to stability at the downstream end of the vegetated area which is critical in determining the length of the vegetated areas for restoration cases. Also, new mathematical expressions (equations) have been formulated to clearly express variations in velocity profile, Manning coefficient and flow discharge ratio with vegetation density. Vertically, the velocity profile could be roughly divided into three layers, including the upper non-vegetated layer, the middle canopy layer, and the lower sheath layer. In the upper non-vegetated layer, velocity profiles followed the logarithmic law, and a corresponding empirical equation was developed based on the observed data. The flow is from left to right in this study, and the velocity profile followed a left round bracket "(" with the minimum point located at the canopy area (0.7Hv, where Hv denotes vegetation height) within the middle canopy layer. However, the velocity profile followed a right round bracket ")" in the lower sheath section layer with the maximum point located at the sheath section (0.2Hv). With increasing vegetation density, the velocity and corresponding flow rate increased in the upper non-vegetated layer and decreased within the middle canopy layer and the lower sheath layer. The ratio of average flow discharge in the non-vegetated and vegetated layers followed the exponential function law with increasing vegetation density. This analysis revealed the effect of vegetation on flood potential and flow bottom scour. Reynolds stresses peaked above the canopy top (z/Hv = 1.0-1.2, here z denotes vertical coordinate), and the turbulence intensities reached their maximum peak at two locations including the sheath section (z/Hv = 0.1-0.4) and the canopy top (z/Hv = 1.0-1.6) for all vegetation densities. Manning coefficient was highly correlated to vegetation density and inflow rate with new empirical equations being proposed.

Li, Yiping; Wang, Ying; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Tang, Chunyan; Du, Wei; Ni, Lixiao; Yu, Zhongbo; Acharya, Kumud

2014-01-01

339

Climate Change Implications to Vegetation Production in Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation of long-term meteorological satellite data revealed statistically significant vegetation response to climate drivers of temperature, precipitation and solar radiation with exclusion of fire disturbance in Alaska. Abiotic trends were correlated to satellite remote sensing observations of normalized difference vegetation index to understand biophysical processes that could impact ecosystem carbon storage. Warming resulted in disparate trajectories for vegetation growth due to precipitation and photosynthetically active radiation variation. Interior spruce forest low lands in late summer through winter had precipitation deficit which resulted in extensive fire disturbance and browning of undisturbed vegetation with reduced post-fire recovery while Northern slope moist alpine tundra had increased production due to warmer-wetter conditions during the late 1990s and early 2000s. Coupled investigation of Alaska s vegetation response to warming climate found spatially dynamic abiotic processes with vegetation browning not a result from increased fire disturbance.

Neigh, Christopher S.R.

2008-01-01

340

Automatic Assessment of Global Craniofacial Differences between Crouzon mice and Wild-type mice in terms of the Cephalic Index  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents the automatic assessment of differences between Wild-Type mice and Crouzon mice based on high-resolution 3D Micro CT data. One factor used for the diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome in humans is the cephalic index, which is the skull width/length ratio. This index has traditionally been computed by time-consuming manual measurements that prevent large-scale populational studies. In this study, an automatic method to estimate cephalic index for this mouse model of Crouzon syndrome is presented. The method is based on constructing a craniofacial atlas of Wild-type mice and then registering each mouse to the atlas using affine transformations. The skull length and width are then measured on the atlas and propagated to all subjects to obtain automatic measurements of the cephalic index. The registration accuracy was estimated by RMS landmark errors. Even though the accuracy of landmark matching is limited using only affine transformations, the errors were considered acceptable. The automatic estimation of the cephalic index was in full agreement with the gold standard measurements. Discriminant analysis of the three scaling parameters resulted in a good classification of the mouse groups.

Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Oubel, Estanislao

2006-01-01

341

Differences in soil fungal communities between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) dominated forests are related to soil and understory vegetation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi are important members of soil microbial communities with a crucial role in biogeochemical processes. Although soil fungi are known to be highly diverse, little is known about factors influencing variations in their diversity and community structure among forests dominated by the same tree species but spread over different regions and under different managements. We analyzed the soil fungal diversity and community composition of managed and unmanaged European beech dominated forests located in three German regions, the Schwäbische Alb in Southwestern, the Hainich-Dün in Central and the Schorfheide Chorin in the Northeastern Germany, using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Multiple sequence quality filtering followed by sequence data normalization revealed 1655 fungal operational taxonomic units. Further analysis based on 722 abundant fungal OTUs revealed the phylum Basidiomycota to be dominant (54%) and its community to comprise 71.4% of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Fungal community structure differed significantly (p?0.001) among the three regions and was characterized by non-random fungal OTUs co-occurrence. Soil parameters, herbaceous understory vegetation, and litter cover affected fungal community structure. However, within each study region we found no difference in fungal community structure between management types. Our results also showed region specific significant correlation patterns between the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungal genera. This suggests that soil fungal communities are region-specific but nevertheless composed of functionally diverse and complementary taxa. PMID:23094057

Wubet, Tesfaye; Christ, Sabina; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Gawlich, Melanie; Schnabel, Beatrix; Fischer, Markus; Buscot, François

2012-01-01

342

The Regularities of Mutagenic Action of gamma-Radiation on Vegetative Bacillus subtilis Cells with Different Repair Genotype  

CERN Document Server

The regularities of induction of his^-\\to his^+ mutations in vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells with different repair capacity after gamma-irradiation have been studied. The wild type cells, polA1, recE4, recA, recP, add5, recH were used in experiments. It was shown that radiation-induced mutagenesis is determined by a repair genotype of cells. The blocking of different reparation genes is reflected on mutagenesis ratio by the various ways. A frequency of induction mutations in polA strain is higher than in wild type cells and it is characterized by the linearly-quadratic dose curve. The different rec^- strains that belong to various epistatic groups reveal an unequal mutation induction. The add5 and recP strains are characterized by the high-level induction mutations in contrast with the wild type cells. The mutagenesis in recE and recH strains, on the contrary, sharply reduces. The different influence of rec genes inhering to various epistatic groups on mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis cells probably reflec...

Boreyko, A V; Krasavin, E A

2000-01-01

343

Vegetative component of function of balance at the sportsmen of different qualifications.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Communication between the type of vestibulevegetative reaction and level of qualification of sportsmen is considered. Were explored hypokinetic, eukinetic and hyperkinetic types of vestibulevegetative reaction at sportsmen with a different level of qualification. Percent correlation of a different level of qualification of sportsmen was determined in every type of vestibulevegetative reaction. In the experiment 87 sportsmen took part the age of 20-25 years old from 2 digits to master of sport of international class. It is set that with growth of sporting trade the percent of sportsmen with the eukinetic type vestibulevegetative of reaction is multiplied, due to reduction of hypo-, and hyperkinetic. The got results enable more exactly to define functional preparedness of sportsmen.

Syshko D.V.

2011-07-01

344

Lactic acid fermentation in vegetable juices supplemented with different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate  

OpenAIRE

The work is concerned with the conditions for lactic acid fermentation in a mixture of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L) juice and carrot (Daucus carota L) juice and different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748.Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using the higher content of brewer’s yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 ...

Rakin Marica B.; Baras Josip K.; Vukašinovi? Maja S.

2005-01-01

345

Effect of Different Calcium Concentration in Contaminate Soil on 90S Accumulation by the Seasonal Vegetative Growth of Lettuce  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at National Center for Agriculture Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT) farm in Baqa. To establish the effect of different calcium concentration in the contaminated soil on the 90S accumulation by the seasonal vegetative growth of lettuce. The pots were distributed in split plot in RCBD design with four replicates. The main plots of experiment were four concentration of calcium (Ca++) in the soil. The calcium soluble solution was applied and mixed with the soil. Four concentrations of calcium were 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg Ca /Kg. The sub main plots of experiment were four specific activities of Strontium-90. The contamination has been done with 90S to the surface area of the soil after one week of planting. The specific activities of 90S were: 40, 57, 73 and 89 Bq/Kg soil . The results indicate after 70 days of planting (duration of season), that the specific active of 90Sr in vegetative mass of plant (Lettuce) and in leached irrigation water at the end of season was nonsignificant increased with the increment of Ca concentration in the soil . The specific active of 90Sr reached to 1.12 Bq/Kg in plant and to 1.13 Bq/ l in irrigation water. There was strong linear correlation between specific active of 90Sr in vegetative mass of plant (Lettuce) with the increment of Ca concentration in the soil (r2= 94) , the similar results was observed for irrigthe similar results was observed for irrigation water (r2=88) . The distribution of specific active of 90Sr in the soil, plant and irrigation water was not significant effected by the increasing of specific active of 90Sr in contaminated soil and / or by increasing of Ca concentration in the soil. It was found that most of specific active of 90Sr in all treatments were remained at the end of season in the soil (96.6-97.9%). The values of Stander Transfer Factor (TFs) for 90Sr by plant or irrigation water weren't effected with increasing of specific active of 90Sr in the soil .On contrary the increasing of Ca concentration in the soil effectuate nonsignificant decreased of TFs by plant and irrigation water. The decreased in values of TFs were ranged from 0.010 to 0.018. (authors)

346

Monitoring East African vegetation using AVHRR data  

Science.gov (United States)

NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite data are applied to regional vegetation monitoring in East Africa. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data for a one-year period from May 1983 are used to examine the phenology of a range of vegetation types. The integrated NDVI data for the same period are compared with an ecoclimatic zone map of the region and show marked similarities. Particular emphasis is placed on quantifying the phenology of the Acacia Commiphora bushlands. Considerable variation was found in the phenology of the bushlands as determined by the satellite NDVI, and is explained through the high spatial variability in the distribution of rainfall and the resulting green-up of the vegetation. The relationship between rainfall and NDVI is further examined for selected meteorological stations existing within the bushland. A preliminary estimate is made of the length of growing season using an NDVI thresholding technique.

Justice, C. O.; Holben, B. N.; Gwynne, M. D.

1986-01-01

347

Attraction of Sphenophorus levis Vaurie adults (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to vegetal tissues at different conservation levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of the sugarcane weevil Sphenophorus levis Vaurie is important in sugarcane in some regions in Brazil. Damage is caused by the larvae as they bore into the nodes and can reach 30 ton/ha/year. Many control alternatives have been attempted, but none were satisfactory, except for the use of toxic baits. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize their efficiency or to propose new techniques. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the attractiveness of adults of S. levis to sugarcane nodes and pineapple peelings in an 'Y' tube olfactometer. The sugarcane internodes were treated with 10% molasses, and tested after different periods of fermentation (24, 48 e 72h), at different times of the day (diurnal and nocturnal) and with both sexes. These tests were carried out in order to correlate the response of S. levis to ethyl acetate and ethanol release as a result of the fermentation process. The release of both compounds was monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data indicated that sugarcane internodes mixed with 10% molasses fermented for 24h and 48h were the most attractive to S. levis (up to 90%). Pineapple peelings attracted 62.5% of the tested insects. The olfactory response was higher during the day, and no differences were found between the sexes. The production of ethanol in all plant substrates was higher than ethyl acetate, but we could not establish a clear correlation with the insect response to baits. (author) insect response to baits. (author)

348

A comparison between different propagative schemes for the simulation of tapered step index slab waveguides  

OpenAIRE

The performance and accuracy of a number of propagative algorithms are compared for the simulation of tapered high contrast step index slab waveguides. The considered methods include paraxial as well as nonparaxial formulations of optical field propagation. In particular attention is paid to the validity of the paraxial approximation. To test the internal consistency of the various methods the property of reciprocity is verified and it is shown that for the paraxial algorithms the reciprocity...

Haes, Jan; Baets, Roel; Weinert, C. M.; Gravert, M.; Nolting, H. P.; Andrade, M. Adelaide; Leite, A.; Bissessur, Hans K.; Davies, J. B.; Ettinger, Robert D.; Ctyroky, Jiri; Ducloux, E.; Ratovelomanana, F.; Vodjdani, N.; Helfert, Stefan

1996-01-01

349

Deviating From the Norm: Body Mass Index (BMI) Differences and Psychosocial Adjustment Among Early Adolescent Girls  

OpenAIRE

Objective?To examine whether deviation from one’s ethnic group norm on body mass index (BMI) was related to psychosocial maladjustment among early adolescent girls, and whether specific ethnic groups were more vulnerable to maladjustment.?Methods?Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted on self- and peer-report measures from an ethnically diverse sample of sixth-grade girls (N = 2,636).?Results?African Americans and Latinas had a higher mean BMI than Asians and Whites. As d...

Lanza, H. Isabella; Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra

2012-01-01

350

Enzymatic esterification of free fatty acids in vegetable oils utilizing different immobilized lipases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different immobilized lipases were screened for their ability to esterify free fatty acids (FFA) with monoacylglycerol (MAG) as acyl-group acceptor. A lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RMIM) was the most suitable for lipase-catalyzed de-acidification-a promising alternative to conventional neutralization. A reduction of the FFA content to 0.6 % (w/w) was achieved by applying a substrate with an initial FFA-content of 6 % (w/w), the reaction at 50 °C for 22 h as well as the stepwise addition of a quadruple stoichiometric amount of MAG. PMID:25214229

von der Haar, Daniela; Stäbler, Andreas; Wichmann, Rolf; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute

2015-01-01

351

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Plot of cos ? versus temperature for metal and ceramic surfaces where cos ? rises linearly with increase in temperature. Highlights: ? cos ? of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increase in temperature. ? Slopes are much higher for quasicrystalline and polymers than for ceramics. ? Increase in surface roughness and surface flaws increases surface wettability. ? Contact angle values gave information for grouping easy-clean polymers from other materials. ? Contact angle measurements cannot directly estimate the cleanability of a surface. - Abstract: The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effectes. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

352

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: Plot of cos {theta} versus temperature for metal and ceramic surfaces where cos {theta} rises linearly with increase in temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cos {theta} of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increase in temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slopes are much higher for quasicrystalline and polymers than for ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in surface roughness and surface flaws increases surface wettability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle values gave information for grouping easy-clean polymers from other materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle measurements cannot directly estimate the cleanability of a surface. - Abstract: The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 Degree-Sign C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos {theta} values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos {theta} values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya, E-mail: saras@food.dtu.dk [Accoat A/S, Munkegardsvej 16, 3490 Kvistgard (Denmark); Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Adler-Nissen, Jens [Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moller, Per [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

2012-12-15

353

Nitrogen–use efficiency in different vegetation type at Cikaniki Research Station, Halimun-Salak Mountain National Park, West Java  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research about nitrogen–use efficiency (NUE and trees identification was conducted at different vegetation type at Cikaniki, Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. Plot quadrate methods (20 x 50 m was used to analyze trees vegetation and Kjeldahl methods was used to analyze leaf nitrogen. The width and length of the leaf was also measured to obtain the leaf surface area. The result showed that there are 61 individual trees which consisted of 24 species was identified. The species which have 5 highest important value are Altingia excelsa (64,657, Castanopsis javanica (39,698, Platea latifolia (27,684, Garcinia rostrata (21,151, and Schima walichii (16,049. Futhermore Eugenia lineata (13,967, Melanochyla caesa (12,241, Quercus lineata (10,766, platea excelsa (10,766 have lower important value. Other trees have important value less than 10. Morphological and nitrogen content analyze were done on 4 species : Quercus lineata, G. rostrata, A. excelsa, and E. lineata. Among them, Quercus lineata has highest specific leaf area (SLA (0,01153, followed by G. rostrata (0,00821, A. excelsa (0,00579, and E. lineata (0,00984 g/cm2. The highest number of stomata was found on A. excelsa (85,10/mm2, followed by E. lineata (74,40/mm2, Q. lineata (53,70/mm2, and G. rostrata (18,4 /mm2. The emergent species (A. excelsa and Q. lineata have higher nitrogen content than the underlayer species (G. rostrata and E. lineata. A. excelsa have highest nitrogen use efficiency (28,19% compare to E. lineata (23,81% , Q. lineata (19,09%, and G. rostrata (14,87%. Although not significant, emergen species have higher NUE than underlayer species.

SUHARNO

2007-10-01

354

Evaluation of the Uptake and Accumulation of Metals by Some Commonly Irrigated Vegetables in Soils Treated with Different Concentrations of these Metals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The uptake of some trace elements namely, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead by some vegetables commonly irrigated were studied under glasshouse conditions. Experiments were conducted in plastic pots using some selected vegetables, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus and pepper (Capsicum annum grown on sandy loam soils treated with different concentrations of these metals. The treatments investigated include zero application (control, 10, 50 and 100 ?g dm-3 metal applications. In general, each plant showed similar growth responses and tolerance but different metal uptake patterns in the same metal contaminated media for eight weeks. The enrichment factor of each metal in the different parts of the vegetables was highly varied. However, the fruits of pepper were more enriched with these metals than the okra fruits. Despite the concentration of metals used, the plants were still capable of controlling the metal uptake, no matter the concentration of metal solution applied to the soil.

M. Haliru

2009-01-01

355

Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particles derived from different vegetal sources by the cockle Cerastoderma edule  

Science.gov (United States)

Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particulate detrital matter derived from six different vegetal sources by the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was analyzed in a series of seasonal experiments performed in March, May and October 2005. Two green macroalgae: Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha sp; two vascular plants: Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus, the red macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis; and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana were used in experiments. Detrital matter was elaborated by freeze-drying, grinding and sieving (Enteromorpha) and lowest to those fed the vascular plant Juncus maritimus. Recorded significant differences in enzymatic digestibility among detritus were found to explain ? 40% of differences recorded in AR, and the following regression could be fitted: AR = 0.232 (± 0.032) * Digestibility + 0,072 (± 0.015); r 2 = 0.415; F = 51.036; p Enteromorpha was found to be significantly correlated with cellulase activity in the digestive gland, whereas digestibility of Juncus, Spartina and Gracilaria was correlated with xylanase activity. Obtained correlations are discussed in the frame of contrasting conclusions in the literature regarding the importance of detritus as a food source for bivalves.

Arambalza, U.; Urrutia, M. B.; Navarro, E.; Ibarrola, I.

2010-10-01

356

Soil microfungi in two post-mining chronosequences with different vegetation types  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil microfungi were studied in the Sokolov (Czech Republic) post-mining dumps afforested with Alnus glutinosa and in the Lusatian (Germany) post-mining dumps afforested with Pinus sylvestris or P. nigra. Microfungi were isolated using the soil dilution plate method. Soil microfungi communities of two chronosequences were compared by species composition, frequency of species occurrence, and colony forming units of fungi (CFU-counts). Differences in species occurrence were determined. More species of entomopathogenic microfungi were found from the Sokolov post-mining area in comparison with the Cottbus post-mining area. Absidia glauca, A. cylindrospora, Penicillium glabrum, and P. janthinellum were the most frequently isolated species from the Cottbus post-mining area, while A. glauca, Geomyces pannorum, and Trichoderma koningii predominated at the Sokolov post-mining area.

Novakova, A. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Inst. Soil Biology

2001-07-01

357

Long-Term Satellite Detection of Post-Fire Vegetation Trends in Boreal Forests of China  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the long-term effects on vegetation following the catastrophic fire in 1987 on the northern Great Xing’an Mountain by analyzing the AVHRR GIMMS 15-day composite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset. Both temporal and spatial characteristics were analyzed for natural regeneration and tree planting scenarios from 1984 to 2006. Regressing post-fire NDVI values on the pre-fire values helped identify the NDVI for burnt pixels in vegetation stands. Stand diff...

Kunpeng Yi; Hiroshi Tani; Jiquan Zhang; Meng Guo; Xiufeng Wang; Guosheng Zhong

2013-01-01

358

Comparison of AVHRR and SMMR data for monitoring vegetation phenology on a continental scale  

Science.gov (United States)

AVHRR normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data for a one-year period were compared with Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer microwave polarization difference temperature (MPDT) data for the study of vegetation phenology. It is shown that the MPDT response differs considerably from the seasonal NDVI pattern. The results do not support the hypothetical relationship between MPDT and leaf water content. It is found that only vegetation types with a substantial seasonal variation in the areal extent of vegetated cover show strong seasonality in MPDT data.

Justice, C. O.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Choudhury, B. J.

1989-01-01

359

Vegetation and fire dynamics in different geological settings since the last ice age, Klamath Mountains, northwestern, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

The Klamath Mountains of northwestern California are a floristic hotspot and their diversity likely results from a combination of geological, ecological and historical factors (e.g., long-term climate change). To evaluate how climate change has influenced past composition, structure, and disturbance regime of the Klamath forests in different geological settings, vegetation and fire histories from four sites, Bolan (1), Sanger (in prog.), Campbell (in prog.), and Bluff (2) lakes are compared. Bolan and Sanger lakes are underline by nutrient-rich diorite soils, Campbell Lake by nutrient-poor and poorly-drained soils derived from mudstone and shales and Bluff Lake by ultramafics which pose severe nutrient limitations to plants. All sites experience the same modern climate and vegetation. The vegetation and fire records from the four sites suggest that substrates have influenced the sensitivity of plant communities and fire regimes to past variations in climate. Cool, dry late-glacial (>11ka cal yr BP) conditions resulted in a subalpine parkland in the Klamath region. P. jeffreyi and Abies were the main tree species at Bluff Lake and fires occurred frequently. Campbell Lake supported more species than Bluff (excluding P. jeffreyi) such as P. monticola, Picea and T. mertensiana and experienced few fires. Bolan and Sanger Lake harbored similar species as Campbell, as well as a small population of Pseudotsuga and experienced few fires. Warm, dry Early Holocene (7-11ka cal yr BP) conditions led to an increase in C. decurrens and a slight decrease in P. jeffreyi at Bluff Lake than before and fires were very frequent. At Campbell Lake, P. monticola increased, C. decurrens became more abundant than before, and Abies, Picea and T. mertensiana were scarce. Similar vegetation occurred at Bolan and Sanger lakes although the sites continued to harbor Pseudotsuga. Campbell, Bolan and Sanger all experienced frequent fires. Cool, wet conditions in the Middle Holocene (3-7ka cal yr BP) allowed P. jeffreyi to increase at the expense of C. decurrens at Bluff Lake. At Campbell, Sanger and Bolan lakes there was a decrease in P. monticola and a significant increase in Abies than before. Bolan and Sanger lakes still maintained a significant population of Pseudotsuga. Fire frequency at all sites was moderate. Modern (3ka cal yr BP to present) climate conditions in the Late Holocene resulted in increases in P. jeffreyi and Abies than before at Bluff Lake. P. monticola and Abies were abundant at Campbell Lake with minor amounts of Pseudotsuga and T. mertensiana. Most tree species occurred at Bolan and Sanger Lake (with the exception of P. jeffreyi at both sites and T. mertensiana at Sanger Lake). Abies and P.monticola were the primary species in the Bolan, Sanger and Campbell lake forests. Fires were frequent at all sites. In conclusion, Bluff Lake was dominated by ultramafic tolerant taxa such as Pinus jeffreyi, Calocedrus decurrens and Abies, while Bolan and Sanger lakes harbored mostly ultramafic intolerant species such as Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Tsuga mertensiana since the last ice age. The forest at Campbell Lake was more open, was dominated by Pinus monticola and had less Picea and T. mertensiana than Bolan and Sanger lakes since the last ice age. REFS. 1 Briles, C. et al 2005. Quaternary Research 64. 2 Mohr, J.A. et al 2000. The Holocene 10.

Briles, C.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P.

2006-12-01

360

Close relationship between spectral vegetation indices and Vcmax in deciduous and mixed forests  

OpenAIRE

Seasonal variations of photosynthetic capacity parameters, notably the maximum carboxylation rate, Vcmax, play an important role in accurate estimation of CO2 assimilation in gas-exchange models. Satellite-derived normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and model-data fusion can provide means to predict seasonal variation in Vcmax. In this study, Vcmax was obtained from a process-based model inversion, based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), and gross...

Yanlian Zhou; Weimin Ju; Xiaomin Sun; Zhongmin Hu; Shijie Han; Andrew Black, T.; Jassal, Rachhpal S.; Xiaocui Wu

2014-01-01

361

Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based ewline on spot/vegetation data  

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Full Text Available A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI, with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

C. Gouveia

2010-04-01

362

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity in Different Tissues of Brassica Vegetables  

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Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate glucosinolate profiles, vitamin C, total phenol, total flavonoid, and free sugar (glucose, fructose, and sucrose content, fatty acid composition, and antioxidant activity in floret and leaf of six cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. The level of chemical constituents as well as antioxidants significantly varied among crop types, cultivars, and their different parts, in that phytochemicals such as glucosinolate were statistically higher in florets compared with leaves in both broccoli and cauliflower cultivars. In contrast, total flavonoid and free sugar were found at higher levels in the leaf parts. The Asia purple cultivar exhibited statistically higher vitamin C (649.7 mg·100 g?1, total phenol (1345.2 mg·GAE 100 g?1, and total flavonoid (632.7 mg·CE 100 g?1 contents and consequently had the highest antioxidant activity (1.12 mg·mL?1 in its florets, while Baeridom and Bridal had the highest total glucosinolate (9.66 µmol·g?1 and free sugar (318.6 mg·g?1 contents, respectively compared with other cultivars. Likewise, the major fatty acids were palmitic (23.52%–38.42%, linoleic (13.09%–18.97%, and linolenic (26.32%–51.80% acids, which comprised the highest compositional ratio (more than 50% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in most cultivars. Among the antioxidants, total phenol exhibited the most significant positive correlation (r = 0.698 ** with antioxidant activity, followed by vitamin C (r = 0.522 ** and total flavonoid (r = 0.494 **, indicating their significant contributions to total antioxidant activity.

Shiva Ram Bhandari

2015-01-01

363

Implications of different income diversification indexes: the case of rural China  

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Full Text Available This study investigates rural income diversification measures. Applying rural household survey data in China, we utilize OLS and quantile regression to compare the effects from various ruraldiversification measures on household income. Our results indicate the high importance of using a two-dimensional rather than a one-dimensional measure of diversification in empirical analyses, at least in the rural China case. Among the two-dimensional indexes, the strong consistency of the quantile patterns between income and diversification, and the plausibility of changes in these relationships, suggest that any one of the diversification measures isacceptable in the relevant studies.

Jianmei Zhao

2013-01-01

364

Growth index in massai grass under different levels of nitrogen fertilization  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to evaluate the growth index of massai grass during two regrowth cycles in a greenhouse under five levels of nitrogen (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg N/dm³ of soil) and eight growth ages (5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 26 days) in a split-plot design with five replications. The following variables were evaluated: net assimilation rate, herbage growth rate, relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, leaf weight ratio and specific leaf area. The effect of nitrogen was detected on the v...

Marcos Neves Lopes; Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco Pompeu; Magno José Duarte Cândido; Claudivan Feitosa de Lacerda; Rodrigo Gregório da Silva; Francisco Ronaldo Belem Fernandes

2011-01-01

365

Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue  

OpenAIRE

A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092–1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed HF diet-induced body and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight gain, resulting in significantly reduced serum leptin and resistin levels and increased adipone...

Schothorst, E. M.; Bunschoten, J. E.; Verlinde, E.; Schrauwen, P.; Keijer, J.

2011-01-01

366

Predicting the impact of vegetations in open channels with different distributaries' operations on water surface profile using artificial neural networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the open water irrigation channels in Egypt suffer from the infestation of aquatic weeds, especially the submerged ones that cause numerous hydraulic problems for the open channels themselves and their water distributaries such as increasing water losses, obstructing water flow, and reducing channels' water distribution efficiencies. Accurate simulation and prediction of flow behavior in such channels is very essential for water distribution decision makers. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be very successful in the simulation of several physical phenomena, in general, and in the water research field in particular. Therefore, the current study aims towards introducing the utilization of ANN in simulating the impact of vegetation in main open channel, which supplies water to different distributaries, on the water surface profile in this main channel. Specifically, the study, presented in the current paper utilizes ANN technique for the development of various models to simulate the impact of different submerged weeds' densities, different flow discharges, and different distributaries operation scheduling on the water surface profile in an experimental main open channel that supplies water to different distributaries. In the investigated experiment, the submerged weeds were simulated as branched flexible elements. The investigated experiment was considered as an example for implementing the same methodology and technique in a real open channel syst and technique in a real open channel system. The results showed that the ANN technique is very successful in simulating the flow behavior of the pre-mentioned open channel experiment with the existence of the submerged weeds. In addition, the developed ANN models were capable of predicting the open channel flow behavior in all the submerged weeds' cases that were considered in the ANN development process

367

Evaluating the Effect of Different Wheat Rust Disease Symptoms on Vegetation Indices Using Hyperspectral Measurements  

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Full Text Available Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVIs have been widely used to indirectly detect plant diseases. The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of different disease symptoms on SVIs and introduce suitable SVIs to detect rust disease. Wheat leaf rust is one of the prevalent diseases and has different symptoms including yellow, orange, dark brown, and dry areas. The reflectance spectrum data for healthy and infected leaves were collected using a spectroradiometer in the 450 to 1000 nm range. The ratio of the disease-affected area to the total leaf area and the proportion of each disease symptoms were obtained using RGB digital images. As the disease severity increases, so does the scattering of all SVI values. The indices were categorized into three groups based on their accuracies in disease detection. A few SVIs showed an accuracy of more than 60% in classification. In the first group, NBNDVI, NDVI, PRI, GI, and RVSI showed the highest amount of classification accuracy. The second and third groups showed classification accuracies of about 20% and 40% respectively. Results show that few indices have the ability to indirectly detect plant disease.

Davoud Ashourloo

2014-06-01

368

Minimal Important Difference (MID) of the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI): Results from patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The Dermatology Quality Life Index (DLQI) has seen widespread use as a health-related quality of life measure for a variety of dermatological diseases. The purpose of this study was to estimate the minimal important difference (MID) on the DLQI for patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Methods Data from 2 Phase III clinical trials of patients (N = 476 for Study A; N = 468 for Study B) with CIU were analyzed separately to estimate ...

Leahy Michael; Harding Gale; Shikiar Richard; Lennox Richard D

2005-01-01

369

The Structural Difference of Shanghai Stock Index before and after 2008: A Copula Based Analysis  

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Full Text Available The year 2008 witnessed the greatest joint stock reform and financial crisis in Chinese history. After these two cases, significant changes have taken place in investors’ behaviors worldwide, along with which is the occurrence of structure change in stock market. In this paper, we employ copula model to simulate the joint distribution between Shanghai Stock Index (SSE and Chinese Shanghai Index 300 (CSI 300, to find out structure change in Chinese stock market before and after 2008. From results of empirical studies, we get conclusions that the main nature of Chinese stocks market is symmetric, in both marginal and joint distributions. Via the changes of Copula types, upper and lower tail coefficients and Kendall coefficients, we can measure the structure change in Chinese stock market, and get further conclusion about investors’ behaviors change. Before 2008, there is an equal power in quitting market and longing, while diversified investors adjusted their expectation uniformly after this year. Testing results show that the general dependence structure of CSI 300 and SSE is highly dependent and symmetric in most cases. From the distribution of upper and lower tail coefficients, we can draw the conclusion that stratified investors are mainly focused on two tasks, after this year, to close the position on stocks with high correlated stocks market and to maintain market value of stocks.

Chuan Wu

2012-11-01

370

Exposition index calculation from different points in a gamma sterilization plant radiation room  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation fields produced by a JS-6500 rectangular irradiator source were evaluated. Knowledge of the values of these fields is necessary in irradiation and health physics processes. Techniques for evaluating the dose rates from puntual, linear and plane sources were applied and computer programs for the three sources designed. Fricke, cupric-ferrous and red acrilic dosimetric systems were used, to verify the eight points located along the interior walls of the irradiation room, around the source with 936, 987 Ci of Co-60 (1st-March 1980). When considering the distance between the source and each point of interest the calculated exposition indexes obtained were practically the same for the three source types and were up to 35% greater than the experimental values; in contrast when absorption and buildup of the source were taken in to account, the experimental values were higher than the calculated ones by up to 16%, this in estimating the produced exposition index for a rectangular source at least there two parameters should be included. (author)

371

Assessment of metals contamination in Klang River surface sediments by using different indexes  

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Full Text Available Surface sediments (0-5 cm from 21 stations throughout Klang River were sampled for metal concentration as well sediment's pH, total organic carbon (TOC and particles sizes to obtain an overall classification of metal contaminations in the area. The concentration of metals (µg?g, Fe%, dw were as follows: 0.57- 2.19 Cd; 31.89-272.33 Zn; 5.96-24.47 Ni; 10.57- 52.87 Cu; 24.23-64.11 Pb and 1.56-3.03 Fe. The degree of sediment contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor (EF and geoaccumulation index (Igeo. The results suggested that enrichment factor and geoaccumulation values of Cd were greatest among the studied metals. Pearson's correlation indicated that effectiveness of TOC in controlling the distribution and enrichment of metals was a more important factor than that of the grain size (< 63µm. The study revealed that on the basis of computed indexes, Klang River is classified as moderately polluted river.

Abolfazl Naji

2011-01-01

372

Regional Climate Simulations with COSMO-CLM for West Africa using three different soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) module  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate predictions on decadal timescales constitute a new field of research, closing the gap between short-term and seasonal weather predictions and long-term climate projections. Therefore, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF) has recently funded the research program MiKlip (Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen), which aims to create a model system that can provide reliable decadal climate forecasts. Recent studies have suggested that one region with high potential decadal predictability is West Africa. Therefore, the project DEPARTURE (DEcadal Prediction of African Rainfall and ATlantic HURricanE Activity) was established within the MiKlip program to assess the feasibility and the potential added value of regional decadal climate predictions for West Africa. To quantify the potential decadal climate predictability, a multi-model approach with the three different regional climate models REMO, WRF and COSMO-CLM (CCLM) will be realized. The presented research will contribute to DEPARTURE by performing hindcast ensemble simulations with CCLM, driven by global decadal MPI-ESM-LR simulations. Thereby, one focus is on the dynamic soil-vegetation-climate interaction on decadal timescales. Recent studies indicate that there are significant feedbacks between the land-surface and the atmosphere, which might influence the decadal climate variability substantially. To investigate this connection, two different SVATs (Community Land Model (CLM), and VEG3D) will be coupled with the CCLM, replacing TERRA_ML, the standard SVAT implemented in CCLM. Thus, sensitive model parameters shall be identified, whereby the understanding of important processes might be improved. As a first step, TERRA_ML is substituted by VEG3D, a SVAT developed at the IMK-TRO, Karlsruhe, Germany. Compared to TERRA_ML, VEG3D includes an explicit vegetation layer by using a big leaf approach, inducing higher correlations with observations as it has been shown in previous studies. The coupling of VEG3D with CCLM is performed by using the OASIS3-MCT coupling software, developed by CERFACS, Toulouse, France. Results of CCLM simulations using both SVATs are analysed and compared for the DEPARTURE model domain. Thereby ERA-Interim driven CCLM simulations with VEG3D showed better agreement with observational data than simulations with TERRA_ML, especially for dense vegetaded areas. This will be demonstrated exemplarily. Additionally, results for MPI-ESM-LR driven decadal hindcast simulations (1966 - 1975) are analysed and presented.

Breil, Marcus; Panitz, Hans-Jürgen

2014-05-01

373

Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10-3 to 25 . 10-3) mol . kg-1. The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs

374

BODY COMPOSITION AND BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION IN ADULTS WITH DIFFERENT BODY MASS INDEX  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine body composition and body fat distribution in 176 adults divided according to body mass index in 4 groups: normal-weight, overweight, obese and excess obese. Absolute and relative muscle (MM, osseous (OM and peripheral fat mass (PFM were calculated by anthropometric method of Mateigka. Total fat mass (TFM was calculated by subtracting lean body mass from total body mass (TBM. Mean OM, MM and PFM were lowest in the 1st and highest in the 4th group in both genders. Females had significantly higher values for all fat components. In adults obesity is a result of increase in absolute OM and MM and highest increase of PFM and TFM. The higher TFM is a result of increasing in visceral fat mass and higher percent of increase